WorldWideScience

Sample records for publications selected references

  1. Select Bibliography and Overview of Bunge's Publications Related to the Reference Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watstein, Sarah B.

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of eight articles by Charles Bunge related to the reference environment that deal with attitudes of the reference librarian, planning and objectives for the reference department, interpersonal dimensions of reference interviews, stress and burnout, and ethics. (LRW)

  2. Select Bibliography and Overview of Bunge's Publications Related to the Measurement of Reference Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watstein, Sarah B.

    1999-01-01

    Lists eight journal articles written by Charles Bunge that address the measurement of library reference effectiveness. Topics include determining goals; gathering data to determine effectiveness through user satisfaction; assessing reference output; costs and benefits; interpreting data; and the use of computerized forms to gather data. (LRW)

  3. Select Bibliography and Overview of Bunge's Publications Related to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Julia

    1999-01-01

    Includes citations to five articles written by Charles Bunge related to reference sources and provides an overview of his views on reference materials. Highlights include sources with the most information; images and illustrative material, especially in light of technology; and collection development, including reviewing tools. (LRW)

  4. Select Bibliography of Bunge's Publications Related to Reflections on the Past and Future of Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watstein, Sarah B.

    1999-01-01

    Lists and discusses six journal articles written by Charles Bunge that discuss influences on statewide public library planning; the history of the University of Wisconsin library school; a tribute to Herbert Goldhor's work in public library service and administration and in scientific research in librarianship; and reflections on reference…

  5. Selecting a Reference Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  6. Selected Reference Books of 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Reviews a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the categories of Periodicals and Newspapers, Philosophy, Literature, Film and Radio, Art and Architecture, Music, Political Science, Women's Studies, and History. A brief summary of new editions of standard works is provided at the end of the articles. (AEF)

  7. Selected DOE headquarters publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    Selected DOE Headquarters Publications provides cumulative listings, from October 1, 1977 onward, of two groups of publications issued by headquarters organizations of the Department of Energy, and an index to their title keywords. The two groups consist of publications assigned a DOE/XXX-type report number code and headquarters contractor publications, prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department. Publications such as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins, newsletters, and telephone directories, are omitted, as are publications issued under the DOE-tr, CONF, DOE/JPL, and DOE/NASA codes. (RWR)

  8. References: AePW publications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This page is the repository for the publications resulting from the AePW. This includes the special sessions at conferences: AIAA ASM 2012, Grapevine TX; AIAA SDM...

  9. Selected Reference Books of 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 40 recent scholarly and general works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. Topics areas covered include philosophy, religion, language, literature, architecture, economics, law, area studies, Russia and the Soviet Union, women's studies, and Christopher Columbus. New editions and…

  10. Online Reference Service--How to Begin: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroder, Emelie J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Materials in this bibliography were selected and recommended by members of the Use of Machine-Assisted Reference in Public Libraries Committee, Reference and Adult Services Division, American Library Association. Topics include: financial aspects, equipment and communications considerations, comparing databases and database systems, advertising…

  11. Selected Reference Books of 1997-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the subject headings of religion and mythology, literature, architecture, dance, film and television, women's studies, political science, and history, as well as new editions and supplements. (LRW)

  12. Selected Reference Books of 2000/2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected recent scholarly and general reference works under the subject categories of archives; literature; music; psychology; sociology; black studies; women's studies; history and area studies; and new editions and supplements. (LRW)

  13. Selected Reference Books, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    2001-01-01

    Presents a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works in these areas: periodical indexes; literature, including theater; religion; festivals; architecture; music; social sciences; women's studies; and history. Provides a brief roundup of new editions of standard works at the end. (AEF)

  14. Reference image selection for difference imaging analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Huckvale, Leo; Sale, Stuart E

    2014-01-01

    Difference image analysis (DIA) is an effective technique for obtaining photometry in crowded fields, relative to a chosen reference image. As yet, however, optimal reference image selection is an unsolved problem. We examine how this selection depends on the combination of seeing, background and detector pixel size. Our tests use a combination of simulated data and quality indicators from DIA of well-sampled optical data and under-sampled near-infrared data from the OGLE and VVV surveys, respectively. We search for a figure-of-merit (FoM) which could be used to select reference images for each survey. While we do not find a universally applicable FoM, survey-specific measures indicate that the effect of spatial under-sampling may require a change in strategy from the standard DIA approach, even though seeing remains the primary criterion. We find that background is not an important criterion for reference selection, at least for the dynamic range in the images we test. For our analysis of VVV data in particu...

  15. Selected Reference Books, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    2001-01-01

    Presents a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works in these areas: periodical indexes; literature, including theater; religion; festivals; architecture; music; social sciences; women's studies; and history. Provides a brief roundup of new editions of standard works at the end. (AEF)

  16. Comparison of select reference management tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingting

    2012-01-01

    Bibliographic management tools have been widely used by researchers to store, organize, and manage their references for research papers, theses, dissertations, journal articles, and other publications. There are a number of reference management tools available. In order for users to decide which tool is best for their needs, it is important to know each tool's strengths and weaknesses. This article compares four reference management tools, one of which is licensed by University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey libraries and the other three are open source and freely available. They were chosen based on their functionality, ease of use, availability to library users, and popularity. These four tools are EndNote/EndNote Web, Zotero, Connotea, and Mendeley Desktop/Mendeley Web. Each tool is analyzed in terms of the following features: accessing, collecting, organizing, collaborating, and citing/formatting. A comparison table is included to summarize the key features of these tools.

  17. Tools and publications for reference decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulieu, C.; Be, M.M.; Chiste, V. [CEA Saclay, Lab. National Henri Becquerel (LNE-CEA/LNHB), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    As a primary laboratory in the field of ionizing radiation metrology, the LNE-CEA/LNHB is involved in measurement, evaluation and dissemination of radioactive decay data. Data measurements obtained by various laboratories are evaluated by an international group of experts (Decay Data Evaluation Project) in order to establish a set of recommended decay scheme data. Those data are subsequently distributed to users through various tools developed in our laboratory and well suited to each application domain. They are presented in an exhaustive and documented way through the publication of a multi-volume printed monograph (Monographie BIPM-5), for which a new issue has been released by the end of 2006. This monograph is recommended as a reference database by the CCRI (Ionizing Radiation Consultative Committee) of the BIPM. Those data can also be accessed via a specific software NUCLEIDE whose database contains more than 300 nuclides of particular interest. In the field of alpha and gamma spectrometry, a web application has been specially developed in order to present the major emissions of a given nuclide. Moreover, it allows us to find nuclides corresponding to search criteria on their emission energies or intensities. Finally a booklet version of this database will soon be published. It will present in a concise way the main alpha, X, gamma and electron emissions and their half-life, for some 250 nuclides. This paper intends to describe some features of these tools and publications. (authors)

  18. Influence of Public Relations and Reference Services on Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Academic Library, library services, Public relations, Reference Services ... reference services as the direct personal help given by librarian to a ... helps make management aware of public opinion and .... information centre. If local ...

  19. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of special publications, reference publications, conference publications, and technical papers, 1991-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This catalog lists 458 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information database during accession year 1991 through 1992. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  20. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of special publications, reference publications, conference publications, and technical papers, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This catalog lists 190 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered into the NASA scientific and technical information database during accession year 1989. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  1. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of Special Publications, Reference Publications, Conference Publications, and Technical Papers, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This catalog lists 239 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered in the NASA scientific and technical information database during accession year 1987. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  2. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of special publications, reference publications, conference publications, and technical papers, 1987-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This catalog lists 783 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered into NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database during the year's 1987 through 1990. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  3. Public-key cryptography based on bounded quantum reference frames

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannou, Lawrence M.; Mosca, Michele

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that the framework of bounded quantum reference frames has application to building quantum-public-key cryptographic protocols and proving their security. Thus, the framework we introduce can be seen as a public-key analogue of the framework of Bartlett et al. (Phys. Rev. A 70, 032307), where a private shared reference frame is shown to have cryptographic application. The protocol we present in this paper is an identification scheme, which, like a digital signature scheme, is a ...

  4. Easy-to-use strategy for reference gene selection in quantitative real-time PCR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenke, Stefanie; Renckhoff, Kristina; Engler, Andrea; Peters, Jürgen; Frey, Ulrich H

    2016-12-01

    Real-time PCR is an indispensable technique for mRNA expression analysis but conclusions depend on appropriate reference gene selection. However, while reference gene selection has been a topic of publications, this issue is often disregarded when measuring target mRNA expression. Therefore, we (1) evaluated the frequency of appropriate reference gene selection, (2) suggest an easy-to-use tool for least variability reference gene selection, (3) demonstrate application of this tool, and (4) show effects on target gene expression profiles. All 2015 published articles in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology were screened for the use of quantitative real-time PCR analysis and selection of reference genes. Target gene expression (Vegfa, Grk2, Sirt4, and Timp3) in H9c2 cells was analyzed following various interventions (hypoxia, hyperglycemia, and/or isoflurane exposure with and without subsequent hypoxia) in relation to putative reference genes (Actb, Gapdh, B2m, Sdha, and Rplp1) using the least variability method vs. an arbitrarily selected but established reference gene. In the vast majority (18 of 21) of papers, no information was provided regarding selection of an appropriate reference gene. In only 1 of 21 papers, a method of appropriate reference gene selection was described and in 2 papers reference gene selection remains unclear. The method of reference gene selection had major impact on interpretation of target gene expression. With hypoxia, for instance, the least variability gene was Rplp1 and target gene expression (Vefga) heavily showed a 2-fold up-regulation (p = 0.022) but no change (p = 0.3) when arbitrarily using Gapdh. Frequency of appropriate reference gene selection in this journal is low, and we propose our strategy for reference gene selection as an easy tool for proper target gene expression.

  5. The Lean Reference Collection: Improving Functionality through Selection and Weeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christopher W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses references collections in academic libraries and offers guidelines for placing materials in a reference collection that focus on their suitability for true reference functions and the expected frequency of use. Problems with poorly managed collections are discussed, and the importance of selection policies and weeding are emphasized. (37…

  6. What's New? Children Prefer Novelty in Referent Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Jessica S.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Kucker, Sarah C.; McMurray, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Determining the referent of a novel name is a critical task for young language learners. The majority of studies on children's referent selection focus on manipulating the sources of information (linguistic, contextual and pragmatic) that children can use to solve the referent mapping problem. Here, we take a step back and explore how children's…

  7. What's New? Children Prefer Novelty in Referent Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Jessica S.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Kucker, Sarah C.; McMurray, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Determining the referent of a novel name is a critical task for young language learners. The majority of studies on children's referent selection focus on manipulating the sources of information (linguistic, contextual and pragmatic) that children can use to solve the referent mapping problem. Here, we take a step back and explore how children's…

  8. Corrosion reference for geothermal downhole materials selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II, Smith, C.C.; Keeney, R.C.; Kirk, D.K.; Conover, M.F.

    1983-03-01

    Geothermal downhole conditions that may affect the performance and reliability of selected materials and components used in the drilling, completion, logging, and production of geothermal wells are reviewed. The results of specific research and development efforts aimed at improvement of materials and components for downhole contact with the hostile physicochemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir are discussed. Materials and components covered are tubular goods, stainless steels and non-ferrous metals for high-temperature downhole service, cements for high-temperature geothermal wells, high-temperature elastomers, drilling and completion tools, logging tools, and downhole pumps. (MHR)

  9. Selecting Channels for Institutional Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Donald F.; Glynn, Carroll J.

    1989-01-01

    Examines communication decision-making in organizations by looking at the extent to which public relations executives have control over channel selection for the media mix in an overall public relations program. Shows a variety of structures and procedures for channel selection decisions in United States organizations. (SR)

  10. 16 CFR 1015.2 - Public reference facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public reference facilities. 1015.2 Section 1015.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OR... “electronic reading room” on the World-Wide Web for those records that are required by 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) to...

  11. Selected critical examples of scientometric publication analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of authors, institutions or countries per publication indexed by Web of Science. Methodology: The paper uses examples from earlier research evaluation studies and cases based on online data to describe issues, problematic details, pitfalls and how to overcome them in publication analysis with respect...... to analytic tool application, calculation, presentation and interpretation. Results: By means of different kinds of analysis and presentation, the paper provides insight into scientometrics in the context of informetric analysis, selected cases of research productivity, publication patterns and research...

  12. Media Selection for Public TV Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallstead, William F.

    Since limited funds restrict advertising by Public Broadcasting System (PBS) stations, and since PBS serves a variety of audiences, the selection of appropriate advertising media for PBS programs is difficult. It is further complicated by conflicting research reports on the public use of the daily papers. Availability to the target audience should…

  13. Selecting a Topic in Public Speaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉霞

    2013-01-01

    The first step in speechmaking is choosing a topic, which will decide the success of the speech. In the paper, we are go⁃ing to discuss how to select a topic in public speaking, and we’ll mainly talk about the following: the speaker, the occasion and the audience, selecting a topic, specific methods for choosing a topic and available topics.

  14. SELECTION OF REFERENCE PLANE BY THE LEAST SQUARES FITTING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Podulka

    2016-06-01

    For least squares polynomial fittings it was found that applied method for cylinder liners gave usually better robustness for scratches, valleys and dimples occurrence. For piston skirt surfaces better edge-filtering results were obtained. It was also recommended to analyse the Sk parameters for proper selection of reference plane in surface topography measurements.

  15. Reference View Selection in DIBR-Based Multiview Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugey, Thomas; Petrazzuoli, Giovanni; Frossard, Pascal; Cagnazzo, Marco; Pesquet-Popescu, Beatrice

    2016-04-01

    Augmented reality, interactive navigation in 3D scenes, multiview video, and other emerging multimedia applications require large sets of images, hence larger data volumes and increased resources compared with traditional video services. The significant increase in the number of images in multiview systems leads to new challenging problems in data representation and data transmission to provide high quality of experience on resource-constrained environments. In order to reduce the size of the data, different multiview video compression strategies have been proposed recently. Most of them use the concept of reference or key views that are used to estimate other images when there is high correlation in the data set. In such coding schemes, the two following questions become fundamental: 1) how many reference views have to be chosen for keeping a good reconstruction quality under coding cost constraints? And 2) where to place these key views in the multiview data set? As these questions are largely overlooked in the literature, we study the reference view selection problem and propose an algorithm for the optimal selection of reference views in multiview coding systems. Based on a novel metric that measures the similarity between the views, we formulate an optimization problem for the positioning of the reference views, such that both the distortion of the view reconstruction and the coding rate cost are minimized. We solve this new problem with a shortest path algorithm that determines both the optimal number of reference views and their positions in the image set. We experimentally validate our solution in a practical multiview distributed coding system and in the standardized 3D-HEVC multiview coding scheme. We show that considering the 3D scene geometry in the reference view, positioning problem brings significant rate-distortion improvements and outperforms the traditional coding strategy that simply selects key frames based on the distance between cameras.

  16. Public Health Policies and Practices of the Ottoman Empire with Special Reference to the Gallipoli Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Enein, Basil; Puddy, William

    2015-06-01

    To review the selected historiographic and contemporary literature that examined the Ottoman public health practices and policies with special reference to the Gallipoli campaign during the First World War. To date, no work has been published surrounding the Ottoman public health policies and responses during the battle of Gallipoli. A historiographic methodology was used to examine relevant primary and secondary publications using ten academic electronic databases. The literature discussed pre-war Hapsburg efforts to improve the Ottoman medical infrastructure, the activities of military medical students and units at Gallipoli, quarantine and vaccination procedures, and general medical issues throughout the empire during the war. Access to the official Turkish archives and translating relevant official documents into English are warranted. This represents an opportunity for military and public health historians to examine and identify relevant public health practices and policies that the Ottoman Empire implemented during the First World War and, in particular, the Gallipoli campaign.

  17. The Mobile Reference Service: a case study of an onsite reference service program at the School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua; McCarthy, Patrick G; Krieger, Mary M; Webb, Annie B

    2009-01-01

    The School of Public Health at Saint Louis University is located at a greater distance from the library than other programs on the main medical center campus. Physical distance diminishes the ease of access to direct reference services for public health users. To bridge the gap, the library developed the Mobile Reference Service to deliver on-site information assistance with regular office hours each week. Between September 2006 and April 2007, a total of 57 in-depth reference transactions took place over 25 weeks, averaging 2 transactions per week in a 2-hour period. Overall reference transactions from public health users went up 28%, while liaison contacts with public health users doubled compared to the same period the year before. The Mobile Reference Service program has improved library support for research and scholarship, cultivated and strengthened liaison relationships, and enhanced marketing and delivery of library resources and services to the Saint Louis University School of Public Health.

  18. Role of orientation reference selection in motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Black, F. Owen

    1988-01-01

    Previous experiments with moving platform posturography have shown that different people have varying abilities to resolve conflicts among vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive sensory signals used to control upright posture. In particular, there is one class of subjects with a vestibular disorder known as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) who often are particularly sensitive to inaccurate visual information. That is, they will use visual sensory information for the control of their posture even when that visual information is inaccurate and is in conflict with accurate proprioceptive and vestibular sensory signals. BPPV has been associated with disorders of both posterior semicircular canal function and possibly otolith function. The present proposal hopes to take advantage of the similarities between the space motion sickness problem and the sensory orientation reference selection problems associated with the BPPV syndrome. These similarities include both etiology related to abnormal vertical canal-otolith function, and motion sickness initiating events provoked by pitch and roll head movements. The objectives of this proposal are to explore and quantify the orientation reference selection abilities of subjects and the relation of this selection to motion sickness in humans.

  19. An important reference criterion for the selection of GSSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A study on the relationship between biostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy in several designated global boundary stratotypes shows that the best way may be to take the GSSP at a point coincident with the base of the first widespread Leading Group biozone above the first flooding surface (FFS) of the relevant third-order sequence.It is suggested that the first flooding surface of the sequence should be an important reference criterion for the selection of GSSP.As the base of the first widespread Leading Group biozone chosen for the definition of GSSP could not be lower than the first flooding surface of the referred sequence,the latter surface may be an important criterion for the recognition and correlation of the chronostratigraphic boundaries.

  20. Role of orientation reference selection in motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Black, F. Owen

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of this proposal is to understand the relationship between human orientation control and motion sickness susceptibility. Three areas related to orientation control will be investigated. These three areas are (1) reflexes associated with the control of eye movements and posture, (2) the perception of body rotation and position with respect to gravity, and (3) the strategies used to resolve sensory conflict situations which arise when different sensory systems provide orientation cues which are not consistent with one another or with previous experience. Of particular interest is the possibility that a subject may be able to ignore an inaccurate sensory modality in favor of one or more other sensory modalities which do provide accurate orientation reference information. We refer to this process as sensory selection. This proposal will attempt to quantify subjects' sensory selection abilities and determine if this ability confers some immunity to the development of motion sickness symptoms. Measurements of reflexes, motion perception, sensory selection abilities, and motion sickness susceptibility will concentrate on pitch and roll motions since these seem most relevant to the space motion sickness problem. Vestibulo-ocular (VOR) and oculomotor reflexes will be measured using a unique two-axis rotation device developed in our laboratory over the last seven years. Posture control reflexes will be measured using a movable posture platform capable of independently altering proprioceptive and visual orientation cues. Motion perception will be quantified using closed loop feedback technique developed by Zacharias and Young (Exp Brain Res, 1981). This technique requires a subject to null out motions induced by the experimenter while being exposed to various confounding sensory orientation cues. A subject's sensory selection abilities will be measured by the magnitude and timing of his reactions to changes in sensory environments. Motion sickness

  1. Tracing the origin of a scientific legend by Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS): the legend of the Darwin finches

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, Werner

    2013-01-01

    In a previews paper we introduced the quantitative method named Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS). With this method one can determine the historical roots of research fields and quantify their impact on current research. RPYS is based on the analysis of the frequency with which references are cited in the publications of a specific research field in terms of the publication years of these cited references. In this study, we illustrate that RPYS can also be used to reveal the origin of scientific legends. We selected Darwin finches as an example for illustration. Charles Darwin, the originator of evolutionary theory, was given credit for finches he did not see and for observations and insights about the finches he never made. We have shown that a book published in 1947 is the most-highly cited early reference cited within the relevant literature. This book had already been revealed as the origin of the term Darwin finches by Sulloway through careful historical analysis.

  2. 77 FR 22067 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel credit, and...

  3. References from Brazilian medical journals in national publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Botelho, Nara Macedo; Petroianu, Andy

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether there is a preference for international journal citation to the detriment of national ones in ten Brazilian medical journals, in two different periods. All references in the articles published in Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, São Paulo Medical Journal, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Clinics, Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria e Acta Ortopédica Brasileira in the years 2011 and 2007 were analyzed, assessing the number of articles published in national and international journals. A total of 36,125 references from 1,462 articles published in the 10 aforementioned journals were analyzed. Of the total number, 4.242 (11.74%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no significant difference between the two analyzed periods. A total of 453 (30,98%) of the articles studied non-cited brazilian papers,and 81 (5.54%) articles had more Brazilian than international references. Of total references analyzed, 11.74% were related to articles published in Brazilian journals. This number, when compared to the percentage of Brazilian articles published in the medical area, demonstrates a good number of citations of national articles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Selected, annotated bibliography of studies relevant to the isolation of nuclear wastes. [705 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyder, L.K.; Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Faust, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 705 references represents the first in a series to be published by the Ecological Sciences Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to nuclear waste isolation. Most references discuss deep geologic disposal, with fewer studies of deep seabed disposal; space disposal is also included. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1954 to 1980. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Envirnmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Repository Design and Engineering; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for author(s), keywords, subject category, title, geographic location, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, and publication description.

  5. Conspicuous Public Goods and Leadership Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jennings, C.; Roelfsema, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    If voters care for the relative supply of public goods compared to otherjurisdictions, decentralized provision of public goods will be too high.Potentially, centralization internalizes the negative externalities fromthe production of these `conspicuous' public goods. However, in amodel of strategic

  6. Selection of reference genes for qPCR in hairy root cultures of peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medrano Giuliana

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hairy root cultures produced via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation have emerged as practical biological models to elucidate the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites. To effectively understand the expression patterns of the genes involved in the metabolic pathways of these compounds, reference genes need to be systematically validated under specific experimental conditions as established by the MIQE (Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments guidelines. In the present report we describe the first validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR in hairy root cultures of peanut which produce stilbenoids upon elicitor treatments. Results A total of 21 candidate reference genes were evaluated. Nineteen genes were selected based on previous qPCR studies in plants and two were from the T-DNAs transferred from A. rhizogenes. Nucleotide sequences of peanut candidate genes were obtained using their homologous sequences in Arabidopsis. To identify the suitable primers, calibration curves were obtained for each candidate reference gene. After data analysis, 12 candidate genes meeting standard efficiency criteria were selected. The expression stability of these genes was analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms and a ranking was established based on expression stability of the genes. Candidate reference gene expression was shown to have less variation in methyl jasmonate (MeJA treated root cultures than those treated with sodium acetate (NaOAc. Conclusions This work constitutes the first effort to validate reference genes for RT-qPCR in hairy roots. While these genes were selected under conditions of NaOAc and MeJA treatment, we anticipate these genes to provide good targets for reference genes for hairy roots under a variety of stress conditions. The lead reference genes were a gene encoding for a TATA box binding protein (TBP2 and a gene encoding a ribosomal protein (RPL8C. A

  7. Selected DOE headquarters publications, October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The publication provides cumulative listings of and an index to DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979. Publications issued during October 1977 to September 1979 are covered in DOE/AD-0010/6. Publications from 26 headquarters offices are presented and consist of three types: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations; reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department under 01-type contracts; and environmental development plans, impact statements, and readiness documents. Availability of the documents is described.

  8. Selected DOE Headquarters Publications, October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This publication provides cumulative listings of and an index to DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979. (Publications issued during October 1977-September 1979 are covered in DOE/AD-0010/6.) Three types of headquarters publications are included: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations, reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department, and environmental development plans and impact statements. Certain publications have been omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins, newsletters, and telephone directories, headquarters publications issued under the DOE-tr and CONF codes, technical reports from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA issued under DOE/JPL and DOE/NASA codes, and weekly/monthly reports of the Energy Information Administration. (RWR)

  9. Selected DOE Headquarters publications, October 1979-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    This publication provides a cumulative listing of and an index to DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979. (Publications issued during October 1977 to September 1979 are covered in DOE/AD-0010/6.) Three types of headquarters publications are included: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations, reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department, and environmental development plans, environmental impact statements, and environmental readiness documents. Certain publications have been omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins, newsletters, and telephone directories. Also omitted are weekly/monthly reports of the Energy Information Administration and headquarters publications issued under the DOE-tr and CONF codes. (RWR)

  10. Selected DOE headquarters publications, October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This publication provides cumulative listings of and an index to DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979. (Publications issued during October 1977-September 1979 are covered in DOE/AD-0010/6). Three types of headquarters publications are included: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations, reports prepared by contractors to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department, and environmental development plans and impact statements. Certain publications are omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins, newsletters, telephone directories, publications issued under the DOE-tr and CONF codes, technical reports from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA issued under DOE/JPL and DOE/NASA codes, and weekly/monthly reports of the Energy Information Administration. (RWR)

  11. A selective annotated bibliography for clinical audiology (1988-2008): reference works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Vinent, Susan T; Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J

    2009-06-01

    This is the 1st in a series of 3 planned companion articles that present a selected, annotated, and indexed bibliography of clinical audiology publications from 1988 to 2008. Research and preparation of the bibliography were based on published guidelines, professional audiology experience, and professional librarian experience. This article presents reference works (dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, and manuals). The future planned articles will cover other monographs, periodicals, and online resources. Audiologists and librarians can use these lists as a guide when seeking clinical audiology literature.

  12. Automatic selection of reference taxa for protein-protein interaction prediction with phylogenetic profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Martin; Maetschke, S.R.; Ragan, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Phylogenetic profiling methods can achieve good accuracy in predicting protein–protein interactions, especially in prokaryotes. Recent studies have shown that the choice of reference taxa (RT) is critical for accurate prediction, but with more than 2500 fully sequenced taxa publicly......: We present three novel methods for automating the selection of RT, using machine learning based on known protein–protein interaction networks. One of these methods in particular, Tree-Based Search, yields greatly improved prediction accuracies. We further show that different methods for constituting...

  13. Selected DOE headquarters publications, October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    A cumulative listing of DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979 is provided along with an index of title keywords. Three types of headquarters publications have been included: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations; reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE headquarters) to describe research and development work they have performed for the department; and environmental development plans, environmental impact statements, and environmental readiness documents. Availabilities of documents are given. (GHT)

  14. Attitudes about Sex Selection and Sex Preference in Iranian Couples Referred for Sex Selection Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Shirzad, Mahdi; Kamali, Koorosh; Ranjbar, Fahimeh; Behjati-Ardakani, Zohreh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background Gender preference is prevalent in some communities and using medical techniques to choose the baby's sex may cause the gender discrimination and gender imbalance in communities. Therefore, evaluating the gender preferences and attitudes towards using sex selection technologies seems to be necessary. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Avicenna Fertility Center. Participants were 100 women with one child who were referred for sex selection. Data were collected through self-developed questionnaires. The questions were designed by the researchers at the experts’ panel. To determine the validity of the questionnaire, the viewpoints of professors specialized in these issues were obtained. The statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software (Version 11.5), and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Tendency toward the male was more than female sex (55.5% male, 15.5% female and 28.5% no tendency). Majority of participants agreed with sex selection with medical reason and sex selection in order to balance the family. Women's level of education had positive effect on agreements to fetal sex selection with medical and non-medical reasons (p < 0.001). Conclusion Although gender preferences were toward the male sex but this preference was not very strong. Most participants agreed with non-medical sex selection for balancing the sex composition of their children. It doesn't seem that non-medical sex selection for family balancing causes severe sex imbalance in Iran. PMID:25717434

  15. Selected references on alkalic igneous rocks of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C.R. (comp.)

    1976-01-01

    A compilation of references is presented providing background information on rock and mineral associations, geochemistry, geophysics, structural relationships, and geochronology of sialic, feldspathoidal, and some mafic alkalic igneous rock exposures in the US. Their locations and major characteristics are cited. No implication regarding U potential in these areas is intended. The first part of the bibliography provides general references to overall features of alkaline igneous rocks by region. The second part is a compilation of references on alkalic igneous rocks by state or groups of states. The third part provides information on rock type, age, and location for most of the references cited in part two. (JSR)

  16. Selected critical examples of scientometric publication analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of authors, institutions or countries per publication indexed by Web of Science. Methodology: The paper uses examples from earlier research evaluation studies and cases based on online data to describe issues, problematic details, pitfalls and how to overcome them in publication analysis with respect...

  17. Risk Selection under Public Health Insurance with Opt-Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthöfer, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies risk selection between public and private health insurance when some, but not all, individuals can opt out of otherwise mandatory public insurance. Using a theoretical model, I show that public insurance is adversely selected when insurers and insureds are symmetrically informed about health-related risks, and that there can be adverse or advantageous selection when insureds are privately informed. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, I find that (i) public insurance is, on balance, adversely selected under the German public health insurance with opt out scheme, (ii) individuals advantageously select public insurance based on risk aversion and residential location, and (iii) there is suggestive evidence of asymmetric information in the market for private health insurance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Selecting public relations personnel of hospitals by analytic network process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sen-Kuei; Chang, Kuei-Lun

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the use of analytic network process (ANP) in the Taiwanese hospital public relations personnel selection process. Starting with interviewing 48 practitioners and executives in north Taiwan, we collected selection criteria. Then, we retained the 12 critical criteria that were mentioned above 40 times by theses respondents, including: interpersonal skill, experience, negotiation, language, ability to follow orders, cognitive ability, adaptation to environment, adaptation to company, emotion, loyalty, attitude, and Response. Finally, we discussed with the 20 executives to take these important criteria into three perspectives to structure the hierarchy for hospital public relations personnel selection. After discussing with practitioners and executives, we find that selecting criteria are interrelated. The ANP, which incorporates interdependence relationships, is a new approach for multi-criteria decision-making. Thus, we apply ANP to select the most optimal public relations personnel of hospitals. An empirical study of public relations personnel selection problems in Taiwan hospitals is conducted to illustrate how the selection procedure works.

  19. Pancreatic Cystic Fluid Reference Set — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proposed reference set will be designed to evaluate biomarkers for the following applications aimed at determining whether a patient would benefit from surgical resection of their cystic lesion: 1. Distinguish between pancreatic cysts that have high-malignant potential and cysts that have low or no malignant potential at time of endoscopic ultrasound evaluation. a. By analysis of blood b. By analysis of pancreatic cystic fluid 2. Distinguish between cysts that have any malignant potential (high and low) and cysts that have no malignant potential (benign lesions) at time of endoscopic ultrasound evaluation. a. By analysis of blood b. By analysis of pancreatic cystic fluid 3. Distinguish between a cyst that is mucinous (malignant potential) or non-mucinous (no malignant potential) at time of endoscopic ultrasound evaluation. a. By analysis of blood b. By analysis of pancreatic cystic fluid 4. Distinguish between pancreatic cysts that have high-malignant potential and cysts that have low or no malignant potential at time of evaluation in surgery clinic. a. By analysis of blood 5. Distinguish between cysts that have any malignant potential (high and low) and cysts that have no malignant potential (benign lesions) at time of evaluation in surgery clinic. a. By analysis of blood 6. Distinguish between a cyst that is mucinous (malignant potential) or non-mucinous (no malignant potential) at time of evaluation in surgery clinic. a. By analysis of blood If successful in meeting these afore-mentioned objectives, these results can then be used in the development of future studies at identifying the need for additional evaluation (i.e., endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration) of an incidental cyst

  20. Managerial Talent, Motivation, and Self-Selection into Public Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe quality of public management is a recurrent concern in many countries. Calls to attract the economy's best and brightest managers to the public sector abound. This paper studies self-selection into managerial and non-managerial positions in the public and private sector, using a mode

  1. Annotated Bibliography of Selected NPRDC Publications on Total Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    AD-A233 573 Annotated Bibliography of Select NPRDC Publications on Total Quality Management Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Deming’s prin- ness is called Total Quality Management , The Role of NPRDC ciples into organizational practice and, or TQM. subsequently, to evaluate...Annotated Bibliography of Selected NPRDC Publications on Total Quality Management Deming’s Management Principles1 1. Create and publish to all employees

  2. A Select Reference Bibliography for a Course in German Phonetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Steven M.

    This bibliography for a course in German phonetics is subdivided as follows: (1) reference works in linguistics (introductions, surveys, and miscellaneous; structural linguistics; transformational-generative linguistics; applied linguistics; and dictionaries and glossaries); (2) phonetics (books, articles, and miscellaneous topics); (3) phonology…

  3. A Select Reference Bibliography for a Course in German Phonetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Steven M.

    This bibliography for a course in German phonetics is subdivided as follows: (1) reference works in linguistics (introductions, surveys, and miscellaneous; structural linguistics; transformational-generative linguistics; applied linguistics; and dictionaries and glossaries); (2) phonetics (books, articles, and miscellaneous topics); (3) phonology…

  4. 78 FR 21008 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    .... 45K). The inflation adjustment factor and reference price are used to determine the credit allowable.... DATES: The 2012 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel credit, and reference price... Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit...

  5. 76 FR 19524 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    .... 45K). The inflation adjustment factor and reference price are used to determine the credit allowable.... DATES: The 2010 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel credit, and reference price... Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit...

  6. 76 FR 53492 - South Carolina Public Service Authority (Also Referred to as Santee Cooper); Combined Licenses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... COMMISSION South Carolina Public Service Authority (Also Referred to as Santee Cooper); Combined Licenses for... as Santee Cooper), for two Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) part 52 combined... Service Authority (Also Referred to as Santee Cooper) Application for the Virgil C. Summer Nuclear...

  7. Selection of spatial reference frames depends on task's demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greeshma Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial reference frames (SRF are the means of representing spatial relations or locations either in an egocentric coordinate system (centred on navigator or in an allocentric coordinate system (Centred on object. It is necessary to understand when and how spatial representation switches between allocentric and egocentric reference frames in context to spatial tasks. The objective of this study was to explore if the elementary spatial representation does exist, whether it would remain consistent or change under the influence of a task's demand. Also, we explored how the SRF would assist if the environment is enriched with landmarks, having multiple routes for wayfinding. The results showed that the switching of SRF depends not only on the default representation but also on a task's demand. They also demonstrated that participants who were using allocentric representation performed better in the presence of landmarks.

  8. Comparison of Chinese and Foreign Urban Public Security Treatment Mechanisms and Analysis of Policy References

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuejun; Zhang Mingyu

    2007-01-01

    From the viewpoint of disaster prevention in the urban areas, this paper analyzes the value of urban public security system, selects typical cases to make a comparison of Chinese and foreign public security treatment mechanisms, and makes systematic summarization of the Chinese and foreign historic experiences. Then, the paper puts forward some designs on structure of the Chinese urban public security system structure. This paper is of the opinion that at present the management of urban public security concerning unexpected incidents should be strengthened. The effective way is to set up the sound urban public security system, urban public security mechanism and related laws and regulations.

  9. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography. [416 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Brewster, R.H.; Hyder, L.K.; Barnes, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas.

  10. List of Selected Publications 1983. Risø National Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The list comprises a selection of scientific and technical publications of Risø National Laboratory and its staff during 1983. Journal articles, conference papers, and reports are included. The publications are arranged in the following broad subject categories: Energy Supply and Supporting...

  11. Module energy rating candidate reference days: Criteria and selection process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Daryl R.

    1999-03-01

    Presently the performance of flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules is based upon module power, open circuit voltage, short-circuit current, or peak power voltage and current with respect to fixed environmental conditions such as Standard Reporting Conditions, (SRC) or nominal operating cell temperature. These reporting conditions represent ideal conditions under which PV module performance (e.g., between manufacturers or technologies) may be compared. They result in overly optimistic expectations of performance by PV industry customers. A recommended practice for PV module energy-rating methodologies to relate PV module performance to real world conditions is under development. The methodologies will provide system designers and PV customers with an energy rating representative of real world conditions. The rating methodology reports energy production under 5 selected types of days representative of possible operational environments. The development and application of qualitative and quantitative criteria for identifying and selecting these representative days from the 30-year U.S. National Solar Radiation Data Base is described.

  12. Selection of Valid Reference Genes for Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Analysis in Heliconius numata (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouteau, Mathieu; Whibley, Annabel; Joron, Mathieu; Llaurens, Violaine

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the genetic basis of adaptive variation is challenging in non-model organisms and quantitative real time PCR. is a useful tool for validating predictions regarding the expression of candidate genes. However, comparing expression levels in different conditions requires rigorous experimental design and statistical analyses. Here, we focused on the neotropical passion-vine butterflies Heliconius, non-model species studied in evolutionary biology for their adaptive variation in wing color patterns involved in mimicry and in the signaling of their toxicity to predators. We aimed at selecting stable reference genes to be used for normalization of gene expression data in RT-qPCR analyses from developing wing discs according to the minimal guidelines described in Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE). To design internal RT-qPCR controls, we studied the stability of expression of nine candidate reference genes (actin, annexin, eF1α, FK506BP, PolyABP, PolyUBQ, RpL3, RPS3A, and tubulin) at two developmental stages (prepupal and pupal) using three widely used programs (GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper). Results showed that, despite differences in statistical methods, genes RpL3, eF1α, polyABP, and annexin were stably expressed in wing discs in late larval and pupal stages of Heliconius numata. This combination of genes may be used as a reference for a reliable study of differential expression in wings for instance for genes involved in important phenotypic variation, such as wing color pattern variation. Through this example, we provide general useful technical recommendations as well as relevant statistical strategies for evolutionary biologists aiming to identify candidate-genes involved adaptive variation in non-model organisms. PMID:27271971

  13. Selection of Valid Reference Genes for Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Analysis in Heliconius numata (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron Prunier, Florence; Chouteau, Mathieu; Whibley, Annabel; Joron, Mathieu; Llaurens, Violaine

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the genetic basis of adaptive variation is challenging in non-model organisms and quantitative real time PCR. is a useful tool for validating predictions regarding the expression of candidate genes. However, comparing expression levels in different conditions requires rigorous experimental design and statistical analyses. Here, we focused on the neotropical passion-vine butterflies Heliconius, non-model species studied in evolutionary biology for their adaptive variation in wing color patterns involved in mimicry and in the signaling of their toxicity to predators. We aimed at selecting stable reference genes to be used for normalization of gene expression data in RT-qPCR analyses from developing wing discs according to the minimal guidelines described in Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE). To design internal RT-qPCR controls, we studied the stability of expression of nine candidate reference genes (actin, annexin, eF1α, FK506BP, PolyABP, PolyUBQ, RpL3, RPS3A, and tubulin) at two developmental stages (prepupal and pupal) using three widely used programs (GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper). Results showed that, despite differences in statistical methods, genes RpL3, eF1α, polyABP, and annexin were stably expressed in wing discs in late larval and pupal stages of Heliconius numata This combination of genes may be used as a reference for a reliable study of differential expression in wings for instance for genes involved in important phenotypic variation, such as wing color pattern variation. Through this example, we provide general useful technical recommendations as well as relevant statistical strategies for evolutionary biologists aiming to identify candidate-genes involved adaptive variation in non-model organisms.

  14. Selection of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in Staphylococcus capitis during growth under erythromycin stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bintao; Smooker, Peter M; Rouch, Duncan A; Deighton, Margaret A

    2016-08-01

    Accurate and reproducible measurement of gene transcription requires appropriate reference genes, which are stably expressed under different experimental conditions to provide normalization. Staphylococcus capitis is a human pathogen that produces biofilm under stress, such as imposed by antimicrobial agents. In this study, a set of five commonly used staphylococcal reference genes (gyrB, sodA, recA, tuf and rpoB) were systematically evaluated in two clinical isolates of Staphylococcus capitis (S. capitis subspecies urealyticus and capitis, respectively) under erythromycin stress in mid-log and stationary phases. Two public software programs (geNorm and NormFinder) and two manual calculation methods, reference residue normalization (RRN) and relative quantitative (RQ), were applied. The potential reference genes selected by the four algorithms were further validated by comparing the expression of a well-studied biofilm gene (icaA) with phenotypic biofilm formation in S. capitis under four different experimental conditions. The four methods differed considerably in their ability to predict the most suitable reference gene or gene combination for comparing icaA expression under different conditions. Under the conditions used here, the RQ method provided better selection of reference genes than the other three algorithms; however, this finding needs to be confirmed with a larger number of isolates. This study reinforces the need to assess the stability of reference genes for analysis of target gene expression under different conditions and the use of more than one algorithm in such studies. Although this work was conducted using a specific human pathogen, it emphasizes the importance of selecting suitable reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression more generally.

  15. 77 FR 37472 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Workshop To Discuss Implementing Incorporation by Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... community and the standards developing organizations about the legal, practical, financial and policy... Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Request for information and notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: This notice... consensus standards by reference into its regulations unless those standards have been made available free...

  16. Overview of HBV whole genome data in public repositories and the Chinese HBV reference sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The number of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) whole genomic sequences in public nucleotide databases (GenBank, EMBL, and DDBJ) had reached 866 by January 1, 2007. Coming from 46 countries and regions, these sequences were categorized as eight genotypes (A-H). With the statistical and phylogenetic analysis on all available complete genomic data of HBV, we here present an overview of HBV sequences in public databases. From all registered 229 HBV genomes in Chinese regions as well as 59 sequencing data from our research group, we report the establishment of reference sequences of HBV strains prevailing in China. These analyses provide clues for the effects of HBV genotypes in host clinical progressions, geographic distribution of the infection, and the viral evolutionary history. Moreover, the viral sequence reference would be helpful in the identification of various HBV mutations. Based on the analysis of various public databases,we suggest that the Chinese HBV database with the clinical information should be constructed.

  17. Performance of transmit-reference radio system in frequency-selective fading channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jing; Haartsen, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Noise-based Transmit-Reference (TR) radio system is a simple and practical candidate for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication applications. This paper evaluates the performance of the Transmit-Reference radio system in a frequency-selective fading channel by theoretical analysis and computer

  18. Recruiter Perceptions of Information that Employment References Should Provide to Assist in Making Selection Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evuleocha, Stevina U.; Ugbah, Steve D.; Law, Sweety

    2009-01-01

    Authors investigated perceptions of campus recruiters (N = 168) in the San Francisco Bay Area regarding the importance of 15 types of information they solicit from job applicants' references in making selection decisions. Results suggest campus recruiters should consider 10 types of information to assist them in making selection decisions. Results…

  19. Reliable Selection and Holistic Stability Evaluation of Reference Genes for Rice Under 22 Different Experimental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohai; Wang, Ya; Yang, Jing; Hu, Keke; An, Baoguang; Deng, Xiaolong; Li, Yangsheng

    2016-07-01

    Stable and uniform expression of reference genes across samples plays a key role in accurate normalization of gene expression by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). For rice study, there is still a lack of validation and recommendation of appropriate reference genes with high stability depending on experimental conditions. Eleven candidate reference genes potentially owning high stability were evaluated by geNorm and NormFinder for their expression stability in 22 various experimental conditions. Best combinations of multiple reference genes were recommended depending on experimental conditions, and the holistic stability of reference genes was also evaluated. Reference genes would become more variable and thus needed to be critically selected in experimental groups of tissues, heat, 6-benzylamino purine, and drought, but they were comparatively stable under cold, wound, and ultraviolet-B stresses. Triosephosphate isomerase (TI), profilin-2 (Profilin-2), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC), endothelial differentiation factor (Edf), and ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) were stable in most of our experimental conditions. No universal reference gene showed good stability in all experimental conditions. To get accurate expression result, suitable combination of multiple reference genes for a specific experimental condition would be a better choice. This study provided an application guideline to select stable reference genes for rice gene expression study.

  20. Public versus Private: Evidence on Health Insurance Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Cristian; Schott, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    This paper models health insurance choice in Chile (public versus private) as a dynamic, stochastic process, where individuals consider premiums, expected out-of pocket costs, personal characteristics and preferences. Insurance amenities and restrictions against pre-existing conditions among private insurers introduce asymmetry to the model. We confirm that the public system services a less healthy and wealthy population (adverse selection for public insurance). Simulation of choices over time predicts a slight crowding out of private insurance only for the most pessimistic scenario in terms of population aging and the evolution of education. Eliminating the restrictions on pre-existing conditions would slightly ameliorate the level (but not the trend) of the disproportionate accumulation of less healthy individuals in the public insurance program over time. PMID:22374192

  1. Valuation in the Public Sector. Reference Factor in a Credible and Fair Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela DEACONU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Public administration reform aims at the transformation of public institutions in business entities in which the principles that govern them are very close to the ones from the sphere of pri- vate entities. Public valuation is an accepted and implemented concept in public administration as a condition for ensuring complete, accurate and transparent images of available resources and their use. The present research determines through an empirical approach the regulation convergence of valuation in the public sector and presents its determinant factors and effects. The referentials subject to comparative analysis are International Valuation Standards (IVS, the last two editions, and International Public Sector Ac- counting Standards (IPSAS.The findings highlight the achievement of the objective of accounting and valuation stan- dard setters, IPSASB and IVSC, with regard to the convergence of valuation concepts and tools, in its last edition from 2011; however, the findings indicate certain differences regarding the guidance extent and the reference to mar- kets and atypical cases triggered by the global economic crisis. Our research has further found that the public accounting referential is closer to IVS 2011 than to IVS 2007 in what concerns disclosure requirements. This is in favor of the requirements imposed by the current economic environment regarding financial reporting, name- ly to provide more detail on the process of value estimation, the hypotheses and predictions used in this respect, and the risk of change of the es- timated value. 

  2. Bibliography of selected references on the effects of coal mine pollutants on aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, T F; Daniels, L K; Olsen, R D; Johnson, D O

    1979-12-01

    This bibliography contains more than 1400 references dealing with field and laboratory research on potential toxicities and disturbances known or postulated to be caused by pollutants found in coal mine effluents. The first of the three sections into which the bibliography is divided contains a select list of published bibliographies and literature reviews. In the second section are references on mine drainage studies, general references on environmental pollutants, and references dealing with two or more specific parameters. The third section includes references for 40 parameters under individual parameter headings. The multi parameter references in the second section are therefore also listed in the third section under individual headings. An author index is also provided.

  3. Reference gene selection for qRT-PCR analysis in the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rumei; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Yang, Nina; Yang, Xin; Pan, Huipeng; Zhou, Xiaomao; Bai, Lianyang; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of gene expression requires normalization relative to the expression of reliable reference genes. Expression levels of "classical" reference genes can differ, however, across experimental conditions. Although quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) has been used extensively to decipher gene function in the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a world-wide pest in many agricultural systems, the stability of its reference genes has rarely been validated. In this study, 15 candidate reference genes from B. tabaci were evaluated using two Excel-based algorithms geNorm and Normfinder under a diverse set of biotic and abiotic conditions. At least two reference genes were selected to normalize gene expressions in B. tabaci under experimental conditions. Specifically, for biotic conditions including host plant, acquisition of a plant virus, developmental stage, tissue (body region of the adult), and whitefly biotype, ribosomal protein L29 was the most stable reference gene. In contrast, the expression of elongation factor 1 alpha, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A and heat shock protein 40 were consistently stable across various abiotic conditions including photoperiod, temperature, and insecticide susceptibility. Our finding is the first step toward establishing a standardized quantitative real-time PCR procedure following the MIQE (Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative real time PCR Experiments) guideline in an agriculturally important insect pest, and provides a solid foundation for future RNA interference based functional study in B. tabaci.

  4. Reference gene selection for qRT-PCR analysis in the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumei Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate evaluation of gene expression requires normalization relative to the expression of reliable reference genes. Expression levels of "classical" reference genes can differ, however, across experimental conditions. Although quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR has been used extensively to decipher gene function in the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a world-wide pest in many agricultural systems, the stability of its reference genes has rarely been validated. RESULTS: In this study, 15 candidate reference genes from B. tabaci were evaluated using two Excel-based algorithms geNorm and Normfinder under a diverse set of biotic and abiotic conditions. At least two reference genes were selected to normalize gene expressions in B. tabaci under experimental conditions. Specifically, for biotic conditions including host plant, acquisition of a plant virus, developmental stage, tissue (body region of the adult, and whitefly biotype, ribosomal protein L29 was the most stable reference gene. In contrast, the expression of elongation factor 1 alpha, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A and heat shock protein 40 were consistently stable across various abiotic conditions including photoperiod, temperature, and insecticide susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our finding is the first step toward establishing a standardized quantitative real-time PCR procedure following the MIQE (Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative real time PCR Experiments guideline in an agriculturally important insect pest, and provides a solid foundation for future RNA interference based functional study in B. tabaci.

  5. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin C. Hudson-Lamb; Johan P. Schoeman; Emma H. Hooijberg; Sonja K. Heinrich; Tordiffe, Adrian S. W.

    2016-01-01

    Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivit...

  6. Effect of reference point selection on microscopic stress measurement using EBSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, Yoshiki, E-mail: mikami@mapse.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Oda, Kazuo [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kamaya, Masayuki [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., 64 Sata, Mihama-cho, Mikata-gun, Fukui 919-1205 (Japan); Mochizuki, Masahito [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-10-28

    It is important to evaluate microscopic stress distributions on the order of the grain size to clarify the deformation and fracture behavior of structural materials. In this study, the microscopic stress distribution of coarse-grained austenitic stainless steel during tensile testing was measured using a method that employs cross-correlation of the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) pattern, and the effect of the reference point selection on the measured stress was investigated. First, parameters that characterize the quality of the EBSD pattern measurement—namely, the image quality (IQ), confidence index (CI), and Fit—and the parameter that corresponds to the extent of the plastic deformation—the kernel average misorientation (KAM)—were used to determine the reference point. It was confirmed that the value of the microscopic stress measured using the EBSD-based approach is relative to the value of the stress state of the reference point. Second, multiple reference points were determined within a grain by considering only the location, and the stress distribution in the grain was evaluated using each of the reference points. The deviation of the measured stress was calculated from the averaged value for all the measured results using a certain reference point, and its relationship to parameters such as the IQ, CI, Fit, and KAM of the reference point used was investigated. It was demonstrated that the choice of parameters did not significantly affect the evaluation of the relative stress distribution within a grain. The results of this study therefore show that the selection of the reference point does not affect the measured stress distribution, as long as the evaluation is limited to the relative stress within a grain for the selected reference point.

  7. Genome-wide selection of superior reference genes for expression studies in Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhichao; Xu, Jiang; Ji, Aijia; Zhu, Yingjie; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Yuanlei; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used for the accurate analysis of gene expression. However, high homology among gene families might result in unsuitability of reference genes, which leads to the inaccuracy of qRT-PCR analysis. The release of the Ganoderma lucidum genome has triggered numerous studies to be done on the homology among gene families with the purpose of selecting reliable reference genes. Based on the G. lucdum genome and transcriptome database, 38 candidate reference genes including 28 novel genes were systematically selected and evaluated for qRT-PCR normalization. The result indicated that commonly used polyubiquitin (PUB), beta-actin (BAT), and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were unsuitable reference genes because of the high sequence similarity and low primer specificity. According to the evaluation of RefFinder, cyclophilin 5 (CYP5) was ranked as the most stable reference gene for 27 tested samples under all experimental conditions and eighteen mycelial samples. Based on sequence analysis and expression analysis, our study suggested that gene characteristic, primer specificity of high homologous genes, allele-specificity expression of candidate genes and under-evaluation of reference genes influenced the accuracy and sensitivity of qRT-PCR analysis. This investigation not only revealed potential factors influencing the unsuitability of reference genes but also selected the superior reference genes from more candidate genes and testing samples than those used in the previous study. Furthermore, our study established a model for reference gene analysis by using the genomic sequence.

  8. The value of cows in reference populations for genomic selection of new functional traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Line Hjortø; Kargo, Morten; Berg, Peer;

    2012-01-01

    Today, almost all reference populations consist of progeny tested bulls. However, older progeny tested bulls do not have reliable estimated breeding values (EBV) for new traits. Thus, to be able to select for these new traits, it is necessary to build a reference population. We used a deterministic...... prediction model to test the hypothesis that the value of cows in reference populations depends on the availability of phenotypic records. To test the hypothesis, we investigated different strategies of building a reference population for a new functional trait over a 10-year period. The trait was either...... recorded on a large scale (30 000 cows per year) or on a small scale (2000 cows per year). For large-scale recording, we compared four scenarios where the reference population consisted of 30 sires; 30 sires and 170 test bulls; 30 sires and 2000 cows; or 30 sires, 2000 cows and 170 test bulls in the first...

  9. Calibration of radiographs by a reference metal ball affects preoperative selection of implant size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schropp, Lars; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Gotfredsen, Erik; Wenzel, Ann

    2009-12-01

    The aim was to evaluate the impact of a reference ball for calibration of periapical and panoramic radiographs on preoperative selection of implant size for three implant systems. Presurgical digital radiographs (70 panoramic, 43 periapical) from 70 patients scheduled for single-tooth implant treatment, recorded with a metal ball placed in the edentulous area, were evaluated by three observers with the intent to select the appropriate implant size. Four reference marks corresponding to the margins of the metal ball were manually placed on the digital image by means of computer software. Additionally, an implant with proper dimensions for the respective site was outlined by manually placing four reference marks. The diameter of the metal ball and the unadjusted length and width of the implant were calculated. Implant size was adjusted according to a "standard" calibration method (SCM; magnification factor 1.25 in panoramic images and 1.05 in periapical images) and according to a reference ball calibration method (RCM; true magnification). Based on the unadjusted as well as the adjusted implant dimensions, the implant size was selected among those available in a given implant system. For periapical radiographs, when comparing SCM and RCM with unadjusted implant dimensions, implant size changed in 42% and 58%, respectively. When comparing SCM and RCM, implant size changed in 24%. For panoramic radiographs, comparing SCM and RCM changed implant size in 48%. The use of a reference metal ball for calibration of periapical and panoramic radiographs when selecting implant size during treatment planning might be advantageous.

  10. Selecting Large Portfolios of Social Projects in Public Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Litvinchev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the portfolio selection of social projects in public organizations considering interdependencies (synergies affecting project funds requirements and tasks. A mixed integer linear programming model is proposed incorporating the most relevant aspects of the problem found in the literature. The model supports both complete (all or nothing and partial (a certain amount from a given interval of funding resource allocation policies. Numerical results for large-scale problem instances are presented.

  11. Role of orientation reference selection in motion sickness, supplement 2S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Black, F. Owen

    1987-01-01

    Previous experiments with moving platform posturography have shown that different people have varying abilities to resolve conflicts among vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive sensory signals. The conceptual basis of the present proposal hinges on the similarities between the space motion sickness problem and the sensory orientation reference selection problems associated with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) syndrome. These similarities include both etiology related to abnormal vertical canal-otolith function, and motion sickness initiating events provoked by pitch and roll head movements. The objectives are to explore and quantify the orientation reference selection abilities of subjects and the relation of this selection to motion sickness in humans. The overall objectives are to determine: if motion sickness susceptibility is related to sensory orientation reference selection abilities of subjects; if abnormal vertical canal-otolith function is the source of abnormal posture control strategies and if it can be quantified by vestibular and oculomotor reflex measurements, and if it can be quantified by vestibular and oculomotor reflex measurements; and quantifiable measures of perception of vestibular and visual motion cues can be related to motion sickness susceptibility and to orientation reference selection ability.

