WorldWideScience

Sample records for publications recentes concernant

  1. Public concern for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibb, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Three principles that the U.S. must follow in order to maintain its present way of life are stated: practice of energy conservation; substitution of the more plentiful fuels for the scarce; and development of synthetic fuels and unconventional energy sources. After describing the organizing of the energy agencies and reviewing the history of the nuclear power program in the U.S., the author then discusses the public's concern for nuclear energy which includes radioactive discharges, reactor safety, high-level wastes, and shipment of radioactive materials. He refers to the study by Dr. Norman C. Rasmussen released in 1974, which indicates that the likelihood of a person living in the general vicinity of a reactor being injured in any one year in a reactor accident is one chance in 150 million as compared to his chance of being injured in an automobile accident in that same year as one in 130. On a broader societal viewpoint, if there were 100 reactors operating in the U.S., one individual of the 15 million inhabitants living in the vicinity of these reactors might be killed and two individuals might be injured every 25 years as compared to 1.5 million injuries and 55,000 fatalities in 1974 due to automobile accidents. The author concludes that public acceptance of nuclear power will depend on whether these plants, after a reasonable maturing period, deliver the reliable, economic, and safe power that has been proclaimed

  2. WMPO project issues and public concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieth, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Governor of Nevada was notified in 1983 that the Yucca Mountain site is a potentially acceptable site for a nuclear waste storage site. A series of public hearings held produced nearly 400 comments on issues concerning the site nomination. Areas of primary public concern are the impact of the proposed nuclear site on tourism, transportation, and socioeconomic impact on adjacent communities. Results of recent studies showed no impact of high-level waste transport on tourism in the Las Vegas area and on analysis of data accumulated over the 25 to 30 years that high-level radioactive wastes have been transported on Nevada highways showed that no one has been evacuated from their home as the result of an accident involving radioactive waste. A comparison of the possible effects of construction of a nuclear waste storage facility at the Yucca mountain site with the effects of Nevada Test Site indicate that the impact on communities will be minimal

  3. Recent findings concerning childhood food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursmark, Meredith; Weitzman, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Food insecurity is a relatively new measure of household and child malnutrition. This paper reviews recent studies that have examined aspects of its etiology and adverse child health and development. Smoking by adults in children's homes has recently been found to be highly associated with childhood food insecurity. Much recent research has also examined the relationship between food insecurity and childhood obesity, and thus far, whereas suggestive, results are conflicting. Some studies have found that parenting practices and parental depression are factors that link household food insecurity with childhood obesity. Other health outcomes recently shown to be associated with food insecurity include undernutrition, decreased mental proficiency, increased developmental risk, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and poor health status. Most of the studies of food insecurity to date have come from the USA. There is, however, absolutely no reason to believe that this measure, and the negative child health outcomes associated with it, does not apply to other developed nations. Similarly, it is likely that children and families living in developing countries suffer a greater prevalence and severity of food insecurity and its negative consequences. Childhood food insecurity has numerous significant negative effects on childhood health and development, may be associated with obesity, and occurs much more often in impoverished homes with adult smokers.

  4. Denture plaque--past and recent concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikawa, H; Hamada, T; Yamamoto, T

    1998-05-01

    This paper critically reviews the history of denture plaque and identifies some concerns with the presence of Candida in the mouth. This review covers literature sources related to Candida albicans and its relationship to denture plaque. The articles selected for this review are from referred journals and describe C. albicans and its relationship to oral, gastrointestinal and pleuropulmonary infections. The relationship to caries, root caries and periodontal disease is also covered. Denture plaque containing Candida could cause not only oral candidiasis, like oral thrush or denture-induced stomatitis, but also caries, root caries and periodontitis of abutment teeth. However, there is only limited experimental evidence or information available on the cariogenicity of Candida. The continuous swallowing or aspiration of micro-organisms from denture plaque exposes patients, particularly the immunocompromised host or medicated elderly, to the risks of unexpected infections. The term, 'denture plaque' has been used throughout the review. However, the term 'plaque on denture' should be used because the microbial flora and its pathogenicity of denture plaque resembles those of plaque formed on the tooth surface, so called dental plaque. In addition, the term 'denture related stomatitis' would be preferable to 'denture induced stomatitis', since the inflammation of (palatal) mucosa is not induced by the denture, but by wearing the denture or by plaque on the denture.

  5. Recent developments concerning the fusion; Developpements recents sur la fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquinot, J. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, DRFC, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Andre, M. [CEA/DAM Ile de France, 91 - Bruyeres Le Chatel (France); Aymar, R. [ITER Joint Central Team Garching, Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    2000-09-04

    Organized the 9 march 2000 by the SFEN, this meeting on the european program concerning the fusion, showed the utility of the exploitation and the enhancement of the actual technology (JET, Tore Supra, ASDEX) and the importance of the Europe engagement in the ITER program. The physical stakes for the magnetic fusion have been developed with a presentation of the progresses in the knowledge of the stability limits. A paper on the inertial fusion was based on the LMJ (Laser MegaJoule) project. The two blanket concepts chosen in the scope of the european program on the tritium blankets, have been discussed. These concepts will be validated by irradiation tests in the ITER-FEAT and adapted for a future reactor. (A.L.B.)

  6. Understanding community traits - understanding public concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodarczyk, T.

