WorldWideScience

Sample records for publications studying human

  1. 76 FR 59697 - Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... through the skin, and on whether there is adequate information to determine that the study was conducted... AGENCY Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental... the Science Advisor (OSA) announces a public meeting of the Human Studies Review Board (HSRB)...

  2. The Digital Distribution of Public Health News Surrounding the Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: A Longitudinal Infodemiology Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, L Meghan; Tang, Tang; Ji, Kai; Ulrich-Schad, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background New media changes the dissemination of public health information and misinformation. During a guest appearance on the Today Show, US Representative Michele Bachmann claimed that human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines could cause “mental retardation”. Objective The purpose of this study is to explore how new media influences the type of public health information users access, as well as the impact to these platforms after a major controversy. Specifically, this study aims to examine th...

  3. 75 FR 61748 - Human Studies Review Board; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Advisor (OSA) announces a public meeting of the Human Studies Review Board (HSRB) to advise the Agency on... information concerning the EPA HSRB can be found on the EPA Web site at...

  4. 75 FR 32461 - Human Studies Review Board; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Advisor (OSA) announces a public meeting of the Human Studies Review Board (HSRB) to advise the Agency on... . General information concerning the EPA HSRB can be found on the EPA Web site at...

  5. Z-2 Space Suit: A Case Study in Human Spaceflight Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center's Z-series of planetary space suit prototypes is an iterative development platform with a Mars-forward design philosophy, targeting a Mars surface mission in the mid-2030s. The first space suit assembly, called the Z-1, was delivered in 2012. While meeting the project's stated requirements and objectives, the general public's reception primarily focused on the color scheme, which vaguely invoked similarity to a certain animated cartoon character. The public at large has and continues to be exposed to varying space suit design aesthetics from popular culture and low TRL technology maturation efforts such as mechanical counterpressure. The lesson learned was that while the design aesthetic is not important from an engineering perspective, the perception of the public is important for NASA and human spaceflight in general. For the Z-2 space suit, an integrated public outreach strategy was employed to engage, excite and educate the public on the current technology of space suits and NASA's plans moving forward. The keystone of this strategy was a public vote on three different suit cover layer aesthetics, the winner of which would be used as inspiration in fabrication. Other components included social media, university collaboration, and select media appearances, the cumulative result of which, while intangible in its benefit, was ultimately a positive effect in terms of the image of NASA as well as the dissemination of information vital to dispelling public misconceptions.

  6. DHM in human-centered product design: a case-study on public transport vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V; Guimarães, C P; Franca, G A N; Cid, G L; Paranhos, A G

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present the advantages on the use of 3D Digital Human Models (DHM) on the design of public transport vehicles. In this case, the subjects were scanned using the WBX Cyberware 3D Whole Body Scanner, with functional and daily postures according to the use of public transportation and some especial cases, such as a mother with her offspring or a business man with his valise, so the volume of the person would be taken in consideration. A data collection was created to simulate several situations of the daily use of the vehicle.

  7. Contracting and Procurement for Evidence-Based Interventions in Public-Sector Human Services: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Cathleen E; Aarons, Gregory A; Trott, Elise M; Green, Amy E; Finn, Natalie; Ehrhart, Mark G; Hecht, Debra B

    2016-09-01

    Sustainment of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) in human services depends on the inner context of community-based organizations (CBOs) that provide services and the outer context of their broader environment. Increasingly, public officials are experimenting with contracting models from for-profit industries to procure human services. In this case study, we conducted qualitative interviews with key government and CBO stakeholders to examine implementation of the Best Value-Performance Information Procurement System to contract for EBIs in a child welfare system. Findings suggest that stakeholder relationships may be compromised when procurement disregards local knowledge, communication, collaboration, and other factors supporting EBIs and public health initiatives.

  8. Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the…

  9. Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the…

  10. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study: Focus group work, public engagement and lessons learnt in 17 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van de Mieroop, Els; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Cerna, Milena; Krskova, Andrea; Becker, Kerstin; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Seiwert, Margarete; Mørck, Thit A; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Cullen, Elizabeth; Kellegher, Anne; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Kamińska, Joanna; Namorado, Sónia; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Gurzau, Anca E; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Huetos, Olga; López, Ana; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Sepai, Ovnair

    2015-08-01

    A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were tested in the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). The aims of the communication strategy were to raise awareness of human biomonitoring, encourage participation in the study and to communicate the study results and their public health significance. It identified the audiences and key messages, documented the procedure for dissemination of results and was updated as the project progressed. A communication plan listed the tools and materials such as press releases, flyers, recruitment letters and information leaflets required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES, taking into account specific national messages according to the needs of each country. Participants received individual results, unless they refused to be informed, along with guidance on what the results meant. The aggregate results and policy recommendations were then communicated to the general public and stakeholders, followed by dissemination at European level. Several lessons were learnt that may assist other future human biomonitoring studies. Recruitment took longer than anticipated and so social scientists, to help with community engagement, should be part of the research team from the start. As a European study, involving multiple countries, additional considerations were needed for the numerous organisations, different languages, cultures, policies and priorities

  11. Ringing public human talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Augusto José Díaz Samper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will see how the human talent, by misionalidad, has established his duty to be on the need to attract the best service delivery and quality of life of personnel testing it has resorted to various strategies of management. But the media can go against this fundamental purpose, and represent an adverse and contrary to the institution actually starting, the disseminating a discourse of violence characterized by the friend / enemy, and irrationality passionality braking going against their own initiatives opposition.

  12. A Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) Case Study in E-Government and Public Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper first outlines a revised version of the general HWID framework, with a focus on what connects empirical work analysis and interaction design, and then presents a case study of the Danish government one-for-all authentication system NemID. The case is briefly analyzed, using...... ethnomethodology, work domain/task analysis, and the HWID approach, and comparing the results. Compared to the traditional approaches, the HWID focus on case-specific connections between human work and interaction design, gives different and supplementary answers. The conclusion is that there are benefits...... in studying how human work analysis and interaction design in concrete cases are related and connected....

  13. Pilot social feasibility study for the establishment of a public human umbilical cord blood stem cell bank in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Young, Wendy; Rangaka, Isabella; Lombaard, Hennie; Dhai, Ames; Tsotsi, Norma; Pepper, Michael S

    2012-12-01

    There is a large unmet need in South Africa for bone marrow transplantation. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of stem cells for the treatment of haematological and non-haematological diseases. Access to the two existing private umbilical cord blood stem cell banks (UCB SCBs) in South Africa is limited to individuals that can afford it, which further aggravates the ever increasing divide between families from different socio-economic classes. The problem is compounded by a severe global shortage of genetically compatible samples, representative of the South African demographics. Establishing a public human UCB SCB in South Africa would provide more South Africans with access to previously unavailable treatment in the form of affordable, genetically compatible stem cells for bone marrow transplantation. A public UCB SCB has many facets to consider, one of which is public preparedness and support for the bank. This was assessed in a social feasibility pilot study which is reported here. In addition to the findings of this social feasibility study, other important considerations for establishing a public human UCB SCB in SA include; (a) testing the samples for HIV and other infectious diseases (required for compliance with international regulatory standards); (b) flow cytometric analysis for enumeration of CD34+ UCB stem cells; (c) mapping of HLA genotypes/alleles; and (d) a study of the economic feasibility of this endeavour.The social feasibility study was conducted to gauge public preparedness and support for a public SCB through patient interviews and questionnaires. The process was dynamic due to its novel nature for interviewers and interviewees alike. Many obstacles were met and dealt with which lead to the compilation of results discussed here in the form of a pilot social feasibility study.In the South African context, we are faced with unique and rich challenges relating to cultural and religious differences that are further augmented by

  14. Public Perceptions of Human Trafficking in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Robinson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a widely studied phenomenon. Comparing public perceptions of trafficking to institutional (i.e. the academy, governmental and non-governmental organizations perceptions gives a richer understanding of the problem. The data for this study were collected in and around Chisinau, Moldova in the summer of 2004. Public discourse provides a more intimate "portraiture" of the issue, but the public also demonstrated a complex level of understanding of this social problem in this study. Its view is juxtaposed against an institutional view of human trafficking as explored through a literature review. Combining institutional and public perceptions and knowledge of a social problem is helpful in not only establishing a more thorough understanding of the social problem and guiding policy decisions, but in exploring the experiences victims may face at the community level.

  15. Public skepticism of psychology: why many people perceive the study of human behavior as unscientific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2012-01-01

    Data indicate that large percentages of the general public regard psychology's scientific status with considerable skepticism. I examine 6 criticisms commonly directed at the scientific basis of psychology (e.g., psychology is merely common sense, psychology does not use scientific methods, psychology is not useful to society) and offer 6 rebuttals. I then address 8 potential sources of public skepticism toward psychology and argue that although some of these sources reflect cognitive errors (e.g., hindsight bias) or misunderstandings of psychological science (e.g., failure to distinguish basic from applied research), others (e.g., psychology's failure to police itself, psychology's problematic public face) reflect the failure of professional psychology to get its own house in order. I offer several individual and institutional recommendations for enhancing psychology's image and contend that public skepticism toward psychology may, paradoxically, be one of our field's strongest allies.

  16. 76 FR 25686 - Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... the Science Advisor (OSA) announces a public teleconference of the HSRB to discuss its draft report... information concerning the EPA HSRB can be found on the EPA Web site at...

  17. 76 FR 17121 - Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... the Science Advisor (OSA) announces a public meeting of the HSRB to advise the Agency on EPA's... information concerning the EPA HSRB can be found on the EPA Web site at...

  18. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  19. Three Essays on Human Capital in the Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Linos, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation presents three empirical studies on how to improve human capital in the public sector. In reverse chronological order, the essays ask who is attracted to public sector jobs (Paper 3); consider who can actually get a public sector job (Paper 2); and evaluate how current civil servants can be more effective at doing their job (Paper 1). In doing so, the dissertation presents tools that public managers can use to improve human capital within the constraints of government. P...

  20. Comparative Study of Seven Commercial Kits for Human DNA Extraction from Urine Samples Suitable for DNA Biomarker-Based Public Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bali, Latifa; Diman, Aurélie; Bernard, Alfred; Roosens, Nancy H. C.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Human genomic DNA extracted from urine could be an interesting tool for large-scale public health studies involving characterization of genetic variations or DNA biomarkers as a result of the simple and noninvasive collection method. These studies, involving many samples, require a rapid, easy, and standardized extraction protocol. Moreover, for practicability, there is a necessity to collect urine at a moment different from the first void and to store it appropriately until analysis. The present study compared seven commercial kits to select the most appropriate urinary human DNA extraction procedure for epidemiological studies. DNA yield has been determined using different quantification methods: two classical, i.e., NanoDrop and PicoGreen, and two species-specific real-time quantitative (q)PCR assays, as DNA extracted from urine contains, besides human, microbial DNA also, which largely contributes to the total DNA yield. In addition, the kits giving a good yield were also tested for the presence of PCR inhibitors. Further comparisons were performed regarding the sampling time and the storage conditions. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, an important gene related to smoking has been genotyped using the developed tools. We could select one well-performing kit for the human DNA extraction from urine suitable for molecular diagnostic real-time qPCR-based assays targeting genetic variations, applicable to large-scale studies. In addition, successful genotyping was possible using DNA extracted from urine stored at −20°C for several months, and an acceptable yield could also be obtained from urine collected at different moments during the day, which is particularly important for public health studies. PMID:25365790

  1. Comparative study of seven commercial kits for human DNA extraction from urine samples suitable for DNA biomarker-based public health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bali, Latifa; Diman, Aurélie; Bernard, Alfred; Roosens, Nancy H C; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J

    2014-12-01

    Human genomic DNA extracted from urine could be an interesting tool for large-scale public health studies involving characterization of genetic variations or DNA biomarkers as a result of the simple and noninvasive collection method. These studies, involving many samples, require a rapid, easy, and standardized extraction protocol. Moreover, for practicability, there is a necessity to collect urine at a moment different from the first void and to store it appropriately until analysis. The present study compared seven commercial kits to select the most appropriate urinary human DNA extraction procedure for epidemiological studies. DNA yield has been determined using different quantification methods: two classical, i.e., NanoDrop and PicoGreen, and two species-specific real-time quantitative (q)PCR assays, as DNA extracted from urine contains, besides human, microbial DNA also, which largely contributes to the total DNA yield. In addition, the kits giving a good yield were also tested for the presence of PCR inhibitors. Further comparisons were performed regarding the sampling time and the storage conditions. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, an important gene related to smoking has been genotyped using the developed tools. We could select one well-performing kit for the human DNA extraction from urine suitable for molecular diagnostic real-time qPCR-based assays targeting genetic variations, applicable to large-scale studies. In addition, successful genotyping was possible using DNA extracted from urine stored at -20°C for several months, and an acceptable yield could also be obtained from urine collected at different moments during the day, which is particularly important for public health studies.

  2. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations.

  3. Human Rights and Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  4. Human Rights and Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  5. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simões; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Lin, Chin An; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies. PMID:21655765

  6. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Regina Simoes Olmo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies.

  7. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  8. Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksher, Erika; Lovasi, Gina S

    2012-03-01

    Built environment characteristics have been linked to health outcomes and health disparities. However, the effects of an environment on behavior may depend on human perception, interpretation, motivation, and other forms of human agency. We draw on epidemiological and ethical concepts to articulate a critique of research on the built environment and physical activity. We identify problematic assumptions and enumerate both scientific and ethical reasons to incorporate subjective perspectives and public engagement strategies into built environment research and interventions. We maintain that taking agency seriously is essential to the pursuit of health equity and the broader demands of social justice in public health, an important consideration as studies of the built environment and physical activity increasingly focus on socially disadvantaged communities. Attention to how people understand their environment and navigate competing demands can improve the scientific value of ongoing efforts to promote active living and health, while also better fulfilling our ethical obligations to the individuals and communities whose health we strive to protect.

  9. Environmental factors and public health policy associated with human and rodent infection by leptospirosis: a land cover-based study in Nan province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rossa, P; Tantrakarnapa, K; Sutdan, D; Kasetsinsombat, K; Cosson, J-F; Supputamongkol, Y; Chaisiri, K; Tran, A; Supputamongkol, S; Binot, A; Lajaunie, C; Morand, S

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis incidence has increased markedly since 1995 in Thailand, with the eastern and northern parts being the most affected regions, particularly during flooding events. Here, we attempt to overview the evolution of human prevalence during the past decade and identify the environmental factors that correlate with the incidence of leptospirosis and the clinical incidence in humans. We used an extensive survey of Leptospira infection in rodents conducted in 2008 and 2009 and the human incidence of the disease from 2003 to 2012 in 168 villages of two districts of Nan province in Northern Thailand. Using an ad-hoc developed land-use cover implemented in a geographical information system we showed that humans and rodents were not infected in the same environment/habitat in the land-use cover. High village prevalence was observed in open habitat near rivers for the whole decade, or in 2008-2009 mostly in rice fields prone to flooding, whereas infected rodents (2008-2009) were observed in patchy habitat with high forest cover, mostly situated on sloping ground areas. We also investigated the potential effects of public health campaigns conducted after the dramatic flood event of 2006. We showed that, before 2006, human incidence in villages was explained by the population size of the village according to the environmental source of infection of this disease, while as a result of the campaigns, human incidence in villages after 2006 appeared independent of their population size. This study confirms the role of the environment and particularly land use, in the transmission of bacteria, emphasized by the effects of the provincial public health campaigns on the epidemiological pattern of incidence, and questions the role of rodents as reservoirs.

  10. 商业街中人的行为与公共空间设计研究%Study on human behavior and public space design in commercial street

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晶晶; 肖平

    2016-01-01

    选取商业街中的公共空间作为研究对象,以昆明市中心区的南屏街作为调研场地,研究该商业街的公共空间中人的行为活动,分析了人在商业街中活动行为的特性、实际使用情况和行为倾向,提出了商业街公共空间的优化设计方法。%Selecting public space in commercial street as the research target,taking Nanping street in Kunming city center as the investigation field,the paper studies the human actions in public space of the commercial street,analyzes human behavior characteristics,actual utilization conditions and behavior trend in commercial street,finally puts forward public space optimizing design methods of commercial street.

  11. Economic evaluation of human albumin use in patients with nephrotic syndrome in four Brazilian public hospitals: pharmacoeconomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Leonardo Augusto Kister de; Noblat, Antônio Carlos Beisl; Nascimento, Harrison Floriano do; Noblat, Lúcia de Araújo Costa Beisl

    2017-01-01

    In 2004, the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, ANVISA) published a resolution establishing guidelines for albumin use. Although the published data do not indicate any definitive conclusions about the benefits of albumin use in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS), the guidelines recommend this procedure only in cases of edema that is refractory to use of diuretics. The aim here was to analyze albumin use among patients with nephrotic syndrome. Pharmacoeconomic study conducted in four large public referral hospitals for nephrology services in northeastern Brazil. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility economic evaluations were performed on a concurrent cohort of patients with nephrotic syndrome, who were divided into two groups according to compliance or noncompliance with the guidelines. Quality-of-life data were obtained from the SF36 and CHQ-PF50 questionnaires. This study enrolled 109 patients (60% adults and 56% women); 41.3% were using albumin in accordance with the guidelines. The weight, diuresis and fluid balance parameters were more cost-effective for patients who adhered to the guidelines. Regarding days of hospitalization avoided, the incremental ratio showed a daily cost of R$ 55.33, and guideline-compliant patients were hospitalized for five days or fewer. The quality of life improved by 8%, and savings of R$ 3,458.13/QALY (quality-adjusted life year) for the healthcare system were generated through guideline compliance. The economic analyses of this study demonstrated that there were greater cost benefits for patients whose treatment followed the guidelines.

  12. Human virus and microbial indicator occurrence in public-supply groundwater systems: meta-analysis of 12 international studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fout, G. Shay; Borchardt, Mark A.; Kieke, Burney A.; Karim, Mohammad R.

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater quality is often evaluated using microbial indicators. This study examines data from 12 international groundwater studies (conducted 1992-2013) of 718 public drinking-water systems located in a range of hydrogeological settings. Focus was on testing the value of indicator organisms for identifying virus-contaminated wells. One or more indicators and viruses were present in 37 and 15% of 2,273 samples and 44 and 27% of 746 wells, respectively. Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and somatic coliphage are 7-9 times more likely to be associated with culturable virus-positive samples when the indicator is present versus when it is absent, while F-specific and somatic coliphages are 8-9 times more likely to be associated with culturable virus-positive wells. However, single indicators are only marginally associated with viruses detected by molecular methods, and all microbial indicators have low sensitivity and positive predictive values for virus occurrence, whether by culturable or molecular assays, i.e., indicators are often absent when viruses are present and the indicators have a high false-positive rate. Wells were divided into three susceptibility subsets based on presence of (1) total coliform bacteria or (2) multiple indicators, or (3) location of wells in karst, fractured bedrock, or gravel/cobble settings. Better associations of some indicators with viruses were observed for (1) and (3). Findings indicate the best indicators are E. coli or somatic coliphage, although both indicators may underestimate virus occurrence. Repeat sampling for indicators improves evaluation of the potential for viral contamination in a well.

  13. 76 FR 11240 - Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Teleconference To Review a Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of the Science Advisor (OSA) announces a public teleconference of... information concerning the EPA HSRB can be found on the EPA Web site at...

  14. Publication bias in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Nazish

    2011-06-01

    Communication of research findings is the utmost responsibility of all scientists. Publication bias occurs if scientific studies with negative or null results fail to get published. This can happen due to bias in submitting, reviewing, accepting, publishing or aggregating scientific literature that fails to show positive results on a particular topic. Publication bias can make scientific literature unrepresentative of the actual research studies. This can give the reader a false impression about the beneficial effects of a particular treatment or intervention and can influence clinical decision making. Publication bias is more common than it is actually considered to be, but there are ways to detect and prevent it. This paper comments on the occurrence, types and consequences of publication bias and the strategies employed to detect and control it.

  15. Human potential development as a prerequisite of public policy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishchuk Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the role of the public officers’ human potential for the efficiency of making public policy. It introduces features and criteria of human potential in the context of its development of civil service. The article designates some key directions for the development of human potential of public officers.

  16. Bible Study in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of teachers across the U.S. are comfortable using the Bible as a teaching tool. Public school courses involving study of the Bible have spread to at least 43 states, and at least seven state legislatures have approved laws encouraging some form of Bible study. High schools now offer elective courses on the Bible that adhere to a…

  17. Integrated Public Education, Fertility and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnert, Leonid V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of integration in public education. I show that the flight from the integrated multicultural public schools to private education increases private educational expenditures and, as a result, decreases fertility among more affluent parents whose children flee. In contrast, among less prosperous parents…

  18. Integrated Public Education, Fertility and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnert, Leonid V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of integration in public education. I show that the flight from the integrated multicultural public schools to private education increases private educational expenditures and, as a result, decreases fertility among more affluent parents whose children flee. In contrast, among less prosperous parents…

  19. Public Discourse on Human Trafficking in International Issue Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Meriläinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to better understand how the complex problem of human trafficking is addressed in international debates. How the discussion about human trafficking develops and how it is debated ultimately influences how the decision-making process unfolds. In order to understand the formation of public policy and laws, therefore, it is important to study the debate that occurs prior to decision making. This analysis focuses on the narratives used by major, well-established human rights and political actors that argue for necessary actions to be undertaken—such as the formation of new policies and laws in the European Union—as an attempt to protect citizens of the EU and other regions in the world from becoming victims of trafficking networks. Our research examines how the topic of human trafficking is framed and how this framework is intertwined in the debate with other social problems. We focus on how human trafficking is discussed by two well-established human rights Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs, Amnesty International (Amnesty and Human Rights Watch (HRW, in addition to the European Parliament (EP. The research questions for this study include: (1 In what context is human trafficking discussed by the three actors? (2 How do these actors frame the definition of human trafficking in their presentations? To answer these questions, we have conducted a systematic content analysis of documents that include official statements and research reports of the NGOs, as well as resolutions and recommendations of the EP. Altogether, 240 documents were analyzed in detail. These findings indicate that the two human rights organizations, Amnesty and Human Rights Watch, along with the European Parliament, all address human trafficking as an important social problem, albeit to varying degrees. Each actor has a different method of correlating human trafficking with many other social problems, thereby emphasizing different causes and

  20. Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris

    2007-07-01

    The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. Overall the research presents a complex picture of attitude to and constructions of human cloning. In all of the analyses, therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear, and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be associated with underlying values associated with scientific progress rather than with age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion, but the main themes were 'interfering with nature' and the 'status of the embryo', with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource, or that the media reflect

  1. Measuring and Understanding Public Opinion on Human Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Misook

    The theory of evolution has long generated controversy in American society, but Americans' attitudes about human evolution are often neglected in studies of "culture wars" and the nature of mass belief systems more generally (Berkman and Plutzer 2010; Freeland and Houston 2009). Gallup and other survey organizations have polled about evolution, but offered limited response categories that mask complexity in public opinion (Bishop 2006; Moore 2008). The main problems concerning the leading survey questions about evolution are: first, questions measure only a single dimension, thus they ignore the potential for multidimensionality in people's attitudes. Second, depending on question wording and response options, the results of public opinion surveys vary by polling groups. This is an example of measurement error which misleads the interpretation and impression of American public opinion on the origin of humankind. A number of studies have analyzed Americans' beliefs about evolution and hypothesized about the influential effects of several factors (Deckman 2002; Mazur 2005; Mooney 2005; Miller et al. 2006; Newport 2006; Forrest 2007;Nisbet and Goidel 2007;Scott 2009). However, there remains a lack of complete understanding of what Americans know and believe about human evolution. Given the salience of this issue and the significant influence of public opinion on policy-making in America (Page and Shapiro 1992; Stimson 2004; Newport 2004), the measurement error and explanation of polling results on controversial issues related to this topic are in need of clarification. In this study, I address these deficiencies with analyses of data from a 2008 national survey by Harris Interactive (n= 4,626) that included numerous measures of factual knowledge and beliefs about evolution. The items offer more nuanced response options than the standard three-category question asked for decades by the Gallup poll. The Harris survey also had multiple measures of religiosity and the

  2. An urgent issue of public health and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Carballo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although sexual violence permeates most societies, especially in situations of social disruption, it is an area of public health and human rights where we can collectively already do a great deal and show results quickly.

  3. Human rights and public health working together: an approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention. Journal Home ... and violence against women, will be considered. In conclusion ... Keywords: human rights, public health, child injuries, violence prevention. African Safety ...

  4. Public health human resources: a comparative analysis of policy documents in two Canadian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Sandra; MacDonald, Marjorie; Allan, Diane E; Martin, Cheryl; Peroff-Johnston, Nancy

    2014-02-24

    Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC = 27; ON = 20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be addressed and later documents providing

  5. Marketing communication practices of public organizations to prevent human trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    T.M. Borysova

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to analyze marketing communicative measures against human trafficking which were implemented by public organizations in 15 regions of Ukraine in 2011-2012. There are following research objectives: to investigate what kind of campaign or program of preventing the potential victims of human trafficking has been used by Ukrainian public organizations during 2011-2012; to determine whether marketing communicative measures have been implement...

  6. Human rights and public health : towards a balanced relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This contribution attempts to scope the multiple and complex relationships between measures to protect health and the protection of human rights. The article begins with a discussion of the meaning and current understandings of the notion of ‘public health’, after which it explores how ‘public

  7. Capturing human movement patterns in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Non-intrusive and non-privacy violating tracking of people by the use of thermal cameras and Computer Vision The video shows examples of data collection of pedestrian tracks in an urban plaza using a thermal camera. The data is used in my PhD project on Human Movement Patterns in Smart Cities...

  8. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research...

  9. Capturing human movement patterns in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Non-intrusive and non-privacy violating tracking of people by the use of thermal cameras and Computer Vision The video shows examples of data collection of pedestrian tracks in an urban plaza using a thermal camera. The data is used in my PhD project on Human Movement Patterns in Smart Cities. Th....... The recording and analysis of the thermal videos has been made in collaboration with Rikke Gade from the Visual Analytics of People Lab at Aalborg University....

  10. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research......Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects...

  11. Understanding human resource management practices in Botswana's public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna Stannie; Gauld, Robin; Hill, Philip C; Barnett, Pauline

    2016-11-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the management of the public sector health workforce in Botswana. Using institutional frameworks it aims to document and analyse human resource management (HRM) practices, and make recommendations to improve employee and health system outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws from a large study that used a mixed methods approach to assess performance of Botswana's Ministry of Health (MOH). It uses data collected through document analysis and in-depth interviews of 54 key informants comprising policy makers, senior staff of the MOH and its stakeholder organizations. Findings Public health sector HRM in Botswana has experienced inadequate planning, poor deployment and underutilization of staff. Lack of comprehensive retention strategies and poor working conditions contributed to the failure to attract and retain skilled personnel. Relationships with both formal and informal environments affected HRM performance. Research limitations/implications While document review was a major source of data for this paper, the weaknesses in the human resource information system limited availability of data. Practical implications This paper presents an argument for the need for consideration of formal and informal environments in developing effective HRM strategies. Originality/value This research provides a rare system-wide approach to health HRM in a Sub-Saharan African country. It contributes to the literature and evidence needed to guide HRM policy decisions and practices.

  12. [Human rights, an opportunity for public policies in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Human rights outlined a better scenario for public policies in health. For it requires intersectoral and interdisciplinary approach. This article emphasizes the perspective of public health policies based on human rights, clarifies the relationship of public policies with the exercise of human rights, beyond the right to health. It recognizes the need to implement genuinely democratic and participatory mechanisms. It considers the universal declaration of human rights and other institutional expressions about the same as the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights, discusses the ranking of the same and defend its entirety on the determinants of health through its cohesion and political factor. It defines a framework for public health and human rights that trend by strengthening social rights, as a new area of operation, based on public policies to address the determinants of health, upholding social justice, beyond the health field and the biological and behavioural risk factors to decisions arising from political power, exceeds medical solutions and access to health services. In conclusion, it promoting respect for human rights by greater understanding of them and strengthens the importance of indirect health policies (such as food, environment and health, violence gender) and the role of international policies in the global world.

  13. Public health ethics and more-than-human solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Melanie J; Degeling, Chris

    2015-03-01

    This article contributes to the literature on One Health and public health ethics by expanding the principle of solidarity. We conceptualise solidarity to encompass not only practices intended to assist other people, but also practices intended to assist non-human others, including animals, plants, or places. To illustrate how manifestations of humanist and more-than-human solidarity may selectively complement one another, or collide, recent responses to Hendra virus in Australia and Rabies virus in Canada serve as case examples. Given that caring relationships are foundational to health promotion, people's efforts to care for non-human others are highly relevant to public health, even when these efforts conflict with edicts issued in the name of public health. In its most optimistic explication, One Health aims to attain optimal health for humans, non-human animals and their shared environments. As a field, public health ethics needs to move beyond an exclusive preoccupation with humans, so as to account for moral complexity arising from people's diverse connections with places, plants, and non-human animals.

  14. Serological study of Human Fasciolosis in Patients Referring to the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sci¬ences, Tehran, Iran during 2008-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan ARYAEIPOUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease of livestock and human caused by Fasciola species. Here in, the results of serological evaluation of fascioliasis in peo­ple referring to the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sci­ences during 2008-2014 are presented.Methods: Demographic characterizations, symptoms and eosinophil rate were registered for every patient. Using somatic antigen of Fasciola, ELISA was per­formed and the results were analyzed. Data of questioners were analyzed as well.Results: Among 206 applicants, 24.8% were seropositive for fascioliasis, included 21% female and 28.3% male. Mean range of age of patients was between 13 to 67 yr. The highest rate of seropositivity was found among 20-30 yr old patients. Most of the patients had hypereosinophilia. All patients had history of eating raw vegeta­bles, or drinking unsafe water. Patients were referring from different provinces of Iran, including Gilan, Mazandaran, Tehran, Ardabil, Khuzestan, Lorestan, North Khorasan, Kermanshah, Azerbaijan, Fars, Kordestan, Hamedan and Markazi.Conclusion: During recent years, variety of provinces in Iran, where patients with fascioliasis are referred, has been increased. Patients coming from Gilan and Mazanda­ran provinces were referred early after the onset of their symptoms. Most probably, physicians in Gilan and Mazandaran are more alert on fascioliasis than other provinces. Previous wrong diagnosis was more common among patients refer­ring from other provinces than Gilan and Mazandaran provinces.

  15. "You cannot eat rights": a qualitative study of views by Zambian HIV-vulnerable women, youth and MSM on human rights as public health tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyamba, Choolwe; Broaddus, Elena; Campbell, Catherine

    2015-10-05

    Human rights approaches now dominate the HIV prevention landscape across sub-Saharan Africa, yet little is known about how they are viewed by the populations they are designed to serve. Health interventions are most effective when they resonate with the worldviews and interests of target groups. This study examined local Zambian understandings of human rights approaches to HIV-prevention among three highly HIV-vulnerable groups: women, youth, and men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Focus groups included 23 women, youth, and MSM who had participated in activities organized by local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) using rights-based approaches, and interviews included 10 Zambian employees of these NGOs. Topics included participants' experiences and views of the utility of these activities. Thematic analysis mapped out diverse ways participants viewed the concept of human rights in relation to HIV-prevention. Whilst NGO workers noted the need for human rights programs to address the complex drivers of the HIV epidemic, they struggled to tailor them to the Zambian context due to donor stipulations. Women program beneficiaries noted that the concept of human rights helped challenge harmful sexual practices and domestic abuse, and youth described rights-based approaches as more participatory than previous HIV-prevention efforts. However, they criticized the approach for conflicting with traditional values such as respect for elders and 'harmonious' marital relationships. They also critiqued it for threatening the social structures and relationships that they relied on for material survival, and for failing to address issues like poverty and unemployment. In contrast, MSM embraced the rights approach, despite being critical of its overly confrontational implementation. A rights-based approach seeks to tackle the symbolic drivers of HIV-its undeniable roots in cultural and religious systems of discrimination. Yet, it fails to resonate with youth and women's own

  16. Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue ‘Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health’ is part of the internationally leading 'International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health’. I was invited to be the guest editor, and to oversee the refereeing process and subsequent selection of timely, relevant and high quality papers highlighting particularly novel aspects concerned with sustainability issues in environmental studies. [...

  17. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Evolution of Humanities : Reviewing The History of Translation Movement in the Context of Public Policy-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shah Abadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is about forty years that some of Iran’s policy makers and experts in social and human sciences are of the opinion that there should be an evolution in humanities. They are of the view that principles and basic assumptions of current humanities are in conflict with Islamic framework and consequently these doctrines are not appropriate to address local issues of Islamic countries. Since the Islamic Revolution of Iran of 1979, any change in these doctrines has been a matter of debate. But we need a new plan for making a change in our policies. Applying interdisciplinary approach permit us to find a new way for policy making in society. History is full of lessons to guide us in our present situations. Therefore, by taking into account, the sociology of science and issues of policy-making, we study the Translation Movement. This article shows the transfer and transformation of Greek philosophy to Islamic philosophy in 7- 10 A.D. in Islamic civilization and also proposes an alternative approach for the policy makers. We identify actors of transferring knowledge, scientific translators and the Abbasid State. Research model of this paper has been chosen from the sociology of science and also makes use of "Implication Research Methodology” with regard to history. Our suggestion is "Transformational Translation (Transforlation " that includes selecting best texts, translations, correction, explanation, criticism and innovation. Accordingly, policies should be revised after identifying discipline on Transforlation Chain and structures and human resources have to be formalized on the basis of revised policies.

  18. A study on environment public spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Bueno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This text deals with the importance of studying environment public spending. Initially, we discuss the concept of environment public spending and how it became a public accounting function. Later, an analysis of several studies on the theme was carried out to promote a discussion on the environment public funds allocated by governments. Next, a discussion on the relevance of the theme and the need for further studies is presented, since investments on environment management still need to be better allocated and duly dimensioned. Currently, transparence in public spending has promoted the realization of more studies, leading to a more careful observation of environmental issues by the society, showing that these issues still need more attention from the goverment.

  19. European developments in public sector human resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Hegewisch, A.; Larsen, Henrik Holt

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses national differences in HRM within the public sector in nine European countties. Drawing on data from the PW Cranfeld Survey of International Human Resource Management we examine the decentralisation of HR policy decisions and trends in the devolvement to line management of responsibility for human resource management. In particular we looked at trends in the compensation area, ie pay determination and merit/ performance related pay and its impact on perfor...

  20. Research on Human Resources Development of Rural Public Service Departments in New Countryside Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of defining related concepts concerning human resources in rural public service departments,this paper analyses the overall status quo of human resources in China’s rural public service departments and points out the problems existing in human resources in China’s rural public service departments during new countryside construction as follows:first,the constitution structure is not rational;second,the cultural quality of staff is universally low,and the business capacity remains to be promoted;third,the improvement of human resources development environment lags behind,and the supporting reform is short.In the context of new countryside construction,the opportunities faced by the human resources in China’s rural public service departments are as follows:China has elevated strengthening new countryside construction and rural talents construction as important state development strategy;the ideas of service-oriented government and learning-oriented government are put forward;civil servant system is overhauled.Therefore,I advance the development strategy of human resources in China’s rural public service departments as follows:implement elastic personnel system reform in public service departments(including civil servant positions in department),to form the public service personnel system of "able one comes in,mediocre one moves over and shiftless one steps down";audaciously promote young and middle-aged grass-roots cadres with strong business ability,high political quality,acute judgement and decision-making ability;build learning-oriented grass-roots public service organization,to make the staff in rural pubic service departments study assiduously and progress;broaden horizon,and build the human resources development system geared to international standards;in developed regions,the human resources in grass-roots public service departments should introduce enterprise competition model.

  1. Measuring Human Movement Patterns and Behaviors in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.;

    In order to assess human movement patterns and behaviors in public spaces we present a method using thermal cameras and Computer Vision (CV) technology, combined with the analytical virtues of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), to track people in urban streets and plazas. The method enables...

  2. Public access to community documents: a fundamental human right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy W. Davis

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a marked difference between the culture of open government in some Member States, particularly Sweden, and the culture of secrecy in Britain. Recent calls for a uniform interpretation of the law regarding public access to documents held by the Community Institutions seem to suggest that a Swedish-style right of access should be adopted at EU level, on the grounds that public access to government-held information is a fundamental human right. To date, however, it seems that insufficient arguments have been advanced in order to justify this particular claim. Notable constitutional lawyers remain sceptical, as do some Member State governments. Furthermore, in the absence of a convincing philosophical justification for the claim, a situation may be created in which certain people are said to enjoy a fundamental human right, not because they are human beings, but by virtue of their status as citizens or residents of an EU Member State. This appears to be counter-intuitive, if it is accepted that fundamental human rights should be enjoyed by all and should therefore be justified on the basis of universally-shared fundamental values. It therefore seems that further explanation of the importance of public access to documents is required, and further justification of the claim that this is, or should be regarded as, a fundamental human right.

  3. [Human papillomavirus and public health: cervical cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Angela Adamski da Silva; Monteiro, Caroline Dias; Paula, Leonardo Barcelos de; Santos, Rodrigo da Silva; Saddi, Vera Aparecida; Cruz, Aparecido Divino da

    2010-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the applicability of an educational booklet that contained information for the general population about promotion and prevention of infections and neoplasic process caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The study was arranged in two phases. First, the booklet was given to 200 volunteers in the city of Goiânia, Goiás State. The applicability of the booklet was evaluated without the necessity of proving former knowledge. In the second phase, a detailed analysis of the data was made and the booklet revealed applicable. Then, the educational material was published and 2000 copies were distributed in a social event held by the Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Góias in the city of Goiânia. In the event, the booklet raised the interest of the general public and gave the volunteers a chance to participate in a study that investigated the presence of the HPV in the genital microbiote. The booklet proved to be applicable and reached its objective to inform and prevent. However, it's necessary to promote and improve campaigns to the population about the HPV and its relations with the neoplasic process.

  4. Marketing communication practices of public organizations to prevent human trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Borysova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to analyze marketing communicative measures against human trafficking which were implemented by public organizations in 15 regions of Ukraine in 2011-2012. There are following research objectives: to investigate what kind of campaign or program of preventing the potential victims of human trafficking has been used by Ukrainian public organizations during 2011-2012; to determine whether marketing communicative measures have been implemented on the basis of previously carried out researches for determining effective preventive methods and to find out if they were addressed to a target group of potential victims; to analyze the material used for the campaigns or programs and its dissemination. The results of the analysis. The analysis of data obtained from 15 investigated regions makes it possible to draw the following results: active informing of society about human trafficking by public organizations and authorities took place in 2011-2012, but their measures were not coordinated, communications were not integrated, without clearly defined executors, time frames, criteria of evaluation and were not based on previous researches. Monitoring of implementation of measures was not carried out by authorities. All target audiences were not reached; the choice of the target market and methodology of preventive work was based on previous researches; their actions were directed on target audiences of communications, which both are the population in general and potential victims, establishments aiding victims of trafficking in human beings, central executive authorities, local executive authorities; public organizations have used the following channels of communication: personal communications in forms of training, seminars, press-conferences, different outdoor actions, consultations on human trafficking combating by «hot line»; there is a problem of common, standardized, objective state statistics in the

  5. Improving public administration performance demands investment in human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klun

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes that investments in human resources are one of the important factors for improving public sector performance. In strategic papers of Slovenian government and during the reform process of public administration, government stressed out that human resources are one of the most important factors for improving performance. This is originating point of research. The main hypothesis of presented research is that investments in human resources improve efficiency and effectiveness of public sector. For several reasons explained in the paper, tax administration was chosen to test the hypothesis. We used a number of training participations per employee as an indicator of investments in human resources. For determination of effi ciency and effectiveness, we used selected performance indicators and survey among taxpayers about their satisfaction. The main obstacle of the research is that not long-time series are used for better test of hypothesis since surveys among taxpayers are not regular. The results indicate a positive correlation between training and performance indicators and training and taxpayers’ satisfaction.

  6. The use of computerised personnel information systems by human resource specialists in the public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis examines the development of human resource management in three UK public sectors local government, the health service and higher education. The focus of the study is the problem of the lack of use of computerised personnel information systems by personnel specialists to develop the human resource management function. The literature of strategic management, human resource management and the fit between them are reviewed together with the history and the development of personnel sys...

  7. Integrating Public Health and Deliberative Public Bioethics: Lessons from the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Karen M; Lee, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Public health policy works best when grounded in firm public health standards of evidence and widely shared social values. In this article, we argue for incorporating a specific method of ethical deliberation--deliberative public bioethics--into public health. We describe how deliberative public bioethics is a method of engagement that can be helpful in public health. Although medical, research, and public health ethics can be considered some of what bioethics addresses, deliberative public bioethics offers both a how and where. Using the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications program as an example of effective incorporation of deliberative processes to integrate ethics into public health policy, we examine how deliberative public bioethics can integrate both public health and bioethics perspectives into three areas of public health practice: research, education, and health policy. We then offer recommendations for future collaborations that integrate deliberative methods into public health policy and practice.

  8. A public data set of human balance evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana A. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to create a public data set with results of qualitative and quantitative evaluations related to human balance. Subject’s balance was evaluated by posturography using a force platform and by the Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Tests. In the posturography test, we evaluated subjects standing still for 60 s in four different conditions where vision and the standing surface were manipulated: on a rigid surface with eyes open; on a rigid surface with eyes closed; on an unstable surface with eyes open; on an unstable surface with eyes closed. Each condition was performed three times and the order of the conditions was randomized. In addition, the following tests were employed in order to better characterize each subject: Short Falls Efficacy Scale International; International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Version; and Trail Making Test. The subjects were also interviewed to collect information about their socio-cultural, demographic, and health characteristics. The data set comprises signals from the force platform (raw data for the force, moments of forces, and centers of pressure of 163 subjects plus one file with information about the subjects and balance conditions and the results of the other evaluations. All the data is available at PhysioNet and at Figshare.

  9. New Hyde Park Public Library; A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassau Library System, Garden City, NY.

    In the fall of 1974, the Nassau County Library System conducted a study of the New Hyde Park Public Library at the request of that library's directing board. Relevant documents and statistics were reviewed, building usage was studied, and the library staff and community organizations were questioned. The library was analyzed in terms of the…

  10. Human dignity at home and in public – introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits De Lange

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A genuine concern for human dignity fosters a public culture of human rights. A concern for  dignity contributes to equality, justice and respect in civil life. But how about dignity at home? The life people live privately in their intimate relationships, within their families, is mostly withheld from public debate. Though the relationships between men and women, parents and children are evidently unequal in power and vulnerability, and thereby susceptible for abuse, they are hardly subject of public evaluation. What about dignity at home? Families are thought to be places where human dignity feels ‘at home’. The image of home as a ‘safe haven’ however, is heavily disputed by the facts. Domestic violence is widespread. Home is a paradoxical environment: it is the place where new generations are nurtured and educated in human values, and where respect and love is practised. At the same time it is the place where the dignity of especially women and children is often contested and violated. There is no other place where people are living together so intimately, and so vulnerable. This hidden side of dignity was the theme of the conference “Dignity at home and in public” that the Protestant Theological University organised together with the Faculty of Theology of the Stellenbosch University, October 25- 26, 2010 at Kampen University, the Netherlands. A selection of the contributions are gathered in this volume. By engaging in intense, personal North-South and South-North dialogues around themes as the family in the Reformed tradition, vulnerability and autonomy, domestic violence, cultural shifts in the relationships between generations, and end of life decisions, the conference continued a five-year long partnership between the two theological faculties around the theme of human dignity. This volume explores from a

  11. Ethical issues in the translation of social neuroscience: a policy analysis of current guidelines for public dialogue in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Emma; Racine, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Social neuroscience and its potential implications create an interesting case study for examining human research ethics policies on the topic of public communication of research. We reviewed mainstream national and international human research ethics guidelines and policies on issues of public communication of research. Our analysis relied on five thematic nets to capture the interactions between research and the public: public understanding, knowledge translation, public participation, social outcomes, and dual use. Coverage of these topics is sparse and inconsistent in mainstream policies and guidelines. We identify three options to address these gaps and analyze their strengths and weaknesses.

  12. Human experimental anxiety: actual public speaking induces more intense physiological responses than simulated public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Gorayeb, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    a) To perform a systematic and meta-analytic review to verify whether the Simulated Public Speaking Task (SPST) leads to a greater increase in self-rated anxiety than in physiological correlates of anxiety; and b) to compare the results obtained with the SPST with an actual public speaking task involving healthy volunteers. a) The PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched for studies involving the SPST prior to 2012. Eleven publications were eligible and provided data from 143 healthy volunteers for meta-analysis; b) 48 university students without somatic or psychiatric disorders were divided into three experimental groups of 16 subjects to undergo one of the following: SPST, real-world public speaking task (real-world), and control situation (control). The meta-analysis showed that the SPST induced a significant increase in the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) anxiety factor, but no significant increases in systolic blood pressure or heart rate. The empirical study showed that the real-world public speaking task increased heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure significantly more than the control and SPST conditions. These results suggest that real public speaking might be better than SPST in inducing experimental anxiety.