  12. Decision support for the selection of reference sites using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Arata

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The classical approach of using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer is based on the comparison between stable reference sites and sites affected by soil redistribution processes; it enables the derivation of soil erosion and deposition rates. The method is associated with potentially large sources of uncertainty with major parts of this uncertainty being associated with the selection of the reference sites. We propose a decision support tool to Check the Suitability of reference Sites (CheSS. Commonly, the variation among 137Cs inventories of spatial replicate reference samples is taken as the sole criterion to decide on the suitability of a reference inventory. Here we propose an extension of this procedure using a repeated sampling approach, in which the reference sites are resampled after a certain time period. Suitable reference sites are expected to present no significant temporal variation in their decay-corrected 137Cs depth profiles. Possible causes of variation are assessed by a decision tree. More specifically, the decision tree tests for (i uncertainty connected to small-scale variability in 137Cs due to its heterogeneous initial fallout (such as in areas affected by the Chernobyl fallout, (ii signs of erosion or deposition processes and (iii artefacts due to the collection, preparation and measurement of the samples; (iv finally, if none of the above can be assigned, this variation might be attributed to turbation processes (e.g. bioturbation, cryoturbation and mechanical turbation, such as avalanches or rockfalls. CheSS was exemplarily applied in one Swiss alpine valley where the apparent temporal variability called into question the suitability of the selected reference sites. In general we suggest the application of CheSS as a first step towards a comprehensible approach to test for the suitability of reference sites.

  13. Decision support for the selection of reference sites using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bürge, Alexandra; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2017-08-01

    The classical approach of using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer is based on the comparison between stable reference sites and sites affected by soil redistribution processes; it enables the derivation of soil erosion and deposition rates. The method is associated with potentially large sources of uncertainty with major parts of this uncertainty being associated with the selection of the reference sites. We propose a decision support tool to Check the Suitability of reference Sites (CheSS). Commonly, the variation among 137Cs inventories of spatial replicate reference samples is taken as the sole criterion to decide on the suitability of a reference inventory. Here we propose an extension of this procedure using a repeated sampling approach, in which the reference sites are resampled after a certain time period. Suitable reference sites are expected to present no significant temporal variation in their decay-corrected 137Cs depth profiles. Possible causes of variation are assessed by a decision tree. More specifically, the decision tree tests for (i) uncertainty connected to small-scale variability in 137Cs due to its heterogeneous initial fallout (such as in areas affected by the Chernobyl fallout), (ii) signs of erosion or deposition processes and (iii) artefacts due to the collection, preparation and measurement of the samples; (iv) finally, if none of the above can be assigned, this variation might be attributed to turbation processes (e.g. bioturbation, cryoturbation and mechanical turbation, such as avalanches or rockfalls). CheSS was exemplarily applied in one Swiss alpine valley where the apparent temporal variability called into question the suitability of the selected reference sites. In general we suggest the application of CheSS as a first step towards a comprehensible approach to test for the suitability of reference sites.

  14. Historical Origins of Information Behavior Research by Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Soheili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using a quantitative method named reference publication year spectroscopy (RPYS, this research tried to determine the historical roots of information behavior research. RPYS pave the way for determining the significant years and works in information behavior. Methodology: Using scientometric method, the initial data of this study, have been extracted from the Web of Science. Using RPYS software, the revised data were analyzed and visualized in Excel. Finding: The distribution of cited references in information behavior revealed three peaks within 19th century. Moreover, our analysis identified 6 peaks between 1900 to 1969 in the field of information behavior, respectively in 1948, 1954, 1957, 1960, 1965, and 1967 has occurred. Results: Based on the study findings, it seems that information behavior research has been shaped intellectually by fields such as Psychology, quantitative and qualitative methodologies, etc. Additionally, it has been influenced by some theories and theoretical works.

  15. The Paranormal: A Selected Bibliography of Serials and Reference Works, with Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    Provides bibliography of references and serials to assist acquisitions librarians in selection of the paranormal. Topics include alchemy, astrology, magic, conjuring, witchcraft, paganism, demonology, satanism, voodooism, sorcery, cults, shamanism, UFOs, exobiology, curious physical and biological phenomena, ghosts, poltergeists, haunted places,…

  16. Layout Geometry in the Selection of Intrinsic Frames of Reference from Multiple Viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Weimin; Zhao, Mintao; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the roles of layout geometry in the selection of intrinsic frames of reference in spatial memory. Participants learned the locations of objects in a room from 2 or 3 viewing perspectives. One view corresponded to the axis of bilateral symmetry of the layout, and the other view(s) was (were) nonorthogonal to the axis…

  17. Word learning emerges from the interaction of online referent selection and slow associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Bob; Horst, Jessica S; Samuelson, Larissa K

    2012-10-01

    Classic approaches to word learning emphasize referential ambiguity: In naming situations, a novel word could refer to many possible objects, properties, actions, and so forth. To solve this, researchers have posited constraints, and inference strategies, but assume that determining the referent of a novel word is isomorphic to learning. We present an alternative in which referent selection is an online process and independent of long-term learning. We illustrate this theoretical approach with a dynamic associative model in which referent selection emerges from real-time competition between referents and learning is associative (Hebbian). This model accounts for a range of findings including the differences in expressive and receptive vocabulary, cross-situational learning under high degrees of ambiguity, accelerating (vocabulary explosion) and decelerating (power law) learning, fast mapping by mutual exclusivity (and differences in bilinguals), improvements in familiar word recognition with development, and correlations between speed of processing and learning. Together it suggests that (a) association learning buttressed by dynamic competition can account for much of the literature; (b) familiar word recognition is subserved by the same processes that identify the referents of novel words (fast mapping); (c) online competition may allow the children to leverage information available in the task to augment performance despite slow learning; (d) in complex systems, associative learning is highly multifaceted; and (e) learning and referent selection, though logically distinct, can be subtly related. It suggests more sophisticated ways of describing the interaction between situation- and developmental-time processes and points to the need for considering such interactions as a primary determinant of development.

  18. Manual of References, Creating Tables and Figures in Scholarly Publications: APA 6 Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Akkaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One precondition of contribution of a discipline to its field, to the scientific word in general and to the entire humankind is producing qualified scientific publications in the related field or discipline. National and international standard(s provided for citing and referencing tables and figures, in addition to the content (and context of the scientific publications might provide the relevant publication to be more widely and correctly read and reviewed. This study deals with adaptation of the latest edition of the American Psychological Association (APA rules. This book, where the APA rules -already a universal authority in citing and referencing- are enriched with specific examples for every type of information source, is a basic reference source after Prof. Dr. S. Kurbanoğlu’s “Kaynak Gösterme El Kitabı” (Referencing Handbook in 2004 that can be implemented not only to the Information and Records Management field, but to the whole scientific world. The meaning and importance of the work of Şencan and Doğan, is much more profound in our country where along with the quality of the scientific publications, the stylistic compatibility with the scientific criteria is also very often questioned.

  19. A selection model for accounting for publication bias in a full network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Dimitris; Welton, Nicky J; Sutton, Alex; Salanti, Georgia

    2014-12-30

    Copas and Shi suggested a selection model to explore the potential impact of publication bias via sensitivity analysis based on assumptions for the probability of publication of trials conditional on the precision of their results. Chootrakool et al. extended this model to three-arm trials but did not fully account for the implications of the consistency assumption, and their model is difficult to generalize for complex network structures with more than three treatments. Fitting these selection models within a frequentist setting requires maximization of a complex likelihood function, and identification problems are common. We have previously presented a Bayesian implementation of the selection model when multiple treatments are compared with a common reference treatment. We now present a general model suitable for complex, full network meta-analysis that accounts for consistency when adjusting results for publication bias. We developed a design-by-treatment selection model to describe the mechanism by which studies with different designs (sets of treatments compared in a trial) and precision may be selected for publication. We fit the model in a Bayesian setting because it avoids the numerical problems encountered in the frequentist setting, it is generalizable with respect to the number of treatments and study arms, and it provides a flexible framework for sensitivity analysis using external knowledge. Our model accounts for the additional uncertainty arising from publication bias more successfully compared to the standard Copas model or its previous extensions. We illustrate the methodology using a published triangular network for the failure of vascular graft or arterial patency.

  20. Pollution: A Selected Bibliography of U.S. Government Publications on Air, Water, and Land Pollution 1965-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraldi, Louis, Comp.; Burk, Janet L., Comp.

    Materials on environmental pollution published by the various offices of the federal government are presented in this select bibliography. Limited in scope to publications on air, water, and land pollution, the document is designed to serve teachers and researchers working in the field of environmental problems who wish reference to public…

  1. Nation Binding: How Public Service Broadcasting Mitigates Political Selective Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bos

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that more and more citizens select news and information that is congruent with their existing political preferences. This increase in political selective exposure (PSE has allegedly led to an increase in polarization. The vast majority of studies stem from the US case with a particular media and political system. We contend that there are good reasons to believe PSE is less prevalent in other systems. We test this using latent profile analysis with national survey data from the Netherlands (n = 2,833. We identify four types of media use profiles and indeed only find partial evidence of PSE. In particular, we find that public broadcasting news cross-cuts all cleavages. This research note offers an important antidote in what is considered a universal phenomenon. We do find, however, a relatively large segment of citizens opting out of news consumption despite the readily available news in today's media landscape.

  2. Nation Binding: How Public Service Broadcasting Mitigates Political Selective Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Linda; Kruikemeier, Sanne; de Vreese, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that more and more citizens select news and information that is congruent with their existing political preferences. This increase in political selective exposure (PSE) has allegedly led to an increase in polarization. The vast majority of studies stem from the US case with a particular media and political system. We contend that there are good reasons to believe PSE is less prevalent in other systems. We test this using latent profile analysis with national survey data from the Netherlands (n = 2,833). We identify four types of media use profiles and indeed only find partial evidence of PSE. In particular, we find that public broadcasting news cross-cuts all cleavages. This research note offers an important antidote in what is considered a universal phenomenon. We do find, however, a relatively large segment of citizens opting out of news consumption despite the readily available news in today's media landscape.

  3. A Selected and Annotated Guide to Business Reference Sources in the University of Cincinnati Libraries. Reference List in Business and Economics No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Wahib, Comp.

    This selected, annotated list of business information and reference sources in the University of Cincinnati Libraries includes literature guides, bibliographies, indexing and abstracting services, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, biographical sources, directories, legislative and administrative regulation sources, financial sources, fact…

  4. Perturbative universal state-selective correction for state-specific multi-reference coupled cluster methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabec, Jiri; Banik, Subrata; Kowalski, Karol; Pittner, Jiří

    2016-10-28

    The implementation details of the universal state-selective (USS) multi-reference coupled cluster (MRCC) formalism with singles and doubles (USS(2)) are discussed on the example of several benchmark systems. We demonstrate that the USS(2) formalism is capable of improving accuracies of state specific multi-reference coupled-cluster (MRCC) methods based on the Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee’s sufficiency conditions. Additionally, it is shown that the USS(2) approach significantly alleviates problems associated with the lack of invariance of MRCC theories upon the rotation of active orbitals. We also discuss the perturbative USS(2) formulations that significantly reduce numerical overhead of the full USS(2) method.

  5. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; de Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C B; Van Dijk, Jeroen P; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3) and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A). According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples.

  6. Selection of Reference Genes for Transcriptional Analysis of Edible Tubers of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhuijzen, Marleen M.; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C. B.; Van Dijk, Jeroen P.; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3) and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A). According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples. PMID:25830330

  7. Financial statistics of selected publicly owned electric utilities 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-06

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues. 21 tabs.

  8. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    CERN Document Server

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Eckerman, Keith F; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-01-01

    ICRP Publication 116 on `Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures', provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantit...

  9. 33 CFR 137.15 - References: Where can I get a copy of the publication mentioned in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-OWNER DEFENSE Introduction § 137.15 References: Where can I get a copy of the publication mentioned in... inspection at the Coast Guard National Pollution Funds Center, Law Library, 4200 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1000...

  10. Word learning emerges from the interaction of online referent selection and slow associative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Bob; Horst, Jessica S.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2013-01-01

    Classic approaches to word learning emphasize the problem of referential ambiguity: in any naming situation the referent of a novel word must be selected from many possible objects, properties, actions, etc. To solve this problem, researchers have posited numerous constraints, and inference strategies, but assume that determining the referent of a novel word is isomorphic to learning. We present an alternative model in which referent selection is an online process that is independent of long-term learning. This two timescale approach creates significant power in the developing system. We illustrate this with a dynamic associative model in which referent selection is simulated as dynamic competition between competing referents, and learning is simulated using associative (Hebbian) learning. This model can account for a range of findings including the delay in expressive vocabulary relative to receptive vocabulary, learning under high degrees of referential ambiguity using cross-situational statistics, accelerating (vocabulary explosion) and decelerating (power-law) learning rates, fast-mapping by mutual exclusivity (and differences in bilinguals), improvements in familiar word recognition with development, and correlations between individual differences in speed of processing and learning. Five theoretical points are illustrated. 1) Word learning does not require specialized processes – general association learning buttressed by dynamic competition can account for much of the literature. 2) The processes of recognizing familiar words are not different than those that support novel words (e.g., fast-mapping). 3) Online competition may allow the network (or child) to leverage information available in the task to augment performance or behavior despite what might be relatively slow learning or poor representations. 4) Even associative learning is more complex than previously thought – a major contributor to performance is the pruning of incorrect associations

  11. Research on reference nodes placement and selection of ubiquitous computing locating service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hai; SUN Peigang; ZHANG Wenbo; YIN Zhenyu; ZHAO Ming

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining the location of an unknown node accurately is a key problem of a locating service under a ubiquitous computing environment.The paper proposes and proves three theorems of location reference node placement according to the analysis of the location error produced during location using a polygon location method and three important characteristics of chaos dynamics.Based on the three theorems,the location reference node selection(LRNS)algorithm is proposed by improving on the traditional polygon location algorithm.The simulation results indicate that the reference node placement theorems and the LRNS algorithm can meet the requirements of a ubiquitous terminal's real-time location and possess a preferable precision in location.

  12. Analytic Study of Grid Star and Reference Star Selection for the Space Interferometry Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, A

    2001-01-01

    Grid stars and reference stars provide the fundamental global and local astrometric reference frames for observations by the Space Interferometry Mission. They must therefore be astrometrically stable at the ~1 uas level. I present simple formulae in closed form to estimate contamination of these frames by motions due to stellar companions that go undetected in a radial-velocity (RV) survey of specified precision. The contamination rate depends almost entirely on the binary-period distribution function and not on the details of the mass or eccentricity distributions. Screening by a modest RV survey (sigma_{rv}=50m/s) can reduce the fraction of grid stars having detectable unmodeled accelerations to <<1%. Reference star selection promises to be much more challenging, partly because the requirements of astrometric stability are more severe and partly because the required density of sources is about 100 times higher, which latter implies that less satisfactory candidates will have to be accepted. The tools...

  13. Reference Station Selection for Improved Geometric Spacing During Baseline Processing in OPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kevin; Weston, Neil

    2013-04-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) designed, implemented and continues to operate a web-based GPS processing tool known as the Online Positioning User Service (OPUS). There are several versions of OPUS in operation, mainly because no one algorithm is optimized to process GPS data collected between 15 minutes and 48 hours. For short duration datasets, NGS designed OPUS Rapid Static (OPUS-RS), a version that uses up to nine CORS located nearby to interpolate the ionosphere around the rover. OPUS Static (OPUS-S) on the other hand, is one of the most heavily used versions of OPUS and processes datasets that span between two and 48 hours in duration. OPUS-S chooses five nearby CORS to form individual baselines with the rover and then each is processed independently. The latest version of OPUS to be presented here is OPUS Networks (OPUS-Net) and is currently in beta testing. OPUS-Net selects up to 10 IGS reference stations and three regional CORS to perform a simultaneous least squares adjustment with the rover dataset. For OPUS-Net, the three CORS are primarily used to better estimate the troposphere while the position of the unknown station and the three CORS are determined from the more precisely known and monitored IGS reference stations. All versions of OPUS require sets of baselines between the rover and reference stations which have known positions and velocities. Because of the nature of atmospheric corrections during relative positioning, evenly-spaced geometric distribution will result in the most stable and reliable solutions. We have developed an algorithm to choose reference stations with the best geometric distribution at a given location. Rather than selecting the stations by distance, the new algorithm builds station lists by azimuth groups (zones) and selects the closest station in a zone. The process is repeated until a predefined number of stations have been selected in each zone. Also, additional functionality has been added for the operational

  14. Reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Mattos, Bianca Chaim; Russ, Heloisa Helena Abil

    2006-01-01

    To perform selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in healthy ferrets with the aim of establishing normal physiological reference values for this species. A total of 15 healthy, unrelated ferrets were used to test most of the parameters in this investigation. Eight of the 15 ferrets were used for central corneal thickness evaluation. Ages varied from 1.5 to 6 years of age. Selected diagnostic ocular tests were performed including Schirmer tear test, tonometry using an applanation tonometer (Tonopen), central corneal thickness using an ultrasonic pachymeter (Sonomed, Micropach, Model 200P +) and culture of the normal conjunctival bacterial flora. Staphylococcus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. were isolated from healthy conjunctival and eyelid margins, suggesting they are normal constituents of the conjunctival flora of the ferret. Results for selected ocular diagnostic tests investigated here for the ferret eye were as follows: intraocular pressure: 14.50 +/- 3.27 mmHg; Schirmer tear test: 5.31 +/- 1.32 mm/min; central corneal thickness: 0.337 +/- 0.020 mm. No statistically significant differences between ages or genders were found for any of the results. The reference data for the ocular tests obtained in this investigation will help veterinary ophthalmologists to more accurately diagnose ocular diseases in the ferret. Knowledge of these reference values will be particularly useful to diagnose discrete or unusual pathological changes of the ferret eye.

  15. Accuracy of Answers Provided by Digital/Face-to-Face Reference Services in Japanese Public Libraries and Q & A Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Keita; To, Haruna; Hara, Atsuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We asked the same 60 questions using DRS (digital reference services) in Japanese public libraries, face-to-face reference services and Q & A (question and answer) sites. It was found that: (1) The correct answer ratio of DRS is higher than that of Q & A sites; (2) DRS takes longer to provide answers as compared to Q & A sites; and (3)…

  16. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies on Rhododendron molle G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xiao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR approach has become a widely used method to analyze expression patterns of target genes. The selection of an optimal reference gene is a prerequisite for the accurate normalization of gene expression in qRT-PCR. The present study constitutes the first systematic evaluation of potential reference genes in Rhododendron molle G. Don. Eleven candidate reference genes in different tissues and flowers at different developmental stages of R. molle were assessed using the following three software packages: GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The results showed that EF1-α (elongation factor 1-alpha, 18S (18s ribosomal RNA and RPL3 (ribosomal protein L3 were the most stable reference genes in developing rhododendron flowers and, thus, in all of the tested samples, while tublin (TUB was the least stable. ACT5 (actin, RPL3, 18S and EF1-α were found to be the top four choices for different tissues, whereas TUB was not found to favor qRT-PCR normalization in these tissues. Three stable reference genes are recommended for the normalization of qRT-PCR data in R. molle. Furthermore, the expression profiles of RmPSY (phytoene synthase and RmPDS (phytoene dehydrogenase were assessed using EF1-α, 18S, ACT5, and RPL3 and their combination as internals. Similar trends were found, but these trends varied when the least stable reference gene TUB was used. The results further prove that it is necessary to validate the stability of reference genes prior to their use for normalization under different experimental conditions. This study provides useful information for reliable qRT-PCR data normalization in gene studies of R. molle.

  17. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant Eremosparton songoricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eremosparton songoricum (Litv. Vass. (E. songoricum is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various E. songoricum plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions. EsEF and Esα-TUB were sufficient for various stress conditions, EsEF and EsACT were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and EsGAPDHand EsUBQ were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The Es18S gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor EsDREB2 verified the utility of E. songoricum reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in E. songoricum, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  18. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin C. Hudson-Lamb

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L – 166 mmol/L, potassium (3.9 mmol/L – 5.2 mmol/L, magnesium (0.8 mmol/L – 1.2 mmol/L, chloride (97 mmol/L – 130 mmol/L, urea (8.2 mmol/L – 25.1 mmol/L and creatinine (88 µmol/L – 288 µmol/L. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs.

  19. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Lamb, Gavin C; Schoeman, Johan P; Hooijberg, Emma H; Heinrich, Sonja K; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-02-26

    Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L - 166 mmol/L), potassium (3.9 mmol/L - 5.2 mmol/L), magnesium (0.8 mmol/L - 1.2 mmol/L), chloride (97 mmol/L - 130 mmol/L), urea (8.2 mmol/L - 25.1 mmol/L) and creatinine (88 µmol/L - 288 µmol/L). Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs.

  20. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Lamb, Gavin C; Schoeman, Johan P; Hooijberg, Emma H; Heinrich, Sonja K; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-02-26

    Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L - 166 mmol/L), potassium (3.9 mmol/L - 5.2 mmol/L), magnesium (0.8 mmol/L - 1.2 mmol/L), chloride (97 mmol/L - 130 mmol/L), urea (8.2 mmol/L - 25.1 mmol/L) and creatinine (88 µmol/L - 288 µmol/L). Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs.

  1. QoS Requirement Generation and Algorithm Selection for Composite Service Based on Reference Vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bang-Yu Wu; Chi-Hung Chi; Shi-Jie Xu; Ming Gu; Jia-Guang Sun

    2009-01-01

    Under SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture), composite service is formed by aggregating multiple component services together in a given workflow. One key criterion of this research topic is QoS composition. Most work on service composition mainly focuses on the algorithms about how to compose services according to assumed QoS, without considering where the required QoS comes from and the selection of user preferred composition algorithm among those with different computational cost and different selection results. In this paper, we propose to strengthen current service composition mechanism by generation of QoS requirement and its algorithm selection based on the QoS reference vectors which are calculated optimally from the existing individual services' QoS by registry to represent QoS overview about the best QoS,the worst (or most economical) QoS, or the average QoS of all composite services. To implement QoS requirement, which is determined according to QoS overview, this paper introduces two selection algorithms as two kinds of experiment examples,one aiming at the most accurate service selection and the other chasing for trade-off between selection cost and result.Experimental results show our mechanism can help the requester achieve his expected composite service with appropriate QoS requirement and customized selection algorithm.

  2. Selection of suitable endogenous reference genes for relative copy number detection in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bantong; Guo, Jinlong; Que, Youxiong; Fu, Zhiwei; Wu, Luguang; Xu, Liping

    2014-05-19

    Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM) crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential "single copy" genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3--high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1--medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2--low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane.

  3. Selection of Suitable Endogenous Reference Genes for Relative Copy Number Detection in Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bantong Xue

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential “single copy” genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3—high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1—medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2—low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane.

  4. Gender wage differences in the selected Czech public sector company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Hedija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of wage disparity between men and women belongs to the current and widely discussed topics. The attention given to this subject also reflects the fact that the issue of the equality between women and men and non-discrimination by gender is incorporated in the law of the European Union. A number of studies are devoted to the gender wage disparities and the root cause of wage differences in the Czech Republic, however, only few of these deal with the gender wage differentials in the public sector. It is exactly this issue, which is discussed in this article, its aim being to identify the extent of the gender pay gap in the selected Czech public sector company. The article concentrates on finding the main causes for the existence of wage differences between men and women and determining whether the company inclines to wage discrimination against women. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition is used to define, which part of the gender pay gap can be attributed to the different characteristics of men and women and which part stays unexplained. It is this unexplained part that can be the result of wage discrimination against women.

  5. Reference site selection report for the advanced liquid metal reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivill, R.L.

    1990-03-01

    This Reference Site Selection Report was prepared by EG G, Idaho Inc., for General Electric (GE) to provide information for use by the Department of Energy (DOE) in selecting a Safety Test Site for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor. Similar Evaluation studies are planned to be conducted at other potential DOE sites. The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) Concept was developed for ALMR by GE. A ALMR Safety Test is planned to be performed on a DOE site to demonstrate features and meet Nuclear Regulatory Commission Requirements. This study considered possible locations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory that met the ALMR Prototype Site Selection Methodology and Criteria. Four sites were identified, after further evaluation one site was eliminated. Each of the remaining three sites satisfied the criteria and was graded. The results were relatively close. Thus concluding that the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a suitable location for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Safety Test. 23 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. A crossbred reference population can improve the response to genomic selection for crossbred performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Bijma, Piter

    2015-01-01

    . Optimization of the GS model raises the question of whether marker effects should be estimated from data on the pure lines or crossbreds. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to compare response to selection of crossbreds by simulating a two-way crossbreeding program with either a purebred...... between quantitative trait loci (QTL) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can differ between breeds, which causes apparent effects of SNPs to be line-dependent. Thus, our second objective was to compare response to GS based on crossbred phenotypes when the line origin of alleles was taken...... into account or not in the estimation of breeding values. Results Training on crossbred animals yielded a larger response to selection in crossbred offspring compared to training on both pure lines separately or on both pure lines combined into a single reference population. Response to selection in crossbreds...

  7. Liver Rapid Reference Set Application: Hemken - Abbott (2015) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim for this testing is to find a small panel of biomarkers (n=2-5) that can be tested on the Abbott ARCHITECT automated immunoassay platform for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This panel of biomarkers should perform significantly better than alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) alone based on multivariate statistical analysis. This testing of the EDRN reference set will help expedite the selection of a small panel of ARCHITECT biomarkers for the early detection of HCC. The panel of ARCHITECT biomarkers Abbott plans to test include: AFP, protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II), golgi protein 73 (GP73), hepatocellular growth factor (HGF), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and DPP4/seprase (surface expressed protease) heterodimer hybrid. PIVKA-II is abnormal des-carboxylated prothrombin (DCP) present in vitamin K deficiency.

  8. Integrative medicine selects best practice from public health and biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence J Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of terms Integrated and Integrative are described variously by an amalgam of latest scientific advances with ancient healing systems, of complementary medicine and biomedicine, and sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. It means seamless good quality care between hospital and primary care. They provoke approval mostly from patients and disapproval mostly from advocates of science and evidence-based medicine. The Institute of Applied Dermatology in Kasaragod, Kerala, India has championed a mix of Biomedicine, Yoga and herbals from Ayurvedic medicine, partly based on publications from the Department of Dermatology of the University of Oxford. In Oxford dermatology, acceptance of value of integrative medicine (IM is demonstrated, especially in wound healing and the skin′s blood supply. This has long featured in the university′s research program. A variety of approaches to the practice of medicine are illustrated with reference to Osler, Garrod, and Doll. IM is believed to underlie contemporarily best practice. Particular emphasis is given to the control of heat, pain, redness, and swelling, all manifestations of inflammation, and the importance of emotion as a stimulus or inhibitor carried by neural pathways. These may explain some unbelievable Asian practices and one of the many roles of Yoga. The concept of Integrative is expanded to include care of the earth and nutrition, the hazards of climate change, Gardens for Health, do (k no (w harm as a key to good practice.

  9. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in bovine preimplantation embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Zeveren Alex

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time quantitative PCR is a sensitive and very efficient technique to examine gene transcription patterns in preimplantation embryos, in order to gain information about embryo development and to optimize assisted reproductive technologies. Critical to the succesful application of real-time PCR is careful assay design, reaction optimization and validation to maximize sensitivity and accuracy. In most of the studies published GAPD, ACTB or 18S rRNA have been used as a single reference gene without prior verification of their expression stability. Normalization of the data using unstable controls can result in erroneous conclusions, especially when only one reference gene is used. Results In this study the transcription levels of 8 commonly used reference genes (ACTB, GAPD, Histone H2A, TBP, HPRT1, SDHA, YWHAZ and 18S rRNA were determined at different preimplantation stages (2-cell, 8-cell, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst in order to select the most stable genes to normalize quantitative data within different preimplantation embryo stages. Conclusion Using the geNorm application YWHAZ, GAPD and SDHA were found to be the most stable genes across the examined embryonic stages, while the commonly used ACTB was shown to be highly regulated. We recommend the use of the geometric mean of those 3 reference genes as an accurate normalization factor, which allows small expression differences to be reliably measured.

  10. Selection of suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analyses in cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pinto

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic prokaryotes that have a diverse morphology, minimal nutritional requirements and metabolic plasticity that has made them attractive organisms to use in biotechnological applications. The use of these organisms as cell factories requires the knowledge of their physiology and metabolism at a systems level. For the quantification of gene transcripts real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is the standard technique. However, to obtain reliable RT-qPCR results the use and validation of reference genes is mandatory. Towards this goal we have selected and analyzed twelve candidate reference genes from three morphologically distinct cyanobacteria grown under routinely used laboratory conditions. The six genes exhibiting less variation in each organism were evaluated in terms of their expression stability using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In addition, the minimum number of reference genes required for normalization was determined. Based on the three algorithms, we provide a list of genes for cyanobacterial RT-qPCR data normalization. To our knowledge, this is the first work on the validation of reference genes for cyanobacteria constituting a valuable starting point for future works.

  11. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-time PCR in Sapium sebiferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum L. is a promising landscape and bioenergy plant. Measuring gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR can provide valuable information on gene function. Stably expressed reference genes for normalization are a prerequisite for ensuring the accuracy of the target gene expression level among different samples. However, the reference genes in Chinese tallow have not been systematically validated. In this study, 12 candidate reference genes (18S, GAPDH, UBQ, RPS15, SAND, TIP41, 60S, ACT7, PDF2, APT, TBP, and TUB were investigated with qRT-PCR in 18 samples, including those from different tissues, from plants treated with sucrose and cold stresses. The data were calculated with four common algorithms, geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and the delta cycle threshold (ΔCt. TIP41 and GAPDH were the most stable for the tissue-specific experiment, GAPDH and 60S for cold treatment, and GAPDH and UBQ for sucrose stresses, while the least stable genes were 60S, TIP41, and 18S respectively. The comprehensive results showed APT, GAPDH, and UBQ to be the top-ranked stable genes across all the samples. The stability of 60S was the lowest during all experiments. These selected reference genes were further validated by comparing the expression profiles of the chalcone synthase gene in Chinese tallow in different samples. The results will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in Chinese tallow.

  12. Reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Shaw, Gillian; Mattos, Bianca Chaim; Russ, Heloisa Helena Abil; Vilani, Ricardo G D'O C

    2008-01-01

    To perform selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in healthy capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with the aim of establishing normal physiological reference values for this species. A total of 15 healthy, capuchin monkeys were used to test most of the parameters in this investigation. Five of the 15 monkeys were used for the evaluation of normal conjunctival flora. Ages varied from 6 to 20 years of age. Selected diagnostic ocular tests were performed including Schirmer tear test (STT), tonometry using an applanation tonometer (Tonopen), central corneal thickness (CCT) using an ultrasonic pachymeter (Sonomed, Micropach), Model 200P+) and culture of the normal conjunctival bacterial flora. Results for selected ocular diagnostic tests investigated here for the capuchin monkey eye were as follows: IOP: 18.4 +/- 3.8 mmHg; STT: 14.9 +/- 5.1 mm/min; CCT: 0.46 +/- 0.03 mm. No statistically significant differences between ages or genders were found for any of the results. Streptococcus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. were isolated from healthy conjunctival and eyelid margins, suggesting they are normal constituents of the conjunctival flora of the capuchin monkey. The data obtained in this investigation will help veterinary ophthalmologists and laboratory animal medicine specialists to more accurately diagnose ocular diseases in the capuchin monkey. These ophthalmic reference values will be particularly useful to diagnose discrete or unusual pathological changes of the capuchin monkey eye.

  13. Which early works are cited most frequently in climate change research literature? A bibliometric approach based on Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Werner; Haunschild, Robin; Thor, Andreas; Bornmann, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    This bibliometric analysis focuses on the general history of climate change research and, more specifically, on the discovery of the greenhouse effect. First, the Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS) is applied to a large publication set on climate change of 222,060 papers published between 1980 and 2014. The references cited therein were extracted and analyzed with regard to publications, which are cited most frequently. Second, a new method for establishing a more subject-specific publication set for applying RPYS (based on the co-citations of a marker reference) is proposed (RPYS-CO). The RPYS of the climate change literature focuses on the history of climate change research in total. We identified 35 highly-cited publications across all disciplines, which include fundamental early scientific works of the nineteenth century (with a weak connection to climate change) and some cornerstones of science with a stronger connection to climate change. By using the Arrhenius (Philos Mag J Sci Ser 5(41):237-276, 1896) paper as a RPYS-CO marker paper, we selected only publications specifically discussing the discovery of the greenhouse effect and the role of carbon dioxide. Using different RPYS approaches in this study, we were able to identify the complete range of works of the celebrated icons as well as many less known works relevant for the history of climate change research. The analyses confirmed the potential of the RPYS method for historical studies: Seminal papers are detected on the basis of the references cited by the overall community without any further assumptions.

  14. Generic Screening Models for Assessing Exposures to the Public and ICRP Reference Animals and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankovich, Tamara L.; Proehl, Gerhard; Telleria, Diego [International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Berkovskyy, Volodymyr [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Institute (RPI), 53, Melnikova Street, 04050, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    With the update of the IAEA Fundamental Safety Principles (SF-1) stating the objective to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation, it has been necessary to update International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources and the underlying safety guides and technical documents to provide guidance on how this could be achieved in practice. The current paper provides an update on the status and plans to revise the IAEA Safety Report 'Generic Models for Use in Assessing the Impact of Discharges of Radioactive Substances to the Environment' (SRS 19) that was published in 2001. The models of SRS 19 (2001), which was focused on assessment of exposures to the public, is being expanded into three volumes that provide methodologies for screening assessments for the public, as well as for flora and fauna. The revised SRS 19 guide will ultimately facilitate the application of screening models for different levels of assessment using updated parameter values from database that have been developed as part of the IAEA's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) and EMRAS II international model validation programmes. The scope of the revised SRS 19 covers prospective screening assessment of doses to the representative person and Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs), and will provide simple and robust assessment methods for radiological assessment related to planning and design, applying a graded approach. Tabulated screening coefficients and environmental dilution factors will be included for 825 radionuclides. The screening coefficients are developed assuming equilibrium conditions; they can be used to assess radiological impacts arising from routine discharges of radionuclides to terrestrial and aquatic receptors for planned exposure situations. Volumes 1 and 2 of the revised SRS 19 are at an advanced stage of completion and are focused on 'Screening Assessment of Public

  15. Hepatic reference gene selection in adult and juvenile female Atlantic salmon at normal and elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Kelli C

    2012-01-01

    independently validate the results of reference gene selection programs. In addition, we have provided a reference point for those wishing to study the effects of thermal challenge and/or hormonal treatment on gene stability in Atlantic salmon and other teleost species.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A REFERENCE MODEL TO INTEGRATED DESIGN MANAGEMENT ON PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Andery

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims discussing the design process carried out in public institutions. Since there are different players in the design process, including designers, coordinators, bureaucratic managers, the design development brings some problems that come from the lack of a contracting and design development model, as well as in the information flow between its stakeholders. Rework, delays in contracts deadlines and low quality of the final product are not unusual. Due to the complexity of the design process, it has been searched in the process modeling a valid option to fulfill that blank. A Referential Term was developed by creating a work flow to the institution’s design process through the systematization of solutions developed by other researchers. The mentioned Term makes possible a clear understanding of the design process, leads to the definition of each player responsibilities, defines design phases, providing a general plan and establishing a detailed and integrated vision of the job made by every agent involved. The research was conducted by the implementation of this Term of reference in two Projects of the institution. It is briefly presented an analysis of main aspects of the implementation, highlighting the improvement of contractual relations between designers and the institution, reduction of design duration, improvement in the information flow, as well as a better collaborative environment.

  17. Estimated costs of advanced lung cancer care in a public reference hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knust, Renata Erthal; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Pereira, Claudia Cristina de Aguiar; Fortes, Guilherme Bastos

    2017-08-17

    To estimate the direct medical costs of advanced non-small cell lung cancer care. We assessed a cohort of 277 patients treated in the Brazilian National Cancer Institute in 2011. The costs were estimated from the perspective of the hospital as a service provider of reference for the Brazilian Unified Health System. The materials and procedures used were identified and quantified, per patient, and we assigned to them monetary values, consolidated in phases of the assistance defined. The analyses had a descriptive character with costs in Real (R$). Overall, the cohort represented a cost of R$2,473,559.91, being 71.5% related to outpatient care and 28.5% to hospitalizations. In the outpatient care, costs with radiotherapy (34%) and chemotherapy (22%) predominated. The results pointed to lower costs in the initial phase of treatment (7.2%) and very high costs in the maintenance phase (61.6%). Finally, we identified statistically significant differences of average cost by age groups, education levels, physical performance, and histological type. This study provides a current, useful, and relevant picture of the costs of patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated in a public hospital of reference and it provides information on the magnitude of the problem of cancer in the context of public health. The results confirm the importance of radiation treatment and hospitalizations as the main components of the cost of treatment. Despite some losses of follow-up, we assess that, for approximately 80% of the patients included in the study, the estimates presented herein are satisfactory for the care of the disease, from the perspective of a service provider of reference of the Brazilian Unified Health System, as it provides elements for the management of the service, as well as for studies that result in more rational forms of resource allocation. Estimar os custos médicos diretos da assistência ao câncer de pulmão não pequenas células avançado. Foi avaliada uma

  18. Respiratory motion correction of liver contrast-enhanced ultrasound sequences by selecting reference image automatically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Yan-Rong; Chen, Juan; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Zhong, Xiao-Li

    2017-03-01

    Objective: Respiratory motion correction is necessary to quantitative analysis of liver contrast-enhance ultrasound (CEUS) image sequences. However, traditionally manual selecting reference image would affect the accuracy of the respiratory motion correction. Methods First, the original high-dimensional ultrasound gray-level image data was mapped into a two-dimensional space by using Laplacian Eigenmaps (LE). Then, the cluster analysis was adopted using K-means, and the optimal ultrasound reference image could be gotten for respiratory motion correction. Finally, this proposed method was validated on 18 CEUS cases of VX2 tumor in rabbit liver, and the effectiveness of this method was demonstrated. Results After correction, the time-intensity curves extracted from the region of interest of CEUS image sequences became smoother. Before correction, the average of total mean structural similarity (TMSSIM) and the average of mean correlation coefficient (MCC) from image sequences were 0.45+/-0.11 and 0.67+/-0.16, respectively. After correction, the two parameters were increased obviously P<0.001), and were 0.59+/-0.11 and 0.81+/-0.11, respectively. The average of deviation valve (DV) from image sequences before correction was 92.16+/-18.12. After correction, the average was reduced to one-third of the original value. Conclusions: The proposed respiratory motion method could improve the accuracy of the quantitative analysis of CEUS by using the reference image based on the traditionally manual selection. This method is operated simply and has a potential in clinical application.

  19. Compendium of selected references on air emissions; health, risk, and valuation research; and environmental externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-07-01

    In preparing to develop a cost-benefit methodology that could be applied to potential projects abroad involving new coal-fired power plants that make use of US clean coal technologies, the author reviewed a wide variety of reference sources. These are listed in this publication. Before this review, the author had conducted a number of literature searches that identified source material in the newly rediscovered field of environmental externalities and related topics that might also be of value to other energy and environmental researchers. Those sources that appeared to be appropriate but that the author was unable to review are also listed in this document. Thus, this document serves as a comprehensive compendium of source material on these subjects, arranged alphabetically within categories.

  20. Optimizing the Power of Genome-Wide Association Studies by Using Publicly Available Reference Samples to Expand the Control Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Joanna J; Zondervan, Krina; Nyberg, Fredrik; Harbron, Chris; Jawaid, Ansar; Cardon, Lon R; Barratt, Bryan J; Morris, Andrew P

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have proved extremely successful in identifying novel genetic loci contributing effects to complex human diseases. In doing so, they have highlighted the fact that many potential loci of modest effect remain undetected, partly due to the need for samples consisting of many thousands of individuals. Large-scale international initiatives, such as the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, the Genetic Association Information Network, and the database of genetic and phenotypic information, aim to facilitate discovery of modest-effect genes by making genome-wide data publicly available, allowing information to be combined for the purpose of pooled analysis. In principle, disease or control samples from these studies could be used to increase the power of any GWA study via judicious use as “genetically matched controls” for other traits. Here, we present the biological motivation for the problem and the theoretical potential for expanding the control group with publicly available disease or reference samples. We demonstrate that a naïve application of this strategy can greatly inflate the false-positive error rate in the presence of population structure. As a remedy, we make use of genome-wide data and model selection techniques to identify “axes” of genetic variation which are associated with disease. These axes are then included as covariates in association analysis to correct for population structure, which can result in increases in power over standard analysis of genetic information from the samples in the original GWA study. Genet. Epidemiol. 34: 319–326, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20088020

  1. NASA's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach: Selected Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, H.; Smith, D.; Sharma, M.

    2013-04-01

    NASA's rich portfolio of Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach (EPO) programs spans formal and informal education from K-12, addresses diverse audiences, and takes the latest NASA scientific discoveries to the public through science museums, planetaria, exhibitions, and other outlets. Public outreach activities use NASA Astrophysics scientific discoveries and technology to inspire students to undertake scientific careers and enhance public understanding of science and technology. Examples of noteworthy activities in the past year include Hubble, Chandra, JWST exhibits at the Intrepid Museum, New York, community collaborations such as the Multiwavelength Universe online course, and a variety of Citizen Science projects associated with robotic telescopes and with flight missions such as HST and Kepler. Special EPO programs have been developed to reach out to girls and underrepresented minorities. NASA's Astrophysics Science Education and Public Outreach Forum (SEPOF) has developed resources to assist the scientific community in participating in education and public outreach.

  2. Selected DOE Headquarters publications, October 1977-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This sixth issue of cumulative listings of DOE Headquarters publications covers the first two years of the Department's operation (October 1, 1977 - September 30, 1979). It lists two groups of publications issued by then-existing Headquarters organizations and provides an index to their title keywords. The two groups of publications are publications assigned a DOE/XXX-type report number code and Headquarters contractor reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department. Certain publications are omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins, newsletters, and telephone directories, as well as headquarters publications issued under the DOE-tr (DOE translation) and CONF (conference proceedings) codes, and technical reports from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA issued under DOE/JPL and DOE/NASA codes. The contents of this issue will not be repeated in subsequent issues of DOE/AD-0010. (RWR)

  3. Should Public Buildings Be Exclusive? A Study of Selected Institutional Buildings in Minna, Niger State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyetola, S.A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some individuals are born with a deformity also known as disability whereas others may become permanently or temporarily disabled over the course of their lives. Buildings should not be made to judge who comes in and goes out of its spaces. A good design must be accessible to all individuals, especially when discussing public buildings. An educational building is a public building and “education for all” is a common dictum that refers to all individuals irrespective of current status. Disabled individuals especially those in wheelchairs have special needs and requirements however, most Institutional buildings do not portray this equality with regards to their design; instead these designs ostracize individuals with disabilities. A survey was carried out on the existing special educational facility and forty four (44 randomly selected institutions of learning located in Minna, the capital of Niger State. They were further categorised based on funding; Federal, state or privately funded institutions. The survey showed that individuals with physical disabilities in Minna were not attending the special educational school and even if they were, facilities were not put in place to accommodate them also, despite the support by the Nigerian government on the equalisation of opportunities for people with disabilities, the public educational system have yet to factor in or retrofit designs to suit disabled individuals in their designs. This paper further highlighted these abnormalities in design and probable causes and concluded by recommending possible solutions.

  4. Selection of reliable reference genes in Caenorhabditis elegans for analysis of nanotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqiong Zhang

    Full Text Available Despite rapid development and application of a wide range of manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs, the understanding of potential risks of using NPs is less completed, especially at the molecular level. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C.elegans has been emerging as an environmental model to study the molecular mechanism of environmental contaminations, using standard genetic tools such as the real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. The most important factor that may affect the accuracy of RT-qPCR is to choose appropriate genes for normalization. In this study, we selected 13 reference gene candidates (act-1, cdc-42, pmp-3, eif-3.C, actin, act-2, csq-1, Y45F10D.4, tba-1, mdh-1, ama-1, F35G12.2, and rbd-1 to test their expression stability under different doses of nano-copper oxide (CuO 0, 1, 10, and 50 µg/mL using RT-qPCR. Four algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method, were employed to evaluate these 13 candidates expressions. As a result, tba-1, Y45F10D.4 and pmp-3 were the most reliable, which may be used as reference genes in future study of nanoparticle-induced genetic response using C.elegans.

  5. Strategic Public Management - Selected Experiences with BSC Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan PŮČEK

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Elements associated with modern approaches towards public management have been gaining ground in various forms in the Czech public administration, especially in the last decade. They reflect the priorities of the public administration reform and the enhanced opportunities for co-financing the implementation of new management tools from European funds. This article summarizes the experience of strategic management, based on the analysis of secondary sources and on the experience of one of the authors who has worked as manager in several public administration/public sector institutions. In the practical part, the article focuses on the potential and limits of implementation of the Balanced Scorecard using the practical experience together with the implementation of this instrument at the level of city and ministry.

  6. The chinchilla eye: morphologic observations, echobiometric findings and reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leandro; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabaino; Tramontin, Mariana; Leigue Dos Santos, Lucianne; Machado, Marcello; Ribas Lange, Rogério; Helena Abil Russ, Heloisa

    2010-09-01

    To carry out a descriptive investigation into the most relevant morphological features of the chinchilla eye and bony orbit, as well as to perform selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests with the aim of establishing normal anatomic and physiologic references for this species. A total of 57 healthy, chinchillas were used to test most of the parameters in this investigation. Besides morphologic observations of the globe and adnexa, selected ocular tests and parameters were investigated, including blink frequency, palpebral fissure length (PFL), Schirmer tear test (STT), esthesiometry, intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), B-mode echobiometric measurements of the globe and culture of the normal conjunctival bacterial microbiota. Morphologic observations were made using six formalin-fixed globes and four macerated skulls. Normal parameters found for selected ocular diagnostic tests were: blink frequency: 2.6 ± 0.84 blinks per 10 min; STT: 1.07 ± 0.54 mm; esthesiometry: 1.24 ± 0.46 cm; IOP: 17.71 ± 4.17 mmHg; CCT: 0.34 ± 0.03 mm; PFL: 1.44 ± 0.11 cm; anterior chamber depth: 2.01 ± 0.2 mm; axial lens thickness: 5.49 ± 0.43 mm; vitreous chamber depth (internal): 3.69 ± 0.52 mm; axial globe length: 1.14 ± 0.07 cm. The most frequent bacteria isolated from the conjunctiva were Streptococcus sp. (27.45%), Staphylococcus aureus (23.52%) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (19.60%). No statistically significant differences between left or right eyes or genders were found for any of the results. Reference data and morphologic observations obtained in this investigation will help veterinary ophthalmologists to recognize unique morphological features and more accurately diagnose ocular diseases in the chinchilla, an animal already being used as a biological model for ophthalmic studies.

  7. Report on an analysis of selected EIA publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Results of a critical analysis of the EIA publication Electric Power Monthly (EPM) are presented. A general review of the publication, a review of the tables, and a review of the graphs are given. Each of these is divided into two areas: substantive review, which concentrates on the organization and comparability of the data; and the cosmetic review, which focuses on the graphic presentations of the data. Recommendations, the rationale behind each recommendation, and examples of improvements that can be made to the various parts of the publication are discussed. (MCW)

  8. Trees in Urban and City Environments: a review of the selection criteria with particular reference to nature conservation in New Zealand Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Late David Given

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this research was to review the general criteria for selection of trees for urban environments and city environments. The reason for this research was to assess the extent to which criteria for tree selection can contribute to nature conservation in cities. We conducted an extensive review of the literature, looking for publications about the selection criteria. In particular, we looked for any previous published reviews of the criteria. With reference to the criteria used in New Zealand, we undertook an unstructured review of the practices adopted in most cities. A review of the literature revealed many publications about different criteria but only one publication in which there was a general review of the criteria used for selecting trees for urban environments. By way of contrast, lists of tree species deemed to be suitable (or unsuitable for urban planting are widely available, and some include information about selection criteria, but often with little background explanation. Worldwide, commonly used criteria included commercial availability of species, compatibility with urban environments, landscape design, low maintenance, avoidance of nuisance factors and historical practice. The most common criteria are concerned with the concept of choosing species compatible with local climate and soils. Anecdotal evidence suggests that more and more cities are using a mix of criteria including those that may contribute to conservation and restoration of native biota. We suggest that there should be greater use of ecological, genetic and biogeographical criteria to meet the needs of nature conservation in New Zealand cities.

  9. Does Ownership Matter? Employee Selection Practices in Private and Public Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa OSOIAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuous need to adapt to the dynamics of the environment requires employers from both public and private sectors to select qualified human resources. It is people who lead the organization towards performance, and selecting competent employees is critical for competitive success. The paper is focused on the job selection practices implemented by hiring organizations in a developing country. Due to the differences that exist regarding the employee selection policy between public and private organizations, the paper aims to understand the characteristics of the job selection process according to the ownership of the employer agent. Based on a quantitative survey applied on 64 companies, the results analyze the main selection stages implemented in private vs. public sector employers in a developing country. While in private companies the most frequently used selection stages are the job selection interview, CVs screening and trial period, in public institutions the hiring process is based on the job selection interview, written knowledge tests, and practical tests. Compared to private companies, in public institutions the written knowledge tests rank a higher position in the selection stages hierarchy, but the private employers rely more on CVs screening stage than public institutions. Emphasis is laid on understanding the reasons leading to variations in job selection practices according to the ownership of the employing agent. The predictive validity of the job selection stages implemented by the companies is also discussed.

  10. Student Dress Codes in Public Schools: A Selective Annotated Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joan Pedzich

    2002-01-01

    P1 In an attempt to curb the rising presence of gangs in public schools and to reduce disciplinary conflicts, officials in school districts across the United States are implementing dress codes or introducing uniforms...

  11. Bargaining Tactics: A Reference Manual for Public Sector Labor Negotiations. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Richard G.

    A supplement to an earlier-published volume on bargaining tactics, this document presents specific tactics that can be used in the course of public sector collective bargaining to further management's pre-established negotiating strategies. All the tactics suggested are drawn from the author's personal experience as a public sector labor…

  12. Nation binding: How public service broadcasting mitigates political selective exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, L.; Kruikemeier, S.; de Vreese, C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that more and more citizens select news and information that is congruent with their existing political preferences. This increase in political selective exposure (PSE) has allegedly led to an increase in polarization. The vast majority of studies stem from the US case with

  13. Danish Public Construction Counselling Selection and Assignment Criteria in European Tendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    One of the largest customers in the Danish construction industry is public agencies that own and develop projects. For some of the counselling services, they recur to be put out in European tendering. The aim is to find which selection and assignment criteria are used most in public tendering. How...... projects use selection and assignment criteria for counselling services and finally if there is significant use of selection and assignment methods in public counselling. The method is based on 74 public counselling tenders from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database from January 2010 to March 2013...

  14. Review on Selection and Suitability of Rail Transit Station Design Pertaining to Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabal, Farah Mohd; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2017-08-01

    Railway has emerged as a fast, convenient, safe, clean, and low-cost alternative to air and road transportation. Many countries have invested in rail transportation. In America, Europe and Asia, large investments are planned for rail transportation. This is because congestion problems can be reduced with the introduction of rail transportation. Rail transportation involves several components which are important to ensure the smooth and safe delivery of services such as locomotives, rail stations and railway tracks. Rail transit stations are places where trains stop to pick-up and drop-off passengers. Stations are vital for many to enable them to engage in work and social commitments. This paper focuses only on the rail transit station as it is one of the important components in rail transportation. It is also considered as a key public meeting place and space for interactions in a community. The role of rail transit station and the requirements of a good rail transit station are also described in this paper. Steps in selecting the location of rail transit station include the function and facilities in rail transit station are discussed with reference to best practices and handbooks. Selection of the appropriate rail transit station locations may help users indirectly. In addition, this paper will also elucidate on the design considerations for an efficient and effective rail transit station. Design selections for the rail transit station must be balanced between aesthetic value and functional efficiency. The right design selection may help conserve energy, assure and facilitate consumers even thought a rail transit station plays a smaller role in attracting consumers compared to a shopping complex or a residential building. This will contribute towards better and greener building for a green transportation facility. Thus, with this paper it is expected to assist the relevant authority to identify important elements in the selection and determination of suitable

  15. 'Here There Be Monsters': the public's perception of paedophiles with particular reference to Belfast and Leicester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, Kieran

    2004-10-01

    This research study sought to investigate the public perception of paedophiles. It was undertaken in Belfast (Northern Ireland) and Leicester (England) in an attempt to determine whether or not regional variations existed in relation to the public's perception of paedophiles. In doing this, the study sought to test four hypotheses; (1) That the press affects the public's perception of paedophiles; (2) that the public's perception of paedophiles is not congruent with legal and clinical definitions; (3) that the Sarah Payne case has helped to reinforce the public's perception of a predatory paedophile; and (4) that the public's perception is based on fear and irrationality. These hypotheses were tested via the distribution of a questionnaire to an opportunistic sample on the streets of Belfast and Leicester. Although the results did not support the hypotheses, they did yield some very interesting information. The study indicated that the public is quite well-informed about paedophilia; its recurrence rates, practices and in particular the influence of the media. Furthermore, the study indicated quite significant differences between the cities of Belfast and Leicester. In conclusion, the results indicated that a moral panic connected to paedophilia is very present in our contemporary society.

  16. Public Health Indicators for Europe: Context, Selection, Definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers PGN; ECHI (European Community Health Indicators); ECHI team; VTV

    2006-01-01

    This ECHI-2 report (ECHI = European Community Health Indicators) presents a list of indicators in the field of public health. The indicators range from health status (e.g. cancer incidence) through health determinants (e.g. nutrition, air pollution) to preventive actions and health care systems. The

  17. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Selected Publicly Supported Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at publicly supported community, junior, and technical college campuses in the eleven states accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools' Commission on Colleges. The Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire was emailed…

  18. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Selected Publicly Supported Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at publicly supported community, junior, and technical college campuses in the eleven states accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools' Commission on Colleges. The Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire was emailed…

  19. Full-Reference Image Quality Assessment with Linear Combination of Genetically Selected Quality Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Oszust

    Full Text Available Information carried by an image can be distorted due to different image processing steps introduced by different electronic means of storage and communication. Therefore, development of algorithms which can automatically assess a quality of the image in a way that is consistent with human evaluation is important. In this paper, an approach to image quality assessment (IQA is proposed in which the quality of a given image is evaluated jointly by several IQA approaches. At first, in order to obtain such joint models, an optimisation problem of IQA measures aggregation is defined, where a weighted sum of their outputs, i.e., objective scores, is used as the aggregation operator. Then, the weight of each measure is considered as a decision variable in a problem of minimisation of root mean square error between obtained objective scores and subjective scores. Subjective scores reflect ground-truth and involve evaluation of images by human observers. The optimisation problem is solved using a genetic algorithm, which also selects suitable measures used in aggregation. Obtained multimeasures are evaluated on four largest widely used image benchmarks and compared against state-of-the-art full-reference IQA approaches. Results of comparison reveal that the proposed approach outperforms other competing measures.