    2003-01-01

    No two communities are alike. Therefore, one should not expect that public concerns and socio-economic effects of a proposed undertaking would be the same everywhere. Public concerns and the potential for social and economic effects of nuclear waste management facilities in one community will be different from those in another because communities differ in their fundamental sociological and economic traits. Research and experience with various types of nuclear and hazardous waste management facilities, generating stations and other energy developments across Canada and the United States indicate that an analysis of only a few key community traits can yield a more thorough understanding of the ways in which a community might perceive and respond to a project, the kinds of concerns that might dominate the public agenda, and the types of socio-economic effects that will be of primary concern. (author)

  7. Public concerns and alternative nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, L.H.

    1980-02-01

    The basic task undertaken in this study was to assess the relative public acceptability of three general types of nuclear power systems as alternatives to the existing Light Water Reactor (LWR) system. Concerns registered toward nuclear power constituted the basic data for this assessment. The primary measure adopted for determining the significance of concerns was the degree of difficulty posed by the concern to the nuclear power decisional structure in the establishment and maintenance of norms to control risks or to advance intended energy objectives. Alleviations or exacerbations of concern resulting from particular attributes of alternative systems were measured from an LWR baseline

  8. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [de

  9. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1988-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1235 references to publications covering the following subject fields: general environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (HP) [de

  10. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1989-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1160 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Caffeinated alcohol beverages: a public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks is becoming popular, and the number of pre-mixed caffeinated alcohol products on the worldwide market is increasing. There is public health concern and even occasional legal restriction relating to these drinks, due to associations with increased intoxication and harms. The precise nature and degree of the pharmacological relationship between caffeine and alcohol is not yet elucidated, but it is proposed that caffeine attenuates the sedative effects of alcohol intoxication while leaving motor and cognitive impairment unaffected. This creates a potentially precarious scenario for users who may underestimate their level of intoxication and impairment. While legislation in some countries has restricted production or marketing of pre-mixed products, many individuals mix their own energy drink-alcohol 'cocktails'. Wider dissemination of the risks might help balance marketing strategies that over-emphasize putative positive effects.

  12. Recent discoveries concerning the tumor - mesenchymal stem cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazennec, Gwendal; Lam, Paula Y

    2016-12-01

    Tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in coordination with cancer cells in the establishment, growth and dissemination of the tumor. Among cells of the microenvironment, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their ability to evolve into cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have recently generated a major interest in the field. Numerous studies have described the potential pro- or anti-tumorigenic action of MSCs. The goal of this review is to synthesize recent and emerging discoveries concerning the mechanisms by which MSCs can be attracted to tumor sites, how they can generate CAFs and by which way MSCs are able to modulate the growth, response to treatments, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis of tumors. The understanding of the role of MSCs in tumor development has potential and clinical applications in terms of cancer management. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Existing Smog in Lahore, Pakistan: An Alarming Public Health Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Ramsha; Hamid, Khizar

    2018-01-25

    Lahore, the second-largest and most polluted city in Pakistan, has been plagued by a heavy blanket of smog recently. The ever-growing urbanization and industrialization have contributed to the worsening air quality of the city. Smog, being hazardous to health, is leading to a rapid sprout in multiple health-related problems, as well as raising concerns about the long-term deleterious effects on public health. The current situation is expected to worsen due to the lack of an active action plan from the government's side and a failure of concerned authorities to take note of the urgency of the situation. Hence, we aim to highlight this pressing issue in the light of previously published articles, to alert the relevant authorities regarding the detrimental consequences smog can have on public health and urge them to take immediate action to avoid further damage.

  14. Recent public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.O.

    This paper reviews recent public attitudes to nuclear power in Canada and the state of empirical knowledge about these attitudes referring specifically to studies carried out in Ontario. It discusses interest groups as a factor in public attitudes and suggests some lines of investigation for social research. (author)

  15. Otolaryngology Education: Recent Trends in Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Nathan D; Okland, Tyler S; Rodriguez, Kenny; Mann, Scott E

    2017-06-01

    Objectives (1) Evaluate peer-reviewed publications regarding education in otolaryngology since 2000. (2) Analyze publication trends as compared with overall otolaryngology publications. Study Design Bibliometric analysis. Setting Academic medical center. Subjects and Methods A search for articles regarding education in otolaryngology from 2000 to 2015 was performed with MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, yielding 1220 articles; 362 relevant publications were categorized by topic, subspecialty, subject, article type, and funding source. Impact factors for each journal by year were obtained, and trends of each category over time were analyzed. These were then compared with publication numbers and impact factors for all otolaryngology journals. Results From 2000 to 2015, publications in otolaryngology education increased more rapidly than the field of otolaryngology overall. The most published topics included operative skills training, surgical simulation, and professionalism/career development. Recently there has been a decline in publications related to residency administration and duty hours relative to other topics. Only 12.2% of publications reported a funding source, and only 12.2% of studies were controlled. Conclusion Recent trends in otolaryngology literature reflect an increasing focus on education; however, this work is underfunded and often lacks high-quality evidence.

  16. Public health - threats, concerns and key actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Public health is discussed departing from priorities related to the precautionary principle with special reference to air pollution from wood burning in individual stoves and the susceptibility of vulnerable groups, i.a. people with genetic predispositions for a lack of detoxifying capacity....

  17. Recent publications in music 2015: Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kordík, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 4 (2015), s. 30-35 ISSN 0015-6191 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : bibliography * music ology Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.iaml.info/sites/default/files/pdf/2015_recent_publications_in_music.pdf

  18. Recent publications in music 2013: Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kordík, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2014), s. 15-20 ISSN 0015-6191 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : bibliography * music ology Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.iaml.info/sites/default/files/pdf/recent_publications_in_music_2013.pdf

  19. Recent publications in music 2009: Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kordík, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2009), s. 12-14 ISSN 0015-6191 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : bibliography * music ology Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.iaml.info/sites/default/files/pdf/recent_publications_in_music_2009.pdf