  13. Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    Concerns of the National Security Agency (NSA) that information contained in some articles about cryptography in learned and professional journals and in monographs might be inimical to the national security are addressed. The Public Cryptography Study Group, with one dissenting opinion, recommends that a voluntary system of prior review of…

  14. Dawn Mission Education and Public Outreach: Science as Human Endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, W. H.; Wise, J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Ristvey, J.

    2012-12-01

    general public into the thrill of NASA science. Helping teachers develop a picture of the history and evolution of our understanding of the solar system, and honing in on the place of asteroids in helping us answer old questions and discover new ones, students and the general public sees the power and excitement underlying planetary science as human endeavor. Research indicates that science inquiry is powerful in the classroom and mission scientists are real-life models of science inquiry in action. Cross-curricular elements include examining research-based strategies for enhancing English language learners' ability to engage in higher order questions and a professional astronomy artist's insight into how visual analysis requires not just our eyes engaged, but our brains: comparing, synthesizing, questioning, evaluating, and wondering. Dawn Education and Public Outreach will share out perspectives and lessons learned, backed by extensive evaluation examining the efficacy of the mission's efforts.

  15. Wildlife Pathology Studies and How They Can Inform Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tracey S

    2016-01-01

    Emerging zoonoses have had a serious impact on human and animal health in recent decades. More often than not, these disease outbreaks have taken public health by surprise because we have failed to shift the epidemiological curve to the far left and detect zoonoses in animal populations prior to spillover to people. Not only can animals serve as valuable sentinels for emerging zoonoses but also much can be gained by the study of the animals themselves.

  16. The Extracurricular Curriculum. Academic Disciplines and Public Humanities Programs. Federation Resources 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James P., Ed.; Weiland, Steven, Ed.

    Six essays exploring the uses of the humanities in public programs are presented. They relate to the traditional and current interests of the disciplines, and discuss matters that bear on the conduct of projects and the activities of participating humanists in state programs. They are the result of a study of the concepts and practices in the…

  17. Publication misconduct and plagiarism retractions: a systematic, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Serina; Bramich, Narelle J; Keys, Janelle R; Monk, Julie A; Ely, Julie A; Haley, Cassandra; Woolley, Mark J; Woolley, Karen L

    2012-10-01

    To investigate whether plagiarism is more prevalent in publications retracted from the medical literature when first authors are affiliated with lower-income countries versus higher-income countries. Secondary objectives included investigating other factors associated with plagiarism (e.g., national language of the first author's country affiliation, publication type, journal ranking). Systematic, controlled, retrospective, bibliometric study. Retracted publications dataset in MEDLINE (search filters: English, human, January 1966-February 2008). Retracted misconduct publications were classified according to the first author's country affiliation, country income level, and country national language, publication type, and ranking of the publishing journal. Standardised definitions and data collection tools were used; data were analysed (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence limits [CL], chi-squared tests) by an independent academic statistician. Of the 213 retracted misconduct publications, 41.8% (89/213) were retracted for plagiarism, 52.1% (111/213) for falsification/fabrication, 2.3% (5/213) for author disputes, 2.3% (5/213) for ethical issues, and 1.4% (3/213) for unknown reasons. The OR (95% CL) of plagiarism retractions (other misconduct retractions as reference) were higher (P 1 retraction) with publications retracted for plagiarism (11.5%, 9/78) than other types of misconduct (28.9%, 24/83). This is the first study to demonstrate that publications retracted for plagiarism are significantly associated with first authors affiliated with lower-income countries. These findings have implications for developing appropriate evidence-based strategies and allocation of resources to help mitigate plagiarism misconduct.

  18. Studying the implementation of public programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, R.K.

    1980-02-01

    This report describes and critically assesses approaches that have been employed to study the implementation of public programs. Implementation is defined as the process by which new policies and/or practices are installed in organizations. The report was produced because of the increased interest among researchers and policy makers alike in the linkages between policy and outcome. The study of implementation has barely begun, and it was recognized that methodological issues of a particularly complex nature arise because of certain unique characteristics of the implementation processes: (1) they involve a series of decisions that occur over a long period of time, with no clear beginning or end points; (2) their outcomes have direct or indirect implications that are too complex for single-factor theories; (3) they involve a large number of participants; and (4) they involve situations that are rather unique in terms of agency context, historical moment in time, and other key elements. The approach employed in the report was to examine the methods that have been used in a number of exemplary studies of implementation. These studies are commonly cited in publications and informally in research circles. Descriptive material from each study was used to address three questions: (1) How is evidence collected in studies of implementation; (2) How is evidence analyzed; (3) What are the reasons for believing the conclusions from such studies. The report concludes with recomendations for the conduct of future studies of implementation.

  19. Publicity of the intimate text (the blog studying and publication)

    CERN Document Server

    Buldakova, Yulia V

    2011-01-01

    One of the important problems of a modern society - communications. At all readiness of this question both humanitarian, and engineering science, process of transfer and information reception remains in the centre of attention of researchers. The dialogue phenomenon in a network becomes the significant factor of such attention. The fact of the publication of blogs and increasing popularity of bloggers is connected, in our opinion, with an increasing openness of a blog sphere (each record can be commented any user), and accordingly, the Internet as a whole.

  20. Reframing climate change as a public health issue: an exploratory study of public reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin Paula

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change is taking a toll on human health, and some leaders in the public health community have urged their colleagues to give voice to its health implications. Previous research has shown that Americans are only dimly aware of the health implications of climate change, yet the literature on issue framing suggests that providing a novel frame - such as human health - may be potentially useful in enhancing public engagement. We conducted an exploratory study in the United States of people's reactions to a public health-framed short essay on climate change. Methods U.S. adult respondents (n = 70, stratified by six previously identified audience segments, read the essay and were asked to highlight in green or pink any portions of the essay they found "especially clear and helpful" or alternatively "especially confusing or unhelpful." Two dependent measures were created: a composite sentence-specific score based on reactions to all 18 sentences in the essay; and respondents' general reactions to the essay that were coded for valence (positive, neutral, or negative. We tested the hypothesis that five of the six audience segments would respond positively to the essay on both dependent measures. Results There was clear evidence that two of the five segments responded positively to the public health essay, and mixed evidence that two other responded positively. There was limited evidence that the fifth segment responded positively. Post-hoc analysis showed that five of the six segments responded more positively to information about the health benefits associated with mitigation-related policy actions than to information about the health risks of climate change. Conclusions Presentations about climate change that encourage people to consider its human health relevance appear likely to provide many Americans with a useful and engaging new frame of reference. Information about the potential health benefits of specific mitigation

  1. A critical intersection: human rights, public health nursing, and nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Cheryl E; Allen, Carol Easley

    2007-01-01

    Public health nurses must make moral decisions regarding practice in complex situations fraught with competing moral claims. While nurses often frame practice decisions within the context of ethical theory, consideration of human rights perspectives is more recent. Basic concepts of nursing and public health ethics and of human rights, in relationship to public health, will be discussed and related to the practice of public health nursing. Intersections of human rights, ethics, and public health nursing practice will be discussed in light of the assertion of health as a human right and described using the issues of HIV/AIDS and genetics/genomics.

  2. Human Resource Development Mechanism and the Performance of Public Sector Accountants’ in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appah Ebimobowei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examines human resource development on the performance of public sector accountants’ in Nigeria. The quality of accountants’ available is a function of reliable and acceptable financial reporting framework that will improve productivity in the public sector. This can only be achieved through an effective and efficient human resource development structure. To achieve the objective of the study, primary and secondary data were used. The primary data was obtained through a well structured questionnaire administered to one hundred and nineteen public sector accountants in Bayelsa State and the data obtained were analysed with econometric models of multiple regression, granger causality test and diagnostic test. The Cronbach’s alphas model was used to verify the reliability of the instrument. The study found that job training, performance appraisal, career planning and reward employee welfare was positively related to productivity of public sector accountants’ in Nigeria. Based on these findings, the implications for human resource development mechanism practice and recommendations were discussed.

  3. Facilitation of Human Resource Information Systems on Performance of Public Sector in Jordan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi Hasan Altaany

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide an introductory presentation of the concept of human recourse information system in theoretical framework and to identify the degree of satisfaction of uses Human resource information systems in Jordan. A questionnaire was justified and developed by the researcher to measure the performance of employees based on previous studies was applied to (95 employees at public sector in Jordan. The study was using SPSS to analyses data. The results indicate that employees at public sector in Jordan there were a statistically significant relationship between the planning, recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation and incentives, and career planning and performance of employees. However the sample reported a significant in the seven hypotheses and accepted but the hypotheses (Ha1, Ha2 and Hb1 is rejected. The study have recommendations should gives more attention to focus on.

  4. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L; Boone, J Scott; Furlong, Edward T; Glassmeyer, Susan T; Kolpin, Dana W; Mash, Heath E; Schenck, Kathleen M; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2017-02-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  5. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D.; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L.; Boone, J. Scott; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Mash, Heath

    2017-01-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010–2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  6. 76 FR 69743 - The Development and Evaluation of Human Cytomegalovirus Vaccines; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Vaccines; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The... Prevention, and the National Vaccine Program Office are announcing a public workshop entitled ``The Development and Evaluation of Human Cytomegalovirus Vaccines.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to...

  7. The "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" (POSHA-S): Summary Framework and Empirical Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was developed to make available worldwide a standard measure of public attitudes toward stuttering that is practical, reliable, valid, and translatable. Mean data from past field studies as comparisons for interpretation of "POSHA-S" results are reported. Method: Means…

  8. The "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" (POSHA-S): Summary Framework and Empirical Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was developed to make available worldwide a standard measure of public attitudes toward stuttering that is practical, reliable, valid, and translatable. Mean data from past field studies as comparisons for interpretation of "POSHA-S" results are reported. Method: Means…

  9. Personnel vs. Strategic Human Resource Management in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Education human resources (HR) professionals have often been neglected in education research. This study seeks to better understand their role in the American school industry, by first examining how districts conceptualize the position of HR professionals and then exploring how the professionals themselves understand their role in school business.…

  10. The Microfoundations of Human Resources Management in US Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogodzinski, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent to which human resources (HR) decision making is influenced by the social context of school systems. More specifically, this study draws upon organizational theory focussed on the microfoundations of organizations as a lens identify key aspects of school HR decision making at the…

  11. Personnel vs. Strategic Human Resource Management in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Education human resources (HR) professionals have often been neglected in education research. This study seeks to better understand their role in the American school industry, by first examining how districts conceptualize the position of HR professionals and then exploring how the professionals themselves understand their role in school business.…

  12. The Microfoundations of Human Resources Management in US Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogodzinski, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent to which human resources (HR) decision making is influenced by the social context of school systems. More specifically, this study draws upon organizational theory focussed on the microfoundations of organizations as a lens identify key aspects of school HR decision making at the…

  13. Measuring and Understanding Public Opinion on Human Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Misook

    2012-01-01

    The theory of evolution has long generated controversy in American society, but Americans' attitudes about human evolution are often neglected in studies of "culture wars" and the nature of mass belief systems more generally (Berkman and Plutzer 2010; Freeland and Houston 2009). Gallup and other survey organizations have polled…

  14. Measuring and Understanding Public Opinion on Human Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Misook

    2012-01-01

    The theory of evolution has long generated controversy in American society, but Americans' attitudes about human evolution are often neglected in studies of "culture wars" and the nature of mass belief systems more generally (Berkman and Plutzer 2010; Freeland and Houston 2009). Gallup and other survey organizations have polled…

  15. PARTICULARITIES OF THE HUMAN RESOURCE MOTIVATION IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    IOAN CONSTANTIN DIMA; VERGIL CIUREA; IOAN VOICU; MIHAELA SANDU

    2010-01-01

    The notion of public administration bears several acceptations, an activity one, of functional meaning and an organisational one. In both ways, public administration is indissolubly connected to the state. In default of the state, there is no public administration, as this is a state activity, performed by government bodies. This affirmation is confirmed by the stipulations of the Romanian Constitution, called public Authorities, chapter V, titled Public Administration. The first section inte...

  16. Human mobility in space from three modes of public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shixiong; Guan, Wei; Zhang, Wenyi; Chen, Xu; Yang, Liu

    2017-10-01

    The human mobility patterns have drew much attention from researchers for decades, considering about its importance for urban planning and traffic management. In this study, the taxi GPS trajectories, smart card transaction data of subway and bus from Beijing are utilized to model human mobility in space. The original datasets are cleaned and processed to attain the displacement of each trip according to the origin and destination locations. Then, the Akaike information criterion is adopted to screen out the best fitting distribution for each mode from candidate ones. The results indicate that displacements of taxi trips follow the exponential distribution. Besides, the exponential distribution also fits displacements of bus trips well. However, their exponents are significantly different. Displacements of subway trips show great specialties and can be well fitted by the gamma distribution. It is obvious that human mobility of each mode is different. To explore the overall human mobility, the three datasets are mixed up to form a fusion dataset according to the annual ridership proportions. Finally, the fusion displacements follow the power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff. It is innovative to combine different transportation modes to model human mobility in the city.

  17. Public acceptance of management methods under different human-wildlife conflict scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liordos, Vasilios; Kontsiotis, Vasileios J; Georgari, Marina; Baltzi, Kerasia; Baltzi, Ioanna

    2017-02-01

    Wildlife management seeks to minimise public controversy for successful application of wildlife control methods. Human dimensions research in wildlife seeks a better understanding of public preferences for effective human-wildlife conflict resolution. In face to face interviews, 630 adults in Greece were asked to rate on a 5-point Likert-like scale their acceptance of 3 management methods, i.e., do nothing, non-lethal control, and lethal control, in the context of 5 human-wildlife conflict scenarios: 1) corvids damage crops; 2) starlings damage crops; 3) starlings foul urban structures; 4) coypus damage crops; and 5) coypus transfer disease. Univariate GLMs determined occupation, hunting membership and their interaction as the stronger predictors of public acceptance, generating 4 stakeholder groups: the general public, farmers, hunters, and farmers-hunters. Differences in acceptance and consensus among stakeholder groups were assessed using the Potential for Conflict Index2 (PCI2). All 4 stakeholder groups agreed that doing nothing was unacceptable and non-lethal control acceptable in all 5 scenarios, with generally high consensus within and between groups. The lethal control method was more controversial and became increasingly more acceptable as the severity of scenarios was increased and between non-native and native species. Lethal control was unacceptable for the general public in all scenarios. Farmers accepted lethal methods in the corvids and starlings scenarios, were neutral in the coypus damage crops scenario, whereas they accepted lethal control when coypus transfer disease. Hunters' opinion was neutral in the corvids, starlings and coypus damage crops and starlings foul urban structures scenarios, but they accepted lethal methods in the coypus transfer disease scenario. Farmers-hunters considered lethal control acceptable in all 5 scenarios. Implications from this study could be used for designing a socio-ecological approach which incorporates wildlife

  18. Political Communication: Contributions to the Study of Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacks, Don W.

    Political communication has influenced greatly the study of modern public relations. The development of modern public relations can be traced back to the Ancients of Greece. The definition of "political communication" when applied to public relations is typically corporate in nature. That is, public relations defines the role of…

  19. Human-based Design of Public Sign Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mou Yue

    2008-01-01

    @@ Our public system is now transforming from a planned economy to a market economy.How to eliminate the old public signs system and implement a new national system that meets international standards,and establish an information-oriented international system,are the responsibilities of our public sign designers.

  20. Public Libraries--A Wise Investment: A Return on Investment Study of Colorado Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Nicolle; Lietzau, Zeth; Lance, Keith Curry; Rybin, Amanda; Molliconi, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Public libraries deliver many benefits to their patrons, but understanding these benefits in terms of dollars-and-cents is difficult. In an effort to quantify the return on investment to taxpayers for monies invested in public libraries, the Library Research Service (LRS) initiated the study, "Public Libraries -- A Wise Investment: A Return…

  1. Technology-Related Research in Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) Publications: A Review between 2000 and 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githens, Rod P.; Dirani, Khalil; Gitonga, Jacqueline; Teng, Ya-Ting; Benson, Angela D.

    2006-01-01

    The growth of technology has influenced human resource development (HRD) practitioners to embrace technology for both training and non-training interventions. This study examined technology-related articles in Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) publications in order to understand what these articles address and the future needs of…

  2. Psychosocial intervention, as a contribution to local human development within Medellin’s public scope. Case study: project aps - “buenvivir” (good living into a family. sponsor: City hall of Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. García

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information about a research held on the psychosocial intervention offered from social projects such as educational formative spaces. A critical analysis is made by means of a government project conducted by the local administration of the city of Medellin known as “APS Buenvivir en Familia, 2011”, compiled by the Social Welfare Town Council Office, in association with the Municipality’s Health Department. Its purpose was to examine the logic and approach of psychosocial intervention as an input to human development. It was carried out through a qualitative focusing, taking in consideration the following categories: The psychosocial intervention has a definite impact on local human development, psychosocial praxis from the point of view of a public action strategy, community involvement taken as a true political act. The results showed that the psychosocial as a public exercise makes a contribution to local human development starting from the social involvement of communities and, in its everyday doing, presents structural and formal contradictions between the way they are designed and how the projects are planned and implemented among the people. 

  3. An Overview of a Decade of Journal Publications about Culture and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Roese, Kerstin

    In this paper, we analyze the concept of human-computer interaction in cultural and national contexts. Building and extending upon the framework for understanding research in usability and culture by Honold [3], we give an overview of publications in culture and HCI between 1998 and 2008, with a narrow focus on high-level journal publications only. The purpose is to review current practice in how cultural HCI issues are studied, and to analyse problems with the measures and interpretation of this studies. We find that Hofstede's cultural dimensions has been the dominating model of culture, participants have been picked because they could speak English, and most studies have been large scale quantitative studies. In order to balance this situation, we recommend that more researchers and practitioners do qualitative, empirical work studies.

  4. Differences between Public and Private Universities' Fields of Study in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabossi, Marcelo Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The literature on private higher education has identified striking differences between the public and private sectors in terms of fields of study. For example, unlike their public counterparts, private universities have traditionally specialised in the social sciences and humanities. This paper explores the university market in Argentina to see if…

  5. Collaboration between Correctional and Public School Systems Serving Juvenile Offenders: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellriegel, Kimberly L.; Yates, James R.

    1999-01-01

    This case study examined the relationship between an educational agency and a human service agency in providing services to juvenile offenders in a county-operated correctional facility as they transition to the local public school system. It urges juvenile justice and public school systems to work together to effectively meet the needs of this…

  6. Differences between Public and Private Universities' Fields of Study in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabossi, Marcelo Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The literature on private higher education has identified striking differences between the public and private sectors in terms of fields of study. For example, unlike their public counterparts, private universities have traditionally specialised in the social sciences and humanities. This paper explores the university market in Argentina to see if…

  7. Collaboration between Correctional and Public School Systems Serving Juvenile Offenders: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellriegel, Kimberly L.; Yates, James R.

    1999-01-01

    This case study examined the relationship between an educational agency and a human service agency in providing services to juvenile offenders in a county-operated correctional facility as they transition to the local public school system. It urges juvenile justice and public school systems to work together to effectively meet the needs of this…

  8. Intensified tuberculosis case finding, implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy and associated factors among people living with human immunodeficiency virus at public health facilities of Harari Region, Eastern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleto, Ayele; Abate, Degu; Egata, Gudina

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Globally, the number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) particularly in sub-Saharan Africa is growing. This has been resulted in increased number of tuberculosis (TB) new cases. To control burden of TB among PLHIV, a number of collaborative TB/HIV activities were recommended. However, data about collaborative TB/HIV services in the study area is scarce. The objective of this study is to assess intensified TB case finding, implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and associated factors among PLHIV. Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study design was employed among 419 randomly selected PLHIV from public health facilities of Harari region. Systematic sampling method was used to obtain sample from each health facilities. Interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered into EpiData and analyzed by SPSS statistical software. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the presence of association between variables using odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and association was declared significant at P ≤ 0.05. Results: One hundred fifteen (75.2%) of the respondents reported that they offered screening for TB during their HIV chronic cares and 94 (29.8%) of them were found to be positive for active TB. Female sex [AOR 2.51; 95%CI (1.52, 6.14)], educated patients [AOR 0.52; 95%CI (0.21, 0.83)], CD4 count greater than 350 cells/dl3 [AOR 0.62; 95%CI(0.22,0.82)], Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) initiation [AOR 0.50; 95%CI (0.35, 0.88)] and missing dose of ART [AOR 2.57; 95%CI (1.21, 5.32)] were significantly associated with TB infection. Nearly four-fifth (78.7 %) of the study participants were provided IPT. Conclusions: Screening of TB among PLHIV and implementation of IPT in the region is lower when compared to the findings of other studies conducted in different parts of the country and needs to be improved through implementation of national and international

  9. Public health law, human rights and HIV: a work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Stevie

    2010-01-01

    Australia has been a global leader in balancing public health law, human rights and HIV. The first National HIV/AIDS Strategy launched in 1989 set the agenda for law reform. The Intergovernmental Committee on AIDS subsequently established a legal working party with one of its key tasks to formulate public health legislation that would protect public health and human rights. The NSW Public Health Act 1991 has provided the framework for managing HIV in NSW over the subsequent decades. Recent changes to criminal law in NSW and opportunities to redefine public health law may affect how HIV transmission risks are managed in the future.

  10. Back Bay Wilderness study : Public hearing analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an analysis of the public hearing that took place on May 15th, 1974 which discussed the Back Bay Wilderness. The analysis shows that there is...

  11. ACADEMIC GENEALOGIES WITH RESPECT TO NARRATIVE IN HUMAN AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AND THEIR IMPLICATION FOR PUBLIC POLICIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Taiki; Nakano, Takeshi; Hatori, Tsuyoshi

    In human and society science, narrative is regarded as an important issue to understand dynamic actions of human being and society. Therefore, narrative is also expected to be important for public policies that try to improve dynamic actions of human being and society. In th is study, we review academic genealogies with respect to narratives including western philosophy, hermeneutics, historical science, historical philosophy, literary criticism, clinical psychology and sociology, narrative psychology and folklore. Then we discuss how narrative can be pragmatically applied for public policies.

  12. Selling the Internet: A Cultural Studies Approach to Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Thomas J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the ideology of Internet public relations. Takes a cultural studies approach to modern public relations, using public relations material as representation. Presents a case study of the MassNetworks Education Partnership, which was set up in 1996 to ensure that the Internet gets into the classroom. (PA)

  13. Human Cell and Tissue Establishment Registration Public Query

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This application provides Human Cell and Tissue registration information for registered, inactive, and pre-registered firms. Query options are by Establishment Name,...

  14. Human Cell and Tissue Establishment Registration Public Query

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This application provides Human Cell and Tissue registration information for registered, inactive, and pre-registered firms. Query options are by Establishment Name,...

  15. Occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum among healthy dairy animals: an emerging public health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Hamza, Dalia A

    2016-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum in the feces of dairy animals. Fecal samples were collected from 203 apparently healthy dairy animals (50 cattle, 50 buffaloes, 52 sheep, 51 goats). Samples were cultured to recover C. botulinum while human pathogenic C. botulinum strains were identified after screening of all C. botulinum isolates for the presence of genes that encode toxins type A, B, E, F. The overall prevalence of C. botulinum was 18.7% whereas human pathogenic C. botulinum strains (only type A) were isolated from six animals at the rates of 2, 2, 5.8, and 2% for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats, respectively. High fecal carriage rates of C. botulinum among apparently healthy dairy animals especially type A alarm both veterinary and public health communities for a potential role which may be played by dairy animals in the epidemiology of such pathogen.

  16. Multisectoral studies in Public Health in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The second issue of the TCPHEE contains materials presented at the conference ‘Economics, sociology, theory and practice of public health’ conducted in Kiev on April 12-15, 2011. Conference participants were the faculty, doctoral and master students of the School of Public Health (SPH at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA. Reports were first discussed during the conference and then submitted as conference abstracts for the editorial review. The revised versions were then peer-reviewed and were subject to editorial approval again.

  17. Study on Public Interest in City Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付樯; 周立军

    2014-01-01

    Public interest is the key point of city planning, which has a significant effect on the level of city planning. This paper discussed the public interest in city planning, which is advantageous to improve the level of city planning.%公共利益是城市规划的关键点,对城市规划水平有重要作用。本文探讨了城市规划中的公共利益,有利于城市规划水平的提高。

  18. Public and Public Utility Enterprises Restructuring: Statistical and Quantitative Aid for Ensuring Human Resource Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Čudanov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a quantitative approach to restructuring public and public utility enterprises, particularly during downsizing requests. The large number of employees in the public sector can be one of the causes for economic instability at country level. That is particularly visible in the context of the euro zone crisis and economic/political instability in countries like Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Italy. Our approach is based on the statistical analysis of productivity oscillation and setting of performance standards in public and public utility enterprises based on the aforementioned productivity. Data background is given through job descriptions, organizational charts, salary reports and monthly performance reports, in most cases part of organizational information systems. It is recommended for quantitative data to be analyzed on a monthly basis, during a period of 30 or more months. Our method increases procedural fairness and accuracy, because quantitative, statistical, impartial and objective approach is applied for estimating parameters which could be related to downsizing. However, the application of this method is not limited to downsizing, as during its application in more than 20 public and public utility enterprises it was sometimes applied to increase output or reduce costs not necessarily connected to labour. Although it finally refers to downsizing, this method can provide fairer and more impartial approach than the subjective estimate of employee surplus, and its arbitral distribution within the enterprise.

  19. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes.

  20. Visual graphics for human rights, social justice, democracy and the public good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedant Nanackchand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of human rights in a democratic South Africa is constantly threatened and often waived for nefarious reasons. We contend that the use of visual graphics among incoming university visual art students provides a mode of engagement that helps to inculcate awareness of human rights, social responsibility, and the public good in South African higher education. Visual graphics, the subject of the research project which forms a key component of a Masters dissertation by one of the authors, provides an opportunity to counter a noticeable decline in the students' response and sensitivity to the freedoms entrenched in the South African Bill of Rights. The article presents a study using an action research approach in the classroom between 2005-2010, in order to inculcate awareness of human rights among participating students and deepen their understanding of social responsibility. The method used involved an introduction to specific visual art curricular intervention projects which required incoming first-year students to develop visual responses to address selected human rights violations and, in their second year, to develop their visual voice in order to promote human rights advocacy through civic engagement. The critical outcomes impact positively on the use of graphic images in the curriculum as a visual methodology to re-insert the discourse of human rights as a basic tenet of constitutional democracy in higher education.

  1. Mapping and sequencing the human genome: Science, ethics, and public policy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.D.

    1993-03-31

    Development of Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy followed the standard process of curriculum development at the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), the process is described. The production of this module was a collaborative effort between BSCS and the American Medical Association (AMA). Appendix A contains a copy of the module. Copies of reports sent to the Department of Energy (DOE) during the development process are contained in Appendix B; all reports should be on file at DOE. Appendix B also contains copies of status reports submitted to the BSCS Board of Directors.

  2. Inconsistencies in pedigree symbols in human genetics publications: A need for standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhaus, K.A.; Bennett, R.L.; Resta, R.G. [Univ. of California at Irvine, Orange, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-10

    To determine consistency in usage of pedigree symbols by genetics professionals, we reviewed pedigrees printed in 10 human genetic and medical journals and 24 medical genetics textbooks. We found no consistent symbolization for common situations such as pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, death, or test results. Inconsistency in pedigree design can create difficulties in the interpretation of family studies and detract from the pedigree`s basic strength of simple and accurate communication of medical information. We recommend the development of standard pedigree symbols, and their incorporation into genetic publications, professional genetics training programs, pedigree software programs, and genetic board examinations. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The Humanities, the Public, and a Word about Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Steven

    1980-01-01

    Notes that in English and the other humanities, good grantsmanship has its source in project directors and participants who are as devoted to ideas presented in novel formats as they are to instruction in conventional settings. (FL)

  4. Between public opinion and public policy: human embryonic stem-cell research and path-dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    In bioethics as in other areas of health policy, historical institutional factors can shape policy independently of interests or public opinion. This article finds policy divergence among countries with similar national moral views of stem cell research, and explains that divergence as the product of path-dependency.

  5. Human rabies focusing on dog ecology-A challenge to public health in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarapeli, Vindya; Awerbuch-Friedlander, Tamara

    2009-10-01

    Sri Lanka is among the top ten countries in the world that report the highest rate of human rabies deaths (2.8 per 1,000,000 in 2007) and animal bites requiring anti-rabies post-exposure treatment (PET) (755 per 100,000 in 2003). Dogs are the main reservoir and transmitters of rabies in Sri Lanka. Present study evaluates the effectiveness of dog rabies control strategies on reducing incidence of human rabies deaths. Analysis is based on data from last three decades and showed strong correlations between the interventions and human rabies incidence. GIS maps provided a method for illustrating the district distribution of human rabies deaths and dog population density and for recognizing districts at risk. Interrupting the natural transmission cycle of rabies in dogs would be a logical approach in eliminating dog rabies in Sri Lanka. However, interventions implemented so far, such as dog vaccination, elimination of stray dogs (abandoned in 2005), and animal birth control have been inadequate to do so. Better understanding of the ecology of stray and owned dogs (e.g. population density, population structure, confinement status) in the context of the human environment and culture, are needed to strategize the control activities, requiring coordination among regional Public Health and Veterinary services.

  6. The effect of terrorism on public confidence : an exploratory study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, M. S.; Baldwin, T. E.; Samsa, M. E.; Ramaprasad, A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-10-31

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the metrics it uses to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, several factors--including a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, by type of terrorist event, and as a function of time--are critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data were collected from the groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery bombing, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions that resulted in identity theft and financial losses. Our findings include the following: (a) the subjects can be classified into at least three distinct groups on the basis of their baseline outlook--optimistic, pessimistic, and unaffected; (b) the subjects make discriminations in their interpretations of an event on the basis of the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) the recovery of confidence after a terrorist event has an incubation period and typically does not return to its initial level in the long-term; (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence differ between the optimists and the pessimists; and (e) individuals are able to associate a monetary value with a loss or gain in confidence, and the value associated with a loss is greater than the value associated with a gain. These findings illustrate the importance the public places in their confidence in government

  7. Pseudo-quantities, New Public Management and Human Judgement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven-Eric Liedman

    2012-10-01

    and conscientious verbal evaluation. The term pseudo-quantity is new, but the phenomenon is well known to researchers and has become the subject of a rapidly growing stream of literature.1 The new term would primarily be intended to provide insight into the on-going mechanisms and processes that underlie this phenomenon. Furthermore, this term has a critical potential that is urgently needed at a time when many individuals erroneously believe that pseudoquantities can be used to gain both time and perspective. In the first part of the article, I will present the new concept and its background in the concepts of quality and quantity. The importance of this term is pertinent to the founding of New Public Management (NPM in the public sector. NPM will be treated in the following section. I will specifically highlight how this process influences education and research. In the conclusion, I summarise my argument and provide insight regarding a possible alternative.

  8. Chimeras, moral status, and public policy: implications of the abortion debate for public policy on human/nonhuman chimera research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiffer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in creating chimeras by transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into animals early in development. One concern is that such research could confer upon an animal the moral status of a normal human adult but then impermissibly fail to accord it the protections it merits in virtue of its enhanced moral status. Understanding the public policy implications of this ethical conclusion, though, is complicated by the fact that claims about moral status cannot play an unfettered role in public policy. Arguments like those employed in the abortion debate for the conclusion that abortion should be legally permissible even if abortion is not morally permissible also support, to a more limited degree, a liberal policy on hESC research involving the creation of chimeras.

  9. Managing IT Projects in Public Companies: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouras, A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of its public sector modernization effort, a North African government has put a lot of effort and allocated significant budgets since 1997 to modernize one of its main public sector companies. Consequently, this company, that mainly offers postal services, initiated many IT-based projects to computerize all paper-based ongoing services offered through its branches and to present new products to customers. This company was aiming to improve service quality and to diversify the range of its services. However, some of these IT-based projects inevitably faced problems. Some projects were either not completed successfully, cancelled, over-budget or taking more time than scheduled. As a result, many employees and customers of this company were dissatisfied and complained about bad planning, slowness and significant disruptions in these projects, an event that affected adversely the quality of service. This study aims at determining the causes of these project disruptions, failures or delays. To achieve this aim, 30 experienced project developers and engineers working in that company’s IT department volunteered to respond to a detailed questionnaire specifically developed for this purpose. The questionnaire included questions about project vision clarity, time/cost management, project quality assurance, risk management and human resources management. Results show that the main reasons for disruptions, failure or delays in IT projects are lack of business plan and poor documentation during and after finishing projects, lack of clear quality assurance criteria, standards and reviews, and poor project risk management practices. Ramifications of such results in terms of improving IT project management practices in the public service sector are finally presented.

  10. Human resource management and public organizational performance: educational outcomes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Torenvlied, René; Akkerman, Agnes; Meier, Kenneth J.; Burke, Ronald J.; Noblet, Andrew J.; Cooper, Carly L.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years researchers have focused systematically on whether public management matters for the performance of public organizations. Management of organizations’ human resources (HR) is one such managerial function, and a growing literature argues for its importance in delivering results. In

  11. Democratizing Human Genome Project Information: A Model Program for Education, Information and Debate in Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Miriam

    The "Mapping the Human Genome" project demonstrated that librarians can help whomever they serve in accessing information resources in the areas of biological and health information, whether it is the scientists who are developing the information or a member of the public who is using the information. Public libraries can guide library…

  12. The European Court of Human Rights, Secular Education and Public Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, James; Holdsworth, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Since 9/11 the European Court of Human Rights (the European Court) has raised anew the question of the relationship between religion and public education. In its reasoning, the European Court has had to consider competing normative accounts of the secular, either to accept or deny claims to religious liberty within Europe's public education…

  13. Governing Difficult Knowledge: The Canadian Museum for Human Rights and Its Publics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) comes to invoke, realize, and mediate museum publics. The author writes that she is interested in how the museum's architecture, rhetoric, and governance framings imagine, and engage with the public. As Canada's newest national museum and the first to be built outside of the…

  14. Renewing the Study of Public Sector Unions in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Camfield

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A renewal of the study of public sector unionism in Canada is long overdue. This article explains why public sector unions deserve more attention from researchers than they have received of late and proposes that studies of public sector unions would benefit from adopting a new theoretical framework that conceptualizes contemporary unions as not only labour relations institutions but also as particular kinds of working-class movement organizations within a historically-specific class formation. It also identifies two obstacles to the production of accounts of contemporary public sector unions from this perspective.

  15. Engaging wider publics with studying and protecting the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauen, Cornelia E.

    2015-04-01

    The ocean is dying. The vast scientific literature diagnoses massive reductions in the biomass of fish and invertebrates from overfishing, increasing destruction of coral ecosystems in the tropics from climate change, extensive dead zones from eutrophication and collapse of marine bird populations from ingesting plastic. Even though Darwin suspected already The scale is becoming apparent only from meta-analyses at regional or even global scales as individual studies tend to focus on one fishery or one type of organisms or geographic location. In combination with deep rooted perceptions of the vastness of the ocean the changes are difficult to comprehend for specialists and the general public alike. Even though more than half of humanity is estimated to live in coastal zones as defined by some, urbanisation is removing about half from regular, more direct exposure. Yet, there is much still to be explored, not only in the deep, little studied, parts. The ocean exercises great fascination on many people heightened since the period of discovery and the mystery of far-flung places, but the days, when Darwin's research results were regularly discussed in public spaces are gone. Rachel Carson's prize-winning and best selling book "The Sea Around Us", some serialised chapters in magazines and condensations in "Reader's Digest" transported the poetic rendering of science again to a wider public. But compared to the diversity of scientific inquiry about the ocean and importance for life-support system earth there is much room for engaging ocean science in the broad sense with larger and diverse publics. Developing new narratives rooted in the best available sciences is among the most promising modes of connecting different areas of scientific inquiry and non-specialists alike. We know at latest since Poincaré's famous dictum that "the facts don't speak". However, contextualised information can capture the imagination of the many and thus also reveal unexpected connections

  16. Simian virus 40, poliovirus vaccines, and human cancer: research progress versus media and public interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butel, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    From 1955 through early 1963, millions of people were inadvertently exposed to simian virus 40 (SV40) as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines; the virus had been present in the monkey kidney cultures used to prepare the vaccines and had escaped detection. SV40 was discovered in 1960 and subsequently eliminated from poliovirus vaccines. This article reviews current knowledge about SV40 and considers public responses to reports in the media. SV40 is a potent tumour virus with broad tissue tropism that induces tumours in rodents and transforms cultured cells from many species. It is also an important laboratory model for basic studies of molecular processes in eukaryotic cells and mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. SV40 neutralizing antibodies have been detected in individuals not exposed to contaminated poliovirus vaccines. There have been many reports of detection of SV40 DNA in human tumours, especially mesotheliomas, brain tumours and osteosarcomas; and DNA sequence analyses have ruled out the possibility that the viral DNA in tumours was due to laboratory contamination or that the virus had been misidentified. However, additional studies are necessary to prove that SV40 is the cause of certain human cancers. A recently published review article evaluated the status of the field and received much media attention. The public response emphasized that there is great interest in the possibility of health risks today from vaccinations received in the past.

  17. Exodus from Pandemonium: Human Abuse and Reformation of Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Burton

    As a result of personal observations of state institutions for the mentally handicapped, the author describes the tragic and inhuman conditions with vivid examples of specific patients and incidents. The account further explores the entire concept of human abuse which is propagated both by social institutions (such as the prison system) and by…

  18. Public Attitudes toward Human Genetic Manipulation: A Revitalization of Eugenics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veglia, Geremia; And Others

    The purpose of this investigation was to measure the attitudes of college students across the United States concerning the possible use of genetic manipulation, especially in terms of enhancing human physical and intellectual characteristics. The instrument used was divided into three general areas of inquiry: the first, designed to measure the…

  19. Interactive human behavior analysis in open or public spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Odobez, J.M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, efforts in surveillance and open space analysis have focused on traditional computer vision problems like scene modeling or object detection and tracking. Research on human behavior recognition have tended to work on predefined simple activities such as running, jumping or left lu

  20. Homosexuality and the human genome project: private and public choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard, D L

    1999-01-01

    Recent scientific research which offers evidence of genetic and biologic influence in homosexuality has created serious concerns. The intent of this article is to offer suggestions based in principles of bioethics in which perceived negative outcomes may be diminished and the positive qualities of the research enhanced. For a portion of the general population the concerns expressed in this article could be alleviated through public discussion and exposure to the findings and theories of the academic and scientific communities. For another portion of the population, however, additional safeguards against misuse of screening tests and somatic cell interventions may be advisable through efforts initiated by researchers themselves, general public policies, and additional medical policies. While these efforts are recommended as short term goals for the separate scientific and social paradigms of homosexuality, it is proposed that an equally important and related debate involves the subjects of disease, normality and the value of diversity. It is suggested that while it is imperative that the behavioral and biological sciences recognize the limitations of their separate approaches, the reductionist approach itself limits our understanding of what essentially are questions of attraction and relationships. In conclusion, homosexuality should be understood from the perspective of autonomy as every person's right to experience a full and meaningful life.

  1. Public Participation: Lessons from the Case Study Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beierle, Thomas C.; Cayford, Jerry [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Public participation has received increasing attention in environmental policy making world wide. Yet research has been inadequate to answer fundamental questions about how successful past programs have been, what factors lead to success, and where efforts to improve public involvement should focus. To address these questions, we examine the case study record of public participation efforts in the United States over the last 30 years. We evaluate the success of numerous examples of public participation in environmental decision making and identify the factors that lead to success. The paper deals with a number of themes, including: The extent to which participation can incorporate public values into decision making, improve the substantive quality of decisions, reduce conflict, increase trust in institutions, and educate and inform the public; What can be expected from different approaches to public participation, such as public meetings, advisory committees, and mediation; The relative importance of the participatory process vs. the context in which participation takes place; Procedural features of particular importance; and The relationship between participation and implementation. The paper provides general results that can be used to guide the improvement of public participation programs, support assessment of innovative methods, and advance the theoretical understanding of public participation.

  2. Ecological validity and the study of publics: The case for organic public engagement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Pat J

    2014-01-01

    This essay argues for a method of public engagement grounded in the criteria of ecological validity. Motivated by what Hammersly called the responsibility that comes with intellectual authority: "to seek, as far as possible, to ensure the validity of their conclusions and to participate in rational debate about those conclusions" (1993: 29), organic public engagement follows the empirical turn in citizenship theory and in rhetorical studies of actually existing publics. Rather than shaping citizens into either the compliant subjects of the cynical view or the deliberatively disciplined subjects of the idealist view, organic public engagement instead takes Asen's advice that "we should ask: how do people enact citizenship?" (2004: 191). In short, organic engagement methods engage publics in the places where they already exist and through those discourses and social practices by which they enact their status as publics. Such engagements can generate practical middle-range theories that facilitate future actions and decisions that are attentive to the local ecologies of diverse publics.

  3. Visual Graphics for Human Rights, Social Justice, Democracy and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanackchand, Vedant; Berman, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The value of human rights in a democratic South Africa is constantly threatened and often waived for nefarious reasons. We contend that the use of visual graphics among incoming university visual art students provides a mode of engagement that helps to inculcate awareness of human rights, social responsibility, and the public good in South African…

  4. Confounding in publications of observational intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Hoes, Arno W.; Hak, Eelko

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature search in Medline to assess the proportion of observational intervention studies appreciating confounding bias in peer-reviewed medical literature from 1985 through 2005. This study shows only 9% of all papers on observational intervention studies published in pe

  5. Public Investments, Human Capital, and Political Stability: The Triptych of Economic Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kostakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the effects of fiscal policy on economic growth in a sample of 96 countries from 1990 to 2010. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS and Extreme Bound Analysis are mainly estimated in order to investigate whether public investments, human capital, and political stability affect growth controlling for initial output and human capital levels. Furthermore, in this empirical research four subsets of independent variables were used: (a demographic factors, (b political determinants, (c region variables, and (d variables regarding macroeconomic policy. Empirical results suggest that there is an important difference in the impact of public and private sector investments on the growth of per capita income. Moreover, political indicators such as corruption control, rule of law, and government effectiveness have a high impact on economic growth. Demographic factors, including fertility rate and mortality growth, as well as several macroeconomic variables, like inflation rate index and government consumption, were estimated to be statistically significant factors of economic performance. Fiscal volatility may also be a new possible channel of macroeconomic instability that leads to lower growth. Policy implications of the findings are discussed in detail.

  6. Studying values in public policy: comparing five approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuisen, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    An aura of vagueness sticks to the term values when used in public policy research. This paper surveys five recent empirical approaches to integrate values more in our analysis of public policy. We discuss how these approaches tackle the dilemmas generally associated with studying values, offering a

  7. Teaching the Public Relations Case Studies/Campaigns Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, Laura Perkins

    The public relations case studies/campaigns class entails teaching students how to die and then come back to life. As students must learn to take a critical look at complex public and social issues, teachers should create an environment in which the students feel comfortable with the process of psychological reconstruction. Students must be taught…

  8. Differential Availability and Utilization of Agricultural Publications (Haringhata Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, P. K.

    1979-01-01

    A study of rural Indian villages was undertaken to determine the availability of agricultural publications and the extent of use by farmers. Low utilization was related to illiteracy, inaccessibility of villages, and lack of government and university extension activity. Recommendations included increasing the publication and distribution of farm…

  9. Research Staff and Public Engagement: A UK Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah R.

    2013-01-01

    Public engagement plays an important role in the contemporary UK academy, and is promoted through initiatives such as Beacons of Public Engagement and research grant "Pathways to Impact". Relatively little is known, however, about academic experiences of such engagement activities. This study focuses on one staff group, contract…

  10. Student Perceptions of Public Accounting Internships: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Brenda E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation research was to gather data about how students felt about their public accounting internships and to understand how their internship experiences affected their feelings toward public accounting and their career paths. One small, private, Midwest business college was selected for this case study research. Nine…

  11. Public health preparedness in Alberta: a systems-level study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noseworthy Tom

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is being funded under the Health Research Fund, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. Methods/Design We use an embedded, multiple-case study design, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods to measure empirically the degree of inter-organizational coordination existing among public health agencies in Alberta, Canada. We situate our measures of inter-organizational network ties within a systems-level framework to assess the relative influence of inter-organizational ties, individual organizational attributes, and institutional environmental features on public health preparedness. The relative contribution of each component is examined for two potential public health threats: pandemic influenza and West Nile virus. Discussion The organizational dimensions of public health preparedness depend on a complex mix of individual organizational characteristics, inter-agency relationships, and institutional environmental factors. Our study is designed to discriminate among these different system components and assess the independent influence of each on the other, as well as the overall level of public health preparedness in Alberta. While all agree that competent organizations and functioning networks are important components of public health preparedness, this study is one of the first to use formal network analysis to study the role of inter-agency networks in the development of prepared public health systems.

  12. Can humanization theory contribute to the philosophical debate in public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, A

    2012-05-01

    This paper will explore the humanization value framework for research, policy and practice with regard to its relevance for public health, specifically the reduction of inequities in health. This proposed framework introduces humanizing values to influence research, policy and practice. The framework is articulated through eight specific constituents of what it is to be human. These dimensions are articulated as humanizing and dehumanizing dimensions that have the potential to guide both research and practice. The paper will then go on to consider these dimensions in relation to the emergent qualities of the potential 'fifth-wave' of public health intervention. The humanization dimensions outlined in this paper were presented as emerging from Husserl's notion of lifeworld, Heidegger's contemplations about human freedom and being with others, and Merleau-Ponty`s ideas about body subject and body object. Husserl's ideas about the dimensions that make up 'lifeworld', such as embodiment, temporality and spatiality, underpin the suggested dimensions of what it is to be human. They are proposed in the paper as together informing a value base for considering the potentially humanizing and dehumanizing elements in systems and interactions. It is then proposed that such a framework is useful when considering methods in public health, particularly in relation to developing new knowledge of what is both humanizing and dehumanizing within research and practice.