  20. Size-selective poorly soluble particulate reference materials for evaluation of quantitative analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Turk, Gregory C; Dickerson, Robert M; Hoover, Mark D

    2008-07-01

    Owing to the absence of readily available certified particulate reference materials (RMs), most analytical methods used to determine particulate contaminant levels in workplace or other environments are validated using solution RMs, which do not assess the robustness of the digestion step for all forms and sizes of particles in a sample. A library of particulate RMs having a range of chemical forms and particle sizes is needed to support a shift in method evaluation strategies to include both solution and particulate RMs. In support of creating this library, we characterized bulk and physically size separated fractions of beryllium oxide (BeO) particles recovered from the machining fluid sludge of an industrial ceramic products grinding operation. Particles were large agglomerates of compact, crystalline BeO primary particles having diameters on the order of several micrometers. As expected, the particle surface area was independent of sieve size, with a range from 3.61 m(2)/g (53-63-microm fraction) to 4.82 m(2)/g (355-600-microm fraction). The density was near the theoretical value (3.01 g/cm(3)). The data support more detailed characterization of the sludge materials for use as size-selective RMs. This work illustrates an approach that can be used to develop RMs that are difficult to digest.

  1. Quantitative 2D HSQC NMR determination of polymer structures by selecting suitable internal standard references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liming; Gellerstedt, Göran

    2007-01-01

    A new analytical method based on the 2D HSQC NMR sequence is presented, which can be applied for quantitative structural determination of complicated polymers. The influence of T1 and T2 relaxations, off-resonance effects, coupling constants and homonuclear couplings are discussed. It was found that the T2 values measured on polymeric samples with the conventional HSQC-CPMG sequence could not be used to correct the errors caused by T2 relaxations during the polarization transfer delay. A unique way of selecting the proper internal standard reference signal(s) is therefore proposed to eliminate the major errors caused by T2 relaxations, resonance offsets, coupling constant deviations and homonuclear couplings. Two polymer samples, a cellulose triacetate and an acetylated lignin, have been used to illustrate the principles. The methodology developed in this work is robust to instrument miss-setting and it can find wide-spread applications in areas where a quantitative analysis of structurally complicated polymers is necessary. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. 36 CFR 1223.4 - What publications are incorporated by reference in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (c) The following Web publication is available on-line at http://www.fema.gov/pdf/about/offices/fcd1.pdf; it is published by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 245 Murray Lane, Washington,...

  3. Governance of the Public Debt Management Agency in Selected OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Grezegorz Golebiowsku; Kamilla Marchewka-Bartkowiak

    2010-01-01

    In most countries public debt management is one of the fastest growing financial activities demanding great attention from the State. Therefore, there is a need for broadening public governance, as well as widening procedural solutions. The authors have analysed the operating principles of auditing and control in public debt management institutions of several OECD countries. Research was conducted based on questionnaires and reports obtained from selected public debt management institutions a...

  4. Liver Rapid Reference Set Application (#1): David Lubman - Univ of Michigan (2009) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are requesting the reference set, which includes 50 HCC cases and 50 cirrhotic controls. In our preliminary study, AFP had a AUROC of 0.66 while the AUROC for the 5 glycoproteins was 0.81. The sensitivity and specificity for the 5 glycoproteins was 79% and 72% at the point that maximizes sensitivity+specificity in the ROC curve, and it was 79% and 35%, respectively, for AFP at the same point in the ROC curve. The reference set will allow us to determine the best performance of the 5 glycoproteins by themselves or whether their combination has a better sensitivity and/or specificity and AUROC. While a direct comparison with AFP will be made, the reference set will not allow a robust comparison due to the low sample size. If the glycoproteins are complementary or have better performance than AFP, then the next step would be to test them in the entire phase 2 hepatocellular carcinoma set.

  5. Liver Rapid Reference Set Application ( #2): Lubman - Univ of Michigan (2010) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are requesting the reference set, which includes 50 HCC cases and 50 cirrhotic controls. In our preliminary study, AFP had a AUROC of 0.66 while the AUROC for the 5 glycoproteins was 0.81. The sensitivity and specificity for the 5 glycoproteins was 79% and 72% at the point that maximizes sensitivity+specificity in the ROC curve, and it was 79% and 35%, respectively, for AFP at the same point in the ROC curve. The reference set will allow us to determine the best performance of the 5 glycoproteins by themselves or whether their combination has a better sensitivity and/or specificity and AUROC. While a direct comparison with AFP will be made, the reference set will not allow a robust comparison due to the low sample size. If the glycoproteins are complementary or have better performance than AFP, then the next step would be to test them in the entire phase 2 hepatocellular carcinoma set.

  6. [Molecular characterization of hepatitis C virus in patients referred to a reference laboratory of public health, University Hospital "Antonio Patricio de Alcalá", Cumani, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulbarán, María Zulay; Montaño, Lérida; Sulbarán, Yoneira; Loureiro, Carmen Luisa; Flores, Carmen Rosa; Farías, Yurviris; Maldonado, Antonio; Guillen, Genny; Rangel, Héctor; Pujol, Flor

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 170 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study evaluated the presence of antibodies against HCV by two immunoassays. HCV genotypes were analyzed by phylogenetic analysis of viral genome fragments amplified from the 5 'non-coding (5'NC) region and non-structural region 5b (NS5b), using reverse transcription and nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in patients referred from January 2010 to February 2013 to the Reference Laboratory of Public Health, University Hospital "Antonio Patricio de Alcalá". The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 0.57% (17/3005), being the group of patients older than 41 years the most affected (0.9%). A total of 16 samples were found positive for HCV RNA by RT-PCR in the 5'NC region (16/17, 94%). Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'NC region allowed to identify the circulation of genotypes 2 and 1, and one genotype 3 and one 4. By phylogenetic analysis of the NS5b region, diverse subtypes of HCV genotype 2 were identified (2a, 2j and 2s). This finding is in accordance with previous studies that indicate that this genotype is relatively diverse in our country.

  7. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies related to intramuscular fat deposition in Capra hircus skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wuzheng; Lin, Yaqiu; Liao, Honghai; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The identification of suitable reference genes is critical for obtaining reliable results from gene expression studies using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) because the expression of reference genes may vary considerably under different experimental conditions. In most cases, however, commonly used reference genes are employed in data normalization without proper validation, which may lead to incorrect data interpretation. Here, we aim to select a set of optimal reference genes for the accurate normalization of gene expression associated with intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition during development. In the present study, eight reference genes (PPIB, HMBS, RPLP0, B2M, YWHAZ, 18S, GAPDH and ACTB) were evaluated by three different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) in two types of muscle tissues (longissimus dorsi muscle and biceps femoris muscle) across different developmental stages. All three algorithms gave similar results. PPIB and HMBS were identified as the most stable reference genes, while the commonly used reference genes 18S and GAPDH were the most variably expressed, with expression varying dramatically across different developmental stages. Furthermore, to reveal the crucial role of appropriate reference genes in obtaining a reliable result, analysis of PPARG expression was performed by normalization to the most and the least stable reference genes. The relative expression levels of PPARG normalized to the most stable reference genes greatly differed from those normalized to the least stable one. Therefore, evaluation of reference genes must be performed for a given experimental condition before the reference genes are used. PPIB and HMBS are the optimal reference genes for analysis of gene expression associated with IMF deposition in skeletal muscle during development.

  8. Publication and Language Trends of References in Spanish and Latin American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, David S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined references found in three journals in the field of Spanish and Latin American literary studies. Few previous studies have examined types of publishers producing highly cited/referenced books. The data indicate that the primary publishers of scholarly monographs referenced in the journals are U.S. university presses, foreign…

  9. Delineating the scientific footprint in technology: Identifying scientific publications within non-patent references.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callaert, J.; Grouwels, J.; van Looy, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Indicators based on non-patent references (NPRs) are increasingly being used for measuring and assessing science–technology interactions. But NPRs in patent documents contain noise, as not all of them can be considered ‘scientific’. In this article, we introduce the results of a machine-learning

  10. Internationality of Publications, Co-Authorship, References and Citations in Brazilian Evolutionary Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Maria Santin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The international dimensions of contemporary science have significantly impacted production and use patterns of scientific knowledge, which, in turn, requires new insights of librarians, publishers and academic institutions. Despite the recognized importance of internationality in science, studies on the internationalization of scientific output are still limited and dedicated exclusively to analyzing of its diffusion and international collaboration. This study analyzes the national/international character of articles, international collaboration, references and citations of Brazilian scientific output in Evolutionary Biology in order to understand the contribution to the internationalization of science in Brazil. Analyses are based on data from the Science Citation Index of Web of Science and include 1450 articles, 60,454 references and 18,059 citing documents. Results reveal similar internationality patterns, with 99.6% of articles published in foreign journals, 90.5% international references, and 88.5% international citations. Despite recording the lowest value among the indicators (51.9%, international collaboration surpasses the national and international average and is an important characteristic in the field in Brazil, contributing to increasing the number of references and the impact of articles. Evolutionary Biology is considered a predominantly international field, whose internationality patterns increase the audience for the studies and provide greater visibility for Brazilian science.

  11. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in pig tissues using SYBR green qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Ann-Britt Nygaard; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Cirera, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a method for rapid and reliable quantification of mRNA transcription. Internal standards such as reference genes are used to normalise mRNA levels between different samples for an exact comparison of mRNA transcription level. Selection of high...... quality reference genes is of crucial importance for the interpretation of data generated by real-time qPCR. Results: In this study nine commonly used reference genes were investigated in 17 different pig tissues using real-time qPCR with SYBR green. The genes included beta-actin (ACTB), beta-2...

  12. Selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in Berkshire, Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Je; Kwon, Seul Gi; Hwang, Jung Hye; Park, Da Hye; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Chul Wook

    2015-03-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the most reliable molecular biology technique for assessment of mRNA expression levels. However, to obtain the accurate RT-qPCR results, the expression levels of genes of interest should be normalized with appropriate reference genes and optimal numbers of reference genes. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of 15 well-known candidate reference genes (ACTB, ALDOA, B2M, GAPDH, HPAR1, HSPCB, PGK1, POLR2G, PPIA, RPL4, RPS18, SDHA, TBP, TOP2B, and YWHAZ) in seven body tissues (liver, lung, kidney, spleen, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine) of Berkshire, Landrace, Duroc, and Yorkshire pigs using three excel-based programs, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Combination analysis of these three programs showed that the stable and appropriate reference genes are PPIA, TBP, and HSPCB in Berkshire pigs; PPIA, TBP, RPL4, and RPS18 in Landrace pigs; PPIA and TBP in Duroc pigs; and PPIA, TOP2B, RPL4, and RPS18 in Yorkshire pigs. Because the four pig breeds had different suitable reference genes, the selection of appropriate reference genes is essential in RT-qPCR analyses. Taken together, our data could help to select reliable reference genes for the normalization of expression levels of various target genes in pigs.

  13. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-time PCR during Flower Development in Tree Peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eLi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa is a perennial plant indigenous to China known for its elegant and vibrantly colorful flowers. A few genes involved in petal pigmentation have been cloned in tree peony. However, to date, there have been few studies on the comparison and selection of stable reference genes for gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR in this species. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes were evaluated for the normalization of qRT-PCR in three tree peony cultivars. GAPDH and UBC were identified as the top two most stable reference genes in ‘Feng Dan’ and ‘Xi Shi’, and EF-1α/UBC was recommended to be the best combination for ‘Que Hao’. The expression stability of various reference genes differed across cultivars, suggesting that selection and validation of reliable reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis was necessary not only for different species but also for different cultivars. The results provided a list of reference genes for further study on gene expression in P. suffruticosa. However, in any case, a preliminary check on the accuracy of the best performing reference genes is requested for each qRT-PCR experiment.

  14. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR during Flower Development in Tree Peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Han, Jigang; Hu, Yonghong; Yang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) is a perennial plant indigenous to China known for its elegant and vibrantly colorful flowers. A few genes involved in petal pigmentation have been cloned in tree peony. However, to date, there have been few studies on the comparison and selection of stable reference genes for gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in this species. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes were evaluated for the normalization of qRT-PCR in three tree peony cultivars. GAPDH and UBC were identified as the top two most stable reference genes in ‘Feng Dan’ and ‘Xi Shi,’ and EF-1α/UBC was recommended to be the best combination for ‘Que Hao.’ The expression stability of various reference genes differed across cultivars, suggesting that selection and validation of reliable reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis was necessary not only for different species but also for different cultivars. The results provided a list of reference genes for further study on gene expression in P. suffruticosa. However, in any case, a preliminary check on the accuracy of the best performing reference genes is requested for each qRT-PCR experiment. PMID:27148337

  15. Annotated bibliography of selected references on shoreline barrier island deposits with emphasis on Patrick Draw Field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Schatzinger, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    This bibliography contains 290 annotated references on barrier island and associated depositional environments and reservoirs. It is not an exhaustive compilation of all references on the subject, but rather selected papers on barrier islands, and the depositional processes of formation. Papers that examine the morphology and internal architecture of barrier island deposits, exploration and development technologies are emphasized. Papers were selected that aid in understanding reservoir architecture and engineering technologies to help maximize recovery efficiency from barrier island oil reservoirs. Barrier islands from Wyoming, Montana and the Rocky Mountains basins are extensively covered.

  16. Development and mapping of a public reference set of SSR markers in Lolium perenne L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, J.L.; Muylle, H.; Arens, P.F.P.; Andersen, C.H.; Bach Holm, P.; Ghesquiere, M.; Julier, B.; Lubberstedt, T.; Nielsen, K.K.; Riek, de J.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Roulund, N.; Taylor, C.; Vosman, B.J.; Barre, P.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the characterization and mapping of 76 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Lolium perenne. These markers are publicly available or obtained either from genomic libraries enriched for SSR motifs or L. perenne expressed sequence tag (EST) clones. Four L. perenne mapping populations w

  17. On Self Selection of the Corrupt into the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Baul, Tushi; Rosenblat, Tanya

    Do corrupt people self select themselves in professions where the scope of corruption is high? We conduct a corruption experiment with private sector job aspirants and aspirants of Indian bureaucracy. The game models embezzlement of resources in which “supervisors” evaluate the performance...... of “workers” and then pay them. We find that aspirant bureaucrats indulge in more corruption than private sector aspirants but the likelihood of being corrupt is same across two sectors....

  18. The importance of selecting the appropriate reference genes for quantitative real time PCR as illustrated using colon cancer cells and tissue [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catríona M. Dowling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR remains the most sensitive technique for nucleic acid quantification. Its popularity is reflected in the remarkable number of publications reporting RT-qPCR data. Careful normalisation within RT-qPCR studies is imperative to ensure accurate quantification of mRNA levels. This is commonly achieved through the use of reference genes as an internal control to normalise the mRNA levels between different samples. The selection of appropriate reference genes can be a challenge as transcript levels vary with physiology, pathology and development, making the information within the transcriptome flexible and variable. In this study, we examined the variation in expression of a panel of nine candidate reference genes in HCT116 and HT29 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cultures, as well as in normal and cancerous colon tissue. Using normfinder we identified the top three most stable genes for all conditions. Further to this we compared the change in expression of a selection of PKC coding genes when the data was normalised to one reference gene and three reference genes. Here we demonstrated that there is a variation in the fold changes obtained dependent on the number of reference genes used. As well as this, we highlight important considerations namely; assay efficiency tests, inhibition tests and RNA assessment which should also be implemented into all RT-qPCR studies. All this data combined demonstrates the need for careful experimental design in RT-qPCR studies to help eliminate false interpretation and reporting of results.

  19. The importance of selecting the appropriate reference genes for quantitative real time PCR as illustrated using colon cancer cells and tissue [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catríona M Dowling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR remains the most sensitive technique for nucleic acid quantification. Its popularity is reflected in the remarkable number of publications reporting RT-qPCR data. Careful normalisation within RT-qPCR studies is imperative to ensure accurate quantification of mRNA levels. This is commonly achieved through the use of reference genes as an internal control to normalise the mRNA levels between different samples. The selection of appropriate reference genes can be a challenge as transcript levels vary with physiology, pathology and development, making the information within the transcriptome flexible and variable. In this study, we examined the variation in expression of a panel of nine candidate reference genes in HCT116 and HT29 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cultures, as well as in normal and cancerous colon tissue. Using normfinder we identified the top three most stable genes for all conditions. Further to this we compared the change in expression of a selection of PKC coding genes when the data was normalised to one reference gene and three reference genes. Here we demonstrated that there is a variation in the fold changes obtained dependent on the number of reference genes used. As well as this, we highlight important considerations namely; assay efficiency tests, inhibition tests and RNA assessment which should also be implemented into all RT-qPCR studies. All this data combined demonstrates the need for careful experimental design in RT-qPCR studies to help eliminate false interpretation and reporting of results.

  20. Philosophy of science viewed through the lense of "References Publication Years spectrosopy" (RPYS)

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, K. Brad; Bornmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    We examine the sub-field of philosophy of science using a new method developed in information science, Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS). RPYS allows us to identify peak years in citations in a field, which promises to help scholars identify the key contributions to a field, and revolutionary discoveries in a field. We discovered that philosophy of science, a sub-field in the humanities, differs significantly from other fields examined with this method. Books play a more import...

  1. Public and private health insurance in Germany: the ignored risk selection problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, Martina; Nuscheler, Robert

    2014-06-01

    We investigate risk selection between public and private health insurance in Germany. With risk-rated premiums in the private system and community-rated premiums in the public system, advantageous selection in favor of private insurers is expected. Using 2000 to 2007 data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), we find such selection. While private insurers are unable to select the healthy upon enrollment, they profit from an increase in the probability to switch from private to public health insurance of those individuals who have experienced a negative health shock. To avoid distorted competition between the two branches of health care financing, risk-adjusted transfers from private to public insurers should be instituted.

  2. Development of a Selection Measure for Access to Public Employment Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gary W.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a prototype measure of employability to be used as a tool in public employment programs. Considers political and ethical implications pertaining to the use of such a selection instrument for welfare recipients. (Author/ABB)

  3. Reference spectral signature selection using density-based cluster for automatic oil spill detection in hyperspectral images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Delian; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Xiaorui

    2016-04-04

    Reference spectral signature selection is a fundamental work for automatic oil spill detection. To address this issue, a new approach is proposed here, which employs the density-based cluster to select a specific spectral signature from a hyperspectral image. This paper first introduces the framework of oil spill detection from hyperspectral images, indicating that detecting oil spill requires a reference spectral signature of oil spill, parameters of background, and a target detection algorithm. Based on the framework, we give the new reference spectral signature selection approach in details. Then, we demonstrate the estimation of background parameters according to the reflectance of seawater in the infrared bands. Next, the conventional adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) algorithm is employed to achieve oil spill detection. Finally, the proposed approach is tested via several practical hyperspectral images that are collected during the Horizon Deep water oil spill. The experimental results show that this new approach can automatically select the reference spectral signature of oil spills from hyperspectral images and has high detection performance.

  4. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography. [474 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography, a compilation of 474 references, is the fourth in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base was created for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Project by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The references in the bibliography are arranged by subject category: (1) geochemistry, (2) exploration, (3) mineralogy, (4) genesis of deposits, (5) geology of deposits, (6) uranium industry, (7) geology of potential uranium-bearing areas, and (8) reserves and resources. The references are indexed by author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, and keyword.

  5. Selection of Reference Genes in Saccharopolyspora Spinosa for Real-Time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传波; 薛超友; 申月琪; 卢文玉

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR)combined with the published genome information of Saccharopolyspora spinosa can allow sophisticated studies about S. spinosa, including studying the regulation of spinosyn biosynthesis, finding new target genes for engineering, and discovering and exploiting other macrolide secondary metabolites. Studies have demonstrated that appropriate internal control is needed to normalize target genes at transcription levels. However, many studies have shown that no single reference gene is universal for all strains under all experimental conditions. Thus, eight candidate reference genes of three different S. spinosa strains in two different cultures were studied to find suitable reference gene(s). The number of amplification cycles of these candidate genes was calculated by BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm. The results indicated that the most suitable reference genes for normalization during the fermentation of S. spinosa were 16S rRNA and rbL13.

  6. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in Erythroxylum coca

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR is a powerful technique for the investigation of comparative gene expression, but its accuracy and reliability depend on the reference genes used as internal standards. Only genes that show a high level of expression stability are suitable for use as reference genes, and these must be identified on a case-by-case basis. Erythroxylum coca produces and accumulates high amounts of the pharmacologically active tropane alkaloid cocaine (especially in the leaves), and is ...

  7. Questionable, Objectionable or Criminal? Public Opinion on Data Fraud and Selective Reporting in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Justin T; Roche, Sean Patrick

    2017-03-09

    Data fraud and selective reporting both present serious threats to the credibility of science. However, there remains considerable disagreement among scientists about how best to sanction data fraud, and about the ethicality of selective reporting. The public is arguably the largest stakeholder in the reproducibility of science; research is primarily paid for with public funds, and flawed science threatens the public's welfare. Members of the public are able to make meaningful judgments about the morality of different behaviors using moral intuitions. Legal scholars emphasize that to maintain legitimacy, social control policies must be developed with some consideration given to the public's moral intuitions. Although there is a large literature on popular attitudes toward science, there is no existing evidence about public opinion on data fraud or selective reporting. We conducted two studies-a survey experiment with a nationwide convenience sample (N = 821), and a follow-up survey with a representative sample of US adults (N = 964)-to explore community members' judgments about the morality of data fraud and selective reporting in science. The findings show that community members make a moral distinction between data fraud and selective reporting, but overwhelmingly judge both behaviors to be immoral and deserving of punishment. Community members believe that scientists who commit data fraud or selective reporting should be fired and banned from receiving funding. For data fraud, most Americans support criminal penalties. Results from an ordered logistic regression analysis reveal few demographic and no significant partisan differences in punitiveness toward data fraud.

  8. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in Erythroxylum coca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docimo, Teresa; Schmidt, Gregor W; Luck, Katrin; Delaney, Sven K; D'Auria, John C

    2013-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR is a powerful technique for the investigation of comparative gene expression, but its accuracy and reliability depend on the reference genes used as internal standards. Only genes that show a high level of expression stability are suitable for use as reference genes, and these must be identified on a case-by-case basis. Erythroxylum coca produces and accumulates high amounts of the pharmacologically active tropane alkaloid cocaine (especially in the leaves), and is an emerging model for the investigation of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis. The identification of stable internal reference genes for this species is important for its development as a model species, and would enable comparative analysis of candidate biosynthetic genes in the different tissues of the coca plant. In this study, we evaluated the expression stability of nine candidate reference genes in E. coca ( Ec6409, Ec10131, Ec11142, Actin, APT2, EF1α, TPB1, Pex4, Pp2aa3). The expression of these genes was measured in seven tissues (flowers, stems, roots and four developmental leaf stages) and the stability of expression was assessed using three algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper). From our results we conclude that Ec10131 and TPB1 are the most appropriate internal reference genes in leaves (where the majority of cocaine is produced), while Ec10131 and Ec6409 are the most suitable internal reference genes across all of the tissues tested.

  9. Heavy metal concentrations of selected public parks of Istanbul City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir Goksel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cities, especially larger metropolises, parks are very important recreational areas where people usually have closer contact with flora. Therefore, the pollution level in the parks can have a greater effect on human health. Heavy metals are ubiquitous with the environment, as a result of both natural and anthropogenic activities, and humans are exposed to them through various pathways. Essentially, these areas are assumed to be less exposed to routine contaminants, but especially in metropolises, this assumption could prove false considering these areas are stuck within the confines of a city full of pollutant activity such as intense traffic. In this study; the relationships between heavy metal pollution levels (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and the pH and electrical conductivity (EC of soil samples were investigated from the parks on the Asian side of Istanbul. For this purpose, the most frequently visited 16 parks were selected as sampling sites. In the second part of the study, linear correlation is used for the data analysis.

  10. Urbanism, public safety and living. Specific reference to the city of Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli Ponce

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relation between urban concentration and public safety is acknowledged at international level, such as the contribution of planning and urban design to the mitigation and/or resolution of some conflicts within the urban space. In Spain some recent residential models, tending toward physical-social segregation, sprawl and fragmentation, have enlarged insecurity perception among citizens and increased the recourse to forms of privatization of safety supply. Spanish state legislation and autonomous regional legislation have recently tried to integrate crime prevention within planning and building practices through the promulgation of specific laws and rules. The paper reviews the main instruments used and discusses about possible future sceneries of the European city.

  11. Philosophy of science viewed through the lense of "References Publication Years spectrosopy" (RPYS)

    CERN Document Server

    Wray, K Brad

    2014-01-01

    We examine the sub-field of philosophy of science using a new method developed in information science, Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS). RPYS allows us to identify peak years in citations in a field, which promises to help scholars identify the key contributions to a field, and revolutionary discoveries in a field. We discovered that philosophy of science, a sub-field in the humanities, differs significantly from other fields examined with this method. Books play a more important role in philosophy of science than in the sciences. Further, Einstein's famous 1905 papers created a citation peak in the philosophy of science literature. But rather than being a contribution to the philosophy of science, their importance lies in the fact that they are revolutionary contributions to physics with important implications for philosophy of science.

  12. Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression studies in peach using real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RT-qPCR is a preferred method for rapid and reliable quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR in such studies requires the use of reference gene(s as an internal control to normalize mRNA levels between different samples for an exact comparison of gene expression level. However, recent studies have shown that no single reference gene is universal for all experiments. Thus, the identification of high quality reference gene(s is of paramount importance for the interpretation of data generated by RT-qPCR. Only a few studies on reference genes have been done in plants and none in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch. Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify suitable reference gene(s for normalization of gene expression in peach. Results In this work, eleven reference genes were investigated in different peach samples using RT-qPCR with SYBR green. These genes are: actin 2/7 (ACT, cyclophilin (CYP2, RNA polymerase II (RP II, phospholipase A2 (PLA2, ribosomal protein L13 (RPL13, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA, tubblin beta (TUB, tubblin alpha (TUA, translation elongation factor 2 (TEF2 and ubiquitin 10 (UBQ10. All eleven reference genes displayed a wide range of Cq values in all samples, indicating that they expressed variably. The stability of these genes except for RPL13 was determined by three different descriptive statistics, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, which produced highly comparable results. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that expression stability varied greatly between genes studied in peach. Based on the results from geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper analyses, for all the sample pools analyzed, TEF2, UBQ10 and RP II were found to be the most suitable reference genes with a very high statistical reliability, and TEF2 and RP II for the other sample series, while 18S rRNA, RPL13 and PLA2 were unsuitable as internal controls

  13. Reference Gene Selection for RT-qPCR Analysis of Flower Development in Chrysanthemum morifolium and Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai eQi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a popular and powerful tool used to understand the molecular mechanisms of flower development. However, the accuracy of this approach depends on the stability of reference genes. The capitulum of chrysanthemums is very special, which is consist of ray florets and disc florets. There are obvious differences between the two types of florets in symmetry, gender, histological structure and function. Furthermore, the ray florets have various shapes. The objective of present study was to identify the stable reference genes in Chrysanthemum morifolium and Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium during the process of flower development. In this study, nine candidate reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability acrosssamples during the process of flower development, and their stability was validated by four different algorithms (Bestkeeper, NormFinder, GeNorm and Ref-finder. SAND(SAND family protein was found to be the most stably expressed gene in all samples or different tissues during the process of C. lavandulifolium development. Both SAND and PGK (phosphoglycerate kinase performed most stable in Chinese large-flowered chrysanthemum cultivars, and PGK was the best in potted chrysanthemums. There were differences in best reference genes among varieties as the genetic background of them were complex. These studies provide guidance for selecting reference genes for analyzing the expression pattern of floral development genes in chrysanthemums.

  14. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization in Three Types of Rat Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Xia; Fan, Jie; Ma, Jing; Rao, Yi-Song; Zhang, Li; Yan, You-E

    2016-06-22

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is the most classical technique in the field of gene expression study. This method requires an appropriate reference gene to normalize mRNA levels. In this study, the expression stability of four frequently-used reference genes in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal beige adipose tissue (iBeAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) from obese and lean rats were evaluated by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Based on the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines, the two most stable reference genes were recommended in each type of adipose tissue. Two target genes were applied to test the stability of the reference genes. The geNorm and NormFinder results revealed that GAPDH and 36B4 exhibited the highest expression stabilities in eWAT, while 36B4 and β-actin had the highest expression stabilities in iBeAT and BAT. According to the results of the BestKeeper analysis, 36B4 was the most stable gene in eWAT, iBeAT and BAT, in terms of the coefficient of variance. In terms of the coefficient of correlation, GAPDH, 36B4 and β-actin were the most stable genes in eWAT, iBeAT and BAT, respectively. Additionally, expected results and statistical significance were obtained using a combination of two suitable reference genes for data normalization. In conclusion, 36B4 and GAPDH, in combination, are the best reference genes for eWAT, while 36B4 and β-actin are two most suitable reference genes for both iBeAT and BAT. We recommend using these reference genes accordingly.

  15. Reference gene selection for gene expression analysis of oocytes collected from dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Habermann Macabelli

    Full Text Available Oocytes from dairy cattle and buffaloes have severely compromised developmental competence during summer. While analysis of gene expression is a powerful technique for understanding the factors affecting developmental hindrance in oocytes, analysis by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR relies on the correct normalization by reference genes showing stable expression. Furthermore, several studies have found that genes commonly used as reference standards do not behave as expected depending on cell type and experimental design. Hence, it is recommended to evaluate expression stability of candidate reference genes for a specific experimental condition before employing them as internal controls. In acknowledgment of the importance of seasonal effects on oocyte gene expression, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of expression levels of ten well-known reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, GUSB, HIST1H2AG, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL15, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ using oocytes collected from different categories of dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer. A normalization factor was provided for cattle (RPL15, PPIA and GUSB and buffaloes (YWHAZ, GUSB and GAPDH based on the expression of the three most stable reference genes in each species. Normalization of non-reference target genes by these reference genes was shown to be considerably different from normalization by less stable reference genes, further highlighting the need for careful selection of internal controls. Therefore, due to the high variability of reference genes among experimental groups, we conclude that data normalized by internal controls can be misleading and should be compared to not normalized data or to data normalized by an external control in order to better interpret the biological relevance of gene expression analysis.

  16. Reference Gene Selection for Gene Expression Analysis of Oocytes Collected from Dairy Cattle and Buffaloes during Winter and Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Lindsay Unno; de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Júlia Gleyci; Ayres, Henderson; Ferraz, Márcio Leão; Watanabe, Yeda Fumie; Watanabe, Osnir Yoshime; Sangalli, Juliano Rodrigues; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Oocytes from dairy cattle and buffaloes have severely compromised developmental competence during summer. While analysis of gene expression is a powerful technique for understanding the factors affecting developmental hindrance in oocytes, analysis by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) relies on the correct normalization by reference genes showing stable expression. Furthermore, several studies have found that genes commonly used as reference standards do not behave as expected depending on cell type and experimental design. Hence, it is recommended to evaluate expression stability of candidate reference genes for a specific experimental condition before employing them as internal controls. In acknowledgment of the importance of seasonal effects on oocyte gene expression, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of expression levels of ten well-known reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, GUSB, HIST1H2AG, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL15, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) using oocytes collected from different categories of dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer. A normalization factor was provided for cattle (RPL15, PPIA and GUSB) and buffaloes (YWHAZ, GUSB and GAPDH) based on the expression of the three most stable reference genes in each species. Normalization of non-reference target genes by these reference genes was shown to be considerably different from normalization by less stable reference genes, further highlighting the need for careful selection of internal controls. Therefore, due to the high variability of reference genes among experimental groups, we conclude that data normalized by internal controls can be misleading and should be compared to not normalized data or to data normalized by an external control in order to better interpret the biological relevance of gene expression analysis. PMID:24676354

  17. MSA Bladder Reference Set Application: Charles Rosser-Hawaii (2014) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this proposal is straightforward. We wish to assay in a discovery set, reference set from EDRN, both PAI-1 and ANG promoters and genes for mutations. Then the results will be confirmed in a test cohort comprised of DNA extracted from fresh frozen tissue (n = 80 BCa patients). DNA from matching buffy coat from these 80 patients will serve as control. Extracted RNA can be assessed for difference in transcription. Furthermore, matched voided urine samples from these 80 patients are available to assess protein levels of PAI-1 and ANG by ELISA in addition to assessing activity of PAI-1 and ANG. At the end, we will link any genetic alteration with changes in RNA, protein and protein activity level as well as clinical features (e.g., age, race, tobacco history, grade, stage and outcomes). This comprehensive study will allow us with certainty to state if there are mutations in the promoters and genes of PAI-1 and ANG that are functional and thus may lead to the growth advantage that we previously demonstrated in our experiments.

  18. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Quercus suber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Miguel, Andreia; Ricardo, Cândido P; Miguel, Célia

    2012-01-01

    The use of reverse transcription quantitative PCR technology to assess gene expression levels requires an accurate normalization of data in order to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. Despite being the focus of several transcriptomics projects, oaks, and particularly cork oak (Quercus suber), have not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR data. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (Act, CACs, EF-1α, GAPDH, His3, PsaH, Sand, PP2A, ß-Tub and Ubq) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in cork oak. The transcript abundance of these genes was analysed in several tissues of cork oak, including leaves, reproduction cork, and periderm from branches at different developmental stages (1-, 2-, and 3-year old) or collected in different dates (active growth period versus dormancy). The three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and CV method) used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes identified Act and CACs as the most stable candidates when all the samples were analysed together, while ß-Tub and PsaH showed the lowest expression stability. However, when different tissues, developmental stages, and collection dates were analysed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels. In this study, and for the first time, we have identified and validated reference genes in cork oak that can be used for quantification of target gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions and will be useful as a starting point for gene expression studies in other oaks.

  19. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Quercus suber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Marum

    Full Text Available The use of reverse transcription quantitative PCR technology to assess gene expression levels requires an accurate normalization of data in order to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. Despite being the focus of several transcriptomics projects, oaks, and particularly cork oak (Quercus suber, have not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR data. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (Act, CACs, EF-1α, GAPDH, His3, PsaH, Sand, PP2A, ß-Tub and Ubq were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in cork oak. The transcript abundance of these genes was analysed in several tissues of cork oak, including leaves, reproduction cork, and periderm from branches at different developmental stages (1-, 2-, and 3-year old or collected in different dates (active growth period versus dormancy. The three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and CV method used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes identified Act and CACs as the most stable candidates when all the samples were analysed together, while ß-Tub and PsaH showed the lowest expression stability. However, when different tissues, developmental stages, and collection dates were analysed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels. In this study, and for the first time, we have identified and validated reference genes in cork oak that can be used for quantification of target gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions and will be useful as a starting point for gene expression studies in other oaks.

  20. Artificial Turf: Contested Terrains for Precautionary Public Health with Particular Reference to Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watterson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Millions of adults, children and teenagers use artificial sports pitches and playgrounds globally. Pitches are artificial grass and bases may be made up of crumb rubber from recycled tires or new rubber and sand. Player injury on pitches was a major concern. Now, debates about health focus on possible exposure and uptake of chemicals within pitch and base materials. Research has looked at potential risks to users from hazardous substances such as metals, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including benzo (a (e pyrenes and phthalates: some are carcinogens and others may be endocrine disruptors and have developmental reproductive effects. Small environmental monitoring and modelling studies, often with significant data gaps about exposure, range of substances monitored, occupational exposures, types of surfaces monitored and study length across seasons, indicated little risk to sports people and children but some risk to installation workers. A few, again often small, studies indicated potentially harmful human effects relating to skin, respiration and cancers. Only one widely cited biomonitoring study has been done and no rigorous cancer epidemiological studies exist. Unravelling exposures and uptake over decades may prove complex. European regulators have strengthened controls over crumb rubber chemicals, set different standards for toys and crumb rubber pitches. Bigger US studies now underway attempting to fill some of the data gaps will report between 2017 and 2019. Public health professionals in the meantime may draw on established principles to support greater caution in setting crumb rubber exposure limits and controls.

  1. Liver Full Reference Set Application: David Lubman - Univ of Michigan (2011) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work we will perform the next step in the biomarker development and validation. This step will be the Phase 2 validation of glycoproteins that have passed Phase 1 blinded validation using ELISA kits based on target glycoproteins selected based on our previous work. This will be done in a large Phase 2 sample set obtained in a multicenter study funded by the EDRN. The assays will be performed in our research lab located in the Center for Cancer Proteomics in the University of Michigan Medical Center. This study will include patients in whom serum was stored for future validation and includes samples from early HCC (n = 158), advanced cases (n=214) and cirrhotic controls (n = 417). These samples will be supplied by the EDRN (per Dr. Jo Ann Rinaudo) and will be analyzed in a blinded fashion by Dr. Feng from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center. This phase 2 study was designed to have above 90% power at one-sided 5% type-I error for comparing the joint sensitivity and specificity for differentiating early stage HCC from cirrhotic patients between AFP and a new marker. Sample sizes of 200 for early stage HCC and 400 for cirrhotics were required to achieve the stated power (14). We will select our candidates for this larger phase validation set based on the results of previous work. These will include HGF and CD14 and the results of these assays will be used to evaluate the performance of each of these markers and combinations of HGF and CD14 and AFP and HGF. It is expected that each assay will be repeated three times for each marker and will also be performed for AFP as the standard for comparison. 250 uL of each sample is requested for analysis.

  2. Selection of suitable endogenous reference genes for qPCR in kidney and hypothalamus of rats under testosterone influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Khadijeh; Loh, Su Yi; Salleh, Naguib; Lam, Sau Kuen; Hoe, See Ziau

    2017-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is the most reliable and accurate technique for analyses of gene expression. Endogenous reference genes are being used to normalize qPCR data even though their expression may vary under different conditions and in different tissues. Nonetheless, verification of expression of reference genes in selected studied tissue is essential in order to accurately assess the level of expression of target genes of interest. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to examine six commonly used reference genes in order to identify the gene being expressed most constantly under the influence of testosterone in the kidneys and hypothalamus. The reference genes include glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), actin beta (ACTB), beta-2 microglobulin (B2m), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT), peptidylprolylisomerase A (Ppia) and hydroxymethylbilane synthase (Hmbs). The cycle threshold (Ct) value for each gene was determined and data obtained were analyzed using the software programs NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper, and rank aggregation. Results showed that Hmbs and Ppia genes were the most stably expressed in the hypothalamus. Meanwhile, in kidneys, Hmbs and GAPDH appeared to be the most constant genes. In conclusion, variations in expression levels of reference genes occur in kidneys and hypothalamus under similar conditions; thus, it is important to verify reference gene levels in these tissues prior to commencing any studies.

  3. Selected Publications on Teenagers and Alcohol. Grouped Interest Guide No. 8-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This brief bibliography is part of a series produced by the Current Awareness Services of the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information, and informational service of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The publications provide readers with regularly codified bibliographic references to recent, topical literature in…

  4. Optimal Selection of Reference Set for the Nearest Neighbor Classification by Tabu Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿宾; 孙广煜

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is presented to find the reference set for the nearest neighbor classifier. The optimal reference set, which has minimum sample size and satisfies a certain error rate threshold, is obtained through a Tabu search algorithm. When the error rate threshold is set to zero, the algorithm obtains a near minimal consistent subset of a given training set. While the threshold is set to a small appropriate value, the obtained reference set may compensate the bias of the nearest neighbor estimate. An aspiration criterion for Tabu search is introduced, which aims to prevent the search process from the inefficient wandering between the feasible and infeasible regions in the search space and speed up the convergence. Experimental results based on a number of typical data sets are presented and analyzed to illustrate the benefits of the proposed method. Compared to conventional methods, such as CNN and Dasarathy's algorithm, the size of the reduced reference sets is much smaller, and the nearest neighbor classification performance is better, especially when the error rate thresholds are set to appropriate nonzero values. The experimental results also illustrate that the MCS (minimal consistent set) of Dasarathy's algorithm is not minimal, and its candidate consistent set is not always ensured to reduce monotonically. A counter example is also given to confirm this claim.

  5. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Reaumuria soongorica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xia; Dong, Xicun; Zhang, Wen; Yin, Hengxia; Xiao, Honglang; Chen, Peng; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Despite its superiority for evaluating gene expression, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results can be significantly biased by the use of inappropriate reference genes under different experimental conditions. Reaumuria soongorica is a dominant species of desert ecosystems in arid central Asia. Given the increasing interest in ecological engineering and potential genetic resources for arid agronomy, it is important to analyze gene function. However, systematic evaluation of stable reference genes should be performed prior to such analyses. In this study, the stabilities of 10 candidate reference genes were analyzed under 4 kinds of abiotic stresses (drought, salt, dark, and heat) within 4 accessions (HG010, HG020, XGG030, and XGG040) from 2 different habitats using 3 algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper). After validation of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large unite (rbcL) expression pattern, our data suggested that histone H2A (H2A) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-2 (EIF4A2) were the most stable reference genes, cyclophilin (CYCL) was moderate, and elongation factor 1α (EF1α) was the worst choice. This first systematic analysis for stably expressed genes will facilitate future functional analyses and deep mining of genetic resources in R. soongorica and other species of the Reaumuria genus.

  6. Anaerobic Digestion. Selected Instructional Activities and References. Instructional Resources Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert D., Comp.

    Focusing specifically on the wastewater treatment process of anaerobic digestion, this document identifies instructional and reference materials for use by professionals in the field in the development and implementation of new programs or in the updating of existing programs. It is designed to help trainers, plant operators, educators, engineers,…

  7. Use of Z-scores to select a fetal biometric reference curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sananes, N; Guigue, V; Kohler, M; Bouffet, N; Cancellier, M; Hornecker, F; Hunsinger, M C; Kohler, A; Mager, C; Neumann, M; Schmerber, E; Tanghe, M; Nisand, I; Favre, R

    2009-10-01

    Fetal biometric data are a major part of prenatal ultrasound screening in the general population. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of choice of reference curve on the quality of screening for growth abnormalities, using a statistical tool based on Z-scores. The biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) were measured in 9699 ultrasound scans during the second trimester (20-24 weeks of gestation) and 8100 scans during the third trimester (30-34 weeks of gestation). These biometric data were all transformed retrospectively into Z-scores, calculated using five reference curves: those published by Snijders and Nicolaides (1994), Chitty et al. (1994), Kurmanavicius et al. (1999) and Salomon et al. (2006), and curves used at our ultrasound unit generated from a sample of the local population. The Z-score distribution was compared with the expected normal distribution by calculation of the mean and SD, and using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The sensitivity and specificity of each reference curve were calculated to determine the capacity of these curves to identify fetuses with measurements 95(th) percentile for each parameter. Most of the distribution curves determined from the Z-scores of the measurements taken differed significantly from a non-skewed standard normal curve (mean of 0 and SD of 1). In our population, the Chitty reference curves gave the best results for identifying fetuses with abnormal ( 95(th) percentile) BPD (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 97.24%), HC (sensitivity, 96.07%; specificity, 98.89%) and FL (sensitivity, 96.46%; specificity, 98.80%). The best reference for AC was the Salomon curve (sensitivity, 72.25%; specificity, 99.64%). Checking for good concordance between the study population and chosen reference data is a key initial step in quality control. Z-scores are a simple tool for evaluating the performance of each reference curve for a given population in order to

  8. Selection and validation of reference genes for miRNA expression studies during porcine pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn M Wessels

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs comprise a family of small non-coding RNAs that modulate several developmental and physiological processes including pregnancy. Their ubiquitous presence is confirmed in mammals, worms, flies and plants. Although rapid advances have been made in microRNA research, information on stable reference genes for validation of microRNA expression is still lacking. Real time PCR is a widely used tool to quantify gene transcripts. An appropriate reference gene must be chosen to minimize experimental error in this system. A small difference in miRNA levels between experimental samples can be biologically meaningful as these entities can affect multiple targets in a pathway. This study examined the suitability of six commercially available reference genes (RNU1A, RNU5A, RNU6B, SNORD25, SCARNA17, and SNORA73A in maternal-fetal tissues from healthy and spontaneously arresting/dying conceptuses from sows were separately analyzed at gestation day 20. Comparisons were also made with non-pregnant endometrial tissues from sows. Spontaneous fetal loss is a prime concern to the commercial pork industry. Our laboratory has previously identified deficits in vasculature development at maternal-fetal interface as one of the major participating causes of fetal loss. Using this well-established model, we have extended our studies to identify suitable microRNA reference genes. A methodical approach to assessing suitability was adopted using standard curve and melting curve analysis, PCR product sequencing, real time PCR expression in a panel of gestational tissues, and geNorm and NormFinder analysis. Our quantitative real time PCR analysis confirmed expression of all 6 reference genes in maternal and fetal tissues. All genes were uniformly expressed in tissues from healthy and spontaneously arresting conceptus attachment sites. Comparisons between tissue types (maternal/fetal/non-pregnant revealed significant differences for RNU5A, RNU6B, SCARNA17, and SNORA73A

  9. Public Involvement in Environmental Issues with Reference to Jajahan Kuala Krai, Kelantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghazi Ismail

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems are very serious and complex to be resolved through science approach, technical and legislation solely. Hence, the inclucive and active involvement and participation of civil is wanted. Civil society is inter parties interested and sure they involved directly with every planned development project and practiced at area they. Earlier study has proven that public societal involvement in environmental issue is still low and minimum. The study conducted in Jajahan Kuala Krai, Kelantan is intended to find out how far population knowledge in study area on environmental issues and the level of involvement the in said issue. This study involved 174 respondents. The study between demographic factor with respondent knowledge in environmental issues shows that is a significant relationship between respondent income and education with value of p respectively 0.039 and 0.036. The association between demographic factor with respondent's knowledge in local environmental issue on the other hand shows that there are significant relationship between gender, age, income, education and resident period with the value of p respectively 0.045, 0.000, 0.029, 0.046 and 0.000. For demographic factor in association with environmental issues, has shown that there is a significant relationship between age, income, education and resident period with the value of p respectively 0.036, 0.041, 0.001 and 0.001. The results that found respondent income factor and education did influence on respondents knowledge level and involvement in environmental issues. As a conclusion, an actively engaged society in related environmental issues is very important due to the assurance of environmental quality that always will be protected.

  10. Selection of reference genes for quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction normalization in Brassica napus under various stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Chen, Yu; Fang, Hedi; Shi, Haifeng; Chen, Keping; Zhang, Zhiyan; Tan, Xiaoli

    2014-10-01

    Data normalization is essential for reliable output of quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays, as the unsuitable choice of reference gene(s), whose expression might be influenced by exogenous treatments in plant tissues, could cause misinterpretation of results. To date, no systematic studies on reference genes have been performed in stressed Brassica napus. In this study, we investigated the expression variations of nine candidate reference genes in 40 samples of B. napus leaves subjected to various exogenous treatments. Parallel analyses by geNorm and NormFinder revealed that optimal reference genes differed across the different sets of samples. The best-ranked reference genes were PP2A and TIP41 for salt stress, TIP41 and ACT7 for heavy metal (Cr(6+)) stress, PP2A and UBC21 for drought stress, F-box and SAND for cold stress, F-box and ZNF for salicylic acid stress, TIP41, ACT7, and PP2A for methyl jasmonate stress, TIP41 and ACT7 for abscisic acid stress, and TIP41, UBC21, and PP2A for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum stress. Two newly employed reference genes, TIP41 and PP2A, showed better performances, suggesting their suitability in multiple conditions. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes, the expression patterns of BnWRKY40 and BnMKS1 were studied in parallel. This study is the first systematic analysis of reference gene selection for qRT-PCR normalization in B. napus, an agriculturally important crop, under different stress conditions. The results will contribute toward more accurate and widespread use of qRT-PCR in gene analysis of the genus Brassica.

  11. Selection of test and reference areas for the Indian Deepsea Environment Experiment (INDEX)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Nath, B.N.

    of the suction device used for resuspension of sediment. On the basis of morphological analysis and nodule distribution, two areas. Tl and Al, were selected as the best suited pair for the disturbance and monitoring experiment...

  12. Effect of reference genome selection on the performance of computational methods for genome-wide protein-protein interaction prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaykumar Yogesh Muley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent progress in computational methods for predicting physical and functional protein-protein interactions has provided new insights into the complexity of biological processes. Most of these methods assume that functionally interacting proteins are likely to have a shared evolutionary history. This history can be traced out for the protein pairs of a query genome by correlating different evolutionary aspects of their homologs in multiple genomes known as the reference genomes. These methods include phylogenetic profiling, gene neighborhood and co-occurrence of the orthologous protein coding genes in the same cluster or operon. These are collectively known as genomic context methods. On the other hand a method called mirrortree is based on the similarity of phylogenetic trees between two interacting proteins. Comprehensive performance analyses of these methods have been frequently reported in literature. However, very few studies provide insight into the effect of reference genome selection on detection of meaningful protein interactions. METHODS: We analyzed the performance of four methods and their variants to understand the effect of reference genome selection on prediction efficacy. We used six sets of reference genomes, sampled in accordance with phylogenetic diversity and relationship between organisms from 565 bacteria. We used Escherichia coli as a model organism and the gold standard datasets of interacting proteins reported in DIP, EcoCyc and KEGG databases to compare the performance of the prediction methods. CONCLUSIONS: Higher performance for predicting protein-protein interactions was achievable even with 100-150 bacterial genomes out of 565 genomes. Inclusion of archaeal genomes in the reference genome set improves performance. We find that in order to obtain a good performance, it is better to sample few genomes of related genera of prokaryotes from the large number of available genomes. Moreover, such a sampling

  13. κMicroarray analysis of relative gene expression stability for selection of internal reference genes in the rhesus macaque brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbanski Henryk F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normalization of gene expression data refers to the comparison of expression values using reference standards that are consistent across all conditions of an experiment. In PCR studies, genes designated as "housekeeping genes" have been used as internal reference genes under the assumption that their expression is stable and independent of experimental conditions. However, verification of this assumption is rarely performed. Here we assess the use of gene microarray analysis to facilitate selection of internal reference sequences with higher expression stability across experimental conditions than can be expected using traditional selection methods. We recently demonstrated that relative gene expression from qRT-PCR data normalized using GAPDH, ALG9 and RPL13A expression values mirrored relative expression using quantile normalization in Robust Multichip Analysis (RMA on the Affymetrix® GeneChip® rhesus Macaque Genome Array. Having shown that qRT-PCR and Affymetrix® GeneChip® data from the same hormone replacement therapy (HRT study yielded concordant results, we used quantile-normalized gene microarray data to identify the most stably expressed among probe sets for prospective internal reference genes across three brain regions from the HRT study and an additional study of normally menstruating rhesus macaques (cycle study. Gene selection was limited to 575 previously published human "housekeeping" genes. Twelve animals were used per study, and three brain regions were analyzed from each animal. Gene expression stabilities were determined using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software packages. Results Sequences co-annotated for ribosomal protein S27a (RPS27A, and ubiquitin were among the most stably expressed under all conditions and selection criteria used for both studies. Higher annotation quality on the human GeneChip® facilitated more targeted analysis than could be accomplished using the rhesus GeneChip®. In

  14. Verification of selected anatomic landmarks used as reference points for universal goniometer positioning during knee joint mobility range measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, P; Lewandowski, J; Marecki, B

    2001-01-01

    The study was concerned with verification of the selection of reference points used for knee joint mobility range goniometry. The verification was based on photometric and electrogoniometric methods of femorotibial angle measurements. The material for measurements were three knee joint preparations. The obtained data were subjected to descriptive analysis; photographic documentation of geometric relations between the reference points was also prepared. Considerable divergence of measurement results was observed with respect to the actual knee joint flexion angle, amounting even to 16 degrees. The differences are due to the selection of anatomic landmarks, and depend in particular on the distance of the point to which the goniometer axis is applied from the approximate location of the mechanical joint axis. The corrections of knee joint flexion angle measurements were also estimated on the basis of data obtained from the photographs and the derived mathematical formula.

  15. Development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X; Xu, X; Cui, W; Xi, Z

    2001-08-01

    The development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material (CRM) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is described; this is the first natural matrix CRM for organic environmental analysis in China. The homogeneity and stability of this material have been tested by HPLC. The concentrations of several PAH were determined by use of two independent, different methods--solvent extraction-HPLC analysis with UV detection coupled with fluorescence detection (FLD) and solvent extraction, isolation with a silica column, and GC analysis with flame ionization detection (FID). Five certified values were determined: phenanthrene 7.1 +/- 2.6 microg g(-1), anthracene 2.0 +/- 0.8 microg g(-1), fluoranthene 7.4 +/- 1.9 microg g(-1), pyrene 7 +/- 2 microg g(-1), and benzo[a]pyrene 1.3 +/- 0.3 microg g(-1). Reference values for several other PAH are also suggested.

  16. Framework for Selecting Best Practices in Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Eileen; de Colombani, Pierpaolo

    2015-11-17

    Evidence-based public health has commonly relied on findings from empirical studies, or research-based evidence. However, this paper advocates that practice-based evidence derived from programmes implemented in real-life settings is likely to be a more suitable source of evidence for inspiring and guiding public health programmes. Selection of best practices from the array of implemented programmes is one way of generating such practice-based evidence. Yet the lack of consensus on the definition and criteria for practice-based evidence and best practices has limited their application in public health so far. To address the gap in literature on practice-based evidence, this paper hence proposes measures of success for public health interventions by developing an evaluation framework for selection of best practices. The proposed framework was synthesised from a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on existing evaluation frameworks for public health programmes as well as processes employed by health-related organisations when selecting best practices. A best practice is firstly defined as an intervention that has shown evidence of effectiveness in a particular setting and is likely to be replicable to other situations. Regardless of the area of public health, interventions should be evaluated by their context, process and outcomes. A best practice should hence meet most, if not all, of eight identified evaluation criteria: relevance, community participation, stakeholder collaboration, ethical soundness, replicability, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Ultimately, a standardised framework for selection of best practices will improve the usefulness and credibility of practice-based evidence in informing evidence-based public health interventions. Significance for public healthBest practices are a valuable source of practice-based evidence on effective public health interventions implemented in real-life settings. Yet, despite the

  17. Framework for Selecting Best Practices in Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Colombani, Pierpaolo

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based public health has commonly relied on findings from empirical studies, or research-based evidence. However, this paper advocates that practice-based evidence derived from programmes implemented in real-life settings is likely to be a more suitable source of evidence for inspiring and guiding public health programmes. Selection of best practices from the array of implemented programmes is one way of generating such practice-based evidence. Yet the lack of consensus on the definition and criteria for practice-based evidence and best practices has limited their application in public health so far. To address the gap in literature on practice-based evidence, this paper hence proposes measures of success for public health interventions by developing an evaluation framework for selection of best practices. The proposed framework was synthesised from a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on existing evaluation frameworks for public health programmes as well as processes employed by health-related organisations when selecting best practices. A best practice is firstly defined as an intervention that has shown evidence of effectiveness in a particular setting and is likely to be replicable to other situations. Regardless of the area of public health, interventions should be evaluated by their context, process and outcomes. A best practice should hence meet most, if not all, of eight identified evaluation criteria: relevance, community participation, stakeholder collaboration, ethical soundness, replicability, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Ultimately, a standardised framework for selection of best practices will improve the usefulness and credibility of practice-based evidence in informing evidence-based public health interventions. Significance for public health Best practices are a valuable source of practice-based evidence on effective public health interventions implemented in real-life settings. Yet, despite

  18. Choosing a Public-Spirited Leader. An experimental investigation of political selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2017-01-01

    In this experiment, voters select a leader who can either act in the public interest, i.e. make efficient and equitable policy choices, or act in a corrupt way, i.e. use public funds for private gain. Voters can observe candidates’ pro-social behavior and their score in a cognitive ability test...... prior to the election, and this fact is known to candidates. Therefore, self-interested candidates have incentives to act in a pro-social manner, i.e. to pretend to be public-spirited leaders. We find that both truly pro-social and egoistic leaders co-exist, but that political selection is ineffective...... in choosing public-spirited leaders. The main reason is that egoistic candidates strategically pretend to be pro-social to increase their chances of winning the election....