  20. Effectively managing public concerns about immunization safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Los beneficios de la vacunación frente a las enfermedades prevenibles de este modo son muy superiores a sus mínimos riesgos. Con el fin de mantener o fortalecer los programas nacionales de vacunación, los trabajadores de todos los niveles de la salud pública deberían recibir formación sobre los temas relacionados con la vacunación y estar preparados para responder a las dudas planteadas por el público. Una respuesta rápida y franca a los temores del público acerca de las vacunas podría garantizar la integridad de los programas de vacunación en todo el continente americano, según el documento "Directrices para enfrentarse a los temores sobre la seguridad de las vacunaciones" (Guidelines for Managing Immunization Safety Concerns, elaborado por la División de Vacunas e Inmunización de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS y resumido aquí. Todo acontecimiento médico que se considere posiblemente relacionado con una vacuna debe ser investigado en el ámbito local. Si su distribución temporal y los síntomas respaldan la sospecha de que pueda estar relacionado con una vacuna, se debe iniciar una investigación más formal y, una vez finalizada, el acontecimiento debe ser clasificado en una de las cuatro categorías siguientes: 1 relacionado con el programa, 2 relacionado con la vacuna, 3 no relacionado, o 4 desconocido (investigación no concluyente. Dependiendo de la categoría a la que haya sido asignado el acontecimiento, las acciones posteriores pueden consistir en tranquilizar a los padres, a los cuidadores y a otros adultos; comunicarse con el público y con otros trabajadores de la salud; instaurar tratamiento; corregir los errores del programa, como pueden ser la manipulación de la vacuna, su almacenamiento, su administration o los problemas relacionados con la jeringuilla; comentar con los fabricantes problemas relacionados con la calidad y eficacia de la vacuna; retirar la vacuna del mercado, o iniciar nuevas

  1. Nipah Virus: A Public Health Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Siddique

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nipah virus, a member of the genus Henipavirus, a new class of virus in the Paramyxoviridae family, has drawn attention as an emerging zoonotic virus in South-East and South Asian region. Case fatality rate of Nipah virus infection ranges from 40–70% although it has been as high as 100% in some outbreaks. Many of the outbreaks were attributed to pigs consuming fruits, partially eaten by fruit bats, and transmission of infection to humans. In Bangladesh, Nipah virus infection was associated with contact with a sick cow, consumption of fresh date palm sap (potentially contaminated with pteropid bat saliva, and person-to-person transmission. In 2014, 18 cases of Nipah virus infection have been reported in Bangladesh, of which 9 cases died. In the most recent epidemic at least 6 people died out of nine cases due to Nipah virus infection in the remote northern Bangladesh in 2015. Human infections range from asymptomatic infection to fatal encephalitis. Some people can also experience atypical pneumonia and severe respiratory problems. The virus is detected by ELISA, PCR, immunofluoroscence assay and isolation by cell culture. Treatment is mostly symptomatic and supportive as the effect of antiviral drugs is not satisfactory, and an effective vaccine is yet to be developed. So the very high case fatality addresses the need for adequate and strict control and preventive measures.

  2. management of epidemic kaposi's sarcoma: a recent concern in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DENTISTRY. By: Dr. Jeff Luande, M.D.. Tanzania Tumor Centre. INTRODUCTION: Kaposi's Sarcoma in its classic endemic form has never been a concern in dental practice. Since early this decade the medical practice has witnessed an ever increasing new form of the same sarcoma in its more aggressive form called the ...

  3. Unhealthy marketing of pharmaceutical products: An international public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinari, Shai

    2016-05-01

    I consider the current state of pharmaceutical marketing vis-à-vis ethical and legal standards and advocate measures to improve it. There is abundant evidence of unethical or illicit marketing. It fuels growing concerns about undue corporate influence over pharmaceutical research, education, and consumption. The most extensive evidence of industry transgressions comes from the United States (US), where whistle-blowers are encouraged by financial rewards to help uncover illicit marketing and fraud. Outside the US increasing evidence of transgressions exists. Recently I have observed a range of new measures to align pharmaceutical marketing practices with ethical and legal standards. In the interest of public health, I highlight the need for additional and more profound reforms to ensure that information about medicines supports quality and resource-efficient care.

  4. E-Cigarettes and Young People: A Public Health Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails E-Cigarettes and Young People: A Public Health Concern Language: ... young adults you know about the dangers of e-cigarette use. E-cigarettes, devices that typically deliver nicotine, ...

  5. Recent developments concerning the discovery of elements 101-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, N.N.

    1997-01-01

    The addition of eleven new elements (Z=101-111) to the Periodic Table during the past 40 years has involved outstanding feats of intellectual and experimental virtuosity. Some of the discoveries have been widely accepted but others have been hotly contested and this has led to distressingly persistent disagreements concerning priority. For this reason IUPAC and IUPAP (Physics) set up a joint Transfermium Working Group (TWG) in 1987 to recommend ''the criteria that must be satisfied for the discovery of a new element to be recognised'' and to apply these criteria to questions of priority in the discovery of the transfermium elements (Z > 100). After several years of detailed work the TWG published their extensive studies and conclusions, and these have been accepted by both IUPAC and IUPAP. Many subtle and difficult points were considered and these will be discussed in this lecture together with the TWG's final recommendations, which have been widely though not universally accepted by the scientific community. The separate question of names and symbols for the new elements with Z > 103 has not yet been finally resolved but will be briefly discussed. (Author)

  6. Dog bite as a public health concern in Addis Ababa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjørn

    Dog bite as a public health concern in Addis Ababa. Fasil Mengistu1, Kedir Hussen1, Abraham Ali1, Goroma Getahun1, Dessalegn Sifer1. Abstract. Introduction: Animal bites and scratches represent the most important public health issue related to dogs and cats because of the risk of rabies transmission associated with ...

  7. Dynamics of the public concern and risk communication program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaryabova, Victoria; Israel, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The public concern about electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure varies due to different reasons. A part of them are connected with the better and higher quality of information that people receive from science, media, Internet, social networks, industry, but others are based on good communication programs performed by the responsible institutions, administration and persons. Especially, in Bulgaria, public concern follows interesting changes, some of them in correlation with the European processes of concern, but others following the economic and political processes in the country. Here, we analyze the dynamics of the public concern over the last 10 years. Our explanation of the decrease of the people's complaints against EMF exposure from base stations for mobile communication is as a result of our risk communication program that is in implementation for >10 years.