  13. The Place of Human Resource Management Department in Private and Public Sector Organisations in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Stankevičienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing strategic significance of the human capital develops the demand of new human resource management functions, which requires constructive participation of the human resource department in the process of formation and implementation of the organisational strategy. The extent to which a human resource department is given a possibility to implement their strategic role can be explained by the place of the department within the organizational structure. The aim of the article is to identify the place human resource departments hold in private and public sector organisations in Lithuania: their role, status and functions in strategic management of organisations. To achieve this aim the survey of human resource department managers and specialists of 160 private sector and 152 public sector organisations in Lithuania was conducted. Results of the survey also aimed to demonstrate the importance of performed functions of human resource departments at present and in perspective. The research revealed that despite of recognised importance of human resource management in both private and public sector organizations of Lithuania, human resource departments remain on the level of service rather than strategic units.

  14. Climate change and human health: impacts, vulnerability and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, A; Kovats, R S; Campbell-Lendrum, D; Corvalan, C

    2006-07-01

    It is now widely accepted that climate change is occurring as a result of the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere arising from the combustion of fossil fuels. Climate change may affect health through a range of pathways, for example as a result of increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, reduction in cold related deaths, increased floods and droughts, changes in the distribution of vector-borne diseases and effects on the risk of disasters and malnutrition. The overall balance of effects on health is likely to be negative and populations in low-income countries are likely to be particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects. The experience of the 2003 heat wave in Europe shows that high-income countries may also be adversely affected. Adaptation to climate change requires public health strategies and improved surveillance. Mitigation of climate change by reducing the use of fossil fuels and increasing a number of uses of the renewable energy technologies should improve health in the near-term by reducing exposure to air pollution.

  15. LEADERSHIP STYLES: A STUDY OF AUSTRALIAN AND THAI PUBLIC SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattavud Pimpa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is deeply attached to culture. This study compares leadership styles in Thai and Australian public sectors. The data were collected from staff in public sector settings in Australia and Thailand. The results confirm four leadership styles that suit the public sector culture in both countries: communication-oriented, strategic thinking and planning, relationship building, and conflict management. In the Thai public sector system, leadership that focuses on goal orientation is ranked most highly: Australian public sector organisations focus on leadership that fosters equity among organisational members, creates a supportive environment in the workplace, and facilitates participation. It is evident from this study that significant distinctions between the organisational cultures of Thailand and Australia are matched by marked dissimilarities of preferred leadership styles. Thus, an understanding of local organisational culture is important for effective leadership at all levels.

  16. Vision for a Global Registry of Anticipated Public Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C.K.; Frank, John; Mindell, Jennifer S.; Orlova, Anna; Lin, Vivian; Vaillancourt, Alain D.M.G.; Puska, Pekka; Pang, Tikki; Skinner, Harvey A.; Marsh, Marsha; Mokdad, Ali H.; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Lindner, M. Cristina; Sherman, Gregory; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Green, Lawrence W.; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Sainsbury, Peter; Yan, Yongping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zevallos, Juan C.; Ho, Suzanne C.; de Salazar, Ligia M.

    2007-01-01

    In public health, the generation, management, and transfer of knowledge all need major improvement. Problems in generating knowledge include an imbalance in research funding, publication bias, unnecessary studies, adherence to fashion, and undue interest in novel and immediate issues. Impaired generation of knowledge, combined with a dated and inadequate process for managing knowledge and an inefficient system for transferring knowledge, mean a distorted body of evidence available for decisionmaking in public health. This article hopes to stimulate discussion by proposing a Global Registry of Anticipated Public Health Studies. This prospective, comprehensive system for tracking research in public health could help enhance collaboration and improve efficiency. Practical problems must be discussed before such a vision can be further developed. PMID:17413073

  17. PUBLIC POLITICS AS A WAY TO CONCRETE REALIZATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE TREATMENT TO REFUGEES IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Freiberger Benkendorf Peixer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates through the Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988, according to the international pacts which Brazil has subscribed, taking as reference the human dignity principle, if the Brazilian public politics are design to foreigners and in what extension. It aims to understand the concept of public politics and who are their recipients, as well the treatment given to immigrants, independently if they are refugees or not. From the forced migration problem, it seeks to raise some hypothesis of public politics achievement directed to human promotion, without ethnics, social classes and nationality distinction. Theme of fundamental importance in a world where prevails a very heavy transit of people of many different nationalities to many countries, it is indispensable to understands that the individual and collective rights are assured to everyone present in Brazil, therefore, to all Brazilians, foreigners and stateless, according to article number 6 of 1988 Brazilian Federal Constitution.

  18. 76 FR 23825 - Study Methodologies for Diagnostics in the Postmarket Setting; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Study Methodologies for Diagnostics in the Postmarket... Diagnostics in the Postmarket Setting.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to provide a forum for... epidemiology, statistics, diagnostics, and biomedical research to advance the methodologies for diagnostics...

  19. PERFORMANCE PREMISES FOR HUMAN RESOURCES FROM PUBLIC HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia-Luisa PUPĂZĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving the performance of health sector human resources is a goal pursued by all developed or developing countries. However, the lack of human resources planning and lack of clear and transparent human resources policies may lead to a crisis in this area. Human resource planning should be a priority in terms of health policies. In Romania, the lack of a planning concept and the lack of a policy on human resources has led to the actual context, with a human resources crisis of public health organizations. The role that human resources play in the health care system is indisputable. Essential to achieve quality performance in health care is human resources management. To overcome the human resources crisis that public health organizations in Romania is facing , specialists in the field have made several key recommendations: development of a coherent policy formation, development and allocation of human resources in health, increasing the number of medical staff and opportunities of professional career development in the medical field. Health system reform involves changing some aspects of employment, working conditions, degree of decentralization of management, skills, salary system and staff motivation.

  20. Virtual Reality Therapy: case study of fear of public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Max M; Schoeneman, Curt M; Mathis, James R

    2002-01-01

    The major goal of this research case study was to investigate the effectiveness of Virtual Reality Therapy (VRT) in the treatment of the fear of public speaking. A twenty-eight-year-old Caucasian male was selected from questionnaires distributed to a class of undergraduate students enrolled at Kennesaw State University. Two assessment measures were used in this study. The first measure used was the Attitude Towards Public Speaking (ATPS) Questionnaire. The second measure used was the eleven-point Subjective Units of Disturbance (SUD) scale. These measurements assessed the anxiety, avoidance, attitudes and disturbance associated with the subject's fear of public speaking before and after each VRT treatment session. This case study of public speaking fear indicates that VRT may be used as an effective treatment method for reducing self-reported anxiety.

  1. Costs and efficacy of public health interventions to reduce aflatoxin–induced human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlangwiset, Pornsri; Wu, Felicia

    2010-01-01

    This study reviews available information on the economics and efficacy of aflatoxin risk-reduction interventions, and provides an approach for analysis of the cost-effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce aflatoxin-induced human disease. Many strategies have been developed to reduce aflatoxin or its adverse effects in the body. However, a question that has been under-addressed is how likely these strategies will be adopted in the countries that need them most to improve public health. This study evaluates two aspects crucial to adoption of new technologies and methods: the costs and the efficacy of different strategies. First, we describe and categorize different aflatoxin risk-reduction strategies into preharvest, postharvest, dietary, and clinical settings. Then we compile and discuss relevant data on the costs and efficacy of each strategy, in reducing either aflatoxin in food or its metabolites in the body. In addition, we describe which crops are affected by each intervention, who is likely to pay for the control strategy, and who is likely to benefit. A framework is described for how to evaluate cost-effectiveness of strategies according to World Health Organization standards. Finally, we discuss which strategies are likely to be cost-effective and helpful under different conditions worldwide of regulations, local produce and soil ecology, and potential health emergencies. PMID:20419532

  2. The public's belief in climate change and its human cause are increasing over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milfont, Taciano L; Wilson, Marc S; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-01-01

    Polls examining public opinion on the subject of climate change are now commonplace, and one-off public opinion polls provide a snapshot of citizen's opinions that can inform policy and communication strategies. However, cross-sectional polls do not track opinions over time, thus making it impossible to ascertain whether key climate change beliefs held by the same group of individuals are changing or not. Here we examine the extent to which individual's level of agreement with two key beliefs ("climate change is real" and "climate change is caused by humans") remain stable or increase/decrease over a six-year period in New Zealand using latent growth curve modelling (n = 10,436). Data were drawn from the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study, a probabilistic national panel study, and indicated that levels of agreement to both beliefs have steadily increased over the 2009-2015 period. Given that climate change beliefs and concerns are key predictors of climate change action, our findings suggest that a combination of targeted endeavors, as well as serendipitous events, may successfully convey the emergency of the issue.

  3. Mapping Diversity of Publication Patterns in the Social Sciences and Humanities: An Approach Making Use of Fuzzy Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik T. Verleysen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a method for systematically mapping diversity of publication patterns at the author level in the social sciences and humanities in terms of publication type, publication language and co-authorship. Design/methodology/approach: In a follow-up to the hard partitioning clustering by Verleysen and Weeren in 2016, we now propose the complementary use of fuzzy cluster analysis, making use of a membership coefficient to study gradual differences between publication styles among authors within a scholarly discipline. The analysis of the probability density function of the membership coefficient allows to assess the distribution of publication styles within and between disciplines. Findings: As an illustration we analyze 1,828 productive authors affiliated in Flanders, Belgium. Whereas a hard partitioning previously identified two broad publication styles, an international one vs. a domestic one, fuzzy analysis now shows gradual differences among authors. Internal diversity also varies across disciplines and can be explained by researchers' specialization and dissemination strategies. Research limitations: The dataset used is limited to one country for the years 2000-2011; a cognitive classification of authors may yield a different result from the affiliation-based classification used here. Practical implications: Our method is applicable to other bibliometric and research evaluation contexts, especially for the social sciences and humanities in non-Anglophone countries. Originality/value: The method proposed is a novel application of cluster analysis to the field of bibliometrics. Applied to publication patterns at the author level in the social sciences and humanities, for the first time it systematically documents intra-disciplinary diversity.

  4. Assessing the Educational Needs of Tomorrow's "Ideal" Corporate Communicators: Should Public Relations and Human Resource Development Programs Form a "Strategic" Merger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Steven R.; And Others

    A study assessed the specific courses and educational needs professionals considered important in the proper undergraduate preparation of future public relations practitioners. A survey questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 1,000 human resource managers and public relations practitioners from the national membership of two professional…

  5. Organizational change for services integration in public human service organizations: experiences in seven counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Thomas; Patti, Rino; Daly, Donna; Tucker-Tatlow, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This is a study of organizational change strategies employed in seven county human service agencies to improve the coordination of services through the structural integration of previously free standing organizations or the development of voluntary interagency collaborative service delivery systems. The central question involves the identification of organizational change tactics which contributed to the success of the organizational change initiatives. The literature on organizational change is reviewed, with particular attention to a framework developed by Fernandez and Rainey based on their extensive review and synthesis of the research on successful change strategies in the public and business sectors. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from over 250 individuals and from agency documents. Findings are compared with the success factors identified by Fernandez and Rainey, and refinements to their propositions are suggested. More precise methods for measuring successful and unsuccessful change initiatives are suggested. Implications for practice and research are presented.

  6. Texas Public School Attrition Study, 2013-14. IDRA Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roy L.; Montes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Since 1986, Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA) has conducted an annual attrition study to track the number and percent of students in Texas who are lost from public secondary school enrollment prior to graduation. The study builds on the series of studies that began when IDRA conducted the first comprehensive study of school…

  7. How social learning adds up to a culture: from birdsong to human public opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Feher, Olga; Fimiarz, Daniel; Conley, Dalton

    2017-01-01

    Distributed social learning may occur at many temporal and spatial scales, but it rarely adds up to a stable culture. Cultures vary in stability and diversity (polymorphism), ranging from chaotic or drifting cultures, through cumulative polymorphic cultures, to stable monolithic cultures with high conformity levels. What features can sustain polymorphism, preventing cultures from collapsing into either chaotic or highly conforming states? We investigate this question by integrating studies across two quite separate disciplines: the emergence of song cultures in birds, and the spread of public opinion and social conventions in humans. In songbirds, the learning process has been studied in great detail, while in human studies the structure of social networks has been experimentally manipulated on large scales. In both cases, the manner in which communication signals are compressed and filtered - either during learning or while traveling through the social network - can affect culture polymorphism and stability. We suggest a simple mechanism of a shifting balance between converging and diverging social forces to explain these effects. Understanding social forces that shape cultural evolution might be useful for designing agile communication systems, which are stable and polymorphic enough to promote gradual changes in institutional behavior.

  8. Leveraging human capital to reduce maternal mortality in India: enhanced public health system or public-private partnership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhivanan Purnima

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing countries are currently struggling to achieve the Millennium Development Goal Five of reducing maternal mortality by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. Many health systems are facing acute shortages of health workers needed to provide improved prenatal care, skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric services – interventions crucial to reducing maternal death. The World Health Organization estimates a current deficit of almost 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Complicating matters further, health workforces are typically concentrated in large cities, while maternal mortality is generally higher in rural areas. Additionally, health care systems are faced with shortages of specialists such as anaesthesiologists, surgeons and obstetricians; a maldistribution of health care infrastructure; and imbalances between the public and private health care sectors. Increasingly, policy-makers have been turning to human resource strategies to cope with staff shortages. These include enhancement of existing work roles; substitution of one type of worker for another; delegation of functions up or down the traditional role ladder; innovation in designing new jobs;transfer or relocation of particular roles or services from one health care sector to another. Innovations have been funded through state investment, public-private partnerships and collaborations with nongovernmental organizations and quasi-governmental organizations such as the World Bank. This paper focuses on how two large health systems in India – Gujarat and Tamil Nadu – have successfully applied human resources strategies in uniquely different contexts to the challenges of achieving Millennium Development Goal Five.

  9. More than a Mural: The Intersection of Public Art, Immigrant Youth, and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa A. Gutiérrez-Vicario

    2016-02-01

    • In efforts for communities to construct more democratic public spaces, one often finds that these spaces manifest themselves as murals or similar forms of public art. What are more creative ways of building a more democratic form of community art? What are more creative ways for young immigrant youth to develop a sense of belonging through the arts?   Overall, this proposal seeks to explore the intersection between public art, human rights education/global competency, and immigrant youth empowerment. The proposal will discuss the involvement of immigrant youth, predominately from Latin America, in various art projects, as they explore their own sense of identity and belonging in New York City.

  10. Human Dignity and the Commercial Appropriation of Personality: Towards a Cosmopolitan Consensus in Publicity Rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Weber

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the commercial appropriation of human personality and its regulation in different legal systems. Where accepted, so called “publicity rights” allow for the exclusive commercial exercise of a persona’s publicity values. A tradable worth can be found in many personal characteristics such as voice, signature or pseudonym. Predominantly, however, it accrues to one’s name and likeness. It is argued that such potential rights are inherent in every human being.

  11. A Synergistic Approach to Human Rights and Public Health Ethics: Effective or a Source of Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz-Wood, Madeleine

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerns over the growing disparities in health and wealth between members of society incited Stephanie Nixon and Lisa Forman, in their 2008 article Exploring synergies between human rights and public health ethics: A whole greater than the sum of its parts, to propose that the principles of human rights and public health ethics should be used in combination to develop norms for health action. This commentary reflects on the benefits as well as the difficulties that could arise from taking such an approach.

  12. Study of Fungal Contamination of Indoor Public Swimming Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nanbakhsh

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are found in different environments with variable distribution patterns depending on various factors. The aim of this study was determination of fungal contaminants in public swimming pools in Uromia, Iran. The fungal contaminations of four indoor swimming pools were studied by using membrane filtration and swab sampling method. Samples were collected by a manual plastic pump, in a 200 ml sterilized bottle. All samples were collected within 2 hours and then transferred to the laboratory. A total of 384 samples including water and environmental surfaces were collected and tested for the presence of fungi in different seasons within one year. In addition to the above information, some physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, residual chlorine, pH, turbidity of water and the number of swimmers were studied. Findings indicated that, the average temperature, pH, residual chlorine and turbidity of water in the swimming pools within one year were: 29.9°C, 8.1, 0.6 ppm and 0.8 NTU respectively. The most common fungi recovered were as follows: Asepergillus Spp. 56.25%, Candida spp. 22.9%, Rhizopus spp. 4.16 %, other filamentous fungi 16.6% and other yeast species 2.8%. The fungi such as Alternaria, Cladosporium, Philophora and Trichophyton mentagrophytis were isolated from dressing room, bathing room and other places out of pools. According to these results and previous studies on pools, it has been indicated that contamination by fungi in the pools is not significant in water and environment. Presence of dermatophytic fungus from dressing room is probably due to human contact.

  13. Milestones: A Directory of Human Engineering Laboratories Publications, 1953 - 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-04-01

    the Performance of Men in a Temperate Environment TM 11-64, Uncl. S. A. Hlicks This investigacion is the eighth in a series designed to determine...I’s vcio logica I e ;xmis SuA Iy I I M 18 -03. hIc 1. K.* R. Laugtw ry, R. W. Ikiucr Thils Study oftilt’ )sycholoIgiCal Cffct-Ct of wt’allols follotwed

  14. Key points for developing an international declaration on nursing, human rights, human genetics and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G; Rorty, M V

    2001-05-01

    Human rights legislation pertaining to applications of human genetic science is still lacking at an international level. Three international human rights documents now serve as guidelines for countries wishing to develop such legislation. These were drafted and adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the Human Genome Organization, and the Council of Europe. It is critically important that the international nursing community makes known its philosophy and practice-based knowledge relating to ethics and human rights, and contributes to the globalization of genetics. Nurses have particular expertise because they serve in a unique role at grass roots level to mediate between genetic science and its application to public health policies and medical interventions. As a result, nurses worldwide need to focus a constant eye on human rights ideals and interpret these within social, cultural, economic and political contexts at national and local levels. The purpose of this article is to clarify and legitimate the need for an international declaration on nursing, human rights, human genetics and public health policy. Because nurses around the world are the professional workforce by which genetic health care services and genetic research protocols will be delivered in the twenty-first century, members of the discipline of nursing need to think globally while acting locally. Above all other disciplines involved in genetics, nursing is in a good position to articulate an expanded theory of ethics beyond the principled approach of biomedical ethics. Nursing is sensitive to cultural diversity and community values; it is sympathetic to and can introduce an ethic of caring and relational ethics that listen to and accommodate the needs of local people and their requirements for public health.

  15. A STUDY OF SYMBOLIC RELATIONS IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREI BALAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an anthropological, exploratory study of the microsocial world of public transport. Our research focuses on the symbolic relations that are being established (verbally or nonverbally between urban transport travellers that do not know each other and the consequences these relations create. Modern urban configuration forces large numbers of individuals to share public space every day. When this space becomes restrictive, symbolic relations and interpersonal behaviors such as territoriality and personal space management become clearer. Due to overcrowding, public transport is the scene of one of the most restrictive public spaces in a city. The challenge was to observe and interpret daily, casual behaviors through a sociological and psychological scheme, following the methodological tradition established by Erving Goffman and the other symbolic interactionists. Finally, our study generates a number of hypotheses and explanatory models for common practices and behaviors in trams and metros regarded from a symbolic perspective.

  16. A STUDY OF SYMBOLIC RELATIONS IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei B LAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an anthropological, exploratory study of the microsocial world of public transport. Our research focuses on the symbolic relations that are being established (verbally or nonverbally between urban transport travellers that do not know each other and the consequences these relations create. Modern urban configuration forces large numbers of individuals to share public space every day. When this space becomes restrictive, symbolic relations and interpersonal behaviors such as territoriality and personal space management become clearer. Due to overcrowding, public transport is the scene of one of the most restrictive public spaces in a city. The challenge was to observe and interpret daily, casual behaviors through a sociological and psychological scheme, following the methodological tradition established by Erving Goffman and the other symbolic interactionists. Finally, our study generates a number of hypotheses and explanatory models for common practices and behaviors in trams and metros regarded from a symbolic perspective.

  17. Nationwide study of publication misrepresentation in applicants to residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, Lara; Schwartz, Joseph S; Coupland, Sarah; Young, Meredith; Nguyen, Lily H P

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of research publication misrepresentation amongst Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS) applicants to a single surgical subspecialty residency as a potential means of assessing professional behaviour. The authors reviewed CaRMS application forms to Canadian otolaryngology residency programmes over a 3-year period (2006-2008) for peer-reviewed publications reported as 'published', 'accepted' and 'in press'. Citations were verified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar and electronic journals. Misrepresentation was defined as any of: (i) falsely claimed authorship of an existing article; (ii) claimed authorship of a non-existing article, and (iii) improper ordering of authorship. Outcomes included descriptive statistics, as well as sub-analyses pertaining to age, gender, affiliated medical school and academic degree, and number of publications per applicant. A total of 427 peer-reviewed publications were reported by 124 of 182 applicants (68% of applicants reported at least one publication). Of the 385 verifiable publications, 47 (12% of articles) were misrepresented by 29 applicants (23% of applicants claiming publication) self-reporting at least one publication. Age, gender, location of medical training, prior academic degree and number of citations per applicant did not relate to likelihood of misrepresentation (p > 0.05). This study documents the nationwide prevalence of publication misrepresentation amongst applicants to Canadian otolaryngology residency programmes. The high rate of misrepresentation aligns with data reported in the literature and highlights the need to institute measures to dissuade graduates from this form of unprofessional behaviour. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Public Benefits of Higher Education: Examining the Relationship Between State Spending on Higher Education and the Formation of Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, Matthew Craig

    2008-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature on the economic value of higher education by examining the extent to which a set of independent variables, including two measures of state spending on higher education predict the formation of human capital. The findings suggest that, in most states, increases in state spending per full-time equivalent enrollment in public higher education predict decreases in the formation of human capital, while increases in state spending per capita on public and pr...

  19. Motion Sickness: A Study of Its Effects on Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Pierre J. Gaudreault Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/87D- 2 0 TO STEC TEo VN;FB 1 0 1988...ENG/87D-20 MOTION SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Pierre J. Gaudreault Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/87D-20 Approved for public...SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology

  20. Procurement challenges in the Zimbabwean public sector: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Dzuke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: State Procurement Board procedures and the public procurement process have been blamed for the lagging behind of government projects that impact on public service delivery in Zimbabwe.Objectives: This article provides insight into challenges resulting from the legal framework for public procurement in Zimbabwe that detract from service delivery.Method: Empirical data was collected through in-depth interviews with five participants at five public entities, using a semi-structured interview guide. Content analysis was used to analyse the primary data.Results: The findings revealed various challenges in the public procurement process that detract from service delivery. These include a lack of strategic recognition of the procurement function and procurement policy; a lack of professional, managerial and leadership skills; a lack of appropriated funds from Treasury; and a lack of accountability in the procurement process.Conclusion: There is a dearth of research on the public procurement process and its efficiency in Zimbabwe, and this study contributes to the existing body of knowledge by identifying areas through which public procurement can be improved in Zimbabwe.

  1. Interpersonal influence among public health leaders in the United States Department of Health and Human Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenine K. Harris

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. In public health, interpersonal influence has been identified as an important factor in the spread of health information, and in understanding and changing health behaviors. However, little is known about influence in public health leadership. Influence is important in leadership settings, where public health professionals contribute to national policy and practice agendas. Drawing on social theory and recent advances in statistical network modeling, we examined influence in a network of tobacco control leaders at the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS. Design and Methods. Fifty-four tobacco control leaders across all 11 agencies in the DHHS were identified; 49 (91% responded to a web-based survey. Participants were asked about communication with other tobacco control leaders, who influenced their work, and general job characteristics. Exponential random graph modeling was used to develop a network model of influence accounting for characteristics of individuals, their relationships, and global network structures. Results. Higher job ranks, more experience in tobacco control, and more time devoted to tobacco control each week increased the likelihood of influence nomination, as did more frequent communication between network members. Being in the same agency and working the same number of hours per week were positively associated with mutual influence nominations. Controlling for these characteristics, the network also exhibited patterns associated with influential clusters of network members. Conclusions. Findings from this unique study provide a perspective on influence within a government agency that both helps to understand decision-making and also can serve to inform organizational efforts that allow for more effective structuring of leadership.

  2. Using indicators to determine the contribution of human rights to public health efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Abstract There is general agreement on the need to integrate human rights into health policies and programmes, although there is still reluctance to go beyond rhetorical acknowledgement of their assumed significance. To determine the actual value of human rights for the effectiveness of public health efforts requires clarity about what their incorporation looks like in practice and how to assess their contribution. Despite the pervasive use of indicators in the public health field, indicators that specifically capture human rights concerns are not well developed and those that exist are inconsistently used. Even though “health and human rights indicators” are increasingly being constructed, it is often the case that health indicators are used to draw conclusions about some interaction between human rights and health; or that law and policy or other indicators, traditionally the domain of the human rights community, are used to make conclusions about health outcomes. To capture the added value that human rights bring to health, the differences in the contributions offered by these indicators need to be understood. To determine the value of different measures for advancing programme effectiveness, improving health outcomes and promoting human rights, requires questioning the intended purpose behind the construction of an indicator, who uses it, the kind of indicator it is, the extent to which it provides information about vulnerable populations, as well as how the data are collected and used. PMID:19784452

  3. To whom it may concern : International human rights law and global public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Public goods and human rights are sometimes treated as intimately related, if not interchangeable, strategies to address matters of common global concern. The aim of the present contribution is to disentangle the two notions to shed some critical light on their respective potential to attend to cont

  4. To whom it may concern : International human rights law and global public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Public goods and human rights are sometimes treated as intimately related, if not interchangeable, strategies to address matters of common global concern. The aim of the present contribution is to disentangle the two notions to shed some critical light on their respective potential to attend to cont

  5. To whom it may concern : International human rights law and global public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Public goods and human rights are sometimes treated as intimately related, if not interchangeable, strategies to address matters of common global concern. The aim of the present contribution is to disentangle the two notions to shed some critical light on their respective potential to attend to

  6. To whom it may concern : International human rights law and global public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Public goods and human rights are sometimes treated as intimately related, if not interchangeable, strategies to address matters of common global concern. The aim of the present contribution is to disentangle the two notions to shed some critical light on their respective potential to attend to

  7. Human Security and Energy Security: A Sustainable Energy System as a Public Good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.; Jollands, N.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the concept of human security and its link to energy and energy governance, particularly global energy governance. Through this focus emerges the need to look at the links between the concept of public goods and energy. Our starting argument is that conventional notions

  8. The Role and Purposes of Public Schools and Religious Fundamentalism: An International Human Rights Law Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Douglas Charles

    2012-01-01

    The question of what are today the legitimate and proper role and purposes of public schools can only be answered by a close examination and analysis of the human right to education which has been developed by such international organizations as the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and by…

  9. Hospital volunteerism as human resource solution: Motivation for both volunteers and the public health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinevere M. Lourens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A volunteer programme with 50 registered volunteers was established in 2007 at a secondary-level public, semi-rural regional hospital in the Cape Winelands, South Africa. This was a rapid response to the extensive renovations and system changes brought about by the hospital revitalisation initiated in 2006 and the resultant expanded services, which required additional human resources. This study describes the hospital volunteer programme and provides hospital administrators with practical planning guidance for hospital volunteer programme implementation.Purpose: The purpose of this study is to (1 describe the outcomes of the hospital volunteer programme implementation intervention and (2 to make sound recommendations for volunteer programme implementation.Methodology and approach: A qualitative case-study methodology was employed using purposive sampling as a technique. Participants were recruited from a public hospital in the Western Cape. A case-study design was applied to explore the hospital volunteer programme implementation. In-depth interviews and a focus group discussion with thematic content analysis of transcripts as well as document reviews were conducted to conclude the study during 2015. The key participants were individually interviewed and included two members of the hospital management, two volunteers and one volunteer coordinator. A focus group discussion consisting of three volunteers was also conducted.Findings: The findings of this study indicate that a volunteer programme can meet needs and be a motivational force for both the individual volunteer and the organisation. However, it requires co-ordination and some secure funding to remain sustainable. Such a programme holds huge benefits in terms of human resource supplementation, organisational development, as well as the possibility of gainful employment for the previously unemployed.Practical implications: In practice, a health service contemplating a volunteer

  10. The dynamics of human behavior in the public goods game with institutional incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yali; Zhang, Boyu; Tao, Yi

    2016-06-24

    The empirical research on the public goods game (PGG) indicates that both institutional rewards and institutional punishment can curb free-riding and that the punishment effect is stronger than the reward effect. Self-regarding models that are based on Nash equilibrium (NE) strategies or evolutionary game dynamics correctly predict which incentives are best at promoting cooperation, but individuals do not play these rational strategies overall. The goal of our study is to investigate the dynamics of human decision making in the repeated PGG with institutional incentives. We consider that an individual's contribution is affected by four factors, which are self-interest, the behavior of others, the reaction to rewards, and the reaction to punishment. We find that people on average do not react to rewards and punishment, and that self-interest and the behavior of others sufficiently explain the dynamics of human behavior. Further analysis suggests that institutional incentives promote cooperation by affecting the self-regarding preference and that the other-regarding preference seems to be independent of incentive schemes. Because individuals do not change their behavioral patterns even if they were not rewarded or punished, the mere potential to punish defectors and reward cooperators can lead to considerable increases in the level of cooperation.

  11. [The development of public health strategy with the purpose to develop human capital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, A I; Bravve, Iu I; Tomchuk, A L; Babenko, E A

    2012-01-01

    The article substantiates the necessity to develop public health strategy considering the processes of demographic, social, economic progression of society. The core issue in these conditions is human capital and its component--health capital as an integral reflection of different characteristics of population. The definitions of these notions in a social hygienic aspect are presented. The main stages of development of the health strategy such as formation of strategic planning elements, human capital valuation, population health and health capital losses, evaluation of potential demand in medical technologies, medical organizational measures implementation and their input into development of human capital are considered. These positions are supported as determinants of effectiveness of health strategy.

  12. Quantitative Articles: Developing Studies for Publication in Counseling Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusty, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    This article is presented as a guide for developing quantitative studies and preparing quantitative manuscripts for publication in counseling journals. It is intended as an aid for aspiring authors in conceptualizing studies and formulating valid research designs. Material is presented on choosing variables and measures and on selecting…

  13. Effects of performance-based research funding on publication patterns in the social sciences and humanities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guns, R.; Engels, T.C.E.

    2016-07-01

    Publishing in the social sciences and humanities (SSH) and research evaluation practices are co-evolving. In this paper we present an analysis on how in Flanders the PRFS has shaped and influenced publication practices in the SSH. Our analysis is based on the VABB-SHW, a comprehensive database of research output in the SSH in Flanders. We find that a strong emphasis on WoS publications since 2003 has caused a growth in WoS publications, that is greater than what can be observed in other countries and other fields of science in Flanders. Other mechanisms appear to exist for book publications, which are not indexed in the WoS databases used for the PRFS. (Author)

  14. Barriers to partnership working in public health: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carlton Taylor-Robinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. CONCLUSIONS: The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions.

  15. Putting the "Public" First in Public Relations: An Exploratory Study of Municipal Employee Public Service Attitudes, Job Satisfaction and Communication Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A study was conducted to determine (1) which actions municipal employees consider important to a city's overall public relations effort, (2) the attitudes of city employees toward public service activities, (3) the relationship between attitude and job satisfaction, and (4) ways to improve employee attitudes and, perhaps, public service…

  16. The American Nurses of the Special Public Health Service and the Formation of Human Resources in Brazilian Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Bárbara Barrionuevo; Freitas, Genival Fernandes de; Fairman, Julie; Mecone, Márcia Cristina da Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Objective To historicize the changes in training human resources in nursing in Brazil during the period from 1942 to 1961 based on the presence of 35 American nurses assigned to work in cooperation with Special Public Health Service. Method The sources used for the study were reports written by American nurses who described their impressions, suggestions, and the activities they carried out in the country. These were analyzed based on the discourse analysis of Michel Foucault. Results The period mentioned was marked by an American presence in nursing projects developed by the Special Public Health Service. The discourses indicated that the period was marked by many changes in Brazilian nursing, particularly with respect to attracting and training human resources for the profession. Conclusion The results indicate that the American nurses, through what they said and their influence, were central to the consolidation of a new paradigm in the training of nursing professionals in Brazil.

  17. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she ad

  18. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  19. Rising Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility: The Role of Public Investments in Human Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-06-01

    One consequence of the rise in inequality witnessed over the past 40 years is its potentially negative impact on intergenerational mobility if parents at the bottom of the income distribution invest significantly less in their children's human capital. I consider whether public investments in children can potentially offset the inequality of private investments. Specifically, examining changes in public spending in 25 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries over the period 2000-2009, I find that increases in spending on health are most strongly associated with reductions in the importance of family background and declines in inequality in the production of child human capital as measured by the Program for International Student Assessment test scores among 15-year-olds. Public spending on family support, housing, and education are also moderately related. In contrast, increased spending on the elderly is associated with increases in the importance of parental background and inequality of child test scores. These results suggest that public investments in child human capital have the potential to offset the potentially negative impact of increasing income inequality on intergenerational mobility and inequality of the next generation. Further research firmly establishing a causal relationship is needed.

  20. [Is it allowed to have a public open exhibition of human plastinated specimens in Japan?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Y; Yohro, T

    1997-02-01

    This survey was conducted to know what inhibits the public open exhibitions of human anatomical specimens. Questionnaires were handed to 1,035 visitors to the public open exhibition of plastinated specimens at the University of Tokyo between March 30 and April 4, 1995. Five hundred and twenty-two responses were analyzed. The survey revealed following responses of medial and non-medical visitors. 1) Over 90 percent of the visitors welcomed to the public open exhibition of human anatomical specimens. 2) Visitors concerned about the aim of the exhibition and hoped explanations of exhibited specimens. They thought it is necessary to pay attention to the privacy of the cadavers and their families. 3) The most impressive specimens to the visitors were whole body silicone specimens and a series of slices of a whole body for both medical and non-medical visitors. 4) Medical visitors evaluated specimens high for medical education to understand three dimensional structures. On the contrary, non-medical visitors are astonished to encounter the whole body specimens not the dissected ones, and found the identity and human beings in the specimens. 5) Some anatomists strongly stand against the public open exhibitions of anatomical specimens because the plastinated specimens are quite different from ordinary hormaline fixed specimens and they expect that non-medical people must get upset about the specimens.

  1. A public-policy practicum to address current issues in human, animal, and ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, John A; Johnson, Yvette J; Troutt, H Fred; Prudhomme, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There are recognized needs for cross-training health professionals in human, animal, and ecosystem health and for public health policy to be informed by experts from medical, science, and social science disciplines. Faculty members of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Section at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have offered a public-policy course designed to meet those needs. The course was designed as a practicum to teach students the policy-making process through the development of policy proposals and to instruct students on how to effectively present accurate scientific, demographic, and statistical information to policy makers and to the public. All students substantially met the learning objectives of the course. This course represents another model that can be implemented to help students learn about complex, multifactorial issues that affect the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems, while promoting participation in public health policy development.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF MARKETING PUBLIC RELATION AND SERVICE QUALITY ON CORPORATE IMAGE THROUGH PUBLIC OPINION: STUDIES AT MANDIRI BANK

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Suciyati

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the influence of marketing public relation and service quality at Bank Mandiri on corporate image through public. Convenience sampling method has been selected in order to obtain the data in this study. The analysis method that used was the path analysis. The research result had shown that: marketing public relation and service quality have significant influence simultaneously and partially on public opinion on the first structure equation. The second structure e...

  3. An Empirical Investigation into Human Resource Development Practices in Public Telecom Organisations in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser S. Al-Kahtani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of globalization and technological advancement, the Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing market for telecommunication products and services in the Middle East. Since the human resource is the most important and indeed an essential imperative for an organization to prosper and grow, their development is certainly an issue of concern for the management of any organization who retain them.The present study was aimed to analyse some of these HRD practices which can help the public sector telecom companies of Saudi Arabia to combat the future challenges on the basis of these variables: Quality of Work Life and Welfare Measures, Organizational Development, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal and Rewards and Participative Management. The present study brings out the fact that appropriate HRD Practices provide an essential springboard for enhancing the Satisfaction and Commitment of the employees in the Telecom Industry. Appropriate Practices in HRD are subjective. What is best for one company may not be best for another. ‘Appropriate practices are not a set of discrete actions but rather a holistic approach to management. Thus, to study the appropriateness of the HRD Practices, an attempt was made to identify those HRD practices that are prevalent in the Telecom Sector.

  4. A Study of School Size among Alabama's Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.; Cain, Patrick M., Sr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the size of Alabama's public high schools, selected school quality and financial indicators, and their students' performance on standardized exams. When the socioeconomic level of the student bodies is held constant, the size of high schools in Alabama has relatively little…

  5. Educational Innovation from Distributed Leadership: Case Study Spanish Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the communication is to present a case study of distributed leadership practices and the performances of the Principal of a public school in Madrid. Educational leadership can be considered one of the most important elements of the education system to be effective, achieve quality results, and develop processes of change and…

  6. Professional Education and the Public Service; an Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Frederick C.

    This study was designed to assess major linkages of professionalism and professional education with the public service, to highlight some of the resulting problems within, and among, different professions, and to set forth hypotheses and questions to provoke and guide more intensive future research. Results indicate that professionalism is rapidly…

  7. Public opinion polls, voter turnout, and welfare: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Großer, J.; Schram, A.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally study the impact of public opinion poll releases on voter turnout and welfare in a participation game. We find higher overall turnout rates when polls inform the electroate about the levels of support for the candidates than when polls are prohibited. Distinguishing between allied

  8. Teaching Public Finance Administration Online: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebdon, Carol

    1999-01-01

    A case study of an online masters course in public finance administration, conducted primarily through texts and electronic bulletin boards with no face-to-face contact, found advantages (time and space independence) and disadvantages (lack of interaction with instructors) for both faculty and students. Although student grades equaled those in…

  9. Governance Paradigms of Public Universities: An International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…

  10. Formulating Employability Skills for Graduates of Public Health Study Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qomariyah, Nurul; Savitri, Titi; Hadianto, Tridjoko; Claramita, Mora

    2016-01-01

    Employability skills (ES) are important for effective and successful individual participation in the workplace. The main aims of the research were to identify important ES needed by graduates of Public Health Study Program Universitas Ahmad Dahlan (PHSP UAD) and to assess the achievement of the ES development that has been carried out by PHSP UAD.…

  11. Building a Statewide Digital Public Library: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of a study undertaken for the state library of Maryland to develop a process for the development of a Maryland Digital Public Library. Highlights include planning; management; implementation requirements; networked environments; technical infrastructure issues; collection development; standards; information content; information…

  12. Governance Paradigms of Public Universities: An International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…

  13. The public library as therapeutic landscape: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Liz

    2014-03-01

    The idea of the therapeutic landscape has been widely used to describe the relationship between place and improvements in mental health. This paper uses data from a qualitative study conducted with people with mental health problems to outline the role of the public library as a therapeutic landscape. It situates the public library as a space that is simultaneously familiar and welcoming, comforting and calming, and empowering. Further, the paper reflects on the impact of proposed library closures in light of these previously hidden benefits, thinking about the library's role as an environment and not as a service provider. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. European Studies and Public Engagement: A Conceptual Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Müllerleile

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Contemporary European Research User Username Password Remember me Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security teaching European studies The UACES Blog The Commission after the 2014 EP... Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Open Journal Systems Home About Login Register Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 10, No 4 (2014 > Müllerleile European Studies and Public Engagement: A Conceptual Toolbox Andreas Müllerleile Abstract This article examines public engagement strategies for academics working in the field of European Studies. Should academics engage with the public? What are the most effective outreach strategies? And what are the implications for universities and departments? The article argues that engaging with the public should be considered an integral part for academics working on topics that relate to the European Union or European politics. The article has a theoretical and a practical dimension. The first part of the paper deals with the nature of public engagement, explaining why it is an important issue and how it differs from the mainstream understanding of public engagement. The practical part of the paper presents the idea of building an online presence through which academics can engage with the public debate both during periods of low issue salience and high issue salience. The final section includes a toolbox

  15. Crowdsourcing the General Public for Large Scale Molecular Pathology Studies in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Candido dos Reis

    2015-07-01

    Interpretation: Crowdsourcing of the general public to classify cancer pathology data for research is viable, engages the public and provides accurate ER data. Crowdsourced classification of research data may offer a valid solution to problems of throughput requiring human input.

  16. Publication Patterns in Death Studies: 40 Years On.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Robert A; Vallerga, Michael

    2015-01-01

    As a living legacy to the founding editorship of Hannelore Wass, Death Studies has played a leading role in promoting scholarship in the field of thanatology for nearly 4 decades. In this article, the authors analyze publication patterns in the journal in the 25 years since Wass handed off the journal's editorial management to her successor, focusing on changing patterns of authorship, topical focus, and methodological emphasis of articles across this period. The results document the increasing feminization of the field, the impressive internationality of the research networks driving its development, and the substantial empirical foundation for major lines of research concerned with bereavement, death attitudes, and suicide. Placed against the backdrop of early trends in publication during Wass's overview, such findings suggest the maturation of research in this interdisciplinary specialty and validate her long-range anticipation of the field's prospects as this flagship journal moves toward its fifth decade of publication.

  17. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.486 Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  18. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2014-04-01

    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.

  19. Human rights and the Beijing Olympics: imagined global community and the transnational public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Susan

    2012-06-01

    The Olympic Games are increasingly used by non-governmental organizations to demand transnational forms of accountability from public authorities. This article assesses the effectiveness of transnational public opinion surrounding the Beijing 2008 Olympics, when the pressure of Western public opinion was exerted upon the government of the world's most populous non-Western nation to improve its human rights record. Utilizing the concepts of 'imagined global community' and 'transnational public sphere', it finds that the Olympic Games had helped to call into existence a transnational public that ran up against the obstacle posed by the incomplete formation of supra-national forms of governance. The International Olympic Committee, a non-governmental organization, was a weak substitute. Because of the strong desire of Chinese people to take part in transnational deliberations, the article concludes with optimism about the potential of transnational public spheres that include Chinese people to develop toward more effective forms of transnational governance. But the IOC must strengthen the voice of its non-Western members, and Western interlocutors, including the media, must accept their share of the responsibility for creating the conditions for egalitarian dialogue. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  20. Citizens' perspectives on personalized medicine: a qualitative public deliberation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Abelson, Julia; Simeonov, Dorina; Gauvin, Francois-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    Our objective was to explore citizens' informed and reasoned values and expectations of personalized medicine, a timely yet novel genomics policy issue. A qualitative, public deliberation study was undertaken using a citizens' reference panel on health technologies, established to provide input to the health technology assessment process in Ontario, Canada. The citizens' panel consisted of five women and nine men, aged 18-71 years, with one member selected from each health authority region. There were shared expectations among the citizens' panel members for the potential of personalized medicine technologies to improve care, provided they are deemed clinically valid and effective. These expectations were tempered by concerns about value for money and the possibility that access to treatment may be limited by personalized medicine tests used to stratify patients. Although they questioned the presumed technological imperative presented by personalized medicine technologies, they called for increased efforts to prepare the health-care system to effectively integrate these technologies. This study represents an early but important effort to explore public values toward personalized medicine. This study also provides evidence of the public's ability to form coherent judgments about a new policy issue. Concerned that personalized tests might be used to ration care, they suggested that treatment should be made available if patients wanted it, irrespective of tests that indicate little benefit. This issue raises clinical and policy challenges that may undermine the value of personalized medicine. Further efforts to deliberate with the public are warranted to inform effective, efficient and equitable translation of personalized medicine.

  1. Educational reform and the public: Two case studies of Poland and Saskatchewan (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaproń, Danuta; Stephan, Werner

    1991-09-01

    The involvement of the public in educational reform processes in modern democratic societies primarily serves the purpose of politically legitimizing the reform agenda. This study examines the rationales implicitly or explicitly submitted to the public to explain why educational reforms in the two countries should be endorsed. Although differences in the political culture caution against a hasty comparison of the two case studies, a number of politico-economic similarities allow for a valid juxtaposition. In Poland the context of socio-political and economic renewal prompted the reformers to emphasize the human-capital model which heightened public awareness and participation in the debate surrounding the reform. Public involvement in Saskatchewan was negatively affected for mainly two reasons. First, the government evidently manipulated public input by various means and thereby appears to have predetermined the outcome. Second, the rationale for the reform, based on a free-market model, tightened the linkage between the needs of the labour market and the mandate of the schools. As a result, public interest and participation was greatly diminished.