  19. IDENTIFYING OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS TO SELECT SUITABLE DECISION MODELS FOR A PUBLIC SECTOR EPROCUREMENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Public sector procurement should be a transparent and fair process. Strict legal requirements are enforced on public sector procurement to make it a standardised process. To make fair decisions on selecting suppliers, a practical method which adheres to legal requirements is important. The research that is the base for this paper aimed at identifying a suitable Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA method for the specific legal and functional needs of the Maldivian Public Sector. To identify such operational requirements, a set of focus group interviews were conducted in the Maldives with public officials responsible for procurement decision making. Based on the operational requirements identified through focus groups, criteria-based evaluation is done on published MCDA methods to identify the suitable methods for e-procurement decision making. This paper describes the identification of the operational requirements and the results of the evaluation to select suitable decision models for the Maldivian context.

  20. [Alpha-amylase determination in acute pancreatitis: selection of a reference standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, C; Colombo, J P; Lorenz, E

    1979-09-01

    It has been investigated which of the amylase determinations agrees most closely with the clinical diagnosis in a group of patients with acute pancreatitis and in a group with other diseases producing amylase elevation. By measuring the amylase in a urine specimen related to its creatinine concentration fewer values within the range of reference in patients with pancreatitis and also fewer falsely elevated values in the second group were observed when compared to amylase in plasma, urinary amylase activity per volume or the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio.

  1. A Formal Model of Corruption, Dishonesty and Selection into Public Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfort, Sebastian; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical studies have found that in high corruption countries, inherently more dishonest individuals are more likely to want to enter into public service, while the reverse is true in low corruption countries. In this note, we provide a simple formal model that rationalizes this empirical...... pattern as the result of countries being stuck in different selfsustaining equilibria where high levels of corruption and negative selection into public service are mutually reinforcing....

  2. The International Federation of Library Associations. A Selected List of References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambio, Edward P., Comp.

    Prepared in anticipation of the 40th session of the General Council of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), this bibliography cites materials issued by or under the auspices of the federation and its council, sections, and committees, as well as selected works about IFLA and its various subdivisions. The citations are…

  3. Evaluation Of Tolerance And Sensitivity Of Selected Plant Species With Special Reference To Gasoline Exhaust Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Garg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emissions from motor vehicle exhausts have been shown to have deleterious effects on the physiology of plant species. Our present study focuses on evaluating the tolerance and sensitivity of selected plant species viz. Dracaena deremensis good absorber of VOCs and Dianthus caryophyllus susceptible to ethylene and formaldehyde VOCs at selected sites which are differentiated on the basis of high gasoline exhaust emission source Site I and less gasoline exhaust emission source Site II amp III. For this Air Pollution Tolerance Index APTI and selected physiological parameters were taken into account i.e. total chlorophyll ascorbic acid pH relative water content total protein and Nitrate reductase NR. The results showed that D. deremensis have high chlorophyll content ascorbic acid content protein content with high NR activity as compared to D. caryophyllus at all the selected sites. As per Air Pollution Tolerance Index APTI D. deremensis has value of 60.60 55.25 amp 55.93 at Site I II amp III respectively which comes under tolerant range and D . caryophyllus has value of 14.82 15.41 amp 15.93 at Site I II amp III respectively which comes under sensitive range. Thus study ends up with the conclusion that D. deremensis was found to be more tolerant than D. caryophyllus at all sites and thus D. deremensis can be used as a tool in mitigation of gasoline exhaust pollution and D. caryophyllus can be used as an bioindicator for indicating gasoline exhaust pollution.

  4. The International Federation of Library Associations. A Selected List of References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambio, Edward P., Comp.

    Prepared in anticipation of the 40th session of the General Council of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), this bibliography cites materials issued by or under the auspices of the federation and its council, sections, and committees, as well as selected works about IFLA and its various subdivisions. The citations are…

  5. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) using qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrero, Angeles; Die, Jose V; Román, Belén; Gómez, Pedro; Nadal, Salvador; González-Verdejo, Clara I

    2011-05-25

    The zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) is an important food crop, the transcriptomics of which are a fundamental tool to accelerate the development of new varieties by breeders. However, the suitability of reference genes for data normalization in zucchini has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of 13 genes for their potential use as reference genes in quantitative real-time PCR. Assays were performed on 34 cDNA samples representing plants under different stresses and at different developmental stages. The application of geNorm and NormFinder software revealed that the use of a combination of UFP, EF-1A, RPL36aA, PP2A, and CAC genes for the different experimental sets was the best strategy for reliable normalization. In contrast, 18S rRNA and TUA were less stable and unsuitable for use as internal controls. These results provide the possibility to allow more accurate use of qPCR in this horticultural crop.

  6. Comprehensive selection of reference genes for gene expression normalization in sugarcane by real time quantitative rt-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ling

    Full Text Available The increasingly used real time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR method for gene expression analysis requires one or several reference gene(s acting as normalization factor(s. In order to facilitate gene expression studies in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum, a non-model plant with limited genome information, the stability of 13 candidate reference genes was evaluated. The geNorm, NormFinder and deltaCt methods were used for selecting stably expressed internal controls across different tissues and under various experimental treatments. These results revealed that, among these 13 candidate reference genes, GAPDH, eEF-1a and eIF-4α were the most stable and suitable for use as normalization factors across all various experimental samples. In addition, APRT could be a candidate for examining the relationship between gene copy number and transcript levels in sugarcane tissue samples. According to the results evaluated by geNorm, combining CUL and eEF-1α in hormone treatment experiments; CAC and CUL in abiotic stress tests; GAPDH, eEF-1a and CUL in all treatment samples plus CAC, CUL, APRT and TIPS-41 in cultivar tissues as groups for normalization would lead to more accurate and reliable expression quantification in sugarcane. This is the first systematic validation of reference genes for quantification of transcript expression profiles in sugarcane. This study should provide useful information for selecting reference genes for more accurate quantification of gene expression in sugarcane and other plant species.

  7. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Study in Pulp and Seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz dos Santos, Lucas; Santana Silva, Raner José; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Barbosa de Paula, Márcia Fabiana; Ludke Falcão, Loeni; Legavre, Thierry; Alves, Rafael Moyses

    2016-01-01

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. ex Spreng.] Schum) is a species of high economic importance in Brazil with great potential at international level due to the multiple uses of both its seeds and pulp in the industry of sweets and cosmetics. For this reason, the cupuassu breeding program focused on the selection of genotypes with high pulp and seed quality—selection associated with the understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit formation. Gene expression is one of the most used approaches related to such understanding. In this sense, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool, since it rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. The analysis by qPCR and the correct interpretation of data depend on signal normalization using reference genes, i.e. genes presenting a uniform pattern of expression in the analyzed samples. Here, we selected and analyzed the expression of five genes from cupuassu (ACP, ACT, GAPDH, MDH, TUB) to be used as candidates for reference genes on pulp and seed of young, maturing and mature cupuassu fruits. The evaluation of the gene expression stability was obtained using the NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper programs. In general, our results indicated that the GAPDH and MDH genes constituted the best combination as reference genes to analyze the expression of cupuassu samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference gene definition in cupuassu, and these results will support subsequent analysis related to gene expression studies in cupuassu plants subjected to different biotic or abiotic conditions as well as serve as a tool for diversity analysis based on pulp and seed quality. PMID:27501324

  8. Participation in a public insurance program: subsidies, crowd-out, and adverse selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Stephen H; Marquis, M Susan

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how varying the level of subsidies affects participation in a public insurance program, crowd-out of private insurance, and adverse selection. We study the experience in Washington's Basic Health program in 1997. Findings show that adverse selection is not a problem in voluntary public programs. Increasing subsidies have only modest effects on participation in subsidized programs, though the gains are not at the expense of the private market. Overall participation in the subsidized plan is also modest, even though participants benefit from it. The challenge to policymakers is to find program design characteristics, beyond subsidies, that attract the uninsured.

  9. Heuristic Optimization Approach to Selecting a Transport Connection in City Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kul’ka Jozef

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a heuristic optimization approach to select a suitable transport connection in the framework of a city public transport. This methodology was applied on a part of the public transport in Košice, because it is the second largest city in the Slovak Republic and its network of the public transport creates a complex transport system, which consists of three different transport modes, namely from the bus transport, tram transport and trolley-bus transport. This solution focused on examining the individual transport services and their interconnection in relevant interchange points.

  10. Selection of reference genes for quantitative gene expression normalization in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutelings Godfrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is currently the most accurate method for detecting differential gene expression. Such an approach depends on the identification of uniformly expressed 'housekeeping genes' (HKGs. Extensive transcriptomic data mining and experimental validation in different model plants have shown that the reliability of these endogenous controls can be influenced by the plant species, growth conditions and organs/tissues examined. It is therefore important to identify the best reference genes to use in each biological system before using qRT-PCR to investigate differential gene expression. In this paper we evaluate different candidate HKGs for developmental transcriptomic studies in the economically-important flax fiber- and oil-crop (Linum usitatissimum L. Results Specific primers were designed in order to quantify the expression levels of 20 different potential housekeeping genes in flax roots, internal- and external-stem tissues, leaves and flowers at different developmental stages. After calculations of PCR efficiencies, 13 HKGs were retained and their expression stabilities evaluated by the computer algorithms geNorm and NormFinder. According to geNorm, 2 Transcriptional Elongation Factors (TEFs and 1 Ubiquitin gene are necessary for normalizing gene expression when all studied samples are considered. However, only 2 TEFs are required for normalizing expression in stem tissues. In contrast, NormFinder identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH as the most stably expressed gene when all samples were grouped together, as well as when samples were classed into different sub-groups. qRT-PCR was then used to investigate the relative expression levels of two splice variants of the flax LuMYB1 gene (homologue of AtMYB59. LuMYB1-1 and LuMYB1-2 were highly expressed in the internal stem tissues as compared to outer stem tissues and other samples. This result was confirmed with both ge

  11. Group-Level Selection Increases Cooperation in the Public Goods Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Catherine C; Fatas, Enrique; Godoy, Sara; Wilson, Rick K

    2016-01-01

    When groups compete for resources, some groups will be more successful than others, forcing out less successful groups. Group-level selection is the most extreme form of group competition, where the weaker group ceases to exist, becoming extinct. We implement group-level selection in a controlled laboratory experiment in order to study its impact on human cooperation. The experiment uses variations on the standard linear public goods game. Group-level selection operates through competition for survival: the least successful, lowest-earning groups become extinct, in the sense that they no longer are able to play the game. Additional control treatments include group comparison without extinction, and extinction of the least successful individuals across groups. We find that group-level extinction produces very high contributions to the provision of the public good, while group comparison alone or individual extinction fail to cause higher contributions. Our results provide stark evidence that group-level selection enhances within-group cooperation.

  12. Mapping of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels in outdoor environment and comparing with reference levels for general public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansiz, Mustafa; Abbasov, Teymuraz; Kurt, M Bahattin; Celik, A Recai

    2016-11-02

    In this study, radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels were measured on the main streets in the city center of Diyarbakır, Turkey. Measured electric field levels were plotted on satellite imagery of Diyarbakır and were compared with exposure guidelines published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Exposure measurements were performed in dense urban, urban and suburban areas each day for 7 consecutive days. The measurement system consisted of high precision and portable spectrum analyzer, three-axis electric field antenna, connection cable and a laptop which was used to record the measurement samples as a data logger. The highest exposure levels were detected for two places, which are called Diclekent and Batıkent. It was observed that the highest instantaneous electric field strength value for Batıkent was 7.18 V/m and for Diclekent was 5.81 V/m. It was statistically determined that the main contributor band to the total exposure levels was Universal Mobile Telecommunications System band. Finally, it was concluded that all measured exposure levels were lower than the reference levels recommended by ICNIRP for general public health.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 2 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.64.

  13. Reference genes selection and normalization of oxidative stress responsive genes upon different temperature stress conditions in Hypericum perforatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velada, Isabel; Ragonezi, Carla; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit; Cardoso, Hélia

    2014-01-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a widely used technique for gene expression analysis. The reliability of this method depends largely on the suitable selection of stable reference genes for accurate data normalization. Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort) is a field growing plant that is frequently exposed to a variety of adverse environmental stresses that can negatively affect its productivity. This widely known medicinal plant with broad pharmacological properties (anti-depressant, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and antibacterial) has been overlooked with respect to the identification of reference genes suitable for RT-qPCR data normalization. In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were analyzed in H. perforatum plants subjected to cold and heat stresses. The expression stability of these genes was assessed using GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The results revealed that the ranking of stability among the three algorithms showed only minor differences within each treatment. The best-ranked reference genes differed between cold- and heat-treated samples; nevertheless, TUB was the most stable gene in both experimental conditions. GSA and GAPDH were found to be reliable reference genes in cold-treated samples, while GAPDH showed low expression stability in heat-treated samples. 26SrRNA and H2A had the highest stabilities in the heat assay, whereas H2A was less stable in the cold assay. Finally, AOX1, AOX2, CAT1 and CHS genes, associated with plant stress responses and oxidative stress, were used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. These target genes showed differential expression profiles over time in treated samples. This study not only is the first systematic analysis for the selection of suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in H. perforatum subjected to temperature stress conditions, but may also provide valuable information

  14. Reference genes selection and normalization of oxidative stress responsive genes upon different temperature stress conditions in Hypericum perforatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Velada

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR is a widely used technique for gene expression analysis. The reliability of this method depends largely on the suitable selection of stable reference genes for accurate data normalization. Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort is a field growing plant that is frequently exposed to a variety of adverse environmental stresses that can negatively affect its productivity. This widely known medicinal plant with broad pharmacological properties (anti-depressant, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and antibacterial has been overlooked with respect to the identification of reference genes suitable for RT-qPCR data normalization. In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were analyzed in H. perforatum plants subjected to cold and heat stresses. The expression stability of these genes was assessed using GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The results revealed that the ranking of stability among the three algorithms showed only minor differences within each treatment. The best-ranked reference genes differed between cold- and heat-treated samples; nevertheless, TUB was the most stable gene in both experimental conditions. GSA and GAPDH were found to be reliable reference genes in cold-treated samples, while GAPDH showed low expression stability in heat-treated samples. 26SrRNA and H2A had the highest stabilities in the heat assay, whereas H2A was less stable in the cold assay. Finally, AOX1, AOX2, CAT1 and CHS genes, associated with plant stress responses and oxidative stress, were used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. These target genes showed differential expression profiles over time in treated samples. This study not only is the first systematic analysis for the selection of suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in H. perforatum subjected to temperature stress conditions, but may also provide

  15. Exercise induced stress in horses: Selection of the most stable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestrelli Maurizio

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate stress response is a critical factor during athlete horses' training and is central to our capacity to obtain better performances while safeguarding animal welfare. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this process, several studies have been conducted that take advantage of microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR technologies to analyse the expression of candidate genes involved in the cellular stress response. Appropriate application of qRT-PCR, however, requires the use of reference genes whose level of expression is not affected by the test, by general physiological conditions or by inter-individual variability. Results The expression of nine potential reference genes was evaluated in lymphocytes of ten endurance horses during strenuous exercise. These genes were tested by qRT-PCR and ranked according to the stability of their expression using three different methods (implemented in geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT always ranked as the two most stably expressed genes. On the other hand, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, transferrin receptor (TFRC and ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32 were constantly classified as the less reliable controls. Conclusion This study underlines the importance of a careful selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of exercise induced stress in horses. Our results, based on different algorithms and analytical procedures, clearly indicate SDHA and HPRT as the most stable reference genes of our pool.

  16. Reference gene selection for real-time quantitative PCR analysis of the mouse uterus in the peri-implantation period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Lin

    Full Text Available The study of uterine gene expression patterns is valuable for understanding the biological and molecular mechanisms that occur during embryo implantation. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR is an extremely sensitive technique that allows for the precise quantification of mRNA abundance; however, selecting stable reference genes suitable for the normalization of qRT-PCR data is required to avoid the misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. This study employs several mouse models, including an early pregnancy, a pseudopregnancy, a delayed implantation and activation, an artificial decidualization and a hormonal treatment model; ten candidate reference genes (PPIA, RPLP0, HPRT1, GAPDH, ACTB, TBP, B2M, 18S, UBC and TUBA that are found in uterine tissues were assessed for their suitability as internal controls for relative qRT-PCR quantification. GeNorm(PLUS, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to evaluate these candidate reference genes, and all of these methods identified RPLP0 and GAPDH as the most stable candidates and B2M and 18S as the least stable candidates. However, when the different models were analyzed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels.

  17. Use of Maximum Likelihood-Mixed Models to select stable reference genes: a case of heat stress response in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salces Judit

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reference genes with stable expression are required to normalize expression differences of target genes in qPCR experiments. Several procedures and companion software have been proposed to find the most stable genes. Model based procedures are attractive because they provide a solid statistical framework. NormFinder, a widely used software, uses a model based method. The pairwise comparison procedure implemented in GeNorm is a simpler procedure but one of the most extensively used. In the present work a statistical approach based in Maximum Likelihood estimation under mixed models was tested and compared with NormFinder and geNorm softwares. Sixteen candidate genes were tested in whole blood samples from control and heat stressed sheep. Results A model including gene and treatment as fixed effects, sample (animal, gene by treatment, gene by sample and treatment by sample interactions as random effects with heteroskedastic residual variance in gene by treatment levels was selected using goodness of fit and predictive ability criteria among a variety of models. Mean Square Error obtained under the selected model was used as indicator of gene expression stability. Genes top and bottom ranked by the three approaches were similar; however, notable differences for the best pair of genes selected for each method and the remaining genes of the rankings were shown. Differences among the expression values of normalized targets for each statistical approach were also found. Conclusions Optimal statistical properties of Maximum Likelihood estimation joined to mixed model flexibility allow for more accurate estimation of expression stability of genes under many different situations. Accurate selection of reference genes has a direct impact over the normalized expression values of a given target gene. This may be critical when the aim of the study is to compare expression rate differences among samples under different environmental

  18. Protective clothing for pesticide operators: part I--selection of a reference test chemical for penetration testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Anugrah; Schiffelbein, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A systematic approach was taken to develop a database for protective clothing for pesticide operators; results are reported as a two-part series. Part I describes the research studies that led to identification of a pesticide formulation that could serve as a reference test chemical for further testing. Measurement of pesticide penetration was conducted using different types of pesticide formulations. Six fabrics were tested using 10 formulations at different concentrations. Three formulations were subsequently selected for further testing. Analysis of the data indicated that, when compared with other formulations, mean percent penetration of 5% Prowl 3.3 EC [emulsifiable concentrate diluted to 5% active ingredient (pendimethalin)] is either similar to or higher than most test chemicals. Those results led to choosing 5% Prowl 3.3 EC as a reference test liquid. Part II of the study, published as a separate paper, includes data on a wide range of textile materials.

  19. Middle-Class Parents' Educational Work in an Academically Selective Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study on the nature of parent-school engagement at an academically selective public high school in New South Wales, Australia. Such research is pertinent given recent policies of "choice" and decentralization, making a study of local stakeholders timely. The research comprised a set of interviews…

  20. 76 FR 5398 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Selected Public Lands in La Paz County, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...-330-07-02] Notice of Temporary Closure of Selected Public Lands in La Paz County, AZ AGENCY: Bureau of... its administration in La Paz County, Arizona. This action is being taken to protect persons, property... under the guidance of the La Paz County Emergency Medical Services and Fire, or the Arizona...

  1. Email Reference Transactions Reveal Unique Patterns about End-User Information Seeking Behaviour and Librarians’ Responses in Academic and Public Libraries Outside the U.S. and Canada. A Review of: Olszewski, L., & Rumbaugh, P. (2010. An international comparison of virtual reference services. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 49(4, 360-368.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Badia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate and compare the nature of e-mail reference services in academic and public libraries outside the United States.Design – Longitudinal comparative study. Setting – A total of 23 academic and public libraries in ten countries: Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Mexico, the Netherlands, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Subjects – The authors collected reference questions that were e-mailed to the 23 libraries for the weeks of April 3, 2006 and April 7, 2008. Questions were sent from the libraries’ websites to QuestionPoint, a collaborative, online reference service that was used to answer the questions received.Methods – The authors randomly selected 25 questions for each library for the weeks under investigation. If a library did not receive 25 email reference questions that week, then they collected transactions from subsequent weeks until the quota was met or until the end of the month. The authors examined transactions from a total of 919 questions – 515 questions in 2006 and 476 in 2008. All identifying information about the user was stripped from each transaction collected. Each transaction was labeled according to the following categories: • Type of institution, i.e., whether the question was sent to an academic or public library• Language of the question• Question type, i.e., whether the question was about library policy or access to electronic resources (labeled “access” questions, about library holdings (labeled “bibliographic” questions, or about finding specific information on a topic (labeled “subject” questions• Answer type, i.e., whether the response consisted of: a confirmation, clarification, fact, instructions, referral to a pathfinder/bibliography, referral to another library/person/place, or no answer.• User status, i.e., whether the person asking the question was an undergrad, a graduate student, or a staff/faculty member• Subject

  2. Neurokinin-1 receptor: functional significance in the immune system in reference to selected infections and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Steven D; Leeman, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), and its preferred ligand, substance P (SP), are reviewed in relationship to the immune system and selected infections. NK1R and SP are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. This important pathway has unique functions in numerous cells and tissues. The interaction of SP with its preferred receptor, NK1R, leads to the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and proinflammatory cytokines. NK1R has two isoforms, both a full-length and a truncated form. These isoforms have different functional significances and differ in cell signaling capability. The proinflammatory signals modulated by SP are important in bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic diseases, as well as in immune system function. The SP-NK1R system is a major class 1, rhodopsin-like GPCR ligand-receptor interaction.

  3. Systematic analysis of public domain compound potency data identifies selective molecular scaffolds across druggable target families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Lounkine, Eugen; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2010-01-28

    Molecular scaffolds that yield target family-selective compounds are of high interest in pharmaceutical research. There continues to be considerable debate in the field as to whether chemotypes with a priori selectivity for given target families and/or targets exist and how they might be identified. What do currently available data tell us? We present a systematic and comprehensive selectivity-centric analysis of public domain target-ligand interactions. More than 200 molecular scaffolds are identified in currently available active compounds that are selective for established target families. A subset of these scaffolds is found to produce compounds with high selectivity for individual targets among closely related ones. These scaffolds are currently underrepresented in approved drugs.

  4. Halk Kütüphanelerinde Koleksiyon Seçimi / Selection Process for the Library Collections of Public Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Köprülü

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The task of collection development of public libraries requires the fulfilment of a selection process. In this context, main characteristics of the collection of public libraries, assessment of the user’s information needs, the selection process and its policy of implementation, and the related responsibilities of the professional librarians were examined. Finally, the selection process undertaken by public libraries in Turkey was examined, and certain suggestions were forwarded.

  5. Perturbative universal state-selective correction for state-specific multi-reference coupled cluster methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Jiri; Banik, Subrata; Kowalski, Karol; Pittner, Jiří

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we report an extension of our previous development of the universal state-selective (USS) multireference coupled-cluster (MRCC) formalism. It was shown [Brabec et al., J. Chem. Phys. 136, 124102 (2012)] and [Banik et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 114106 (2015)] that the USS(2) approach significantly improves the accuracy of Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee MRCC formulations, however, the numerical and storage costs associated with calculating highly excited intermediates pose a significant challenge, which can restrict the applicability of the USS(2) method. Therefore, we introduce a perturbative variant of the USS(2) approach (USS(pt)), which substantially reduces numerical overhead of the full USS(2) correction while preserving its accuracy. Since the new USS(pt) implementation calculates the triple and quadruple projections in on-the-fly manner, the memory bottleneck associated with the need of storing expensive recursive intermediates is entirely eliminated. On the example of several benchmark systems, we demonstrate accuracies of USS(pt) and USS(2) approaches and their efficiency in describing quasidegenerate electronic states. It is also shown that the USS(pt) method significantly alleviates problems associated with the lack of invariance of MRCC theories upon the rotation of active orbitals.

  6. Which early works are cited most frequently in climate change research literature? A bibliometric approach based on Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, Werner; Thor, Andreas; Bornmann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    This bibliometric analysis focuses on the general history of climate change research and, more specifically, on the discovery of the greenhouse effect. First, the Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS) is applied to a large publication set on climate change of 222,060 papers published between 1980 and 2014. The references cited therein were extracted and analyzed with regard to publications, which appeared prior to 1971 and are cited most frequently. Second, a new method for establishing a more subject-specific publication set for applying RPYS (based on the co-citations of a marker reference) is proposed (RPYS-CO). The RPYS of the climate change literature focuses on the history of climate change research in total: Which are the early works that are still alive in recent climate change related publications (in the form of most frequently cited references) and thus are most important for the evolution of this broad research field? We identified 25 highly-cited publications over all disciplines, which ...

  7. Characterization of Candida Species Isolated from cases of Vulvovaginitis in women referring to selected gynecological clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batol Bonyadpour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: About 20% of non-pregnant women aged 15 to 55 harbour Candida albicans in the vagina .the aimed to determine the Characterization of Candida Species Isolated from women with Vulvovaginitis candidates (VVC of reproductive ages. Methods: this descriptive study was conducted on 280 of who were selected for gathering samples by Purposive sampling based on their history and characteristics of vaginal discharges in 2009. Among these patients, 105 ones were diagnosed with candidiasis. The data were collected using demographic information form and disease symptoms. the species were differentiated using germ tube test, chrome agar test, and chlamidospore test. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16, using Descriptive Statistics Results: the prevalence of candida vaginitis was 9.3%.105 samples obtained from patients.. Chlamidospore was detected in 54.3% of the corn meal agar media. Besides, in chrome agar test, 41.9% of the samples turned into green representing candida albicans. In germ tube test, on the other hand, 70.5% of the samples were candida albicans, while 29.5% were candida non-albicans. Overall, The frequency of the Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and  the Candida Krusei were  66.6% , 219%  , 8.6% ,  and 2.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Candida albicans was the most common species leading to the Vulvovaginitis in patients with VCC while other species were at the secondary importance stages.Due to inaccurate diagnosis of the disease based on the clinical symptoms, fungal culture is recommended as a standard diagnostic method.

  8. Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in blood of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hua Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is used for research in gene expression, and it is vital to choose appropriate housekeeping genes (HKGs as reference genes to obtain correct results. The purpose of this study is to determine stably expressed HKGs in blood of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas that can be the appropriate reference genes in relative quantification in gene expression research. Sixty blood samples were taken from four beluga whales. Thirteen candidate HKGs (ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, LDHB, PGK1, RPL4, RPL8, RPL18, RPS9, RPS18, TFRC, YWHAZ were tested using RT-qPCR. The stability values of the HKGs were determined by four different algorithms. Comprehensive analysis of the results revealed that RPL4, PGK1 and ACTB are strongly recommended for use in future RT-qPCR studies in beluga blood samples. This research provides recommendation of reference gene selection, which may contribute to further mRNA relative quantification research in the peripheral blood leukocytes in captive cetaceans. The gene expression assessment of the immune components in blood have the potential to serve as an important approach to evaluating cetacean health influenced by environmental insults.

  9. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casini Silvia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Odontocete cetaceans occupy the top position of the marine food-web and are particularly sensitive to the bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants. The effects of environmental pollution on these species are highly debated and various ecotoxicological studies have addressed the impact of xenobiotic compounds on marine mammals, raising conservational concerns. Despite its sensitivity, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR has never been used to quantify gene induction caused by exposure of cetaceans to contaminants. A limitation for the application of qRT-PCR is the need for appropriate reference genes which allow the correct quantification of gene expression. A systematic evaluation of potential reference genes in cetacean skin biopsies is presented, in order to validate future qRT-PCR studies aiming at using the expression of selected genes as non-lethal biomarkers. Results Ten commonly used housekeeping genes (HKGs were partially sequenced in the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba and, for each gene, PCR primer pairs were specifically designed and tested in qRT-PCR assays. The expression of these potential control genes was examined in 30 striped dolphin skin biopsy samples, obtained from specimens sampled in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The stability of selected control genes was determined using three different specific VBA applets (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper which produce highly comparable results. Glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (YWHAZ always rank as the two most stably expressed HKGs according to the analysis with geNorm and Normfinder, and are defined as optimal control genes by BestKepeer. Ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4 and S18 (RPS18 also exhibit a remarkable stability of their expression levels. On the other hand, transferrin receptor (TFRC, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1, hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase (HPRT1 and β-2-microglobin (B2M show variable expression

  10. The Kjeldahl method as a primary reference procedure for total protein in certified reference materials used in clinical chemistry. II. Selection of direct Kjeldahl analysis and its preliminary performance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinklárková, Bára; Chromý, Vratislav; Šprongl, Luděk; Bittová, Miroslava; Rikanová, Milena; Ohnútková, Ivana; Žaludová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    To select a Kjeldahl procedure suitable for the determination of total protein in reference materials used in laboratory medicine, we reviewed in our previous article Kjeldahl methods adopted by clinical chemistry and found an indirect two-step analysis by total Kjeldahl nitrogen corrected for its nonprotein nitrogen and a direct analysis made on isolated protein precipitates. In this article, we compare both procedures on various reference materials. An indirect Kjeldahl method gave falsely lower results than a direct analysis. Preliminary performance parameters qualify the direct Kjeldahl analysis as a suitable primary reference procedure for the certification of total protein in reference laboratories.

  11. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents` energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today`s results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  12. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents' energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today's results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  13. Reference computations of public dose and cancer risk from airborne releases of uranium and Class W plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, V.L.

    1995-06-06

    This report presents ``reference`` computations that can be used by safety analysts in the evaluations of the consequences of postulated atmospheric releases of radionuclides from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. These computations deal specifically with doses and health risks to the public. The radionuclides considered are Class W Plutonium, all classes of Enriched Uranium, and all classes of Depleted Uranium. (The other class of plutonium, Y, was treated in an earlier report.) In each case, one gram of the respirable material is assumed to be released at ground leveL both with and without fire. The resulting doses and health risks can be scaled to whatever amount of release is appropriate for a postulated accident being investigated. The report begins with a summary of the organ-specific stochastic risk factors appropriate for alpha radiation, which poses the main health risk of plutonium and uranium. This is followed by a summary of the atmospheric dispersion factors for unfavorable and typical weather conditions for the calculation of consequences to both the Maximum Offsite Individual and the general population within 80 km (50 miles) of the site.

  14. Quantitative evaluation and selection of reference genes in mouse oocytes and embryos cultured in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinnyes Andras

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR is an efficient tool to measure transcripts and provide valuable quantitative information on gene expression of preimplantation stage embryos. Finding valid reference genes for normalization is essential to interpret the real-time PCR results accurately, and understand the biological dynamics during early development. The use of reference genes also known as housekeeping genes is the most widely applied approach. However, the different genes are not systematically compared, and as a result there is no uniformity between studies in selecting the reference gene. The goals of this study were to compare a wide selection of the most commonly used housekeeping genes in mouse oocytes and preimplantation stage embryos produced under different culture conditions, and select the best stable genes for normalization of gene expression data. Results Quantitative real time PCR method was used to evaluate 12 commonly used housekeeping genes (Actb, Gapdh, H2afz, Hprt, Ppia, Ubc, Eef1e1, Tubb4, Hist2h2aa1, Tbp, Bmp7, Polr2a in multiple individual embryos representing six different developmental stages. The results were analysed, and stable genes were selected using the geNorm software. The expression pattern was almost similar despite differences in the culture system; however, the transcript levels were affected by culture conditions. The genes have showed various stabilities, and have been ranked accordingly. Conclusion Compared to earlier studies with similar objectives, we used a unique approach in analysing larger number of genes, comparing embryo samples derived in vivo or in vitro, analysing the expression in the early and late maternal to zygote transition periods separately, and using multiple individual embryos. Based on detailed quantification, pattern analyses and using the geNorm application, we found Ppia, H2afz and Hprt1 genes to be the most stable across the different stages and culture conditions, while Actb

  15. SELECTED FACTORS DETERMINING THE PERFORMANCE OF THE CZECH PUBLIC PROCUREMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marketa Sumpikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement today represents approximately 15% of governmental expenditure in developed countries and an area with high potential for continual improvement, especially for countries with transitional economies. This article investigates competitiveness and the selection method, which are two factors of many identified, such as from studies of Transparency International or the Charles University, that relate to the limited results of procurement procedures under Czech Republic conditions. Our study identified important weaknesses in the Czech public procurement process for future reforms to consider.

  16. Evaluation and selection of candidate reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR in Withania somnifera (L. Dunal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varinder Singh

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is now globally used for accurate analysis of transcripts levels in plants. For reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes is a prerequisite in qRT-PCR analysis. Recently, Withania somnifera has attracted lot of attention due to its immense therapeutic potential. At present, biotechnological intervention for the improvement of this plant is being seriously pursued. In this background, it is important to have comprehensive studies on finding suitable reference genes for this high valued medicinal plant. In the present study, 11 candidate genes were evaluated for their expression stability under biotic (fungal disease, abiotic (wounding, salt, drought, heat and cold stresses, in different plant tissues and in response to various plant growth regulators (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid. The data as analyzed by various software packages (geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and ΔCt method suggested that cyclophilin (CYP is a most stable gene under wounding, heat, methyl jasmonate, different tissues and all stress conditions. T-SAND was found to be a best reference gene for salt and salicylic acid (SA treated samples, while 26S ribosomal RNA (26S, ubiquitin (UBQ and beta-tubulin (TUB were the most stably expressed genes under drought, biotic and cold treatment respectively. For abscisic acid (ABA treated samples 18S-rRNA was found to stably expressed gene. Finally, the relative expression level of the three genes involved in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was detected to validate the selection of reliable reference genes. The present work will significantly contribute to gene analysis studies in W. somnifera and facilitate in improving the quality of gene expression data in this plant as well as and other related plant species.

  17. Selection and assessment of reference genes for quantitative PCR normalization in migratory locust Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingpo; Li, Zhen; Cao, Jinjun; Zhang, Songdou; Zhang, Huaijiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Locusta migratoria is a classic hemimetamorphosis insect and has caused widespread economic damage to crops as a migratory pest. Researches on the expression pattern of functional genes in L. migratoria have drawn focus in recent years, especially with the release of genome information. Real-time quantitative PCR is the most reproducible and sensitive approach for detecting transcript expression levels of target genes, but optimal internal standards are key factors for its accuracy and reliability. Therefore, it's necessary to provide a systematic stability assessment of internal control for well-performed tests of target gene expression profile. In this study, twelve candidate genes (Ach, Act, Cht2, EF1α, RPL32, Hsp70, Tub, RP49, SDH, GAPDH, 18S, and His) were analyzed with four statistical methods: the delta Ct approach, geNorm, Bestkeeper and NormFinder. The results from these analyses aimed to choose the best suitable reference gene across different experimental situations for gene profile study in L. migratoria. The result demonstrated that for different developmental stages, EF1α, Hsp70 and RPL32 exhibited the most stable expression status for all samples; EF1α and RPL32 were selected as the best reference genes for studies involving embryo and larvae stages, while SDH and RP49 were identified for adult stage. The best-ranked reference genes across different tissues are RPL32, Hsp70 and RP49. For abiotic treatments, the most appropriate genes we identified were as follows: Act and SDH for larvae subjected to different insecticides; RPL32 and Ach for larvae exposed to different temperature treatments; and Act and Ach for larvae suffering from starvation. The present report should facilitate future researches on gene expression in L. migratoria with accessibly optimal reference genes under different experimental contexts.

  18. Selection and assessment of reference genes for quantitative PCR normalization in migratory locust Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingpo Yang

    Full Text Available Locusta migratoria is a classic hemimetamorphosis insect and has caused widespread economic damage to crops as a migratory pest. Researches on the expression pattern of functional genes in L. migratoria have drawn focus in recent years, especially with the release of genome information. Real-time quantitative PCR is the most reproducible and sensitive approach for detecting transcript expression levels of target genes, but optimal internal standards are key factors for its accuracy and reliability. Therefore, it's necessary to provide a systematic stability assessment of internal control for well-performed tests of target gene expression profile. In this study, twelve candidate genes (Ach, Act, Cht2, EF1α, RPL32, Hsp70, Tub, RP49, SDH, GAPDH, 18S, and His were analyzed with four statistical methods: the delta Ct approach, geNorm, Bestkeeper and NormFinder. The results from these analyses aimed to choose the best suitable reference gene across different experimental situations for gene profile study in L. migratoria. The result demonstrated that for different developmental stages, EF1α, Hsp70 and RPL32 exhibited the most stable expression status for all samples; EF1α and RPL32 were selected as the best reference genes for studies involving embryo and larvae stages, while SDH and RP49 were identified for adult stage. The best-ranked reference genes across different tissues are RPL32, Hsp70 and RP49. For abiotic treatments, the most appropriate genes we identified were as follows: Act and SDH for larvae subjected to different insecticides; RPL32 and Ach for larvae exposed to different temperature treatments; and Act and Ach for larvae suffering from starvation. The present report should facilitate future researches on gene expression in L. migratoria with accessibly optimal reference genes under different experimental contexts.

  19. Selection of stable reference genes for quantitative rt-PCR comparisons of mouse embryonic and extra-embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylee J Veazey

    Full Text Available Isolation and culture of both embryonic and tissue specific stem cells provide an enormous opportunity to study the molecular processes driving development. To gain insight into the initial events underpinning mammalian embryogenesis, pluripotent stem cells from each of the three distinct lineages present within the preimplantation blastocyst have been derived. Embryonic (ES, trophectoderm (TS and extraembryonic endoderm (XEN stem cells possess the developmental potential of their founding lineages and seemingly utilize distinct epigenetic modalities to program gene expression. However, the basis for these differing cellular identities and epigenetic properties remain poorly defined.Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR is a powerful and efficient means of rapidly comparing patterns of gene expression between different developmental stages and experimental conditions. However, careful, empirical selection of appropriate reference genes is essential to accurately measuring transcriptional differences. Here we report the quantitation and evaluation of fourteen commonly used references genes between ES, TS and XEN stem cells. These included: Actb, B2m, Hsp70, Gapdh, Gusb, H2afz, Hk2, Hprt, Pgk1, Ppia, Rn7sk, Sdha, Tbp and Ywhaz. Utilizing three independent statistical analysis, we identify Pgk1, Sdha and Tbp as the most stable reference genes between each of these stem cell types. Furthermore, we identify Sdha, Tbp and Ywhaz as well as Ywhaz, Pgk1 and Hk2 as the three most stable reference genes through the in vitro differentiation of embryonic and trophectoderm stem cells respectively.Understanding the transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms controlling cellular identity within these distinct stem cell types provides essential insight into cellular processes controlling both embryogenesis and stem cell biology. Normalizing quantitative RT-PCR measurements using the geometric mean CT values obtained for the

  20. Evaluation and selection of candidate reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varinder; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is now globally used for accurate analysis of transcripts levels in plants. For reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes is a prerequisite in qRT-PCR analysis. Recently, Withania somnifera has attracted lot of attention due to its immense therapeutic potential. At present, biotechnological intervention for the improvement of this plant is being seriously pursued. In this background, it is important to have comprehensive studies on finding suitable reference genes for this high valued medicinal plant. In the present study, 11 candidate genes were evaluated for their expression stability under biotic (fungal disease), abiotic (wounding, salt, drought, heat and cold) stresses, in different plant tissues and in response to various plant growth regulators (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid). The data as analyzed by various software packages (geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and ΔCt method) suggested that cyclophilin (CYP) is a most stable gene under wounding, heat, methyl jasmonate, different tissues and all stress conditions. T-SAND was found to be a best reference gene for salt and salicylic acid (SA) treated samples, while 26S ribosomal RNA (26S), ubiquitin (UBQ) and beta-tubulin (TUB) were the most stably expressed genes under drought, biotic and cold treatment respectively. For abscisic acid (ABA) treated samples 18S-rRNA was found to stably expressed gene. Finally, the relative expression level of the three genes involved in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was detected to validate the selection of reliable reference genes. The present work will significantly contribute to gene analysis studies in W. somnifera and facilitate in improving the quality of gene expression data in this plant as well as and other related plant species.

  1. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Caragana intermedia under different abiotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Lifeng; Li, Wanfeng; Han, Suying; Yang, Wenhua; Qi, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), a sensitive technique for gene expression analysis, depends on the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. Caragana intermedia, a native desert shrub with strong drought-resistance, sand-fixing capacity and high forage value that is widespread in the desert land of west and northwest China, has not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of qPCR data. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes were analyzed in C. intermedia subjected to different abiotic (osmotic, salt, cold and heat) stresses, in two distinct plant organs (roots and leaves). The expression stability of these genes was assessed using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The best-ranked reference genes differed across the different sets of samples, but UNK2, PP2A and SAND were the most stable across all tested samples. UNK2 and SAND would be appropriate for normalizing gene expression data for salt-treated roots, whereas the combination of UNK2, SAND and EF-1α would be appropriate for salt-treated leaves. UNK1, UNK2 and PP2A would be appropriate for PEG-treated (osmotic) roots, whereas the combination of TIP41 and PP2A was the most suitable for PEG-treated leaves. SAND, PP2A and TIP41 exhibited the most stable expression in heat-treated leaves. In cold-treated leaves, SAND and EF-1α were the most stably expressed. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression levels of DREB1 and DREB2 (homologs of AtDREB1 and AtDREB2) were studied in parallel. This study is the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for qPCR in C. intermedia under different abiotic stress conditions, and will benefit future studies on gene expression in C. intermedia and other species of the leguminous genus Caragana.

  2. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Caragana intermedia under different abiotic stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhu

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, a sensitive technique for gene expression analysis, depends on the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. Caragana intermedia, a native desert shrub with strong drought-resistance, sand-fixing capacity and high forage value that is widespread in the desert land of west and northwest China, has not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of qPCR data. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes were analyzed in C. intermedia subjected to different abiotic (osmotic, salt, cold and heat stresses, in two distinct plant organs (roots and leaves. The expression stability of these genes was assessed using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The best-ranked reference genes differed across the different sets of samples, but UNK2, PP2A and SAND were the most stable across all tested samples. UNK2 and SAND would be appropriate for normalizing gene expression data for salt-treated roots, whereas the combination of UNK2, SAND and EF-1α would be appropriate for salt-treated leaves. UNK1, UNK2 and PP2A would be appropriate for PEG-treated (osmotic roots, whereas the combination of TIP41 and PP2A was the most suitable for PEG-treated leaves. SAND, PP2A and TIP41 exhibited the most stable expression in heat-treated leaves. In cold-treated leaves, SAND and EF-1α were the most stably expressed. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression levels of DREB1 and DREB2 (homologs of AtDREB1 and AtDREB2 were studied in parallel. This study is the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for qPCR in C. intermedia under different abiotic stress conditions, and will benefit future studies on gene expression in C. intermedia and other species of the leguminous genus Caragana.

  3. Public synthesis of the reference costs study of the electric power production; Synthese publique de l'etude des couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Every 3 or 5 years, the DGEC published the reference costs study of the electric power production which evaluates, in a theoretical framework, the total cost of an electrical MWh, from different production ways. These studies bring information for the definition of the energy policy and the elaboration of the investments program. because of the great competition of the market, it was decided not to publish the absolute value of the hypothesis and the results but under indexed form. (A.L.B.)

  4. Challenges for Australia's Bio/Nanopharma Policies: trade deals, public goods and reference pricing in sustainable industrial renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas A

    2007-06-01

    Industrial renewal in the bio/nanopharma sector is important for the long term strength of the Australian economy and for the health of its citizens. A variety of factors, however, may have caused inadequate attention to focus on systematically promoting domestic generic and small biotechnology manufacturers in Australian health policy. Despite recent clarifications of 'springboarding' capacity in intellectual property legislation, federal government requirements for specific generic price reductions on market entry and the potential erosion of reference pricing through new F1 and F2 categories for the purposes of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) assessments, do not appear to be coherently designed to sustainably position this industry sector in 'biologics,' nanotherapeutics and pharmacogenetics. There also appears to have been little attention paid in this context to policies fostering industry sustainability and public affordability (as encouraged by the National Medicines Policy). One notable example includes that failure to consider facilitating mutual exchanges on regulatory assessment of health technology safety and cost-effectiveness (including reference pricing) in the context of ongoing free trade negotiations between Australia and China (the latter soon to possess the world's largest generic pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity). The importance of a thriving Australian domestic generic pharmaceutical and bio/nano tech industry in terms of biosecurity, similarly appears to have been given insufficient policy attention.Reasons for such policy oversights may relate to increasing interrelationships between generic and 'brand-name' manufacturers and the scale of investment required for the Australian generics and bio/nano technology sector to be a significant driver of local production. It might also result from singularly effective lobbying pressure exerted by Medicines Australia, the 'brand-name' pharmaceutical industry association, utilising

  5. Financial Efficacy of Selected Public and Private Sector Banks in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sakthivadivel Mylsamy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The  banks in India have over 67,000 branches located across the country. All these are classified  into two major categories, non-scheduled banks and scheduled banks. Scheduled banks includes   commercial banks and the co-operative banks. The public sector banks are  accountable  for more than 78 percent of total banking industry in India. Even though private sector banks came later into the market, due to their customer servicing and easy banking features they are also competing equally with already existing public sector banks. so it is very essential to analyze how their financial performance is influenced by number of factors which will further suggest them where they need to concentrate more. in this article we have analyzed the correlation between return on total assets and other financial variables of selected private and public banks in India.

  6. Risk selection and heterogeneous preferences in health insurance markets with a public option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that if private health insurance plans compete alongside a public option, they may endanger the latter's financial stability by cream-skimming good risks. This paper argues that two factors may contribute to the extent of cream-skimming: (i) degree of horizontal differentiation between public and private options when preferences are heterogeneous; (ii) whether contract design encourages choice of private insurance before information about risk is revealed. I explore the role of these factors empirically within the unique institutional setting of the German health insurance system. Using a fuzzy regression discontinuity design to disentangle adverse selection and moral hazard, I find no compelling support for extensive cream-skimming of public option by private insurers despite their ability to fully underwrite risk. A model of demand for private insurance supports the idea that heterogeneity in non-pecuniary preferences and long-term structure of private insurance contracts may be muting cream-skimming in this setting.

  7. Construction of an adult barnacle (Balanus amphitrite cDNA library and selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess J Grant

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balanus amphitrite is a barnacle commonly used in biofouling research. Although many aspects of its biology have been elucidated, the lack of genetic information is impeding a molecular understanding of its life cycle. As part of a wider multidisciplinary approach to reveal the biogenic cues influencing barnacle settlement and metamorphosis, we have sequenced and annotated the first cDNA library for B. amphitrite. We also present a systematic validation of potential reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR data obtained from different developmental stages of this animal. Results We generated a cDNA library containing expressed sequence tags (ESTs from adult B. amphitrite. A total of 609 unique sequences (comprising 79 assembled clusters and 530 singlets were derived from 905 reliable unidirectionally sequenced ESTs. Bioinformatics tools such as BLAST, HMMer and InterPro were employed to allow functional annotation of the ESTs. Based on these analyses, we selected 11 genes to study their ability to normalize qRT-PCR data. Total RNA extracted from 7 developmental stages was reverse transcribed and the expression stability of the selected genes was compared using geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder. These software programs produced highly comparable results, with the most stable gene being mt-cyb, while tuba, tubb and cp1 were clearly unsuitable for data normalization. Conclusion The collection of B. amphitrite ESTs and their annotation has been made publically available representing an important resource for both basic and applied research on this species. We developed a qRT-PCR assay to determine the most reliable reference genes. Transcripts encoding cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 were expressed most stably, although other genes also performed well and could prove useful to normalize gene expression studies.

  8. Reference computations of public dose and cancer risk from airborne releases of plutonium. Nuclear safety technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, V.L.

    1993-12-23

    This report presents results of computations of doses and the associated health risks of postulated accidental atmospheric releases from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) of one gram of weapons-grade plutonium in a form that is respirable. These computations are intended to be reference computations that can be used to evaluate a variety of accident scenarios by scaling the dose and health risk results presented here according to the amount of plutonium postulated to be released, instead of repeating the computations for each scenario. The MACCS2 code has been used as the basis of these computations. The basis and capabilities of MACCS2 are summarized, the parameters used in the evaluations are discussed, and results are presented for the doses and health risks to the public, both the Maximum Offsite Individual (a maximally exposed individual at or beyond the plant boundaries) and the population within 50 miles of RFP. A number of different weather scenarios are evaluated, including constant weather conditions and observed weather for 1990, 1991, and 1992. The isotopic mix of weapons-grade plutonium will change as it ages, the {sup 241}Pu decaying into {sup 241}Am. The {sup 241}Am reaches a peak concentration after about 72 years. The doses to the bone surface, liver, and whole body will increase slightly but the dose to the lungs will decrease slightly. The overall cancer risk will show almost no change over this period. This change in cancer risk is much smaller than the year-to-year variations in cancer risk due to weather. Finally, x/Q values are also presented for other applications, such as for hazardous chemical releases. These include the x/Q values for the MOI, for a collocated worker at 100 meters downwind of an accident site, and the x/Q value integrated over the population out to 50 miles.

  9. Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a predatory biological control agent, Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxiao; Pan, Huipeng; Noland, Jeffrey Edward; Zhang, Deyong; Zhang, Zhanhong; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-12-10

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression across various biological processes, of which requires a set of suited reference genes to normalize the expression data. Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of the most extensively used biological control agents in the field to manage arthropod pest species. In this study, expression profiles of 16 housekeeping genes selected from C. maculata were cloned and investigated. The performance of these candidates as endogenous controls under specific experimental conditions was evaluated by dedicated algorithms, including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCt method. In addition, RefFinder, a comprehensive platform integrating all the above-mentioned algorithms, ranked the overall stability of these candidate genes. As a result, various sets of suitable reference genes were recommended specifically for experiments involving different tissues, developmental stages, sex, and C. maculate larvae treated with dietary double stranded RNA. This study represents the critical first step to establish a standardized RT-qPCR protocol for the functional genomics research in a ladybeetle C. maculate. Furthermore, it lays the foundation for conducting ecological risk assessment of RNAi-based gene silencing biotechnologies on non-target organisms; in this case, a key predatory biological control agent.

  10. The eye of the red-eared slider turtle: morphologic observations and reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, André T; Lima, Leandro; Lange, Rogério R; Turner-Giannico, Amália; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    To perform a descriptive investigation of the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) eye, performing selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests with the aim of establishing normal reference values for this species. Thirty adult healthy red-eared slider turtles were used to establish normal ophthalmic test values in this investigation. Selected ophthalmic tests included: collection of material for bacterial culture analysis, esthesiometry, intraocular pressure (IOP), A- and B-mode ultrasonic biometry, fundus photography, and central corneal thickness (CCT). Normal parameters found for the ocular diagnostic tests were: esthesiometry: 5.84 ± 0.48 cm; IOP: 5.42 ± 1.70 mmHg; CCT: 154.5 ± 0.14 μm; palpebral fissure length: 9.71 ± 0.55 mm; modified Schirmer tear test: 2.55 ± 3.4 mm; globe axial length: 7.60 ± 0.23 mm; anterior chamber depth: 0.76 ± 0.23 mm; lens axial length: 2.45 ± 0.28 mm; vitreous chamber depth: 4.31 ± 0.42 mm. An avascular retinal pattern with nerve fibers radiating from the small white circular optic disk was observed. None of the animals had a conus papillaris. The most frequent bacteria found were Bacillus spp. (33.33%) followed by Proteus vulgaris (20.69%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18.39%). No significant differences between left and right eyes or genders were found for any of the results. Reference data and morphologic observations obtained in this investigation might help veterinary ophthalmologists to diagnose ocular diseases in the red-eared slider turtle. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  11. Development of a guideline on reading CT images of malignant pleural mesothelioma and selection of the reference CT films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huashi, E-mail: zhouhua@u-fukui.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Health, School of Medicine, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaitsuki, Matsuoka, Eihezi-cho, Fukui Prefecture 910-1193 (Japan); Tamura, Taro, E-mail: tarou@u-fukui.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Health, School of Medicine, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaitsuki, Matsuoka, Eihezi-cho, Fukui Prefecture 910-1193 (Japan); Kusaka, Yukinori, E-mail: kusakayk@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, School of Medicine, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaitsuki, Matsuoka, Eihezi-cho, Fukui Prefecture 910-1193 (Japan); Suganuma, Narufumi, E-mail: nsuganuma@kochi-u.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Medicine, Kochi University School of Medicine (Japan); Subhannachart, Ponglada, E-mail: pongladas@gmail.com [Central Chest Disease Institute of Thailand, 39 Moo 9, Tiwanon Road, Muang Nonthaburi 11000 (Thailand); Vijitsanguan, Chomphunut, E-mail: Chompoo_vj@yahoo.com [Central Chest Disease Institute of Thailand, 39 Moo 9, Tiwanon Road, Muang Nonthaburi 11000 (Thailand); Noisiri, Weeraya, E-mail: weeraya_tat@yahoo.com [Central Chest Disease Institute of Thailand, 39 Moo 9, Tiwanon Road, Muang Nonthaburi 11000 (Thailand); Hering, Kurt G., E-mail: k.g.hering@t-online.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Radiooncology and Nuclear Medicine, Radiological Clinic, Miner' s Hospital, Radiologische Klinik, Lansppaschaftskranhaus Dortmund, Wieckesweg 27 44309, Dortmund (Germany); Akira, Masanori, E-mail: akira@kch.hosp.go.jp [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, 1180 Nagasone-cho, Kita-ku, Sakai, Osaka 591-8555 (Japan); Itoh, Harumi, E-mail: hitoh@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Health, School of Medicine, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaitsuki, Matsuoka, Eihezi-cho, Fukui Prefecture 910-1193 (Japan); Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaitsuki Matsuoka, Eiheizi-cho, Fukui Prefecture 910-1193 (Japan); and others

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: International experts developed a guideline on reading CT images of malignant pleural mesothelioma for radiologists and physicians. It is intended that it act as a supplement to the current International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases. Methods: The research literatures on mesothelioma CT features were systematically reviewed. Ten mesothelioma CT features were adopted into the guideline prepared according to experts’ opinion. The terminology of mesothelioma CT features and mesothelioma probability were agreed by consensus of experts. The CT reference films for each mesothelioma feature were selected based on agreement by experts from 22 definite mesothelioma cases confirmed pathologically and immunohistochemically. To support the validity of the mesothelioma probability, 4 experts’ readings of CT films from 57 cases with or without mesothelioma were analyzed by kappa statistics between the experts; sensitivity and specificity for mesothelioma were also assessed. Results: The mesothelioma CT Guideline was developed, providing the terminology of CT features and the mesothelioma probability, the judgement of severity, the distribution of mesothelioma, and the revised CT reading sheet including mesothelioma items. The CT reference films with ten mesothelioma typical features were selected. The average linearly and quadratically weighted kappa of the agreement on the 4-point scale mesothelioma probability were 0.58 and 0.71, respectively. The average sensitivity and specificity for mesothelioma were 93.2% and 65.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The evidence-based mesothelioma CT Guideline developed may serve as a good educational tool to facilitate physicians in recognising mesothelioma and improve their proficiency in diagnosis of mesothelioma.