  8. A Recent Comparison on Public', Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Yılmaz

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Public libraries have been changing by depend on the social development. This changing can create the new problems for public libraries. To make some evaluations on public libraries is important in bringing light to these problems. To compare the public library system and services in a country with the others can give useful results. In these research, Turkish public library system and services has been compared with the public library system dnd services in England, Netherland and Austria. As a result, it hçıs been understood that Turkish public libraries have some important insufficiencies according to the other countries.

  9. Training Concerns for an Online Public Access Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockman, Ilene F.; Adalian, Paul T., Jr.

    This report is designed to raise issues and concerns which will affect the successful implementation of an education and training program once an online public access catalog (OLPAC) has been installed in the Kennedy Library at California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), San Luis Obispo. Information presented in the document was gathered…

  10. Exposition concerning small windmills. List of relevant publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurvig, D.

    1992-09-01

    In connection with the publication of the report entitled ''Exposition Concerning Small Windmills'', it was decided that searching in databases should also be used in relation to the collection of relevant information, and that the results of these searches should be published in the form of a reading list. This is presented here. The subject areas covered are technology, research and development, marketing, developing countries and agricultural areas - all relevant to small windmills. Risoe Library, Roskilde, Denmark (Telephone no. (45) 42371212) will be helpful in acquiring any publication(s) referenced in the reading list. The report number J.No. 51171/92-0019 should also be quoted. (AB)

  11. PUBLIC FINANCE SUSTAINABILITY IN ROMANIA. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mura Petru-Ovidiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the sustainability of public finance in Romania and to explore the fiscal threats Romania might face in the future. A sound fiscal policy implies avoiding excessive liabilities of the government, but at the same time delivering the proper public goods and services, including the necessary safety net in times of crisis. An unsustainable fiscal position negatively impacts on macroeconomic stability; moreover, if public finances are perceived to be unsustainable in the long run, the reaction of the international financial markets could generate a fiscal crisis, which might surprise the fiscal planners. The main findings of the paper are the following: i according to the multidimensional approach of the European Commission, in the short run, it seems that Romania is free from fiscal stress, there is a low risk in the medium term, and in the long run the risk becomes medium; ii a potential medium-term fiscal sustainability risk derives from the accumulation of losses and arrears in the business and companies sectors in which the state is a majority shareholder; iii Romania records one of the lowest budget revenues to GDP ratios in EU, while the Romanian tax system is characterized by a poor tax collection, inefficient administration and excessive bureaucracy; iv the structure of public spending in Romania is characterized by the predominance of wage spending and social assistance, while the poor state of the public pension system is an important vulnerability of the public finance position; v overall, the degree of tax compliance in Romania was only 55.8% in 2013, and according to the calculations made by the Fiscal Council, tax evasion represented 16.2% of GDP in 2013. All these aspects make up a grim picture of sustainability of public finances, which has to be considered by the public decision makers regarding future fiscal policy actions.

  12. Recent publication productivity of Czech economists

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münich, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, 11-12 (2006), s. 522-533 ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : journal publications * impact factor * research Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2006

  13. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health Concern Over Untreated Sewage Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions,...

  14. Nanotheranostics – a review of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang LS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Li-Sheng Wang, Min-Chieh Chuang, Ja-an Annie HoDepartment of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Theranostics is referred to as a treatment strategy that combines therapeutics with diagnostics, aiming to monitor the response to treatment and increase drug efficacy and safety, which would be a key part of personalized medicine and require considerable advances in predictive medicine. Theranostics associates with both a diagnosis that tests patients for possible reactions to taking new medication and targeted drug delivery based on the test results. Emerging nanotechnology provides a great deal of opportunity to design and develop such combination agents, permitting the delivery of therapeutics and concurrently allowing the detection modality to be used not only before or after but also throughout the entire treatment regimen. The introduction of nanotheranostics into routine health care has still a long way to go, since evaluations on cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and immunotoxicity of prospective nanotheranostics, demonstration of cost-effectiveness, and availability of appropriate accessible testing systems are still required. An extensive review, from a chemistry point of view, of the recent development of nanotheranostics and its in vitro and in vivo applications are herein presented.Keywords: theranostics, therapeutics, diagnostics, nanomaterial

  15. Environmental remediation: Addressing public concerns through effective community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.; Heywood, J.; Wood, M.B.; Arellano, M.; Pfister, S.

    1998-01-01

    The public's perception of risk drives their response to any potential environmental remediation project. Even if the actual environmental and health risks may be relatively low, public perception of high risk may doom the project to an uphill struggle characterized by heated public meetings, negative media coverage, reluctant regulators, project delays and increased costs. The ultimate Catch 22 in such a case is that the contamination remains in-place until the public drama is concluded. This paper explores the development and implementation of a Community Relations Plan for the clean up of a Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site owned and operated by corporate predecessors of Arizona Public Service Company (APS) near the turn of the century. The unique challenges associated with this project were that the former MGP was located in downtown Phoenix at the site of a future federal courthouse. Although the MGP site had been under investigation for some time, the clean-up schedule was driven by a tight courthouse construction schedule. Compounding these challenges were the logistics associated with conducting a large-scale cleanup in a congested, highly visible downtown location. An effective Community Relations Plan can mean the difference between the success and failure of an environmental remediation project. Elements of an effective plan are: identifying key stakeholders and involving them in the project from the beginning; providing timely information and being open and honest about the potential environmental and health risks; involving your company's community relations and media staff; and educating affected company employees. The Community Relations Plan developed for this project was designed to alleviate public concern about potential risks (perceived or real) associated with the project by keeping key stakeholders informed of all activities well in advance

  16. Course 'Radiation and life', assessment of issues of public concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Cruz, Dumenigo; Quevedo Garcia, Jose R.; Betancourt Hernandez, Luisa; Fuente Puch, Andres de la; Perez Reyes, Yolanda; Jerez Vegueria, Pablo F.