  2. Emergency Management Operations Process Mapping: Public Safety Technical Program Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    DRDC CSS CR 2011-09 i Emergency Management Operations Process Mapping : Public Security Technical Program Study Anet Greenley ...processus/outils). DRDC CSS CR 2011-09 iii Executive summary Emergency Management Operations Process Mapping PSTP Study [ Greenley , A...technique de sécurité publique – Etude DSTP [ Greenley , A.; Poursina, S.]; DRDC CSS CR 2011-09 L’objectif principal du Programme technique de sécurité

  3. Are Sciences Essential and Humanities Elective? Disentangling Competing Claims for Humanities' Research Public Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos-Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy discourse suggests that arts and humanities research is seen as being less useful to society than other disciplines, notably in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The paper explores how this assumption's construction has been built and whether it is based upon an unfair prejudice: we argue for a prima facie case…

  4. Mobile Phone Base Station Radiation Study for Addressing Public Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The proliferation of mobile phone base stations had increased concerns from the public on the radio frequency radiation hazards that might come from them. The world wide public concern involved health risk due to radio frequency radiation. In Malaysia also public interest has increased, although it is not as intense as probably in other parts of the world, but had also resulted in tearing down of a few base stations. Due to this growing concern, a study was conducted to evaluate the radio frequency radiation levels near several mobile phone base stations in two major cities in Malaysia. Approach: Measurements in terms of electric field strength, power density and specific absorption rate were made to check the exposure level at public locations. Broadband meter were first used to survey the sites near the base stations. From the survey, spots with relatively higher readings will be further investigated using narrow band measurements. The measured values were then compared with the recommended international maximum permissible exposure limit. Results: The study showed that the measured values were found to be less than 1% of the maximum permissible exposure. Conclusion: The amount of radio frequency radiation from the selected base stations in the two major cities are adhering to the international limits although the physical radio base station infrastructures spawning out everywhere in these areas may give the reverse impression.

  5. Fatal human anaplasmosis associated with macrophage activation syndrome in Greece and the Public Health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Spanakis, Nikos; Spanakos, Gregory; Pervanidou, Danai; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Campos, Elsa; Petra, Theofania; Kanellopoulos, Petros; Georgiadis, George; Antalis, Emmanouil; Kontos, Vassileios; Giannopoulos, Lambros A; Tselentis, Yiannis; Papa, Anna; Tsakris, Athanassios; Saroglou, George

    2017-02-08

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum that has the potential to spread in new geographical areas. The first fatal case of HGA in Greece is presented. Fever of unknown origin, renal and respiratory insufficiency and development of macrophage activation syndrome characterized the clinical presentation. Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the groEL gene revealed the presence of A. phagocytophilum. The epidemiological and clinical features were collected during an epidemiological investigation. Public health measures were instituted by the Hellenic Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. The Public Health intervention required the collaboration of epidemiologists, veterinarians and microbiologists. Emphasis was given to communication activities and misconceptions concerning canines and their role in the disease. The emergence of human anaplasmosis in a new geographical area highlights the importance of disease awareness and of the need for continued support for tick and tick-borne disease surveillance networks.

  6. Public sector reform and demand for human resources for health (HRH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lethbridge Jane

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article considers some of the effects of health sector reform on human resources for health (HRH in developing countries and countries in transition by examining the effect of fiscal reform and the introduction of decentralisation and market mechanisms to the health sector. Fiscal reform results in pressure to measure the staff outputs of the health sector. Financial decentralisation often leads to hospitals becoming "corporatised" institutions, operating with business principles but remaining in the public sector. The introduction of market mechanisms often involves the formation of an internal market within the health sector and market testing of different functions with the private sector. This has immediate implications for the employment of health workers in the public sector, because the public sector may reduce its workforce if services are purchased from other sectors or may introduce more short-term and temporary employment contracts. Decentralisation of budgets and administrative functions can affect the health sector, often in negative ways, by reducing resources available and confusing lines of accountability for health workers. Governance and regulation of health care, when delivered by both public and private providers, require new systems of regulation. The increase in private sector provision has led health workers to move to the private sector. For those remaining in the public sector, there are often worsening working conditions, a lack of employment security and dismantling of collective bargaining agreements. Human resource development is gradually being recognised as crucial to future reforms and the formulation of health policy. New information systems at local and regional level will be needed to collect data on human resources. New employment arrangements, strengthening organisational culture, training and continuing education will also be needed.

  7. Beacon Communities’ Public Health Initiatives: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L.; Marcial, Laura H.; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. Background: The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Methods: Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Findings: Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7–14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4–6). Discussion: Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. Conclusions: A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for

  8. Beacon communities' public health initiatives: a case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L; Marcial, Laura H; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7-14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4-6). Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for the Beacon Communities evaluation work. Sharing a framework or approach

  9. Public Participation Tools and Human Ecological Sustainability: Experiences of Grassroots Efforts in Small Communities of Cavite, Philippines and Concepcion, Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Public Participation advocates for people’s involvement in decisions concerning public issues. It contrasts to the view that deciding over public issues should be left to authorities and experts. Increasingly, public participation is applied in decision-making regarding environmental and natural resource concerns. With the advent of the increasing pressure in human ecological sustainability, and the growing importance of people’s involvement in environmental decision-making and governance, wh...

  10. Leptospira interrogans at the human-wildlife interface in northern Botswana: a newly identified public health threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbins, S E; Sanderson, C E; Alexander, K A

    2014-03-01

    Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world. In northern Botswana, humans live in close proximity to a diversity of wildlife and peridomestic rodents and may be exposed to a variety of zoonotic pathogens. Little is known regarding the occurrence and epidemiology of L. interrogans in Africa despite the recognized global importance of this zoonotic disease and the threat it poses to public health. In Botswana, banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) live in close proximity to humans across protected and unprotected landscapes and may be a useful sentinel species for assessing the occurrence of zoonotic organisms, such as L. interrogans. We utilized PCR to screen banded mongoose kidneys for leptospiral DNA and identified 41.5% prevalence of renal carriage of L. interrogans (exact binomial 95% CI 27.7-56.7%, n = 41). Renal carriage was also detected in one Selous' mongoose (Paracynictis selousi). This is the first published confirmation of carriage of L. interrogans in either species. This is also the first report of L. interrogans occurrence in northern Botswana and the only report of this organism in a wildlife host in the country. Pathogenic Leptospira are usually transmitted indirectly to humans through soil or water contaminated with infected urine. Other avenues, such as direct contact between humans and wildlife, as well as consumption of mongooses and other wildlife as bushmeat, may pose additional exposure risk and must be considered in public health management of this newly identified zoonotic disease threat. There is a critical need to characterize host species involvement and pathogen transmission dynamics, including human-wildlife interactions that may increase human exposure potential and infection risk. We recommend that public health strategy be modified to include sensitization of medical practitioners to the presence of L. interrogans in the region, the potential for human infection, and implementation of clinical screening. This study

  11. [Success factors in public healthy eating campaigns: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, J; Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Strand, M; Verbeke, W; Bech-Larsen, T

    2012-01-01

    Public campaigns and interventions are rarely fully evaluated regarding their effectiveness. The analysis of past, successful activities can contribute to the future development of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating. The study of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating aimed at identifying the underlying success factors and describing their relation. Interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 cases that had been identified as especially successful in an earlier research step. The interviews were analysed with regard to possible success factors and the latter used to develop a model of success factor interrelation. It was found that success of the cases was first, attributed to characteristics of the macro environment or to public private partnerships in the initiation of campaigns, second, to the engagement of social communities, elements of empowerment of the target group and the implementation of social marketing measures, and thirdly, in citizens adoption of the campaign and in accompanying structural changes. The model and identified success factors underline that success can stem from three crucial phases: the set up of a campaign, the conduction and finally, the interrelation with the citizen. The model can serve as a guide in the future development of campaigns.

  12. Achieving human and machine accessibility of cited data in scholarly publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Joan; Castro, Eleni; Crosas, Mercè; Dumontier, Michel; Downs, Robert R.; Duerr, Ruth; Haak, Laurel L.; Haendel, Melissa; Herman, Ivan; Hodson, Simon; Hourclé, Joe; Kratz, John Ernest; Lin, Jennifer; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nurnberger, Amy; Proell, Stefan; Rauber, Andreas; Sacchi, Simone; Smith, Arthur; Taylor, Mike; Clark, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Reproducibility and reusability of research results is an important concern in scientific communication and science policy. A foundational element of reproducibility and reusability is the open and persistently available presentation of research data. However, many common approaches for primary data publication in use today do not achieve sufficient long-term robustness, openness, accessibility or uniformity. Nor do they permit comprehensive exploitation by modern Web technologies. This has led to several authoritative studies recommending uniform direct citation of data archived in persistent repositories. Data are to be considered as first-class scholarly objects, and treated similarly in many ways to cited and archived scientific and scholarly literature. Here we briefly review the most current and widely agreed set of principle-based recommendations for scholarly data citation, the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles (JDDCP). We then present a framework for operationalizing the JDDCP; and a set of initial recommendations on identifier schemes, identifier resolution behavior, required metadata elements, and best practices for realizing programmatic machine actionability of cited data. The main target audience for the common implementation guidelines in this article consists of publishers, scholarly organizations, and persistent data repositories, including technical staff members in these organizations. But ordinary researchers can also benefit from these recommendations. The guidance provided here is intended to help achieve widespread, uniform human and machine accessibility of deposited data, in support of significantly improved verification, validation, reproducibility and re-use of scholarly/scientific data. PMID:26167542

  13. Achieving human and machine accessibility of cited data in scholarly publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Starr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reproducibility and reusability of research results is an important concern in scientific communication and science policy. A foundational element of reproducibility and reusability is the open and persistently available presentation of research data. However, many common approaches for primary data publication in use today do not achieve sufficient long-term robustness, openness, accessibility or uniformity. Nor do they permit comprehensive exploitation by modern Web technologies. This has led to several authoritative studies recommending uniform direct citation of data archived in persistent repositories. Data are to be considered as first-class scholarly objects, and treated similarly in many ways to cited and archived scientific and scholarly literature. Here we briefly review the most current and widely agreed set of principle-based recommendations for scholarly data citation, the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles (JDDCP. We then present a framework for operationalizing the JDDCP; and a set of initial recommendations on identifier schemes, identifier resolution behavior, required metadata elements, and best practices for realizing programmatic machine actionability of cited data. The main target audience for the common implementation guidelines in this article consists of publishers, scholarly organizations, and persistent data repositories, including technical staff members in these organizations. But ordinary researchers can also benefit from these recommendations. The guidance provided here is intended to help achieve widespread, uniform human and machine accessibility of deposited data, in support of significantly improved verification, validation, reproducibility and re-use of scholarly/scientific data.

  14. Achieving human and machine accessibility of cited data in scholarly publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Joan; Castro, Eleni; Crosas, Mercè; Dumontier, Michel; Downs, Robert R; Duerr, Ruth; Haak, Laurel L; Haendel, Melissa; Herman, Ivan; Hodson, Simon; Hourclé, Joe; Kratz, John Ernest; Lin, Jennifer; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nurnberger, Amy; Proell, Stefan; Rauber, Andreas; Sacchi, Simone; Smith, Arthur; Taylor, Mike; Clark, Tim

    Reproducibility and reusability of research results is an important concern in scientific communication and science policy. A foundational element of reproducibility and reusability is the open and persistently available presentation of research data. However, many common approaches for primary data publication in use today do not achieve sufficient long-term robustness, openness, accessibility or uniformity. Nor do they permit comprehensive exploitation by modern Web technologies. This has led to several authoritative studies recommending uniform direct citation of data archived in persistent repositories. Data are to be considered as first-class scholarly objects, and treated similarly in many ways to cited and archived scientific and scholarly literature. Here we briefly review the most current and widely agreed set of principle-based recommendations for scholarly data citation, the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles (JDDCP). We then present a framework for operationalizing the JDDCP; and a set of initial recommendations on identifier schemes, identifier resolution behavior, required metadata elements, and best practices for realizing programmatic machine actionability of cited data. The main target audience for the common implementation guidelines in this article consists of publishers, scholarly organizations, and persistent data repositories, including technical staff members in these organizations. But ordinary researchers can also benefit from these recommendations. The guidance provided here is intended to help achieve widespread, uniform human and machine accessibility of deposited data, in support of significantly improved verification, validation, reproducibility and re-use of scholarly/scientific data.

  15. Sanitation rights, public law litigation, and inequality: a case study from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barcellos, Ana Paula

    2014-12-11

    Public law litigation has been used in many places to advance human rights related to health. In Brazil, such lawsuits usually request that the government pay for pharmaceuticals to individuals. But could litigation play a role in shaping public health policies to benefit communities? To explore this question, this paper focuses on lawsuits involving determinants of health, namely water and sanitation public policies. This paper discusses the results of an empirical study of 258 Brazilian court orders, issued in a 10-year period, that address requests for sewage collection and treatment. The data show that the Brazilian judiciary is willing to improve access to sanitation services. However, litigation has addressed fewer than 177 out of the 2,495 Brazilian municipalities that lack both sewage collection and treatment systems, and lawsuits are concentrated in the richer cities, not in the poorest ones. This paper suggests that public law litigation can be used to foster public health policies similar to the way in which structural reform litigation and the experimentalism approach between courts and defendants have influenced public policies and achieved institutional reform in schools and prisons. However, greater effort is needed to target initiatives that would reach the most disenfranchised communities.

  16. Study on the Community Policing Administration Innovation from the Perspective of the Public Security Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian LIN

    2015-01-01

    Since the 20th century, human public security accidents occurred frequently, so that the developed countries such as the United States, Japan, and Russia took the lead in strengthening the study of the public security administration. Since the 21th century, all walks of life have paid more attention to the public security administration in China, along with the deepened implementation of the reform and opening-up policy and the rapid development of economic construction and the effects from the outbreak of the SARS crisis and the frequent occurrence of many coal mine security accidents, etc. In this process, the non-traditional security issues and man-made crisis are gradually becoming the main threats currently to the public security of China, because the conflicts of interest and the social contradictions overlap and the social crisis such as cadres-masses and police-masses conflicts is being aggravated. At present, the Ministry of Public Security of China is pushing forward a community policing reform and great numbers of community polices in community policing administration will directly confront with the challenges of the public security administration complexity, and therefore, the promotion of community policing urgently needs the innovation of administration concept.

  17. Public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, Zahra Bostani; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-06-01

    Sexual health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their sexual health that should be based on people's needs and abilities. The aim of this study was to explore public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies. This study was a qualitative content analysis approach. This qualitative study was a qualitative part of an exploratory sequential qualitative-quantitative study that took place between November 2014 and May 2015 and was conducted in Rasht, Iran. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 38 engaged and married men and women as well as nine key informants. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method and by using qualitative data analysis software MAXqda 2011. Analyzing participants' perspectives and experiences revealed two main categories, i.e., 1) General actions to promote sexual health (with three sub-categories: public policies promoting sexual health, development of sexual health supporting environments, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and 2) Specific actions in the current health system (with three sub-categories: economic policy, empowering individuals and the society, and reviewing the current health system). General actions (public policies, supporting environments developed, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and integration of specific actions in the health system, such as empowering individuals' needs for promoting sexual health. Achieving these goals necessitates the review of the current health system in Iran.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF MARKETING PUBLIC RELATION AND SERVICE QUALITY ON CORPORATE IMAGE THROUGH PUBLIC OPINION: STUDIES AT MANDIRI BANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Suciyati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the influence of marketing public relation and service quality at Bank Mandiri on corporate image through public. Convenience sampling method has been selected in order to obtain the data in this study. The analysis method that used was the path analysis. The research result had shown that: marketing public relation and service quality have significant influence simultaneously and partially on public opinion on the first structure equation. The second structure equation shows that: marketing public relation, service quality had significant influence simultaneously on corporate image. The service quality have not partially the quality of service have not influence significant partially on corporate, but variable marketing and public relation have  partially influential public opinion influence significant partially on corporate image.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v12i2.1916

  19. Aesthetics and Astronomy: Studying the public's perception and understanding of non-traditional imagery from space

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Lisa F; Arcand, Kimberly K; Smith, Randall K; Bookbinder, Jay; Keach, Kelly; 10.1177/1075547010379579

    2010-01-01

    Some 400 years after Galileo, modern telescopes have enabled humanity to "see" what the natural eye cannot. Astronomical images today contain information about incredibly large objects located across vast distances and reveal information found in "invisible" radiation ranging from radio waves to X-rays. The current generation of telescopes has created an explosion of images available for the public to explore. This has, importantly, coincided with the maturation of the Internet. Every major telescope has a web site, often with an extensive gallery of images. New and free downloadable tools exist for members of the public to explore astronomical data and even create their own images. In short, a new era of an accessible universe has been entered, in which the public can participate and explore like never before. But there is a severe lack of scholarly and robust studies to probe how people - especially non-experts - perceive these images and the information they attempt to convey. Most astronomical images for ...

  20. Exploring synergies between human rights and public health ethics: A whole greater than the sum of its parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fields of human rights and public health ethics are each concerned with promoting health and elucidating norms for action. To date, however, little has been written about the contribution that these two justificatory frameworks can make together. This article explores how a combined approach may make a more comprehensive contribution to resolving normative health issues and to advancing a normative framework for global health action than either approach made alone. We explore this synergy by first providing overviews of public health ethics and of international human rights law relevant to health and, second, by articulating complementarities between human rights and public health ethics. Discussion We argue that public health ethics can contribute to human rights by: (a reinforcing the normative claims of international human rights law, (b strengthening advocacy for human rights, and (c bridging the divide between public health practitioners and human rights advocates in certain contemporary health domains. We then discuss how human rights can contribute to public health ethics by contributing to discourses on the determinants of health through: (a definitions of the right to health and the notion of the indivisibility of rights, (b emphasis on the duties of states to progressively realize the health of citizens, and (c recognition of the protection of human rights as itself a determinant of health. We also discuss the role that human rights can play for the emergent field of public health ethics by refocusing attention on the health and illness on marginalized individuals and populations. Summary Actors within the fields of public health, ethics and human rights can gain analytic tools by embracing the untapped potential for collaboration inherent in such a combined approach.

  1. The evolution of human mobility based on the public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shiqing

    2017-07-01

    We explore the evolution of human mobility behavior based on public goods game. By using mean field method, the population distribution in different regions is theoretical calculated. Numerical simulation results show that the correlation between the region's degree and its final population is not significant under a larger human migration rate. Human mobility could effectively promote cooperative behavior and the population balance of different regions. Therefore, encouraging individuals to migrate may increase the total benefits of the whole society. Moreover, increasing the cooperation cost could reduce the number of cooperators, and that would happen to the correlation between the region's degree and its final population. The results indicate the total population could not dramatically rise with the region's degree under an unfair society.

  2. Public perceptions of dental implants: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward C M

    2015-07-01

    Dental implants have become a popular option for treating partially dentate or edentulous patients. Information on dental implants is widely available in the public domain and is disseminated through industries and dental practitioners at various levels/disciplines. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate the public's information acquisition and their perceptions of dental implants and the effects of these on their care-seeking and decision making. A purposive sample of 28 adults were recruited to join six focus groups. To be eligible, one must be 35-64 years of age, had never been engaged in dentally related jobs, had at least one missing tooth, and had heard about dental implant but never received dental implant or entered into any dental consultation regarding dental implants. All of the focus groups discussions were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic content analysis following a grounded theory approach. Participants acquired information on dental implants through various means, such as patient information boards, printed advertisements, social media, and personal connections. They expected dental implants to restore the patients' appearance, functions, and quality of life to absolute normality. They regarded dental implants as a panacea for all cases of missing teeth, overestimated their functions and longevity, and underestimated the expertise needed to carry out the clinical procedures. They were deterred from seeking dental implant treatment by the high price, invasive procedures, risks, and complications. Members of the public were exposed to information of varying quality and had some unrealistic expectations regarding dental implants. Such perceptions may shape their care-seeking behaviours and decision-making processes in one way or another. The views and experiences gathered in this qualitative study could assist clinicians to better understand the public's perspectives, facilitate constructive patient-dentist communication, and contribute

  3. Incidence of public expenditure on the human development index in Bogota, 1995-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Consuelo Rodríguez Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to test the hypothesis that social public expenditure per capita invested in Bogota has had a significant influence on the improvement of the city’s human development. For this purpose, the Human Development Index (HDI for the capital between 1995-2010 is estimated, using the new methodology proposed by the UNDP in 2010. Thus, a retrospective estimation of the life expectancy, salaries, and educational achievement rates is carried out, the last as a combination between the average years of education and expected years of instruction. A qualitative analysis is then presented, between the HDI components and the social public expenditure invested through politics, programs, projects carried out in the city, according to the District Development Plan “Bogotá positiva, para vivir mejor (Positive Bogota, to Live Better”. Finally, a quantitative analysis of this relation is made and it is concluded that social public spending per capita is significant to explain the HDI, since there is a long-term and stable relation between the two variables.

  4. A CRISPR New World: Attitudes in the Public toward Innovations in Human Genetic Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Weisberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential to genetically modify human germlines has reached a critical tipping point with recent applications of CRISPR-Cas9. Even as researchers, clinicians, and ethicists weigh the scientific and ethical repercussions of these advances, we know virtually nothing about public attitudes on the topic. Understanding such attitudes will be critical to determining the degree of broad support there might be for any public policy or regulation developed for genetic modification research. To fill this gap, we gave an online survey to a large (2,493 subjects and diverse sample of Americans. Respondents supported genetic modification research, although demographic variables influenced these attitudes—conservatives, women, African-Americans, and older respondents, while supportive, were more cautious than liberals, men, other ethnicities, and younger respondents. Support was also was slightly muted when the risks (unanticipated mutations and possibility of eugenics were made explicit. The information about genetic modification was also presented as contrasting vignettes, using one of five frames: genetic editing, engineering, hacking, modification, or surgery. Despite the fact that the media and academic use of frames describing the technology varies, these frames did not influence people’s attitudes. These data contribute a current snapshot of public attitudes to inform policy with regard to human genetic modification.

  5. Humanização e voluntariado: estudo qualitativo em hospitais públicos Humanización y voluntariado: estudio cualitativo en hospitales públicos Humanization and volunteering: a qualitative study in public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cezira Fantini Nogueira-Martins

    2010-10-01

    de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil. La investigación fue realizada en 2008 y 2009. Las entrevistas fueron analizadas según los principios del análisis temático. ANÁLISIS DE RESULTADOS: Cinco temas principales fueron formulados: perfil del voluntario (edad, sexo, grupo de renta; organización del trabajo voluntario (término de compromiso, entrenamiento; relaciones voluntariado-hospital (relación con la dirección del hospital y con los funcionarios; motivación (solidaridad, experiencia anterior con enfermedades propias o de familiares, realización personal, resolución de conflictos y beneficiarios (individual, dual, colectivo; humanización y actividades de los voluntarios (cuidados del paciente, apoyo logístico, apoyo emocional, desarrollo de habilidades de los pacientes, recreación, organización de eventos conmemorativos. CONCLUSIONES: En la actividad desarrollada por los voluntarios hay aspectos positivos (como la contribución para la humanización hospitalaria, así como problemáticos (como la realización de actividades que son atribuciones de funcionarios. Es necesaria atención a la normatización de las actividades voluntarias, especialmente en el cuidado con los pacientes, así como las acciones de valorización del voluntariado en los hospitales e integración de los voluntarios como los grupos de trabajo de humanización.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the profile of volunteers and their work process in hospital humanization. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES: The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview, applied to 26 volunteer coordinators and 26 volunteers, who belong to 25 hospitals in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Interviews were analyzed according to thematic analysis principles. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS: Five main themes were identified: volunteer profile (age, sex, level of income; volunteer work organization (volunteer agreement, training; volunteer

  6. Epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium isolated from cattle, buffaloes, and humans in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M A; Abdel-Ghany, A E; Abdel-Latef, G K; Abdel-Aziz, S A; Aboelhadid, S M

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were investigated in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. A total of 610 animal fecal samples (480 from cattle and 130 from buffaloes) beside 290 stool samples from humans were collected in the period between January and December 2014. Based on the microscopic examination, the overall estimated prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle, buffaloes, and humans was 10.2, 12.3, and 19 %, respectively. The highest detection rates were in calves less than 2 months of age (17.1 %) and diarrheic animals (13.0 %). Likewise in humans, the highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium was in infants (31.3 %) and diarrheic individuals (21.1 %). The gender distribution in humans denoted that Cryptosporidium was reported more frequently in males (21.7 %) than females (14.5 %). Based on the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and gp60 genes were successfully amplified in 36 out of 50 samples subjected to genotyping. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the COWP fragments revealed that Cryptosporidium parvum was the only species detected in cattle (12 isolates) and buffaloes (4 isolates), while in humans, the detected species were Cryptosporidium hominis (15 isolates) and C. parvum (5 isolates). Sequence analysis of the gp60 gene identified the subtype IIdA20G1 within C. parvum isolated from both animals and humans. The common occurrence of zoonotic subtypes of C. parvum in cattle and buffaloes highlights the potential role of these animals as significant reservoirs of infection to humans. Also, the presence of C. hominis and C. parvum in humans indicates that both anthroponotic and zoonotic pathways are expected.

  7. Studies of human vision recognition: some improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Wen; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chang, Lin-Song

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to improve human recognition by artificial intelligence, specifically of images without the interference of high frequencies. The human eye is the most delicate optical system. Notwithstanding the dramatic progression of its structure and functions through a long evolution, the capability of visual recognition is not yet close to perfection. This paper is a study, based on the limitations of recognition by the human eye, of image recognition through the application of artificial intelligence. Those aspects which have been explored focus on human eye modeling, including aberration analysis, creative models of the human eye, human vision recognition characteristics and various mathematical models for verification. By using images consisting of four black and white bands and modulation transfer function (MTF) curve evaluation recognition capability on all the studied models, the optimum model most compatible with the physiology of the human eye is found.

  8. Imprisonment and women's health: concerns about gender sensitivity, human rights and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Brenda J; Gatherer, Alex; Fraser, Andrew; Moller, Lars

    2011-09-01

    The health of prisoners is among the poorest of any population group and the apparent inequalities pose both a challenge and an opportunity for country health systems. The high rates of imprisonment in many countries, the resulting overcrowding, characteristics of prison populations and the disproportionate prevalence of health problems in prison should make prison health a matter of public health importance.Women prisoners constitute a minority within all prison systems and their special health needs are frequently neglected. The urgent need to review current services is clear from research, expert opinion and experience from countries worldwide. Current provision of health care to imprisoned women fails to meet their needs and is, in too many cases, far short of what is required by human rights and international recommendations. The evidence includes a lack of gender sensitivity in policies and practices in prisons, violations of women's human rights and failure to accept that imprisoned women have more and different health-care needs compared with male prisoners, often related to reproductive health issues, mental health problems, drug dependencies and histories of violence and abuse. Additional needs stem from their frequent status as a mother and usually the primary carer for her children.National governments, policy-makers and prison management need to address gender insensitivity and social injustice in prisons. There are immediate steps which could be taken to deal with public health neglect, abuses of human rights and failures in gender sensitivity.

  9. Seroepidemiological Studies on Poultry Salmonellosis and its Public Health Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ibrahim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhoid Salmonella serovars remain a potential threat to human health, and poultry species are possible sources of these organisms. In this study, trials for Salmonella isolation from poultry and humans were conducted in the period April 2009 through March 2010 in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. Cloacal swabs were collected from different live poultry species including 150 broilers, 50 breeders, 50 layers, 50 turkeys, and 50 ducks, beside 30 litter samples from various poultry farms. Regarding the humans, stool samples as well as hand swabs were collected from 90 workers and poultry contacts of the examined farms. All poultry and human samples were subjected to bacteriological examination and serological identification for Salmonella spp. The recovered Salmonella strains were found belonging to S. Kentucky, S. Typhimurium and S. SaintPaul. The obtained results demonstrated that the occurrence of Salmonella spp. accounted for 16.66, 10.0, 2.0, 6.0 and 2.0% in broilers, breeders, layers, ducks and turkeys respectively. Investigation of litter samples revealed that the occurrence of S. Kentucky was 53.33, 66.66 and 28.57% in broiler's, breeder's and duck's litters respectively. Examination of human samples declared that 8 out of 90 hand swabs were found positive for S. Kentucky whereas all stool samples reacted negatively to all Salmonella spp. In the present study, conclusively Salmonella serovars (S. Kentucky isolated from chickens were frequently isolated from hand swabs of the examined poultry contacts, this provided evidence that direct contact with poultry or poultry environment may pose health hazards for humans.

  10. Online Communication And PR in Romanian Public Administration. The Case Study of Public Institutions From Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Cristina BALABAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available New technologies such as Internet and new media introduce new challenges for public communication. Private companies from Romania use in a very creative way the new tools of Web 2.0, such as social media. In the Romanian public sector, especially in the public administration there are important steps taken towards a modern communication. Based on the example of over 40 city halls, city councils, prefectures and county councils from Transylvania, the present paper analyzes the use of new media tools in public communication by applying content analysis and in-depth interviews with the PR representatives in those institutions in two stages, 2011 and 2015. The most important advantages of online communication in public administration are high speed, cost reduction, reaching young audiences, etc. Nevertheless, there are also critical voices that express possible risks such as exclusion of audience groups that have no online media literacy.

  11. "This Is a Public Record": Teaching Human Rights through the Performing Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spero, Andrea McEvoy

    2012-01-01

    Urban youth in the United States often experience daily human rights violations such as racism and violence. Therefore, Human Rights Education (HRE) can strengthen their understanding of these issues and unleash their power to act toward positive change. This qualitative study attempted to gain a deeper understanding of the use of performance arts…

  12. "This Is a Public Record": Teaching Human Rights through the Performing Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spero, Andrea McEvoy

    2012-01-01

    Urban youth in the United States often experience daily human rights violations such as racism and violence. Therefore, Human Rights Education (HRE) can strengthen their understanding of these issues and unleash their power to act toward positive change. This qualitative study attempted to gain a deeper understanding of the use of performance arts…

  13. Epidemiological, laboratory, diagnostic and public health aspects of human brucellosis in western Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Hamid Amani; Massoud Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine brucellosis's epidemiologic, laboratory, diagnostic and public health features considering brucellosis is endemic in Azna County, western Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was investigated on 43 patients with brucellosis in Azna County. The subjects were the patients with symptoms correspondent with brucellosis and positive Wright and 2ME tests. A questionnaire about demographic, epidemiological and laboratory findings was filled in. Afterwards, patients were treated using usual antimicrobial drugs regimen. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Results:Forty-three subjects were found to be positive in laboratory tests. Incidence of Brucellosis was 59.31 per hundred thousand population. About 34.9% of patients were female and 65.1% male. Nearly 95.2 % of human cases were living in rural and 4.8 % in urban areas. Around 20.9% of patients had history of animal contact. The commonest transmission was unpasteurized dairy products (79.1%). The most contagious seasons were summer and spring (60.3%). The most common age group was 15-24 (27.9%), and about 60.5% of the patients were between 15-44 years old. Disease was more common among housewives (30.2%) and farmers (20.9%). The majority of the patients had Wright test titre=1:320 (54.1%) and 2ME test titre=1:160 (56.1%) in serological titration. Doxycycline with Rifampin was used for treatment of the greatest of patients (60.4%). Conclusions:In order to control this zoonotic disease, close cooperation of health and veterinary organizations is necessary.

  14. Performance of a rapid, on-site human immunodeficiency virus antibody assay in a public health setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Kassler, W J; Haley, C; Jones, W. K.; Gerber, A R; E. J. Kennedy; George, J R

    1995-01-01

    Rapid, on-site human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing has the potential to improve the delivery of prevention services in publicly funded counseling and testing sites. The Single Use Diagnostic System (SUDS) HIV-1 is the only rapid enzyme immunoassay (EIA) approved for diagnostic use in the United States. To evaluate the feasibility of using SUDS in public clinics and to validate the test's performance in a public health laboratory, we conducted blinded SUDS testing on plasma sent for HIV...

  15. Obstacles, Realities and Opportunities in Human Resources Management in Public Administration Institutions From Bihor County (Romania and Hajdú-Bihar County (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Madela ABRUDAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the par-ticularities of human resources management in the public institutions from Bihor County (Ro-mania and Hajdu-Bihar County (Hungary. The comparative dimension of our study is framed in Hofstede’s categories of cultural differences in organizational culture. The data presented is derived from a broader study conducted on the implementation of New Public Management at local public administration institutions in Ro-mania and Hungary. The project entitled ‘Es-tablishment of R&D programmes in the f eld of new public management between economic faculties of higher education in Hajdu-Bihar and Bihor Counties’ (HURO/0901/277/2.2.2 was developed in partnership between Faculties of Economics from the Universities of Oradea and Debrecen. Our results on public human resour-ces provide relevant insight in the processes re-garding personnel in the public institutions in this region and propose solutions for improvement of the observed weaknesses. The employees of the 60 public institutions included in this research consider themselves participants in the decision-al process, yet the evaluation process needs to be reshaped in order to provide a better balance between performances and the rewards system.

  16. A Prototype Public Speaking Skills Assessment: An Evaluation of Human-Scoring Quality. Research Report. ETS RR-15-36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Jilliam; Kitchen, Christopher; Chen, Lei; Feng, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the evaluation of human-scoring quality for an assessment of public speaking skills. Videotaped performances given by 17 speakers on 4 tasks were scored by expert and nonexpert raters who had extensive experience scoring performance-based and constructed-response assessments. The Public Speaking Competence…

  17. Modelling temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts with public activity and individual reachability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Qing; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Shu-Min; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Modelling temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts is vital both for understanding the spread of airborne pathogens and word-of-mouth spreading of information. Although many efforts have been devoted to model these temporal networks, there are still two important social features, public activity and individual reachability, have been ignored in these models. Here we present a simple model that captures these two features and other typical properties of empirical face-to-face contact networks. The model describes agents which are characterized by an attractiveness to slow down the motion of nearby people, have event-triggered active probability and perform an activity-dependent biased random walk in a square box with periodic boundary. The model quantitatively reproduces two empirical temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts which are testified by their network properties and the epidemic spread dynamics on them.

  18. The public spending crisis: a case study of Nigeria public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD(AccountingMBA.Mukoro Dick Oluku

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to discuss the differences in the concept and measurement of efficiency between the private and public sectors, stressing that the lessons from the private sector can only be transferred to the public sector if there is a proper awareness of these issues and constrains imposed by considerations of equity. In evaluating policy initiatives, the governments method for all the talk of “rolling back the public sector” and opposition companies of “cuts,” the public expenditure/EDP ration went up steadily during Obasanjo’s first term. However deep the divisions over what ought to be in the public sector, it is of paramount importance to all concerned that the resources are managed effectively. The paper argued that an attempt to instill into the public sector the cost consciousness of the best parts of the private sector is wholly admirable. In conclusion, the severity of the impending budgetary crises will make the search for greater efficiency in the public sector of paramount importance. The paper recommends that the common theme of all these cases in that an appropriate set of relative prices can encourage resources to be minimized. very great care has to be taken when introducing piecemeal charging in order to ensure that this does not have side-effects at odds with programme objectives

  19. Informing the Swedish public about radiation. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlberg, A. af

    1997-09-01

    The two Swedish state agencies handling radiation protection and nuclear safety are studied as to their information policies and documents, with special attention to Chernobyl. The principal aim is an assessment of policies and documents. A quantitative coding is made of the printed document`s key features. The study is a part of a larger CEC-project, and similar studies are made in three other countries, according to common guidelines. The general radiation situation in Sweden and its historical background is described, generating a picture of a rather safe, tightly controlled and thoroughly researched issue. The agencies are very active in their information work, using just about every conceivable channel to disseminate radiation information. The intellectual range of the printed documents is great, as very different groups are targeted, from the general public to researchers and other state agency employees

  20. Public Beliefs about Antibiotics, Infection and Resistance: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Madden

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of public views and ways of talking about antibiotics. Four focus groups were held with members of the public. In addition, 39 households were recruited and interviews, diaries of medicine taking, diaries of any contact with medication were used to explore understanding and use of medication. Discussions related to antibiotics were identified and analyzed. Participants in this study were worried about adverse effects of antibiotics, particularly for recurrent infections. Some were concerned that antibiotics upset the body’s “balance”, and many used strategies to try to prevent and treat infections without antibiotics. They rarely used military metaphors about infection (e.g., describing bacteria as invading armies but instead spoke of clearing infections. They had little understanding of the concept of antibiotic resistance but they thought that over-using antibiotics was unwise because it would reduce their future effectiveness. Previous studies tend to focus on problems such as lack of knowledge, or belief in the curative powers of antibiotics for viral illness, and neglect the concerns that people have about antibiotics, and the fact that many people try to avoid them. We suggest that these concerns about antibiotics form a resource for educating patients, for health promotion and social marketing strategies.

  1. The human right to water and sanitation: a new perspective for public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Brown

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recognition of the human right to water and sanitation (HRtWS by the United Nations General Assembly and Human Rights Council in 2010 constituted a significant political measure whose direct consequences are still being assessed. Previous to this date, the HRtWS and its link to a healthy life and adequate standard of living had been recognised in diverse legal and judicial spheres worldwide, in some cases under the pressure of the initiatives of strong social movements. However, while the HRtWS is recognised by the UN State Members, it constitutes a concept in construction that has not been approached and interpreted in consensual ways by all concerned stakeholders. The present article presents a formal definition of this right with a base in human rights regulation. It attempts to dialogue with the different existing perspectives regarding the impact of its international recognition as a human right. It then elucidates the progressive development of the HRtWS in law and jurisprudence. Finally, it considers the urgency and challenge of monitoring the HRtWS and discusses important implications for public policies.

  2. The human right to water and sanitation: a new perspective for public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin; Neves-Silva, Priscila; Heller, Léo

    2016-03-01

    The recognition of the human right to water and sanitation (HRtWS) by the United Nations General Assembly and Human Rights Council in 2010 constituted a significant political measure whose direct consequences are still being assessed. Previous to this date, the HRtWS and its link to a healthy life and adequate standard of living had been recognised in diverse legal and judicial spheres worldwide, in some cases under the pressure of the initiatives of strong social movements. However, while the HRtWS is recognised by the UN State Members, it constitutes a concept in construction that has not been approached and interpreted in consensual ways by all concerned stakeholders. The present article presents a formal definition of this right with a base in human rights regulation. It attempts to dialogue with the different existing perspectives regarding the impact of its international recognition as a human right. It then elucidates the progressive development of the HRtWS in law and jurisprudence. Finally, it considers the urgency and challenge of monitoring the HRtWS and discusses important implications for public policies.

  3. Impact of visual context on public perceptions of non-human primate performers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Leighty

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown that the use of apes, specifically chimpanzees, as performers in the media negatively impacts public attitudes of their conservation status and desirability as a pet, yet it is unclear whether these findings generalize to other non-human primates (specifically non-ape species. We evaluated the impact of viewing an image of a monkey or prosimian in an anthropomorphic or naturalistic setting, either in contact with or in the absence of a human. Viewing the primate in an anthropomorphic setting while in contact with a person significantly increased their desirability as a pet, which also correlated with increased likelihood of believing the animal was not endangered. The majority of viewers felt that the primates in all tested images were "nervous." When shown in contact with a human, viewers felt they were "sad" and "scared", while also being less "funny." Our findings highlight the potential broader implications of the use of non-human primate performers by the entertainment industry.

  4. The Human Behavioral Ecology of Contemporary World Issues : Applications to Public Policy and International Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Bram; Rende Taylor, Lisa

    2007-09-01

    Human behavioral ecology (HBE) began as an attempt to explain human economic, reproductive, and social behavior using neodarwinian theory in concert with theory from ecology and economics, and ethnographic methods. HBE has addressed subsistence decision-making, cooperation, life history trade-offs, parental investment, mate choice, and marriage strategies among hunter-gatherers, herders, peasants, and wage earners in rural and urban settings throughout the world. Despite our rich insights into human behavior, HBE has very rarely been used as a tool to help the people with whom we work. This article introduces a special issue of Human Nature which explores the application of HBE to significant world issues through the design and critique of public policy and international development projects. The articles by Tucker, Shenk, Leonetti et al., and Neil were presented at the 104th annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) in Washington, D.C., in December 2005, in the first organized session of the nascent Evolutionary Anthropology Section (EAS). We conclude this introduction by summarizing some theoretical challenges to applying HBE, and ways in which evolutionary anthropologists can contribute to solving tough world issues.

  5. ETHICS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. CASE STUDY – ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rãzvan VIORESCU; Gabriela NEMÞOI

    2015-01-01

    Public services represent useful activities designated to meet a social need. The laws and regulations empower the activities of public services, without indicating the motives for public services. The impact of government in day to day life of citizens and communities is increasingly greater in terms of both public affairs management and budgetary aspect. The power to spend the community resources and to influence the lives of others means at the same time a great responsibility. That is the...

  6. THICS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. CASE STUDY – ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Răzvan VIORESCU; Gabriela NEMŢOI

    2015-01-01

    Public services represent useful activities designated to meet a social need. The laws and regulations empower the activities of public services, without indicating the motives for public services. The impact of government in day to day life of citizens and communities is increasingly greater in terms of both public affairs management and budgetary aspect. The power to spend the community resources and to influence the lives of others means at the same time a great responsibility. That is the...

  7. Going public and initial public offering: An exploratory study of motives from Serbian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Srđan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores motives for and against going public, from the insider point of view. We employed tailor-made structured questionnaire framework to analyze advantages and disadvantages as perceived by CEO/controlling owners. Responses point out that most companies' insiders sees going public as being potentially beneficial strategy in terms of financial restructuring, efficiently combining its business to strategic alliances, possibility to divest, visibility and image of the company. The overall positive impression is offset with some disadvantages: costs and risks imposed to those who going public. Moreover, the sample is stratified in order to gain insights into how four companies' features influence the relative importance of the motives pro et contra going public. Finally, correlation matrix is employed to assess how logically robust are the responses.

  8. Humanizing HIV/AIDS and its (re)stigmatizing effects: HIV public 'positive' speaking in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Mark; Sarangi, Srikant

    2009-01-01

    Social stigma has been inextricably linked with HIV and AIDS since the epidemic erupted in the early 1980s. The stigma that has built up around HIV and AIDS is generally regarded as having a negative impact on the quality of life of HIV-positive people and on general prevention efforts. Current attempts to combat HIV-related stigma focus on increasing the acceptance of HIV among the stigmatizing public and stigmatized individuals alike. In this, the global HIV-positive community is being increasingly called upon to ;humanize' the virus, not least through public displays of HIV 'positive' health and public ;positive' speaking. This article critically explores the constitutive effects and inherent power relations of HIV Positive Speakers' Bureaus (PSBs) as a platform for such a display. Adopting a post-structuralist discourse analytic approach, we explore accounts of positive-speaking and HIV health from HIV-related non-government organizations in India and in PSB training manuals. In particular, we highlight ways in which positive-speaking in India can be seen to have significant (re)stigmatizing effects by way of ambivalent and hyper-real configurations of HIV 'positive' identity and life.

  9. Study on Angiogenesis Factor of Human Osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Angiogenesis factor of human osteosarcoma was partially purified and its biological features were studied. The active peptide with 8000 to 10 000 u molecular weight in the conditioned medium obtained from the cultivation of human osteosarcoma cells were partially purified by ultrafiltration, chromatography and dialysis. The angiogenic effects of the fractions were assessed by proliferation assay of human umbilical vein and pig aorta thoracic endothelial cells. The results showed that the chromatography fractions of 4 to 6 could significantly promote the proliferation of the endothelial cells. It was suggested that the human osteosarcoma cells could synthesize and secrete angiogenesis factor with a molecular weight of 8000 to 10 000 u.

  10. Are Social Studies Teachers Teaching Secular Humanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Rod

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the controversy over teaching what religious fundamentalists and social conservatives consider secular humanism. Suggests that modern social studies does not support secular humanism even though they share epistemological and ethical assumptions (the use of the scientific method, intelligent reasoning). Provides suggestions for teachers…

  11. Longitudinal Study-Based Dementia Prediction for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HeeChel Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public health in Korea has attracted significant attention given the aging of the country’s population, which has created many types of social problems. The approach proposed in this article aims to address dementia, one of the most significant symptoms of aging and a public health care issue in Korea. The Korean National Health Insurance Service Senior Cohort Database contains personal medical data of every citizen in Korea. There are many different medical history patterns between individuals with dementia and normal controls. The approach used in this study involved examination of personal medical history features from personal disease history, sociodemographic data, and personal health examinations to develop a prediction model. The prediction model used a support-vector machine learning technique to perform a 10-fold cross-validation analysis. The experimental results demonstrated promising performance (80.9% F-measure. The proposed approach supported the significant influence of personal medical history features during an optimal observation period. It is anticipated that a biomedical “big data”-based disease prediction model may assist the diagnosis of any disease more correctly.

  12. Longitudinal Study-Based Dementia Prediction for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HeeChel; Chun, Hong-Woo; Kim, Seonho; Coh, Byoung-Youl; Kwon, Oh-Jin; Moon, Yeong-Ho

    2017-08-30

    The issue of public health in Korea has attracted significant attention given the aging of the country's population, which has created many types of social problems. The approach proposed in this article aims to address dementia, one of the most significant symptoms of aging and a public health care issue in Korea. The Korean National Health Insurance Service Senior Cohort Database contains personal medical data of every citizen in Korea. There are many different medical history patterns between individuals with dementia and normal controls. The approach used in this study involved examination of personal medical history features from personal disease history, sociodemographic data, and personal health examinations to develop a prediction model. The prediction model used a support-vector machine learning technique to perform a 10-fold cross-validation analysis. The experimental results demonstrated promising performance (80.9% F-measure). The proposed approach supported the significant influence of personal medical history features during an optimal observation period. It is anticipated that a biomedical "big data"-based disease prediction model may assist the diagnosis of any disease more correctly.