  12. Criteria in consultant selection: public procurement of architectural and engineering services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefin Sporrong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The competence, commitment and attitudes of design consultants strongly influence the quality and costs of built facilities. However, in the selection of professional services it is often difficult to specify and assess non-price criteria related to both firms and individual consultants. Therefore, clients traditionally rely on long term relations or recommendations from clients or colleagues. Public procurement regulation, however, restricts the use of such informal data. This study seeks to understand how procurers act to reconcile these conflicting demands.An explorative questionnaire survey distributed to Swedish municipalities investigates which selection criteria and information sources are used, as well as perceived difficulties and shortcomings related to consultancy procurement. Results show a high focus on price or more easily measured non-price criteria. This might limit the ability of municipal officials to evaluate consultant competence, especially aspects related to design and execution of projects. Furthermore, personal information sources are widely used, indicating a conflict between procurement practice and existing regulation. Unexpectedly, procurement officials were generally satisfied with their procurement practice. However, managers and more experienced procurers tend to be more satisfied than other officials. Satisfaction also appears to be connected to the existence of a procurement policy and more advanced selection methods. Keywords: public procurement, selection, consultants, Sweden

  13. A Framework of Reference for Evaluating User Experience When Using High Definition Video to Video to Facilitate Public Services

    OpenAIRE

    Molnar, Andreea; Weerakkody, Vishanth; El-Haddadeh, Ramzi; Lee, Habin; Irani, Zahir

    2013-01-01

    Part 5: IT in the Public Sector; International audience; This paper proposes the use of high definition video to video as a means to facilitate the adoption of public services. High definition video can be delivered over the public Internet infrastructure by using a Right of Way platform that guarantees no interference from unwanted traffic. In this paper, we discuss the benefits of using high definition video to video communication in the public sector to facilitate services such as health, ...

  14. Public Involvement in Repository Site Selection for Nuclear Waste: Towards a more Dynamic View in Decision-Making Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Stauffacher, Michael; Flueeler, Thomas; Scholz, Roland W. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). lnst. for Human-Environment Systems (HES)

    2006-09-15

    This paper discusses possibilities of public involvement in radioactive waste management. A general overview of the radioactive waste issue is presented referring to a proposed model of the respective decision-making process. Based on the well known participation ladder by Arnstein, we differentiate various intensities of public involvement. A matrix with public involvement and the decision-making process is introduced and three prototypical patterns are discussed. We conclude that time frame, the level of public involvement and the mission have to be considered as well as techniques and the overarching context - all in all, a systematic and dynamic approach for public involvement is needed.

  15. Consuming America : A Data-Driven Analysis of the United States as a Reference Culture in Dutch Public Discourse on Consumer Goods, 1890-1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, M.J.H.F.

    2017-01-01

    Consuming America offers a data-driven, longitudinal analysis of the historical dynamics that have underpinned a long-term, layered cultural-historical process: the emergence of the United States as a dominant reference culture in Dutch public discourse on consumer goods between 1890 and 1990. The

  16. Selection of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR gene expression analysis in Jute (Corchorus capsularis) under stress treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoping; Qi, Jianmin; Zhang, Gaoyang; Xu, Jiantang; Tao, Aifen; Fang, Pingping; Su, Jianguang

    2015-01-01

    To accurately measure gene expression using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), reliable reference gene(s) are required for data normalization. Corchorus capsularis, an annual herbaceous fiber crop with predominant biodegradability and renewability, has not been investigated for the stability of reference genes with qRT-PCR. In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were selected and their expression levels were assessed using qRT-PCR. To account for the influence of experimental approach and tissue type, 22 different jute samples were selected from abiotic and biotic stress conditions as well as three different tissue types. The stability of the candidate reference genes was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper programs, and the comprehensive rankings of gene stability were generated by aggregate analysis. For the biotic stress and NaCl stress subsets, ACT7 and RAN were suitable as stable reference genes for gene expression normalization. For the PEG stress subset, UBC, and DnaJ were sufficient for accurate normalization. For the tissues subset, four reference genes TUBβ, UBI, EF1α, and RAN were sufficient for accurate normalization. The selected genes were further validated by comparing expression profiles of WRKY15 in various samples, and two stable reference genes were recommended for accurate normalization of qRT-PCR data. Our results provide researchers with appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR in C. capsularis, and will facilitate gene expression study under these conditions.

  17. Selection of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR gene expression analysis in Jute (Corchorus capsularis under stress treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping eNiu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To accurately measure gene expression using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR, reliable reference gene(s are required for data normalization. Corchorus capsularis, an annual herbaceous fiber crop with predominant biodegradability and renewability, has not been investigated for the stability of reference genes with qRT-PCR. In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were selected and their expression levels were assessed using qRT-PCR. To account for the influence of experimental approach and tissue type, 22 different jute samples were selected from abiotic and biotic stress conditions as well as 3 different tissue types. The stability of the candidate reference genes was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper programs, and the comprehensive rankings of gene stability were generated by aggregate analysis. For the biotic stress and NaCl stress subsets, ACT7 and RAN were suitable as stable reference genes for gene expression normalization. For the PEG stress subset, UBC and DnaJ were sufficient for accurate normalization. For the tissues subset, four reference genes TUBβ, UBI, EF1α and RAN were sufficient for accurate normalization. The selected genes were further validated by comparing expression profiles of WRKY15 in various samples, and two stable reference genes were recommended for accurate normalization of qRT-PCR data. Our results provide researchers with appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR in C. capsularis, and will facilitate gene expression study under these conditions.

  18. Beneficial laggards: multilevel selection, cooperative polymorphism and division of labour in threshold public good games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Számadó Szabolcs

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin and stability of cooperation is a hot topic in social and behavioural sciences. A complicated conundrum exists as defectors have an advantage over cooperators, whenever cooperation is costly so consequently, not cooperating pays off. In addition, the discovery that humans and some animal populations, such as lions, are polymorphic, where cooperators and defectors stably live together -- while defectors are not being punished--, is even more puzzling. Here we offer a novel explanation based on a Threshold Public Good Game (PGG that includes the interaction of individual and group level selection, where individuals can contribute to multiple collective actions, in our model group hunting and group defense. Results Our results show that there are polymorphic equilibria in Threshold PGGs; that multi-level selection does not select for the most cooperators per group but selects those close to the optimum number of cooperators (in terms of the Threshold PGG. In particular for medium cost values division of labour evolves within the group with regard to the two types of cooperative actions (hunting vs. defense. Moreover we show evidence that spatial population structure promotes cooperation in multiple PGGs. We also demonstrate that these results apply for a wide range of non-linear benefit function types. Conclusions We demonstrate that cooperation can be stable in Threshold PGG, even when the proportion of so called free riders is high in the population. A fundamentally new mechanism is proposed how laggards, individuals that have a high tendency to defect during one specific group action can actually contribute to the fitness of the group, by playing part in an optimal resource allocation in Threshold Public Good Games. In general, our results show that acknowledging a multilevel selection process will open up novel explanations for collective actions.

  19. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  20. Publication selection and the income elasticity of the value of a statistical life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Stanley, T D; Viscusi, W Kip

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL) establish the price government agencies use to value fatality risks. Transferring these valuations to other populations often utilizes the income elasticity of the VSL, which typically draw on estimates from meta-analyses. Using a data set consisting of 101 estimates of the income elasticity of VSL from 14 previously reported meta-analyses, we find that after accounting for potential publication bias the income elasticity of value of a statistical life is clearly and robustly inelastic, with a value of approximately 0.25-0.63. There is also clear evidence of the importance of controlling for levels of risk, differential publication selection bias, and the greater income sensitivity of VSL from stated preference surveys.

  1. Graft and Corruption Practices Among Selected Public Officials in Mindanao, Southern Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Husain L. Laut

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the graft and corruption practices among selected public officials in southern Philippines. The study is qualitative in nature making use of case study method in which an in-depth analysis of primary data obtained from eight informants, four of whom are town mayors and their four incumbent municipal treasurers, is employed. The findings revealed that the mayor informants got elected through vote buying and bribery. Politics and family matters intersect as informants are supported by their families during election who used guns, gold and goons to ensure election victory. The clannish nature of the community finds expression also in the selection of relatives in municipal employment and in accessing municipal resources. The most prevalent corruption practice disclosed by the informants is amassing the internal revenue allotment (IRA for personal purposes in order to recover the huge amount of money spent during election. Other types of corruption practices also include falsification of documents, nepotism, bribery, kickbacks, and evasion of public bidding. These public officials also do not seem to perform official duties in their towns as they live outside of their municipalities. Inter-agency involvement of corruption among different government agencies in the areas studied are also uncovered. Moreover, the perceived negative effects of corruption are manifested in the poor delivery of the community’s basic social services in health, water supply, education, and security protection. Corruption also adversely affects the construction of community infrastructure facilities and the establishment of an equitable and solid economic base. The study has implications to the strict policy implementation of the provisions of the 1991 Local Government Code of the Philippines, The Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act, and other pertinent laws in order to improve the transparency, integrity and accountability of public officials

  2. Selection and validation of appropriate reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis of gene expression in Lycoris aurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eMa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lycoris aurea (L' Hér. Herb, a perennial grass species, produces a unique variety of pharmacologically active Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. However, the key enzymes and their expression pattern involved in the biosynthesis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (especially for galanthamine are far from being fully understood. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, a commonly used method for quantifying gene expression, requires stable reference genes to normalize its data. In this study, to choose the appropriate reference genes under different experimental conditions, 14 genes including YLS8 (mitosis protein YLS8, CYP2 (Cyclophilin 2, CYP 1 (Cyclophilin 1, TIP41 (TIP41-like protein, EXP2 (Expressed protein 2, PTBP1 (Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1, EXP1 (Expressed protein 1, PP2A (Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A, β-TUB (β-tubulin, α-TUB (α-tubulin, EF1-α (Elongation factor 1-α, UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, ACT (Actin and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase were selected from the transcriptome datasets of L. aurea. And then, expressions of these genes were assessed by qRT-PCR in various tissues and the roots under different treatments. The expression stability of the 14 candidates was analyzed by three commonly used software programs (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper, and their results were further integrated into a comprehensive ranking based on the geometric mean. The results show the relatively stable genes for each subset as follows: (1 EXP1 and TIP41 for all samples; (2 UBC and EXP1 for NaCl stress; (3 PTBP1 and EXP1 for heat stress, polyethylene glycol (PEG stress and ABA treatment; (4 UBC and CYP2 for cold stress; (5 PTBP1 and PP2A for sodium nitroprusside (SNP treatment; (6 CYP1 and TIP41 for methyl jasmonate (MeJA treatment; and (7 EXP1 and TIP41 for various tissues. The reliability of these results was further enhanced through comparison between part qRT-PCR result and RNA sequencing (RNA

  3. Going Prime Time with Live Chat Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Tara J.; Cichanowicz, Edana McCaffrey

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of the Suffolk Cooperative Library System's live, online chat reference service, a pilot project for public libraries in Suffolk County (New York). Topics include chat software selection; a virtual reference collection; marketing; funding; staffing; evaluation; expanded hours of service; email; and extracting data from…

  4. INTERNET BANKING: CONTENT ANALYSIS OF SELECTED INDIAN PUBLIC AND PRIV ATE SECTOR BANKS’ ONLINE PORTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejinderpal Singh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in technology has played an import ant role in the distribution strategy of commercial banks. Banks distribute their products and services not only through a sole channel but instead through a variety of channels such as internet banking, automated teller machines, mobile banking, phone banking, TV baking etc. Internet banking has attracted the considerable amount of interest of researchers in the recent times. Previously research studies had concentrat ed on the perception about online service quality, adoption of internet banking, impact of information technology in banking, etc. based on customers’ opinion. However, on the other side, in depth analysis of bank’s online portal without approaching the customer s may also provide meaningful insight about the online portals especially when compar ed with other banks’ online portals. The present study aims to compare the pre-login and after login features of selected banks’ online portals. For study purpose, two leading banks, one each from public and private sector were selected. A content analysis technique was used to study the listed features of selected websites. Study found that selected banks’ online portals differ on various features such as accounts information, fund transfer, online requests and general information. In the end, study suggested to include the good feature of other online portal which would help them to make their sites more secure, informative and user friendly.

  5. A Concise Account on the Properties of CNT-Reinforced Epoxy Composites based on some Select References

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently it has been reported in the technical literature that carbon nanotubes (CNTs have distinct effects on thermal, mechanical and electric properties of epoxy resins. Compared to single-walled nanotubes (SWCNT, multiwalled nanotubes (MWCNT apparently show greater improvements. The maximum aspect ratio (L/D of CNT is reportedly as high as 138,000,000. In addition, the carbon nanotubes when treated with surface modifier to generate functional groups on their surface can afford to provide better improvement of the properties of the epoxy based CNT-particulate composite system. There are a number of factors that can influence the properties of epoxy-CNT systems. This paper examined the technical contents from selective references and made an attempt to highlight the general understanding of the properties and performance of epoxy – CNT particulate composite systems.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 3, May 2014, pp.303-308, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.7330 

  6. Reference genes selection and relative expression analysis from Shiraia sp. SUPER-H168 productive of hypocrellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huaxiang; Gao, Ruijie; Liao, Xiangru; Cai, Yujie

    2016-04-10

    Shiraia bambusicola is an essential pharmaceutical fungus due to its production of hypocrellin with antiviral, antidepressant, and antiretroviral properties. Based on suitable reference gene (RG) normalization, gene expression analysis enables the exploitation of significant genes relative to hypocrellin biosynthesis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We selected and assessed nine candidate RGs in the presence and absence of hypocrellin biosynthesis using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. After stepwise exclusion of unstable genes, GeNorm analysis identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and cytochrome oxidase (CyO) as the most stable expression, while NormFinder determined 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) as the most appropriate candidate gene for normalization. Tubulin (Tub) was observed to be the least stable gene and should be avoided for relative expression analysis. We further analyzed relative expression levels of essential proteins correlative with hypocrellin biosynthesis, including polyketide synthase (PKS), O-methyltransferase (Omef), FAD/FMN-dependent oxidoreductase (FAD), and monooxygenase (Mono). Compared to PKS, Mono kept a similar expression pattern and simulated PKS expression, while FAD remained constantly expressed. Omef presented lower transcript levels and had no relation to PKS expression. These relative expression analyses will pave the way for further interpretation of the hypocrellin biosynthesis pathway.

  7. Dataset of Building and Environment Publication in 2016, A reference method for measuring emissions of SVOCs in small chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data presented in this data file is a product of a journal publication. The dataset contains DEHP air concentrations in the emission test chamber. This dataset...

  8. The Effect of Selected Human Resource Management Practices on Employees' Job Satisfaction in Ethiopian Public Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Werku Ijigu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the research has been conducted in the job satisfaction of employees’ on employees job related outcomes but there is little well comprehensive research done that shows  the influence of HRM practices on the satisfaction of employees towards a job.This study is correlational type of research design which is aimed to describe or ascertain if there are significant associations between selected HRM practices and employees’ job satisfaction.In addition to Correlation and Regression, Descriptive statistics, frequencies and percentages were utilized to analyze the data. Interpretation is made on the mean, frequency, and percentage of the data and summarized by bar graphs and pie charts.The study result has implied that recruitment and selection is found to have moderate but positive correlation with employees’ job satisfaction and the remaining, training and development, performance appraisal and compensation package found to have strong positive correlation with employees’ job satisfaction. Moreover, the regression result shows that recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisal and compensation package have a significant positive impact on job satisfaction.Each HRM practices in the banks should be a source for employees’ satisfaction and then employees will be loyal and willing to stay in those organizations (Banks because, employees’ satisfaction on the job will reduce absenteeism and turn over intentions in public banks.

  9. Analysis of Reference Cigarette Smoke Yield Data From 21 Laboratories for 28 Selected Analytes as a Guide to Selection of New Coresta Recommended Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purkis Steve

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, the CORESTA Special Analytes Sub Group (SPA SG has been working on the development of CORESTA Recommended Methods (CRMs for the analysis of cigarette smoke components. All CRMs have been posted on the CORESTA website and several associated papers published. In this study, 21 laboratories shared data and in-house methodologies for 28 additional smoke components of regulatory interest to prioritise the development of further CRMs. Laboratories provided data, where available, from CORESTA monitor test pieces (CM6 and CM7 and Kentucky Reference Cigarettes (1R5F / 3R4F covering the period 2010-2012 obtained under both the ISO 3308 and Health Canada Intense regimes. Scant data were available on the CORESTA monitor test pieces and the Kentucky 1R5F reference. The greatest amount of data was obtained on the Kentucky 3R4F and this was used in the analyses described in this paper. SPA SG discussions provided invaluable insight into identifying causes and ways of reducing inter-laboratory variability which will be investigated in joint experiments before embarking on final collaborative studies using draft CRMs to obtain mean yields, repeatability and reproducibility values. Phenolic compounds (phenol, 3 cresol isomers, hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol gave consistent results by liquid chromatography (LC separation and fluorescence detection after extracting collected “tar” on a Cambridge filter pad (CFP. Yields were similar to those obtained by a derivatisation method followed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Similar ratios of phenols were also obtained from each method. Of the 28 studied analytes, the between-laboratory variability was lowest for the phenols. Hydrogen cyanide was derivatised using various reagents and the colour development measured after continuous flow analysis (CFA by ultra-violet absorbance. Although, methodologies gave reasonably consistent results, investigations on the trapping system

  10. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis under Abiotic Stresses in the Desert Biomass Willow, Salix psammophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianbo; Jia, Huixia; Han, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Jin; Sun, Pei; Lu, Mengzhu; Hu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Salix psammophila is a desert shrub willow that has extraordinary adaptation to abiotic stresses and plays an important role in maintaining local ecosystems. Moreover, S. psammophila is regarded as a promising biomass feedstock because of its high biomass yields and short rotation coppice cycle. However, few suitable reference genes (RGs) for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) constrain the study on normalization of gene expression in S. psammophila until now. Here, we investigated the expression stabilities of 14 candidate RGs across tissue types and under four abiotic stress treatments, including heat, cold, salt, and drought treatments. After calculation of PCR efficiencies, three different software, NormFinder, geNorm, and BestKeeper were employed to analyze systematically the qRT-PCR data, and the outputs were merged by RankAggreg software. The optimal RGs selected for gene expression analysis were EF1α (Elongation factor-1 alpha) and OTU (OTU-like cysteine protease family protein) for different tissue types, UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2) and LTA4H (Leukotriene A-4 hydrolase homolog) for heat treatment, HIS (Histone superfamily protein H3) and ARF2 (ADP-ribosylation factor 2) for cold treatment, OTU and ACT7 (Actin 7) for salt treatment, UBC and LTA4H for drought treatment. The expression of UBC, ARF2, and VHAC (V-type proton ATPase subunit C) varied the least across tissue types and under abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the relative genes expression profiles of one tissue-specific gene WOX1a (WUSCHEL-related homeobox 1a), and four stress-inducible genes, including Hsf-A2 (Heat shock transcription factors A2), CBF3 (C-repeat binding factor 3), HKT1 (High-Affinity K(+) Transporter 1), and GST (Glutathione S-transferase), were conducted to confirm the validity of the RGs in this study. These results provided an important RGs application guideline for gene expression characterization in S. psammophila.

  11. Net present value analysis to select public R&D programs and valuate expected private sector participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinman, N.D.; Yancey, M.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    One of the main functions of government is to invest taxpayers dollars in projects, programs, and properties that will result in social benefit. Public programs focused on the development of technology are examples of such opportunities. Selecting these programs requires the same investment analysis approaches that private companies and individuals use. Good use of investment analysis approaches to these programs will minimize our tax costs and maximize public benefit from tax dollars invested. This article describes the use of the net present value (NPV) analysis approach to select public R&D programs and valuate expected private sector participation in the programs. 5 refs.

  12. Hierarchy and Power: A Conceptual Analysis with Particular Reference to New Public Management Reforms in German Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüther, Otto; Krücken, Georg

    2013-01-01

    For more than 20 years, new public management (NPM) has been the guiding governance model of university reforms in Europe. One central aspect of this governance model is to strengthen the hierarchy within the universities. Recent research shows that the formal decision-making authority of university leaders and deans has increased in almost every…

  13. Cultural text mining: using text mining to map the emergence of transnational reference cultures in public media repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Toine; Verheul, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the research project Translantis, which uses innovative technologies for cultural text mining to analyze large repositories of digitized public media, such as newspapers and journals.1 The Translantis research team uses and develops the text mining tool Texcavator, which is base

  14. Hierarchy and Power: A Conceptual Analysis with Particular Reference to New Public Management Reforms in German Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüther, Otto; Krücken, Georg

    2013-01-01

    For more than 20 years, new public management (NPM) has been the guiding governance model of university reforms in Europe. One central aspect of this governance model is to strengthen the hierarchy within the universities. Recent research shows that the formal decision-making authority of university leaders and deans has increased in almost every…

  15. Serological study of Human Fasciolosis in Patients Referring to the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sci¬ences, Tehran, Iran during 2008-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan ARYAEIPOUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease of livestock and human caused by Fasciola species. Here in, the results of serological evaluation of fascioliasis in peo­ple referring to the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sci­ences during 2008-2014 are presented.Methods: Demographic characterizations, symptoms and eosinophil rate were registered for every patient. Using somatic antigen of Fasciola, ELISA was per­formed and the results were analyzed. Data of questioners were analyzed as well.Results: Among 206 applicants, 24.8% were seropositive for fascioliasis, included 21% female and 28.3% male. Mean range of age of patients was between 13 to 67 yr. The highest rate of seropositivity was found among 20-30 yr old patients. Most of the patients had hypereosinophilia. All patients had history of eating raw vegeta­bles, or drinking unsafe water. Patients were referring from different provinces of Iran, including Gilan, Mazandaran, Tehran, Ardabil, Khuzestan, Lorestan, North Khorasan, Kermanshah, Azerbaijan, Fars, Kordestan, Hamedan and Markazi.Conclusion: During recent years, variety of provinces in Iran, where patients with fascioliasis are referred, has been increased. Patients coming from Gilan and Mazanda­ran provinces were referred early after the onset of their symptoms. Most probably, physicians in Gilan and Mazandaran are more alert on fascioliasis than other provinces. Previous wrong diagnosis was more common among patients refer­ring from other provinces than Gilan and Mazandaran provinces.

  16. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  17. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies related to lung injury in a preterm lamb model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Fantini, Prue M; Rajapaksa, Anushi E; Oakley, Regina; Tingay, David G

    2016-05-23

    Preterm newborns often require invasive support, however even brief periods of supported ventilation applied inappropriately to the lung can cause injury. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qPCR) has been extensively employed in studies of ventilation-induced lung injury with the reference gene 18S ribosomal RNA (18S RNA) most commonly employed as the internal control reference gene. Whilst the results of these studies depend on the stability of the reference gene employed, the use of 18S RNA has not been validated. In this study the expression profile of five candidate reference genes (18S RNA, ACTB, GAPDH, TOP1 and RPS29) in two geographical locations, was evaluated by dedicated algorithms, including geNorm, Normfinder, Bestkeeper and ΔCt method and the overall stability of these candidate genes determined (RefFinder). Secondary studies examined the influence of reference gene choice on the relative expression of two well-validated lung injury markers; EGR1 and IL1B. In the setting of the preterm lamb model of lung injury, RPS29 reference gene expression was influenced by tissue location; however we determined that individual ventilation strategies influence reference gene stability. Whilst 18S RNA is the most commonly employed reference gene in preterm lamb lung studies, our results suggest that GAPDH is a more suitable candidate.

  18. Defining new criteria for selection of cell-based intestinal models using publicly available databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Jon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The criteria for choosing relevant cell lines among a vast panel of available intestinal-derived lines exhibiting a wide range of functional properties are still ill-defined. The objective of this study was, therefore, to establish objective criteria for choosing relevant cell lines to assess their appropriateness as tumor models as well as for drug absorption studies. Results We made use of publicly available expression signatures and cell based functional assays to delineate differences between various intestinal colon carcinoma cell lines and normal intestinal epithelium. We have compared a panel of intestinal cell lines with patient-derived normal and tumor epithelium and classified them according to traits relating to oncogenic pathway activity, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and stemness, migratory properties, proliferative activity, transporter expression profiles and chemosensitivity. For example, SW480 represent an EMT-high, migratory phenotype and scored highest in terms of signatures associated to worse overall survival and higher risk of recurrence based on patient derived databases. On the other hand, differentiated HT29 and T84 cells showed gene expression patterns closest to tumor bulk derived cells. Regarding drug absorption, we confirmed that differentiated Caco-2 cells are the model of choice for active uptake studies in the small intestine. Regarding chemosensitivity we were unable to confirm a recently proposed association of chemo-resistance with EMT traits. However, a novel signature was identified through mining of NCI60 GI50 values that allowed to rank the panel of intestinal cell lines according to their drug responsiveness to commonly used chemotherapeutics. Conclusions This study presents a straightforward strategy to exploit publicly available gene expression data to guide the choice of cell-based models. While this approach does not overcome the major limitations of such models

  19. Determinants of telemedicine acceptance in selected public hospitals in Malaysia: clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zailani, Suhaiza; Gilani, Mina Sayyah; Nikbin, Davoud; Iranmanesh, Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the determinants of telemedicine acceptance in selected public hospitals in Malaysia and to investigate the effect of health culture on the relationship between these determinants and telemedicine acceptance. Data were gathered by means of a survey of physicians and nurses as the main group of users of telemedicine technology from hospitals that are currently using telemedicine technology. The results indicated that government policies, top management support, perception of usefulness and computer self-efficiency have a positive and significant impact on telemedicine acceptance by public hospitals in Malaysia. The results also confirmed the moderating role of health culture on the relationship between government policies as well as perceived usefulness on telemedicine acceptance by Malaysian hospitals. The results are useful for decision-makers as well as managers to recognize the potential role of telemedicine and assist in the process of implementation, adoption and utilization, and, therefore, spread the usage of telemedicine technology in more hospitals in the country.

  20. Guide to Reference Sources on Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, and Russia and East Europe: Selected and Annotated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James R., Jr.; And Others

    This selected annotated bibliography of reference sources is designed to help college students prepare for the future by identifying critical sources on the societies and cultures of most of the world's people who have long been neglected in higher education. Encyclopedias, handbooks, and yearbooks are listed first under each area. Next are the…

  1. A Critical Evaluation of Waste Incineration Plants in Wuhan (China Based on Site Selection, Environmental Influence, Public Health and Public Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the waste incineration industry in China, top priority has been given to the problem of pollution caused by waste incineration. This study is the first attempt to assess all the waste incineration plants in Wuhan, the only national key city in central China, in terms of environmental impact, site selection, public health and public participation. By using a multi-criterion assessment model for economic, social, public health and environmental effects, this study indicates these incineration plants are established without much consideration of the local residents’ health and environment. A location analysis is also applied and some influences of waste incineration plants are illustrated. This study further introduces a signaling game model to prove that public participation is a necessary condition for improving the environmental impact assessment and increasing total welfare of different interest groups in China. This study finally offers some corresponding recommendations for improving the environmental impact assessments of waste incineration projects.

  2. Impact of a Reference Center on Leprosy Control under a Decentralized Public Health Care Policy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Raquel Rodrigues; Sales, Anna Maria; Hacker, Mariana Andrea; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Duppre, Nádia Cristina; Machado, Alice de Miranda; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the profile of patients referred to the Fiocruz Outpatient Clinic, a reference center for the diagnosis and treatment of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, and analyzed the origins and outcomes of these referrals. This is an observational retrospective study based on information collected from the Leprosy Laboratory database at Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. A total of 1,845 suspected leprosy cases examined at the reference center between 2010 and 2014 were included. The originating health service referrals and diagnostic outcomes were analyzed as well as the clinical and epidemiological data of patients diagnosed with leprosy. Our data show that the profile of the patients treated at the Clinic has changed in recent years. There was an increase in both the proportion of patients with other skin diseases and those who had visited only one health service prior to our Clinic. Among the total 1,845 cases analyzed, the outcomes of 1,380 were linked to other diseases and, in 74% of these cases, a biopsy was not necessary to reach a diagnostic conclusion. A decrease in new leprosy case detection among our patients was also observed. Yet, among the leprosy patients, 40% had some degree of disability at diagnosis. The results of the present study demonstrated the importance of referral centers in support of basic health services within the decentralization strategy. But, the success of the program depends on the advent of new developmental tools to augment diagnostic accuracy for leprosy. However, it should be emphasized that for new diagnostic methods to be developed, a greater commitment on the part of the health care system regarding research is urgently needed.

  3. Impact of a Reference Center on Leprosy Control under a Decentralized Public Health Care Policy in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodrigues Barbieri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the profile of patients referred to the Fiocruz Outpatient Clinic, a reference center for the diagnosis and treatment of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, and analyzed the origins and outcomes of these referrals.This is an observational retrospective study based on information collected from the Leprosy Laboratory database at Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. A total of 1,845 suspected leprosy cases examined at the reference center between 2010 and 2014 were included. The originating health service referrals and diagnostic outcomes were analyzed as well as the clinical and epidemiological data of patients diagnosed with leprosy.Our data show that the profile of the patients treated at the Clinic has changed in recent years. There was an increase in both the proportion of patients with other skin diseases and those who had visited only one health service prior to our Clinic. Among the total 1,845 cases analyzed, the outcomes of 1,380 were linked to other diseases and, in 74% of these cases, a biopsy was not necessary to reach a diagnostic conclusion. A decrease in new leprosy case detection among our patients was also observed. Yet, among the leprosy patients, 40% had some degree of disability at diagnosis.The results of the present study demonstrated the importance of referral centers in support of basic health services within the decentralization strategy. But, the success of the program depends on the advent of new developmental tools to augment diagnostic accuracy for leprosy. However, it should be emphasized that for new diagnostic methods to be developed, a greater commitment on the part of the health care system regarding research is urgently needed.

  4. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR studies during Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation in the presence of sulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadai, Chiara; Campanaro, Stefano; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2015-12-23

    Sulfur dioxide is extensively used during industrial fermentations and contributes to determine the harsh conditions of winemaking together with low pH, high sugar content and increasing ethanol concentration. Therefore the presence of sulfite has to be considered in yeast gene expression studies to properly understand yeast behavior in technological environments such as winemaking. A reliable expression pattern can be obtained only using an appropriate reference gene set that is constitutively expressed regardless of perturbations linked to the experimental conditions. In this work we tested 15 candidate reference genes suitable for analysis of gene expression during must fermentation in the presence of sulfite. New reference genes were selected from a genome-wide expression experiment, obtained by RNA sequencing of four Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains grown in enological conditions. Their performance was compared to that of the most common genes used in previous studies. The most popular software based on different statistical approaches (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were chosen to evaluate expression stability of the candidate reference genes. Validation was obtained using other wine strains by comparing normalized gene expression data with transcriptome quantification both in the presence and absence of sulfite. Among 15 reference genes tested ALG9, FBA1, UBC6 and PFK1 appeared to be the most reliable while ENO1, PMA1, DED1 and FAS2 were the worst. The most popular reference gene ACT1, widely used for S. cerevisiae gene expression studies, showed a stability level markedly lower than those of our selected reference genes. Finally, as the expression of the new reference gene set remained constant over the entire fermentation process, irrespective of the perturbation due to sulfite addition, our results can be considered also when no sulfite is added to the must.

  5. Reference gene selection for quantitative gene expression studies during biological invasions: A test on multiple genes and tissues in a model ascidian Ciona savignyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuena; Gao, Yangchun; Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Zhan, Aibin

    2016-01-15

    As invasive species have successfully colonized a wide range of dramatically different local environments, they offer a good opportunity to study interactions between species and rapidly changing environments. Gene expression represents one of the primary and crucial mechanisms for rapid adaptation to local environments. Here, we aim to select reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis based on quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for a model invasive ascidian, Ciona savignyi. We analyzed the stability of ten candidate reference genes in three tissues (siphon, pharynx and intestine) under two key environmental stresses (temperature and salinity) in the marine realm based on three programs (geNorm, NormFinder and delta Ct method). Our results demonstrated only minor difference for stability rankings among the three methods. The use of different single reference gene might influence the data interpretation, while multiple reference genes could minimize possible errors. Therefore, reference gene combinations were recommended for different tissues - the optimal reference gene combination for siphon was RPS15 and RPL17 under temperature stress, and RPL17, UBQ and TubA under salinity treatment; for pharynx, TubB, TubA and RPL17 were the most stable genes under temperature stress, while TubB, TubA and UBQ were the best under salinity stress; for intestine, UBQ, RPS15 and RPL17 were the most reliable reference genes under both treatments. Our results suggest that the necessity of selection and test of reference genes for different tissues under varying environmental stresses. The results obtained here are expected to reveal mechanisms of gene expression-mediated invasion success using C. savignyi as a model species.

  6. Evaluation and Selection of Appropriate Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during Vaccination and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erlong; Wang, Kaiyu; Chen, Defang; Wang, Jun; He, Yang; Long, Bo; Yang, Lei; Yang, Qian; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Ping; Lai, Weimin

    2015-04-30

    qPCR as a powerful and attractive methodology has been widely applied to aquaculture researches for gene expression analyses. However, the suitable reference selection is critical for normalizing target genes expression in qPCR. In the present study, six commonly used endogenous controls were selected as candidate reference genes to evaluate and analyze their expression levels, stabilities and normalization to immune-related gene IgM expression during vaccination and infection in spleen of tilapia with RefFinder and GeNorm programs. The results showed that all of these candidate reference genes exhibited transcriptional variations to some extent at different periods. Among them, EF1A was the most stable reference with RefFinder, followed by 18S rRNA, ACTB, UBCE, TUBA and GAPDH respectively and the optimal number of reference genes for IgM normalization under different experiment sets was two with GeNorm. Meanwhile, combination the Cq (quantification cycle) value and the recommended comprehensive ranking of reference genes, EF1A and ACTB, the two optimal reference genes, were used together as reference genes for accurate analysis of immune-related gene expression during vaccination and infection in Nile tilapia with qPCR. Moreover, the highest IgM expression level was at two weeks post-vaccination when normalized to EF1A, 18S rRNA, ACTB, and EF1A together with ACTB compared to one week post-vaccination before normalizing, which was also consistent with the IgM antibody titers detection by ELISA.

  7. Public Library Reference Service Brand Construction%公共图书馆参考咨询品牌建设探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛辰莲

    2012-01-01

    The prosperity of the book market brings competition to the public library. Reference service market is the need for library survival and development. This article, analyzing the competitive environment of library reference service, explores the importance of reference brand construction, the composition of reference brand information and brand value content. At last, the author gives some effective ways.%图书市场的繁荣给公共图书馆带来了竞争,图书参考咨询服务市场是品牌的战场。参考咨询品牌建设是图书馆生存和发展的需要。本文从分析图书馆参考咨询的竞争环境出发,探讨了参考咨询品牌建设的重要性,阐述了参考咨询品牌信息的构成和品牌价值内容,提出了图书馆参考咨询品牌建设的具体有效办法。

  8. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in larvae of three species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Jaryd A; Timm, Alicia E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB) was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle) of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick), Cydia pomonella (L.) and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick). Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C) with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae.

  9. Selection and Verification of Candidate Reference Genes for Mature MicroRNA Expression by Quantitative RT-PCR in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is a rapid and sensitive method for analyzing microRNA (miRNA expression. However, accurate qRT-PCR results depend on the selection of reliable reference genes as internal positive controls. To date, few studies have identified reliable reference genes for differential expression analysis of miRNAs among tissues, and among experimental conditions in plants. In this study, three miRNAs and four non-coding small RNAs (ncRNA were selected as reference candidates, and the stability of their expression was evaluated among different tissues and under different experimental conditions in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis using the geNorm and NormFinder programs. It was shown that miR159a was the best single reference gene in the bud to the fifth leaf, 5S rRNA was the most suitable gene in different organs, miR6149 was the most stable gene when the leaves were attacked by Ectropis oblique and U4, miR5368n and miR159a were the best genes when the leaves were treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA, respectively. Our results provide suitable reference genes for future investigations on miRNA functions in tea plants.

  10. Selection of relatively exact reference genes for gene expression studies in flixweed (Descurainia sophia) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xian; Liu, Xiaomin; Chen, Silong; Li, Binghua; Wang, Xiaoyun; Fan, Cuiqin; Wang, Guiqi; Ni, Hanwen

    2016-02-01

    The reliable gene expression analysis of a reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) mainly depends on selecting suitable reference genes that can express stably under different experimental conditions. Thus far, no reference genes have been identified in flixweed. In this paper, 7 supposed reference genes were selected to evaluate their expression stabilities by qRT-PCR in flixweed under three conditions including different sampling times after tribenuron treatment, different organs, and different growth stages using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper statistical algorithms. The results showed that ACT7, UBC and 18SrRNA were the stable reference genes in all of the tested samples. ACT7 and UBC showed high stability in different sampling times after the tribenuron treatment. UBC and 18SrRNA were the most suitable genes for different organs and growth stages. This work confirmed the suitable reference genes of flixweed for a relatively accurate gene expression analysis under different experimental conditions.

  11. Chlamydia psittaci reference genes for normalisation of expression data differ depending on the culture conditions and selected time points during the chlamydial replication cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Lent Sarah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia psittaci is a gram-negative obligate intracellular pathogen of birds. Poultry infections lead to economic losses and can be transmitted to humans. No vaccine is available and the bacterium-host cell interaction is not completely understood. Replicating bacteria cause pneumonia, but C. psittaci can also be non-replicating and persistent inside the cytoplasm of avian cells. RT-qPCR provides insight into the molecular pathogenesis of both active replicating and persistent Chlamydia psittaci in birds, but requires identification of stably expressed reference genes to avoid biases. Material and Methods: We investigated the expression stability of 10 C. psittaci candidate reference genes for gene expression analysis during normal growth and penicillin-induced persistence. C. psittaci Cal10 was cultured in HeLa229 and RNA was extracted. The expression level of each candidate was examined by RT-qPCR and Cq values were analysed using geNorm. Results: The genes tyrS, gidA, radA, and 16S rRNA ranked among the most stably expressed. The final selected reference genes differed according to the bacterial growth status (normal growth versus persistent status, and the time points selected during the duration of the normal chlamydial developmental cycle. Conclusion: The study data show the importance of systematic validation of reference genes to confirm their stability within the strains and under the conditions selected.

  12. 78 FR 63464 - William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program Repayment Plan Selection Form; Extension of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ...On October 3, 2013 the U.S. Department of Education published a 30-day comment period notice in the Federal Register (Page 61347, Column 2) seeking public comment for an information collection entitled, ``William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program Repayment Plan Selection Form''. ED is extending the comment period to November 18, 2013 due to the public's inability to access the collection at......

  13. Selection of reference genes for expression analysis in the entomophthoralean fungus Pandora neoaphidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chun; Xie, Tingna; Ye, Sudan

    2016-01-01

    candidate genes including 18S rRNA(18S), 28S rRNA(28S) and elongationfactor 1 alpha-like protein (EF1), were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reac-tion at different developmental stages (conidia, conidia with germ tubes, short hyphae andelongated hyphae), and under different nutritional conditions....... We calculated the expressionstability of candidate reference genes using four algorithms including geNorm, NormFinder,BestKeeper and Delta Ct. The analysis results revealed that the comprehensive ranking ofcandidate reference genes from the most stable to the least stable was 18S (1.189), 28S (1.......414)and EF1 (3). The 18S was, therefore, the most suitable reference gene for real-time RT-PCRanalysis of gene expression under all conditions. These results will support further studieson gene expression in P. neoaphidis...

  14. Public spending efficiency and political and economic factors: Evidence from selected East Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Sok-Gee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses public spending efficiency and the effect of political and economic factors on public spending efficiency in East Asian countries for the period 2000-2007. In the first stage, the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach is used to estimate public spending efficiency scores. In the second stage, the Tobit regression model is then used to determine the effect of political and economic factors on public spending efficiency. Results of the study show that China is relatively efficient in public spending on education, health, and maintaining economic performance and stability, Japan on infrastructure, and Singapore on promoting public services. In addition, countries in East Asia are relatively less efficient in public spending for promoting equal income distribution. The results also indicate that political stability and financial freedom have a positive effect on public spending efficiency. However, voice, accountability, and civil liberties have a negative effect on public spending efficiency.

  15. Forensic Accounting: A Tool for Fraud Detection and Prevention in the Public Sector. (A Study of Selected Ministries in Kogi State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Okoye

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution/importance of Professional Forensic Accountant cannot be over emphasized, whether to the public sector or to the private sector. The purpose of this study is to examine forensic accounting as a tool for fraud detection and prevention in the public sector organizations with particular reference to Kogi State. Both primary and secondary sources of data were appropriately used. 370 questionnaires were administered to staff of five (5 selected ministries in Kogi State of Nigeria, along with interviews conducted with those ministries out of which 350 were filled and returned. Tables and simple percentages were used to analyze the data. The statistical tool used to test hypotheses was Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA. Among the findings was that the use of Forensic Accounting do significantly reduces the occurrence of fraud cases in the public sector, and that there is significance difference between Professional Forensic Accountants and Traditional External Auditors and therefore the use of Forensic Accountants can help better in detecting and preventing fraud cases in the public sector organizations. The research therefore recommended that Forensic Accountants be replaced with the external auditors in Kogi State, proper training and retraining on Forensic accounting should be provided to staff of Kogi State and proper adherence to accounting and auditing standards should be followed.

  16. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography. Vol. 2, Rev. 1. [490 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W. (comps.)

    1979-07-01

    This bibliography, a compilation of 490 references, is the second in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base is one of six data bases created by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. Major emphasis for this volume has been placed on uranium geology, encompassing deposition, genesis of ore deposits, and ore controls; and prospecting techniques, including geochemistry and aerial reconnaissance. The following indexes are provided to aid the user in locating references of interest: author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword.

  17. Media debates and 'ethical publicity' on social sex selection through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) technology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a critical discourse analysis of media debate over social sex selection in the Australian media from 2008 to 2014. This period coincides with a review of the National Health and Medical Research Council's Ethical Guidelines on the Use of Assisted Reproductive Technology in Clinical Practice and Research (2007), which underlie the regulation of assisted reproductive clinics and practice in Australia. I examine the discussion of the ethics of pre-implatation genetic diagnosis (PGD) within the media as 'ethical publicity' to the lay public. Sex selection through PGD is both exemplary of and interconnected with a range of debates in Australia about the legitimacy of certain reproductive choices and the extent to which procreative liberties should be restricted. Major themes emerging from media reports on PGD sex selection in Australia are described. These include: the spectre of science out of control; ramifications for the contestation over the public funding of abortion in Australia; private choices versus public authorities regulating reproduction; and the ethics of travelling overseas for the technology. It is concluded that within Australia, the issue of PGD sex selection is framed in terms of questions of individual freedom against the principle of sex discrimination - a principle enshrined in legislation - and a commitment to publically-funded medical care.

  18. Selection and validation of candidate reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR studies in the shrimp Penaeus vannamei under viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Castillo, Adán; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Enríquez-Espinosa, Tania; Grijalva-Chon, José Manuel; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo

    2017-06-01

    The decapod Penstyldensovirus 1 (PstDV-1) represents one of the most serious threats for penaeid shrimp farming. Studies aimed at defining relevant molecular effects of this virus over its host are imperative in the attempt to increase our understanding of its pathogenesis. Unfortunately, few studies have focused on the definition of the expression profile of reference genes in shrimp challenged with a pathogen. As a result, there are no studies on the selection of reference genes for the normalization of target gene expression changes yielding reliable data of the effects following PstDV-1 infection in shrimp. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and validate the appropriateness of four candidate reference genes (ef1-α, gapdh, rpl8 and β-tubulin) for their use as reference genes to normalize qPCR data in gene expression studies of PstDV-1-shrimp interactions. By analyzing the expression profile of those genes, gapdh was validated as a suitable reference gene to normalize expression data gathered from a PstDV1-challenge, while ef1-α, β-tubulin, and rpl8 were identified as unstably expressed during the infectious process. The suitability of gapdh as a common reference gene in studies of host gene response to viral infections is underlined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamics of Public Service Motivation: Attraction, Selection, and Socialization in the Production and Regulation of Social Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    certified Danish social workers, this study provides a unique design to investigate PSM-based attraction‒selection and socialization effects with respect to the choice between work related to service production and service regulation (controlled for public/private sector of employment). The study shows......The literature on public service motivation (PSM) has typically focused on the relationship between this motivation and public/private sector of employment, while the character of the work being performed has been neglected. Through panel surveys with pre- and post-entry measures of PSM among...

  20. [Analysis of the effectiveness of the public health system with special reference to the health of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, L; Brogren, P O

    1990-01-01

    A well structured, efficient health service is an important component of the welfare state, in Sweden for example. But its significance for the state of the nation's health is limited and will be affected, inter alia, by life styles and the environment. A progressive health policy must be based on cooperation between various sectors of society, and here the health service plays a central part. Therefore social policy must be well documented and subjected to continuous review. This is an important prerequisite for planning and correction at different levels. The analysis must take account of society as a whole, organization, and the individual! In so doing, greater significance should be attributed to the effectiveness and quality of the health service than to structures, capacity and statistics. With reference to the health of children in the Nordic countries, it is encouraging to see that this conception of evaluation has also gained greater acceptance in preventive care, firstly in the field of paediatric health care and more recently in the school health service as well.

  1. How evidence-based medicine is failing due to biased trials and selective publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every-Palmer, Susanna; Howick, Jeremy

    2014-12-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) was announced in the early 1990s as a 'new paradigm' for improving patient care. Yet there is currently little evidence that EBM has achieved its aim. Since its introduction, health care costs have increased while there remains a lack of high-quality evidence suggesting EBM has resulted in substantial population-level health gains. In this paper we suggest that EBM's potential for improving patients' health care has been thwarted by bias in the choice of hypotheses tested, manipulation of study design and selective publication. Evidence for these flaws is clearest in industry-funded studies. We argue EBM's indiscriminate acceptance of industry-generated 'evidence' is akin to letting politicians count their own votes. Given that most intervention studies are industry funded, this is a serious problem for the overall evidence base. Clinical decisions based on such evidence are likely to be misinformed, with patients given less effective, harmful or more expensive treatments. More investment in independent research is urgently required. Independent bodies, informed democratically, need to set research priorities. We also propose that evidence rating schemes are formally modified so research with conflict of interest bias is explicitly downgraded in value. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in milk somatic cells of lactating cows (Bos indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, N; Mohanty, A K; Kumar, S; Kaushik, J K; Dang, A K; Mukesh, M; Mishra, B P; Kataria, R; Kimothi, S P; Mukhopadhyay, T K; Malakar, D; Prakash, B S; Grover, S; Batish, V K

    2012-06-01

    We assessed the suitability of 9 internal control genes (ICG) in milk somatic cells of lactating cows to find suitable reference genes for use in quantitative PCR (qPCR). Eighteen multiparous lactating Sahiwal cows were used, 6 in each of 3 lactation stages: early (25 ± 5 d in milk), mid (160 ± 15 d in milk), and late (275 ± 25 d in milk) lactation. Nine candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 (PPP1R11), β-actin (ACTB), β-2 microglobulin (B2M), 40S ribosomal protein S15a (RPS15A), ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT), mitochondrial GTPase 1 (MTG1), 18S rRNA (RN18S1), and ubiquitin (UBC)] were evaluated. Three genes, β-casein (CSN2), lactoferrin (LTF), and cathelicidin (CAMP) were chosen as target genes. Very high amplification was observed in 7 ICG and very low level amplification was observed in 2 ICG (UXT and MTG1). Thus, UXT and MTG1 were excluded from further analysis. The qPCR data were analyzed by 2 software packages, geNorm and NormFinder, to determine suitable reference genes, based on their stability and expression. Overall, PPP1R11, ACTB, UBC, and GAPDH were stably expressed among all candidate reference genes. Therefore, these genes could be used as ICG for normalization of qPCR data in milk somatic cells through lactation.

  3. Perception of selected risk factors for cancer and heart attack among visitors of a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess perception of selected risk factors for cancer and heart attack among visitors of a public hospital. Materials and Methods: Randomly 1651 ambulatory adults were contacted using predesigned, pretested, semi-structure interview schedule comprising selective 12 risk factors for cancer (increasing age, tobacco, obesity, alcohol, diet-rich in fat/oil, diet-poor in fruits and vegetables (F and V, physical in-activity, environmental pollution, multiple sexual partners, insecticides/pesticides/chemicals, micro-organism, family history and 11 for heart attack (increasing age, tobacco, obesity, alcohol, diet-rich in fat/oil, diet-poor in F and V, physical in-activity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, mental stress, family history. Correct response was awarded one mark and incorrect/do not know response as zero. Results: The study participants comprised of 56.2% attendants and 43.8% patients with mean age of 36.78 (±13.05 years; 71.2% were male, 65% resided in rural area and 32.3% subjects were smoker. A statistically (P = 0.001 higher odds for smoking was found among less educated (odds ratio [OR]: 1.30, rural (OR: 1.60, male (OR: 2.85, patients (OR: 1.41 of more than 30 years of age (OR: 1.67. Nearly, 64.5% and 82.0% subject responded that tobacco causes the heart attack and cancer while obesity was considered as a risk factor by 68.4% (heart attack and 28.1% (cancer. Nearly, 70.7% and 32.0% reported diet rich in fat/oil and poor in F and V could lead to heart attack but only 23.5% and 25.8% mentioned respectively for cancer. Mean risk factors identified for heart attack were 6.64 ± 2.29 (range: 0-11 while for cancer it was 5.01 ± 2.33 (range: 0-12. Nearly, 670 (40.58% and 620 (37.55% subjects mentioned spontaneously at least one type/anatomical site-specific cancer of male and female respectively; 73.4% believed that cancer does not spread by social activity and 54.2% opined that cancer is treatable if detected early. Conclusion

  4. Comprehensive selection of reference genes for expression studies in meniscus injury using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego Costa; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Debieux, Pedro; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2016-06-10

    The meniscus plays critical roles in the knee function. Meniscal tears can lead to knee osteoarthritis. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for understanding meniscus tears, and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for such studies. However, this technique requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization. We evaluated the suitability of six reference genes (18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1 and TBP) using meniscus samples of (1) 19 patients with isolated meniscal tears, (2) 20 patients with meniscal tears and combined anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL), and (3) 11 controls without meniscal tears. The stability of the candidate reference genes was determined using the NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper DataAssist and RefFinder software packages and comparative ΔCt method. Overall, HPRT1 was the best single reference gene. However, GenEx software demonstrated that two or more reference genes should be used for gene expression normalization, which was confirmed when we evaluated TGFβR1 expression using several reference gene combinations. HPRT1+TBP was the most frequently identified pair from the analysis of samples of (1) meniscal tear samples of patients with a concomitant ACL tears, (2) all meniscal tears, and (3) all samples. HPRT1+GAPDH was the most frequently identified pair from the analysis of samples of isolated meniscal tear samples and controls. In the analysis involving only controls, GAPDH+18S was the most frequently identified pair. In the analysis of only isolated meniscal tear samples and in the analysis of meniscal tear samples of patients with concomitant ACL tears and controls, both HPRT1+TBP and HPRT1+GAPDH were identified as suitable pairs. If the gene expression study aims to compare non-injured meniscus, isolated meniscal tears and meniscal tears of patients with ACL tears as three independent groups, the trio of HPRT1+TBP+GAPDH is the most suitable

  5. Measurements of Electric and Magnetic Field Intensities at 50 Hz Mains Frequency and Comparison of Measurement Results to ICNIRP's Reference Levels for General Public Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Cansız

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP accepted by many countries as well as Turkey is a commission which determines reference levels for general public and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and has intensive works on these issues. ICNIRP has published separately a low frequency band (0-100 kHz and a high frequency band (100 kHz-300 GHz guidelines which investigate the biological and potential health hazard effects of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. In this study, measurements of low frequency electric and magnetic fields were taken in 30 different locations in the city center of Diyarbakir. Some locations exceeding the reference levels for general public exposure specified by ICNIRP were determined in the measurements of low frequency electric and magnetic fields and then some assessments were made about them. Low frequency electric and magnetic field meter device which is named EHP-50C was used in the measurements. The measurement results were calculated as an average value of 6 minute measurements. In addition, under a high voltage power line during 60 minutes, electric and magnetic field intensity values were recorded in the same manner. As a result of recordings, changes in the electric and magnetic field intensity values were observed, and then these changes were shown on the charts.

  6. A Comparative Study of Students' Access to and Utilization of Learning Resources in Selected Public and Private Universities in Southwest, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, B. O.; Viatonu, Olumuyiwa

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated students' access to and utilization of some learning resources in selected public and private universities in southwest Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 585 (295 public and 290 private) students from 12 (six public and six private) universities in southwest Nigeria. Two instruments--Cost and…

  7. Injury modality, survival interval, and sample region are critical determinants of qRT-PCR reference gene selection during long-term recovery from brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Janna L; Reeves, Thomas M; Phillips, Linda L

    2009-10-01

    In the present study we examined expression of four real-time quantitative RT-PCR reference genes commonly applied to rodent models of brain injury. Transcripts for beta-actin, cyclophilin A, GAPDH, and 18S rRNA were assessed at 2-15 days post-injury, focusing on the period of synaptic recovery. Diffuse moderate central fluid percussion injury (FPI) was contrasted with unilateral entorhinal cortex lesion (UEC), a model of targeted deafferentation. Expression in UEC hippocampus, as well as in FPI hippocampus and parietotemporal cortex was analyzed by qRT-PCR. Within-group variability of gene expression was assessed and change in expression relative to paired controls was determined. None of the four common reference genes tested was invariant across brain region, survival time, and type of injury. Cyclophilin A appeared appropriate as a reference gene in UEC hippocampus, while beta-actin was most stable for the hippocampus subjected to FPI. However, each gene may fail as a suitable reference with certain test genes whose RNA expression is targeted for measurement. In FPI cortex, all reference genes were significantly altered over time, compromising their utility for time-course studies. Despite such temporal variability, certain genes may be appropriate references if limited to single survival times. These data provide an extended baseline for identification of appropriate reference genes in rodent studies of recovery from brain injury. In this context, we outline additional considerations for selecting a qRT-PCR normalization strategy in such studies. As previously concluded for acute post-injury intervals, we stress the importance of reference gene validation for each brain injury paradigm and each set of experimental conditions.

  8. The selection principle and the types of happiness referents%幸福参照对象的选择原则与类型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊辉

    2015-01-01

    Social comparison theory has strong explanatory power for the formation of personal happiness .Personal happiness is a psychological experience after the social comparison between the individual and the referent ; therefore, the selection of the referent has a direct impact on the formation of personal happiness .The selection of individual's referent has the following char-acteristics: objective dominance, subjective selectivity, phase change and relative stability ; meanwhile, it follows the princi-ples of similarity, proximity, information availability, majority and specificity.The Individual's referents can generally be di-vided into three types: parallel, upward, and downward; on the basis of that, it can also be further subdivided into three kinds: major, minor and temporary referents.The selection and change of the major referents has a direct effect on the indi -vidual's happiness.By studying the change of major referents , we can better grasp the social psychological change , so as to better cope with the realistic problems in the construction of happy society .%社会比较理论对个人幸福感的形成具有强大的解释力。个人幸福是个体与其参照对象进行社会比较之后的一种心理体验,因而,参照对象的选择对个人幸福感的形成具有直接重大影响。个体对参照对象的选择具有客观主导性、主观选择性、阶段变化性和相对稳定性等特点,并遵循相似性、接近性、信息可获得性以及多数性与特定性等原则。个体所选择的参照对象在分为平行、上行、下行三种类型的基础上,还可进一步分为主要、次要和临时参照对象三种。主要参照对象的选择与变化,对个体幸福感造成直接影响。通过研究主要参照对象的变化,我们可以较好地把握社会心理变化脉络,从而更好应对幸福社会建设中的现实问题。

  9. Listeria monocytogenes infection in poultry and its public health importance with special reference to food borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Verma, Amit Kumar; Rajagunalan, S; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    Listeriosis is a disease that causes septicemia or encephalitis in humans, animals and birds. Although, the disease is rare and sporadic in poultry but if occurs then causes septicemia or sometimes localized encephalitis. Occasionally, the disease is seen in young chicks and the causative agent, like in humans and animals, is Listeria monocytogenes. The organism is capable to infect almost all animals and poultry; however, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. It is widely distributed among avian species and chickens, turkeys, waterfowl (geese, ducks), game birds, pigeons, parrots, wood grouse, snowy owl, eagle, canaries, which appear to be the most commonly affected. Chickens are thought to be the carriers of Listeria and also the prime reservoirs for the infection and thus contaminate the litter and environment of the poultry production units. Listeriosis is often noticed along with other poultry diseases such as coccidiosis, infectious coryza, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and parasitic infections, signifying the opportunistic nature of the organism. Intestinal colonization of poultry and the presence of L. monocytogenes in feces represent a potential source of the organism for listeriosis in ruminants. Man gets infection from raw broiler meat due to Listeria contamination and unhygienic conditions of the processing area, rather than acquiring direct infection from birds. With the changing food habits of the people, the health consciousness is also increasing and since listeriosis has now been recognized as an emerging food borne zoonoses. Therefore, this review has been compiled to make aware the poultry producers and the consumers of poultry meat/products regarding the importance of the disease and its public health significance.