    2008-01-01

    The public of the XXI Century is avid for information about the newest technical and scientific advances occurred and on how do they impact in our daily life. All over the world, the channels of mass communication provide all kind of valuable knowledge that could be of interest for the audience. Part of this broadcasted information however, is managed without the required scientific strictness due to its technical complexity or in most the cases, because it is being used for sensational purposes. The Nuclear Energy has been subjected to different manipulations and misinterpretation by the media because the disastrous consequences of its initial utilization for war purposes. For this reason, the International Atomic Energy Agency has recommended to its Member States the development of a coherent policy for public information based on an adequate real balance of the risk and the benefits of the pacific uses of the nuclear energy, with special emphasis in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In this context, the Regulatory Bodies are invited to use all available resources for information distribution to provide the truth that the society requires with transparency and the appropriate technical strictness as well as to develop periodical assessment on how does the population incorporate this information and what changes on the public perception of the nuclear energy have occurred. In line with the policy of the Government of the Republic of Cuba concerning the systematic improvement and strengthening the level of the general culture of our population, a comprehensive course entitled 'Radiation and Life' was designed and prepared by the authors of the present paper, and broadcasted by the Cuban television in the popular programme 'University for all'. The email recipient 'radiacionesyvida at cnsn.cu' was specially implemented to assess the impact of this course in the public opinion. This email address was used as an effective way of interaction between the lectures

  17. Public concern for decommissioning - why it must be addressed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Martin.

    1997-01-01

    To demonstrate its responsible approach, the nuclear industry in the United Kingdom must recognise the benefits of satisfying and gaining the consent of the stakeholder society in the pursuit of its legitimate goals. Public acceptance can be achieved only by establishing and maintaining trust through two-way communication. Stakeholder audiences still perceive that waste management and decommissioning are the industry's ''achilles heel''. The simple message to be delivered is that waste and decommissioning are being managed safely, sensibly and ecnomically. An exemplar of how public consent may be gained is the consultation carried out by Magnox Electric with local stakeholders on the decommissioning strategy for the Trawsfyndd nuclear power plant. The basic strategy was confirmed but details were changed to take account of local concerns. Some valuable lessons learned were: communications should be integrated into the planning process as a strategic issue; openess is a cornerstone of good communication; gaining public trust and respect is fundamental; key stake holders need to be identified carefully. (UK)

  18. Is Balamuthia mandrillaris a public health concern worldwide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cabello-Vílchez, Alfonso Martín; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2013-10-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an opportunistic, free-living amoeba that can cause skin lesions and the typically fatal Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE) both in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. Available data for BAE cases indicate that this disease is difficult to detect because knowledge of predisposing factors is lacking, causing a challenge for diagnosing BAE. The number of reported BAE cases is increasing worldwide, and this is a major concern because little is known about the pathogen, no standardized detection tools are available, and most of the treatments are almost empirical. The recently reported cases, novel diagnostics tools, and successful therapeutic approaches against BAE infections are reviewed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Public concerns and choices regarding nuclear-waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    Survey research on nuclear power issues conducted in the late 1970's has determined that nuclear waste management is now considered to be one of the most important nuclear power issues both by the US public and by key leadership groups. The purpose of this research was to determine the importance placed on specific issues associated with high-level waste disposal. In addition, policy option choices were asked regarding the siting of both low-level and high-level nuclear waste repositories. A purposive sampling strategy was used to select six groups of respondents. Averaged across the six respondent groups, the leakage of liquid wastes from storage tanks was seen as the most important high-level waste issue. There was also general agreement that the issue regarding water entering the final repository and carrying radioactive wastes away was second in importance. Overall, the third most important issue was the corrosion of the metal containers used in the high-level waste repository. There was general agreement among groups that the fourth most important issue was reducing safety to cut costs. The fifth most important issue was radioactive waste transportation accidents. Overall, the issues ranked sixth and seventh were, respectively, workers' safety and earthquakes damaging the repository and releasing radioactivity. The eighth most important issue, overall, was regarding explosions in the repository from too much radioactivity, which is something that is not possible. There was general agreement across all six respondent groups that the two least important issues involved people accidentally digging into the site and the issue that the repository might cost too much and would therefore raise electricity bills. These data indicate that the concerns of nuclear waste technologists and other public groups do not always overlap

  20. Public concerns and behaviours towards solid waste management in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Alessandra; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F

    2010-12-01

    A self-administered questionnaire investigated knowledge, perceptions of the risks to health associated with solid waste management, and practices about waste management in a random sample of 1181 adults in Italy. Perceived risk of developing cancer due to solid waste burning was significantly higher in females, younger, with an educational level lower than university and who believed that improper waste management is linked to cancer. Respondents who had visited a physician at least once in the last year for fear of contracting a disease due to the non-correct waste management had an educational level lower than university, have modified dietary habits for fear of contracting disease due to improper waste management, believe that improper waste management is linked to allergies, perceive a higher risk of contracting infectious disease due to improper waste management and have participated in education/information activities on waste management. Those who more frequently perform with regularity differentiate household waste collection had a university educational level, perceived a higher risk of developing cancer due to solid waste burning, had received information about waste collection and did not need information about waste management. Educational programmes are needed to modify public concern about adverse health effects of domestic waste.