  13. [Productivity and academic assessment in the Brazilian public health field: challenges for Human and Social Sciences research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2012-12-01

    This article analyzes some challenges for knowledge output in the human and social sciences in the public health field, under the current academic assessment model in Brazil. The article focuses on the qualitative research approach in human and social sciences, analyzing its status in comparison to the other traditions vying for hegemony in the public health field, conjugating the dialogue with the literature, especially the propositions pertaining to the social fields present in the work of Pierre Bourdieu, with elements concerning the field's dynamics, including some empirical data. Challenges identified in the article include hurdles to interdisciplinary dialogue and equity in the production of knowledge, based on recognition of the founding place of human and social sciences in the public health field. The article discusses strategies to reshape the current correlation of forces among centers of knowledge in public health, especially those capable of impacting the committees and agendas that define the accumulation of symbolic and economic capital in the field.

  14. Human biomonitoring pilot study DEMOCOPHES in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwedler, Gerda; Seiwert, Margarete; Fiddicke, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    on a European Scale) and DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale) were formed, comprising 35 partners from 27 European countries. In COPHES a research scheme and guidelines were developed to exemplarily measure in a pilot study mercury in hair......Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool to assess human exposure to environmental pollutants, but comparable HBM data in Europe are lacking. In order to expedite harmonization of HBM studies on a European scale, the twin projects COPHES (Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring......, cadmium, cotinine and several phthalate metabolites in urine of 6–11 year old children and their mothers in an urban and a rural region. Seventeen European countries simultaneously conducted this cross-sectional DEMOCOPHES feasibility study. The German study population was taken in the city of Bochum...

  15. Prevalence of human cell material: DNA and RNA profiling of public and private objects and after activity scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berge, M; Ozcanhan, G; Zijlstra, S; Lindenbergh, A; Sijen, T

    2016-03-01

    Especially when minute evidentiary traces are analysed, background cell material unrelated to the crime may contribute to detectable levels in the genetic analyses. To gain understanding on the composition of human cell material residing on surfaces contributing to background traces, we performed DNA and mRNA profiling on samplings of various items. Samples were selected by considering events contributing to cell material deposits in exemplary activities (e.g. dragging a person by the trouser ankles), and can be grouped as public objects, private samples, transfer-related samples and washing machine experiments. Results show that high DNA yields do not necessarily relate to an increased number of contributors or to the detection of other cell types than skin. Background cellular material may be found on any type of public or private item. When a major contributor can be deduced in DNA profiles from private items, this can be a different person than the owner of the item. Also when a specific activity is performed and the areas of physical contact are analysed, the "perpetrator" does not necessarily represent the major contributor in the STR profile. Washing machine experiments show that transfer and persistence during laundry is limited for DNA and cell type dependent for RNA. Skin conditions such as the presence of sebum or sweat can promote DNA transfer. Results of this study, which encompasses 549 samples, increase our understanding regarding the prevalence of human cell material in background and activity scenarios.

  16. A longitudinal study of Salmonella from snakes used in a public outreach program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Brad A; Trent, Ava M; Bender, Jeff; Olsen, Karen E; Morningstar, Brenda R; Wünschmann, Arno

    2012-12-01

    Snakes are considered to be a source of Salmonella infection for humans, but little is known about the actual serotype prevalence in healthy snakes over time. Twelve snakes involved in a public outreach program, representing seven different species, were tested weekly for shedding of Salmonella sp. over a period of 10 consecutive weeks. The snakes were housed in close proximity but in separate exhibits. Fresh fecal samples (when available) or cloacal swabs were cultured for Salmonella sp., and subsequent Salmonella isolates were serotyped. As representatives of the feed source, the feces of two mice and the intestines of one rat were cultured weekly. Fecal samples from 11 of the 12 snakes were positive for Salmonella at least once. Seven (58%) of 12 snakes were culture positive five times or more. The weekly prevalence of Salmonella shedding varied between 25% and 66%. Two or more different serotypes were isolated from nine snakes over time; however, a predominant serotype was generally isolated from each of these snakes. Altogether 15 different serotypes were identified. Serotypes of public health concern included Newport, Oranienburg, and Muenchen. Two samples from feeder rodents were positive for Salmonella. The results are consistent with previous studies showing high intestinal colonization rates with Salmonella sp. in snakes. Frequent and intermittent shedding of multiple serotypes was evident. Feeder rodents might serve as a source for intestinal colonization. Appropriate handling protocols should be implemented for all reptiles associated with public outreach programs to minimize risk of Salmonella transmission to the public.

  17. [Using consumer panels in public health observational studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, José M

    Consumer panels are a market research method useful for gathering information about low-frequency or difficult-access customers. The objective of this field-note is to explain our experience using this method in a cross-sectional public health study on the use of electronic cigarettes. After taking into account other non-probabilistic sampling techniques to obtain a huge sample of electronic-cigarette users (n=600), in the end we decided to use consumer panels (recruiters) because of the relative short duration of the field work and the high representativeness of the sample. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The pros and cons of human therapeutic cloning in the public debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippert, Irmgard

    2002-09-11

    Few issues linked to genetic research have raised as much controversial debate as the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer technology to create embryos specifically for stem cell research. Whereas European countries unanimously agree that reproductive cloning should be prohibited there is no agreement to be found on whether or not research into therapeutic cloning should be permitted. Since the UK took the lead and voted in favour of regulations allowing therapeutic cloning the public debate has intensified on the Continent. This debate reflects the wide spectrum of diverse religious and secular moralities that are prevalent in modern multicultural European democratic societies. Arguments range from putting forward strictly utilitarian views that weight the moral issues involved against the potential benefits that embryonic stem cell research may harbour to considering the embryo as a human being, endowed with human dignity and human rights from the moment of its creation, concluding that its use for research is unethical and should be strictly prohibited. Given the current state of dissension among the various European states, it is difficult to predict whether 'non-harmonisation' will prevail or whether in the long run 'harmonisation' of legislation that will allow stem cell research will evolve in the EU.

  19. Multiple Case Studies of Public Library Systems in New York State: Service Decision-Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoai

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the functions and roles of public library systems in New York State and the services they provide for individual libraries and the public. The dissertation further studied the service decision-making processes at three selected New York State cooperative public library systems. Public library systems have played an important…

  20. Multiple Case Studies of Public Library Systems in New York State: Service Decision-Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoai

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the functions and roles of public library systems in New York State and the services they provide for individual libraries and the public. The dissertation further studied the service decision-making processes at three selected New York State cooperative public library systems. Public library systems have played an important…

  1. STUDY ON INDEX SYSTEM OF ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC DISASTER PERCEPTION IN THE WESTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi; LI Jing-yi; ZHAO Jing-bo

    2003-01-01

    The study on humanity response to global environment change is a new direction in the research of global change science, of which an important aspect is to study the adaptation strategies of human being to environ-mental changes in different regions. One reasonable and scientific adaptation strategy is based on not only scientific assessment of the impact of environmental change on society, but also correct estimation of the public perception of environmental change, whereas the research on the latter is terriibly weak. This paper intends to understand the per-sonality difference in public perception of environment in the western China primarily by establishing the assessment index system of nation environmental perception and analyzing the results of questionnaire survey in some regions of Shaanxi Province. The conclusions are as follows: 1) The state of public perception of disaster is one of the founda-tions of constituting and enforcing reasonable adaptation strategy to environmental change. 2) The personality differ-ences of public perception of disaster appear as follows: female disaster perception is stronger than male; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of age characteristics is 20-30, 0-20, 40-50, 30-40, 50-60,60 year old or over in turns; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of educational char-acteristics is senior high school, college, illiterate, junior high school, primary school, in turns; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of occupation characteristics is student, farmer, teacher, worker and functionary, in tums; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of habitat characteristics is city, countryside, towns, and metropolis in turns.

  2. Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

  3. Investigating Public Facility Characteristics from a Spatial Interaction Perspective: A Case Study of Beijing Hospitals Using Taxi Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Kong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Services provided by public facilities are essential to people’s lives and are closely associated with human mobility. Traditionally, public facility access characteristics, such as accessibility, equity issues and service areas, are investigated mainly based on static data (census data, travel surveys and particular records, such as medical records. Currently, the advent of big data offers an unprecedented opportunity to obtain large-scale human mobility data, which can be used to study the characteristics of public facilities from the spatial interaction perspective. Intuitively, spatial interaction characteristics and service areas of different types and sizes of public facilities are different, but how different remains an open question, so we, in turn, examine this question. Based on spatial interaction, we classify public facilities and explore the differences in facilities. In the research, based on spatial interaction extracted from taxi data, we introduce an unsupervised classification method to classify 78 hospitals in 6 districts of Beijing, and the results better reflect the type of hospital. The findings are of great significance for optimizing the spatial configuration of medical facilities or other types of public facilities, allocating public resources reasonably and relieving traffic pressure.

  4. Study on Virtual Human Skeleton System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭巧; 李亦

    2004-01-01

    A solution of virtual human skeleton system is proposed. Some issues on integration of anatomical geometry, biodynamics and computer animation are studied. The detailed skeleton system model that incorporates the biodynamic and geometric characteristics of a human skeleton system allows some performance studies in greater detail than that performed before. It may provide an effective and convenient way to analyze and evaluate the movement performance of a human body when the personalized anatomical data are used in the models. An example shows that the proposed solution is effective for the stated problems.

  5. Evaluation and analysis of urban public spaces using TOPSIS model (Case Study: Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Poormohammadi

    2013-01-01

    the recent decades and the imbalance and inequality of public spaces in 9 different urban areas of Tabriz, study and assessment of population density in all of the 9 urban areas by related organizations and finding and executing proper strategies that produce balance between public spaces and the present population of a given urban area, is more urgent than before. So regarding the lack of urban public spaces in Tabriz in most of the introduced indices, it is imperative to produce required spaces in each one of the regions that, based on the indices, suffers a lack of urban public spaces. Urban traffic is one of the problems that can be seen in most of the cities, in Tabriz, especially in downtown and the old parts of town, there is a heavy traffic during daylight time. It can be inferred that if the distribution of public spaces is done properly, it is only logical that the number of the people who, because of the lack of a required space, go from one region to another district, will decrease.Keyword: Public Urban Spaces, Area and the Area for each Individual, Development Space Tabriz, TOPSIS Method. ReferencesArsee, C. E. (1994. Comprehensive Plan of Tabriz, The Way and Urbanism Organization of East Azarbayjan Province.Arsee, C. E. (1994. Designing of Development and Civil, Sphere of Influence of Tabriz.Azimi, N. (2010. Position of Public Spaces and Urbanism With An Emphasis Urbanism India.Bacon, E. (1967. Design of Cities, Tehran, The Research and Study Center of the Architecture and Urbanism of Iran.Calthorpe, P. (1993. The next American Metropolis, Princeton Architectural Press, Dissent 479- 485.Goodmann, W. (1968. Principles and Practice of Urban Planning, International City Managers Association, Washington.Habibi, M. (1996. Dela Cite a La Ville, Tehran University.Hafeznia, M. R. (2010. An Introduction to the Research Method in Humanities, Samt Publishers, Seventeenth Edition, Center of Human Sciences Research and Development.Harvey, D. (1997. Social Justice and

  6. The Stamford Public Education Facilities Utilization Plan. Stamford Educational Public Policy Impact Study. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Marcia Marker; And Others

    In the last decade, Stamford has been transformed from a suburban town to an urban center of national renown. A responsive yet directive public school system is critical in preserving a feeling of community. The Stanford Educational Planning Committee, a team of interdisciplinary professionals and a broad-based community group, examined trends in…

  7. Transformation of Public Kindergartens in Shenzhen: Internet Study of Public Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, X. Christine

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the central government of China has been gradually privatizing early childhood education. As the main precursor of this large-scale reform in the country, Shenzhen has witnessed several innovative as well as radical changes. The existing public early childhood settings in the city were therefore forced to transform into…

  8. 人口老龄化、公共人力资本投资与经济增长%POPULATION AGING,PUBLIC HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊培; 赵斌

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the growth-oriented optimal structure and relative scale of public hu-man capital investment in an aging society by establishing an extended overlapping-generation model which endogenizes population aging.The theoretical analyses indicate that there are inverse U-curve relationships between the relative scale and structure of public human capital investment and economic growth.The op-timal scale and structure of public human capital investment are reflected by the correlation of aging popu-lation and economic growth.Specifically,if aging has positive (negative)effects on economic growth,the growth-oriented policy is to increase (decrease)public human capital investment to GDP ratio and public health investment to public human capital investment ratio.The empirical studies based on the panel data of Chinese provinces suggest that population aging has negative effects on economic growth.The scale of the public human capital investment and the proportion of public human health investment become so large,lying in the decline stage of inverse U-curve,that they depress the economic growth through crowd-ed-out effects.The policy implications of this paper are as follows:the government should increase the public education investment to public human capital investment ratio and encourage more efficient social private capital to invest in human capital accumulation so as to decrease the relative scale of public human capital investment;the scale of public physical investment should be reinforced at present.%本文利用内生化老龄化的世代交叠模型,探讨了老龄化社会中为了促进经济增长可选择的公共人力资本投资的最优相对规模和结构。本文研究表明,公共人力资本投资相对规模(即占 GDP 比例)和公共健康支出占比(即占公共人力资本投资比例)均与经济增长呈倒 U型关系,且最优值通过老龄化对经济增长的作用表现出来。即当老龄化对经济增

  9. Study of Womens Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Public Use Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Public Use Datasets provide access to longitudinal data describing the physical, biological, psychological, and social changes that occur during the...

  10. Incorporating public priorities in the Ocean Health Index: Canada as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Philippe; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Stewart Lowndes, Julia S.; Côté, Isabelle M.

    2017-01-01

    The Ocean Health Index (OHI) is a framework to assess ocean health by considering many benefits (called ‘goals’) provided by the ocean provides to humans, such as food provision, tourism opportunities, and coastal protection. The OHI framework can be used to assess marine areas at global or regional scales, but how various OHI goals should be weighted to reflect priorities at those scales remains unclear. In this study, we adapted the framework in two ways for application to Canada as a case study. First, we customized the OHI goals to create a national Canadian Ocean Health Index (COHI). In particular, we altered the list of iconic species assessed, added methane clathrates and subsea permafrost as carbon storage habitats, and developed a new goal, 'Aboriginal Needs', to measure access of Aboriginal people to traditional marine hunting and fishing grounds. Second, we evaluated various goal weighting schemes based on preferences elicited from the general public in online surveys. We quantified these public preferences in three ways: using Likert scores, simple ranks from a best-worst choice experiment, and model coefficients from the analysis of elicited choice experiment. The latter provided the clearest statistical discrimination among goals, and we recommend their use because they can more accurately reflect both public opinion and the trade-offs faced by policy-makers. This initial iteration of the COHI can be used as a baseline against which future COHI scores can be compared, and could potentially be used as a management tool to prioritise actions on a national scale and predict public support for these actions given that the goal weights are based on public priorities. PMID:28542394

  11. Rimonabant effects on anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in healthy humans: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Queiroz, Regina H C; Chagas, Marcos H N; Linares, Ila M P; Arrais, Kátia C; de Oliveira, Danielle C G; Queiroz, Maria E; Nardi, Antonio E; Huestis, Marilyn A; Hallak, Jaime E C; Zuardi, Antonio W; Moreira, Fabrício A; Crippa, José A S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that rimonabant, a cannabinoid antagonist/inverse agonist, would increase anxiety in healthy subjects during a simulation of the public speaking test. Participants were randomly allocated to receive oral placebo or 90 mg rimonabant in a double-blind design. Subjective effects were measured by Visual Analogue Mood Scale. Physiological parameters, namely arterial blood pressure and heart rate, also were monitored. Twelve participants received oral placebo and 12 received 90 mg rimonabant. Rimonabant increased self-reported anxiety levels during the anticipatory speech and performance phase compared with placebo. Interestingly, rimonabant did not modulate anxiety prestress and was not associated with sedation, cognitive impairment, discomfort, or blood pressure changes. Cannabinoid-1 antagonism magnifies the responses to an anxiogenic stimulus without interfering with the prestress phase. These data suggest that the endocannabinoid system may work on-demand to counteract the consequences of anxiogenic stimuli in healthy humans. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Osteometric study of human femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel N.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Skeleton is playing important role in various like Medicine, Forensic sciences, Anthropology etc. Estimation of sex, age, race, stature by skeleton and the presence of disease is discovered by Krogman and Iscan (1986. Sex is determined after death by skeletal remains of that individual by some forensic anthropologists with the help of pelvis, skull and long bones. The study was undertaken in 50 femurs for measuring epicondylar breadth, Neck shaft angle, transverse and vertical diameter of head. The results were the average meanepicondylar breadth was 75.6 ± 6.06mm, mean right epicondylar breadth was 73.96 ± 4.99mm and left it was 76.35 ± 7.0mm. The average mean neck shaft angle was 125.3 ± 6.50mm, mean right neck shaft angle was 124.44 ± 5.7mm and left it was 126.3 ± 7.33mm. The average mean transverse diameter of head was 37.86 ± 3.06mm, mean right transverse diameter of head was 37.74 ± 3.05mm and left it was 38.00 ± 3.13mm. The average mean vertical diameter of head was 42.24 ± 3.53mm, mean right vertical diameter of head was 41.63 ± 3.09mm and left it was 42.96 ± 3.92mm, Neck shaft angle ranges from a minimum of 106° to maximum 135° with a mean value of 125.3°. The knowledge of osteometric values is helpful to anthropological and forensic practice. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 104-107

  13. Experimental pretesting of public health campaigns: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, Jill; Ruiter, Robert A C; Zimbile, Filippo; Kok, Gerjo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the merits of evaluating new public health campaign materials in the developmental phase using an experimental design. This is referred to as experimental pretesting. In practice, most new materials are tested only after they have been distributed using nonexperimental or quasiexperimental designs. In cases where materials are pretested prior to distribution, pretesting is usually done using qualitative research methods such as focus groups. Although these methods are useful, they cannot reliably predict the effectiveness of new campaign materials in a developmental phase. Therefore, we suggest when pretesting new materials, not only qualitative research methods but also experimental research methods must be used. The present study discusses an experimental pretest study of new campaign materials intended for distribution in a national sexually transmitted infection (STI) AIDS prevention campaign in the Netherlands. The campaign material tested was the storyline of a planned television commercial on safe sex. A storyboard that consisted of drawings and text was presented to members of the target population, namely, students between the ages of 14 and 16 enrolled in vocational schools. Results showed positive effects on targeted determinants of safe sexual behavior. The advantages, practical implications, and limitations of experimental pretesting are discussed.

  14. Centers for Catholic Studies and the Public Voice of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Erin

    2011-01-01

    This article explores debates about the public role of religion in a secular context. Drawing on the work of critical theorist, Jurgen Habermas, this article claims that the United States requires a viable public sphere in which religious and secular voices can learn from each other. Highlighting the work of the Lane Center for Catholic Studies…

  15. An Empirical Study on Public Debt's Determinants: Evidence from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilen Gabriel PIRTEA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for coordinating economic and budgetary policies in the Economic and Monetary Union, the awareness that pile of high public debt threatens future generations, increasing tax burden on a globalized market and the impact of population aging process on public finances has led to controversial opinions. Continuously borrowing resources and maintaining them consistently over time means to have a sustainable public debt, an important objective of any state fiscal policy. A sustainable public debt is the result of trade and monetary policy and budgetary decisions. The national debt is at the center of the current crisis of the Peripheral European countries. The objective of the paper is to provide a better understanding of public debt dynamics in Romania in the period 2000 to 2011. We decompose the changes in public debt to GDP ratio into macroeconomic components attributable to primary fiscal deficits, real interest rate, real GDP growth, and to the variations on foreign currency denominated debt. The research findings suggest that the reaction of the public debt to GDP ratio to the real growth rate of the output increased after the financial crisis. The real interest rate on government bonds remained a significant determinant of public debt in the entire sample period. Also, we find little effectiveness of monetary policy as an automatic stabilizer through the entire sample period.

  16. Studying Indiana Public Libraries' Usage of Internet Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Alberta Davis

    2005-01-01

    A lot of literature from the past few years has discussed the importance of bridging the digital divide that exists between those with Internet access and those without. Public libraries have often declared themselves to be that bridge. This article looks at how Indiana's public libraries allow the citizens they serve access to the Internet. With…

  17. Team incentives in public organisations; an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, P; Vyrastekova, J; Onderstal, S.

    2006-01-01

    Using a simple production game, we investigate whether public firms perform better when they increase the power of their workers¿ incentive schemes. In a laboratory experiment, subjects choose between a `public firm¿ and a `private firm¿ with team and individual incentives, respectively. When

  18. Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; Ahonen, Pirkko S.

    2008-01-01

    The Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program supports the emergence and growth of choice initiatives across the country, by assisting states and local school districts in developing innovative strategies to expand public school choice options for students. This report contains the final assessment of the first five years of the VPSC Program…

  19. Centers for Catholic Studies and the Public Voice of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Erin

    2011-01-01

    This article explores debates about the public role of religion in a secular context. Drawing on the work of critical theorist, Jurgen Habermas, this article claims that the United States requires a viable public sphere in which religious and secular voices can learn from each other. Highlighting the work of the Lane Center for Catholic Studies…

  20. On the Study of the Translation of Public Signs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴爱萍

    2014-01-01

    Public sign is a unique writing style, the article talks about its definition and classification;it also discusses the existing problems, exploring some possible causes in Chinese-English translations. It offers some useful suggestions to establish standard translation so as to give people an accurate direction on public signs translation.

  1. Assessing Progress towards Public Health, Human Rights, and International Development Goals Using Frontier Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Indicators to measure progress towards achieving public health, human rights, and international development targets, such as 100% access to improved drinking water or zero maternal mortality ratio, generally focus on status (i.e., level of attainment or coverage) or trends in status (i.e., rates of change). However, these indicators do not account for different levels of development that countries experience, thus making it difficult to compare progress between countries. We describe a recently developed new use of frontier analysis and apply this method to calculate country performance indices in three areas: maternal mortality ratio, poverty headcount ratio, and primary school completion rate. Frontier analysis is used to identify the maximum achievable rates of change, defined by the historically best-performing countries, as a function of coverage level. Performance indices are calculated by comparing a country's rate of change against the maximum achievable rate at the same coverage level. A country's performance can be positive or negative, corresponding to progression or regression, respectively. The calculated performance indices allow countries to be compared against each other regardless of whether they have only begun to make progress or whether they have almost achieved the target. This paper is the first to use frontier analysis to determine the maximum achievable rates as a function of coverage level and to calculate performance indices for public health, human rights, and international development indicators. The method can be applied to multiple fields and settings, for example health targets such as cessation in smoking or specific vaccine immunizations, and offers both a new approach to analyze existing data and a new data source for consideration when assessing progress achieved.

  2. Assessing Progress towards Public Health, Human Rights, and International Development Goals Using Frontier Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Luh

    Full Text Available Indicators to measure progress towards achieving public health, human rights, and international development targets, such as 100% access to improved drinking water or zero maternal mortality ratio, generally focus on status (i.e., level of attainment or coverage or trends in status (i.e., rates of change. However, these indicators do not account for different levels of development that countries experience, thus making it difficult to compare progress between countries. We describe a recently developed new use of frontier analysis and apply this method to calculate country performance indices in three areas: maternal mortality ratio, poverty headcount ratio, and primary school completion rate. Frontier analysis is used to identify the maximum achievable rates of change, defined by the historically best-performing countries, as a function of coverage level. Performance indices are calculated by comparing a country's rate of change against the maximum achievable rate at the same coverage level. A country's performance can be positive or negative, corresponding to progression or regression, respectively. The calculated performance indices allow countries to be compared against each other regardless of whether they have only begun to make progress or whether they have almost achieved the target. This paper is the first to use frontier analysis to determine the maximum achievable rates as a function of coverage level and to calculate performance indices for public health, human rights, and international development indicators. The method can be applied to multiple fields and settings, for example health targets such as cessation in smoking or specific vaccine immunizations, and offers both a new approach to analyze existing data and a new data source for consideration when assessing progress achieved.

  3. Food system policy, public health, and human rights in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kerry L; Kim, Brent F; McKenzie, Shawn E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2015-03-18

    The US food system functions within a complex nexus of social, political, economic, cultural, and ecological factors. Among them are many dynamic pressures such as population growth, urbanization, socioeconomic inequities, climate disruption, and the increasing demand for resource-intensive foods that place immense strains on public health and the environment. This review focuses on the role that policy plays in defining the food system, particularly with regard to agriculture. It further examines the challenges of making the food supply safe, nutritious, and sustainable, while respecting the rights of all people to have access to adequate food and to attain the highest standard of health. We conclude that the present US food system is largely unhealthy, inequitable, environmentally damaging, and insufficiently resilient to endure the impacts of climate change, resource depletion, and population increases, and is therefore unsustainable. Thus, it is imperative that the US embraces policy reforms to transform the food system into one that supports public health and reflects the principles of human rights and agroecology for the benefit of current and future generations.

  4. A Study on the Translation of Public Signs in Fuzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ni

    2016-01-01

    Public signs, as a city's"name card", have attracted wide attention. However,inappropriate translation of public signs are ubiquitous with some even cause misunderstandings for international visitors. In this paper, we first introduce the function of public signs, then through case analysis many problems are exposed and those errors bring a lot of inconvenience for foreigners who live and work in China.What’s worse, to some extent, China’s image and reputation will also be undermined.Finally, an ap-peal is made for a standardized translation of public signs and more research should be done and effective measures should be taken to improve the quality of the language environment and public signs translation.

  5. 77 FR 26012 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Doc No: 2012-10513] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential... INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972, Public Law 92-463, 5 U.S.C. app. 2... panel of the nation's leaders in medicine, science, ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The...

  6. Public-private partnerships to build human capacity in low income countries: findings from the Pfizer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connelly Patrick

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of health organizations in developing countries to expand access to quality services depends in large part on organizational and human capacity. Capacity building includes professional development of staff, as well as efforts to create working environments conducive to high levels of performance. The current study evaluated an approach to public-private partnership where corporate volunteers give technical assistance to improve organizational and staff performance. From 2003 to 2005, the Pfizer Global Health Fellows program sent 72 employees to work with organizations in 19 countries. This evaluation was designed to assess program impact. Methods The researchers administered a survey to 60 Fellows and 48 Pfizer Supervisors. In addition, the team conducted over 100 interviews with partner organization staff and other key informants during site visits in Uganda, Kenya, Ghana, South Africa and India, the five countries where 60% of Fellows were placed. Results Over three-quarters of Fellowships appear to have imparted skills or enhanced operations of NGOs in HIV/AIDS and other health programs. Overall, 79% of Fellows reported meeting all or most technical assistance goals. Partner organization staff reported that the Fellows provided training to clinical and research personnel; strengthened laboratory, pharmacy, financial control, and human resource management systems; and helped expand Partner organization networks. Local staff also reported the Program changed their work habits and attitudes. The evaluation identified problems in defining goals of Fellowships and matching Organizations with Fellows. Capacity building success also appears related to size and sophistication of partner organization. Conclusion Public expectations have grown regarding the role corporations should play in improving health systems in developing countries. Corporate philanthropy programs based on "donations" of personnel can help build

  7. Do we develop public health leaders?- association between public health competencies and emotional intelligence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Malho, André; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Popa, Daniela; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-04-17

    Professional development of public health leaders requires a form of instruction which is competency-based to help them develop the abilities to address complex and evolving demands of health care systems. Concurrently, emotional intelligence (EI) is a key to organisational success. Our aim was twofold: i) to assess the relationship between the level of self-assessed public health and EI competencies among Master of European Public Health (MEPH) students and graduates at Maastricht University, and; ii) to determine the relationship between different groups of public health competencies and specific EI skills. A cross-sectional study was conducted including all recent MEPH graduates and students from 2009-2012, out of 67 eligible candidates N = 51 were contacted and N = 33 responded (11 males and 22 females; overall response: 64.7%).Two validated tools were employed: i) public health competencies self-assessment questionnaire, and; ii) Assessing Emotions Scale. Females scored higher than males in all seven domains of the self-assessed key public health competencies (NS) and emotional intelligence competences (P = 0.022). Overall, the mean value of public health competencies was the lowest in students with "staff" preferences and the highest among students with mixed job preferences (P emotional intelligence competencies (r = 0.61, P < 0.001). The study shows a positive correlation between public health specific competencies and EI attributes. It can contribute to the improvement of the educational content of PH curricula by rising awareness through self-assessment and supporting the identification of further educational needs related to leadership.

  8. HUMAN HAND STUDY FOR ROBOTIC EXOSKELETON DELVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIROUAS Flaviu Ionut

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will be presenting research with application in the rehabilitation of hand motor functions by the aid of robotics. The focus will be on the dimensional parameters of the biological human hand from which the robotic system will be developed. The term used for such measurements is known as anthropometrics. The anthropometric parameters studied and presented in this paper are mainly related to the angular limitations of the finger joints of the human hand.

  9. Human Health Impacts of and Public Health Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, K. L.

    2007-12-01

    Weather and climate are among the factors that determine the geographic range and incidence of several major causes of ill health, including undernutrition, diarrheal diseases and other conditions due to unsafe water and lack of basic sanitation, and malaria. The Human Health chapter in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that climate change has begun to negatively affect human health, and that projected climate change will increase the risks of climate-sensitive health outcomes, particularly in lower-income populations, predominantly within tropical/subtropical countries. Those at greatest risk include the urban poor, older adults, children, traditional societies, subsistence farmers, and coastal populations, particularly in low income countries. The cause-and-effect chain from climate change to changing patterns of health determinants and outcomes is complex and includes socioeconomic, institutional, and other factors. The severity of future impacts will be determined by changes in climate as well as by concurrent changes in nonclimatic factors and by the adaptation measures implemented to reduce negative impacts. Public health has a long history of effectively intervening to reduce risks to the health of individuals and communities. Lessons learned from more than 150 years of research and intervention can provide insights to guide the design and implementation of effective and efficient interventions to reduce the current and projected impacts of climate variability and change.

  10. Prominent Human Health Impacts from Several Marine Microbes: History, Ecology, and Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bienfang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews several examples of important public health impacts by marine microbes and directs readers to the extensive literature germane to these maladies. These examples include three types of dinoflagellates (Gambierdiscus spp., Karenia brevis, and Alexandrium fundyense, BMAA-producing cyanobacteria, and infectious microbes. The dinoflagellates are responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, respectively, that have plagued coastal populations over time. Research interest on the potential for marine cyanobacteria to contribute BMAA into human food supplies has been derived by BMAA's discovery in cycad seeds and subsequent implication as the putative cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex among the Chamorro people of Guam. Recent UPLC/MS analyses indicate that recent reports that BMAA is prolifically distributed among marine cyanobacteria at high concentrations may be due to analyte misidentification in the analytical protocols being applied for BMAA. Common infectious microbes (including enterovirus, norovirus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia cause gastrointestinal and skin-related illness. These microbes can be introduced from external human and animal sources, or they can be indigenous to the marine environment.

  11. [The function of the group tutorial in training human resources in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Pizarro, L; Rodríguez-Roa, G

    1994-01-01

    Within the educational system, the method of group tutor was developed as a teaching strategy: the tutor goes along with a group of students to field training and works with them on the systematization and analysis of the study to obtain the final report. The purpose of this paper is to recuperate the work experience of the Department of Didactics of the School of Public Health of Mexico during 1991. A relevant conclusion is that this form of work needs to be studied and developed, since it demands a greater amount of independence from the students and requires a different participation from the teacher, both as coordinator and advisor.

  12. Bio-terrorism, human security and public health: can international law bring them together in an age of globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2005-09-01

    Bio-terrorism, the use of a microorganism with the deliberate intent of causing infection, before and since the anthrax attacks in the United States in October 2001, has emerged as a real medical and public health threat. The link between bio-terrorism, human security and public health raises complex questions on the normative trajectories of international law, the mandates of international organizations, and global health governance. In May 2001, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) passed a resolution entitled "Global Health Security: Epidemic Alert and Response" which inter alia, urged WHO member states to participate actively in the verification and validation of surveillance data and information concerning health emergencies of international concern. This article explores the links between bio-terrorism, human security and public health, and investigates the effectiveness of international legal mechanisms that link them in an age of globalization of public health. The article explores the interaction of WHO's 'soft-law' approaches to global health security, and the 'moribund' negotiations of the verification and monitoring protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention 1972. Can international law link bio-terrorism, public health and human security? Does the WHO collaborate with other international organizations within and outside the United Nations system to develop effective legal and governance approaches to bio-terrorism and global health security? The article concludes that the globalization of public health threats like bio-terrorism requires globalized legal approaches.

  13. Wilderness Study Report : Volume III : Public Hearing Transcripts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains public hearing transcripts from the Kenai National Moose Range Wilderness Hearing. This hearing was held to obtain information relating to...

  14. ESSENTIALS OF PUBLIC SECTOR REFORM: A CASE STUDY OF CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Analoui

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the challenges faced by developing countries and countries in transition in their attempt at reforming the inherited bureaucratic public service. The paper explores how the public sector in Croatia has managed to come this far after the turbulent years of political and technocratic dislocation. Croatia is determined to reform its public sector to become eligible for joining the European Union (EU in near future. This has posed a major challenge for top senior officials and consultants alike. Adopting ‘action research’ as both a methodology and a strategy, a programme of intervention for change was designed and implemented in the Ministry of Finance. The overall results suggest that for the successful implementation of public sector reforms in the 21st century, attention should focus on strategic issues including systems thinking, HRMD, behavioural and attitudinal change, skills and competencies development and, above all, honest and responsible transformational leadership.

  15. Diversifying the Social Studies: The Trend Toward Optional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.

    1974-01-01

    Developments of alternative schools are reviwed, emphasizing differences in five types of public school options and the similarities of these types in respect to their social education programs. (Author/KM)

  16. The Internet as Public Sphere: A Zimbabwean Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... development of a virtual counter-public sphere. The Internet has ..... Mthwakazi community has no physical reality as it exists only on the Internet ... articulate and sustain a 'grand' and 'dominant' narrative through the teaching.

  17. Study of digoxin use in a public health unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe C. Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Digoxin is used for heart failure associated to systolic dysfunction and high ventricular rate. It has a narrow therapeutic range and intoxication may occur due to drug interactions or comorbidities. The aim of this work was to study digoxin use in a public health unit delineating the profile of patients susceptible to digitalis intoxication. Medical records belonging to patients admitted to the cardiomyopathy ward of the health unit (2009-2010 and in use of digoxin were analyzed. Among 647 patients admitted, 185 individuals using digoxin and possessed records available. The registration of plasma digoxin concentration was found in 80 records and it was out of the therapeutic range in 42 patients (52.5%. This group of individuals was constituted mainly by males patients (79%, functional class III of heart failure (65%, exhibiting renal failure (33%. The evaluated sample reflects the epidemiology of heart failure in Brazil and, although pharmacotherapy had been according to Brazilian Guidelines, apparently the monitoring was not performed as recommended. This work highlighs the necessity of plasma digoxin constant monitoring during pharmacotherapy and the development of protocols that enable a safer use, especially in male patients, functional class III and with renal dysfunction.

  18. Genetic and biomarker studies of human longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, Joris

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to identify novel lifespan regulating loci that influence human longevity and population mortality. To this end, we performed two genome-wide association studies, one of long-lived individuals from the family-based Leiden Longevity Study (LLS) and an extended one of long-l

  19. A Study on Public Participation in Environmental Impact Assessments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJing

    2005-01-01

    China's legislature on the environmental impact assessments contains related provisions on public participation as an important element of institutions in this field. So far, however, the stipulation remains at the level of a plain statement of principle both substantially and procedurally. The newly enacted Law on the Assessment of the Environment Impact has seen great progress in provisions for public participation if compared with similar statutes enacted in the past legislation. However, there is a gap in the procedures,

  20. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  1. Domain of the Gods: Do traditional beliefs hinder public acceptance of the human role in climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, S.

    2008-12-01

    Public acceptance of new scientific discoveries like natural selection, plate tectonics, or the human role in climate change naturally lags behind the pace of the discoveries. In the case of climate change, unease or outright rejection of the scientific evidence for the role of human activity in climate change has been a hindrance to mitigation and adaptation efforts. This skepticism is normally attributed to everything from the quality of science education, to disinformation campaigns by representatives of the coal and gas industry, to individual resistance to behavioral change, to the nature of the modern information culture. This skepticism of scientific evidence for climate change, though often inspired by politics, economics and the particular dynamics of climate change, may actually be rooted in ancient beliefs that the climate is beyond the influence of humans. In this presentation, I will outline how the notion that humans control or influence the weather runs contrary to thousands of years of belief in a separation between the earth - the domain of man - and sky - the domain of the gods. Evidence from religious history, traditional villages in the Pacific (Fjij and Kiribati) and from public discourse in North America all indicates that the millennia-old belief in an earth-sky separation hinders people's acceptance that human activity is affecting the climate. The human role in climate change therefore represents a substantial paradigm shift, similar to the role of natural selection in human evolution. These deep roots of climate change skepticism must be factored into public climate change education efforts.

  2. THICS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. CASE STUDY – ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan\tVIORESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Public services represent useful activities designated to meet a social need. The laws and regulations empower the activities of public services, without indicating the motives for public services. The impact of government in day to day life of citizens and communities is increasingly greater in terms of both public affairs management and budgetary aspect. The power to spend the community resources and to influence the lives of others means at the same time a great responsibility. That is the responsibility to act morally (with integrity and ensure effective spending of resources. This means not to corrupt and do not let yourself be bribed, but it also means openness to dialogue with stakeholders, internal organizational climate of trust and cooperation, internal procedures to ensure ethical advise. In this sense, in the last 20 years, the public sector has developed legal rules or internal policies, procedures and organizational tools to ensure the integrity and responsible leadership. Public organizations have adopted and applied ethics codes, procedures regarding conflicts of interest, whistleblowing, declaring gifts and other measures to prevent corruption.

  3. One Health in NSW: coordination of human and animal health sector management of zoonoses of public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Sheena; Marich, Andrew; Roth, Ian

    2011-07-01

    Zoonoses of public health significance may occur in wildlife, livestock or companion animals, and may be detected by the human or animal health sectors. Of particular public health interest are foodborne, arboviral and emerging zoonoses (known/unknown, endemic/exotic). A coordinated One Health approach to the management of zoonoses in NSW uses measures including: mutually agreed intersectoral procedures for detection and response; surveillance and notification systems for defined endemic and exotic diseases; joint meetings and exercises to ensure currency of response plans; and intersectoral communication during a response. This One Health approach is effective and ensures the interests of both the human health and animal health sectors are addressed.

  4. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range Wilderness proposal public hearing summary analysis and wilderness study summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains both a public hearing summary analysis and a wilderness study summary for the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range. The public hearing...

  5. 76 FR 55732 - Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Maritime Administration Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study and the America's Marine Highway Program AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to announce a series of public listening sessions...

  6. Water Distribution in the Public Interest and the Human Right to Water: Swiss, South African and International Law Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rüegger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal norms governing the distribution of water are integral to how access to water is determined. This paper analyses the idea that water should be used in the interest of the public from a legal point of view. Taking Swiss and South African law as examples it examines what the notion of 'public interest' actually means. A close look at the notion of 'water distribution in the public interest' reveals important insights: water distribution in the public interest balances a variety of different economic, ecological and social interests. In this process the human right to water is attributed the role as protective shield. Hence its effective implementation is crucial in order to safeguard water for basic human needs. After analysing how Swiss and South African water regimes are currently structured and the role of the public interest clause therein, the paper examines whether the human right to water as conceived in Swiss, South African and international law effectively ensures protection of domestic water users. The paper concludes that this is the case under some, but not all circumstances. Especially the interests of those users whose access to water is not yet sufficient do not always receive adequate legal protection by the respective legal orders. The paper concludes by stressing the necessity to evolve the concept of the human right to water to reach comprehensive protection of basic human needs. Consciousness of the social risks associated with using the human right to water as general placeholder for basic human needs despite its shortcomings will hopefully encourage efforts to establish substantive legal protection.

  7. On random field Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouritzin, Michael A; Newton, Fraser; Wu, Biao

    2013-04-01

    Herein, we propose generating CAPTCHAs through random field simulation and give a novel, effective and efficient algorithm to do so. Indeed, we demonstrate that sufficient information about word tests for easy human recognition is contained in the site marginal probabilities and the site-to-nearby-site covariances and that these quantities can be embedded directly into certain conditional probabilities, designed for effective simulation. The CAPTCHAs are then partial random realizations of the random CAPTCHA word. We start with an initial random field (e.g., randomly scattered letter pieces) and use Gibbs resampling to re-simulate portions of the field repeatedly using these conditional probabilities until the word becomes human-readable. The residual randomness from the initial random field together with the random implementation of the CAPTCHA word provide significant resistance to attack. This results in a CAPTCHA, which is unrecognizable to modern optical character recognition but is recognized about 95% of the time in a human readability study.

  8. Educating for Civic Engagement: Public Achievement as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Bernadette Christine

    Over the last four decades there is evidence that citizens are less civically engaged, have less trust in each other and governmental institutions, and are less prepared to participate in deliberative and civic processes. This research studies the importance of acquiring deliberative and civic skills and behaviors as an integral part of civic engagement and developing educational and learning strategies to impart those skills and behaviors in an educational environment. This research uses a civic action program called Public Achievement (PA) as a case study to investigate if participating in a civic and deliberative focused program enables participants to continue to use the skills and behaviors learned in PA in non-PA activities. The research study was focused by a literature review of philosophical frameworks, educational history in the United States, and educational theory. The literature review and examples of learning civic skills and behaviors in secondary and higher educational institutions are examined to frame the analysis of PA. Based on the literature review and the design of PA, constructs and a survey instrument were developed to test the hypothesis that students who participate in PA will be more likely to exhibit civic skills and behaviors than students who did not participate in PA. The research was conducted with two schools in rural Missouri, two schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and two schools in St. Paul, Minnesota. The study results show that students who participated in PA were not more likely to exhibit civic skills and behaviors, and in many cases, non-PA students exhibited civic skills and behaviors more often. The findings revealed that there are programmatic, organizational, and societal barriers that may impede the effectiveness of PA. The findings suggest that implementation of civic engagement programs may be more effective when the effort is supported and reinforced by and across all parts of the organization, organizational

  9. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically......In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....

  10. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....... of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically...

  11. Family context assessment in a public health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, David; Sánchez de Miguel, Manuel; Egurza, Maitane; Arranz, Enrique; Aranbarri, Aritz; Fano, Eduardo; Ibarluzea, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the factorial structure of a new instrument to assess the quality of the family context (Etxadi-Gangoiti Scale) in a sample from the Gipuzkoa cohort of the Environment and Childhood (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [INMA]) study. Families in a sample of 433 two-year-old children were assessed in a home visit with subsequent analysis of the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the data. An exploratory factorial analysis (principal axis factoring and varimax rotation) and a confirmatory factorial analysis were carried out; partial confirmation of the original factorial structure of the instrument was obtained, which revealed the following factorial structures. Subscale (1): promotion of cognitive and linguistic development, social skills, psychomotor skills, and pretend play and imitation; subscale (2): promotion of independence and self-esteem, provision of optimal frustration, social and emotional quality of the relationship, and absence of physical punishment; subscale (3): paternal involvement, low exposure to family conflict, low frequency of family conflict, relationship with the extended family, social support, diversity of experiences, low frequency of stressful events, and low parental perception of stress. The structure of the original instrument structure was partially confirmed, which was attributed to the characteristics of the sample. We stress the importance of the variability obtained in the evaluation of the families, as well as of adequate indicators of reliability in such evaluation. The new instrument could be used in public health to identify deficient family contexts and to design preventive interventions focused on parenting skills. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Public health perspectives from the biggest human mass gathering on earth: Kumbh Mela, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Siddarth; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-06-01

    Mass gathering events pose critical health challenges, especially for the control of diseases. The rising population, better connectivity, and scope of travel have increased the frequency and magnitude of mass gatherings and underscore the need to shift the discourse from reacting to the public health issues they throw up to taking active steps in preventing them based on evidence through research. The Kumbh Mela is a religious event in India that constitutes the largest number of people gathered at a specific place and at a specific time. It is older than the Hajj by centuries, yet the public health aspects related to this event, which is held every 3 years, have not been fully studied. Understanding the Kumbh Mela can highlight the health challenges faced and provide crucial lessons for the management of mass gatherings. This investigation used the Kumbh Mela in the city of Allahabad as a case study to describe the health problems and the efforts taken to manage them. In-depth studies of the Kumbh Mela in the future are required to generate evidence for context-specific measures to address the complex health challenges of mass gatherings.