  10. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Analysis of Salivary Transcriptome in Non-Syndromic Autistic Male Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Panahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood autism is a severe form of complex genetically heterogeneous and behaviorally defined set of neurodevelopmental diseases, collectively termed as autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR is a highly sensitive technique for transcriptome analysis, and it has been frequently used in ASD gene expression studies. However, normalization to stably expressed reference gene(s is necessary to validate any alteration reported at the mRNA level for target genes. The main goal of the present study was to find the most stable reference genes in the salivary transcriptome for RT-qPCR analysis in non-syndromic male childhood autism. Saliva samples were obtained from nine drug naïve non-syndromic male children with autism and also sex-, age-, and location-matched healthy controls using the RNA-stabilizer kit from DNA Genotek. A systematic two-phased measurement of whole saliva mRNA levels for eight common housekeeping genes (HKGs was carried out by RT-qPCR, and the stability of expression for each candidate gene was analyzed using two specialized algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, in parallel. Our analysis shows that while the frequently used HKG ACTB is not a suitable reference gene, the combination of GAPDH and YWHAZ could be recommended for normalization of RT-qPCR analysis of salivary transcriptome in non-syndromic autistic male children.

  11. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Analysis of Salivary Transcriptome in Non-Syndromic Autistic Male Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yasin; Salasar Moghaddam, Fahimeh; Ghasemi, Zahra; Hadi Jafari, Mandana; Shervin Badv, Reza; Eskandari, Mohamad Reza; Pedram, Mehrdad

    2016-10-12

    Childhood autism is a severe form of complex genetically heterogeneous and behaviorally defined set of neurodevelopmental diseases, collectively termed as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive technique for transcriptome analysis, and it has been frequently used in ASD gene expression studies. However, normalization to stably expressed reference gene(s) is necessary to validate any alteration reported at the mRNA level for target genes. The main goal of the present study was to find the most stable reference genes in the salivary transcriptome for RT-qPCR analysis in non-syndromic male childhood autism. Saliva samples were obtained from nine drug naïve non-syndromic male children with autism and also sex-, age-, and location-matched healthy controls using the RNA-stabilizer kit from DNA Genotek. A systematic two-phased measurement of whole saliva mRNA levels for eight common housekeeping genes (HKGs) was carried out by RT-qPCR, and the stability of expression for each candidate gene was analyzed using two specialized algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, in parallel. Our analysis shows that while the frequently used HKG ACTB is not a suitable reference gene, the combination of GAPDH and YWHAZ could be recommended for normalization of RT-qPCR analysis of salivary transcriptome in non-syndromic autistic male children.

  12. References on the Study and Research of Public External Operational Audit of Structural Non-reimbursable Funds an Epistemological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin AFANASE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC is the international organism of standardization in the auditing field [1]. In our opinion, the theories, the methodologies and the standards issued by the mentioned organism, are still the paradigms with the most significant impact on audit rules and practices. Since some theorists define accounting as a social applied science, we can also affirm that the audit activity has a social role [2]. We intend to treat the mentioned subject not only from gnoseological point of view, in other words, we won’t just broaden the current theories and practices. In research, beside the theoretical analysis work, we intend to have a critical attitude both regarding previous research and defining and spreading innovative ideas relating to the suggested topic, as well. We may say that studying theorists work who are linked to the field news, in order to formulate the rules of good practice is an epistemological matter. From the epistemological point of view, in auditing, we operate with valuable judgments, namely evaluations or practical assessments of the phenomenon which our work can influence by adopting an approval or disapproval attitude. Improving the audit of operations financed from external grants can and should be a leverage of the utmost importance for their strategic absorption, implementation according to the agreements signed with the European Commission under the full protection of EU financial interests. The present project is focused on increasing the optimization of audit procedures and techniques as regards grants audit operations so that their implementation to be transparent, effective, efficient and economic for the national economy, and complying with the financial interests of the European Union. The challenge of this approach is caused by the fact that the external public audit of the external funded grants should fully

  13. Radiation dose in coronary angiography and intervention: initial results from the establishment of a multi-centre diagnostic reference level in Queensland public hospitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowhurst, James A, E-mail: jimcrowhurst@hotmail.com [The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, Queensland (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Whitby, Mark [The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, Queensland (Australia); Biomedical Technology Services, Health Services Support Agency, Queensland Health, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Thiele, David [Biomedical Technology Services, Health Services Support Agency, Queensland Health, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Halligan, Toni [Allied Health Professions' Office of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Westerink, Adam [Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Crown, Suzanne [Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); Milne, Jillian [Cardiac Clinical Informatics Unit - Queensland Health, Herston, Queensland (Australia); The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Radiation dose to patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is relatively high. Guidelines suggest that a local benchmark or diagnostic reference level (DRL) be established for these procedures. This study sought to create a DRL for ICA procedures in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for all Cardiac Catheter Laboratories in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for diagnostic coronary angiography (CA) and single-vessel percutaneous intervention (PCI) procedures. Dose area product (P{sub KA}), skin surface entrance dose (K{sub AR}), fluoroscopy time (FT), and patient height and weight were collected for 3 months. The DRL was set from the 75th percentile of the P{sub KA.} 2590 patients were included in the CA group where the median FT was 3.5 min (inter-quartile range = 2.3–6.1). Median K{sub AR} = 581 mGy (374–876). Median P{sub KA} = 3908 uGym{sup 2} (2489–5865) DRL = 5865 uGym{sup 2}. 947 patients were included in the PCI group where median FT was 11.2 min (7.7–17.4). Median K{sub AR} = 1501 mGy (928–2224). Median P{sub KA} = 8736 uGym{sup 2} (5449–12,900) DRL = 12,900 uGym{sup 2}. This study established a benchmark for radiation dose for diagnostic and interventional coronary angiography in Queensland public facilities.

  14. 新加坡城市公共空间的规划理念借鉴%Taking Planning Idea of Singapore Urban Public Space for Reference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明杰; 赵静

    2012-01-01

    该文指出国内城市公共空间建设中城市特色消失、城市活力不足、管理制度不完善等问题,并以新加坡为例,了解新加坡城市公共空间建设过程及其最新的概念规划方案,同时从土地政策、住房建设、历史街区保护、城市捷运系统、花园城市规划五个方面探索新加坡公共空间的影响因素,希望对国内的城市公共空间建设有所帮助.%The author points out the problems of urban public space in China, then explores the influencing factors in Singapore urban public space from the land policy, housing construction, historic district protection, urban rapid transit system and garden city planning, in order to offer some reference for domestic construction of urban public space.

  15. Energy/Environment/Economy. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected U.S. Government Publications Concerning United States Energy Policy, Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENVIRO/INFO, Green Bay, WI.

    This annotated bibliography supplements ED 077 704. It provides a selective listing of 93 U.S. Federal Government publications germane to the energy crisis and its attendant environmental and economic implications. Primary emphasis is placed upon documents presenting energy policy issues which have emerged, plus statistical reportage which…

  16. Energy/Environment/Economy. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected U.S. Government Publications Concerning United States Energy Policy, Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENVIRO/INFO, Green Bay, WI.

    This annotated bibliography supplements ED 077 704. It provides a selective listing of 93 U.S. Federal Government publications germane to the energy crisis and its attendant environmental and economic implications. Primary emphasis is placed upon documents presenting energy policy issues which have emerged, plus statistical reportage which…

  17. SELECTED ASPECTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVE MARKETING CAMPAIGN TO RAISE AWARENESS AND PROMOTE PUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna NOSAL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents selected aspects of the implementation of the EU’s SmartMove project, which aims to promote feeder public transport systems in rural areas through the implementation of an active marketing campaign (AMC. Campaigns of this type are connected with providing general and personalized information concerning the functioning of public transport services. In the article, characteristics of one of the implementation areas of the project are presented, namely, the Liszki district near Cracow. Transport services were also evaluated. In addition, selected results are presented from a survey that was conducted among residents of the area from the point of view of the implementation of the AMC. The results concerned data about the means of transport that were currently used for travelling, the knowledge of bus services, the reasons for their use and the factors that might encourage residents to use public transport

  18. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Normalization in Iris. lactea var. chinensis Roots under Cadmium, Lead, and Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Sun Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR has emerged as an accurate and sensitive method to measure the gene expression. However, obtaining reliable result depends on the selection of reference genes which normalize differences among samples. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of seven reference genes, namely, ubiquitin-protein ligase UBC9 (UBC, tubulin alpha-5 (TUBLIN, eukaryotic translation initiation factor (EIF-5A, translation elongation factor EF1A (EF1α, translation elongation factor EF1B (EF1b, actin11 (ACTIN, and histone H3 (HIS, in Iris. lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis root when the plants were subjected to cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, and salt stress conditions. All seven reference genes showed a relatively wide range of threshold cycles (Ct values in different samples. GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to assess the suitable reference genes. The results from the two software units showed that EIF-5A and UBC were the most stable reference genes across all of the tested samples, while TUBLIN was unsuitable as internal controls. I. lactea var. chinensis is tolerant to Cd, Pb, and salt. Our results will benefit future research on gene expression in response to the three abiotic stresses.

  19. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time RT-PCR normalization in Iris. lactea var. chinensis roots under cadmium, lead, and salt stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun-Sun; Liu, Liang-qin; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Yan-hai; Zhu, Xu-dong; Huang, Su-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) has emerged as an accurate and sensitive method to measure the gene expression. However, obtaining reliable result depends on the selection of reference genes which normalize differences among samples. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of seven reference genes, namely, ubiquitin-protein ligase UBC9 (UBC), tubulin alpha-5 (TUBLIN), eukaryotic translation initiation factor (EIF-5A), translation elongation factor EF1A (EF1 α ), translation elongation factor EF1B (EF1b), actin11 (ACTIN), and histone H3 (HIS), in Iris. lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) root when the plants were subjected to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and salt stress conditions. All seven reference genes showed a relatively wide range of threshold cycles (C t ) values in different samples. GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to assess the suitable reference genes. The results from the two software units showed that EIF-5A and UBC were the most stable reference genes across all of the tested samples, while TUBLIN was unsuitable as internal controls. I. lactea var. chinensis is tolerant to Cd, Pb, and salt. Our results will benefit future research on gene expression in response to the three abiotic stresses.

  20. Selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's disease model of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Young-Hyun; Lee, Youngjeon; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Heui-Soo; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Su; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been widely used to quantify relative gene expression because of the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of this technique. In order to obtain reliable gene expression data from RT-qPCR experiments, it is important to utilize optimal reference genes for the normalization of target gene expression under varied experimental conditions. Previously, we developed and validated a novel icv-STZ cynomolgus monkey model for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. However, in order to enhance the reliability of this disease model, appropriate reference genes must be selected to allow meaningful analysis of the gene expression levels in the icv-STZ cynomolgus monkey brain. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of 9 candidate reference genes in 2 matched-pair brain samples (5 regions) of control cynomolgus monkeys and those who had received intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (icv-STZ). Three well-known analytical programs geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to choose the suitable reference genes from the total sample group, control group, and icv-STZ group. Combination analysis of the 3 different programs clearly indicated that the ideal reference genes are RPS19 and YWHAZ in the total sample group, GAPDH and RPS19 in the control group, and ACTB and GAPDH in the icv-STZ group. Additionally, we validated the normalization accuracy of the most appropriate reference genes (RPS19 and YWHAZ) by comparison with the least stable gene (TBP) using quantification of the APP and MAPT genes in the total sample group. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first study to identify and validate the appropriate reference genes in cynomolgus monkey brains. These findings provide useful information for future studies involving the expression of target genes in the cynomolgus monkey.

  1. Selection and validation of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative sod gene expression analysis in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandesompele Jo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans the conserved Ins/IGF-1 signaling pathway regulates many biological processes including life span, stress response, dauer diapause and metabolism. Detection of differentially expressed genes may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism by which the Ins/IGF-1 signaling pathway regulates these processes. Appropriate normalization is an essential prerequisite for obtaining accurate and reproducible quantification of gene expression levels. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable set of reference genes for gene expression analysis in C. elegans. Results Real-time quantitative PCR was used to evaluate the expression stability of 12 candidate reference genes (act-1, ama-1, cdc-42, csq-1, eif-3.C, mdh-1, gpd-2, pmp-3, tba-1, Y45F10D.4, rgs-6 and unc-16 in wild-type, three Ins/IGF-1 pathway mutants, dauers and L3 stage larvae. After geNorm analysis, cdc-42, pmp-3 and Y45F10D.4 showed the most stable expression pattern and were used to normalize 5 sod expression levels. Significant differences in mRNA levels were observed for sod-1 and sod-3 in daf-2 relative to wild-type animals, whereas in dauers sod-1, sod-3, sod-4 and sod-5 are differentially expressed relative to third stage larvae. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the importance of accurate normalization using stably expressed reference genes. The methodology used in this study is generally applicable to reliably quantify gene expression levels in the nematode C. elegans using quantitative PCR.

  2. Predictors of the accuracy of quotation of references in peer-reviewed orthopaedic literature in relation to publications on the scaphoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijze, G A; Weening, A A; Poolman, R W; Bhandari, M; Ring, D

    2012-02-01

    Using inaccurate quotations can propagate misleading information, which might affect the management of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of quotation inaccuracy in the peer-reviewed orthopaedic literature related to the scaphoid. We randomly selected 100 papers from ten orthopaedic journals. All references were retrieved in full text when available or otherwise excluded. Two observers independently rated all quotations from the selected papers by comparing the claims made by the authors with the data and expressed opinions of the reference source. A statistical analysis determined which article-related factors were predictors of quotation inaccuracy. The mean total inaccuracy rate of the 3840 verified quotes was 7.6%. There was no correlation between the rate of inaccuracy and the impact factor of the journal. Multivariable analysis identified the journal and the type of study (clinical, biomechanical, methodological, case report or review) as important predictors of the total quotation inaccuracy rate. We concluded that inaccurate quotations in the peer-reviewed orthopaedic literature related to the scaphoid were common and slightly more so for certain journals and certain study types. Authors, reviewers and editorial staff play an important role in reducing this inaccuracy.

  3. Determination of selected oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) in diesel and air particulate matter standard reference materials (SRMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocun, Margarete S; Schantz, Michele M

    2013-06-01

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) have recently received much attention in discussions regarding the negative impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. The National Institute of Standards and Technology provides several environmental matrix standard reference materials (SRMs) with certified and reference values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs. In this study, the concentrations of oxygenated PAHs are determined in three air PM SRMs (1649b, 1648a, and 2786) and three diesel PM SRMs (1650b, 2975, and 1975) using two independent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Concentrations of oxy-PAHs were at the milligrams per kilogram level with higher overall concentrations in diesel PM (up to 50 mg/kg for 9,10-anthraquinone). One of the highest oxy-PAH concentrations (up to 5 mg/kg) measured in the air particulate SRMs was for 7,12-benz[a]anthracenquinone. These results suggest that oxygenated PAHs should not be neglected in the analysis of PM as their concentrations can be as high as those of some PAHs and are one to two orders of magnitude higher than those for nitro-PAHs.

  4. Public sector scale–up of zinc and ORS improves coverage in selected districts in Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa L. Fischer Walker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Bihar, India, a new initiative to enhance diarrhea treatment with zinc and ORS in the public sector was rolled out in selected districts. We conducted an external evaluation to measure changes in diarrhea careseeking and treatment in intervention districts. We conducted baseline and endline household surveys among caregivers of children 2–59 months of age. We calculated summary statistics for household characteristics, knowledge, careseeking and treatments given to children with a diarrhea episode in the last 14 days and built logistic regression models to compare baseline and endline values. Caregivers named a public health center as an appropriate source of care for childhood diarrhea more often at endline (71.3% compared to baseline (38.4% but did not report increased careseeking to public sector providers for the current diarrhea episode. In logistic regression analyses, the odds of receiving zinc, with or without oral rehydration salts (ORS, increased at endline by more than 2.7 as compared to baseline. Children who were taken to the public sector for care were more likely to receive zinc (odds ratio, OR = 3.93 and zinc in addition to ORS (OR = 6.10 compared to children who were not taken to the public sector. Coverage of zinc and ORS can improve with public sector programs targeted at training and increasing product availability, but demand creation may be needed to increase public sector careseeking in areas where the private sector has historically provided much of the care.

  5. 金融机构征信宣传网络体系研究--以河北省为例%Research on Credit Reference Publicity Network System of Financial Institutions---A Case Study of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭

    2015-01-01

    With the enactment of“Regulations of the People’ s Republic of China on Administration of Credit Refer-ence Industry” and “China’s Social Credit System Construction Plan (2014-2020)”, there is an urgent need for in-depth study of the construction of credit reference publicity network system. An analysis is made on credit refer-ence publicity viewed from economics and the results show that construction of credit reference culture and publicity mechanism that adapts to the modern market economy will bring enormous economic benefits. It’ s necessary for building a financial institutions credit reference publicity network system to exert the leading role of credit reference departments of the People's Bank of China into full play in the course of credit reference publicity, to make regula-tions of credit reference industry perfect, to establish a long-term mechanism for credit reference publicity network system led by the core values, to build a virtual network platform for credit reference publicity, to continuously strengthen the credit reference education and publicity.%随着《征信业管理条例》和《社会信用体系建设规划纲要(2014—2020年)》的实施,亟待对征信宣传网络体系建设进行深入研究。从经济学角度对征信宣传工作分析表明,构建与现代市场经济相适应的征信文化与宣传机制将会产生巨大的经济效益。为构建金融机构征信宣传网络体系,应发挥中国人民银行征信部门在征信宣传中的主导作用,完善征信业规章制度,建立以核心价值观为引领的征信宣传网络体系长效机制,构建虚拟网络宣传平台,继续强化征信教育宣传。

  6. Collaborative Chat Reference Service Effectiveness Varies by Question Type for Public Library Patrons. A review of: Kwon, Nahyun. ʺPublic Library Patronsʹ Use of Collaborative Chat Reference Service: The Effectiveness of Question Answering by Question Type.ʺ Library & Information Science Research 29.1 (Mar. 2007: 70‐91.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hall

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess the effectiveness of a collaborative chat reference service in answering different types of question. Specifically, the study compares the degree of answer completion and the level of user satisfaction for simple factual questions vs. more in‐depth subject‐based reference questions, and for ‘local’ (pertaining to a particular library and non‐local questions.Design – Content analysis of 415 transcripts of reference transactions, which were also compared to corresponding user satisfaction survey results.Setting – An online collaborative reference service offered by a large public library system (33 branch and regional locations. This service is part of the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System: a virtual reference consortium of U.S. libraries (public, academic, special, and corporate that provides 24/7 service.Subjects – Reference librarians from around the U.S. (49 different libraries, and users logging into the service via the public library system’s portal (primarily patrons of the 49 libraries. Method – Content analysis was used to evaluate virtual reference transcripts recorded between January and June, 2004. Reliability was enhanced through triangulation, with researchers comparing the content analysis of each transcript against the results of a voluntary exit survey. Of 1,387 transactions that occurred during the period of study, 420 users completed the survey and these formed the basis of the study, apart from 5 transactions that were omitted because the questions were incomprehensible. Questions were examined and assigned to five categories: “simple, factual questions; subject‐based research questions; resource access questions; circulation‐related questions; and local library information inquiries” (80‐81. Answers were classed as either “completely answered, partially answered or unanswered, referred, and problematic endings” (82. Lastly, user satisfaction was surveyed on three

  7. Review of Selected Dissertations Relevant to the "Journal of School Public Relations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, DeAnn; McCue, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    The article provides summaries of doctoral dissertations completed between January 2008 and December 2011 addressing foci of the "Journal of School Public Relations". The five areas are public relations, communication, school and community relations, conflict management, and human resources management. The periodic summaries of these dissertations…

  8. The Impact of Symbolic Speech in Public Schools: A Selective Case Analysis from "Tinker" to "Zamecnik"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    The freedom to express the self and the right to a free public education sets the American public school experience apart from those of many other nations. The combination of the two often creates tensions and confrontations that become contentious leading to litigation. For the past fifty years the courts have attempted to balance the symbolic…

  9. Review of Selected Dissertations Relevant to the "Journal of School Public Relations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, DeAnn; McCue, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    The article provides summaries of doctoral dissertations completed between January 2008 and December 2011 addressing foci of the "Journal of School Public Relations". The five areas are public relations, communication, school and community relations, conflict management, and human resources management. The periodic summaries of these dissertations…

  10. Data mining of public SNP databases for the selection of intragenic SNPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.; Wetzels, Y.; Cohen, N.; Aerssens, J.

    2002-01-01

    Different strategies to search public single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) databases for intragenic SNPs were evaluated. First, we assembled a strategy to annotate SNPs onto candidate genes based on a BLAST search of public SNP databases (Intragenic SNP Annotation by BLAST, ISAB). Only BLAST hits th

  11. Selection of reference genes for quantitative PCR studies in purified B cells from B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Valceckiene, Vilma; Kontenyte, Rima; Jakubauskas, Arturas; Griskevicius, Laimonas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Clinical heterogeneity of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) makes it necessary to identify potent prognostic indicators to predict individual clinical course and select risk-adapted therapy. During the last years numerous gene expression models have been suggested as prognostic factors of B-CLL. Today quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a preferred method for rapid quantification of gene expression and validation of microarray data. Reliability of q...

  12. Selection and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR expression analysis of candidate genes involved in olfactory communication in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Arun

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae, two developmental stages (pupal and adult and two sexes (male and female, all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum. The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the

  13. Estimated expenditures for essential public health services--selected states, fiscal year 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-21

    Essential public health services are activities that public health departments and other partners undertake to protect and ensure the health of the public. To characterize expenditures for those services and to distinguish within them expenditures for personal health-care services from community-based health services directed toward populations, the Public Health Service (PHS) and the Public Health Foundation surveyed senior health officials in eight states (Arizona, Iowa, Louisiana, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Texas and Washington [combined 1995 population: 57.8 million]). This report summarizes the results of that survey, which indicate that spending on community-based health services is a small proportion of spending on essential services and an even smaller proportion of total health-care expenditures.

  14. Selective arsenic speciation analysis of human urine reference materials using gradient elution ion-exchange HPLC-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Julshamn, K.

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic speciation analysis was performed in two human urine certified reference materials (NIES No. 18 and NIST SRM2670a) and three human urine control materials (Seronorm, Medisafe and Lyphocheck). The samples were diluted 1 + 3 prior to analysis by gradient elution anion or cation exchange high-performance...... liquid chromatography ( HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Nine arsenic species, including arsenic acid, arsenous acid, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine, trimethylarsine oxide, dimethylarsinoylacetic acid, trimethylarsoniopropionate...... and dimethylarsinoylethanol, were determined in the urines. Additionally, several unknown arsenicals were detected. This is the first time that dimethylarsinoylacetic acid and trimethylarsoniopropionate have been reported in human urine. The sums of the species concentrations determined by the chromatographic approaches were...

  15. LLRW disposal site selection process. Southeast Compact -- State of North Carolina: A combined technical and public information approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, F.G.; Amick, D.C.; Khoury, S.G. [Ebasco Services Incorporated, Greensboro, NC (United States); Stowe, C.H.; Guichard, P. [NC Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The State of North Carolina has been designated to host the second commercial low level radioactive waste disposal facility for the Southeast Compact. The North Carolina facility is to be operational on January 1, 1993, concurrent with the closing of the present facility in Barnwell, South Carolina. The NC Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority and its contractor, Ebasco Services Incorporated, initiated the site selection process in July of 1988. The present schedule calls for the identification of two or more sites for detailed characterization in the latter half of 1989. The site selection process is following two concurrent and parallel paths. The first is the technical site screening process, which is focusing the search for a suitable site by the systematic application of state and federal laws and regulations regarding exclusion and suitability factors. In a parallel effort, the NCLL Radioactive Waste Management Authority has embarked on an extensive public information program. In addition to newsletters, fact sheets, brochures, video tapes, and news releases, a total of six regional meetings and 26 public forums have been held across the state. A total of 4,764 people attended the forums, 1,241 questions were asked, and 243 public statements were made. The combination of a systematic, defensible technical siting process and the concurrent release of information and numerous statewide public meetings and forums is proving to be an effective strategy for the eventual identification of sites that are both technically suitable and publicly acceptable.

  16. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Panax ginseng at different stages of growth and in different organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Qun; Sun, Minying; Zhu, Linlin; Yang, Michael; Zhao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has become a widely used method for gene expression analysis; however, its data interpretation largely depends on the stability of reference genes. The transcriptomics of Panax ginseng, one of the most popular and traditional ingredients used in Chinese medicines, is increasingly being studied. Furthermore, it is vital to establish a series of reliable reference genes when qRT-PCR is used to assess the gene expression profile of ginseng. In this study, we screened out candidate reference genes for ginseng using gene expression data generated by a high-throughput sequencing platform. Based on the statistical tests, 20 reference genes (10 traditional housekeeping genes and 10 novel genes) were selected. These genes were tested for the normalization of expression levels in five growth stages and three distinct plant organs of ginseng by qPCR. These genes were subsequently ranked and compared according to the stability of their expressions using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper computational programs. Although the best reference genes were found to vary across different samples, CYP and EF-1α were the most stable genes amongst all samples. GAPDH/30S RPS20, CYP/60S RPL13 and CYP/QCR were the optimum pair of reference genes in the roots, stems, and leaves. CYP/60S RPL13, CYP/eIF-5A, aTUB/V-ATP, eIF-5A/SAR1, and aTUB/pol IIa were the most stably expressed combinations in each of the five developmental stages. Our study serves as a foundation for developing an accurate method of qRT-PCR and will benefit future studies on gene expression profiles of Panax Ginseng.

  17. Selection of reference genes in different myocardial regions of an in vivo ischemia/reperfusion rat model for normalization of antioxidant gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesentini, Nicoletta; Barsanti, Cristina; Martino, Alessandro; Kusmic, Claudia; Ripoli, Andrea; Rossi, AnnaMaria; L'Abbate, Antonio

    2012-02-29

    Changes in cardiac gene expression due to myocardial injury are usually assessed in whole heart tissue. However, as the heart is a heterogeneous system, spatial and temporal heterogeneity is expected in gene expression. In an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat model we evaluated gene expression of mitochondrial and cytoplasmatic superoxide dismutase (MnSod, Cu-ZnSod) and thioredoxin reductase (trxr1) upon short (4 h) and long (72 h) reperfusion times in the right ventricle (RV), and in the ischemic/reperfused (IRR) and the remote region (RR) of the left ventricle. Gene expression was assessed by Real-time reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In order to select most stable reference genes suitable for normalization purposes, in each myocardial region we tested nine putative reference genes by geNorm analysis. The genes investigated were: Actin beta (actb), Glyceraldehyde-3-P-dehydrogenase (gapdh), Ribosomal protein L13A (rpl13a), Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (ywhaz), Beta-glucuronidase (gusb), Hypoxanthine guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (hprt), TATA binding box protein (tbp), Hydroxymethylbilane synthase (hmbs), Polyadenylate-binding protein 1 (papbn1). According to our findings, most stable reference genes in the RV and RR were hmbs/hprt and hmbs/tbp/hprt respectively. In the IRR, six reference genes were recommended for normalization purposes; however, in view of experimental feasibility limitations, target gene expression could be normalized against the three most stable reference genes (ywhaz/pabp/hmbs) without loss of sensitivity. In all cases MnSod and Cu-ZnSod expression decreased upon long reperfusion, the former in all myocardial regions and the latter in IRR alone. trxr1 expression did not vary. This study provides a validation of reference genes in the RV and in the anterior and posterior wall of the LV of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion model and shows that gene expression should be assessed separately in each region.

  18. Selection of reference genes in different myocardial regions of an in vivo ischemia/reperfusion rat model for normalization of antioxidant gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesentini Nicoletta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in cardiac gene expression due to myocardial injury are usually assessed in whole heart tissue. However, as the heart is a heterogeneous system, spatial and temporal heterogeneity is expected in gene expression. Results In an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R rat model we evaluated gene expression of mitochondrial and cytoplasmatic superoxide dismutase (MnSod, Cu-ZnSod and thioredoxin reductase (trxr1 upon short (4 h and long (72 h reperfusion times in the right ventricle (RV, and in the ischemic/reperfused (IRR and the remote region (RR of the left ventricle. Gene expression was assessed by Real-time reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. In order to select most stable reference genes suitable for normalization purposes, in each myocardial region we tested nine putative reference genes by geNorm analysis. The genes investigated were: Actin beta (actb, Glyceraldehyde-3-P-dehydrogenase (gapdh, Ribosomal protein L13A (rpl13a, Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (ywhaz, Beta-glucuronidase (gusb, Hypoxanthine guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (hprt, TATA binding box protein (tbp, Hydroxymethylbilane synthase (hmbs, Polyadenylate-binding protein 1 (papbn1. According to our findings, most stable reference genes in the RV and RR were hmbs/hprt and hmbs/tbp/hprt respectively. In the IRR, six reference genes were recommended for normalization purposes; however, in view of experimental feasibility limitations, target gene expression could be normalized against the three most stable reference genes (ywhaz/pabp/hmbs without loss of sensitivity. In all cases MnSod and Cu-ZnSod expression decreased upon long reperfusion, the former in all myocardial regions and the latter in IRR alone. trxr1 expression did not vary. Conclusions This study provides a validation of reference genes in the RV and in the anterior and posterior wall of the LV of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion model and shows that gene expression should be assessed separately in

  19. Selection of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in the Monarch Butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L., a Migrating Bio-Indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Pan

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a powerful technique to quantify gene expression. To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate results, normalization relative to stably expressed reference genes is crucial. The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L., is one of the most recognized insect species for its spectacular annual migration across North America. Besides its great voyages, D. plexippus has drawn attention to its role as a bio-indicator, ranging from genetically modified organisms (GMOs to natural ecosystems. In this study, nine reference genes from D. plexippus genome were selected as the candidate reference genes. The expression profiles of these candidates under various biotic and abiotic conditions were evaluated using the four readily available computational programs, BestKeeper, Normfinder, geNorm, and ΔCt method, respectively. Moreover, RefFinder, a web-based computational platform integrating the four above mentioned algorisms, provided a comprehensive ranking of the stability of these reference genes. As a result, a suite of reference genes were recommended for each experimental condition. Specifically, elongation factor 1α (EF1A and ribosomal protein 49 (RP49 were the most stable reference genes, respectively, under biotic (development, tissue, and sex and abiotic (photoperiod, temperature, and dietary RNAi conditions. With the recent release of a 273-million base pair draft genome, results from this study allow us to establish a standardized RT-qPCR analysis and lay a foundation for the subsequent genomic and functional genomic research in D. plexippus, a major bio-indicator and an emerging model for migratory animals.

  20. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of a Promising Oilseed Crop, Plukenetia volubilis, by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjian Niu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a reliable and widely used method for gene expression analysis. The accuracy of the determination of a target gene expression level by RT-qPCR demands the use of appropriate reference genes to normalize the mRNA levels among different samples. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR have not been identified in Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, a promising oilseed crop known for its polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-rich seeds. In this study, using RT-qPCR, twelve candidate reference genes were examined in seedlings and adult plants, during flower and seed development and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. Four statistical algorithms (delta cycle threshold (ΔCt, BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder were used to assess the expression stabilities of the candidate genes. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE, actin (ACT and phospholipase A22 (PLA were the most stable genes in Sacha inchi seedlings. For roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds from adult plants, 30S ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13, cyclophilin (CYC and elongation factor-1alpha (EF1α were recommended as reference genes for RT-qPCR. During the development of reproductive organs, PLA, ACT and UCE were the optimal reference genes for flower development, whereas UCE, RPS13 and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPII were optimal for seed development. Considering the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi, UCE, ACT and EF1α were sufficient for the purpose of normalization. Our results provide useful guidelines for the selection of reliable reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data for seedlings and adult plants, for reproductive organs, and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi.

  1. Microarray-based comparative genomic profiling of reference strains and selected Canadian field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacInnes Janet I

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. Current commercially-available vaccines are of limited value because they do not induce cross-serovar immunity and do not prevent development of the carrier state. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (M-CGH were used to estimate whole genomic diversity of representative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains. Our goal was to identify conserved genes, especially those predicted to encode outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins because of their potential for the development of more effective vaccines. Results Using hierarchical clustering, our M-CGH results showed that the majority of the genes in the genome of the serovar 5 A. pleuropneumoniae L20 strain were conserved in the reference strains of all 15 serovars and in representative field isolates. Fifty-eight conserved genes predicted to encode for outer membrane proteins or lipoproteins were identified. As well, there were several clusters of diverged or absent genes including those associated with capsule biosynthesis, toxin production as well as genes typically associated with mobile elements. Conclusion Although A. pleuropneumoniae strains are essentially clonal, M-CGH analysis of the reference strains of the fifteen serovars and representative field isolates revealed several classes of genes that were divergent or absent. Not surprisingly, these included genes associated with capsule biosynthesis as the capsule is associated with sero-specificity. Several of the conserved genes were identified as candidates for vaccine development, and we conclude that M-CGH is a valuable tool for reverse vaccinology.

  2. Fabric Selection for the Reference Clothing Destined for Ergonomics Test of Protective Clothing: Physiological Comfort Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartkowiak Grażyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The currently used methods of ergonomic assessment of protective clothing depend on the subjective feeling of research participants and don’t take into consideration all aspects of its use. Therefore, more amount of work is undertaken toward the development of new research tools for the ergonomic assessment of protective clothing. Research was carried out at the Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute in Lodz. A new methodology will take into consideration a variant of reference clothing, which is related to the results of ergonomics research of protective clothing. Preparation of the reference clothing initiated by picking the appropriate fabric is based on the results of parameters influencing the physiological comfort and sensorial comfort. In the current part, results of different fabric parameters are presented, which are related to physiological comfort, i.e., the thermal resistance, water vapor resistance, hygroscopicity, and air permeability. In the next part of research, we will focus on the parameters related to objective sensorial feelings, i.e., total hand value and its components. Seven fabrics, including six cotton/polyester fabrics, diverse in terms of constituent fiber content and structure parameters (weave, thread density per 1 dm, thread linear density, mass per square meter, thickness, and Tencel/polyester fabric were tested. The best in terms of thermal resistance, water vapor resistance, and air permeability was the cotton/polyester fabric (35% cotton/65% PES with the smallest mass per square meter. This fabric also exhibits the high hygroscopicity of 7.5%, which puts it into the fourth position.

  3. The Role and Significance of Public-Private Partnerships in the Republic of Croatia: Selected Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barković

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A public-private partnership is a long-term contractual partner relationship between the public and private sector which may involve financing, design, construction, operation and/or maintenance of infrastructure and/or provision of services by the private sector which is traditionally procured and provided by the public sector. This model is gaining popularity in our modern age when governments are facing the challenge of protecting the public interest on one hand and meeting different (individualized needs of the citizens on the other. Citizens´ expectations are rising together with the demand for better quality and more affordable public services. Moreover, the confidence citizens have in their government and leaders depends to a large extent on the quality of the services they provide. Therefore, the role and significance of public-private partnership is becoming increasingly important, as can be seen from contemporary academic works dealing with law and economics that discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this public policy model. The purpose of this paper is to offer a short theoretical insight into the role and significance of the publicprivate partnership, especially in Croatia. In this paper several examples of the applied models of public-private partnership in the Republic of Croatia will be presented. There are also suggestions based on theoretical and practical analysis, especially from a legal and institutional point of view, of how to improve the application of this model in order to ensure a more efficient and effective way of providing public products and services.

  4. Estimates of the average strength of natural selection are not inflated by sampling error or publication bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapczyk, Frances N; Conner, Jeffrey K

    2007-10-01

    Kingsolver et al.'s review of phenotypic selection gradients from natural populations provided a glimpse of the form and strength of selection in nature and how selection on different organisms and traits varies. Because this review's underlying database could be a key tool for answering fundamental questions concerning natural selection, it has spawned discussion of potential biases inherent in the review process. Here, we explicitly test for two commonly discussed sources of bias: sampling error and publication bias. We model the relationship between variance among selection gradients and sample size that sampling error produces by subsampling large empirical data sets containing measurements of traits and fitness. We find that this relationship was not mimicked by the review data set and therefore conclude that sampling error does not bias estimations of the average strength of selection. Using graphical tests, we find evidence for bias against publishing weak estimates of selection only among very small studies (N<38). However, this evidence is counteracted by excess weak estimates in larger studies. Thus, estimates of average strength of selection from the review are less biased than is often assumed. Devising and conducting straightforward tests for different biases allows concern to be focused on the most troublesome factors.

  5. Radiation dose in coronary angiography and intervention: initial results from the establishment of a multi-centre diagnostic reference level in Queensland public hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowhurst, James A; Whitby, Mark; Thiele, David; Halligan, Toni; Westerink, Adam; Crown, Suzanne; Milne, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Radiation dose to patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is relatively high. Guidelines suggest that a local benchmark or diagnostic reference level (DRL) be established for these procedures. This study sought to create a DRL for ICA procedures in Queensland public hospitals. Methods Data were collected for all Cardiac Catheter Laboratories in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for diagnostic coronary angiography (CA) and single-vessel percutaneous intervention (PCI) procedures. Dose area product (PKA), skin surface entrance dose (KAR), fluoroscopy time (FT), and patient height and weight were collected for 3 months. The DRL was set from the 75th percentile of the PKA. Results 2590 patients were included in the CA group where the median FT was 3.5 min (inter-quartile range = 2.3–6.1). Median KAR = 581 mGy (374–876). Median PKA = 3908 uGym2 (2489–5865) DRL = 5865 uGym2. 947 patients were included in the PCI group where median FT was 11.2 min (7.7–17.4). Median KAR = 1501 mGy (928–2224). Median PKA = 8736 uGym2 (5449–12,900) DRL = 12,900 uGym2. Conclusion This study established a benchmark for radiation dose for diagnostic and interventional coronary angiography in Queensland public facilities. PMID:26229649

  6. 水平极化EMP模拟器参考场位置的选取%Selection of Position for Reference Field of Horizontally Polarized EMP Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向跃; 孙蓓云; 刘顺坤; 孙东阳

    2009-01-01

    水平极化EMP模拟器是开展大型系统电磁脉冲效应试验的典型装置,参考场是效应试验中最重要的测量参数.分析了地面和受试对象对辐射波电场环境的影响,对水平极化EMP模拟器参考场位置的选取给出建议.%Horizontally polarized EMP simulator is a typical facility to progress researching EMP effect of complex system. The reference field is the most important parameter. The effect of the electromagnetic environment caused by ground and equipment under test (EUT) is researched. Some suggestions about selection of position for reference field of horizontally polarized EMP simulators are put forward.

  7. A system for protecting the environment from ionising radiation. Selecting reference fauna and flora, and the possible dose models and environmental geometries that could be applied to them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentreath, R.J. [Environmental Systems Science Centre, University of Reading, Whiteknights, P.O. Box 227, RG6 6AB Reading (United Kingdom); Woodhead, D.S. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, CEFAS Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Suffolk NR33 0HT Lowestoft (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-28

    In order to demonstrate, explicitly, that the environment can be protected with respect to controlled sources of ionising radiation, it is essential to have a systematic framework within which dosimetry models for fauna and flora can be used. And because of the practical limitations on what could reasonably be modelled and the amount of information that could reasonably be obtained, it is also necessary to limit the application of such models to a 'set' of fauna and flora within a 'reference' context. This paper, therefore, outlines the factors that will need to be considered to select such 'reference' fauna and flora, and describes some of the factors and constraints necessary to develop the associated dosimetry models. It also describes some of the most basic environmental geometries within which the dose models could be set in order to make comparisons amongst different radiation sources.

  8. Reference gene selection for quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction normalization during in vitro adventitious rooting in Eucalyptus globulus Labill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquali Giancarlo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eucalyptus globulus and its hybrids are very important for the cellulose and paper industry mainly due to their low lignin content and frost resistance. However, rooting of cuttings of this species is recalcitrant and exogenous auxin application is often necessary for good root development. To date one of the most accurate methods available for gene expression analysis is quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR; however, reliable use of this technique requires reference genes for normalization. There is no single reference gene that can be regarded as universal for all experiments and biological materials. Thus, the identification of reliable reference genes must be done for every species and experimental approach. The present study aimed at identifying suitable control genes for normalization of gene expression associated with adventitious rooting in E. globulus microcuttings. Results By the use of two distinct algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, we have assessed gene expression stability of eleven candidate reference genes in E. globulus: 18S, ACT2, EF2, EUC12, H2B, IDH, SAND, TIP41, TUA, UBI and 33380. The candidate reference genes were evaluated in microccuttings rooted in vitro, in presence or absence of auxin, along six time-points spanning the process of adventitious rooting. Overall, the stability profiles of these genes determined with each one of the algorithms were very similar. Slight differences were observed in the most stable pair of genes indicated by each program: IDH and SAND for geNorm, and H2B and TUA for NormFinder. Both programs indentified UBI and 18S as the most variable genes. To validate these results and select the most suitable reference genes, the expression profile of the ARGONAUTE1 gene was evaluated in relation to the most stable candidate genes indicated by each algorithm. Conclusion Our study showed that expression stability varied between putative reference genes

  9. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in apoptosis-induced MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Eloise; Cronjé, Marianne J

    2012-02-01

    Apoptosis is induced in MCF-7 breast cancer cells following treatment with salicylic acid (20 mM), either in the presence or absence of a heat shock (42°C for 30 min). In order to study the alterations of apoptotic genes with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), suitable genes with unchanged expression following the treatments is required for normalizing the gene expression levels. In this study, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-actin (ACTB), Histone H2A (HIST), constitutively expressed heat shock protein 70 (HSC70) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/trytophan 5 monooxygenase activation protein, 14-3-3 (YWHAZ) were evaluated as appropriate reference genes. Analysis of gene expression data with one-way ANOVA, geNorm and NormFinder identified HIST and YWHAZ as the least affected during the induction of apoptosis by the different treatments, and is the most suitable gene-pair for normalization during qPCR analysis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells undergoing apoptosis following treatment with SA and/or HS.

  10. Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression studies in Clonostachys rosea 67-1 under sclerotial induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhan-Bin; Li, Shi-Dong; Sun, Man-Hong

    2015-07-01

    Reference genes are important to precisely quantify gene expression by real-time PCR. In order to identify stable and reliable expressed genes in mycoparasite Clonostachys rosea in different modes of nutrition, seven commonly used housekeeping genes, 18S rRNA, actin, β-tubulin, elongation factor 1, ubiquitin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, from the effective biocontrol isolate C. rosea 67-1 were tested for their expression under sclerotial induction and during vegetative growth on PDA medium. Analysis by three software programs showed that differences existed among the candidates. Elongation factor 1 was most stable; the M value in geNorm, SD value in Bestkeeper and stability value in Normfinder analysis were 0.405, 0.450 and 0.442, respectively, indicating that the gene elongation factor 1 could be used to normalize gene expression in C. rosea in both vegetative growth and parasitic process. By using elongation factor 1, the expression of a serine protease gene, sep, in different conditions was assessed, which was consistent with the transcriptomic data. This research provides an effective method to quantitate expression changes of target genes in C. rosea, and will assist in further investigation of parasitism-related genes of this fungus.

  11. Differential scanning calorimetry and fluorimetry measurements of monoclonal antibodies and reference proteins: Effect of scanning rate and dye selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Brian E; Cole, Kenneth D

    2017-05-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) were used to measure the transition temperatures of four proteins: RNase A, invertase, rituximab, and the NISTmAb (NIST Reference Material, RM 8671). The proteins were combined with several different fluorescent dyes for the DSF measurements. This study compares the results of DSC and DSF measurements of transition temperatures with different types of proteins, dye combinations, and thermal scan rates. As protein unfolding is often influenced by kinetic effects, we measured the transition temperatures of the proteins using DSC over a range of temperature scan rates and compared them to the data obtained from DSF over comparable temperature scan rates. The results when the proteins were combined with Sypro Orange(®) and bis-ANS for the DSF measurements had the best correlations with the transition temperatures determined by calorimetry. The scan rate was found to be an important variable when comparing results between DSC and DSF. The van't Hoff enthalpy changes for the transitions were calculated from the DSC data by using a non-two-state model and from the DSF values using a two-state model. The calculated van't Hoff enthalpy changes did not show a good correlation between the two methods. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:677-686, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Selecting International Standards for Accrual-Based Accounting in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the definition of a government business enterprise (GBE), as provided in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), as a determinant for applying IPSAS or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for a public sector entity. The work of the IP...... of the IPSASB is focused on the accounting and financial reporting needs of national, regional and local governments, and related governmental agencies, while the IFRS serves the private sector.......The article discusses the definition of a government business enterprise (GBE), as provided in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), as a determinant for applying IPSAS or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for a public sector entity. The work...

  13. Selecting International Standards for Accrual-Based Accounting in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the definition of a government business enterprise (GBE), as provided in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), as a determinant for applying IPSAS or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for a public sector entity. The work of the IP......The article discusses the definition of a government business enterprise (GBE), as provided in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), as a determinant for applying IPSAS or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for a public sector entity. The work...... of the IPSASB is focused on the accounting and financial reporting needs of national, regional and local governments, and related governmental agencies, while the IFRS serves the private sector....

  14. Selection and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR Expression Studies in a Thermophilic Bacterium Grown under Different Culture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Kathleen D; Fitzgerald, Lisa A; Cockrell, Allison L; Biffinger, Justin C

    2015-01-01

    The phylum Deinococcus-Thermus is a deeply-branching lineage of bacteria widely recognized as one of the most extremophilic. Members of the Thermus genus are of major interest due to both their bioremediation and biotechnology potentials. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with these key metabolic pathways remain unknown. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a high-throughput means of studying the expression of a large suite of genes over time and under different conditions. The selection of a stably-expressed reference gene is critical when using relative quantification methods, as target gene expression is normalized to expression of the reference gene. However, little information exists as to reference gene selection in extremophiles. This study evaluated 11 candidate reference genes for use with the thermophile Thermus scotoductus when grown under different culture conditions. Based on the combined stability values from BestKeeper and NormFinder software packages, the following are the most appropriate reference genes when comparing: (1) aerobic and anaerobic growth: TSC_c19900, polA2, gyrA, gyrB; (2) anaerobic growth with varied electron acceptors: TSC_c19900, infA, pfk, gyrA, gyrB; (3) aerobic growth with different heating methods: gyrA, gap, gyrB; (4) all conditions mentioned above: gap, gyrA, gyrB. The commonly-employed rpoC does not serve as a reliable reference gene in thermophiles, due to its expression instability across all culture conditions tested here. As extremophiles exhibit a tendency for polyploidy, absolute quantification was employed to determine the ratio of transcript to gene copy number in a subset of the genes. A strong negative correlation was found to exist between ratio and threshold cycle (CT) values, demonstrating that CT changes reflect transcript copy number, and not gene copy number, fluctuations. Even with the potential for polyploidy in extremophiles, the results obtained via absolute quantification

  15. Selection and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR Expression Studies in a Thermophilic Bacterium Grown under Different Culture Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen D Cusick

    Full Text Available The phylum Deinococcus-Thermus is a deeply-branching lineage of bacteria widely recognized as one of the most extremophilic. Members of the Thermus genus are of major interest due to both their bioremediation and biotechnology potentials. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with these key metabolic pathways remain unknown. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a high-throughput means of studying the expression of a large suite of genes over time and under different conditions. The selection of a stably-expressed reference gene is critical when using relative quantification methods, as target gene expression is normalized to expression of the reference gene. However, little information exists as to reference gene selection in extremophiles. This study evaluated 11 candidate reference genes for use with the thermophile Thermus scotoductus when grown under different culture conditions. Based on the combined stability values from BestKeeper and NormFinder software packages, the following are the most appropriate reference genes when comparing: (1 aerobic and anaerobic growth: TSC_c19900, polA2, gyrA, gyrB; (2 anaerobic growth with varied electron acceptors: TSC_c19900, infA, pfk, gyrA, gyrB; (3 aerobic growth with different heating methods: gyrA, gap, gyrB; (4 all conditions mentioned above: gap, gyrA, gyrB. The commonly-employed rpoC does not serve as a reliable reference gene in thermophiles, due to its expression instability across all culture conditions tested here. As extremophiles exhibit a tendency for polyploidy, absolute quantification was employed to determine the ratio of transcript to gene copy number in a subset of the genes. A strong negative correlation was found to exist between ratio and threshold cycle (CT values, demonstrating that CT changes reflect transcript copy number, and not gene copy number, fluctuations. Even with the potential for polyploidy in extremophiles, the results obtained via absolute

  16. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for expression studies with quantitative PCR in the model fungus Neurospora crassa under different environmental conditions in continuous culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen D Cusick

    Full Text Available Neurospora crassa has served as a model organism for studying circadian pathways and more recently has gained attention in the biofuel industry due to its enhanced capacity for cellulase production. However, in order to optimize N. crassa for biotechnological applications, metabolic pathways during growth under different environmental conditions must be addressed. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a technique that provides a high-throughput platform from which to measure the expression of a large set of genes over time. The selection of a suitable reference gene is critical for gene expression studies using relative quantification, as this strategy is based on normalization of target gene expression to a reference gene whose expression is stable under the experimental conditions. This study evaluated twelve candidate reference genes for use with N. crassa when grown in continuous culture bioreactors under different light and temperature conditions. Based on combined stability values from NormFinder and Best Keeper software packages, the following are the most appropriate reference genes under conditions of: (1 light/dark cycling: btl, asl, and vma1; (2 all-dark growth: btl, tbp, vma1, and vma2; (3 temperature flux: btl, vma1, act, and asl; (4 all conditions combined: vma1, vma2, tbp, and btl. Since N. crassa exists as different cell types (uni- or multi-nucleated, expression changes in a subset of the candidate genes was further assessed using absolute quantification. A strong negative correlation was found to exist between ratio and threshold cycle (CT values, demonstrating that CT changes serve as a reliable reflection of transcript, and not gene copy number, fluctuations. The results of this study identified genes that are appropriate for use as reference genes in RT-qPCR studies with N. crassa and demonstrated that even with the presence of different cell types, relative quantification is an acceptable method for measuring

  17. Reference Gene Selection for qPCR Analysis in Tomato-Bipartite Begomovirus Interaction and Validation in Additional Tomato-Virus Pathosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L M Lacerda

    Full Text Available Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR is currently the most sensitive technique used for absolute and relative quantification of a target gene transcript, requiring the use of appropriated reference genes for data normalization. To accurately estimate the relative expression of target tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. genes responsive to several virus species in reverse transcription qPCR analysis, the identification of reliable reference genes is mandatory. In the present study, ten reference genes were analyzed across a set of eight samples: two tomato contrasting genotypes ('Santa Clara', susceptible, and its near-isogenic line 'LAM 157', resistant; subjected to two treatments (inoculation with Tomato chlorotic mottle virus (ToCMoV and its mock-inoculated control and in two distinct times after inoculation (early and late. Reference genes stability was estimated by three statistical programs (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. To validate the results over broader experimental conditions, a set of ten samples, corresponding to additional three tomato-virus pathosystems that included tospovirus, crinivirus and tymovirus + tobamovirus, was analyzed together with the tomato-ToCMoV pathosystem dataset, using the same algorithms. Taking into account the combined analyses of the ranking order outputs from the three algorithms, TIP41 and EF1 were identified as the most stable genes for tomato-ToCMoV pathosystem, and TIP41 and EXP for the four pathosystems together, and selected to be used as reference in the forthcoming expression qPCR analysis of target genes in experimental conditions involving the aforementioned tomato-virus pathosystems.

  18. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR in Hyperaccumulating Ecotype of Sedum alfredii under Different Heavy Metals Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingying; Qiao, Guirong; Jiang, Jing; Zhuo, Renying

    2013-01-01

    Real-time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for accurate analysis of gene expression in several biological systems as well as under different experimental conditions. Although with high sensitivity, specificity and broad dynamic range, this method requires suitable reference genes for transcript normalization in order to guarantee reproducible and meaningful results. In the present study, we evaluated five traditional housekeeping genes and five novel reference genes in Hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii, a well known hyperaccumulator for heavy metals phytoremediation, under Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu stresses of seven different durations. The expression stability of these ten candidates were determined with three programs - geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The results showed that all the selected reference genes except for SAND could be used for RT-qPCR normalization. Among them UBC9 and TUB were ranked as the most stable candidates across all samples by three programs together. For the least stable reference genes, however, BestKeeper produced different results compared with geNorm and NormFinder. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of PCS under Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu stresses were assessed using UBC9 and TUB respectively, and similar trends were obtained from the results of the two groups. The distinct expression patterns of PCS indicated that various strategies could be taken by plants in adaption to different heavy metals stresses. This study will provide appropriate reference genes for further gene expression quantification using RT-qPCR in Hyperaccumulator S. alfredii. PMID:24340067

  19. The Sequence of Acquisition of Personal Pronoun Case and Person Reference among 6 Year Old Children in Two Selected Malaysian Kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Abd Samad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pronoun case and person reference refer to the position of the pronoun in the sentence and the person the pronoun refers to respectively.  Examining the acquisition of pronoun case and person reference among young children can be insightful as, besides their obvious relevance to language development, both these constructs can have implications on other aspects of child development.  Attention given by children to these various constructs may indicate the importance children place on the concept of ego and self as well as on social relations.  The sequence of acquisition of personal pronouns among these children is therefore an important phenomenon to be examined as it can reflect linguistic and socio-cognitive development.  This largely descriptive study examines the sequence of acquisition of the English pronouns among forty 6 year old Malaysian children learning ESL in two kindergartens.  The children in the study were presented with 33 drawings to assess their familiarity with case and person reference expressed through English personal pronouns.  They were required to select the correct pronoun from three pronouns that were used to describe each drawing.  This paper reports on the accuracy rates for each pronoun and assumes that high accuracy rates indicate a more complete acquisition of the pronoun.  Error forms by the children were also be identified and examined.  Data obtained were compared to acquisition sequences in the literature and general implications related to the acquisition of personal pronouns among children in an ESL setting in Malaysia will be discussed.