  1. Ferrier Groundwater Remediation Project: A proactive response to public concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Ferrier gas plant in Alberta is owned by Pembina Resources and produces ca 10 m 3 /d of oil, 8,000 l/d of natural gas liquids, and sales gas. In late 1992, contamination from benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene was detected in a residential water well south of the plant. A site investigation found that a drain line from the plant's dehydrator still column to the flare was leaking, and that a well in the process building had free condensate on the water. Within the first three weeks of the initial report of contamination, the source of contamination had been identified, soil gas surveys had been conducted, integrity of pipelines was tested, piezometers were installed, and the first of many public meetings was held to inform residents of progress in tackling the problem. An action plan was developed and alternative water supplies were installed for affected residents. Newsletters were mailed to local residents concerning progress on remediation and plans to control the source and to capture the contamination plume were shared with the community at all times. Recovery wells to capture the plume were drilled and the captured water was treated and returned to the aquifer. Control of the source (the free condensate floating on the water table) was tackled by installing a recovery trench with drain lines. Meetings with the local residents' committee will continue to maintain trust with the community

  2. Predicting the long-term citation impact of recent publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegehuis, Clara; Litvak, Nelli; Waltman, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental problem in citation analysis is the prediction of the long-term citation impact of recent publications. We propose a model to predict a probability distribution for the future number of citations of a publication. Two predictors are used: The impact factor of the journal in which a

  3. Predicting the long-term citation impact of recent publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegehuis, Clara; Litvak, Nelli; Waltman, Ludo

    A fundamental problem in citation analysis is the prediction of the long-term citation impact of recent publications. We propose a model to predict a probability distribution for the future number of citations of a publication. Two predictors are used: the impact factor of the journal in which a

  4. Cancer among circumpolar populations: an emerging public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kue Young

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine and compare the incidence of cancer among the 8 Arctic States and their northern regions, with special focus on 3 cross-national indigenous groups – Inuit, Athabaskan Indians and Sami. Methods: Data were extracted from national and regional statistical agencies and cancer registries, with direct age-standardization of rates to the world standard population. For comparison, the “world average” rates as reported in the GLOBOCAN database were used. Findings: Age-standardized incidence rates by cancer sites were computed for the 8 Arctic States and 20 of their northern regions, averaged over the decade 2000–2009. Cancer of the lung and colon/rectum in both sexes are the commonest in most populations. We combined the Inuit from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Greenland into a “Circumpolar Inuit” group and tracked cancer trends over four 5-year periods from 1989 to 2008. There has been marked increase in lung, colorectal and female breast cancers, while cervical cancer has declined. Compared to the GLOBOCAN world average, Inuit are at extreme high risk for lung and colorectal cancer, and also certain rare cancers such as nasopharyngeal cancer. Athabaskans (from Alaska and Northwest Territories share some similarities with the Inuit but they are at higher risk for prostate and breast cancer relative to the world average. Among the Sami, published data from 3 cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Finland show generally lower risk of cancer than non-Sami. Conclusions: Cancer among certain indigenous people in the Arctic is an increasing public health concern, especially lung and colorectal cancer.

  5. Public health policies to encourage healthy eating habits: recent perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Mary T; Roberto, Christina A

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to address unhealthy dietary patterns at the population level. Poor diet and physical inactivity are key drivers of the obesity pandemic, and they are among the leading causes of preventable death and disability in nearly every country in the world. As countries grapple with the growing obesity prevalence, many innovative policy options to reduce overeating and improve diet quality remain largely unexplored. We describe recent trends in eating habits and consequences for public health, vulnerabilities to unhealthy eating, and the role for public health policies. We reviewed recent public health policies to promote healthier diet patterns, including mandates, restrictions, economic incentives, marketing limits, information provision, and environmental defaults.

  6. Recent concepts concerning cerebral ischaemia in man and their implications in therapeutic evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depresseux, J C

    1987-06-18

    Recent concepts concerning focal cerebral ischaemia in man and resulting from the data obtained with positron emission tomography are reported. The evolutive steps in the ischaemic process are divided into: perfusion reserve; extraction reserve recruitment; ischaemic penumbra; lesional process and post-lesional developments. Circulatory and metabolic patterns corresponding to these evolutive steps are described and illustrated. The potentials of these data as guide-lines in therapeutic trial methodology are discussed.

  7. Recent concepts concerning cerebral ischaemia in man and their implications in therapeutic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depresseux, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent concepts concerning focal cerebral ischaemia in man and resulting from the data obtained with positron emission tomography are reported. The evolutive steps in the ischaemic process are divided into: perfusion reserve; extraction reserve recruitment; ischaemic penumbra; lesional process and post-lesional developments. Circulatory and metabolic patterns corresponding to these evolutive steps are described and illustrated. The potentials of these data as guide-lines in therapeutic trial methodology are discussed [fr

  8. Public attitudes toward health information exchange: perceived benefits and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Linda; Patel, Vaishali; Scheffler, Scott A; Posnack, Steve

    2011-12-01

    To characterize consumers' attitudes regarding the perceived benefits of electronic health information exchange (HIE), potential HIE privacy and security concerns, and to analyze the intersection of these concerns with perceived benefits. A cross-sectional study. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of English-speaking adults was conducted in 2010. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the association between consumer characteristics and concerns related to the security of electronic health records (EHRs) and HIE. A majority of the 1847 respondents reported they were either "very" or "somewhat" concerned about privacy of HIE (70%), security of HIE (75%), or security of EHRs (82%). Concerns were significantly higher (P security, and 60% would permit HIE for treatment purposes even if the physician might not be able to protect their privacy all of the time. Over half (52%) wanted to choose which providers access and share their data. Greater participation by consumers in determining how HIE takes place could engender a higher degree of trust among all demographic groups, regardless of their varying levels of privacy and security concerns. Addressing the specific privacy and security concerns of minorities, individuals 40 to 64 years old, and employed individuals will be critical to ensuring widespread consumer participation in HIE.