  13. Sector and Occupational Differences in Public Service Motivation: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anne Mette

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between employment sector and public service motivation remains unclear since previous studies fail to control for the occupation of the investigated employees. Based on 32 semi-structured interviews with Danish nurses and nursing assistants working in the public or private health...... sector, this study shows that occupation and employment sector have very different relationships with the separate dimensions of public service motivation. This suggests that future studies of sector differences in public service motivation should pay attention to employees' occupation as an important...... control variable, and the benefits of using a qualitative approach to measure public service motivation....

  14. Occupational and public health considerations for work-hour limitations policy regarding public health workers during response to natural and human-caused disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the occupational health considerations that might impact the health and wellbeing of public health workers during responses to natural (eg, floods and hurricanes) and human-caused (eg, terrorism, war, and shootings) disasters. There are a number of articles in the medical literature that argue the impact of how working long hours by house staff physicians, nurses, and first-responders may pose health and safety concerns regarding the patients being treated. The question examined here is how working long hours may pose health and/or safety concerns for the public health workers themselves, as well as to those in the communities they serve. The health problems related to sleep deprivation are reviewed. Current policies and legislations regarding work-hour limitations are examined. Policy implications are discussed.

  15. Obstacles to Scholarly Publishing in the Social Sciences and Humanities: A Case Study of Vietnamese Scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Dzung Pho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Publishing scientific research is very important in contributing to the knowledge of a discipline and in sharing research findings among scientists. Based on the quantity and quality of publications, one can evaluate the research capacity of a researcher or the research performance of a university or a country. However, the number of quality publications in Vietnam is very low in comparison with those in the other countries in the region or in the world, especially in the fields of social sciences and humanities. Employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches, the current study investigates university lecturers’ attitudes towards research and publication and the obstacles to local and international publication at one of the main universities in social sciences and humanities in Vietnam. The study found the main barriers to publication are funding and time for research and publication, among many other obstacles. From the analysis of the data, the study would also argue that lecturers’ obstacles to publication may vary across faculties (or disciplines, ages, qualifications, education, research and publication experience. The findings in this study may be applied to other institutions in Vietnam or in other countries where English is used as a foreign language.

  16. Peran Public Speaking dalam Kegiatan Open Mic (Studi tentang Peran Public Speaking terhadap Kemampuan Comic dalam Kegiatan Open Mic Komunitas Stand Up Indo Kota Medan)

    OpenAIRE

    Rovis, Disa Yumna

    2016-01-01

    This study, entitled "The Role of Public Speaking on Open Mic Activity". The aim of the research is knowing the public speaking proses and the use of public speaking on the ability of comic on open mic activity. Public speaking theory is used for this research. Descriptive qualitative method is used in this research by nonparticipant observation tecnique through interviewing the comic. Based on this research, open mic activity uses the specific elements of public speaking. They are, the speak...

  17. Lack of involvement of medical writers and the pharmaceutical industry in publications retracted for misconduct: a systematic, controlled, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Karen L; Lew, Rebecca A; Stretton, Serina; Ely, Julie A; Bramich, Narelle J; Keys, Janelle R; Monk, Julie A; Woolley, Mark J

    2011-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify how many publications retracted because of misconduct involved declared medical writers (i.e., not ghostwriters) or declared pharmaceutical industry support. The secondary objective was to investigate factors associated with misconduct retractions. A systematic, controlled, retrospective, bibliometric study. Retracted publications dataset in the MEDLINE database. PubMed was searched (Limits: English, human, January 1966 - February 2008) to identify publications retracted because of misconduct. Publications retracted because of mistake served as the control group. Standardized definitions and data collection tools were used, and data were analyzed by an independent academic statistician. Of the 463 retracted publications retrieved, 213 (46%) were retracted because of misconduct. Publications retracted because of misconduct rarely involved declared medical writers (3/213; 1.4%) or declared pharmaceutical industry support (8/213; 3.8%); no misconduct retractions involved both declared medical writers and the industry. Retraction because of misconduct, rather than mistake, was significantly associated with: absence of declared medical writers (odds ratio: 0.16; 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.57); absence of declared industry involvement (0.25; 0.11-0.58); single authorship (2.04; 1.01-4.12); first author having at least one other retraction (2.05; 1.35-3.11); and first author affiliated with a low/middle income country (2.34; 1.18-4.63). The main limitations of this study were restricting the search to English-language and human research articles. Publications retracted because of misconduct rarely involved declared medical writers or declared pharmaceutical industry support. Increased attention should focus on factors that are associated with misconduct retractions.

  18. [Childbirth practices and challenges for humanization of care in two public hospitals in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Elizabeth Eriko Ishida; Santiago, Silvia Maria

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize hospital care for childbirth in two hospitals affiliated with the Unified National Health System in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, and identify both obstacles and facilitating factors for the implementation of humanized care, based on women's perception of the care received. This was an exploratory and descriptive study with a cross-sectional design, analyzing hospital patient charts and interviews with 569 women who gave birth at the two hospitals from March 2005 to February 2006. Hospital care was characterized on the basis of WHO quality-of-care guidelines for labor and delivery. The data pointed to a healthcare model marked by the hygienist legacy in physician-centered hospital protocols and professional practices. Institutional factors, identified as difficulties in institutional and infrastructure organization, hospital protocols, and health professionals' individual practices and stances, denote barriers that jointly hinder the implementation of a humanized model for childbirth care.

  19. Advanced studies on human gene ZNF322

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yongqing; WANG Yuequn; YUAN Wuzhou; DENG Yun; ZHU Chuanbing; WU Xiushan

    2007-01-01

    The human novel gene of ZNF322 is cloned from human fetal eDNA library using the primers on the basis of the ZNF322 sequence analyzed with computer.The gene is located on Chromosome 6p22.1,and encodes a protein consisting of 402 amino acid residues and containing nine tandem C2H2-type zinc-finger motifs.Northern blot result shows that the gene is expressed in all examined adult tissues.Subcellular location study indicates that ZNF322-EGFP fusion protein is distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm.Reporter gene assays show that ZNF322 is a potential transcriptional activator.

  20. Human Trafficking in the United States. Part II. Survey of U.S. Government Web Resources for Publications and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigabutra-Roberts, Anchalee

    2012-01-01

    This second part of a two-part series is a survey of U.S. government web resources on human trafficking in the United States, particularly of the online publications and data included on agencies' websites. Overall, the goal is to provide an introduction, an overview, and a guide on this topic for library staff to use in their research and…

  1. Texas Public School Attrition Study, 2013-14. IDRA Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercultural Development Research Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This infographic shows how Texas public schools are losing one out of four students. The statistics show that schools are twice as likely to lose Hispanic students and Black students before they graduate, and universal high school education is at least a quarter of a century away. The flyer also provides information on getting informed, getting…

  2. Good Governance in Public Procurement: A South African Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Roos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article good governance in public procurement, with particular reference to accountability is discussed. The principle of providing adequate remedies in public procurement is put under the spotlight. This is done with reference to the decision in Steenkamp NO v Provincial Tender Board, Eastern Cape. In this case the Constitutional Court had to consider whether an initially successful tenderer could lodge a delictual claim for damages to compensate for expenses incurred after conclusion of a contract, which was subsequently rendered void on an application for review of the tender award. The applicable principles of good governance and the applicable provisions of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Public Procurement and the WTO plurilateral Government Procurement Agreement are analysed. This is done to enable an evaluation of the decision by the Constitutional Court in the above case. It is concluded that the South African public procurement system does in this instance comply with the basic principles of good governance with regard to accountability.

  3. Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program. Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; Ahonen, Pirkko; Kim, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program is to assist states and local school districts in the development of innovative strategies to expand options for students, and to encourage transfers of students from low-performing to higher-performing schools. This report presents interim findings from the National Evaluation of…

  4. [The paradoxes of humanized childbirth care in a public maternity ward in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornquist, Carmen Susana

    2003-01-01

    The maternity ward of the University Hospital in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, attempts to follow World Health Organization guidelines for humanized childbirth care, including the encouragement of non-surgical delivery, breastfeeding, rooming-in, extended family visitation, and reduction of excessive technological intervention in the delivery process. The study focuses specifically on the choice of delivery procedure and on family presence during labor/childbirth, as well as women's experience with labor and breastfeeding.

  5. [Virtual Campus of Public Health: six years of human resources education in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Herrera, Igor; Alfaro Alfaro, Noé; Fonseca León, Joel; García Sandoval, Cristóbal; González Castañeda, Miguel; López Zermeño, María Del Carmen; Benítez Morales, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    This paper discusses the gestation process, implementation methodology, and results obtained from the initiative to use e-learning to train human resources for health, six years after the launch of the Virtual Campus of Public Health of the University of Guadalajara (Mexico); the discussion is framed by Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) standards and practices. This is a special report on the work done by the institutional committee of the Virtual Campus in western Mexico to create an Internet portal that follows the guidelines of the strategic model established by Nodo México and PAHO for the Region of the Americas. This Virtual Campus began its activities in 2007, on the basis of the use of free software and institutional collaboration. Since the initial year of implementation of the node, over 500 health professionals have been trained using virtual courses, the node's educational platform, and a repository of virtual learning resources that are interoperable with other repositories in Mexico and the Region of the Americas. The University of Guadalajara Virtual Campus committee has followed the proposed model as much as possible, thereby achieving most of the goals set in the initial work plan, despite a number of administrative challenges and the difficulty of motivating committee members.

  6. Lighting for the human circadian clock: recent research indicates that lighting has become a public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauley, Stephen M

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis that the suppression of melatonin (MLT) by exposure to light at night (LAN) may be one reason for the higher rates of breast and colorectal cancers in the developed world deserves more attention. The literature supports raising this subject for awareness as a growing public health issue. Evidence now exists that indirectly links exposures to LAN to human breast and colorectal cancers in shift workers. The hypothesis begs an even larger question: has medical science overlooked the suppression of MLT by LAN as a contributor to the overall incidence of cancer? The indirect linkage of breast cancer to LAN is further supported by laboratory rat experiments by David E. Blask and colleagues. Experiments involved the implanting of human MCF-7 breast cancer cell xenografts into the groins of rats and measurements were made of cancer cell growth rates, the uptake of linoleic acid (LA), and MLT levels. One group of implanted rats were placed in light-dark (12L:12D) and a second group in light-light (12L:12L) environments. Constant light suppressed MLT, increased cancer cell growth rates, and increased LA uptake into cancer cells. The opposite was seen in the light-dark group. The proposed mechanism is the suppression of nocturnal MLT by exposure to LAN and subsequent lack of protection by MLT on cancer cell receptor sites which allows the uptake of LA which in turn enhances the growth of cancer cells. MLT is a protective, oncostatic hormone and strong antioxidant having evolved in all plants and animals over the millennia. In vertebrates, MLT is normally produced by the pineal gland during the early morning hours of darkness, even in nocturnal animals, and is suppressed by exposure to LAN. Daily entrainment of the human circadian clock is important for good human health. These studies suggest that the proper use and color of indoor and outdoor lighting is important to the health of both humans and ecosystems. Lighting fixtures should be designed to minimize

  7. [Human ecology and interdisciplinary cooperation for primary prevention of environmental risk factors for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Jan W

    2007-01-01

    Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of

  8. Vocational Study and Public Service Motivation: Disentangling the Socializing Effects of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anne Mette

    2012-01-01

    Most studies of Public Service Motivation investigate differences in motivation between public and private sector employees, but how these differences emerge and evolve in a pre-entry setting is still puzzling. Based on cross-sectional survey data with 3,521 Danish students enrolled in different...... vocational studies and at different stages (years) of their educational programs, this article investigates the socializing effects of higher education into different levels of public service motivation. The analysis demonstrates that students’ levels of public service motivation at different stages...... of their educational programs depends on the field of study: The level of public service motivation among students in vocational studies aimed at jobs with core public service delivery stays the same during education, whereas the level of public service motivation among students in other fields increases substantively...

  9. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  10. Climate Change Education on Public Health Consequences and Impacts to the Human System - An Interdisciplinary Approach to Promoting Climate Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiella Novak, M.; Paxton, L. J.

    2012-12-01

    In this talk we will discuss our approach to translating an abstract, difficult to internalize idea ("climate change") into knowledge that speaks to people directly in terms of their own lives. Recent research suggests that communicating climate change in the context of public health impacts, and even national security risks, is a more effective method of reaching communities that are currently disengaged or nonresponsive to climate change science than the approaches currently being used. Understanding that these new perspectives might reach a broader audience, the Global Assimilation of Information for Action (GAIA) project has proposed implementing a suite of education activities that focus on the public health consequences that will arise and/or becoming exacerbated by climate change. Reaching the disparate communities that must be brought together to create a workable approach is challenging. GAIA has developed a novel framework for sharing information and developing communities of interest that cross boundaries in what is otherwise a highly disciplinary approach to climate change studies. Members of the GAIA community include climate change, environmental and public health experts, as well as relevant stakeholders, policy makers and decision makers. By leveraging the existing expertise within the GAIA community, an opportunity exists to present climate change education (CCE) in a way that emphasizes how climate change will affect public health, and utilizes an approach that has been shown to engage a broader and more diverse audience. Focusing CCE on public health effects is a new and potentially transformative method since it makes the results more tangible and less "random". When CCE is focused on what will happen to the Earth's climate and associated meteorological hazards one might be tempted to view this as something that can be coped with thus enabling the individualist entrepreneur point of view. Weather disasters always seem to happen to someone else

  11. OMICS studies: How about metadata checklist and data publications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Eugene; Stewart, Elizabeth

    2014-03-07

    Data fully utilized by the community resources promote progress rather than repetition. Effective data sharing can accelerate the transition from data to actionable knowledge, yet barriers to data sharing remain, both technological and procedural. The DELSA community has tackled the sharing barrier by creating a multi-omics metadata checklist for the life sciences. The checklist and associated data publication examples are now jointly published in Big Data and OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology. The checklist will enable diverse datasets to be easily harmonized and reused for richer analyses. It will facilitate data deposits, stand alone as a data publication, and grant appropriate credit to researchers. We invite the broader life sciences community to test the checklist for feedback and improvements.

  12. Assessing human-dog conflicts in Todos Santos, Guatemala: bite incidences and public perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunney, Meg; Jones, Andria; Stiles, Enid; Waltner-Toews, David

    2011-12-15

    The issues surrounding dog bites are a major public health concern, particularly in areas of low income where accessibility to adequate health care, veterinary medicine and sufficient management of canine population control is low. An understanding of the risk factors associated with human-dog conflicts may be important when establishing dog bite and disease prevention strategies. In May 2008, a census of 12 consociated neighbourhoods in Todos Santos, Guatemala was conducted to investigate dog bite incidences and the public perception of free-roaming dog populations. Approximately 16.5% (78/472) of households reported at least one dog bite between May 2006 and May 2008. In total, 85 incidents occurred: 49.4% (42/85) with adults (≥18 years) and 50.6% (43/85) children (dog bites by victim gender or among age categories, there was a non-significant trend of higher cumulative incidence of dog bites in children aged six to 17 years compared to other age categories. The anatomical location of the bite varied, but bites to the legs were the most common (73/85; 85.9%). Of the 85 reported dog bites, 5.9% (5/85) were from dogs from the victims' own households, 48.2% (41/85) were from a neighbour's dog, 9.4% (8/85) were from dogs regularly seen in the community, and 15.3% (13/85) were from dogs not regularly seen in the community; the ownership status of the latter two categories of dogs could not be determined. Approximately 21% (18/85) of respondents did not know the type of dog that bit. Residents were asked for their opinions on potential problems associated with dogs in the community. The majority of respondents strongly agreed that dogs posed physical risks (78.8%; 372/472), could transmit infections to people (88.6%; 418/472), scared the family (82.4%; 389/472) and were too high in number (82.6%; 390/472). There were significant but weak correlations between owning a dog and expressing negative perceptions of community dogs (Spearman rhodog bite was not significantly

  13. A descriptive study on evaluation of bio-medical waste management in a tertiary care public hospital of North India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rajiv; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Background Proper management of Biomedical waste (BMW) generated in a healthcare facility is one of the most important functions of a healthcare worker (HCW) as its improper management not only poses risk to human beings and environment, but may also invite legal action against HCW as well as hospital administration. This study was carried out to evaluate quality of BMW management in 1100-bedded hospital attached to a tertiary care public institute in North India. Methods A checklist, includi...

  14. STUDY REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF LOCAL POLICEMAN CAREER WITHIN THE REŞIŢA LOCAL POLICE DIVISION PUBLIC SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHERGHINA LILIANA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled Study regarding the Management of Local Policemen Career within the Reşiţa Local Police Division Public Service aims at highlighting the need for this public service in the Reşiţa municipality community, the importance of the public office in this context, of the public service, of the public servant with special statute and, last but not least, of the managerial act in the administration of this type of human resources, and implicitly this type of career. Starting from the theoretic identifications and their translation into the practice of the field chosen for research we could conclude that in the development of the local policemen career, a special role is played by the human resources management, especially the management of the career of this value-bearing resource. Our investigation was based on the opinion poll-type inquiry, the main instrument being the questionnaire conceived, administered and then valorised and interpreted. The conclusions generated by this research highlighted step by step, along the activities of the analysed human resources management and implicitly their career management, the actual positive or negative aspects and the fact that the management of human resources and implicitly of their career which, we scrutinised – that of police officer or policeman in short – assures with priority: the observance of the legislation specific to the investigated field, support for the development of the local policemen’s career, their prompt availability in due time, the knowledge and fulfilment of the tasks according to the job and position requirements, all this assures the understanding of the employees’ expectations, of the change of employees’ roles within the organisation depending on their experience and solves the conflicts among the employees. Nevertheless, we identified, in a less significant percentage , some cases of discontent and dissatisfaction, cases that could generate ideas for

  15. Exploring the Role of Human Capital Management on Organizational Success: Evidence from Public Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odunayo Paul SALAU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for higher education in Nigeria has been considered as not only an investment in human capital, but also a pre-requisite for economic development. Consequent upon the expansion of higher education in Nigeria, quite a number of institutions have suffered decay due to poor work environments, inadequate educational facilities and poor funding which have resulted into unabated brain drain, strike and turnover. However, the need to develop talents is no longer hidden, what remains controversial is knowing the best method for managing human capacity especially in Nigerian State owned universities. Thus, this study examined the relationship between human capital management and organizational success using three State owned universities in Southwest, Nigeria. These universities (Ekiti State University (EKSU, Lagos State University (LASU, Tai Solarin University of Education (TASUED were chosen for their uniqueness. Survey research design was adopted with 398 respondents (staff. Self-administered questionnaire was adopted and analyzed with the adoption of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. However, the results indicated that adequate leadership practices; learning capacity; workforce optimization; knowledge accessibility; workplace culture and; mentorship are significant predictors of organizational success in higher education.

  16. A Study of Brucella Infection in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanjani Roushan Mohammad Reza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is the most usual zoonotic disease around the world especially in the Middle East, Mediterranean and Indian sub-continent areas. This bacterium has ten species that Brucella melitensis among them recognized as the most important cause of human brucellosis. This infection transfer ways to human include of wounds, bacteria inhalation and consumption of septic dairy such as raw milk, cream and butter. Brucellosis as a systemic disease can involve more organs of patients that have symptoms such as fever, night sweating, and backache. This infection can be divided as acute, sub-acute and chronic forms according to the manner of clinical presentation. Materials and Methods: This research is a review study and conducted by reviewing of the literature, which is related to this issue and also visiting, PubMed, and other linked websites. Results: In human brucellosis domestic animals are the main natural reservoir of infection. Whenever incidence rate of this infection in domestic and wild animals is reduced on the other hand incidence rate in human also will reduce. Conclusion: Blood cultures, serological tests and molecular tests are common laboratory methods of this infection. Diminution of relapse and therapeutic failure rates are as most important aim, which is researcher’s regards.

  17. Invited Commentary: A Landmark Study Launched in a Public Health Maelstrom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A; Rabkin, Charles S; Goedert, James J

    2017-06-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic was first recognized in 1981, and it quickly became a public health emergency. In a 1987 paper in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 1987;126(2): 310-318), Richard Kaslow et al. described the launch of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), a cohort study of homosexual men in 4 US cities, the purpose of which was to better understand the natural history of AIDS and its determinants. The MACS enrolled participants through a range of community contacts. These efforts facilitated rapid recruitment, but given the targeted approaches, participants tended to comprise high-risk social networks. At baseline, 4%-26% of participants at the 4 sites reported having a sexual partner who had developed AIDS. Kaslow et al. also described baseline testing for the causative agent of AIDS, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV seroprevalence was remarkably high, ranging from 11%-26% across age groups in Pittsburgh to 38%-53% in Los Angeles. The major turning point in the epidemic occurred in 1995-1996 when combination antiretroviral therapy was introduced, effectively blocking HIV replication and markedly reducing AIDS morbidity and mortality. The MACS cohort continues to be followed actively 3 decades after its launch and has proven to be an important resource for information on HIV infection and AIDS. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Avian and pandemic human influenza policy in South-East Asia: the interface between economic and public health imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongcharoensuk, Petcharat; Adisasmito, Wiku; Sat, Le Minh; Silkavute, Pornpit; Muchlisoh, Lilis; Cong Hoat, Pham; Coker, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the contemporary policies regarding avian and human pandemic influenza control in three South-East Asia countries: Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. An analysis of poultry vaccination policy was used to explore the broader policy of influenza A H5N1 control in the region. The policy of antiviral stockpiling with oseltamivir, a scarce regional resource, was used to explore human pandemic influenza preparedness policy. Several policy analysis theories were applied to analyse the debate on the use of vaccination for poultry and stockpiling of antiviral drugs in each country case study. We conducted a comparative analysis across emergent themes. The study found that whilst Indonesia and Vietnam introduced poultry vaccination programmes, Thailand rejected this policy approach. By contrast, all three countries adopted similar strategic policies for antiviral stockpiling in preparation. In relation to highly pathogenic avian influenza, economic imperatives are of critical importance. Whilst Thailand's poultry industry is large and principally an export economy, Vietnam's and Indonesia's are for domestic consumption. The introduction of a poultry vaccination policy in Thailand would have threatened its potential to trade and had a major impact on its economy. Powerful domestic stakeholders in Vietnam and Indonesia, by contrast, were concerned less about international trade and more about maintaining a healthy domestic poultry population. Evidence on vaccination was drawn upon differently depending upon strategic economic positioning either to support or oppose the policy. With influenza A H5N1 endemic in some countries of the region, these policy differences raise questions around regional coherence of policies and the pursuit of an agreed overarching goal, be that eradication or mitigation. Moreover, whilst economic imperatives have been critically important in guiding policy formulation in the agriculture sector, questions arise

  19. [The impact of human activities on the dynamics of phosphorus in the environment and its effect on public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quevedo, Claudia Maria Gomes; Paganini, Wanderley da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Phosphorus is a nutrient with finite and non-renewable sources, the speed of exploitation of which is currently far higher than the rates of return to its natural cycle. It is already being predicted that available and known sources will soon be exhausted, with serious and irreversible economic, social and environmental impacts. In this context, this study sets out to present information about the dynamics of phosphorus in the environment, assessing the impacts caused by human activities and establishing what actions might contribute to preservation of the nutrient cycle. To contribute to enhanced understanding of the topic, the evolution of data on population density, the number of industries and the extension of cultivated areas in a river basin, was studied over 22 years in relation to concentrations of phosphorus in water and sediment. The Tietê River was used for the case study. The results revealed that the control of domestic effluent, especially the amount of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) used in detergents and soap products, is of major importance for improving water quality, ensuring environmental protection and safeguarding public health.

  20. Public private partnerships in solid waste management – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Parmezani Munhoz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two public notices for PPP (Public-Private Partnerships - Law 11.079/2004 for solid waste management and verifies the suitability of these contracts to the new guidelines of Law 12.305/2010 - National Solid Waste Policy - PNRS. The online versions of 2 public notices and draft PPP Contracts, recently signed in the city of São Carlos and the Metropolitan Area of Belo Horizonte and Colar Metropolitano were analyzed. The mapping of the performance indicators of these documents was carried out according to 4 criteria: (a minimization of waste in landfills, (b recovery and valorization of solid waste (recycling, composting, etc.; (c pickers inclusion; and (d social participation. The results indicate that the analyzed contracts meet only part of the guidelines set by PNRS, mainly the eradication of the dumps and the final disposal of waste in landfills. The main object of these contracts remains linked to the old paradigm of waste management: collection and transportation of waste and operation of landfills. To meet the waste minimization policies, there are financial incentives that reward the reduction in the final disposal in landfills. However, there are no fixed contractual targets for the minimization of waste at landfills. If waste minimization policies, like reverse logistics and responsibility shared are implemented by the government, the contracts have clauses allowing periodic reviews for gradual adjustments, ensuring the economic and financial balance of the contract. It is yet to determine the efficiency of these mechanisms to meet the guidelines of PNRS, in the curse of the concession.

  1. Public Private Partnerships and the Public Interest: A Case Study of Ottawa’s Lansdowne Park Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Stoney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Public private partnerships (PPPs are increasingly advocated as beneficial for the delivery of public services, facilities, and infrastructure for municipal governments. However, such partnerships often raise serious concerns about transparency and accountability. While municipal governments across Canada have tried to increase public participation in local affairs, PPPs can impede such efforts. This article presents a case study of the Lansdowne Park PPP redevelopment in the City of Ottawa. We focus on how transparency and citizen engagement have been compromised and circumvented and link to broader issues of how to balance the privileged status of business and the demands for commercial confidentiality with the public interest, transparency, and citizen engagement in projects that use PPPs. The article concludes by arguing that some projects and some conditions can render the use of PPPs inappropriate and counterproductive in terms of both effectiveness and the basic principles of good governance. / Les partenariats public-privé (PPP sont de plus en plus préconisés par les municipalités comme étant une solution avantageuse pour la prestation de services publics ainsi que la réalisation de projets d’installations et d’infrastructures publiques. Toutefois, de tels partenariats soulèvent souvent d’importantes préoccupations quant à la transparence et la reddition de compte en lien avec ce processus. Plusieurs municipalités canadiennes ont fait de grands progrès pour accroître la participation des citoyens aux affaires municipales, mais les PPP peuvent représenter un obstacle important à de tels efforts. Cet article présente une étude de cas sur le réaménagement du parc Lansdowne dans le cadre d’un PPP à la Ville d’Ottawa. L’article se concentre sur la façon dont la transparence et l’engagement des citoyens ont été compromis et contournés dans ce processus. Cette analyse est liée à des considérations sur la

  2. Studi Empiris Tingkat Underpricing pada Initial Public Offering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sugama Stephanus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At Initial Public Offering (IPO, underpricing still happened. This is due to asymmetric information between firms and underwriters. This research to analyze accounting factors and non-accounting factors which affect the level of underpricing. This research is quantitative research with regression analysis. The datas of this research are companies which did an IPO in 2010 – 2014. Accounting factors are ROA, DER, CR, and SIZE. Non-accounting factors are OFFER, AGE, auditor’s reputation, and underwriter’s reputation. Results showed that only underwriter’s reputation affects underpricing. This indicates that underwriter’s reputation is very important for firms to reduce underpricing in an IPO.

  3. Electoral impact of public policies Case Study: Elections as an instrument of civic participation in public policies in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Ibrahim Gashi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Being aware of the role of electoral systems as the most important mechanisms of fostering political interaction in a political system of a certain democratic society, it is our intention to study and theoretically and practically analyze the establishment and functioning of the electoral system in Kosovo, in the temporal context of the last decade. Before that thought, several standard theoretical modalities attributable to electoral systems are to be set, with a view of explaining the role and functions of the electoral systems in consolidating basic attributes of a mature democracy. In our case studies, amongst the most important attributes under analysis are: elections, as an instrument of civil participation in public policies. Furthermore, in studying the function of elections, we shall make efforts to elaborate on the level of political culture in Kosovo, creation of authority and legitimacy, and the extent of maturity of Kosovar society itself. Since Kosovo has been under international administration for more than ten years, the analysis of the electoral system in Kosovo is found to be sui generis, and this fact allows for an extraordinary understanding of the role of elections as an instrument of citizens for participating in public policies and public life in Kosovo. In attaining such goals, we shall focus on the analysis of all cycles of elections held in Kosovo since 2001, and up to the constitutional reforms ongoing related to electoral reforms in Kosovo.

  4. 75 FR 77636 - Public Information Exchange on EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... AGENCY Public Information Exchange on EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Information on EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies and Their Purpose SUMMARY: EPA is announcing a public meeting to receive comments and questions on the EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies ( http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm...

  5. Design, recruitment, and microbiological considerations in human challenge studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Thomas C; Blohmke, Christoph J; Moorthy, Vasee S; Altmann, Daniel M; Hayden, Frederick G; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Levine, Myron M; Hill, Adrian V S; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-07-01

    Since the 18th century a wealth of knowledge regarding infectious disease pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment has been accumulated from findings of infection challenges in human beings. Partly because of improvements to ethical and regulatory guidance, human challenge studies-involving the deliberate exposure of participants to infectious substances-have had a resurgence in popularity in the past few years, in particular for the assessment of vaccines. To provide an overview of the potential use of challenge models, we present historical reports and contemporary views from experts in this type of research. A range of challenge models and practical approaches to generate important data exist and are used to expedite vaccine and therapeutic development and to support public health modelling and interventions. Although human challenge studies provide a unique opportunity to address complex research questions, participant and investigator safety is paramount. To increase the collaborative effort and future success of this area of research, we recommend the development of consensus frameworks and sharing of best practices between investigators. Furthermore, standardisation of challenge procedures and regulatory guidance will help with the feasibility for using challenge models in clinical testing of new disease intervention strategies.

  6. Human studies of cannabinoids and medicinal cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, P

    2005-01-01

    Cannabis has been known as a medicine for several thousand years across many cultures. It reached a position of prominence within Western medicine in the nineteenth century but became mired in disrepute and legal controls early in the twentieth century. Despite unremitting world-wide suppression, recreational cannabis exploded into popular culture in the 1960s and has remained easily obtainable on the black market in most countries ever since. This ready availability has allowed many thousands of patients to rediscover the apparent power of the drug to alleviate symptoms of some of the most cruel and refractory diseases known to humankind. Pioneering clinical research in the last quarter of the twentieth century has given some support to these anecdotal reports, but the methodological challenges to human research involving a pariah drug are formidable. Studies have tended to be small, imperfectly controlled, and have often incorporated unsatisfactory synthetic cannabinoid analogues or smoked herbal material of uncertain composition and irregular bioavailability. As a result, the scientific evaluation of medicinal cannabis in humans is still in its infancy. New possibilities in human research have been opened up by the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, a rapidly expanding knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology, and a more sympathetic political environment in several countries. More and more scientists and clinicians are becoming interested in exploring the potential of cannabis-based medicines. Future targets will extend beyond symptom relief into disease modification, and already cannabinoids seem to offer particular promise in the treatment of certain inflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions. This chapter will begin with an outline of the development and current status of legal controls pertaining to cannabis, following which the existing human research will be reviewed. Some key safety issues will then be considered, and the chapter will conclude with

  7. The public health response during and after the Lac-Mégantic train derailment tragedy: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Généreux, Mélissa; Petit, Geneviève; Maltais, Danielle; Roy, Mathieu; Simard, Robert; Boivin, Sonia; Shultz, James M; Pinsonneault, Linda

    2014-01-01

    On July 6th 2013, a train derailment occurred in the small town of Lac-Mégantic, Quebec, Canada, causing a major human and environmental disaster. In this case study, we comprehensively describe and analyze actions taken by the Public Health Department of the Eastern Townships, in close collaboration with community-based organizations, during both the impact phase emergency response and the post-impact recovery operations that continued for months. Due to the complexity of the event, public health actions needed to be broadly diversified. Preventive measures targeted chemical, physical, biological, and psychosocial hazards in the short-, medium- and long-term. Our analyses yielded valuable lessons that will improve and inform our response to future events while serving as a basis for developing a conceptual framework for public health emergency preparedness.

  8. Scoping study of integrated resource planning needs in the public utility sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, C J; Garrick, J M; Rue, D R [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an approach to utility resource planning that integrates the evaluation of supply- and demand-site options for providing energy services at the least cost. Many utilities practice IRP; however, most studies about IRP focus on investor-owned utilities (IOUs). This scoping study investigates the IRP activities and needs of public utilities (not-for-profit utilities, including federal, state, municipal, and cooperative utilities). This study (1) profiles IRP-related characteristics of the public utility sector, (2) articulates the needs of public utilities in understanding and implementing IRP, and (3) identifies strategies to advance IRP principles in public utility planning.

  9. Inequalities in public water supply fluoridation in Brazil: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Simone T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature is scarce on the social and geographic inequalities in the access to and implementation of the fluoridation of public water supplies. This study adds knowledge to the Brazilian experience of the chronic privation of water and wastewater policies, access to potable water and fluoridation in the country. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify possible inequalities in the population's access to fluoridated drinking water in 246 Brazilian municipalities. Methods The information on the process of water fluoridation in the municipalities and in the macro region in which each municipality is located was obtained from the national epidemiological survey which was concluded in 2003. The data relating to the human development index at municipal level (HDI-M and access to mains water came from the Brazilian Human Development Atlas, whilst the size of the population was obtained from a governmental source. The Fisher exact test (P Results The results clearly showed that there is a relationship between municipalities with larger populations, located in more socio-economically advantaged regions and with better HDI-M, and where fluoridation is both present and has been implemented for a longer period of time (started before 1990. Conclusion The findings suggest that the aim of treating water with fluoride may not be being adequately achieved, requiring more effective strategies so that access to this measure can be expanded equitably.

  10. A Study on Public Opinion Poll and Policy on Indoor Air Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.S.; Lee, H.S.; Kong, S.Y.; Ku, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to review previous studies on indoor air pollution and to propose national strategies and policy measures for protecting public health from indoor air pollution based on the results of public survey research. Indoor air has the potential to be polluted by hazardous materials that might lead to serious health problems. It is well known that the indoor spaces are more polluted than outdoor ones, which can be a major health problem for those that live in urban areas who spend most of their time indoors. In Korea, studies on indoor air pollution are usually conducted under the auspices of academic research, which only focus on particular types of indoor spaces and certain concepts of indoor air quality. Thus, at present, the studies on the policies or policy measures concerning indoor air quality management are difficult to find in the country. The governmental agencies that are presently involved in the management of indoor air quality include: the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Construction and Transportation, Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development, and Ministry of Environment. However, due to differing regulatory standards between the concerned agencies, the national management of indoor air quality has so far proven to be ineffective. Although the Ministry of Environment recently proposed a law to manage indoor air quality, it is only focuses on managing particular types of indoor spaces not regulated by other governmental bodies and is not effective in the effort towards a national managing system for indoor air pollution. According to a survey conducted by the Korea Environment Institute (KEI), the residents of the Seoul metropolitan area have been felt that environmental pollution negatively affects their health, and especially consider outdoor air pollution to be the most harmful type of pollution. Although these urban residents spend more than 20 hours a day indoors, the survey shows that they do not

  11. Public health accreditation and metrics for ethics: a case study on environmental health and community engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, Ruth Gaare; Stefanak, Matthew; Brandenburg, Terry; Pannone, Aaron; Melnick, Alan

    2013-01-01

    As public health departments around the country undergo accreditation using the Public Health Accreditation Board standards, the process provides a new opportunity to integrate ethics metrics into day-to-day public health practice. While the accreditation standards do not explicitly address ethics, ethical tools and considerations can enrich the accreditation process by helping health departments and their communities understand what ethical principles underlie the accreditation standards and how to use metrics based on these ethical principles to support decision making in public health practice. We provide a crosswalk between a public health essential service, Public Health Accreditation Board community engagement domain standards, and the relevant ethical principles in the Public Health Code of Ethics (Code). A case study illustrates how the accreditation standards and the ethical principles in the Code together can enhance the practice of engaging the community in decision making in the local health department.

  12. Predictors of Non-Uptake of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing by Tuberculosis Public Primary Patients in Three Districts, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Matseke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The acceptance of HIV testing among patients with tuberculosis (TB is low in South Africa. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, associated factors and reasons of non-uptake of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV testing by tuberculosis public primary care patients in three districts, South Africa.Methods: In May-October 2011, this cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 4726 TB patients across 42 primary health care facilities in three districts in South Africa. All new TB and new retreatment patients (N=4726 were consecutively interviewed within one month of anti-tuberculosis treatment. The outcome was self-reported HIV testing after TB diagnosis, validated using clinic registers.Results: Almost one in ten (9.6% of the 4726 participants had not undergone HIV testing, with the most often offered explanation being that they were not knowing where to get tested (21.3%, followed by believing not to have or at risk for HIV (24.3%, emotional concerns (not ready for test: 13.2%; afraid to get to know: 12.1%; concerns over confidentiality: 6.3% and concerns about stigma (3.3% and losing the job (2.0%. In multivariable analysis being male, severe psychological distress, having sex with someone HIV negative or unknown and frequency of sex without a condom were associated with not having been tested for HIV.Conclusions: The level of HIV testing among TB public primary care patients was suboptimal, as per policy all patients should be tested. The South African Department of Health should continue to scale-up HIV testing and other collaborative TB-HIV services at health facilities.

  13. 40 CFR 152.94 - Citation of a public literature study or study generated at government expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of a public literature study... literature study or study generated at government expense. (a) An applicant may demonstrate compliance for a... the public literature. (2) A valid study generated by, or at the expense of, any government...

  14. An Empirical Study of Public Service Librarians’ Perceptions and Causes of Negative Emotions in Taiwan’s Public Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-may Sheih

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has documented that, in service organization, effectiveness is thought to hinge partly on the emotions expressed by employees. In librarianship, emotions also play an important role in affecting librarian's attitude to patrons and in turn his/her job performance. Librarians are the library's most effective representatives. Patrons judge the entire library by librarian' s behaviors. Thus, librarians' expression of emotions is one of the key factors of library service. Moreover, research on feelings experienced and expressed by organizational members emphasizes emotions as indicators of wellbeing and happiness. Employing literature review and analysis, questionnaires, and statistics analysis, this study explored public service librarians’ perceptions and causes of negative emotions in the public library settings in Taiwan. [Article content in Chinese; Extended abstract in English

  15. Including non-public data and studies in systematic reviews and systematic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Collins, Alexandra M; Coughlin, Deborah; Kohl, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Systematic reviews and maps should be based on the best available evidence, and reviewers should make all reasonable efforts to source and include potentially relevant studies. However, reviewers may not be able to consider all existing evidence, since some data and studies may not be publicly available. Including non-public studies in reviews provides a valuable opportunity to increase systematic review/map comprehensiveness, potentially mitigating negative impacts of publication bias. Studies may be non-public for many reasons: some may still be in the process of being published (publication can take a long time); some may not be published due to author/publisher restrictions; publication bias may make it difficult to publish non-significant or negative results. Here, we consider what forms these non-public studies may take and the implications of including them in systematic reviews and maps. Reviewers should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of including non-public studies, weighing risks of bias against benefits of increased comprehensiveness. As with all systematic reviews and maps, reviewers must be transparent about methods used to obtain data and avoid risks of bias in their synthesis. We make tentative suggestions for reviewers in situations where non-public data may be present in an evidence base.

  16. Ethical Guidelines for Human Communication and Public Discussion: A Gandhian Intercultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Robert A.

    Ethical communication scholars frequently find national popular rhetoric unethical. Some proposed ethical guidelines for the public presentation of ideas call for such elements as habits of search, justice, preference for public versus private motives, respect for dissent, airing of all relevant arguments, and persuasion without coercion or…

  17. Problems affecting the operational procurement process: A study of the Zimbabwean public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Dzuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The public sector occupies a key role in the economy comprising the appropriation of state revenue to purchase goods and to render services productively, while ensuring the optimum utilisation of available funds and resources to benefit the inhabitants of the country. Problems in the Zimbabwean public procurement sector that detract from service delivery are key contemporary issues. This is evident from the numerous complaints of poor service delivery received by the public that can be attributed to public procurement.Objective: The purpose of this article was to report on a study that investigated problems in the different stages of the operational procurement process in the Zimbabwean public sector that detract from service delivery, the extent of these problems and how the public procurement process can be improved to enhance service delivery.Method: This descriptive and exploratory study followed a quantitative approach. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire administered to all public entities in Zimbabwe. Data were analysed using SPSS. Results: The majority of the identified problems in the public procurement sector that detract from service delivery are found in the advertising, bid evaluation and contract stages.Conclusion: As only a few studies on this topic have been conducted in Zimbabwe, the findings of this research add a significant perspective to the existing body of knowledge and can assist stakeholders with regard to how the public procurement process can be improved in order to enhance service delivery through public procurement process reform and restructuring.

  18. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALLHOLDERS: A STUDY OF THE PUBLIC MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYKELL LEITE DA COSTA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work seeks to analyze economically the public market of Santa Rosa/RS, focusing the marketing channels used and the quality of products. Based on this work, one shows that the pluriactivity is a factor that contributes to greater income. However, the greater the complexity of economic activities, the more effective must be management mechanisms, because the productive factors and market relations become more complex. As a result, the ability to administer efficiently family properties is crucial for the sustainable development of Brazilian agribusiness, contributing to the improvement of the quality of life, for fixing the man in the field and to a cost-effective and environmentally sustainable development.

  19. Phygital public space approach: a case study in Volpiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Bazzanella

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today an important challenge is opening: designing public spaces by taking into account the augmented meaning carried by “new digital citizen and users”. New ways of digital communication, a broader network of digital information and the open data naturally transform also the physical space into something new we can call “phygital” (Momentum 2012. The usual way to read urban spaces could be improved with new digital technology. How is the boundary between virtual and real?; what if people overcome easily these boundaries? The phygital spaces are not the common urban spaces as we usually think but a place-based network of interaction among people. Throughout a research experiment carried out by Polytechnic of Turin in collaboration with the Municipality of Volpiano (TO, this paper proposes a community planning strategy where people keep their central role and virtual interaction empower the design of a new sustainable city space.

  20. Strategi public relations dalam manajemen krisis (studi deskriptif kualitatif strategi manajemen krisis divisi public relations pt pln (persero) wilayah sumatera utara)

    OpenAIRE

    Manurung, Tia Malinda

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini berjudul Strategi Public Relations dalam Manajemen Krisis (Studi Deskriptif Kualitatif Strategi Manajemen Krisis Divisi Public Relations PT PLN (Persero) Wilayah Sumatera Utara). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pemetaan krisis yang terjadi di PT PLN (Persero) Wilayah Sumatera Utara, untuk mengetahui strategi manajemen krisis yang dilakukan public relations PT PLN (Persero) Wilayah Sumatera Utara. Public Relations merupakan kegiatan berkesinambungan dari usaha-usaha u...

  1. Strategi Divisi Public Relations dalam Manajemen Krisis (Studi Deskriptif Kualitatif Strategi Manajemen Krisis Divisi Public Relations PT PLN (Persero) Wilayah Sumatera Utara)

    OpenAIRE

    Manurung, Tia Malinda

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini berjudul Strategi Public Relations dalam Manajemen Krisis (Studi Deskriptif Kualitatif Strategi Manajemen Krisis Divisi Public Relations PT PLN (Persero) Wilayah Sumatera Utara). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pemetaan krisis yang terjadi di PT PLN (Persero) Wilayah Sumatera Utara, untuk mengetahui strategi manajemen krisis yang dilakukan public relations PT PLN (Persero) Wilayah Sumatera Utara. Public Relations merupakan kegiatan berkesinambungan dari usaha-usaha u...

  2. The Human Bitumen Study: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Pesch, Beate; Rühl, Reinhold; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Bitumen has attracted attention from the scientific community and regulating agencies. The debate on health effects of exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen during the hot application of bitumen ranges from respiratory and neurological effects to carcinogenicity. In 2000, the German Hazardous Substances Committee (AGS), in collaboration with the German Bitumen Forum, initiated the examination of a group of mastic asphalt workers and a same number of construction workers without exposure bitumen using a cross-shift design. The study was then extended to the Human Bitumen Study, and the recruitment was finished in 2008 after examination of 500 workers on 80 construction sites. Three hundred and twenty workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen at high processing temperatures and 118 workers at outdoor construction sites were included. In the Human Bitumen Study external exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen, internal exposure to PAH by analysing urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, the sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes and the sum of 1- and 2-hydroxynaphthalenes, irritative effects in the upper and lower airways and genotoxic effects in blood cells were investigated. The study turned out to be one of the largest investigations of workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen under current exposure conditions. The present paper summarizes its background and main topics.

  3. The Effect of Selected Human Resource Management Practices on Employees' Job Satisfaction in Ethiopian Public Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Werku Ijigu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the research has been conducted in the job satisfaction of employees’ on employees job related outcomes but there is little well comprehensive research done that shows  the influence of HRM practices on the satisfaction of employees towards a job.This study is correlational type of research design which is aimed to describe or ascertain if there are significant associations between selected HRM practices and employees’ job satisfaction.In addition to Correlation and Regression, Descriptive statistics, frequencies and percentages were utilized to analyze the data. Interpretation is made on the mean, frequency, and percentage of the data and summarized by bar graphs and pie charts.The study result has implied that recruitment and selection is found to have moderate but positive correlation with employees’ job satisfaction and the remaining, training and development, performance appraisal and compensation package found to have strong positive correlation with employees’ job satisfaction. Moreover, the regression result shows that recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisal and compensation package have a significant positive impact on job satisfaction.Each HRM practices in the banks should be a source for employees’ satisfaction and then employees will be loyal and willing to stay in those organizations (Banks because, employees’ satisfaction on the job will reduce absenteeism and turn over intentions in public banks.