  20. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for expression studies with quantitative PCR in the model fungus Neurospora crassa under different environmental conditions in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Kathleen D; Fitzgerald, Lisa A; Pirlo, Russell K; Cockrell, Allison L; Petersen, Emily R; Biffinger, Justin C

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has served as a model organism for studying circadian pathways and more recently has gained attention in the biofuel industry due to its enhanced capacity for cellulase production. However, in order to optimize N. crassa for biotechnological applications, metabolic pathways during growth under different environmental conditions must be addressed. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a technique that provides a high-throughput platform from which to measure the expression of a large set of genes over time. The selection of a suitable reference gene is critical for gene expression studies using relative quantification, as this strategy is based on normalization of target gene expression to a reference gene whose expression is stable under the experimental conditions. This study evaluated twelve candidate reference genes for use with N. crassa when grown in continuous culture bioreactors under different light and temperature conditions. Based on combined stability values from NormFinder and Best Keeper software packages, the following are the most appropriate reference genes under conditions of: (1) light/dark cycling: btl, asl, and vma1; (2) all-dark growth: btl, tbp, vma1, and vma2; (3) temperature flux: btl, vma1, act, and asl; (4) all conditions combined: vma1, vma2, tbp, and btl. Since N. crassa exists as different cell types (uni- or multi-nucleated), expression changes in a subset of the candidate genes was further assessed using absolute quantification. A strong negative correlation was found to exist between ratio and threshold cycle (CT) values, demonstrating that CT changes serve as a reliable reflection of transcript, and not gene copy number, fluctuations. The results of this study identified genes that are appropriate for use as reference genes in RT-qPCR studies with N. crassa and demonstrated that even with the presence of different cell types, relative quantification is an acceptable method for measuring gene

  1. Seroprevalence of selected viral, bacterial and parasitic infections among inpatients of a public psychiatric hospital of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We sought to determine the frequency of serological markers of selected infections in a population of psychiatric patients in Durango City, Mexico, and to determine whether there are any epidemiological characteristics of the subjects associated with the infections. One hundred and five inpatients of a public psychiatric hospital of Durango were examined for HBsAg, anti-HCV antibodies, anti-HIV antibodies, anti-Brucella antibodies, rapid plasma reagin and anti-Cysticercus antibodies by commer...

  2. Establishing a dataset for a ‘reference site’

    OpenAIRE

    Beresford, N. A.; Barnett, C. L.; Walker, L; Copplestone, D.; Wells, C.; Newsome, L.

    2011-01-01

    The ICRP published their framework for radiation protection of the environment in Publication 108 (ICRP 2008). This describes the use of Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) as the basis for the framework. Publication 108 presented dose coefficient values for the selected RAPs and also reviewed data on the effects of ionising radiation to suggest Derived Consideration Reference Levels (defined as a band of dose rate within which there is likely to be some chance of deleterious effects of ionis...

  3. Evaluation of the results of acute viral gastroenteritis data in Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Virology Reference and Research Laboratory in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan ALBAYRAK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Norovirus, Rotavirus, Adenovirus and Astrovirus are responsible for most non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. The incidence of these viral agents in Turkey is not well known. In this study, it was aimed to document the viral etiology of the stool samples which were send to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency (RSNPHA, Virology Reference and Research Laboratory for investigation of viral acute gastroenteritis agents. Method: A total of 147 stool samples from 11 different provinces were send to the Virology Laboratory for Reference and Research of RSNPHA in 2009. Samples were collected from patients admitted because of acute gastroenteritis and from the cases with the signs of illness at different times of the year and sent by the Provincial Health Directorates to our laboratory. The samples were examined in the laboratory using the commercial multiplex real-time PCR kit for norovirus genotype I, norovirus genotype II, rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus. Results: 65 (44.2 % samples were found to be positive at least for one viral agent and 10 (6.8 % samples for more than one viral agent. Norovirus (particularly genotype II infections were detected as the most prevalent viral agent in acute gastroenteritis patients in this period. Rotavirus infections were determined as the second most common infection after norovirus infections. Adenovirus infections have been found to be the least prevalent agent in the laboratory. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that norovirus genotype II has been more commonly responsible for acute diarrhea than the other viral pathogens. The viral agents we have studied should be considered as pathogens that can be seen in all seasons. Viral factors should not be underestimated as the cause of acute gastroenteritis; additionally it should be noted that acute gastroenteritis could be caused by coinfection of viral agents.

  4. Predator-induced defences in Daphnia pulex: Selection and evaluation of internal reference genes for gene expression studies with real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Don

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The planktonic microcrustacean Daphnia pulex is among the best-studied animals in ecological, toxicological and evolutionary research. One aspect that has sustained interest in the study system is the ability of D. pulex to develop inducible defence structures when exposed to predators, such as the phantom midge larvae Chaoborus. The available draft genome sequence for D. pulex is accelerating research to identify genes that confer plastic phenotypes that are regularly cued by environmental stimuli. Yet for quantifying gene expression levels, no experimentally validated set of internal control genes exists for the accurate normalization of qRT-PCR data. Results In this study, we tested six candidate reference genes for normalizing transcription levels of D. pulex genes; alpha tubulin (aTub, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, TATA box binding protein (Tbp syntaxin 16 (Stx16, X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1 and CAPON, a protein associated with the neuronal nitric oxide synthase, were selected on the basis of an earlier study and from microarray studies. One additional gene, a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP, was tested to validate its transcriptional response to Chaoborus, which was earlier observed in a microarray study. The transcription profiles of these seven genes were assessed by qRT-PCR from RNA of juvenile D. pulex that showed induced defences in comparison to untreated control animals. We tested the individual suitability of genes for expression normalization using the programs geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Intriguingly, Xbp1, Tbp, CAPON and Stx16 were selected as ideal reference genes. Analyses on the relative expression level using the software REST showed that both classical housekeeping candidate genes (aTub and GAPDH were significantly downregulated, whereas the MMP gene was shown to be significantly upregulated, as predicted. aTub is a particularly ill suited reference gene because five copies are

  5. 78 FR 1301 - Fiscal Year 2012 Public Transportation on Indian Reservations Program Project Selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... announcement of project selections. SUMMARY: The US. Department of Transportation's (DOT) Federal Transit... statutes, regulations, executive orders, FTA circulars, and other Federal requirements in carrying out the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. Textbook Selection in Public Higher Education: A 'Third Freedom' Derivative for Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Edgar

    1996-01-01

    Discusses whether public college and university faculty have the right to choose the textbooks for their courses or whether the choice can be dictated by administrative decree. Concludes that tenured professors should have an absolute right to choose the texts for their courses, as long as the text assists in fulfilling the stated institutional…

  7. The Automation of Government Publications: Functional Requirements and Selected Software Systems for Serials Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Mary Sue; Purcell, Gary R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes computer-based software and network systems for application to serials and government publications. General and specific functional requirements (hardware, software, file structure) are discussed, and descriptive information about commercially available serials control systems and a list of distributors are provided. (CLB)

  8. Selected aspects of the logistics network of public hospitals in the competitive market of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Majchrzak-Lepczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The below considerations provide an overview of the issues of sustainable development, logistics, to financial engineering instruments and the role of intellectual capital in the process of transformation of public hospitals. The aim of this research was to assess the competitiveness of the network of public hospitals in the market of health services based on literature studies, as well as empirical research. Methods: Empirical study using a questionnaire survey was conducted in the period from January 2007 to December 2011, in the area of Warmia and Mazury, Pomerania and Wielkopolska. The goal of this questionnaire survey was to know the medical staff reviews issues related to adaptation to the nature of the network of public hospitals methods and logistics tools, sustainable development, corporate social responsibility - CSR. The study was carried out in 104 public hospitals, on a sample of 8975 respondents. Results and conclusions: Analysis of the completed study showed that the logistic processes and their improvement in the health sector play a significant role. The surveyed entities explicitly draw attention to the need for information systems,  pro-environment activities, access to information, or the use of GS1 global standards. These tools allow you to increase the efficiency of supply chains, ensuring not only tracking and tracing of products from the manufacturer to the patient, but also enabling better protection against making a mistake or counterfeit products.

  9. Review of Selected Dissertations Addressing School Public Relations, Administrator Communication, and Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decman, John M.; Simieou, Felix, III

    2009-01-01

    This article is an extension to Kowalski's (2005) identification of possible lines of scholarly inquiry into themes related to schools and public relations. The article first cites professional accreditation standards for educational leaders as significant factors in providing a framework for increased scholarly inquiry. It then summarizes the…

  10. Matching People and Organizations: Selection and Socialization in Public Accounting Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatman, Jennifer A.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the establishment and maintenance of employee-organization fit, a recent study tracked the early careers of 171 entry-level auditors in 8 large U.S. public accounting firms and assessed the congruence of their values with organizational values. Recruits whose values match the firm's adjust more quickly and experience greater job…

  11. Review of Selected Dissertations Addressing School Public Relations, Administrator Communication, and Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decman, John M.; Simieou, Felix, III

    2009-01-01

    This article is an extension to Kowalski's (2005) identification of possible lines of scholarly inquiry into themes related to schools and public relations. The article first cites professional accreditation standards for educational leaders as significant factors in providing a framework for increased scholarly inquiry. It then summarizes the…

  12. US Government Information: Selected Current Issues in Public Access vs. Private Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the dissemination of government information focuses on the debate concerning public versus private access to government information; efforts of the National Technical Information Service (NTIS); electronic access and the need for printed documents; and joint efforts between government agencies and the private sector to charge for…

  13. Recovery and characterization of a Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. 'Clemenules' haploid plant selected to establish the reference whole Citrus genome sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Luis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the development of structural genomics has generated a growing interest in obtaining haploid plants. The use of homozygous lines presents a significant advantage for the accomplishment of sequencing projects. Commercial citrus species are characterized by high heterozygosity, making it difficult to assemble large genome sequences. Thus, the International Citrus Genomic Consortium (ICGC decided to establish a reference whole citrus genome sequence from a homozygous plant. Due to the existence of important molecular resources and previous success in obtaining haploid clementine plants, haploid clementine was selected as the target for the implementation of the reference whole genome citrus sequence. Results To obtain haploid clementine lines we used the technique of in situ gynogenesis induced by irradiated pollen. Flow cytometry, chromosome counts and SSR marker (Simple Sequence Repeats analysis facilitated the identification of six different haploid lines (2n = x = 9, one aneuploid line (2n = 2x+4 = 22 and one doubled haploid plant (2n = 2x = 18 of 'Clemenules' clementine. One of the haploids, obtained directly from an original haploid embryo, grew vigorously and produced flowers after four years. This is the first haploid plant of clementine that has bloomed and we have, for the first time, characterized the histology of haploid and diploid flowers of clementine. Additionally a double haploid plant was obtained spontaneously from this haploid line. Conclusion The first haploid plant of 'Clemenules' clementine produced directly by germination of a haploid embryo, which grew vigorously and produced flowers, has been obtained in this work. This haploid line has been selected and it is being used by the ICGC to establish the reference sequence of the nuclear genome of citrus.

  14. Recovery and characterization of a Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. 'Clemenules' haploid plant selected to establish the reference whole Citrus genome sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleza, Pablo; Juárez, José; Hernández, María; Pina, José A; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2009-08-22

    In recent years, the development of structural genomics has generated a growing interest in obtaining haploid plants. The use of homozygous lines presents a significant advantage for the accomplishment of sequencing projects. Commercial citrus species are characterized by high heterozygosity, making it difficult to assemble large genome sequences. Thus, the International Citrus Genomic Consortium (ICGC) decided to establish a reference whole citrus genome sequence from a homozygous plant. Due to the existence of important molecular resources and previous success in obtaining haploid clementine plants, haploid clementine was selected as the target for the implementation of the reference whole genome citrus sequence. To obtain haploid clementine lines we used the technique of in situ gynogenesis induced by irradiated pollen. Flow cytometry, chromosome counts and SSR marker (Simple Sequence Repeats) analysis facilitated the identification of six different haploid lines (2n = x = 9), one aneuploid line (2n = 2x+4 = 22) and one doubled haploid plant (2n = 2x = 18) of 'Clemenules' clementine. One of the haploids, obtained directly from an original haploid embryo, grew vigorously and produced flowers after four years. This is the first haploid plant of clementine that has bloomed and we have, for the first time, characterized the histology of haploid and diploid flowers of clementine. Additionally a double haploid plant was obtained spontaneously from this haploid line. The first haploid plant of 'Clemenules' clementine produced directly by germination of a haploid embryo, which grew vigorously and produced flowers, has been obtained in this work. This haploid line has been selected and it is being used by the ICGC to establish the reference sequence of the nuclear genome of citrus.

  15. Cancelamento de cirurgias de catarata em um hospital público de referência Cancellation of cataract surgery in a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Patrícia de Fátima Magri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a incidência e causas de cancelamento de cirurgias de catarata em um hospital público de referência. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo em que foram analisados o número de cancelamentos de facectomias durante o ano de 2009. Foram analisados sexo, idade, tipo de procedimento suspenso (facoemulsificação ou extração extracapsular do cristalino, tipo de anestesia, convênio (Sistema Único de Saúde ou convênio/particular e motivo de suspensão da cirurgia (causas clínicas, institucionais ou pessoais. RESULTADOS: Foram agendadas no período 2.965 cirurgias de catarata, havendo 650 cancelamentos (21,92%. Dentre as principais razões para a suspensão do procedimento destacaram-se as causas clínicas (86,90%. Os meses de inverno apresentaram os maiores índices de suspensão de cirurgias de catarata. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de cancelamento de cirurgia de catarata em serviços públicos parece ser a mesma que há 10 anos. A principal causa de suspensão deve-se por condições clínicas (hipertensão, diabetes, falta de exames, etc..PURPOSE: To report the incidence and causes of cataract surgery cancellations in a public hospital. METHODS: This is a retrospective study, which examined the number of cancellations of cataract surgery during 2009. We analyzed the type of procedure suspended (phacoemulsification or extracapsular extraction, type of anesthesia, gender, age, covenant (public/private and the main reasons for suspension of the surgeries (clinical causes, institutional or personal. RESULTS: We analyzed 2,965 scheduled cataract surgeries, with 650 cancellations (21.92%. The main reason for the suspension of the procedure was clinical causes (86.90%. The winter months had the highest suspension rates of cataract surgery. CONCLUSION: The cancellation rate of cataract surgery in Brazilian public system seems to be the same as 10 years ago. The main cause of the suspension should be in clinical conditions

  16. Site selection process for new nuclear power plants - a method to support decision making and improving public participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Vivian B.; Cunha, Tatiana S. da; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego, E-mail: vbmartins@ien.gov.br, E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Impactos Ambientais; Lapa, Celso Marcelo F., E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia Nucleares

    2011-07-01

    The Brazilian Energy Plan (PNE 2030) that guides the Government in formulating its strategy for expanding energy supply by 2030 highlights the need for the Brazilian electrical system have more than 4,000 MW from nuclear sources by 2025. Therefore, the Government presented a proposal to build four more nuclear power plants with capacity of 1,000 MW each, at first, two in the Northeast and two in Southeast. The selection and site assessment are key parts of the installation process of a nuclear plant and may significantly affect the cost, public acceptance and safety of the facility during its entire life cycle. The result of this initial stage, it can even seriously affect program success. Wrong decisions in the process of site selection may also require a financial commitment to higher planned in a later phase of the project, besides causing extensive and expensive downtime. Select the location where these units will be built is not a trivial process, because involves the consideration of multiple criteria and judgments in addition to obtaining, organizing and managing a diverse range of data, both qualitative and quantitative, to assist in decision making and ensure that the site selected is the most appropriate in relation to safety and technical, economic and environmental feasibility. This paper presents an overview of the site selection process and its stages, the criteria involved in each step, the tools to support decision making that can be used and the difficulties in applying a formal process of decision making. Also discussed are ways to make the process more transparent and democratic, increasing public involvement as a way to improve acceptance and reduce opposition from various sectors of society, trying to minimize the expense and time involved in the implementation of undertakings of this kind. (author)

  17. The Use of Personal Value Estimations to Select Images for Preservation in Public Library Digital Community Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Copeland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of information, particularly in image form, is shared on the web through social networking sites. If any of this content is worthy of preservation, who decides what is to be preserved and based on what criteria. This paper explores the potential for public libraries to assume this role of community digital repositories through the creation of digital collections. Thirty public library users and thirty librarians were solicited from the Indianapolis metropolitan area to evaluate five images selected from Flickr in terms of their value to public library digital collections and their worthiness of long-term preservation. Using a seven-point Likert scale, participants assigned a value to each image in terms of its importance to self, family and society. Participants were then asked to explain the reasoning behind their valuations. Public library users and librarians had similar value estimations of the images in the study. This is perhaps the most significant finding of the study, given the importance of collaboration and forming partnerships for building and sustaining community collections and archives.

  18. Measures of Ensuring Value for Money in Public Procurement: A Case of Selected Polytechnics in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Nsiah-Asare, Evelyn; Prempeh, Kwadwo Boateng

    2016-01-01

    Value for money (VFM) is derived from the optimal balance of benefits and costs on the basis of total cost of ownership. The nature of public procurement is such that it involves discretionary decision-taking on behalf of government at all levels. Value for money is therefore not a choice of goods or services which is based on the lowest bid price but a choice based on the whole life costs of the project or service. The aim of the study is to find out ways of ensuring value for money in publi...

  19. A psicologia nos centros de referência de assistência social (CRAS: um panorama das publicações científicas brasileiras de 2004 a 2014 / Psychology in social assistance reference centers (CRAS: a review in brazilian scientific publications between 2004 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fin Motta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O artigo apresenta uma revisão narrativa de estudos sobre a publicação em periódicos da área da Psicologia a respeito da presença dos (as psicólogos (as no campo da Assistência Social, com ênfase na sua relação com Centros de Referências de Assistência Social (CRAS. A pesquisa realizou-se entre os meses de Agosto de 2014 a Maio de 2015, com consulta às bases de dados bibliográficos eletrônicos da BVS - Psi e da CAPES, no período de 2004 a 2014. Usou-se as palavras-chave: «Centro de Referência de Assistência Social», associadas ao descritor psicologia, totalizando 20 textos selecionados. Percebe-se o envolvimento e o investimento que têm sido feitos na área em relação a esta temática nos últimos anos. Além disso, a Assistência Social tem colaborado para a expansão e interiorização da profissão e o desenvolvimento de diferentes práticas das tradicionais, contudo, a clínica tradicional responde a demandas que extrapolam as atribuições do CRAS.ABSTRACT The article presents a narrative review of studies about publications in psychology journals with regard to the presence of psychologists in the Social Assistance field, with emphasis on its relationship with the Social Assistance Reference Centers (CRAS. The research was conducted between the months of August 2014 to May 2015, consulting electronic bibliographic databases from BVS-Psi and CAPES, during the period 2004-2014. We used the keywords «Social Assistance Reference Center», associated with the psychology descriptor – in total 20 selected texts. Development and investment that has been made in recent years is perceived in the area related to this topic. In addition, social assistance has contributed to the expansion and assimilation of the profession, and the development of different traditional practices; however, the traditional clinic responds to the demands that extrapolates the powers of the CRAS.

  20. Feasibility study for producing a carrot/potato matrix reference material for 11 selected pesticides at EU MRL level: material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Helena; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Ulberth, Franz; Emons, Hendrik; Zeleny, Reinhard

    2012-05-01

    The feasibility for producing a matrix reference material for selected pesticides in a carrot/potato matrix was investigated. A commercially available baby food (carrot/potato-based mash) was spiked with 11 pesticides at the respective EU maximum residue limits (MRLs), and further processed by either freezing or freeze-drying. Batches of some 150 units were produced per material type. First, the materials were assessed for the relative amount of pesticide recovered after processing (ratio of pesticide concentration in the processed material to the initially spiked pesticide concentration). In addition, the materials' homogeneity (bottle-to-bottle variation), and the short-term (1 month) and mid-term (5 months) stability at different temperatures were assessed. For this, an in-house validated GC-EI-MS method operated in the SIM mode with a sample preparation procedure based on the QuEChERS ("quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe") principle was applied. Measurements on the frozen material provided the most promising results (smallest analyte losses during production), and also freeze-drying proved to be a suitable alternative processing technique for most of the investigated pesticides. Both the frozen and the freeze-dried material showed to be sufficiently homogeneous for the intended use, and storage at -20°C for 5 months did not reveal any detectable material degradation. The results constitute an important step towards the development of a pesticide matrix reference material. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. WHAT ROLE SHOULD PUBLIC OPINION PLAY IN ETHICO-LEGAL DECISION MAKING? THE EXAMPLE OF SELECTING SEX FOR NON-MEDICAL REASONS USING PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovargue, Sara; Bennett, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we consider the prohibition on the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis to select an embryo on the basis of its sex for non -: medical reasons. We use this as a case study to explore the role that public consultations have and should play in ethico-legal decision-making. Until the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 was amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008, non-medical sex selection of an embryo was not statutorily regulated, but it was the policy of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority that such selection should not occur. However, since 2009, it has been a criminal offence to select an embryo on the basis of its sex for non-medical reasons. We consider the reasons given for this change and explore the role that 'public opinion' had in the decision-making process. On the face of it, asking the public what they think seems reasonable, fair and democratic, and those who are not in favour of public consultations being accorded great weight in matters of policy may appear out of touch and as wanting to impose their moral views on the public at large. But there are problems with doing so, especially when seeking to regulate ethically controversial issues. We discuss whether regulation should be influenced by public opinion obtained via 'public consultations', and utilise sex selection for non-medical reasons as an example of how (apparently) public opinion was used to support the criminalisation of this practice.

  2. Individual wealth-based selection supports cooperation in spatial public goods games

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    In a social dilemma game group members are allowed to decide if they contribute to the joint venture or not. As a consequence, defectors, who do not invest but only enjoy the mutual benefit, prevail and the system evolves onto the tragedy of the common state. This unfortunate scenario can be avoided if participation is not obligatory but only happens with a given probability. But what if we also consider a player's individual wealth when to decide about participation? To address this issue we propose a model in which the probabilistic participation in the public goods game is combined with a conditional investment mode that is based on individual wealth: if a player's wealth exceeds a threshold value then it is qualified and can participate in the joint venture. Otherwise, the participation is forbidden in the investment interactions. We show that if only probabilistic participation is considered, spatially structured populations cannot support cooperation better than well-mixed populations where full defecti...

  3. An admissions system to select veterinary medical students with an interest in food animals and veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarhuis, Jan C M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Beukelen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the areas of food animals (FA) and veterinary public health (VPH) appears to be declining among prospective students of veterinary medicine. To address the expected shortage of veterinarians in these areas, the Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine has developed an admissions procedure to select undergraduates whose aptitude and interests are suited to these areas. A study using expert meetings, open interviews, and document analysis identified personal characteristics that distinguished veterinarians working in the areas of FA and VPH from their colleagues who specialized in companion animals (CA) and equine medicine (E). The outcomes were used to create a written selection tool. We validated this tool in a study among undergraduate veterinary students in their final (sixth) year before graduation. The applicability of the tool was verified in a study among first-year students who had opted to pursue either FA/VPH or CA/E. The tool revealed statistically significant differences with acceptable effect sizes between the two student groups. Because the written selection tool did not cover all of the differences between the veterinarians who specialized in FA/VPH and those who specialized in CA/E, we developed a prestructured panel interview and added it to the questionnaire. The evaluation of the written component showed that it was suitable for selecting those students who were most likely to succeed in the FA/VPH track.

  4. Selection of reference genes for normalisation of real-time RT-PCR in brain-stem death injury in Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser John F

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart and lung transplantation is frequently the only therapeutic option for patients with end stage cardio respiratory disease. Organ donation post brain stem death (BSD is a pre-requisite, yet BSD itself causes such severe damage that many organs offered for donation are unusable, with lung being the organ most affected by BSD. In Australia and New Zealand, less than 50% of lungs offered for donation post BSD are suitable for transplantation, as compared with over 90% of kidneys, resulting in patients dying for lack of suitable lungs. Our group has developed a novel 24 h sheep BSD model to mimic the physiological milieu of the typical human organ donor. Characterisation of the gene expression changes associated with BSD is critical and will assist in determining the aetiology of lung damage post BSD. Real-time PCR is a highly sensitive method involving multiple steps from extraction to processing RNA so the choice of housekeeping genes is important in obtaining reliable results. Little information however, is available on the expression stability of reference genes in the sheep pulmonary artery and lung. We aimed to establish a set of stably expressed reference genes for use as a standard for analysis of gene expression changes in BSD. Results We evaluated the expression stability of 6 candidate normalisation genes (ACTB, GAPDH, HGPRT, PGK1, PPIA and RPLP0 using real time quantitative PCR. There was a wide range of Ct-values within each tissue for pulmonary artery (15–24 and lung (16–25 but the expression pattern for each gene was similar across the two tissues. After geNorm analysis, ACTB and PPIA were shown to be the most stably expressed in the pulmonary artery and ACTB and PGK1 in the lung tissue of BSD sheep. Conclusion Accurate normalisation is critical in obtaining reliable and reproducible results in gene expression studies. This study demonstrates tissue associated variability in the selection of these

  5. The Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative PCR in Betula luminifera%光皮桦实时荧光定量PCR内参基因的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文哲; 牛明月; 李秀云; 林二培; 黄华宏; 童再康

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]Real-time quantitative PCR ( RT-qPCR) has become the preferred approach to the quantification of gene expression. Besides its simplicity and efficiency,this method requires suitable reference genes to guarantee the accuracy of the quantification. Betula luminifera is not only a high-quality timber species with excellent wood properties, but also an ideal species for genetic study. Stability of candidate reference genes in different tissues was investigated using RT-qPCR and expression analysis software to select suitable reference genes,the reliability of the reference genes was further verified through expression analysis of two functional genes in different tissues. [Method]16 housekeeping genes were chosen as candidate reference genes,and specificity of the primers was investigated by agarose gel electrophoresis and melting curve of target amplified fragments. The software of geNorm,NormFinder and BestKeeper were used to analyze expression stability of reference genes in 16 different tissues. Furthermore,two functional genes were selected to verify the reliability of the suitable reference genes. [Result]Electrophoresis results showed distinct PCR products with the expected size,and the single-peak melting curves further indicated the specificity of the selected primers. Except 18S,the Ct values of the candidate genes were all between 25 to 30 ,indicating the expressions of these candidate genes were quite stable in different tissues. EF1α was characterized as the most stable gene based on NormFinder and BestKeeper analysis, while TATA was ranked in the first place according to geNorm. UBi-lp showed the most unstable expression. Furthermore, three top-stable genes ( EF1α,TATA and UBi4 ) and the unstable gene UBi-lp were chosen to verify the reliability of the reference genes. As results,the two target genes showed consistent expression profiles when normalized by the three top-ranked reference genes,and UBi-lp failed to standardize the expression

  6. Legal Analysis and System Selection of Government Public Service Outsourcing%政府公共服务外包的法理分析与制度选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧娟

    2012-01-01

    Public service outsourcing belongs to one of many types of public administration privatization.The legal basis of its existence is the legitimacy of citizens' right to participate in public service and the inspiration of public choice theory. However;It still faces many legal problems in reality and theory. Refering to the "regulatory contract" theory;the private law field put into constraint mechanism used in public law;Building due process,government responsibility system and so on is path selection for promoting the government's public service outsourcing optimization.%公共服务外包属于公共行政民营化的诸多类型之一,其存在的法理基础在于公民参与公共服务的权利的正当性和公共选择理论,但其在现实和理论上还面临诸多法律问题。借鉴"合同规制"理论,在私法领域引入公法的约束机制,构建正当程序、政府责任等核心制度,是推进政府公共服务外包优化的路径选择。

  7. Selection of the distributional rule as an alternative tool to foster cooperation in a Public Good Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasante, Annarita

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an investigation about cooperation in a Public Good Game using an Agent Based Model calibrated on experimental data. Starting from the experiment proposed in Colasante and Russo (2016), we analyze the dynamic of cooperation in a Public Good Game where agents receive an heterogeneous income and choose both the level of contribution and the distribution rule. The starting point is the calibration and the output validation of the model using the experimental results. Once tested the goodness of fit of the Agent Based Model, we run some policy experiment in order to verify how each distribution rule, i.e. equidistribution, proportional to contribution and progressive, affects the level of contribution in the simulated model. We find out that the share of cooperators decreases over time if we exogenously set the equidistribution rule. On the contrary, the share of cooperators converges to 100 % if we impose the progressive rule. Finally, the most interesting result refers to the effect of the progressive rule. We observe that, in the case of high inequality, this rule is not able to reduce the heterogeneity of income.

  8. A mixture model with a reference-based automatic selection of components for disease classification from protein and/or gene expression levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopriva Ivica

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioinformatics data analysis is often using linear mixture model representing samples as additive mixture of components. Properly constrained blind matrix factorization methods extract those components using mixture samples only. However, automatic selection of extracted components to be retained for classification analysis remains an open issue. Results The method proposed here is applied to well-studied protein and genomic datasets of ovarian, prostate and colon cancers to extract components for disease prediction. It achieves average sensitivities of: 96.2 (sd = 2.7%, 97.6% (sd = 2.8% and 90.8% (sd = 5.5% and average specificities of: 93.6% (sd = 4.1%, 99% (sd = 2.2% and 79.4% (sd = 9.8% in 100 independent two-fold cross-validations. Conclusions We propose an additive mixture model of a sample for feature extraction using, in principle, sparseness constrained factorization on a sample-by-sample basis. As opposed to that, existing methods factorize complete dataset simultaneously. The sample model is composed of a reference sample representing control and/or case (disease groups and a test sample. Each sample is decomposed into two or more components that are selected automatically (without using label information as control specific, case specific and not differentially expressed (neutral. The number of components is determined by cross-validation. Automatic assignment of features (m/z ratios or genes to particular component is based on thresholds estimated from each sample directly. Due to the locality of decomposition, the strength of the expression of each feature across the samples can vary. Yet, they will still be allocated to the related disease and/or control specific component. Since label information is not used in the selection process, case and control specific components can be used for classification. That is not the case with standard factorization methods. Moreover, the component selected by proposed method

  9. Individual wealth-based selection supports cooperation in spatial public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-09-06

    In a social dilemma game group members are allowed to decide if they contribute to the joint venture or not. As a consequence, defectors, who do not invest but only enjoy the mutual benefit, prevail and the system evolves onto the tragedy of the common state. This unfortunate scenario can be avoided if participation is not obligatory but only happens with a given probability. But what if we also consider a player's individual wealth when to decide about participation? To address this issue we propose a model in which the probabilistic participation in the public goods game is combined with a conditional investment mode that is based on individual wealth: if a player's wealth exceeds a threshold value then it is qualified and can participate in the joint venture. Otherwise, the participation is forbidden in the investment interactions. We show that if only probabilistic participation is considered, spatially structured populations cannot support cooperation better than well-mixed populations where full defection state can also be avoided for small participation probabilities. By adding the wealth-based criterion of participation, however, structured populations are capable to augment network reciprocity relevantly and allow cooperator strategy to dominate in a broader parameter interval.

  10. Individual wealth-based selection supports cooperation in spatial public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-09-01

    In a social dilemma game group members are allowed to decide if they contribute to the joint venture or not. As a consequence, defectors, who do not invest but only enjoy the mutual benefit, prevail and the system evolves onto the tragedy of the common state. This unfortunate scenario can be avoided if participation is not obligatory but only happens with a given probability. But what if we also consider a player’s individual wealth when to decide about participation? To address this issue we propose a model in which the probabilistic participation in the public goods game is combined with a conditional investment mode that is based on individual wealth: if a player’s wealth exceeds a threshold value then it is qualified and can participate in the joint venture. Otherwise, the participation is forbidden in the investment interactions. We show that if only probabilistic participation is considered, spatially structured populations cannot support cooperation better than well-mixed populations where full defection state can also be avoided for small participation probabilities. By adding the wealth-based criterion of participation, however, structured populations are capable to augment network reciprocity relevantly and allow cooperator strategy to dominate in a broader parameter interval.

  11. Incidence of Data Duplications in a Randomly Selected Pool of Life Science Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksvold, Morten P

    2016-04-01

    Since the solution to many public health problems depends on research, it is critical for the progress and well-being for the patients that we can trust the scientific literature. Misconduct and poor laboratory practice in science threatens the scientific progress, leads to loss of productivity and increased healthcare costs, and endangers lives of patients. Data duplication may represent one of challenges related to these problems. In order to estimate the frequency of data duplication in life science literature, a systematic screen through 120 original scientific articles published in three different cancer related journals [journal impact factor (IF) 20] was completed. The study revealed a surprisingly high proportion of articles containing data duplication. For the IF 20 journals, 25% of the articles were found to contain data duplications. The IF 5-10 journal showed a comparable proportion (22.5%). The proportion of articles containing duplicated data was comparable between the three journals and no significant correlation to journal IF was found. The editorial offices representing the journals included in this study and the individual authors of the detected articles were contacted to clarify the individual cases. The editorial offices did not reply and only 1 out of 29 cases were apparently clarified by the authors, although no supporting data was supplied. This study questions the reliability of life science literature, it illustrates that data duplications are widespread and independent of journal impact factor and call for a reform of the current peer review and retraction process of scientific publishing.

  12. Human resource capacity for information management in selected public healthcare facilities in Meru County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilu, Elizabeth Mueke; Okero, Dominic Charles; Muiruri, Lillian; Owuondo, Pacific Akinyi

    2015-01-01

    Reliable health information is essential for decision making in the healthcare system. Information management in Kenya was considered the weakest area under the Health Information System pillar mainly due to inadequate health workers capacity. The study therefore aimed at assessing health workers skills and current training needs for information management in the selected healthcare facilities. Cross-section research design was adopted and both purposive sampling technique and censuses were used to establish the study participants. Analysis was done using SPSS version 20 and results were presented in tables, charts and graphs. It was established that capacity building was usually undertaken through on-job trainings i.e. 85.1% (103) health workers had on-job training on filling of data collection tools and only 10% (13) had received formal classroom training on the same. Further, only 9.1% (11) health workers had received information management training while 90.9% (110) had not received such training. Health workers demonstrated below average skills on information management i.e. only 17.4% (21) could check for data accuracy, only 16.5% (20) could compute trends from bar charts and only 16.5% (20) could transform the data they collected into meaningful information for use. The researcher recommended that healthcare facilities management teams develop a competency based framework for defining the desired skill mix for information management and have a yearly Training Needs Assessment for assessing training needs for information management among the health workers.

  13. Librarian-Initiated Publications Discovery: How Do Digital Depository Librarians Discover and Select Web-Based Government Publications for State Digital Depositories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Shiou; Eschenfelder, Kristin R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of librarian initiated publications discovery (LIPD) in U.S. state digital depository programs using the OCLC Digital Archive to preserve web-based government publications for permanent public access. This paper describes a model of LIPD processes based on empirical investigations of four OCLC DA-based digital…

  14. Reference compounds for alternative test methods to indicate developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) potential of chemicals: example lists and criteria for their selection and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Michael; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Daneshian, Mardas; Fritsche, Ellen; Hasiwa, Nina; Hartung, Thomas; Hogberg, Helena T; Leist, Marcel; Li, Abby; Mundi, William R; Padilla, Stephanie; Piersma, Aldert H; Bal-Price, Anna; Seiler, Andrea; Westerink, Remco H; Zimmer, Bastian; Lein, Pamela J

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of information concerning the developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) hazard posed by industrial and environmental chemicals. New testing approaches will most likely be based on batteries of alternative and complementary (non-animal) tests. As DNT is assumed to result from the modulation of fundamental neurodevelopmental processes (such as neuronal differentiation, precursor cell migration or neuronal network formation) by chemicals, the first generation of alternative DNT tests target these processes. The advantage of such types of assays is that they capture toxicants with multiple targets and modes-of-action. Moreover, the processes modelled by the assays can be linked to toxicity endophenotypes, i.e., alterations in neural connectivity that form the basis for neurofunctional deficits in man. The authors of this review convened in a workshop to define criteria for the selection of positive/negative controls, to prepare recommendations on their use, and to initiate the setup of a directory of reference chemicals. For initial technical optimization of tests, a set of > 50 endpoint-specific control compounds was identified. For further test development, an additional "test" set of 33 chemicals considered to act directly as bona fide DNT toxicants is proposed, and each chemical is annotated to the extent it fulfills these criteria. A tabular compilation of the original literature used to select the test set chemicals provides information on statistical procedures, and toxic/non-toxic doses (both for pups and dams). Suggestions are provided on how to use the > 100 compounds (including negative controls) compiled here to address specificity, adversity and use of alternative test systems.

  15. Cross-platform microarray meta-analysis for the mouse jejunum selects novel reference genes with highly uniform levels of expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian R L Meyer

    Full Text Available Reference genes (RGs with uniform expression are used for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR data. Their optimization for a specific biological context, e.g. a specific tissue, has been increasingly considered. In this article, we compare RGs identified by expression data meta-analysis restricted to the context tissue, the jejunum of Mus musculus domesticus, i to traditional RGs, ii to expressed interspersed repeated DNA elements, and iii to RGs identified by meta-analysis of expression data from diverse tissues and conditions. To select the set of candidate RGs, we developed a novel protocol for the cross-platform meta-analysis of microarray data. The expression stability of twenty-four putative RGs was analysed by RT-qPCR in at least 14 jejunum samples of the mouse strains C57Bl/6N, CD1, and OF1. Across strains, the levels of expression of the novel RGs Plekha7, Zfx, and Ube2v1 as well as of Oaz1 varied less than two-fold irrespective of genotype, sex or their combination. The gene set consisting of Plekha7 and Oaz1 showed superior expression stability analysed with the tool RefFinder. The novel RGs are functionally diverse. This facilitates expression studies over a wide range of conditions. The highly uniform expression of the optimized RGs in the jejunum points towards their involvement in tightly regulated pathways in this tissue. We also applied our novel protocol of cross-microarray platform meta-analysis to the identification of RGs in the duodenum, the ileum and the entire small intestine. The selection of RGs with improved expression stability in a specific biological context can reduce the number of RGs for the normalization step of RT-qPCR expression analysis, thus reducing the number of samples and experimental costs.

  16. Selective hydride generation- cryotrapping- ICP-MS for arsenic speciation analysis at picogram levels: analysis of river and sea water reference materials and human bladder epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušek, Tomáš; Currier, Jenna M.; Trojánková, Nikola; Saunders, R. Jesse; Ishida, María C.; González-Horta, Carmen; Musil, Stanislav; Mester, Zoltán; Stýblo, Miroslav; Dědina, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    An ultra sensitive method for arsenic (As) speciation analysis based on selective hydride generation (HG) with preconcentration by cryotrapping (CT) and inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection is presented. Determination of valence of the As species is performed by selective HG without prereduction (trivalent species only) or with L-cysteine prereduction (sum of tri- and pentavalent species). Methylated species are resolved on the basis of thermal desorption of formed methyl substituted arsines after collection at −196°C. Limits of detection of 3.4, 0.04, 0.14 and 0.10 pg mL−1 (ppt) were achieved for inorganic As, mono-, di- and trimethylated species, respectively, from a 500 μL sample. Speciation analysis of river water (NRC SLRS-4 and SLRS-5) and sea water (NRC CASS-4, CASS-5 and NASS-5) reference materials certified to contain 0.4 to 1.3 ng mL−1 total As was performed. The concentrations of methylated As species in tens of pg mL−1 range obtained by HG-CT-ICP-MS systems in three laboratories were in excellent agreement and compared well with results of HG-CT-atomic absorption spectrometry and anion exchange liquid chromatography- ICP-MS; sums of detected species agreed well with the certified total As content. HG-CT-ICP-MS method was successfully used for analysis of microsamples of exfoliated bladder epithelial cells isolated from human urine. Here, samples of lysates of 25 to 550 thousand cells contained typically tens pg up to ng of iAs species and from single to hundreds pg of methylated species, well within detection power of the presented method. A significant portion of As in the cells was found in the form of the highly toxic trivalent species. PMID:24014931

  17. Update on progress in selected public health programs after the 2010 earthquake and cholera epidemic--Haiti, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domercant, J Wysler; Guillaume, Florence D; Marston, Barbara J; Lowrance, David W

    2015-02-20

    On January 12, 2010, an earthquake devastated Haiti's infrastructure, killing an estimated 230,000 persons and displacing more than 1.5 million. Ten months later, Haiti experienced the beginning of the largest cholera epidemic ever reported in a single country. Immediately after the earthquake and at the start of the cholera epidemic, health priorities in Haiti included improvement of surveillance and laboratory capacity for addressing public health threats in the general population and targeted surveillance and provision of improved water and sanitation in camps for internally displaced persons. As part of a multi-sector, post-earthquake response in collaboration with the Government of Haiti and others, CDC focused on supporting the recovery, expansion, or establishment of several key health programs. This update reports progress in selected health programs, services, and systems in Haiti as of the end of 2014.

  18. Selection of reference genes for analysis of stress-responsive genes after challenge with viruses and temperature changes in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huizhen; Jiang, Liang; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-04-01

    Viruses and high temperature (HT) are the primary threats to silkworms. Changes in the expression of stress-response genes can be measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after exposure to viruses or HT. However, appropriate reference genes (RGs) for qPCR data normalization have not been established in this organism. In this study, we summarized the RGs used in the previous silkworm studies after infection with Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), B. mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV), or B. mori densovirus (BmDNV) or after HT treatment. The expression levels of these RGs were extracted from silkworm transcriptome data to screen for candidate RGs that were unaffected by the experimental conditions. Actin-1 (A1), actin-3 (A3), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and translation initiation factor 4a (TIF-4A) were selected for further qPCR verification. The results of RNA-seq and qPCR showed that GAPDH and TIF-4A were suitable RGs after BmNPV challenge or HT stress, whereas TIF-4A was an appropriate RG for BmCPV or BmDNV-Z challenge in silkworms. These results suggested that TIF-4A may be the most appropriate RG for gene expression analysis after challenge with viruses or HT in silkworms.

  19. The public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria: an analysis of selection, forecasting and inventory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Auta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Public health facilities in rural Nigeria have been experiencing a long period of stock-outs and unavailability of modern contraceptives. This work was carried out to review the public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria in order to make recommendations on how to improve the supply of modern contraceptives in this area. The study reviewed secondary data from country documents and literature obtained from Pubmed, Popline, and Global Health databases; as well as websites of USAID/DELIVER Project, Measure DHS and Federal Ministry of Health. The study revealed that a wide range of contraceptives are included in the essential drug list to be used in secondary facilities, while only a few ones are selected to be used in primary facilities which serve the majority of rural population. Forecasting is done using issue data from the central warehouse because facilities are not generating reliable consumption data. Inventory control is poor in rural facilities, and these facilities do not follow the established inventory control guidelines. The study therefore demonstrates that the current essential drug list should be reviewed in order to include injectables for use in primary facilities, strengthen the current forecasting, data reporting and inventory control system.

  20. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data for application in a hydrological model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential evaporation (PET is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET daily time series from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and re-calibrated versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1 evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2 tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles.

    A major finding is that for part of the investigated basins the selection of a PET method may have only a minor influence on the resulting river flow. Within the hydrological model used in this study the bias related to the PET method tends to decrease while going from PET, AET and runoff to discharge calculations. However, the performance of individual PET methods appears to be spatially variable, which stresses the necessity to select the most accurate and spatially stable PET method. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95% significance level between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for a cell-specific re-calibrated Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this re-calibrated form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation applied to the CFSR data did not outperform the other methods in a evaluation against PET derived with the Penman-Monteith equation from CRU data. In arid regions (e.g. Sahara, central Australia, US deserts, the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e

  1. Genetics Home Reference: hypermethioninemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C. Mutations in human glycine N-methyltransferase give insights into its role in methionine metabolism. Hum Genet. ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright ...

  2. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  3. Further development of public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a final repository in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Regine; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate [OeEo-Institute e.V., Inst. for Applied Ecology, Darmstadt (Germany); Arens, Georg [Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    This paper reflects the first findings of a current research project funded by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection and conducted by an interdisciplinary working group of the OEko-Institute. One focus of this project is the systematic analysis of past and existing participatory processes in different nuclear and non-nuclear projects. On the basis of this analysis and a literature review a specific concept for public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a repository for high radioactive waste (HAW repository) in Germany will be derived. The concept shall foster transparency and acceptance. The working group of the OEko-Institute combines long standing research experience and an intimate knowledge of radioactive waste management including political, technical, management and social problems of final disposal on the one hand. On the other hand members play an active role in stakeholder processes of different non-nuclear projects as well as experience with a wide range of participative measures and their impact. This allows an approach which integrates the specific features of radioactive waste disposal with a wider perspective on the demands and opportunities of stakeholder processes. The procedure of site selection for a HAW repository in Germany still has to be specified. The procedure introduced by the 'Committee on a Site Selection Procedure for Repository Sites' (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd) has not been adopted. The Committee had suggested installing a negotiation group to discuss the AkEnd proposals in the so called 'Phase II'. This suggestion could not be followed because not all relevant stakeholders were willing to participate. An internal draft for a federal law implementing main elements of the AkEnd findings was developed by the Ministry for Environment in 2005, but has never been brought to the cabinet. Due to the change of Government in Germany, the next steps still are

  4. The usefulness of peer review for selecting manuscripts for publication: a utility analysis taking as an example a high-impact journal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High predictive validity--that is, a strong association between the outcome of peer review (usually, reviewers' ratings and the scientific quality of a manuscript submitted to a journal (measured as citations of the later published paper--does not as a rule suffice to demonstrate the usefulness of peer review for the selection of manuscripts. To assess usefulness, it is important to include in addition the base rate (proportion of submissions that are fundamentally suitable for publication and the selection rate (the proportion of submissions accepted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Taking the example of the high-impact journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition (AC-IE, we present a general approach for determining the usefulness of peer reviews for the selection of manuscripts for publication. The results of our study show that peer review is useful: 78% of the submissions accepted by AC-IE are correctly accepted for publication when the editor's decision is based on one review, 69% of the submissions are correctly accepted for publication when the editor's decision is based on two reviews, and 65% of the submissions are correctly accepted for publication when the editor's decision is based on three reviews. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The paper points out through what changes in the selection rate, base rate or validity coefficient a higher success rate (utility in the AC-IE selection process could be achieved.

  5. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR expression studies of microdissected reproductive tissues in apomictic and sexual Boechera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiteye Samuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apomixis, a natural form of asexual seed production in plants, is considered to have great biotechnological potential for agriculture. It has been hypothesised that de-regulation of the sexual developmental pathway could trigger apomictic reproduction. The genus Boechera represents an interesting model system for understanding apomixis, having both sexual and apomictic genotypes at the diploid level. Quantitative qRT-PCR is the most extensively used method for validating genome-wide gene expression analyses, but in order to obtain reliable results, suitable reference genes are necessary. In this work we have evaluated six potential reference genes isolated from a 454 (FLX derived cDNA library of Boechera. RNA from live microdissected ovules and anthers at different developmental stages, as well as vegetative tissues of apomictic and sexual Boechera, were used to validate the candidates. Results Based on homologies with Arabidopsis, six genes were selected from a 454 cDNA library of Boechera: RPS18 (Ribosomal sub protein 18, Efalpha1 (Elongation factor 1 alpha, ACT 2 (Actin2, UBQ (polyubiquitin, PEX4 (Peroxisomal ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and At1g09770.1 (Arabidopsis thaliana cell division cycle 5. Total RNA was extracted from 17 different tissues, qRT-PCRs were performed, and raw Ct values were analyzed for primer efficiencies and gene ratios. The geNorm and normFinder applications were used for selecting the most stable genes among all tissues and specific tissue groups (ovule, anthers and vegetative tissues in both apomictic and sexual plants separately. Our results show that BoechRPS18, BoechEfα1, BoechACT2 and BoechUBQ were the most stable genes. Based on geNorm, the combinations of BoechRPS18 and BoechEfα1 or BoechUBQ and BoechEfα1 were the most stable in the apomictic plant, while BoechRPS18 and BoechACT2 or BoechUBQ and BoechACT2 performed best in the sexual plant. When subgroups of tissue samples were analyzed

  6. A comparison of selected public health criteria in milk from milk-shops and from a national distributor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. More O'Ferrall-Berndt

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Selected public health criteria of pasteurised milk available to the consumer from milk-shops in a pre-defined area of Pretoria compared with a national distributor's milk was evaluated. Of the 135 milk samples purchased from milk-shops, 87 % were not fit for human consumption on the basis of the minimum standards prescribed in the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, 1972 (Act 54 of1972. The national distributor's milk (n = 79 did not contain any pathogens, toxins nor inhibitory substances and passed all the criteria laid down in the Act. Even though milk-shop milk was sold as having been pasteurised, 38.5% of samples were alkaline phosphatase positive, indicating probable inadequate pasteurisation. Milk-shop milk quality varied between milk-shops and between sampling days and differed significantly (P <0.05 from the national distributor's milk. Total aerobic plate and coliform counts were generally high for all milk-shop milk samples. Somatic cell counts of milk-shop milk differed significantly (P < 0.05 from the national distributor's milk. Escherichia coli was detected in 1 ml of 17% of milk-shop milk, 95% of which originated from milk which was alkaline phosphatase positive. Salmonella spp. could not be detected in 1 ml in any of the E. coli-positive milk tested. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 40% of milk-shop milk samples, and S. aureus enterotoxins from 7.8 % of 51 cultures. Inhibitory substances were detected in 54.1 % of milk-shop milk. The presence of inhibitory substances and the isolation of E. coli and S. aureus (some of which were able to produce enterotoxins indicated potentially unsafe milk and poses a serious public health risk to consumers.

  7. Deriving Biomonitoring Equivalents for selected E- and P-series glycol ethers for public health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poet, Torka; Ball, Nicholas; Hays, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    Glycol ethers are a widely used class of solvents that may lead to both workplace and general population exposures. Biomonitoring studies are available that have quantified glycol ethers or their metabolites in blood and/or urine amongst exposed populations. These biomonitoring levels indicate exposures to the glycol ethers, but do not by themselves indicate a health hazard risk. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) have been created to provide the ability to interpret human biomonitoring data in a public health risk context. The BE is defined as the concentration of a chemical or metabolite in a biological fluid (blood or urine) that is consistent with exposures at a regulatory derived safe exposure limit, such as a tolerable daily intake (TDI). In this exercise, we derived BEs for general population exposures for selected E- and P-series glycol ethers based on their respective derived no effect levels (DNELs). Selected DNELs have been derived as part of respective Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Regulation of Chemicals (REACh) regulation dossiers in the EU. The BEs derived here are unique in the sense that they are the first BEs derived for urinary excretion of compounds following inhalation exposures. The urinary mass excretion fractions (Fue) of the acetic acid metabolites for the E-series GEs range from approximately 0.2 to 0.7. The Fues for the excretion of the parent P-series GEs range from approximately 0.1 to 0.2, with the exception of propylene glycol methyl ether and its acetate (Fue = 0.004). Despite the narrow range of Fues, the BEs exhibit a larger range, resulting from the larger range in DNELs across GEs. The BEs derived here can be used to interpret human biomonitoring data for inhalation exposures to GEs amongst the general population.

  8. EURRECA—Estimating Zinc Requirements for Deriving Dietary Reference Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowe, N.M.M.; Dykes, F.C.; Skinner, A.L.; Patel, S.; Warthon-Medina, M.; Decsi, T.; Fekete, K.; Souverein, O.W.; Dullemeijer, C.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Nissensohn, M.; Bel, S.; Moreno, L.A.; Hermoso, M.; Vollhardt, C.; Berti, C.; Cetin, I.; Gurinovic, M.; Novakovic, R.N.; Harvey, L.J.; Collings, R.; Hall-Moran, V.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc was selected as a priority micronutrient for EURRECA, because there is significant heterogeneity in the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) across Europe. In addition, the prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes was thought to be high among all population groups worldwide, and the public health conce

  9. EURRECA—Estimating Zinc Requirements for Deriving Dietary Reference Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowe, N.M.M.; Dykes, F.C.; Skinner, A.L.; Patel, S.; Warthon-Medina, M.; Decsi, T.; Fekete, K.; Souverein, O.W.; Dullemeijer, C.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Nissensohn, M.; Bel, S.; Moreno, L.A.; Hermoso, M.; Vollhardt, C.; Berti, C.; Cetin, I.; Gurinovic, M.; Novakovic, R.N.; Harvey, L.J.; Collings, R.; Hall-Moran, V.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc was selected as a priority micronutrient for EURRECA, because there is significant heterogeneity in the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) across Europe. In addition, the prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes was thought to be high among all population groups worldwide, and the public health conce

  10. Guide to Reference Sources Dealing with North American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindler, Luke

    This is an annotated bibliography of reference sources dealing with North American Indians and includes selected unpublished resources in the Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota. Among the resources presented are encyclopedias, biographical dictionaries, handbooks, general indexes, government publications, theses, and dissertations.…

  11. Selection of suitable reference genes for normalization of genes of interest in canine soft tissue sarcomas using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zornhagen, K. W.; Kristensen, A. T.; Hansen, Anders Elias;

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a sensitive technique for quantifying gene expression. Stably expressed reference genes are necessary for normalization of RT-qPCR data. Only a few articles have been published on reference genes in canine tumours...

  12. Public Preferences Related to Radioactive Waste Management in the United States: Methodology and Response Reference Report for the 2016 Energy and Environment Survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Silva, Carol L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Gupta, Kuhika [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report presents the questions and responses to a nationwide survey taken June 2016 to track preferences of US residents concerning the environment, energy, and radioactive waste management. A focus of the 2016 survey is public perceptions on different options for managing spent nuclear fuel, including on-site storage, interim storage, deep boreholes, general purpose geologic repositories, and geologic repositories for only defense-related waste. Highlights of the survey results include the following: (1) public attention to the 2011 accident and subsequent cleanup at the Fukushima nuclear facility continues to influence the perceived balance of risk and benefit for nuclear energy; (2) the incident at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in 2014 could influence future public support for nuclear waste management; (3) public knowledge about US nuclear waste management policies has remined higher than seen prior to the Fukushima nuclear accident and submittal of the Yucca Mountain application; (6) support for a mined disposal facility is higher than for deep borehole disposal, building one more interim storage facilities, or continued on-site storage of spent nuclear fuel; (7) support for a repository that comingles commercial and defense related waste is higher than for a repository for only defense related waste; (8) the public’s level of trust accorded to the National Academies, university scientists, and local emergency responders is the highest and the level trust accorded to advocacy organizations, public utilities, and local/national press is the lowest; and (9) the public is willing to serve on citizens panels but, in general, will only modestly engage in issues related to radioactive waste management.

  13. Reference Revolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1998-01-01

    Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic reference services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of reference services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…

  14. The importance of the selection of the audiences and the organization of media events within public awareness strategies for tissue banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2008-12-01

    The main purpose of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Public Awareness Strategies for Tissue Banks is to provide guidance on organizing and running awareness campaigns, in order to consolidate tissue banking activities. Within the IAEA Public Awareness Strategies for Tissue Banks, there are two important topics, which need to be singled out due to their importance for a successful public and professional awareness campaign. These are the selection of the audiences and the organization of media events within a Communication Strategy. The experience in the field of tissue banking in several countries has shown that interaction between the public, the professional health care staff, the media and the tissue bank personnel is essential if the activities of the banks are to be successful. It must be emphasized however, that any public and professional awareness strategy will not be successful, unless it is considered as part of an integrated system that is adopted by the concerned Government.