  9. How to deal with public concerns and resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kach, V.D.

    1988-01-01

    First hand experience dealing with the public's perception of radiation, their reaction to a proposed installation of a Cobalt-60 industrial irradiator in their neighbourhood, and the tactics employed by nuclear critics have allowed the author to make some observations. Among these observations is the requirement for a public education program, discernment of the appropriate incentive to the community, and sufficient time to accomplish the education/information process and to deal with objections. (author)

  10. Antitrust concerns in the modern public utility environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    Direct regulation of public utility activity and behavior has been the predominant approach to protect the public interest in this country. Changes in technology, as well as new thinking about the optimum role of regulation, have created a changing atmosphere in all of the traditional public utility industries. Competitive markets for many of the products and services in these industries have been developing. While monopoly power will continue to exist in certain parts of these industries and require direct regulation, in many areas a growing reliance upon competition as the best method of serving the public interest is developing. With this shift in emphasis from regulation to free markets, the antitrust laws take on new importance for these industries. In the absence of direct regulator control, those laws are society's primary method of insuring the markets necessary to make competition an effective device for protecting the public interest. This study provides an overview of the antitrust laws, briefly describes the applicable theoretical underpinnings, and then turns to areas where public utility activity may pose special problems or conflicts with prevailing antitrust policy

  11. Antitrust concerns in the modern public utility environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, J.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Coll. of Law

    1996-04-01

    Direct regulation of public utility activity and behavior has been the predominant approach to protect the public interest in this country. Changes in technology, as well as new thinking about the optimum role of regulation, have created a changing atmosphere in all of the traditional public utility industries. Competitive markets for many of the products and services in these industries have been developing. While monopoly power will continue to exist in certain parts of these industries and require direct regulation, in many areas a growing reliance upon competition as the best method of serving the public interest is developing. With this shift in emphasis from regulation to free markets, the antitrust laws take on new importance for these industries. In the absence of direct regulator control, those laws are society`s primary method of insuring the markets necessary to make competition an effective device for protecting the public interest. This study provides an overview of the antitrust laws, briefly describes the applicable theoretical underpinnings, and then turns to areas where public utility activity may pose special problems or conflicts with prevailing antitrust policy.

  12. 75 FR 57826 - Notice of Public Meeting and Opportunity To Submit Written Comments Concerning the Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... soliciting written comments and will hold a public meeting concerning the Administration's review of the U.S... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7175] Notice of Public Meeting and Opportunity To Submit Written Comments Concerning the Administration's Review of the U.S. National Contact Point for the OECD...

  13. [Clarification on publications concerning the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, O

    1996-01-01

    Charles Frédéric Gerhardt (1816-1856) mentioned in his Traité de chimie Organique (1854) a publication, in French (realized in 1852 but published in 1853) entitled "Researches on anhydrous organic acids" in which, was reported the reaction of sodium salicylate with acetyl chloride. He thought that the reaction product was an acid anhydride, but obtained really crude acetylsalicylic acid. Later on, but also in 1853, a publication in german, by the same author related the same experiments. Surprisingly only the second publication has been mentioned in most of the historical studies on the subject. Acetyl salicylic acid was identified and synthesised in 1859 by von Gilm by another method and the product obtained by Gerhardt was identified to it in 1869.

  14. Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-09

    10 Rick Weiss, “Polio-Causing Virus Created in N.Y. Lab: Made-From-Scratch Pathogen Prompts Concerns About Bioethics , Terrorism,” The Washington...Human Services or with the Department of Agriculture , depending on the nature of the select agent. Most universities generally reconcile their dual roles...economic, human, financial, industrial, agricultural , technological, and law enforcement information, as well as the privacy or confidentiality of

  15. Nuclear denotation: a topic for global public health concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-01-01

    In mid of March 2011, a big Tsunami attacked Japan and caused serious destruction. In addition to the destroyed infrastructure, disruption of the nuclear plants occurred and this is the origin of the big problem of nuclear denotation which is of present concern. Nuclear denotation is an actually interesting new problem that affects a large group of world population. This situation is new and requires our attention in a global level. In this article, the author summarizes and discusses this important topic

  16. Publication concerning licensing notices for the Kernkraftwerk Kruemmel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The 3rd supplement to the 2nd partial licence sector concerns the change of concept regarding the scram system by going over from the scram collecting tank system to the individual tank system. The 7th partial licence notice refers to the construction of 1) the control rod drive and the scram system including the related operational controls; 2) the emergency power diesel aggregates; 3) the condensation pipe transverse system (transverse system in the condensation chamber). (orig./HP) [de

  17. Overcoming negative tendencies concerning public attitude to potentially dangerous technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.; Shmelev, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Moscow Scientific industrial Association RADON is an enterprise with potentially dangerous technology. RADON fulfils the collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste from Moscow region. The inhabitants of this region consider it, and that is true, to be essentially dangerous. We understood, that it is necessary to change the situation and give the public the true information about RADON's activity. For this purpose 4 years ago we developed a new Department, the Department or External Relations

  18. Socioeconomic aspects and public opinion concerning radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Valentin

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear energy aspects in Spain are presented. The role of ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A.) a public company, that manages low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Spain is discussed. ENRESA activities such as radioactive wastes transportation and processing, radioactive wastes disposal, decommissioning of an uranium plant, environmental recovery procedures, geological studies, information dissemination of nuclear energy, sponsoring of conferences, courses, etc, are briefly reported

  19. General aspects concerning the nuclear energy and the public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glodeanu, F.; Bilegan, I.; Chirica, T.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear power successfully competes, from technical and economic point of view all the other energy sources, having a much less environmental impact. Its expansion is limited in our days by the acceptance of local communities. Thus, for the success of a nuclear power project, the public information becomes a strategic option of the company management, and the Romanian Energy Authority - RENEL is now implementing the first steps of its programme aiming at this objective. (author). 23 refs