  4. Consumer Health Information Behavior in Public Libraries: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yong Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicated inadequate health literacy of American adults as one of the biggest challenges for consumer health information services provided in public libraries. Little attention, however, has been paid to public users' health literacy and health information behaviors. In order to bridge the research gap, the study aims to…

  5. Statewide Study of School Public Relations Personnel: Roles, Responsibilities, Relationships, and Budget Vote Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This two-part quantitative study expanded our understanding of school PR personnel in public school districts, particularly those who worked during the 2009-2012 budget years. Four cultural changes have redefined the paradigm of public education and served as a springboard for this study: technology-enhanced communications information retrieval,…

  6. Some Influences on the Autonomy of Corporate Public Relations Professionals: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serini, Shirley A.

    A case study examined the process of preparing information for publication in an in-house newsletter for a large organization, focusing on the factors determining the amount of autonomy of public relations practitioners as professionals in organizations. The subject of the case study was a communication and advertising department of a "mixed…

  7. Risk Management and Disaster Recovery in Public Libraries in South Australia: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Diane L.; Evans, Nina; Kaeding, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports the findings of a study of risk management in public libraries. The focus of the research was to determine whether the libraries had a risk management and disaster plan for major disasters. Method: A qualitative study was done to investigate risk management and disaster recovery in public libraries in South…

  8. Statewide Study of School Public Relations Personnel: Roles, Responsibilities, Relationships, and Budget Vote Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This two-part quantitative study expanded our understanding of school PR personnel in public school districts, particularly those who worked during the 2009-2012 budget years. Four cultural changes have redefined the paradigm of public education and served as a springboard for this study: technology-enhanced communications information retrieval,…

  9. Information Literacy, Learning, and the Public Library: A Study of Danish High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Bo Gerner; Borlund, Pia

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports on a study of 12 Danish high school students' perceptions of public libraries' role in learning, user education, information literacy, and librarians' information competencies. The study is undertaken by use of literature review and interviews with a purposive select sample of public library users in Denmark. The study…

  10. Public Policy Analysis. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Elinor

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This publication on Public Policy Analysis includes 11 sections: (1) The Purposes of this Study Guide; (2) Urban Reform Proposals; (3) Evaluating Reform Proposals; (4)…

  11. The Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) and Bipolar Adjective Scale (BAS): aspects of validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Williams, Mandy J; Ware, Mercedes B; Guendouzi, Jacqueline; Reichel, Isabella K

    2014-01-01

    In order to estimate instrument validity, attitudes toward stuttering measured by the newly developed Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) and the Woods and Williams (1976) semantic differential scale (referred to herein as the Bipolar Adjective Scale [BAS]) are compared in college students on one occasion as well as before and after coursework on fluency disorders. Undergraduate and graduate students (n=321) from four universities filled out online versions of the POSHA-S and BAS. Two-thirds were speech-language pathology (SLP) majors; one-third were students in other majors. A subset of the SLP students (n=35) filled out the two instruments again after 8-13 weeks of coursework on fluency disorders. Correlations between all ratings of the POSHA-S and BAS were run for the 321 students. Only 26% of the correlations were statistically significant (R ≥ ± 0.129), and the large majority of these reflected small relationships. POSHA-S ratings were correlated with up to 77% of the items of the BAS while BAS items were correlated with up to 45% of the POSHA-S ratings. After coursework on stuttering, students' attitudes improved on both instruments, but more on the POSHA-S than the BAS. Greater evidence of discriminant validity than convergent validity characterized the POSHA-S and BAS. Both measures showed improved attitudes after fluency disorders coursework, but more so for the POSHA-S, confirming previous reports of construct validity. The POSHA-S taps relevant constructs not included in the BAS, which provide advantages for intracultural, international, and other comparisons of public attitudes toward stuttering. The reader will be able to: (1) describe differentiating characteristics of the POSHA-S and BAS as measures of public attitudes toward stuttering, (2) describe the overlap and lack of overlap in the constructs measured by POSHA-S and BAS, (3) describe discriminant versus convergent validity and (4) describe advantages of the POSHA

  12. Social Sciences and Cultural Studies--Issues of Language, Public Opinion, Education and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Varela, Asuncion, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This is a unique and groundbreaking collection of questions and answers coming from higher education institutions on diverse fields and across a wide spectrum of countries and cultures. It creates routes for further innovation, collaboration amidst the Sciences (both Natural and Social) and the Humanities and the private and the public sectors of…

  13. Social Sciences and Cultural Studies--Issues of Language, Public Opinion, Education and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Varela, Asuncion, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This is a unique and groundbreaking collection of questions and answers coming from higher education institutions on diverse fields and across a wide spectrum of countries and cultures. It creates routes for further innovation, collaboration amidst the Sciences (both Natural and Social) and the Humanities and the private and the public sectors of…

  14. Linking science, public values, and decision-making: Case study development for public deliberations about climate change resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, N.; Bennett, I.; Bernstein, M.; Farooque, M.; Lloyd, J.; Lowenthal, C.; Sittenfeld, D.

    2016-12-01

    Actionable science seeks to align scientific inquiry with decision-making priorities to overcome rifts between scientific knowledge and the needs of decision makers. Combining actionable science with explorations of public values and priorities creates useful support for decision makers facing uncertainty, tradeoffs, and limited resources. As part of a broader project to create public forums about climate change resilience, we convened workshops with decision makers, resilience experts, and community stakeholders to discuss climate change resilience. Our goals were 1) to create case studies of resilience strategies for use in public deliberations at science museums across 8 U.S. cities; and 2) to build relationships with decision makers and stakeholders interested in these public deliberations. Prior to workshops, we created summaries of resilience strategies using academic literature, government assessments, municipal resilience plans, and conversations with workshop participants. Workshops began with example deliberation activities followed by semi-structured discussions of resilience strategies centered on 4 questions: 1) What are the key decisions to be made regarding each strategy? 2) What stakeholders and perspectives are relevant to each strategy? 3) What available data are relevant to each strategy? 4) What visualizations or other resources are useful for communicating things about each strategy? Workshops yielded actionable dialogue regarding issues of justice, feasibility, and the socio-ecological-technical systems impacted by climate change hazards and resilience strategies. For example, discussions of drought revealed systemic and individual-level challenges and opportunities; discussions of sea level rise included ways to account for the cultural significance of many coastal communities. The workshops provide a model for identifying decision-making priorities and tradeoffs and building partnerships among stakeholders, scientists, and decision makers.

  15. 76 FR 72417 - Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... (PHS) Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV... Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus... Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) through Transplantation of Human Tissue and Organs. The 2011......

  16. 76 FR 58517 - Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV... Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and... Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and......

  17. Human Resources Development (HRD) of Public Entities in the Globalization Era

    OpenAIRE

    Anghel Panait; Morariu Alunica; PhD. Stusent Bejan Marius

    2010-01-01

    Human Resource Development (HRD) is the frameworks for helping employees develop their personal and organizational skills and knowledge. Human Resource Development includes such opportunities as employee training, employee career development, performance management, coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employee identification and definition, assistance in training, and at the same time organization development. The link between human resources development and managerial practice, as ...

  18. As good as it gets? On the meaning of public value in the study of policy and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Public values are being promoted as a core concept in the study of public administration, in particular, in discourses surrounding Moore’s public value management and Bozeman’s public value failure. This article outlines the approaches to the concept of values and public values. Particular attention

  19. Management of information security risks in a federal public institution: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson Gomes Soares Souza; Carlos Hideo Arima; Renata Maria Nogueira de Oliveira; Getulio Akabane; Napoleão Verardi Galegale

    2016-01-01

    Public institutions bound to the Brazilian federal public sector must apply security measures, policies, procedures and guidelines as information assets protection measures. This case study sought to determine whether the management of information security risks is applied in a federal public institution according to Information Technology (I.T.) managers perceptions and the results expose the importance of the roles played by people, responsibilities, policies, standards, procedures and thei...

  20. A challenge of veterinary public health in the European Union: human trichinellosis due to horse meat consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touratier L.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Human trichinellosis in the European Union due to insufficiently cooked horse meat consumption has been reported in France and in Italy during the past 25 years. It occurred in several outbreaks totalling more than 3,000 patients during this period, with a low mortality and a high morbidity. Causative Trichinella species or phenotypes were determined by the International Reference Laboratory for Trichinellosis in Rome, Italy. They were: Trichinella spiralis, T. britovi and T. murelli. As the culinary habits and customs of populations cannot be changed by regulations, measures of protection of public health essentially depend on food inspection. Comprehensive studies having been conducted in the pathophysiology of Trichinella infection in horses; it was demonstrated that the localisation of larvae are quite different in horses and in pork. It resulted an instruction from the French Veterinary Service recommending that :- the sampling of muscles in horses carcasses has to be done at first in the tongue (apex, then in the diaphragm (pillars;- at least 50 g have to be sampled in each site;- examination for larvae has to be done with the digestion method.Such recommendations might be extended to other EU member countries then to the OIE Zoo-Sanitary Code.

  1. Female leaders’ experiences of psychosocial working conditions and its health consequences in Swedish public human service organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil J. Landstad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Municipal workplaces have high levels of sickness absence, and deterioration of the psychosocial work environment has been most pronounced for women and employees in this sector of Swedish working life. This study explores how female leaders in one rural municipality in Sweden experience their psychosocial working conditions and its health consequences. Interviews were carried out with 20 female leaders. Data were analyzed with a content analysis method using major dimensions of work stress models. These were job demands, job control, job resources, social support, and its health consequences. The analysis shows that the leaders experience high and conflicting job demands, limited possibilities to influence their work situation, insufficient job resources and social support, and limited time for their own health promotion. However, the leaders experience possibilities to develop skills in their jobs and opportunities to participate in educational programs. The analyses confirm the need for improvements in the prerequisites for female leaders in public human service organizations. It is important to improve female leaders’ psychosocial working conditions by implementing a more narrow control range, increased personal and economical recourses, leadership support, and leader development programs.

  2. Public Perspectives on Health Human Resources in Primary Healthcare: Context, Choices and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Sandra; Wong, Sabrina T.; Watson, Diane E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors identified by patients as relevant to health human resources (HHR) planning for primary healthcare (PHC). Eleven focus groups were conducted in British Columbia and a thematic analysis was undertaken, informed by a needs-based HHR planning framework. Three themes emerged: (a) the importance of geographic context, (b) change management at the practice level and (c) the need for choices and changes in delivery of PHC. Findings suggest that more attention could be focused on overcoming geographic barriers to providing services, change management within office-based practices, and providing support structures that allow primary care providers to work closer to their full scope of practice. That these factors align with many strategic directions set out by government and planners signals the readiness for change in how PHC is delivered and HHR planned. PMID:21286262

  3. Health care access for refugees and immigrants with precarious status: public health and human right challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cécile; ter Kuile, Sonia; Munoz, Marie; Nadeau, Lucie; Ouimet, Marie-Jo; Kirmayer, Laurence; Crépeau, François

    2008-01-01

    Migration flux is being transformed by globalization, and the number of people with either undocumented or with a precarious status is growing in Canada. There are no epidemiological data on the health and social consequences of this situation, but clinicians working in primary care with migrants and refugees are increasingly worried about the associated morbidity. This commentary summarizes findings from a pilot study with health professionals in the Montreal area and suggests that the uninsured population predicament is a national problem. Although ethical and legal issues associated with data collection by clinicians, institutions and governments need to be examined, estimating the public health consequences and long-term cost associated with problems in access to health care due to migratory status should be a priority. Current regulations and administrative policies appear to be at odds with the principles of equal rights set out by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Beyond the commitment of individual clinicians, Canadian medical associations should take an advocacy role and scrutinize the ethical and medical implications of the present system.

  4. An Exploratory Study of the Role of Human Resource Management in Models of Employee Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolina-Ozola, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the study results of the human resource management role in the voluntary employee turnover models. The mixed methods design was applied. On the basis of the results of the search and evaluation of publications, the 16 models of employee turnover were selected. Applying the method of content analysis, the…

  5. MONOAMINE OXIDASE: RADIOTRACER DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN STUDIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER,J.S.; LOGAN,J.; VOLKOW,N.D.; WANG,G.J.; MACGREGOR,R.R.; DING,Y.S.

    2000-09-28

    PET is uniquely capable of providing information on biochemical transformations in the living human body. Although most of the studies of monoamine oxidase (MAO) have focused on measurements in the brain, the role of peripheral MAO as a phase 1 enzyme for the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics is gaining attention (Strolin Benedetti and Tipton, 1998; Castagnoli et al., 1997.). MAO is well suited for this role because its concentration in organs such as kidneys, liver and digestive organs is high sometimes exceeding that in the brain. Knowledge of the distribution of the MAO subtypes within different organs and different cells is important in determining which substrates (and which drugs and xenobiotics) have access to which MAO subtypes. The highly variable subtype distribution with different species makes human studies even more important. In addition, the deleterious side effects of combining MAO inhibitors with other drugs and with foodstuffs makes it important to know the MAO inhibitory potency of different drugs both in the brain and in peripheral organs (Ulus et al., 2000). Clearly PET can play a role in answering these questions, in drug research and development and in discovering some of the factors which contribute to the highly variable MAO levels in different individuals.

  6. RECRUITING, RETAINING, AND REPORTING EXPOSURE STUDY RESULTS TO PARTICIPANTS AND THE PUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is developing techniques and capabilities to recruit and retain participants in exposure measurement studies and to effectively report study results to participants and the public. These techniques are being applied in three N...

  7. An Analysis of Media’s Role: Case Study of Army Public School (APS Peshawar Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Rameesha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at analyzing the role of media during and after terrorist attacks by examining the media handling of APS Peshawar attack. The sample consisted of males and females selected on convenience basis from universities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. It was hypothesized that (1 Extensive media coverage of terrorist attacks leads to greater publicity/recognition of terrorist groups (2 Media coverage of APS Peshawar attack increased fear and anxiety in public (3 Positive media handling/coverage of APS Peshawar attack led to public solidarity and peace. The results indicate that i Media coverage of terrorist attacks does help terrorist groups to gain publicity and recognition amongst public ii Media coverage of Aps Peshawar attack did not increase fear/anxiety in fact it directed the Pakistani nation towards public solidarity and peace.

  8. A Brief History of Soils and Human Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    scientist to date to be awarded a Nobel Prize. In the 1940s and 50s William Albrecht of the University of Missouri became interested in links between soils and human health, an interest that lead to the publication of several papers. Albrecht's works focused on links between soil fertility and dental health, with a particular focus on the relationships between soil fertility and dental cavities. However, Albrecht did extend the relationships between soil fertility and human health out to broader, more general health issues in some of his writings as well. Well-known figures such as Sir Albert Howard and J.I. Rodale also published works in the 1940s that included soils and human health components. Then André Voisin published "Soil, Grass, and Cancer" in 1959. Much of Voisin's work focused on nutrient content in soils, including both nutrient deficiencies and imbalances, and how that influences nutrient status in plants and animals that are in turn consumed by humans. Several health problems are discussed, including but not limited to birth defects, goiter, mental illness, diabetes, and cancer. Voisin concluded that the medical profession had largely ignored soils in their efforts to improve human health, but that soil science should be the foundation of preventative medicine. Soils and human health studies continued in the later part of the 20th Century. The health effects of exposures to radioactive elements in soils received considerable attention after the 1986 Chernobyl incident, however, even prior to Chernobyl radionuclides in the soil and how they may affect human health were receiving attention. Investigations into the effects of heavy metals in soils became a common theme as did organic chemicals in soils and the effects of trace elements on human health. Following up on the discovery of antibiotics, soil organisms received increased attention as they related to human health. By the end of the 1900s, M.A. Oliver (1997) noted that "… there is a dearth of

  9. Agreements between Industry and Academia on Publication Rights: A Retrospective Study of Protocols and Publications of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Kasenda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about publication agreements between industry and academic investigators in trial protocols and the consistency of these agreements with corresponding statements in publications. We aimed to investigate (i the existence and types of publication agreements in trial protocols, (ii the completeness and consistency of the reporting of these agreements in subsequent publications, and (iii the frequency of co-authorship by industry employees.We used a retrospective cohort of randomized clinical trials (RCTs based on archived protocols approved by six research ethics committees between 13 January 2000 and 25 November 2003. Only RCTs with industry involvement were eligible. We investigated the documentation of publication agreements in RCT protocols and statements in corresponding journal publications. Of 647 eligible RCT protocols, 456 (70.5% mentioned an agreement regarding publication of results. Of these 456, 393 (86.2% documented an industry partner's right to disapprove or at least review proposed manuscripts; 39 (8.6% agreements were without constraints of publication. The remaining 24 (5.3% protocols referred to separate agreement documents not accessible to us. Of those 432 protocols with an accessible publication agreement, 268 (62.0% trials were published. Most agreements documented in the protocol were not reported in the subsequent publication (197/268 [73.5%]. Of 71 agreements reported in publications, 52 (73.2% were concordant with those documented in the protocol. In 14 of 37 (37.8% publications in which statements suggested unrestricted publication rights, at least one co-author was an industry employee. In 25 protocol-publication pairs, author statements in publications suggested no constraints, but 18 corresponding protocols documented restricting agreements.Publication agreements constraining academic authors' independence are common. Journal articles seldom report on publication agreements, and, if they do

  10. Agreements between Industry and Academia on Publication Rights: A Retrospective Study of Protocols and Publications of Randomized Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasenda, Benjamin; von Elm, Erik; You, John J.; Tomonaga, Yuki; Saccilotto, Ramon; Amstutz, Alain; Bengough, Theresa; Meerpohl, Joerg J.; Stegert, Mihaela; Olu, Kelechi K.; Tikkinen, Kari A. O.; Neumann, Ignacio; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Faulhaber, Markus; Mulla, Sohail M.; Mertz, Dominik; Akl, Elie A.; Bassler, Dirk; Busse, Jason W.; Nordmann, Alain; Gloy, Viktoria; Ebrahim, Shanil; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Sun, Xin; Vandvik, Per O.; Johnston, Bradley C.; Walter, Martin A.; Burnand, Bernard; Hemkens, Lars G.; Bucher, Heiner C.; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Briel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about publication agreements between industry and academic investigators in trial protocols and the consistency of these agreements with corresponding statements in publications. We aimed to investigate (i) the existence and types of publication agreements in trial protocols, (ii) the completeness and consistency of the reporting of these agreements in subsequent publications, and (iii) the frequency of co-authorship by industry employees. Methods and Findings We used a retrospective cohort of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) based on archived protocols approved by six research ethics committees between 13 January 2000 and 25 November 2003. Only RCTs with industry involvement were eligible. We investigated the documentation of publication agreements in RCT protocols and statements in corresponding journal publications. Of 647 eligible RCT protocols, 456 (70.5%) mentioned an agreement regarding publication of results. Of these 456, 393 (86.2%) documented an industry partner’s right to disapprove or at least review proposed manuscripts; 39 (8.6%) agreements were without constraints of publication. The remaining 24 (5.3%) protocols referred to separate agreement documents not accessible to us. Of those 432 protocols with an accessible publication agreement, 268 (62.0%) trials were published. Most agreements documented in the protocol were not reported in the subsequent publication (197/268 [73.5%]). Of 71 agreements reported in publications, 52 (73.2%) were concordant with those documented in the protocol. In 14 of 37 (37.8%) publications in which statements suggested unrestricted publication rights, at least one co-author was an industry employee. In 25 protocol-publication pairs, author statements in publications suggested no constraints, but 18 corresponding protocols documented restricting agreements. Conclusions Publication agreements constraining academic authors’ independence are common. Journal articles seldom report on

  11. THE STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES-IMPERATIVE REQUIREMENT OF THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORM

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Together with the global economic crisis, the impact of organizational crises on human capital and its performances has become increasingly obvious. From this perspective, the strategic role of human resources’ development is crucial. This development can help the organizational management to improve their operational abilities, that allow a better management of the existing crises and also preventing future one. Most researchers agree that the strategic development of human resources implies...

  12. The contribution of advisory committees and public involvement to large studies: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tew Jerry

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many large studies have complex advisory committee structures, yet there is no empirical evidence regarding their optimal composition, scope and contribution. The aim of this study was to inform the committee and advice infrastructure for future research studies. Methods In the context of a five-year study funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research, three advisory committees were formed. In addition, advice was obtained from individual experts. All recommendations received in the start-up phase (first seven months of the study were recorded, along with the decision about implementation of the recommendation. A particular focus was on the impact of public involvement. Results A total of 172 recommendations were made, including 70 from 20 individual experts. The recommendations were grouped into five emergent themes: Scientific, Pragmatic, Resources, Committee and Collaboration. Most recommendations related to strengthening existing components or adding new components to the study protocol. Very few recommendations either proposed removing study components or contradicted other recommendations. Three 'implementation criteria' were identified: scientific value, pragmatic feasibility, and paradigmatic consistency. 103 (60% of recommendations were implemented and 25 (15% were not implemented. The benefits identified by the research team were improved quality and confidence, and the costs were increased cognitive demands, protocol revision time, and slower progress. Conclusions The findings are discussed in the context of the wider literature on public involvement in research. Six recommendations are identified. First, have a clear rationale for each advisory committee expressed as terms of reference, and consider the best balance between committees and individual consultation with experts. Second, an early concern of committees is inter-committee communication, so consider cross-representation and copying minutes

  13. Human trafficking, labor brokering, and mining in southern Africa: responding to a decentralized and hidden public health disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Many southern African economies are dependent on the extractive industries. These industries rely on low-cost labor, often supplied by migrants, typically acquired through labor brokers. Very little attention has so far been paid to trafficking of men into extractive industries or its connection with trafficked women in the region's mining hubs. Recent reports suggest that labor-brokering practices foster human trafficking, both by exposing migrant men to lack of pay and exploitative conditions and by creating male migratory patterns that generate demand for sex workers and associated trafficking of women and girls. While trafficking in persons violates human rights, and thus remains a priority issue globally, there is little or no evidence of an effective political response to mine-related trafficking in southern Africa. This article concludes with recommendations for legal and policy interventions, as well as an enhanced public health response, which if implemented would help reduce human trafficking toward mining sites.

  14. 2002 progress report and public health assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    Clean Air Hamilton focuses on improving air quality in the City by providing advice to City Council. The actions and activities of Clean Air Hamilton directly benefit residents. The activities relate to natural areas and corridors; reducing and managing waste; consuming less energy; changing our modes of transportation; land use issues in urban areas; and, personal health and well-being. The report includes an assessment of human health impacts caused by air pollution in Hamilton. It uses the most recent science and Hamilton air quality data as a basis. The results indicate that approximately 100 people die prematurely each year in Hamilton, while approximately 620 people require admission to hospitals for respiratory and cardiovascular problems related to exposure to pollutants. The second Upwind Downwind Conference was held in February 2002, sponsored by Clean Air Hamilton. All three levels of government view Clean Air Hamilton as a success. The City of Hamilton was awarded the prestigious 2000 Dubai International Award for Best Practices in Improving Living Environment as a result of Clean Air Hamilton's community process in local air quality improvement. 47 refs., tabs., 1 fig.

  15. University Intervention into Community Issues as Dialogic Public Relations: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jamie M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines a study of the wastewater collection and treatment issues of Little Rock and North Little Rock, Arkansas by University of Arkansas at Little Rock personnel and how it constitutes dialogic public relations. The paper defines dialogic public relations using Kent and Taylor's work and then uses their criteria to describe how this…

  16. Performance measurement of public facilities in Thailand: A case study of Dhanarak Asset Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riratanaphong, C.; Van der Voordt, D.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to present Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) that are used in public real estate management practice in Thailand, and to discuss similarities and dissimilarities between theory and practice. The findings from a single case study are compared with data from 55 other public organisatio

  17. A Study of Public Awareness of Speech-Language Pathology in Amman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Hana; Aljazi, Aya; Alkhamra, Rana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Statistical levels of awareness and knowledge of speech-language pathology and of communication disorders are currently unknown among the public in the Middle East, including Jordan. Aims: This study reports the results of an investigation of public awareness and knowledge of speech-language pathology in Amman-Jordan. It also…

  18. Responsibility Attribution for Violence against Women: A Study of Chinese Public Service Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-kum; Pun, Shuk Han; Cheung, Fanny Mui-ching

    2002-01-01

    This study examined how Chinese public service professionals attributed responsibility to victims and perpetrators of violence against women (VAW). A total of 2,308 Chinese public service professionals in Hong Kong completed questionnaires on attitudes toward women, VAW-related perceptions, and assignment of responsibility to actors in written VAW…

  19. A Study of Public Awareness of Speech-Language Pathology in Amman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Hana; Aljazi, Aya; Alkhamra, Rana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Statistical levels of awareness and knowledge of speech-language pathology and of communication disorders are currently unknown among the public in the Middle East, including Jordan. Aims: This study reports the results of an investigation of public awareness and knowledge of speech-language pathology in Amman-Jordan. It also…

  20. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  1. University Intervention into Community Issues as Dialogic Public Relations: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jamie M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines a study of the wastewater collection and treatment issues of Little Rock and North Little Rock, Arkansas by University of Arkansas at Little Rock personnel and how it constitutes dialogic public relations. The paper defines dialogic public relations using Kent and Taylor's work and then uses their criteria to describe how this…

  2. 24 Hours in the Children's Section: An Observational Study at the Public Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore patronage and usage of the children's section of a public library. Patrons of the children's section of a public library in a small Northern Arizona city were observed for a total of 24 h over 12 sessions. Analytic induction was used to formulate categories based on field notes made during these…

  3. Cryptographic Research and NSA: Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davida, George I.

    1981-01-01

    The Public Cryptography Study Group accepted the claim made by the National Security Agency that some information in some publications concerning cryptology could be inimical to national security, and is allowing the establishment of a voluntary mechanism, on an experimental basis, for NSA to review cryptology manuscripts. (MLW)

  4. Adoption of an Outdoor Residential Hall Smoking Policy in a California Public University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Trit; Fradkin, Nicholas; Moskowitz, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Because secondhand smoke is a public health concern, many colleges have adopted bans to ensure healthier environments. This study demonstrates how outdoor smoking policy change can be accomplished at a large public university. Participants: The participants were 1,537 students housed in residential communities at the University of…

  5. The Application of Humanized Mouse Models for the Study of Human Exclusive Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Fatemeh; Giles, Elizabeth C; Ashkar, Ali A

    2017-01-01

    The symbiosis between humans and viruses has allowed human tropic pathogens to evolve intricate means of modulating the human immune response to ensure its survival among the human population. In doing so, these viruses have developed profound mechanisms that mesh closely with our human biology. The establishment of this intimate relationship has created a species-specific barrier to infection, restricting the virus-associated pathologies to humans. This specificity diminishes the utility of traditional animal models. Humanized mice offer a model unique to all other means of study, providing an in vivo platform for the careful examination of human tropic viruses and their interaction with human cells and tissues. These types of animal models have provided a reliable medium for the study of human-virus interactions, a relationship that could otherwise not be investigated without questionable relevance to humans.

  6. A Large-Scale Study of Surrogate Physicality and Gesturing on Human–Surrogate Interactions in a Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangsoo Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological human surrogates, including robotic and virtual humans, have been popularly used in various scenarios, including training, education, and entertainment. Prior research has investigated the effects of the surrogate’s physicality and gesturing in human perceptions and social influence of the surrogate. However, those studies have been carried out in research laboratories, where the participants were aware that it was an experiment, and the participant demographics are typically relatively narrow—e.g., college students. In this paper, we describe and share results from a large-scale exploratory user study involving 7,685 people in a public space, where they were unaware of the experimental nature of the setting, to investigate the effects of surrogate physicality and gesturing on their behavior during human–surrogate interactions. We evaluate human behaviors using several variables, such as proactivity and reactivity, and proximity. We have identified several interesting phenomena that could lead to hypotheses developed as part of future hypothesis-based studies. Based on the measurements of the variables, we believe people are more likely to be engaged in a human–surrogate interaction when the surrogate is physically present, but movements and gesturing with its body parts have not shown the expected benefits for the interaction engagement. Regarding the demographics of the people in the study, we found higher overall engagement for females than males, and higher reactivity for younger than older people. We discuss implications for practitioners aiming to design a technological surrogate that will directly interact with real humans.

  7. MANAGING HUMAN FACTORS IN IMPLEMENTING ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT SYSTEM IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMS LEIKUMS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Document management underlies the activities of almost every organization. Correctly managed correspondence and organized document circulation characterize successful performance particularly in the public sector organizations. Even though production of documents itself is not the main task of governmental institutions, document creation and processing are crucial processes for the provision of basic functions in public sector. In the 21st century it gets more important to use the new possibilities offered by modern technologies, including electronic document management. Public sector itself is a heavy bureaucratic apparatus in the need of elasticity and ability to change its working processes and habits in order to gradually switch to the digital environment. Western European countries have already turned to electronic document management whilst most of the Eastern European countries, including Latvia, have just recently started a gradual electronization of document circulation. When implementing electronic document management systems in the public sector organizations, it often comes to resistance of the staff and unwillingness to change the accustomed methods of work – paper format document circulation. Both lower level staff and higher level managers put obstacles to electronic document management. In this article author inspects cases of successful practice and analyses possible action mechanisms that could convince public sector personnel of advantages of electronic document circulation and prepare them to switch to work with digital documents.

  8. Interactions among human behavior, social networks, and societal infrastructures: A Case Study in Computational Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Bisset, Keith; Chen, Jiangzhuo; Eubank, Stephen; Lewis, Bryan; Kumar, V. S. Anil; Marathe, Madhav V.; Mortveit, Henning S.

    Human behavior, social networks, and the civil infrastructures are closely intertwined. Understanding their co-evolution is critical for designing public policies and decision support for disaster planning. For example, human behaviors and day to day activities of individuals create dense social interactions that are characteristic of modern urban societies. These dense social networks provide a perfect fabric for fast, uncontrolled disease propagation. Conversely, people’s behavior in response to public policies and their perception of how the crisis is unfolding as a result of disease outbreak can dramatically alter the normally stable social interactions. Effective planning and response strategies must take these complicated interactions into account. In this chapter, we describe a computer simulation based approach to study these issues using public health and computational epidemiology as an illustrative example. We also formulate game-theoretic and stochastic optimization problems that capture many of the problems that we study empirically.

  9. Recent advances in human viruses imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Paula Ecaterina; Rouillé, Yves; Ruta, Simona; Nichita, Norica; Roseanu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    Microscopy techniques are often exploited by virologists to investigate molecular details of critical steps in viruses' life cycles such as host cell recognition and entry, genome replication, intracellular trafficking, and release of mature virions. Fluorescence microscopy is the most attractive tool employed to detect intracellular localizations of various stages of the viral infection and monitor the pathogen-host interactions associated with them. Super-resolution microscopy techniques have overcome the technical limitations of conventional microscopy and offered new exciting insights into the formation and trafficking of human viruses. In addition, the development of state-of-the art electron microscopy techniques has become particularly important in studying virus morphogenesis by revealing ground-braking ultrastructural details of this process. This review provides recent advances in human viruses imaging in both, in vitro cell culture systems and in vivo, in the animal models recently developed. The newly available imaging technologies bring a major contribution to our understanding of virus pathogenesis and will become an important tool in early diagnosis of viral infection and the development of novel therapeutics to combat the disease.

  10. A systematic review of publications studies on medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Ferdosi; Alireza, Jabbari; Mahmoud, Keyvanara; Zahra, Agharahimi

    2013-01-01

    Medical tourism for any study area is complex. Using full articles from other databases, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Science Direct, Emerald, Oxford, Magiran, and Scientific Information Database (SID), to examine systematically published articles about medical tourism in the interval 2000-2011 paid. Articles were obtained using descriptive statistics and content analysis categories were analyzed. Among the 28 articles reviewed, 11 cases were a kind of research articles, three cases were case studies in Mexico, India, Hungary, Germany, and Iran, and 14 were case studies, review documents and data were passed. The main topics of study included the definition of medical tourism, medical tourists' motivation and development of medical tourism, ethical issues in medical tourism, and impact on health and medical tourism marketing. The findings indicate the definition of medical tourism in various articles, and medical tourists are motivated. However, most studies indicate the benefits of medical tourism in developing countries and more developed countries reflect the consequences of medical tourism.

  11. mprovements in the Process of Requisite Elicitation for Public Management Software: A Case Study Using Work Instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOES, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Requirements elicitation is not an easy task. Different expectations between users and analysts, redundancy of information and lack of standardization can make this task difficult and conflicting. When it comes to software for the public sector this task becomes somewhat more complicated because of the constant changes in federal laws and regulations. This paper presents a case study of applying work instructions to remedy these kind of problems, as well as others found in the company where the study was carried out. We achieved very promising results, namely better utilization of human resources and reduction of job demand.

  12. One Health Information and Communication Technology. How digital humanities contribute to public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossebaard, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Zoonoses are infectious diseases that are transmitted either directly or indirectly from animals to human beings. The human and economic costs of zoonoses and antimicrobial resistance can hardly be overestimated. Due to ecological and socioeconomic behavioral changes, new and different zoonoses emer

  13. One Health Information and Communication Technology. How digital humanities contribute to public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossebaard, Hans Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    Zoonoses are infectious diseases that are transmitted either directly or indirectly from animals to human beings. The human and economic costs of zoonoses and antimicrobial resistance can hardly be overestimated. Due to ecological and socioeconomic behavioral changes, new and different zoonoses

  14. A Survey of Digital Humanities Centers in the United States. CLIR Publication No. 143

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorich, Diane M.

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for the 2008 Scholarly Communications Institute (SCI 6) focused on humanities research centers, the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) commissioned a survey of digital humanities centers (DHCs). The immediate goals of the survey were to identify the extent of these centers and to explore their financing,…

  15. [Comparative study on objective-setting public health policy--historical background and path dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yosihiro

    2002-05-01

    The historical background and the path dependence of objective-setting public health policy are described in this review. The New Public Health movement appeared in the 1980s and was inspired by the Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion. This movement is based on the idea that public health is mostly promoted by creating a supportive environment for health as well as by individual efforts toward a healthy life style. The first objective-setting public health policy called Healthy People was proposed in USA, 1979, under the influence of The Lalonde Report published in Canada, 1974. Goals and targets were set in order to reduce the mortality of American people. This project led to Healthy People 2000 and Healthy People 2010. In the 1990s, objective-setting public health policies prevailed in Western countries, such as United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and also in Japan. The objective-setting public health policy is the application of the management by objectives in the health policy domain. This policy is especially accepted in Anglo-Saxon countries where public sector reform was conducted on the basis of the New Public Management theory in the 1980s, which is when the WHO Regional Office for Europe started the Healthy Cities project that emphasized a network of project cities. The Health 21 in 1999 is another model of object-setting public health policy. A comparative study of four different objective-setting public health policies (USA, United Kingdom, WHO Regional Office for Europe, and Japan) was conducted regarding the goals and domains of the targets, methods of targeting, and evaluation of the project. The goals were almost identical in the four public health policies, while the domains of the targets were different. These differences were explained by the past experience of public health policy development in each country.

  16. The public libraries as a subjective integration spaces: A case study in La Peña public Library of BibloRed, in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Toro Peña

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The proposed research addresses how public libraries in popular contexts can realize processes of collective subjectivity from their library services. An analysis of these libraries as agencies for the construction of the public sphere is carried out through a case study in a public library of Bogota, Colombia. It was initially proposed to illustrate the way in which the public library has addressed the question of what is a public library and what is its social and political role, identifying the reasons that we believe are necessary questioned by the social sciences. Then, reviewing the theories of subjectivity and collective subjectivity, an instrument for qualitative inquiries was built around the category of collective subjectivity, allowing to explore from subjective narratives of users, the elements to describe the processes from the selected public library. Finally, considerations are presented about public libraries as agencies of social and cultural processes, involved in training and participation scenarios.

  17. A systematic review of publications studies on medical tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Ferdosi; Alireza, Jabbari; Mahmoud, Keyvanara; Zahra, Agharahimi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Medical tourism for any study area is complex. Materials and Methods: Using full articles from other databases, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Science Direct, Emerald, Oxford, Magiran, and Scientific Information Database (SID), to examine systematically published articles about medical tourism in the interval 2000-2011 paid. Articles were obtained using descriptive statistics and content analysis categories were analyzed. Results: Among the 28 articles reviewed, 11 cases were a kind of research articles, three cases were case studies in Mexico, India, Hungary, Germany, and Iran, and 14 were case studies, review documents and data were passed. The main topics of study included the definition of medical tourism, medical tourists’ motivation and development of medical tourism, ethical issues in medical tourism, and impact on health and medical tourism marketing. Conclusion: The findings indicate the definition of medical tourism in various articles, and medical tourists are motivated. However, most studies indicate the benefits of medical tourism in developing countries and more developed countries reflect the consequences of medical tourism. PMID:24251287

  18. Linking Public Administration and Law Studies within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 1987 represented for us, scholars, the turning point for the Europeanization of highdegree studies. The European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS isa European Union student exchange program which has proved its utility in the last two decade. The publicadministration and law studies are two of the fields of studies which have benefited from the ERASMUSProgramme. In this respect we will try to learn the lesson of internationalization from the European contactthrough ERASMUS programme. The ‘win win’ for students is not just in the increase of knowledge in thearea of administrative sciences and law, but also in the share of cultures. The ERASMUS gives students abetter sense of what it means to be a European citizen. In addition, many employers highly value such aperiod abroad, which increases the students’ employability and job prospects.

  19. Social Studies Education and Public Art: The Detroit Billboard Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Anne TAYLOR

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this action-research project was to evaluate the impact of high school students’ involvement in community-oriented, art-based work in the social studies. In Detroit, high school students engaged in persuasive writing and design while exploring community issues. The project culminated in the installation of student artwork on a billboard in the city’s cultural center. Mixed methods were employed to evaluate the project; forty-seven students completed surveys at its conclusion. The findings suggest that creative projects with real-world applications are motivational, and they promote civic education. The majority of the students reported that their awareness of community issues had increased. This study has implications for the implementation of projects for democratic education and service learning, arts integration in the social studies, and the use of authentic assessments in contextual, culturally responsive teaching

  20. Public perception of smog: A case study in Ningbo City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuncheng; Shi, Longyu

    2017-02-01

    Smog has become a public environmental crisis in most areas of China, and in response, research efforts have mainly focused on the chemical properties of smog and its impact on human health. However, in-depth research on the public's perception of smog has not yet been conducted. A survey of residents living around eight state-controlled atmospheric environmental monitoring sites in Ningbo City was conducted using stratified sampling. The data was statistically analyzed to investigate people's views and behavioral tendencies in smog weather, the influence of different media reports on public outlook, and public opinions on the local atmosphere and pollution management in different areas. The results showed that people's perception of smog differs greatly from actual conditions, indicating that the public opinion tends to deviate when faced with a public crisis. Mainstream media (TV, newspaper, etc.), accounting for 67% of all media sources, are the main source for dissemination of smog information. The main sources of pollution, in order of decreasing contribution, according to residents of Ningbo City are as follows: motor vehicle exhaust, industrial coal combustion, large-scale construction, biomass burning, and kitchen fumes.

  1. Studies on Government Publications' Use, 1990-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Thomas Reed

    1997-01-01

    This literature review examines nine studies within a seven-year time period (1990-1996) concentrating on the use and users of government-produced information. Parallels are drawn in current status of knowledge, but limitations are pointed out in what is becoming an abandoned form of research in government documents librarianship. (Author/AEF)

  2. Social Studies Education and Public Art: The Detroit Billboard Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Anne; Iroha, Okezie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this action-research project was to evaluate the impact of high school students' involvement in community-oriented, art-based work in the social studies. In Detroit, high school students engaged in persuasive writing and design while exploring community issues. The project culminated in the installation of student artwork on a billboard…

  3. Systematic review of the empirical evidence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Dwan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increased use of meta-analysis in systematic reviews of healthcare interventions has highlighted several types of bias that can arise during the completion of a randomised controlled trial. Study publication bias has been recognised as a potential threat to the validity of meta-analysis and can make the readily available evidence unreliable for decision making. Until recently, outcome reporting bias has received less attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We review and summarise the evidence from a series of cohort studies that have assessed study publication bias and outcome reporting bias in randomised controlled trials. Sixteen studies were eligible of which only two followed the cohort all the way through from protocol approval to information regarding publication of outcomes. Eleven of the studies investigated study publication bias and five investigated outcome reporting bias. Three studies have found that statistically significant outcomes had a higher odds of being fully reported compared to non-significant outcomes (range of odds ratios: 2.2 to 4.7. In comparing trial publications to protocols, we found that 40-62% of studies had at least one primary outcome that was changed, introduced, or omitted. We decided not to undertake meta-analysis due to the differences between studies. CONCLUSIONS: Recent work provides direct empirical evidence for the existence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias. There is strong evidence of an association between significant results and publication; studies that report positive or significant results are more likely to be published and outcomes that are statistically significant have higher odds of being fully reported. Publications have been found to be inconsistent with their protocols. Researchers need to be aware of the problems of both types of bias and efforts should be concentrated on improving the reporting of trials.

  4. Implications of global climate change for housing, human settlements and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Simon; Baker, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Menne, Bettina; Woodruff, Rosalie; Woodward, Alistair

    2007-01-01

    Global climate change has profound implications for human societies. The present---ecologically unsustainable--trajectory of human development fails to provide for the basic needs of a substantial fraction of the global population, while diminishing the prospects for future generations. Human-caused climate change has already begun to affect weather patterns, physical and biological phenomena, and vulnerable human communities. Because the social processes of production and consumption have their own momentum, and because carbon dioxide has a long atmospheric lifetime, further climate change is inevitable over the coming century, even allowing for the adoption of mitigation measures. This situation implies that we should also try to reduce, and where possible to prevent, the adverse effects of climate changes by planned adaptation. Will human settlements be able to provide a healthy living environment and shelter from extreme climate events, such as cyclones and heat waves? In this paper, we review the nexus between human health, climate change, and the planning of housing and human settlements. We conclude that adapting to a rapidly changing global environment will be a major challenge, in the context of increasing population and per capita consumption, without increasing pressures on natural systems. Energy-efficient cities and the creation of opportunities for poor countries will be important elements of people centered, ecologically sustainable, development in the twenty-first century.

  5. Cultivating Responsibility and Humanity in Public Schools through Democratic Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghid, Yusef

    2015-01-01

    After more than a decade of democratic citizenship education in public schools in South Africa, the Department of Basic Education (DoBE) has still not produced sufficiently plausible ways for how democracy and citizenship ought to be taught in classrooms. I argue that the recent "practical guide" on how to cultivate "responsibility…

  6. The use of tacit and explicit knowledge in public health: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Anita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Planning a public health initiative is both a science and an art. Public health practitioners work in a complex, often time-constrained environment, where formal research literature can be unavailable or uncertain. Consequently, public health practitioners often draw upon other forms of knowledge. Methods Through use of one-on-one interviews and focus groups, we aimed to gain a better understanding of how tacit knowledge is used to inform program initiatives in public health. This study was designed as a narrative inquiry, which is based on the assumption that we make sense of the world by telling stories. Four public health units were purposively selected for maximum variation, based on geography and academic affiliation. Results Analysis revealed different ways in which tacit knowledge was used to plan the public health program or initiative, including discovering the opportunity, bringing a team together, and working out program details (such as partnering, funding. Conclusions The findings of this study demonstrate that tacit knowledge is drawn upon, and embedded within, various stages of the process of program planning in public health. The results will be useful in guiding the development of future knowledge translation strategies for public health organizations and decision makers.

  7. Citizens’ Perceptions on Social Responsibility in Public Administration Organizations: A Case Study on Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis VÁZQUEZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes citizens’ expectations on social responsibility of public administration organizations in comparison to other public and private organizations, and argues that the mission attributed to different institutions in society might guide citizens’ perceptions and thresholds of satisfaction with sustainability standards. Three different survey studies were carried out to analyze citizens’ expectations of social responsibility of public administration organizations, private companies and a public university in the same Spanish region. A list of indicators defining internal and external social responsibility practices was developed to compare expectations in the three institutional contexts, and MANOVA was used to test differences between participants in the three surveys. Results support the notion that citizens’ expectations of social responsibility are related to perceived organizational goals in private and public contexts and the specific dimension of responsibility considered. Particularly, participants displayed higher expectations of external social responsibility in public administration organizations than in private companies and the public university analyzed, whereas citizens’ expectations of internal social responsibility were more homogeneous in public and private contexts. Implications of the study and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  8. Predicting the Use of Public Transportation: A Case Study from Putrajaya, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Nazri Borhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Putrajaya is a new federal administrative capital of Malaysia which has been set to achieve a 70% share of all travels by public transport in the city area. However, the current modal split between the public transport and private transport is 15 : 85. In order to understand travelers’ willingness to use the public transport, a conceptual model has been developed to determine the factors that affect them to use the public transport instead of travelling in their own cars. Various variables such as service quality, environmental impact, attitude, and behavior intention were analyzed and tested using structural equation model (SEM. Results indicate that the service quality and attitude are found to have positive effects on the behavioral intention of taking the public transport. Other than this, this study also shows that the service quality and environmental impact have some positive influences on the attitude to using the public transport. However, environmental impact has no significant, positive, and direct effect on behavioral intention. The results of this study demonstrate that the model that was developed is useful in predicting the public transport and it could provide a more complete understanding of behavioral intention towards public transport use.