  15. A conceptual framework for selecting the most appropriate variables for measuring hospital efficiency with a focus on Iranian public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Hossein Haji Ali; Moss, John R; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal

    2009-05-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing interest in the measurement of hospital efficiency in developing countries and in Iran. While the choice of measurement methods in hospital efficiency assessment has been widely argued in the literature, few authors have offered a framework to specify variables that reflect different hospital functions, the quality of the process of care and the effectiveness of hospital services. However, without the knowledge of hospital objectives and all relevant functions, efficiency studies run the risk of making biased comparisons, particularly against hospitals that provide higher quality services requiring the use of more resources. Undertaking an in-depth investigation regarding the multi-product nature of hospitals, various hospital functions and the values of various stakeholders (patient, staff and community) with a focus on the Iranian public hospitals, this study has proposed a conceptual framework to select the most appropriate variables for measuring hospital efficiency using frontier-based techniques. This paper contributes to hospital efficiency studies by proposing a conceptual framework and incorporating a broader set of variables in Iran. This can enhance the validity of hospital efficiency studies using frontier-based methods in developing countries.

  16. 29 CFR Appendix D to Subpart L of... - Availability of Publications Incorporated by Reference in Section 1910.156 Fire Brigades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Criteria for Structural Firefighter's Helmets” (1977) U.S. Fire Administration, National Fire Safety and...) are available for review at many universities and public libraries throughout the country....

  17. The importance of the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling in adrenal medulla or sympathetic ganglia of spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavřínová, A; Behuliak, M; Zicha, J

    2016-07-18

    Catecholaminergic system plays an important role in hypertension development. The available results on mRNA expression of catecholaminergic system genes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are often contradictory. One of the possible causes might be the use of various reference genes as internal controls. In the present study, we searched for suitable reference genes in adrenal medulla or sympathetic ganglia of SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, which would enable reliable comparison of mRNA expression between these two strains. The mRNA expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR in adrenal medulla and superior cervical ganglia of 4-week-old or 24-week-old SHR and WKY rats. We evaluated 12 reference genes by three software tools (Normfinder, BestKeeper, geNorm) and compared them for the standardization of mRNA expression. Combination of reference genes Hprt1 and Ywhaz in adrenal medulla and Gapdh and 18S in sympathetic ganglia were chosen as the best ones. 18S was found as applicable reference gene in both tissues. We found many alterations in expression of catecholaminergic system genes in adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia of SHR. The usage of the most or the least stable reference gene as internal control changed results moderately in sympathetic ganglia but seriously in adrenal medulla. For example, tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) gene was underexpressed in adrenal medulla of adult SHR using the appropriate reference gene but unchanged after the standardization to the least stable reference gene. Our results indicate the importance of appropriate internal control. The suitability of reference genes should be checked again in the case of change in experimental conditions.

  18. Gastronomic Reference, Synecdoche, and Political Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummett, Barry

    1981-01-01

    Defines gastronomic reference, or mention of what public figures eat, as synecdoche. Illustrates how use of this rhetorical device contributed to public figures and public images in the 1980 presidential campaign. Argues that interest in gastronomic reference leads to a broader concern for how synecdoche functions in public discourse. (PD)

  19. The contribution of King II report in the fight against corruption in the South African public sector with special reference to national departments / William Moraka Makgabo

    OpenAIRE

    Makgabo, William Moraka

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of the King II Report on Corporate Governance for South Africa in the fight against fraud and corruption in the South African public sector. Four areas of good corporate governance as recommended by the King II Report, i.e. internal audit, risk management, audit committee, and ethics (fraud prevention) have been identified for the purpose of this study. Corruption is a significant problem both in major and develop...

  20. Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Toqeer; Scholz, Miklas; Al-Faraj, Furat; Niaz, Wajeeha

    2016-01-01

    Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e.g., Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Climate Change, Planning and Development, Ministry of Forest, Irrigation and Public Health, Pakistan Meteorological Department, National Disaster Management, Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, and Global Change Impact Study Centre), United Nation organizations, provincial government departments, non-governmental organizations (e.g., Global Facility and Disaster Reduction), research centers linked to universities, and international organizations (International Institute for Sustainable Development, Food and Agriculture, Global Climate Fund and World Bank) are trying to reduce the water-related impacts of climate change, but due to lack of public awareness and health care infrastructure, the death rate is steadily increasing. This paper critically reviews the scientific studies and reports both at national and at international level benefiting generalists concerned with environmental and public health challenges. The article underlines the urgent need for water conservation, risk management, and the development of mitigation measures to cope with the water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health. Novel solutions and bioremediation methods have been presented to control environmental pollution and to promote awareness among the scientific community. The focus is on diverse strategies to handle

  1. Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e.g., Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Climate Change, Planning and Development, Ministry of Forest, Irrigation and Public Health, Pakistan Meteorological Department, National Disaster Management, Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, and Global Change Impact Study Centre, United Nation organizations, provincial government departments, non-governmental organizations (e.g., Global Facility and Disaster Reduction, research centers linked to universities, and international organizations (International Institute for Sustainable Development, Food and Agriculture, Global Climate Fund and World Bank are trying to reduce the water-related impacts of climate change, but due to lack of public awareness and health care infrastructure, the death rate is steadily increasing. This paper critically reviews the scientific studies and reports both at national and at international level benefiting generalists concerned with environmental and public health challenges. The article underlines the urgent need for water conservation, risk management, and the development of mitigation measures to cope with the water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health. Novel solutions and bioremediation methods have been presented to control environmental pollution and to promote awareness among the scientific community. The focus is on diverse

  2. Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Toqeer; Scholz, Miklas; Al-Faraj, Furat; Niaz, Wajeeha

    2016-10-27

    Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e.g., Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Climate Change, Planning and Development, Ministry of Forest, Irrigation and Public Health, Pakistan Meteorological Department, National Disaster Management, Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, and Global Change Impact Study Centre), United Nation organizations, provincial government departments, non-governmental organizations (e.g., Global Facility and Disaster Reduction), research centers linked to universities, and international organizations (International Institute for Sustainable Development, Food and Agriculture, Global Climate Fund and World Bank) are trying to reduce the water-related impacts of climate change, but due to lack of public awareness and health care infrastructure, the death rate is steadily increasing. This paper critically reviews the scientific studies and reports both at national and at international level benefiting generalists concerned with environmental and public health challenges. The article underlines the urgent need for water conservation, risk management, and the development of mitigation measures to cope with the water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health. Novel solutions and bioremediation methods have been presented to control environmental pollution and to promote awareness among the scientific community. The focus is on diverse strategies to handle

  3. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: A rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Basáñez María-Gloria; Bórquez Annick; Williams John R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study ...

  4. Scholars in the Humanities Are Reluctant to Cite E-Texts as Primary Materials. A Review of: Sukovic, S. (2009. References to e-texts in academic publications. Journal of Documentation, 65(6, 997-1015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Yanofsky

    2011-03-01

    collections as well as ‘electronically born’ documents, works of art and popular culture artifacts. Of the 22 works resulting from the research projects examined during the study period, half did not cite e-texts as primary materials. The 11 works that made at least one reference to an e-text included 4 works in which the only reference was to e-texts created by the actual author. In total, only 7 works referred to e-texts created by outside authors. These 7 final works were written by 5 participants, representing 31 percent of the total number of study participants.Analysis of the participants’ citation practices revealed that decisions to cite an electronic source or omit it from publication were based on two important factors: (1 the perceived trustworthiness of an e-text and (2 a sense of what was acceptable practice.Participants established trustworthiness through a process of verification. To confirm the authenticity and reliability of an e-text, most participants compared electronic documents against a print version to verify provenance, context, and details. Even when digitized materials were established as trustworthy sources, however, hard copies were often cited because they were considered more authoritative or accurate.Traditions of a particular discipline also had a strong influence on a participant’s willingness to cite e-texts. Participants working on traditional historical topics were more reluctant to cite electronic resources, while researchers who worked on topics that explored relatively new fields were more willing to acknowledge the use of e-texts in published works. Traditional practices also influenced participants’ decisions about how to cite materials. Some participants always cited original works in hard copy, regardless of electronic access because it was accepted scholarly practice.Conclusions – The results of this study suggest that the small number of citations to electronic sources in publications in the humanities is directly

  5. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: a rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R; Bórquez, Annick; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2008-09-30

    There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study of epidemiology and public health arising from traditions such as the Latin American social medicine movement, of which there may be limited awareness. A number of online bibliographic databases are available which focus primarily on health sciences literature arising in Spain and Latin America, the most prominent being Literatura Latinoamericana en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS) and LATINDEX. Some such as LILACS also extensively index grey literature. As well as in Spanish, interfaces are provided in English and Portuguese. Abstracts of articles may also be provided in English with an increasing number of journals beginning to publish entire articles written in English. Free full text articles are becoming accessible, one of the most comprehensive sources being the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). There is thus an extensive range of literature originating in Spain and SSLAC freely identifiable and often accessible online, and with the potential to provide useful inputs to the study of epidemiology and public health provided that any reluctance to explore these resources can be overcome. In this article we provide an introduction to such resources.

  6. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in Erythroxylum coca [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/y1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Docimo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative PCR is a powerful technique for the investigation of comparative gene expression, but its accuracy and reliability depend on the reference genes used as internal standards. Only genes that show a high level of expression stability are suitable for use as reference genes, and these must be identified on a case-by-case basis. Erythroxylum coca produces and accumulates high amounts of the pharmacologically active tropane alkaloid cocaine (especially in the leaves, and is an emerging model for the investigation of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis. The identification of stable internal reference genes for this species is important for its development as a model species, and would enable comparative analysis of candidate biosynthetic genes in the different tissues of the coca plant. In this study, we evaluated the expression stability of nine candidate reference genes in E. coca (Ec6409, Ec10131, Ec11142, Actin, APT2, EF1α, TPB1, Pex4, Pp2aa3. The expression of these genes was measured in seven tissues (flowers, stems, roots and four developmental leaf stages and the stability of expression was assessed using three algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. From our results we conclude that Ec10131 and TPB1 are the most appropriate internal reference genes in leaves (where the majority of cocaine is produced, while Ec10131 and Ec6409 are the most suitable internal reference genes across all of the tissues tested.

  7. Whole-Transcriptome Selection and Evaluation of Internal Reference Genes for Expression Analysis in Protocorm Development of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongqiang; Zhu, Qiankun; Pei, Wei; Fan, Jing; Liang, Yi; Cui, Yihui; Lv, Nan; Wang, Wanjun

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale Kimu et Migo has increased many researchers' interest for its high medical and horticultural values and the molecular mechanism of its protocorm development remains unclear. In this study, 19 genes from 26 most stably expressed genes in whole transcriptome of protocorms and 5 housekeeping genes were used as candidate reference genes and screened with 4 application softwares (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder). The results showed that a few reference genes could effectively normalize expression level of specific genes in protocorm development and the optimal top 2 reference genes were ASS and APH1L. Meanwhile, validation of GNOM, AP2 and temperature induced gene (TIL) for normalization demonstrates the usefulness of the validated candidate reference genes. The expression profiles of these genes varied under protocorms and temperature stress according to the stablest and unstablest reference genes, which proved the importance of the choice of appropriate reference genes. The first systematic evaluation of stably expressed genes will be very useful in the future analysis of specific genes expression in D. officinale.

  8. Investigating for the Status of Virtual Reference Service in Grassroots Public libraries in Liaoning Province%辽宁省基层公共图书馆虚拟参考咨询服务现状调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冰

    2012-01-01

    在分析辽宁省基层公共图书馆虚拟参考咨询服务发展现状的基础上,提出了辽宁省基层公共图书馆应当建立以辽宁省图书馆为中心,联合省内高校图书馆、科研院所图书馆,组成区域联合参考咨询联盟,并加入全国范围的联合参考咨询网,实行分布、实时、联合的图书馆参考咨询服务发展策略。%Based on the analysis of the present situation of Virtual Reference Service in the public grassroots libraries in Liaoning province,the article puts forward the public grassroots libraries in Liaoning province should establish regional cooperating digital inquiry union which makes Liaoning province library as the center joining with academic libraries and research institutions libraries and they also ought to attend the nationwide joint reference network.They should carry out the development strategy of distributed real-time cooperated Virtual Reference Service.

  9. Deciding about Design Quality: Value judgements and decision making in the selection of architects by public clients under European tendering regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years the image of tender procedures in which Dutch public clients selected an architect has been dominated by distressing newspaper headlines. Architects fear that the current tender culture will harm the quality of our built environment due to a potential lack of diversity, creativ

  10. Chapter 4: considerations during the site selection. Public involvement and acceptance; Capitulo 4: consideracoes durante a selecao de sitio. Envolvimento e aceitacao publicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atala, Drausio Lima

    2009-07-01

    The public involvement and acceptance is to be considered a necessary and desirable part of the process of the nuclear site selection and allows to the entrepreneur to consult and incorporate the considerations of the interested people in the decision process.

  11. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted

  12. 新公共管理理论对公安教育训练机制的借鉴%Reference of New Public Management Theory on the Public Security Education and Training Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琳

    2014-01-01

    In the new period, public security education training work should draw lessons from the core concept of new public management theory, sets up the public security education and training in order to improve the management efficiency, improve the quality and level of public security education training, eventually to national and social development or individual development demand as the guidance to improve the public security police education training performance as the goal, to constantly promote innovation of police education training mechanism.%新时期下公安教育训练工作应借鉴新公共管理理论的核心理念,树立以提高公安教育训练管理效率,改善公安教育训练质量和水平,最终以国家、社会发展或民警个人需求发展为导向改善公安教育训练绩效为追求目标,不断推动公安教育训练工作机制的创新。

  13. Interaction of activity involvement and recreational location selection behavior in Lowland City: A case study of public parks in Saga City, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IAMTRAKUL Pawinee; TEKNOMO Kardi; GE Jian; HOKAO Kazunori

    2005-01-01

    Public parks provide many benefits to the community as the representatives of green area. The allocation of public places plays an extremely important role in the daily lives of inhabitants especially for recreational use that could enhance the quality of life of residents in the vicinity. To understand park users' behavior is one of the most important prerequisites for assessing the participation in public service from the park users' point of view. The pattern of park utilization on location and activity selection are important elements in behavioral study, while the public parks topograph may also influence the typical user's behavior. Questionnaire survey on park utilization was used to investigate the interaction between activity involvement and recreational location with the use of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model. The study found that public park users' behavior is influenced not only by social characteristics but also by the recreational activities and their specific location characteristics. We found that about 45 percent of park visitors are local residents living within a radius of 3 km preferred travel to parks near their residential area. This implies that location selection behavior is correlated with travel distance, travel time and travel cost. Visit frequencies and on site expenditures reflect the recreation behavior for different type of activities. The overall information can be usefully applied by decision makers to launch appropriate public policy in consistence with the useful results of this study.

  14. Water quality of selected springs and public-supply wells, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota, 1992-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heakin, Allen J.

    2000-01-01

    concentrations that exceeded 10 ?g/L, which could be problematic if the current maximum contaminant level (MCL) is lowered. Blending of water from one or more springs with water from the existing Inyan Kara well may be an option to address concerns regarding both quantity and quality of existing and potential sources. All nine springs that were sampled for indicator bacteria had positive detections on one or more occasions during presumptive tests. Although USEPA standards for bacteria apply only to public-water supplies, local residents using spring water for domestic purposes need to be aware of the potential health risks associated with consuming untreated water. One spring contacting the White River Group and two springs contacting the Pierre Shale exceeded 15 pCi/L for gross alpha; these values do not necessarily constitute exceedances of the MCL, which excludes radioactivity contributed by uranium and radon. Additional sampling using different analysis techniques would be needed to conclusively determine if any samples exceeded this MCL. Nine springs were sampled for selected pesticides and tritium. The pesticides atrazine, carbaryl, and 2,4-D were not detected in any of the samples. The nine springs were analyzed for tritium in order to generally assess the age of the water and to determine if concentrations exceeded the MCL established for gross beta-particle activity. Tritium results indicated two springs are composed primarily of water recharged prior to atmospheric testing of nuclear bombs and two other springs have a relatively large percentage of test-era water. The remaining five springs had tritium values that indicated some percentage of test-era water; however, additional sampling would be needed to determine whether water is predominantly pre- or post-bomb age. Of the 44 public-supply wells sampled, 42 are completed in the Arikaree aquifer, one is completed in an alluvial aquifer, and one is completed in the Inyan Kara aquifer. Water

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in goats in selected states in Nigeria and the public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogugua, A J; Akinseye, V O; Ayoola, M C; Oyesola, O O; Shima, F K; Tijjani, A O; Musa, Aderemi N A; Adesokan, H K; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy A; Moriyon, I; Cadmus, S I B

    2014-09-01

    Available reports on brucellosis in Nigeria are largely confined to cattle while it is believed that other ruminants like sheep and goats are equally exposed to the disease. To have an insight into the role of goats in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria, we conducted a cross-sectional study between June 2011 and May 2013 to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats in some selected states in Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from goats at different locations and tested for antibodies to Brucella spp using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT), samples positive by RBT were further subjected to Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA). Data collected to determine risk factors were also analysed using chi-square and logistics regression statistics. Out of a total of 2827 samples tested from the different states (Benue = 331; Borno =195; Oyo = 2155; Sokoto = 146), we recorded an overall seroprevalence of 2.83% (Benue = 17.30%; Borno = 2.05%; Oyo = 0.60% and Sokoto = 0.00%) by RBT. The cELISA further supported 9.45% (7/74) of the total RBT positive samples. Logistic regression analysis showed that the location (p = 0.004) and source (p brucellosis with sex (p = 0.179); age (p = 0.791) and breed (p = 0.369) not playing any major role. Our findings reveal a relatively low seroprevalence of brucellosis among goats screened except for Benue State. Since most of the goats sampled in the present study were from the abattoirs, further farm level investigations are required to determine the role of goats in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria since they share common environment with sheep and cattle that are natural hosts of Brucella species which are of major public health threat.

  16. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: A rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R; Bórquez, Annick; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2008-01-01

    There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study of epidemiology and public health arising from traditions such as the Latin American social medicine movement, of which there may be limited awareness. A number of online bibliographic databases are available which focus primarily on health sciences literature arising in Spain and Latin America, the most prominent being Literatura Latinoamericana en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS) and LATINDEX. Some such as LILACS also extensively index grey literature. As well as in Spanish, interfaces are provided in English and Portuguese. Abstracts of articles may also be provided in English with an increasing number of journals beginning to publish entire articles written in English. Free full text articles are becoming accessible, one of the most comprehensive sources being the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). There is thus an extensive range of literature originating in Spain and SSLAC freely identifiable and often accessible online, and with the potential to provide useful inputs to the study of epidemiology and public health provided that any reluctance to explore these resources can be overcome. In this article we provide an introduction to such resources. PMID:19243576

  17. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: A rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basáñez María-Gloria

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study of epidemiology and public health arising from traditions such as the Latin American social medicine movement, of which there may be limited awareness. A number of online bibliographic databases are available which focus primarily on health sciences literature arising in Spain and Latin America, the most prominent being Literatura Latinoamericana en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS and LATINDEX. Some such as LILACS also extensively index grey literature. As well as in Spanish, interfaces are provided in English and Portuguese. Abstracts of articles may also be provided in English with an increasing number of journals beginning to publish entire articles written in English. Free full text articles are becoming accessible, one of the most comprehensive sources being the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO. There is thus an extensive range of literature originating in Spain and SSLAC freely identifiable and often accessible online, and with the potential to provide useful inputs to the study of epidemiology and public health provided that any reluctance to explore these resources can be overcome. In this article we provide an introduction to such resources.

  18. Selection of reference genes is critical for miRNA expression analysis in human cardiac tissue. A focus on atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masè, Michela; Grasso, Margherita; Avogaro, Laura; D’Amato, Elvira; Tessarolo, Francesco; Graffigna, Angelo; Denti, Michela Alessandra; Ravelli, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as key regulators of complex biological processes in several cardiovascular diseases, including atrial fibrillation (AF). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a powerful technique to quantitatively assess miRNA expression profile, but reliable results depend on proper data normalization by suitable reference genes. Despite the increasing number of studies assessing miRNAs in cardiac disease, no consensus on the best reference genes has been reached. This work aims to assess reference genes stability in human cardiac tissue with a focus on AF investigation. We evaluated the stability of five reference genes (U6, SNORD48, SNORD44, miR-16, and 5S) in atrial tissue samples from eighteen cardiac-surgery patients in sinus rhythm and AF. Stability was quantified by combining BestKeeper, delta-Cq, GeNorm, and NormFinder statistical tools. All methods assessed SNORD48 as the best and U6 as the worst reference gene. Applications of different normalization strategies significantly impacted miRNA expression profiles in the study population. Our results point out the necessity of a consensus on data normalization in AF studies to avoid the emergence of divergent biological conclusions. PMID:28117343

  19. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Studies in Tomato Fruit of the Genotype MT-Rg1

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Aguilera, Karla L.; Saad, Carolina F.; Chávez Montes, Ricardo A.; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; de Folter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) has become one of the most widely used methods for accurate quantification of gene expression. Since there are no universal reference genes for normalization, the optimal strategy to normalize raw qRT-PCR data is to perform an initial comparison of a set of independent reference genes to assess the most stable ones in each biological model. Normalization of a qRT-PCR experiment helps to ensure that the results are both statistically significant and biologically meaningful. Tomato is the model of choice to study fleshy fruit development. The miniature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Micro-Tom (MT) is considered a model system for tomato genetics and functional genomics. A new genotype, containing the Rg1 allele, improves tomato in vitro regeneration. In this work, we evaluated the expression stability of four tomato reference genes, namely CAC, SAND, Expressed, and ACTIN2. We showed that the genes CAC and Exp are the best reference genes of the four we tested during fruit development in the MT-Rg1 genotype. Furthermore, we validated the reference genes by showing that the expression profiles of the transcription factors FRUITFULL1 and APETALA2c during fruit development are comparable to previous reports using other tomato cultivars. PMID:27679646

  20. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in virus infected cells: SARS corona virus, Yellow fever virus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus and Cytomegalovirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Marcel A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten potential reference genes were compared for their use in experiments investigating cellular mRNA expression of virus infected cells. Human cell lines were infected with Cytomegalovirus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus, SARS coronavirus or Yellow fever virus. The expression levels of these genes and the viral replication were determined by real-time PCR. Genes were ranked by the BestKeeper tool, the GeNorm tool and by criteria we reported previously. Ranking lists of the genes tested were tool dependent. However, over all, β-actin is an unsuitable as reference gene, whereas TATA-Box binding protein and peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase A are stable reference genes for expression studies in virus infected cells.

  1. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Nilaparvata lugens with Different Levels of Virulence on Rice by Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-xia; LAI Feng-xiang; LI Kai-long; FU Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The brown planthopperNilaparvata lugens Stål (Homoptera: Delphacidae) can cause hopperburn by feeding on rice and also can transmit the grassy stunt disease. Resistant rice varieties have been developed, but severalN. lugens strains can recover their virulence to these resistant rice varieties. In the present study, reference genes with stable expression levels inN. lugens populations showed different levels of virulence to susceptible and resistant rice varieties. The expression of six candidate reference genes inN. lugens feeding on susceptible and resistant rice varieties was analyzed. These genes were evaluated for their potential use in the analysis of differential gene expression. Polymerase chain reaction data was generated fromN. lugens, including two different treatments (resistant or susceptible rice) and three virulentN. lugens populations. Three software programs (BestKeeper, Normfinder and geNorm) were used to assess the candidate reference genes. Both geNorm and Normfinder identified the genes18S,β-ACT,β-TUB andα-TUB as the most stable reference genes. BestKeeper identifiedETIF1 as the optimal reference gene with the least overall variation, whereas18S andα-TUB were the second and third most stably expressed genes, respectively. Therefore, we concluded that the genes18S andα-TUB were the most suitable reference genes inN. lugens. These results will facilitate future transcript profiling studies onN. lugens populations that show variation in virulence levels on different rice varieties.

  2. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in the Biofuel Plant Jatropha curcas Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a promising renewable feedstock for biodiesel and bio-jet fuel production. To study gene expression in Jatropha in different tissues throughout development and under stress conditions, we examined a total of 11 typical candidate reference genes using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR analysis, which is widely used for validating transcript levels in gene expression studies. The expression stability of these candidate reference genes was assessed across a total of 20 samples, including various tissues at vegetative and reproductive stages and under desiccation and cold stress treatments. The results obtained using software qBasePLUS showed that the top-ranked reference genes differed across the sample subsets. The combination of actin, GAPDH, and EF1α would be appropriate as a reference panel for normalizing gene expression data across samples at different developmental stages; the combination of actin, GAPDH, and TUB5 should be used as a reference panel for normalizing gene expression data across samples under various abiotic stress treatments. With regard to different developmental stages, we recommend the use of actin and TUB8 for normalization at the vegetative stage and GAPDH and EF1α for normalization at the reproductive stage. For abiotic stress treatments, we recommend the use of TUB5 and TUB8 for normalization under desiccation stress and GAPDH and actin for normalization under cold stress. These results are valuable for future research on gene expression during development or under abiotic stress in Jatropha. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the stability of reference genes in Jatropha.

  3. Evaluating the effective numbers of independent tests and significant p-value thresholds in commercial genotyping arrays and public imputation reference datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao-Xin; Yeung, Juilian M Y; Cherny, Stacey S; Sham, Pak C

    2012-05-01

    Current genome-wide association studies (GWAS) use commercial genotyping microarrays that can assay over a million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The number of SNPs is further boosted by advanced statistical genotype-imputation algorithms and large SNP databases for reference human populations. The testing of a huge number of SNPs needs to be taken into account in the interpretation of statistical significance in such genome-wide studies, but this is complicated by the non-independence of SNPs because of linkage disequilibrium (LD). Several previous groups have proposed the use of the effective number of independent markers (M(e)) for the adjustment of multiple testing, but current methods of calculation for M(e) are limited in accuracy or computational speed. Here, we report a more robust and fast method to calculate M(e). Applying this efficient method [implemented in a free software tool named Genetic type 1 error calculator (GEC)], we systematically examined the M(e), and the corresponding p-value thresholds required to control the genome-wide type 1 error rate at 0.05, for 13 Illumina or Affymetrix genotyping arrays, as well as for HapMap Project and 1000 Genomes Project datasets which are widely used in genotype imputation as reference panels. Our results suggested the use of a p-value threshold of ~10(-7) as the criterion for genome-wide significance for early commercial genotyping arrays, but slightly more stringent p-value thresholds ~5 × 10(-8) for current or merged commercial genotyping arrays, ~10(-8) for all common SNPs in the 1000 Genomes Project dataset and ~5 × 10(-8) for the common SNPs only within genes.

  4. "EWS Matrix" and "EWG Matrix": "De-sign for All" tools referred to the development of a enabling communication system for public spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Camplone, Stefania; Picciani, Stefano; Vallese, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    The widespread sense of spatial disorientation that can be experienced in many public places (buildings and open spaces),generally depends on a design approach that doesn't take into account both the "communication skills" of the different parts of the spatial organization, both the variability of people and their ways of interacting with environments, orienteering themselves. Nevertheless, "not find the way" often has some obvious practical costs (loss of time, failure to achieve a target) and some more intangible, but no less important, emotional costs. That's why the design of signage systems must take into account both the specificities of places and the extreme variability of its users. The paper presents the results of a study on this specific issue. In particular, the study focuses on the description of some tools useful for the analysis and design of a signage system that is truly "for All".

  5. Disabling Emotion in Young Children with Particular Reference to Depression and Suicide: An Overview of Current Research. Unit for Child Studies Selected Papers Number 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    A review of the literature and a survey of texts show a remarkable absence of concern and reference to depression and suicidal behavior in young children. The meaning of death, the depressive and suicidal consequences of the agony of aloneness, and the fear of parental hostility, rage and abandonment are elements of early and middle childhood…

  6. Sodium content of foods contributing to sodium intake: A comparison between selected foods from the CDC Packaged Food Database and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sodium concentration (mg/100g) for 23 of 125 Sentinel Foods were identified in the 2009 CDC Packaged Food Database (PFD) and compared with data in the USDA’s 2013 Standard Reference 26 (SR 26) database. Sentinel Foods are foods and beverages identified by USDA to be monitored as primary indicat...

  7. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) based on transcriptome sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidenko, Natalia V; Logacheva, Maria D; Penin, Aleksey A

    2011-05-12

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the most precise and widely used methods of gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. We studied the expression stability of potential reference genes in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in order to find the optimal reference for gene expression analysis in this economically important crop. Recently sequenced buckwheat floral transcriptome was used as source of sequence information. Expression stability of eight candidate reference genes was assessed in different plant structures (leaves and inflorescences at two stages of development and fruits). These genes are the orthologs of Arabidopsis genes identified as stable in a genome-wide survey gene of expression stability and a traditionally used housekeeping gene GAPDH. Three software applications--geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper--were used to estimate expression stability and provided congruent results. The orthologs of AT4G33380 (expressed protein of unknown function, Expressed1), AT2G28390 (SAND family protein, SAND) and AT5G46630 (clathrin adapter complex subunit family protein, CACS) are revealed as the most stable. We recommend using the combination of Expressed1, SAND and CACS for the normalization of gene expression data in studies on buckwheat using qRT-PCR. These genes are listed among five the most stably expressed in Arabidopsis that emphasizes utility of the studies on model plants as a framework for other species.

  8. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum based on transcriptome sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V Demidenko

    Full Text Available Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is one of the most precise and widely used methods of gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. We studied the expression stability of potential reference genes in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum in order to find the optimal reference for gene expression analysis in this economically important crop. Recently sequenced buckwheat floral transcriptome was used as source of sequence information. Expression stability of eight candidate reference genes was assessed in different plant structures (leaves and inflorescences at two stages of development and fruits. These genes are the orthologs of Arabidopsis genes identified as stable in a genome-wide survey gene of expression stability and a traditionally used housekeeping gene GAPDH. Three software applications--geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper--were used to estimate expression stability and provided congruent results. The orthologs of AT4G33380 (expressed protein of unknown function, Expressed1, AT2G28390 (SAND family protein, SAND and AT5G46630 (clathrin adapter complex subunit family protein, CACS are revealed as the most stable. We recommend using the combination of Expressed1, SAND and CACS for the normalization of gene expression data in studies on buckwheat using qRT-PCR. These genes are listed among five the most stably expressed in Arabidopsis that emphasizes utility of the studies on model plants as a framework for other species.

  9. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of rat tissues under physiological and toxicological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svingen, Terje; Letting, Heidi; Hadrup, Niels; Hass, Ulla; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    In biological research the analysis of gene expression levels in cells and tissues can be a powerful tool to gain insights into biological processes. For this, quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is a popular method that often involve the use of constitutively expressed endogenous reference (or 'housekeeping') gene for normalization of data. Thus, it is essential to use reference genes that have been verified to be stably expressed within the specific experimental setting. Here, we have analysed the expression stability of 12 commonly used reference genes (Actb, B2m, Gapdh, Hprt, Pgk1, Rn18s, Rpl13a, Rps18, Rps29, Sdha, Tbp and Ubc) across several juvenile and adult rat tissues (liver, adrenal, prostate, fat pad, testis and ovaries), both under normal conditions and following exposure to various chemicals during development. Employing NormFinder and BestKeeper softwares, we found Hprt and Sdha to be amongst the most stable genes across normal and manipulated tissues, with several others also being suitable for most tissues. Tbp and B2m displayed highest variability in transcript levels between tissues and developmental stages. It was also observed that the reference genes were most unstable in liver and testis following toxicological exposure. For future studies, we propose the use of more than one verified reference gene and the continuous monitoring of their suitability under various experimental conditions, including toxicological studies, based on changes in threshold (Ct) values from cDNA samples having been reverse-transcribed from a constant input concentration of RNA.

  10. A survey of pet ownership, awareness and public knowledge of pet zoonoses with particular reference to roundworms and hookworms in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfukenyi, Davies Mubika; Chipunga, S L; Dinginya, L; Matenga, E

    2010-02-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was carried out in Harare to assess pet ownership and public awareness with regard to pet zoonoses. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information on pet ownership, health and welfare of pets, pet owners' knowledge and awareness of pet zoonoses with particular emphasis on hookworms and roundworms. The results demonstrated that the proportion of pet owners who knew helminths as zoonoses in dogs (21.3%) and cats (1.1%) was low compared to rabies (95.7%) with ancylostomosis (4.3%) and toxocariosis (2.1%) being the specific parasitic zoonoses known to occur in dogs and toxoplasmosis (2.1%) in cats. More than 50% of the pet owners indicated that veterinarians never discussed the potential hazards of zoonoses or discussed it only when asked and 33% indicated that veterinarians initiated discussion of the subject whenever zoonoses were diagnosed in pets. Over 90% of the pet owners indicated that veterinarians should discuss zoonoses with them. Further investigations are necessary to determine the current prevalence of intestinal nematode infections in dogs and cats in the various regions of the country.

  11. Selection of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in normal equine skin and in equine sarcoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasthuys Frank

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time quantitative PCR can be a very powerful and accurate technique to examine gene transcription patterns in different biological conditions. One of the critical steps in comparing transcription profiles is accurate normalisation. In most of the studies published on real-time PCR in horses, normalisation occurred against only one reference gene, usually GAPDH or ACTB, without validation of its expression stability. This might result in unreliable conclusions, because it has been demonstrated that the expression levels of so called "housekeeping genes" may vary considerably in different tissues, cell types or disease stages, particularly in clinical samples associated with malignant disease. The goal of this study was to establish a reliable set of reference genes for studies concerning normal equine skin and equine sarcoids, which are the most common skin tumour in horses. Results In the present study the gene transcription levels of 6 commonly used reference genes (ACTB, B2M, HPRT1, UBB, TUBA1 and RPL32 were determined in normal equine skin and in equine sarcoids. After applying the geNorm applet to this set of genes, TUBA1, ACTB and UBB were found to be most stable in normal skin and B2M, ACTB and UBB in equine sarcoids. Conclusion Based on these results, TUBA1, ACTB and UBB, respectively B2M, ACTB and UBB can be proposed as reference gene panels for accurate normalisation of quantitative data for normal equine skin, respectively equine sarcoids. When normal skin and equine sarcoids are compared, the use of the geometric mean of UBB, ACTB and B2M can be recommended as a reliable and accurate normalisation factor.

  12. A Comprehensive Selection of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in a Predatory Lady Beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Pan

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a reliable, rapid, and reproducible technique for measuring and evaluating changes in gene expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate RT-qPCR data, normalization relative to stable reference genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of seven candidate reference genes, including β-actin (Actin, elongation factor 1 α (EF1A, glyceralde hyde-3-phosphate dehydro-genase (GAPDH, cyclophilins A (CypA, vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (ATPase, 28S ribosomal RNA (28S, and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S from Hippodamia convergens were investigated. H. convergens is an abundant predatory species in the New World, and has been widely used as a biological control agent against sap-sucking insect pests, primarily aphids. A total of four analytical methods, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method, were employed to evaluate the performance of these seven genes as endogenous controls under diverse experimental conditions. Additionally, RefFinder, a comprehensive evaluation platform integrating the four above mentioned algorithms, ranked the overall stability of these candidate genes. A suite of reference genes were specifically recommended for each experimental condition. Among them, 28S, EF1A, and CypA were the best reference genes across different development stages; GAPDH, 28S, and CypA were most stable in different tissues. GAPDH and CypA were most stable in female and male adults and photoperiod conditions, 28S and EF1A were most stable under a range of temperatures, Actin and CypA were most stable under dietary RNAi condition. This work establishes a standardized RT-qPCR analysis in H. convergens. Additionally, this study lays a foundation for functional genomics research in H. convergens and sheds light on the ecological risk assessment of RNAi-based biopesticides on this non-target biological control agent.

  13. Association of religiousness and sexual disorders: A cross-sectional study on married women of reproductive age referring to public health centers of Shiraz, South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghodrati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual health status of married women in the reproductive age, one of the most important community health issues. Recent research has highlighted the effects of religious beliefs with sexual life and sexual problem may be mediated This study aimed to investigate the association of religiousness and .through individual differences in spirituality. sexual disorders in a cross-sectional study in women of reproductive . This cross-sectional study was conducted on women aged 15-45 years old referring to Shiraz health centers in 2015 with a sample size of 210. Cluster sampling was done firstly. Then, purpose ful sampling was conducted in each center. Data collection was done using Religious Attitude Questionnaire and Female Sexual Dysfunction index. Correlation coefficient and Fisher's test The mean age of the study population was 30.67±6.60 . were performed for data analysis in SPSS software. According to the findings, 74.3% had sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, the rate of impaired sexual desire was 72.9 % and 62.4% in sexual arousal . Orgasmic disorder was the highest reported sexual dysfunction. There was a statistically significant correlation between religious thoughts and different dimensions of sexual function such as sexual desire (P= 0.005, psychological stimulation (p= 0.05, lubrication (p= 0.02, orgasm (p=0.013, and satisfaction ( p= 0.001. Religious thoughts with dimensions of sexual function (libido, orgasm, etc. was associated.So, the improvement in families and society ’s sexual health could result from the increase in the individuals' knowledge about sex related issues and religious thoughts in this regard. Therefore, sexual health education, in accordance with religious values, is one of the priorities in community health system.

  14. Importance of Reference Muscle Selection in Quantitative Signal Intensity Analysis of T2-Weighted Images of Myocardial Edema Using a T2 Ratio Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Carbone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The purpose of our study was to identify the suitability of various skeletal muscles as reference regions for calculating the T2 SI ratio for a semiautomated quantification of the extent of myocardial edema with T2-weighted images. Methods. Thirty-four patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI were enrolled. The extent of myocardial edema was determined by T2 SI ratio map, using 4 different muscles as reference: major and minor pectoralis, serratus anterior, teres minor-infraspinatus, and subscapularis. The size of myocardial edema as visually quantified was used as the standard of truth. The control group consisted of 15 patients with chronic MI. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed. Results. Due to poor image quality four patients were excluded from the analysis. In acute MI patients, serratus anterior muscle showed the strongest correlation with the visual analysis (r=0.799; P<0.001 and low inter- and intraobserver variability, while the other muscles resulted in a significant interobserver variability. In contrast, the use of other muscles as a reference led to overestimating edema size. Conclusions. In acute MI patients, serratus anterior resulted to be the most reliable and reproducible muscle for measuring the extent of myocardial edema.

  15. A selection of reference genes and early-warning mRNA biomarkers for environmental monitoring using Mytilus spp. as sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, C; Coquillé, V; Guyomarch, J; Auffret, M; Moraga, D

    2014-09-15

    mRNA biomarkers are promising tools for environmental health assessment and reference genes are needed to perform relevant qPCR analyses in tissue samples of sentinel species. In the present study, potential reference genes and mRNA biomarkers were tested in the gills and digestive glands of native and caged mussels (Mytilus spp.) exposed to harbor pollution. Results highlighted the difficulty to find stable reference genes in wild, non-model species and suggested the use of normalization indices instead of single genes as they exhibit a higher stability. Several target genes were found differentially expressed between mussel groups, especially in gills where cyp32, π-gst and CuZn-sod mRNA levels could be biomarker candidates. Multivariate analyses confirmed the ability of mRNA levels to highlight site-effects and suggested the use of several combined markers instead of individual ones. These findings support the use of qPCR technology and mRNA levels as early-warning biomarkers in marine monitoring programs.

  16. Crescent Lake Wilderness Reference Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reference sheet includes information about Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and results of the public hearing for Crescent Lake Wilderness Proposal.

  17. References on Sustainable Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This web site is developed with the aim to promote sustainable design and planning of buildings. Selected references including books, reports, audio/visual materials and journals are listed. Most of the materials can be found in the HKU Libraries. To facilitate retrieval, links are provided to the library catalogue system for further information and study.

  18. Application of Fuzzy Set Theory and SPOT Satellite Images in Site Selection of Public Libraries (Case Study: Saqqez City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Dashti Nasserabadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Easy availability to public libraries is one of the main keys in successful presentation of public library services with high quality will be valueless for those have not access to them. Availability to services should be configured in such a way that maximizes easiness and facility for potential and de facto users. In present research the required number of public libraries and establishment situation of public libraries in Saqqez city in Kurdistan province in North West of Iran were investigated and evaluated by using fuzzy set theory and SPOT 5 satellite images in 2009. In addition, optimum regions for generation of new public libraries were distinguished in city area in form of recommended map. Results showed that weighting variables classes were determined between 0-1 (profusion proportion. Fuzzification each one of effective factors using IDRISI software terminated and after was assigned type and shape membership function. Final map of suitable regions for construction of new public libraries in saqqez city area indicates that none of the libraries were situated in suitable regions.

  19. Genetic selection and improvement of hard wood tree species for fuelwood production on sodic soil with particular reference to Prosopis juliflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, V.L.; Behl, H.M. [National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India). Dept. of Tree Biology

    2001-07-01

    This study is part of a research programme on selection and improvement of fast growing tree species suitable for wood fuel production on sodic wastelands (pH 8.6-10.5). Field trials of nine legumes (Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Albizia lebbeck, A. procera, Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Pithecellobium dulce) and three other tree species (Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Terminalai arjuna) were selected for this study. Prosopis juliflora was the most promising species in terms of its biomass productivity (68.7 t ha{sup -1}) and fuel value index (148.8) after 8-yr of growth. Acacia nilotica ranked second. Intra-specific variations were screened at provenance and individual tree level in order to improve fuelwood production potential of P. juliflora through selection and breeding. Successful populations (gene pools) and individuals (genotypes) were closed and conserved in clonal gardens to produce quality germplasm for plantations on sodic wastelands. Genetic testing, selection and multiplication of selected material are under progress. This will optimise gains in future afforestation programmes on sodic soils. (Author)

  20. User Preferences in Reference Services: Virtual Reference and Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Joel; Cummings, Lara; Frederiksen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the use of chat in an academic library's user population and where virtual reference services might fit within the spectrum of public services offered by academic libraries. Using questionnaires, this research demonstrates that many within the academic community are open to the idea of chat-based reference or using chat for…

  1. Comparative analysis of public's perception of economic feasibility and reality for selected energy sources in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Seungkook; Jeong, Ik; Lee, Kibog [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongwook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyunjin [Korea Nuclear Energy Agency, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Controversy on nuclear energy has persisted ever since, but nuclear energy has maintained around 30% of electricity generation in Korea. This is because Korean wants to secure energy security and diversity of energy sources, but the most rational driver behind nuclear energy is the economic feasibility. Looking at the actual prices of electricity traded in the Korean Power Exchange, the price of electricity generated by nuclear energy is 39.1 Korean won per kWh, which is lower than that of other sources: 58.9 (bituminous coal), 221.8 (oil), 158.6 (gas), 170.9 (hydropower), 162.8 (wind) and 463.1 (photovoltaic). However only experts, regulators and people from electricity generation industry are aware of this fact and the public does not seem to be perceiving this correctly. This research, therefore, will compare the economic feasibility of energy sources and how it is perceived by the public in general. This research was able to identify the large gap between public's perception on and reality of economic feasibility of energy sources. There are two possible reasons for the gap. Firstly, the electricity price paid by the public is agnostic of energy sources. Therefore, it is difficult for the public to be aware that the electricity from nuclear energy is benefiting them and hence the public would be indifferent to the real economic feasibility. Secondly, public's awareness of nuclear reactor decommissioning and spent fuel processing along with easier access to relevant information the media would have played a role. In fact, number of press and media has questioned the economic feasibility of nuclear energy. However, the price of electricity generated by nuclear energy includes costs for future activities such as decommissioning, radioactive waste disposal and spent fuel disposal. The public seems to be not aware of such fact and therefore favoring the media. Such analysis leads to two major policy implications. Most importantly, the government should

  2. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors: sensitivity of decommissioning radiation exposure and costs to selected parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.

    1983-07-01

    Additional analyses of decommissioning at the reference research and test (R and T) reactors and analyses of five recent reactor decommissionings are made that examine some parameters not covered in the initial study report (NUREG/CR-1756). The parameters examined for decommissioning are: (1) the effect on costs and radiation exposure of plant size and/or type; (2) the effects on costs of increasing disposal charges and of unavailability of waste disposal capacity at licensed waste disposal facilities; and (3) the costs of and the available alternatives for the disposal of nuclear R and T reactor fuel assemblies.

  3. Selected Publications on Teenagers and Alcohol. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information Grouped Interest Guide No. 8-5. Cumulative Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This Grouped Interest Guide is published by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Its purpose is to provide the reader with a regularly published set of bibliographic references for recent, topical literature in designated areas. Topics included in this guide are Youth, Children of Alcoholic Parents, and Social Forces. A wide…

  4. Selection of reference genes for expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris (Hemiptera, Aphidiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Yang

    Full Text Available To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable expressed housekeeping genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes, including actin (Actin, elongation factor 1 α (EF1A, TATA-box-binding protein (TATA, ribosomal protein L12 (RPL12, β-tubulin (Tubulin, NADH dehydrogenase (NADH, vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB, 28S ribosomal RNA (28S, 16S ribosomal RNA (16S, and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, under different developmental stages and temperature conditions, were investigated. A total of four analytical tools, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method, were used to evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls. According to RefFinder, a web-based software tool which integrates all four above-mentioned algorithms to compare and rank the reference genes, SDHB, 16S, and NADH were the three most stable house-keeping genes under different developmental stages and temperatures. This work is intended to establish a standardized qRT-PCR protocol in pea aphid and serves as a starting point for the genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging insect model.

  5. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:

  6. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet

  7. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet

  8. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:

  9. Reference problems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    in science or for that ma t ter, in any other subject. Indeed, the sorry state of science education is only a small part of the much deeper sy s temic rot. A colleague in IIT - Kanpur cynically remarked to me that IIT did not even need to teach... annual budget. (This takes into consideration only 50,000 seriously working scientists out of a total r e search and teaching staff of over 0.4 million in CSIR, ICAR, ICMR, un i ver sities, etc.). Following are some good examples for referring...

  10. Measurement of absolute concentrations of individual compounds in metabolite mixtures by gradient-selective time-zero 1H-13C HSQC with two concentration references and fast maximum likelihood reconstruction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kaifeng; Ellinger, James J; Chylla, Roger A; Markley, John L

    2011-12-15

    Time-zero 2D (13)C HSQC (HSQC(0)) spectroscopy offers advantages over traditional 2D NMR for quantitative analysis of solutions containing a mixture of compounds because the signal intensities are directly proportional to the concentrations of the constituents. The HSQC(0) spectrum is derived from a series of spectra collected with increasing repetition times within the basic HSQC block by extrapolating the repetition time to zero. Here we present an alternative approach to data collection, gradient-selective time-zero (1)H-(13)C HSQC(0) in combination with fast maximum likelihood reconstruction (FMLR) data analysis and the use of two concentration references for absolute concentration determination. Gradient-selective data acquisition results in cleaner spectra, and NMR data can be acquired in both constant-time and non-constant-time mode. Semiautomatic data analysis is supported by the FMLR approach, which is used to deconvolute the spectra and extract peak volumes. The peak volumes obtained from this analysis are converted to absolute concentrations by reference to the peak volumes of two internal reference compounds of known concentration: DSS (4,4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-sulfonic acid) at the low concentration limit (which also serves as chemical shift reference) and MES (2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid) at the high concentration limit. The linear relationship between peak volumes and concentration is better defined with two references than with one, and the measured absolute concentrations of individual compounds in the mixture are more accurate. We compare results from semiautomated gsHSQC(0) with those obtained by the original manual phase-cycled HSQC(0) approach. The new approach is suitable for automatic metabolite profiling by simultaneous quantification of multiple metabolites in a complex mixture.

  11. Occurrence of selected volatile organic compounds and soluble pesticides in Texas public water-supply source waters, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara June; Canova, Michael G.; Gary, Marcus O.

    2002-01-01

    During 1999?2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, collected samples of untreated water from 48 public water-supply reservoirs and 174 public water-supply wells. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and soluble pesticides; in addition, well samples were analyzed for nitrite plus nitrate and tritium. This fact sheet summarizes the findings of the source-water sampling and analyses. Both VOCs and pesticides were detected much more frequently in surface water than in ground water. The only constituent detected at concentrations exceeding the maximum contaminant level for drinking water was nitrate. These results will be used in the Texas Source-Water Assessment Program to evaluate the susceptibility of public water-supply source waters to contamination.

  12. Selection and validation of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in the brain of the Cephalopod Mollusc Octopus vulgaris

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    Biffali Elio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is valuable for studying the molecular events underlying physiological and behavioral phenomena. Normalization of real-time PCR data is critical for a reliable mRNA quantification. Here we identify reference genes to be utilized in RT-qPCR experiments to normalize and monitor the expression of target genes in the brain of the cephalopod mollusc Octopus vulgaris, an invertebrate. Such an approach is novel for this taxon and of advantage in future experiments given the complexity of the behavioral repertoire of this species when compared with its relatively simple neural organization. Results We chose 16S, and 18S rRNA, actB, EEF1A, tubA and ubi as candidate reference genes (housekeeping genes, HKG. The expression of 16S and 18S was highly variable and did not meet the requirements of candidate HKG. The expression of the other genes was almost stable and uniform among samples. We analyzed the expression of HKG into two different set of animals using tissues taken from the central nervous system (brain parts and mantle (here considered as control tissue by BestKeeper, geNorm and NormFinder. We found that HKG expressions differed considerably with respect to brain area and octopus samples in an HKG-specific manner. However, when the mantle is treated as control tissue and the entire central nervous system is considered, NormFinder revealed tubA and ubi as the most suitable HKG pair. These two genes were utilized to evaluate the relative expression of the genes FoxP, creb, dat and TH in O. vulgaris. Conclusion We analyzed the expression profiles of some genes here identified for O. vulgaris by applying RT-qPCR analysis for the first time in cephalopods. We validated candidate reference genes and found the expression of ubi and tubA to be the most appropriate to evaluate the expression of target genes in the brain of different octopuses. Our results also underline the

  13. References in the Australasian Medical Journal

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    Prakash Adhikari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReferences serve as an important tool in providing credibility to the published literature and to assist retrieval of the cited and related information. This study was done to observe the accuracy of references in articles published in Australasian Medical Journal.Method Fifty references were randomly selected from two different issues of Australasian Medical Journal (AMJ: Volume 3, Number 11, 2010 and Volume 3, Number 10, 2010. The instructions for authors of this journal were examined. References from each article were compared with the original for accuracy, using the following six elements: 1 authors; including spelling, initials, order and number; 2 title, including spelling and punctuation; 3 journal name, including use of correct abbreviation as listed in Index Medicus; 4 year; 5 volume; and 6 page numbers, including first and last page numbers. Citations were considered incorrect if there was an error in any of these six elements. References not cited from indexed journals were excluded. Statistical analysis was done by using frequency and percentage.ResultsResults show that 14.0% references in AMJ were inaccurate. Most common errors were author’s name and journal name. Author’s names were found to be incorrect in 10.0% references while journal name (either incorrect abbreviations or incorrect instructions or punctuation errors were found to be incorrect in 4.0%. Least common error was found in writing the title of the article (2.0%. There were no errors found in other elements.ConclusionErrors in citing the references are also found in the AMJ. The quoted error in this study (14.0% is comparable to other international literature. The majority of errors are avoidable. So, the authors, editors and the reviewers have to check for any errors seriously before publication in the journal.

  14. The Potential Impact of Banking Crises on Public Finances: An Assessment of Selected EU Countries Using SYMBOL

    OpenAIRE

    CAMPOLONGO Francesca; MARCHESI Massimo; DE LISA Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the SYMBOL model, recently developed by the European Commission, in assessing the potential impact of banks’ crisis on public finance in four EU Member States. Results show that two Member States have a relatively high probability of being in the situation where government finances have to cover losses generated in the banking system

  15. Public Library Internet Services and the Digital Divide: The Role and Impacts from Selected External Funding Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Charles R.; Ryan, Joe; Bertot, John Carlo

    This study examines the role of external funding in the development of public library network resources and services, their identification, and their benefit and impact, particularly as they affect the digital divide. The study was conducted between February 2001 and January 2002, employing a range of data collection techniques, including site…

  16. Population Education and Socio-Economic Development. Selected Articles and Studies from Periodical Publications. Bibliographies on Population Education No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The annotated bibliography lists 299 materials written in the 1970s about population education, with emphasis on the Asian region. Citations are included for journals, newsletters, and serials publications. The objective is to make available information on which curriculum developers, educators, and practising teachers may draw in developing…

  17. Americans’ Tolerance of Racist Materials in Public Libraries Remained Steady between 1976-2006. A Review of: Burke, S. K. (2010. Social tolerance and racist materials in public libraries. Reference and User Services Quarterly, 49(4, 369-379.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Bussert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine the general public’s levels of social tolerance toward public library materials containing racist content in order to present opinion data to librarians within a framework of scholarly perspectives that they can use for making decisions about intellectual freedom and controversial materials in libraries.Design – Percentage and regression analysis of the General Social Survey longitudinal trend study dataset.Setting – United States, 1976-2006.Subjects – Random samples of 26,798 primarily English-speaking adults aged 18 and up.Methods – The author analyzed responses from the well-respected and frequently used General Social Survey (GSS, which has been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center since 1972. The GSS is a closed-ended survey including a variety of demographic measures. Between the years 1976 and 2006, it also included a question to gauge the support of removing a book with racist beliefs about African Americans from the public library. The surveys were conducted irregularly over this thirty-year span, and in total the question was asked nineteen times garnering 26,798 responses. Spanish speakers were not included until 2006.The author examined the data in multilevel cross-tabulations using percentages, and calculated chi-square for independence using frequencies. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictive value of the independent variables examined on opinions of book removal. The author examined different variables, including education level, race, age, parental status, sex, geographic factors, religious affiliation, political party, and political conservatism. Occupation was not used in the regression analysis because sample sizes in some categories were too small. The two ordinal variables, age and education level, were available as ratio level data that are most appropriate for regression calculations.Due to the large sample size, very small differences in

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in selected vegetables at ma-jor public markets in Metro Manila,Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malison Marilyn T; Sia Su Glenn L

    2009-01-01

    Objective:This study aims to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites infesting the vegetable foodstuffs and determine the parasitological profile of the vegetable foodstuffs examined.Methods:About 200 randomly sampled vegetable foodstuffs obtained from the vendors of the Balintawak and Divisoria public markets were ex-amined for the occurrence of intestinal parasites.Results:A total of 119 (59.5 %)vegetable foodstuffs exam-ined were tested positive.The most common parasite found was the Ascaris lumbricoides.No significant differ-ences between the prevalence of intestinal parasites at the two public markets were found (P >0.05).Con-clusion:The vegetables can be a potential source of parasitic infection.

  19. Pro-social preferences and self-selection into the public health sector: evidence from an economic experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstad, Julie Riise; Lindkvist, Ida

    2013-05-01

    Motivational crowding-out theory establishes that the effectiveness of financial incentive schemes, like pay-for-performance, crucially depends on the underlying social preferences of health workers. In this paper we study the extent to which heterogeneity in the strength and structure of social preferences is related to career choices by testing whether preferences vary systematically between Tanzanian health worker students who prefer to work in the private for-profit health sector and those who prefer to work in the public health sector. Despite its important policy implications, this issue has received little attention to date. By combining data from a questionnaire and an economic experiment, we find that students who prefer to work in the public health sector have stronger pro-social preferences than those who prefer to work in the private for-profit sector.

  20. Accessibility of general practitioners and selected specialist physicians by car and by public transport in a rural region of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stentzel, Ulrike; Piegsa, Jens; Fredrich, Daniel; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; van den Berg, Neeltje

    2016-01-01

    Background The accessibility of medical care facilities in sparsely populated rural regions is relevant especially for elderly people which often represent a large segment of the population in such regions. Elderly people have higher morbidity risks and a higher demand for medical care. Although travelling with private cars is the dominating traffic mode in rural regions, accessibility by public transport is increasingly important especially because of limited mobility of elderly people. The ...