  9. Predicting the use of public transportation: a case study from Putrajaya, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Syamsunur, Deprizon; Akhir, Norliza Mohd; Yazid, Muhamad Razuhanafi Mat; Ismail, Amiruddin; Rahmat, Riza Atiq

    2014-01-01

    Putrajaya is a new federal administrative capital of Malaysia which has been set to achieve a 70% share of all travels by public transport in the city area. However, the current modal split between the public transport and private transport is 15:85. In order to understand travelers' willingness to use the public transport, a conceptual model has been developed to determine the factors that affect them to use the public transport instead of travelling in their own cars. Various variables such as service quality, environmental impact, attitude, and behavior intention were analyzed and tested using structural equation model (SEM). Results indicate that the service quality and attitude are found to have positive effects on the behavioral intention of taking the public transport. Other than this, this study also shows that the service quality and environmental impact have some positive influences on the attitude to using the public transport. However, environmental impact has no significant, positive, and direct effect on behavioral intention. The results of this study demonstrate that the model that was developed is useful in predicting the public transport and it could provide a more complete understanding of behavioral intention towards public transport use.

  10. A comparative study of self-perceived public health competencies: practice teachers and qualifying SCPHNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Brenda; Lyons, Agatha; O'Callaghan, Anne

    2008-09-01

    There is evidence to suggest that population-focused public health nursing is more rhetoric than reality. This quantitative study compares the self-perceived public health competence of qualifying student specialist community public health nurses (SCPHNs) (n = 35) with those of the practice teachers (PTs) facilitating their practice learning (n = 31). Findings suggest that PTs felt more competent than qualifying students on leadership and management for public health, working with communities, and communication skills. However, the qualifying students self-rated higher than the PTs on principles and practice of public health, suggesting that the PTs in this study felt less competent than their qualifying students in key public health skills, such as epidemiology, population health needs assessment, research and evidence-based decision-making. It is recommended that the triennial review of PTs should address not only educational skills but knowledge and skills in contemporary public health practice, a continuing professional development framework for SCPHNs should be developed and funded, providers should assist PTs in keeping up with contemporary public health, and the role of the PT should be recognised and given appropriate support and remuneration.

  11. Predicting the Use of Public Transportation: A Case Study from Putrajaya, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Mohd Akhir, Norliza; Mat Yazid, Muhamad Razuhanafi; Ismail, Amiruddin; Rahmat, Riza Atiq

    2014-01-01

    Putrajaya is a new federal administrative capital of Malaysia which has been set to achieve a 70% share of all travels by public transport in the city area. However, the current modal split between the public transport and private transport is 15 : 85. In order to understand travelers' willingness to use the public transport, a conceptual model has been developed to determine the factors that affect them to use the public transport instead of travelling in their own cars. Various variables such as service quality, environmental impact, attitude, and behavior intention were analyzed and tested using structural equation model (SEM). Results indicate that the service quality and attitude are found to have positive effects on the behavioral intention of taking the public transport. Other than this, this study also shows that the service quality and environmental impact have some positive influences on the attitude to using the public transport. However, environmental impact has no significant, positive, and direct effect on behavioral intention. The results of this study demonstrate that the model that was developed is useful in predicting the public transport and it could provide a more complete understanding of behavioral intention towards public transport use. PMID:25110744

  12. Inequalities in public water supply fluoridation in Brazil: An ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardo, Marilisa CL; da Silva, Wander J; Olandoski, Marcia; Moysés, Simone T; Moysés, Samuel J

    2008-01-01

    Background The literature is scarce on the social and geographic inequalities in the access to and implementation of the fluoridation of public water supplies. This study adds knowledge to the Brazilian experience of the chronic privation of water and wastewater policies, access to potable water and fluoridation in the country. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify possible inequalities in the population's access to fluoridated drinking water in 246 Brazilian municipalities. Methods The information on the process of water fluoridation in the municipalities and in the macro region in which each municipality is located was obtained from the national epidemiological survey which was concluded in 2003. The data relating to the human development index at municipal level (HDI-M) and access to mains water came from the Brazilian Human Development Atlas, whilst the size of the population was obtained from a governmental source. The Fisher exact test (P water fluoridation process in the municipalities as well as the length of time during which this measure has been implemented. Linear regression was used to observe the associations between the relevant variables in a multivariate environment. Results The results clearly showed that there is a relationship between municipalities with larger populations, located in more socio-economically advantaged regions and with better HDI-M, and where fluoridation is both present and has been implemented for a longer period of time (started before 1990). Conclusion The findings suggest that the aim of treating water with fluoride may not be being adequately achieved, requiring more effective strategies so that access to this measure can be expanded equitably. PMID:18402688

  13. Public perceptions of snakes and snakebite management: implications for conservation and human health in southern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Deb Prasad; Subedi Pandey, Gita; Devkota, Kamal; Goode, Matt

    2016-06-02

    Venomous snakebite and its effects are a source of fear for people living in southern Nepal. As a result, people have developed a negative attitude towards snakes, which can lead to human-snake conflicts that result in killing of snakes. Attempting to kill snakes increases the risk of snakebite, and actual killing of snakes contributes to loss of biodiversity. Currently, snake populations in southern Nepal are thought to be declining, but more research is needed to evaluate the conservation status of snakes. Therefore, we assessed attitudes, knowledge, and awareness of snakes and snakebite by Chitwan National Park's (CNP) buffer zone (BZ) inhabitants in an effort to better understand challenges to snake conservation and snakebite management. The results of this study have the potential to promote biodiversity conservation and increase human health in southern Nepal and beyond. We carried out face-to-face interviews of 150 randomly selected CNP BZ inhabitants, adopting a cross-sectional mixed research design and structured and semi-structured questionnaires from January-February 2013. Results indicated that 43 % of respondents disliked snakes, 49 % would exterminate all venomous snakes, and 86 % feared snakes. Farmers were the most negative and teachers were the most ambivalent towards snakes. Respondents were generally unable to identify different snake species, and were almost completely unaware of the need of conserve snakes and how to prevent snakebites. Belief in a snake god, and the ability of snakes to absorb poisonous gases from the atmosphere were among many superstitions that appeared to predispose negativity towards snakes of BZ residents. People with predisposed negativity towards snakes were not proponents of snake conservation. Fear, negativity, ambivalence towards, and ignorance about, snakes and the need for snake conservation were strong indicators of the propensity to harm or kill snakes. It seems that if wanton killing of snakes continues

  14. English Writing for International Publication in the Age of Globalization: Practices and Perceptions of Mainland Chinese Academics in the Humanities and Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Ge

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Much scholarly attention has been given to the English writing and publishing practices of the academics in non-Anglophone countries, but studies on such practices in the humanities and social sciences (HSS have in general been limited. The case of Mainland Chinese HSS academics is potentially interesting. On the one hand, international publications in these disciplines have been on the increase, which are also encouraged by the national research policy of “going-out”. On the other hand, unlike those in science and technology (S&T, such practices in the HSS are still much less institutionalized at the local level. In the study reported in this article, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine academics in economics, sociology and archaeology from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS, and all nine participants had prior experience in international publishing. With a focus on participants’ experiences and perceptions, findings from this study demonstrated the relatively passive role participants played in their international publications, the importance of various resources in bringing forth these publications, and the relations between participants’ alignments with the local or international community and their voluntary investment in participating in their practices. Implications of the study were also discussed.

  15. AMESCO General Study Environmental Impacts CO2-storage. Public summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The AMESCO study aims to supply environmental background information on CO2-storage in the Netherlands for the broad group of initiators and other stakeholders. By bringing together the information from the scientific world, companies and authorities and by analysing relevant policies it is intended to eludicate: which are the possible environmental effects of CO2-injection and storage; which are the possibilities for risk reduction or mitigation; which existing legislation is of relevance for CO2-storage in the deep surface; where are the gaps in knowledge and legislation with regard to CO2-storage. The report produced during the AMESCO study should be seen as a broad answer to the four questions mentioned above. In specific projects the report can be used as a background document during permitting procedures. This background information has to be supplemented with location specific information. The report can also be used as input for an environmental impact assessment (EIA). For practical reasons the AMESCO study was performed with the following scope limitations: (1) Focus on potential impacts and risks resulting from the storage of CO2; (2) Only consider CO2-storage in gas reservoirs; (3) Only consider onshore projects; (4) Only consider permanent storage; (5) Consider alternative options for CO2-storage in gas reservoirs; but not other forms of CO2-emission reduction. The scope is limited to depleted gas fields, from which the economically recoverable resources have already been taken.

  16. Use of multi-criteria decision analysis in public bidding processes: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Andrade Longaray

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of Higher Education in Brazil (IFES play an important role in the country’s social and scientific development. Focused mainly on teaching, research and extension activities, the IFES are backed by support foundations aimed to the management of financial, human and material resources. Characterized as public bodies, the support foundations are governed by Law no 8.666/93 in what concerns the procurement of goods and services. Therefore, the present study is aimed to develop a model to assist the managers of such foundations in the selection of suppliers to participate in bidding processes that use invitation for bids. Therefore, we conducted a case study in one of the 55 foundations that support Brazilian federal universities. The intervention tool used was the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Firstly, we established the hierarchy of criteria for problem-solving. Then, a paired comparison was made between criteria for the same level. Subsequently, the consistency analysis of comparison matrices was verified. Finally, the relative priorities of each criterion were obtained and the objective function of the model was constructed. The model was tested through the assessment of the performance of three potential suppliers of IT equipment, and the result was legitimized by decision makers who found the instrument a valid tool to aid in making decisions on supplier selection for the foundation.

  17. Public values for integration in natural disaster management and planning: A case study from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawluk, Andrea; Ford, Rebecca M; Neolaka, Fendi L; Williams, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Values can be useful for identifying what is important to individuals and communities, yet there is currently not a coherent way to conceptualize, identify, and organize the breadth of values that can be affected by a natural disaster. This research proposes a conceptual framework for how to conceptualize, identify, and organize values, and proposes a concrete, tangible value called the valued entity. The framework is applied in two studies of bushfire in Victoria, Australia: 112 submissions from individuals to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and interviews with 30 members of the public in bushfire risk landscapes. Our findings suggest that: what people value ranges from abstract to concrete; prevalent abstract values include benevolence and universalism; prevalent mid-level valued attributes include natural attributes of landscapes and human life and welfare; prevalent valued entities are people and properties close to the person. Comparison between the two studies suggests people with more recent experience with bushfire refer less to the importance of natural places and natural attributes. The conceptual framework can act as a boundary object to facilitate researchers and policy-makers understanding the breadth of values affected by natural disaster events and management actions and how governance can better consider values at different scales. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Graduate public health training in healthcare of refugee asylum seekers and clinical human rights: evaluation of an innovative curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin

    2016-04-01

    An innovative curriculum was developed to equip public health students with appropriate attitude and skills to address healthcare of asylum seekers. Implemented in 2005 the curriculum included: (1) didactic sessions covering epidemiology and health sequelae of torture, asylum laws, and approaches to identify survivors' healthcare needs; (2) panel discussions with survivors and advocates; and (3) participating in medico-legal process of asylum seeking. Complementary mixed methods evaluations included pre- and post-curriculum questionnaires, formal curriculum evaluations, final papers and oral presentations. 125 students participated. Students showed improved knowledge regrading sequelae of abuse and survivors' healthcare needs (P rights careers. As an advocacy and cultural competency training in public health practice addressing healthcare of refugees domestically, this curriculum was well received and effective, and will also help students better serve other similar populations. Population case-based domestic opportunities to teach global health and health and human rights should be effectively utilized to develop a well-equipped global health corps.

  19. Humanized Design of Public Traffic Signs%公共交通标识的人性化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓蓉

    2012-01-01

    公共交通标识的人性化设计,既是科学发展的最好体现,也是公共交通标识设计的核心理念。艺术设计应充分考虑人体工程学的原理,遵循功能性要求、易识别、规划化和人体工程学等原则。%The humanized design of the public traffic signs is not only the best reflection of the scientific over- look on development, but the essential value of public traffic sign design. The artistic design should take the ergonomies into consideration, abiding by the rules of legibility, function and planning of ergonomics.

  20. Seroepidemiological Study of Human Hydatidosis in Rafsanjan, Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shahrokhabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is one of the major zoonotic parasitic diseases that occurs throughout the world and causes considerable economic losses and public health problems in many countries. Given that sheep act as intermediate and dogs as definitive hosts of Echinococcus granulosus, hydatidosis poses both a human health risk and an economic loss to the country. Hydatid cysts can grow in any site of the human's body, but the most common locations are the liver (65% and the lungs (25% [1]. Human contamination take accidentally place through

  1. Response to: Comment on "Human adult neurogenesis across the ages: An immunohistochemical study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, C V; Suh, L S; Rodriguez, M L; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2017-02-20

    It is with great interest that we read the comment by Marucci [1] referring to our publication "Human adult neurogenesis across the ages: An immunohistochemical study" [2]. Since the seminal paper of Eriksson et al. in 1998, human adult neurogenesis has become a major area of research in neuroscience [3]. Although an age-related decline in human adult neurogenesis is not disputed, opinions differ on the functional significance of the residual neuroblasts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. HUMANISM, MULTICULTURALISM AND IDEOLOGY IN THE THEORETICAL MODEL OF PUBLIC STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rudenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical reflection of humanism, multiculturalism and ideology problems in thecontext humanistic paradigm of social development stability is considered. The theoreticalmodels of humanistic paradigm of social development stability are proposed.

  3. Globalization of Human Resource Management: A Cross-Cultural Perspective for the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pan Suk

    1999-01-01

    Presents a framework for a global perspective in the education of human-resource-management professionals that includes negotiation skills, cross-cultural training based on social-learningl theory, and a mix of instrumental and experiential learning. (SK)

  4. Relations of power in public schools: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Custódia Jorge Rocha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on a few authors who see power as a substantive element – instituted power – and others who consider it as an action verb – instituting power (ROCHA, 2007 –, highlighting some types of power relevant in sociological and organizational research on schools, we present empirical data and institutional discourses, enabled by a case study of qualitative nature. Thus, we can say that relations of power in schools both allow the strengthening of hierarchical and asymmetrical relations of power that exist between institutional players and enable the creation of new “circles of power” that can be promptly activated or can be object of a modernization process held in a more or less generalized manner. This may be reinforced and introduced to players/students, our main target of study, as the most legitimate object, superseding all others but not canceling them. The key objective is to present school organization as a highly complex environment, especially when considered in the light of the multiple and cumulative relations of power that emerge and are materialized.

  5. Vulnerability Study of Public Buildings Subjected to Earthquake Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozaina Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses on the earthquake study due to performance of critical frame reinforced concrete building. The buildings are analysed using Finite Element Modeling (FEM under different types of analyses including Free Vibration Analysis (FVA, and Time History Analysis (THA with varies earthquake intensities. The performances of the structure are shown by the yield point at beam-column connections where the internal forces at beam elements exceed the design capacity of the beams. The performance of critical frame reinforced concrete building when subjected to earthquake motion (Near source: Acheh was addressed. The level of the damage state (Minor, Moderate, Major, Collapse level has been defined as well. As a result, a greater damage index means that the members yield earlier and the plastic rotation is larger and vice versa. In general, there are no significant damage occurred to the structure. However, some non-structural elements of the building are expected to experience minor damages. These two buildings has no structural response to the earthquake because both Damage Index are less than 1.000. The study indicates that more than 50% of the buildings produced dynamic amplification factors of slightly more than one indicating not much of a dynamic response to the buildings.

  6. GIS for public health : A study of Andhra Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinagesh, B.; Kalpana, Markandey; Kiran, Baktula

    2014-06-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing have capabilities that are ideally suited for use in infectious disease surveillance and control, particularly for the many vector-borne neglected diseases that are often found in poor populations in remote rural areas. They are also highly relevant to meet the demands of outbreak investigation and response, where prompt location of cases, rapid communication of information, and quick mapping of the epidemic's dynamics are vital. The situation has changed dramatically over the past few years. GIS helps in determining geographic distribution of diseases, analysing spatial and temporal trends, Mapping populations at risk, Stratifying risk factors, Assessing resource allocation, Planning and targeting interventions, Monitoring diseases and interventions over time. There are vast disparities in people's health even among the different districts across the state of Andhra Pradesh largely attributed to the resource allocation by the state government. Despite having centers of excellence in healthcare delivery, these facilities are limited and are inadequate in meeting the current healthcare demands. The main objectives are to study the prevalent diseases in Andhra Pradesh, to study the infrastructural facilities available in A.P. The methodology includes the Spatial Database, which will be mostly in the form of digitized format. The Non-Spatial Database includes both secondary data as well as the primary data.

  7. Recruiting for research studies using online public advertisements: examples from research in affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Toby; Arnone, Danilo; Marwood, Lindsey; Zahn, Roland; Lythe, Karen E; Young, Allan H

    2016-01-01

    Successful recruitment is vital for any research study. Difficulties in recruitment are not uncommon and can have important implications. This is particularly relevant to research conducted in affective disorders due to the nature of the conditions and the clinical services that serve these patients. Recently, online public advertisements have become more generally accessible and may provide an effective way to recruit patient populations. However, there is paucity of evidence on their viability as a method of recruiting patients into studies of disease mechanisms in these disorders. Public advertisement methods can be useful when researchers require specific populations, such as those not receiving pharmacological treatment. This work describes our experience in successfully recruiting participants into neuroimaging research studies in affective disorders using online public advertisements. Results suggest that these online public advertisements are an effective method for successfully recruiting participants with affective disorders into research studies, particularly for research focusing on disease mechanisms in specific populations.

  8. 75 FR 8983 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Housing Counseling Outcomes Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Housing Counseling... appropriate automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology (e.g., permitting...: Housing Counseling Outcomes Study. Description of the need for the information and proposed use:...

  9. 492 Study Habit, Self-Concept and Science Achievement of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Key Words: Study habit, self-concept, science achievement, public and private schools ... teacher commitment and sometimes better facilities than government schools. ... skills like note-taking, time management, organizing for a test, recording.

  10. Beneficiaries’ Perspective on Service Learning: Case Study of Advertising and Public Relations Campaign Course

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akpabio, Eno

    2012-01-01

    .... The overarching aim of this study was to obtain the reaction of beneficiaries to campaign materials produced by students of an advertising and public relations campaigns course at the University of Botswana...

  11. Overview of the Publications From the Anthroposophic Medicine Outcomes Study (AMOS): A Whole System Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamre, Harald Johan; Kiene, Helmut; Ziegler, Renatus; Tröger, Wilfried; Meinecke, Christoph; Schnürer, Christof; Vögler, Hendrik; Glockmann, Anja; Kienle, Gunver Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Anthroposophic medicine is a physician-provided complementary therapy system that was founded by Rudolf Steiner and Ita Wegman. Anthroposophic therapy includes special medicinal products, artistic therapies, eurythmy movement exercises, and special physical therapies. The Anthroposophic Medicine Outcomes Study (AMOS) was a prospective observational multicenter study of 1631 outpatients starting anthroposophic therapy for anxiety disorders, asthma, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, low back pain, migraine, and other chronic indications under routine conditions in Germany. AMOS INCORPORATED TWO FEATURES PROPOSED FOR THE EVALUATION OF INTEGRATIVE THERAPY SYSTEMS: (1) a sequential approach, starting with the whole therapy system (use, safety, outcomes, perceived benefit), addressing comparative effectiveness and proceeding to the major system components (physician counseling, anthroposophic medicinal products, art therapy, eurythmy therapy, rhythmical massage therapy) and (2) a mix of different research methods to build an information synthesis, including pre-post analyses, prospective comparative analyses, economic analyses, and safety analyses of individual patient data. AMOS fostered two methodological innovations for the analysis of single-arm therapy studies (combined bias suppression, systematic outcome comparison with corresponding cohorts in other studies) and the first depression cost analysis worldwide comparing primary care patients treated for depression vs depressed patients treated for another disorder vs nondepressed patients. A total of 21 peer-reviewed publications from AMOS have resulted. This article provides an overview of the main research questions, methods, and findings from these publications: anthroposophic treatment was safe and was associated with clinically relevant improvements in symptoms and quality of life without cost increase; improvements were found in all age, diagnosis, and therapy modality groups and were

  12. Too good to be true: publication bias in two prominent studies from experimental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2012-04-01

    Empirical replication has long been considered the final arbiter of phenomena in science, but replication is undermined when there is evidence for publication bias. Evidence for publication bias in a set of experiments can be found when the observed number of rejections of the null hypothesis exceeds the expected number of rejections. Application of this test reveals evidence of publication bias in two prominent investigations from experimental psychology that have purported to reveal evidence of extrasensory perception and to indicate severe limitations of the scientific method. The presence of publication bias suggests that those investigations cannot be taken as proper scientific studies of such phenomena, because critical data are not available to the field. Publication bias could partly be avoided if experimental psychologists started using Bayesian data analysis techniques.

  13. Evaluation of theory of mind: A study with students from public and private schools

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,Marisa Cosenza; Pelisson, Maíze Carla Costa; Silveira,Flávia Fraga; Ribeiro, Nathalie Nehmy; Silva, Renata de Lourdes Miguel da

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the development of the theory of mind in preschool children aged 4 and 5 years old, along with potential interactions among gender, age and whether children were from private or public schools. A total of 178 children (91 students from public schools and 87 from private schools) participated in the study. After securing ethical compliance with applicable guidelines, we applied the Theory-of-Mind-Scale. There was no evidence of differences regarding gender (p< 0.38). Differ...

  14. Cytological techniques to study human female meiotic prophase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Ignasi; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat

    2009-01-01

    Most of the human aneuploidies have a maternal origin. This feature makes the study of human female meiosis a fundamental topic to understand the reasons leading to this important social problem. Unfortunately, due to sample collection difficulties, not many studies have been performed on human female meiotic prophase. In this chapter we present a comprehensive collection of protocols that allows the study of human female meiotic prophase through different technical approaches using both spread and structurally preserved oocytes.

  15. Feasibility study of geospatial mapping of chronic disease risk to inform public health commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Douglas; Smith, Dianna; Mathur, Rohini; Robson, John; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2012-01-01

    small-area geospatial maps of diabetes risk calculated from general practice electronic record data across a district-wide population was feasible but not straightforward. Geovisualisation of epidemiological and environmental data, made possible by interdisciplinary links between public health clinicians and human geographers, allows presentation of findings in a way that is both accessible and engaging, hence potentially of value to commissioners and policymakers. Impact studies are needed of how maps of chronic disease risk might be used in public health and urban planning.

  16. Public Management and Administration Studies. Should we Include Marketind in Our Curricula?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. VÁZQUEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of continuous adaptation of public institutions to requirements of framing where they perform day by day, Public Management and Administration is behaving once and again as a “reinvented” discipline, aiming a new kind of rational, innovative public entities that focus their activities towards an effective achievement of their intended results and benefits. Concepts such as those of “efficiency”, “effectiveness”, “responsibility”, “organizational culture”, etc. are now not only applied to business disciplines, but also to Public Management and Administration. At this point, Marketing has proved to be an useful subject in PMA curricula, not only being in demand by students and syllabi designers, but also by experts in the public field. However, applying marketing techniques and procedures in the same way as used in private business is clearly nonsense. We must consider a proper “public marketing” or “public sector marketing” development. In this paper we debate on these issues, as well as present an overview into the situation of Spanish public universities offering PMA studies, just when they are facing the Bologna adaptation requirements. As a conclusion, some comments for reflection are suggested.

  17. Public Policy Involvement by Certified Health Education Specialists: Results of a National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahas, Rachel; Van Wasshenova, Emily; Everhart, F Jeannine; Thompson, Amy; Boardley, Debra

    2016-09-01

    Advocating for health-related activities is an essential part of being a health educator and knowing how to advocate is an important part of the Certified Health Education Specialist (CHES) exam. However, based on previous research, there may be a gap between knowing how to and actually participating in public policy activities. The purpose of this study was to determine public policy involvement of CHES. Surveys were mailed to a random sample of 500 CHES (41% response rate). The highest selected public policy activities by CHES were the following: voting at an election (88.9%), contacting a public office (49%), and providing policy-related information (42.9%). The number of locations CHES individuals selected in having training on advocacy was a predictive factor in their confidence to perform advocacy. Positive correlations between perceived knowledge and effectiveness of the public policy process and self-reported involvement in public policy were found. Although there is moderate self-reported involvement in public policy activities, more emphasis needs to be placed on raising the confidence of CHES to perform advocacy-related activities in the field. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  18. Between Rights and Realities: Human Rights Education for Immigrant and Refugee Youth in an Urban Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Monisha; Canlas, Melissa; Argenal, Amy

    2017-01-01

    This article presents data from a two-year ethnographic case study to explore how immigrant and refugee youth in the United States made sense of participation in a weekly human rights club after school. Three types of student responses to human rights education are exemplified through the profiles of students. The article offers new insights on…

  19. Public perceptions of climate change as a human health risk: surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen; Debono, Roberto; Berry, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Nisbet, Matthew C; Weathers, Melinda R; Maibach, Edward W

    2010-06-01

    We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78-91%), heat-related problems (75-84%), cancer (61-90%), and infectious diseases (49-62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience of the

  20. Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Akerlof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%, their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%, and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76% as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31% said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45% and children (33% are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78–91%, heat-related problems (75–84%, cancer (61–90%, and infectious diseases (49–62%. Canadians also named sunburn (79% and injuries from extreme weather events (73%, and Maltese cited allergies (84%. However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the

  1. Geochemical study of urban soils in public areas of an industrialized town (Ajka, western Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacháry, D.; Jordán, Gy.; Szabó, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    Soil is one of the most essential parts of urban ecosystem contributing to the biogeochemical cycles along the rock-soil-plant-animal and human pathway. Soil plays a fundamental role in plant nutrient uptake and groundwater filtration, too. Urban soils differ from non-urban soils in many aspects, including their origin, and they may also concentrate contaminants in large quantities due to intensive human activities. The pollution sources are industry, traffic, fertilizer, tailing and waste. In addition to the increasing rate of urban areas, urban soils are under growing interest and their pollution have received significant attention in the past few decades. This work focuses on the toxic element (As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni) content of soils and their spatial distribution in order to find a link between contamination sources and the receiving urban soils at sensitive receptor locations such as children's playgrounds and parks. Ajka town is located in western Hungary. It has an old-established industrial history with multiple contamination sources of heavy alumina industry and coal-based power plants supplied by the nearby bauxite and coal mines. At 44 locations 46 soil samples have been collected at a depth of 0-10 cm along a 1x1 km grid. The whole grid covers an area of 48 km2. In each grid cell a sampling site was selected at public areas. Sample preparation included drying at 40 C°, thorough homogenization and sieving to 2 mm fine earth before chemical analysis. Grain size distribution and soil pH were also determined. Samples were analyzed with ICP-OES and SEM methods. The As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni concentrations range from 2.07 ppm to 9.48 ppm, 0.02 ppm to 2.84 ppm, 5.08 ppm to 35.74 ppm, 2.55 ppm to 47.78 ppm, 17.00 ppm to 91.00 ppm, 0.07 ppm to 0.61 ppm and 5.57 ppm to 32.09 ppm, respectively. The results revealed the contaminated areas associated with past industrial sites. This study also identified locations with considerable contamination at

  2. Can the impact of public involvement on research be evaluated? A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Rosemary; Boote, Jonathan D; Parry, Glenys D; Cooper, Cindy L; Yeeles, Philippa; Cook, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Public involvement is central to health and social research policies, yet few systematic evaluations of its impact have been carried out, raising questions about the feasibility of evaluating the impact of public involvement. Objective  To investigate whether it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on health and social research. Methods  Mixed methods including a two‐round Delphi study with pre‐specified 80% consensus criterion, with follow‐up interviews. UK and international panellists came from different settings, including universities, health and social care institutions and charitable organizations. They comprised researchers, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and policy makers, self‐selected as having knowledge and/or experience of public involvement in health and/or social research; 124 completed both rounds of the Delphi process. A purposive sample of 14 panellists was interviewed. Results  Consensus was reached that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on 5 of 16 impact issues: identifying and prioritizing research topics, disseminating research findings and on key stakeholders. Qualitative analysis revealed the complexities of evaluating a process that is subjective and socially constructed. While many panellists believed that it is morally right to involve the public in research, they also considered that it is appropriate to evaluate the impact of public involvement. Conclusions  This study found consensus among panellists that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on some research processes, outcomes and on key stakeholders. The value of public involvement and the importance of evaluating its impact were endorsed. PMID:21324054

  3. Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1/2) in individuals from public health centers in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele; Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Costa, Emanuela Avelar Silva; Manuel, Rolanda Carmen Rafael

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) in Mozambique is not known. The present study examined blood samples from 208, 226, and 318 individuals from Northern, Central, and Southern Mozambique, respectively, of all socioeconomic and demographic strata attending public health centers in Mozambique for HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies. Serum samples were assessed for HIV- and HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies by using enzyme immunoassays, and infections with HTLV-1 and -2 were confirmed by using Western blot. An overall HTLV-1/2 prevalence of 2.3% (2.9% in female and 1.1% in male subjects) was observed, and the prevalence of infection increased with age. Regional variation in the prevalence of HIV and HTLV-1/2 was observed; 32.2%, 65.5%, and 44% of individuals tested HIV positive in Northern, Central, and Southern Mozambique, respectively, and 2.4%, 3.9%, and 0.9% tested HTLV-1/2 positive in the same regions. HTLV-1 infection was confirmed in these individuals. No association between HTLV-1 infection and sociodemographic variables or HIV status was detected, although the low number of HTLV-1-positive cases did not allow robust statistical analyses. The results obtained suggest different risk factors and epidemiologic correlates of HIV and HTLV-1 transmission in Mozambique. Furthermore, our results suggested that North and Central Mozambique should be considered endemic regions for HTLV-1 infection. As no cases of HTLV-2 were detected, HTLV-2 appears to have not been introduced into Mozambique.

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus testing behaviors among US adults: the roles of individual factors, legislative status, and public health resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ping; Camacho, Fabian; Zurlo, John; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2011-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended an "opt-out" human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing strategy in 2006 for all persons aged 13 to 64 years at healthcare settings. We conducted this study to identify individual, health, and policy factors that may be associated with HIV testing in US adults. The 2008 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System data were utilized. Individuals' residency states were classified into 4 categories based on the legislation status to HIV testing laws in 2007 and HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome morbidity. A multivariate logistic regression adjusting for survey designs was performed to examine factors associated with HIV testing. A total of 281,826 adults aged 18 to 64 years answered HIV testing questions in 2008. The proportions of US adults who had ever been tested for HIV increased from 35.9% in 2006 to 39.9% in 2008. HIV testing varied across the individual's characteristics including sociodemographics, access to regular health care, and risk for HIV infection. Compared with residents of "high morbidity-opt out" states, those living in "high morbidity-opt in" states with legislative restrictions for HIV testing had a slightly lower odds of being tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio = 0.96; 95% confidence interval = 0.92, 1.01). Adults living in "low morbidity" states were significantly less likely to be tested for HIV, regardless of legislative status. To implement routine HIV testing in the general population, the role of public health resources should be emphasized and legislative barriers should be further reduced. Strategies need to be developed to reach people who do not have regular access to health care.

  5. Metaphors among titles of medical publications: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Mungra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to determine the frequency and types of metaphors in a corpus of titles from a single medical journal collected over one year. The frequency of metaphor tokens (4.6% was highest among editorials and other opinion articles and consisted predominantly of primary metaphors, which require explanation using a visual, cultural or other physical vehicle. When the metaphor was used only in the title and not in the body of the text, as was common in letters to the editor or in editorials, the metaphor may constitute a para-textual device used for engaging the reader. Other metaphors among research article titles were present not only in the title, but also used repeatedly in the body of the text. Among these research articles, metaphors were frequently used to endow the focus words of the metaphor with a precise and meaningful significance which, when used repeatedly in the text, may constitute a mechanism by which sub-technical language or internal jargon may arise. Being syntactically simple but endowed with a high communicative import, titles as a text type may help improve academic literacy, among beginners.

  6. Using public control genotype data to increase power and decrease cost of case-control genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lindsey A; Lange, Ethan M

    2010-12-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies are a powerful approach for identifying novel genetic risk factors associated with human disease. A GWA study typically requires the inclusion of thousands of samples to have sufficient statistical power to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with only modest increases in risk of disease given the heavy burden of a multiple test correction that is necessary to maintain valid statistical tests. Low statistical power and the high financial cost of performing a GWA study remains prohibitive for many scientific investigators anxious to perform such a study using their own samples. A number of remedies have been suggested to increase statistical power and decrease cost, including the utilization of free publicly available genotype data and multi-stage genotyping designs. Herein, we compare the statistical power and relative costs of alternative association study designs that use cases and screened controls to study designs that are based only on, or additionally include, free public control genotype data. We describe a novel replication-based two-stage study design, which uses free public control genotype data in the first stage and follow-up genotype data on case-matched controls in the second stage that preserves many of the advantages inherent when using only an epidemiologically matched set of controls. Specifically, we show that our proposed two-stage design can substantially increase statistical power and decrease cost of performing a GWA study while controlling the type-I error rate that can be inflated when using public controls due to differences in ancestry and batch genotype effects.

  7. Dominance and leadership in research activities: Collaboration between countries of differing human development is reflected through authorship order and designation as corresponding authors in scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Park, Jinseo; Huamaní, Charles; Ramos, José M

    2017-01-01

    Scientific collaboration is an important mechanism that enables the integration of the least developed countries into research activities. In the present study, we use the order of author signatures and addresses for correspondence in scientific publications as variables to analyze the interactions between countries of very high (VHHD), high (HHD), medium (MHD), and low human development (LHD). We identified all documents published between 2011 and 2015 in journals included in the Science Citation Index-Expanded categories' of Tropical Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Parasitology, and Pediatrics. We then classified the countries participating in the publications according to their Human Development Index (HDI), analyzing the international collaboration; positioning and influence of some countries over others in cooperative networks; their leadership; and the impact of the work based on the HDI and the type of collaboration. We observed a high degree of international collaboration in all the areas analyzed, in the case of both LHD and MHD countries. We identified numerous cooperative links between VHHD countries and MHD/LHD countries, reflecting the fact that cooperative links are an important mechanism for integrating research activities into the latter. The countries with large emerging economies, such as Brazil and China stand out due to the dominance they exert in the collaborations established with the United States, the UK, and other European countries. The analysis of the leadership role of the countries, measured by the frequency of lead authorships, shows limited participation by MHD/LHD countries. This reduced participation among less developed countries is further accentuated by their limited presence in the addresses for correspondence. We observed significant statistical differences in the degree of citation according to the HDI of the participating countries. The order of signatures and the address for correspondence in scientific publications are

  8. Subjective Quantitative Studies of Human Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkire, Sabina

    2005-01-01

    Amartya Sen's writings have articulated the importance of human agency, and identified the need for information on agency freedom to inform our evaluation of social arrangements. Many approaches to poverty reduction stress the need for empowerment. This paper reviews "subjective quantitative measures of human agency at the individual level." It…

  9. Effects of Student Characteristics, Principal Qualifications, and Organizational Constraints for Assessing Student Achievement: A School Public Relations and Human Resources Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip; Vang, Maiyoua; Young, Karen Holsey

    2008-01-01

    Standards-based student achievement scores are used to assess the effectiveness of public education and to have important implications regarding school public relations and human resource practices. Often overlooked is that these scores may be moderated by the characteristics of students, the qualifications of principals, and the restraints…

  10. Study on Significant Mechanisms of Maintenance Culture Among Public Building Users in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binti Rusli Ezzatul Aifa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia, a country in Asia, is a fast-growing developing country in its construction so as to fulfil the demands of today. Many buildings, infrastructures and facilities were constructed; however, the necessary support required after construction was disregarded. Maintenance is the key for the system, and culture is the main point of attitude and behaviour towards the maintenance culture. Becoming one of the first class infrastructures in the world is the vision that Malaysia is striving to achieve, and a third mentality from society and organisations should be avoided. However, to achieve this vision, proper maintenance is not enough; a maintenance culture should be applied. Developing a maintenance culture will help obtain the vision quickly and increase the quality of productivity in maintenance. It will also reduce the repair cost and increase responsibility. Malaysia is becoming a first class infrastructure, which is the vision for today; therefore, it needs to avoid a third mentality. Concerning this matter, decisive components of the maintenance culture were studied to identify the types of components that influence the maintenance culture among public building users. The decisive components of maintenance were uncertainty awareness and responsibility; personality/human behaviour and attitude; mind-set/motivation; training; knowledge and learning process; culture trends; management commitment; management of organisation; leadership; fundamental and policy; operating system organisation; the enforcement; laws and rules; and current practice of maintenance methods.

  11. Building strong research partnerships between public health and researchers: a VA case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midboe, Amanda M; Elwy, A Rani; Durfee, Janet M; Gifford, Allen L; Yakovchenko, Vera; Martinello, Richard A; Ross, David; Czarnogorski, Maggie; Goetz, Matthew B; Asch, Steven M

    2014-12-01

    We are in a new era of partner-based implementation research, and we need clear strategies for how to navigate this new era. Drawing on principles from community-based participatory research, the Clinical Public Health group of the Department of Veterans Affairs and the HIV/Hepatitis Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (HHQUERI) forged a longstanding partnership that has improved the care of Veterans with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus. An exemplar HIV testing project epitomizes this partnership and is discussed in terms of the lessons learned as a result of our high level of collaboration around design, analysis, implementation, and dissemination across projects over the past several years. Lessons learned through this partnered testing program involve respecting different time horizons among the partners, identifying relevant research questions for both parties, designing flexible studies, engaging all partners throughout the research, and placing an emphasis on relationship building at all times. These lessons and strategies can benefit others conducting partner-based research both within the Veterans Health Administration (VA) and in other integrated healthcare systems.

  12. A Review of Current Studies on Human Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄思雅

    2012-01-01

      This paper introduces some previous studies on human capital, mainly regarding human capital’s properties and its relationship with corporate performance and capital structure. This study shows the importance of human capital and suggests that managers should pay more attention to employees.

  13. Publication bias in reports of animal stroke studies leads to major overstatement of efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Sena

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of scientific knowledge proceeds through the interpretation and then distillation of data presented in research reports, first in review articles and then in textbooks and undergraduate courses, until truths become accepted as such both amongst "experts" and in the public understanding. Where data are collected but remain unpublished, they cannot contribute to this distillation of knowledge. If these unpublished data differ substantially from published work, conclusions may not reflect adequately the underlying biological effects being described. The existence and any impact of such "publication bias" in the laboratory sciences have not been described. Using the CAMARADES (Collaborative Approach to Meta-analysis and Review of Animal Data in Experimental Studies database we identified 16 systematic reviews of interventions tested in animal studies of acute ischaemic stroke involving 525 unique publications. Only ten publications (2% reported no significant effects on infarct volume and only six (1.2% did not report at least one significant finding. Egger regression and trim-and-fill analysis suggested that publication bias was highly prevalent (present in the literature for 16 and ten interventions, respectively in animal studies modelling stroke. Trim-and-fill analysis suggested that publication bias might account for around one-third of the efficacy reported in systematic reviews, with reported efficacy falling from 31.3% to 23.8% after adjustment for publication bias. We estimate that a further 214 experiments (in addition to the 1,359 identified through rigorous systematic review; non publication rate 14% have been conducted but not reported. It is probable that publication bias has an important impact in other animal disease models, and more broadly in the life sciences.

  14. Treatment outcome of human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis co-infected patients in public hospitals of eastern and southern zone of Tigray region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehretu Belayneh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death among people living with human immunodeficiency virus. In sub-Saharan Africa, tuberculosis accounts for more than 78% of all deaths among people with human immunodeficiency virus.Objectives:To assess tuberculosis treatment outcome and the associated factors in adult tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients in four public hospitals of eastern and southern zone of Tigray region, Ethiopia.Methodology:Institution based cross-sectional study design was used to examine secondary data from tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients attending four public hospitals of eastern and southern zone of Tigray, from January 2009 to August 2011. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select individual patient cards from the respective hospitals. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to assess the impact of each variable in predicting treatment outcome.Results:Out of 342 patients included, 199 (58.2% patients completed treatment, 43 (12.6% patients were cured, 88 (25.7% died, 7 (2% defaulted, and 5 (1.5% patients failed treatment. Treatment success rate was around 71%. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis the factors that were strongly associated with unfavorable tuberculosis treatment outcomes were WHO stage IV (AOR = 3.2, CI = 1.58-6.82, p-value = 0.001, age greater than 45 years (AOR = 6.08, CI = 2.28-16.23 and baseline CD4 count less than 200 cells/L (AOR = 6.19, CI = 2.28-16.89, p-value = 0.001.Conclusion:The rate of treatment success in this study was lower than the rate newly recommended by WHO. Therefore, efforts should be undertaken to improve treatment success rates of both diseases.

  15. Studying Human Dynamics Through Web Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasco, Jose; Goncalves, Bruno

    2008-03-01

    When Tim Berners Lee, a physicist at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) first conceived the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1990 as a way to facilitate the sharing of scientific information and results among the centers different researchers and groups, even the most ingenious of science fiction writers could not have imagined the role it would come to play in the following decades. The increasing ubiquitousness of Internet access and the frequency with which people interact with it raise the possibility of using it to better observe, understand, and even monitor several aspects of human social behavior. Websites with large numbers of frequently returning users, such as search engines, company or university websites, are ideal for this task. The properly anonymized logs detailing the access history to Emory University's website is studied. We find that a small number of users is responsible for a finite fraction of the total activity. A saturation phenomenon is observed where, certain connections age, becoming less attractive to new activity over time. Finally, by measuring the average activity as a function of the day of the week, we find that productivity seems to be higher on Tuesdays and Wednesdays, with Sundays being the least active day.

  16. Ergonomic study on human-powered vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd Azman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, new methods for ergonomic analysis of cyclist for 4-wheel recumbent seat human-powered vehicle (HPV are performed. An ergonomic index with fundamental formulation is developed in order to determine the level of comfortness during handling of the HPV. Basic reference of sitting postures are produced from three HPVs for 20 different individuals. All the dimensions, angles and measurements are recorded. The same individuals are required to sit on the three HPV models to evaluate their comfortness and ergonomic by observing the same dimensions, angles and measurements of leg and hand postures. The data is compared with reference comfort sitting ergonomic. This study is limited to a number of individuals which are the students of a university in Malaysia with age range from 20 to 24 years old. However, the ergonomic index can be expanded for Asian people and with some improvement in the parameters, it can be used for other countries. Derivation of ergonomic index and formulation in determining the comfort level and ergonomic of HPV. Using the ergonomic index, a new improved HPV can be developed. The index is also applicable with modification on several parameters in the formulation for other countries.

  17. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES...

  18. Psychosocial stress based on public speech in humans: is there a real life/laboratory setting cross-adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, D; Hlavacova, N; Dicko, I; Solarikova, P; Brezina, I

    2016-07-01

    Repeated or chronic exposure to stressors is associated with changes in neuroendocrine responses depending on the type, intensity, number and frequency of stress exposure as well as previous stress experience. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that salivary cortisol and cardiovascular responses to real-life psychosocial stressors related to public performance can cross-adapt with responses to psychosocial stress induced by public speech under laboratory setting. The sample consisted of 22 healthy male volunteers, which were either actors, more precisely students of dramatic arts or non-actors, students of other fields. The stress task consisted of 15 min anticipatory preparation phase and 15 min of public speech on an emotionally charged topic. The actors, who were accustomed to public speaking, responded with a rise in salivary cortisol as well as blood pressure to laboratory public speech. The values of salivary cortisol, systolic blood pressure and state anxiety were lower in actors compared to non-actors. Unlike non-actors, subjects with experience in public speaking did not show stress-induced rise in the heart rate. Evaluation of personality traits revealed that actors scored significantly higher in extraversion than the subjects in the non-actor group. In conclusion, neuroendocrine responses to real-life stressors in actors can partially cross-adapt with responses to psychosocial stress under laboratory setting. The most evident adaptation was at the level of heart rate responses. The public speech tasks may be of help in evaluation of the ability to cope with stress in real life in artists by simple laboratory testing.

  19. Management of information security risks in a federal public institution: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Gomes Soares Souza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Public institutions bound to the Brazilian federal public sector must apply security measures, policies, procedures and guidelines as information assets protection measures. This case study sought to determine whether the management of information security risks is applied in a federal public institution according to Information Technology (I.T. managers perceptions and the results expose the importance of the roles played by people, responsibilities, policies, standards, procedures and their implementation aiming greater control of information security risks and opportunities related to information technology security.

  20. Blogging as Popular History Making, Blogs as Public History: The Singapore Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Blogging is a twenty-first century phenomenon that has heralded an age where ordinary people can make their voices heard in the public sphere of the Internet. This article explores blogging as a form of popular history making; the blog as a public history document; and how blogging is transforming the nature of public history and practice of history making in Singapore. An analysis of two Singapore ‘historical’ blogs illustrates how blogging is building a foundation for a more participatory historical society in the island nation. At the same time, the case studies also demonstrate the limitations of blogging and blogs in challenging official versions of history.