  20. Environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity: potential public health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczylo, Emma L; Jacobs, Miriam N; Gant, Timothy W

    2016-09-01

    Throughout our lives, epigenetic processes shape our development and enable us to adapt to a constantly changing environment. Identifying and understanding environmentally induced epigenetic change(s) that may lead to adverse outcomes is vital for protecting public health. This review, therefore, examines the present understanding of epigenetic mechanisms involved in the mammalian life cycle, evaluates the current evidence for environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in human cohorts and rodent models and highlights the research considerations and implications of this emerging knowledge for public health and regulatory toxicology. Many hundreds of studies have investigated such toxicity, yet relatively few have demonstrated a mechanistic association among specific environmental exposures, epigenetic changes and adverse health outcomes in human epidemiological cohorts and/or rodent models. While this small body of evidence is largely composed of exploratory in vivo high-dose range studies, it does set a precedent for the existence of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity. Consequently, there is worldwide recognition of this phenomenon, and discussion on how to both guide further scientific research towards a greater mechanistic understanding of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in humans, and translate relevant research outcomes into appropriate regulatory policies for effective public health protection.

  1. Recent Developments Concerning Pellet Combustion Technologies - A Review of Austrian Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obernberger, I.; Thek, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of recent developments concerning pellet combustion technologies in Austria. It covers basic information about the Austrian pellet market and market developments in recent years as well as about national framework conditions in Austria with regard to standards for Pellets, pellet furnaces and emission limits. A detailed overview is given of the state-of-the-art of Austrian pellet boiler technology, which is - from a technological point of view - probably the best developed market world-wide. Innovations, which have recently been developed and introduced into the market, are described. The most important innovations are new furnace developments based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations, flue gas condensation systems for small-scale pellet boilers and multi-fuel concepts, where e.g. firewood and Pellets can be utilised in one boiler. Moreover, emissions from pellet furnaces are discussed and evaluated based on test stand and field measurements. In this respect, a focus is put on fine particulate emissions from pellet boilers. Finally, future developments based on ongoing research projects are described and discussed. The ongoing R and D activities focus on the further reduction of fine particulate emissions by primary and secondary measures, the utilisation of herbaceous biomass fuels and small or micro-scale CHP systems

  2. Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris

    2007-07-01

    The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. Overall the research presents a complex picture of attitude to and constructions of human cloning. In all of the analyses, therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear, and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be associated with underlying values associated with scientific progress rather than with age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion, but the main themes were 'interfering with nature' and the 'status of the embryo', with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource, or that the media reflect

  3. Recent progress concerning the production of controlled highly oriented electrospun nanofibrous arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, L. R.; Hristian, L.; Leon, A. L.; Popa, A.

    2016-08-01

    Among the foreground domains of all the research-development programs at national and international level, a special place is occupied by that concerning the nanosciences, nanotechnologies, new materials and technologies. Electrospinning found a well-deserved place in this space, offering the preparation of nanomaterials with distinctive properties and applications in medicine, environment, photonic sensors, filters, etc. These multiple applications are generated by the fact that the electrospinning technology makes available the production of nanofibers with controllable characteristics (length, porosity, density, and mechanical characteristics), complexity and architecture. The apparition of 3D printing technology favors the production of complex nanofibrous structures, controlled assembly, self-assembly of electrospun nanofibers for the production of scaffolds used in various medical applications. The architecture of fibrous deposits has a special influence on the subsequent development of the cells of the reconstructed organism. The present work proposes to study of recent progress concerning the production of controlled highly oriented electrospun nanofibrous arrays and progress in research on the production of complex 2D and 3D structures.

  4. Current status of Plasmodium knowlesi vectors: a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vythilingam, I; Wong, M L; Wan-Yussof, W S

    2018-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi a simian malaria parasite is currently affecting humans in Southeast Asia. Malaysia has reported the most number of cases and P. knowlesi is the predominant species occurring in humans. The vectors of P. knowlesi belong to the Leucosphyrus group of Anopheles mosquitoes. These are generally described as forest-dwelling mosquitoes. With deforestation and changes in land-use, some species have become predominant in farms and villages. However, knowledge on the distribution of these vectors in the country is sparse. From a public health point of view it is important to know the vectors, so that risk factors towards knowlesi malaria can be identified and control measures instituted where possible. Here, we review what is known about the knowlesi malaria vectors and ascertain the gaps in knowledge, so that future studies could concentrate on this paucity of data in-order to address this zoonotic problem.

  5. Road safety in India: A Public Health Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha S Parsekar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic accident (RTA is one of the major preventable public health problems and is on the rise which can be attributed to increase in the number of vehicles and lifestyle changes and risky attitudes. This paper is intended to search for available published information which in turn might help the policy makers as well as practitioners to make use of it. Methods: The information has been gathered from papers related to RTAs from various databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, government websites to get an overview in India for the last 15 years. Result and Conclusion: The burden of RTA was found to be considerably high globally as well as in India. RTA causes a number of effects which can be: economical, physical, psychological and social. The burden of RTA is on the rise which makes it necessary to take a multi-sectoral approach in its prevention and control

  6. An analysis of the public discourse about urban sprawl in the United States: Monitoring concern about a major threat to forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Robert S. Potts; David P. Fan; Edward G. Goetz

    2005-01-01

    Urban sprawl has been identified as a serious threat to forests and other natural areas in the United States, and public concern about the impacts of sprawling development patterns has grown in recent years. The prominence of public concern about sprawl is germane to planners, managers, and policymakers involved in efforts to protect interface forests from urban...

  7. Recent evidence concerning higher NO x emissions from passenger cars and light duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Beevers, Sean D.; Tate, James E.; Westmoreland, Emily J.; Williams, Martin L.

    2011-12-01

    Ambient trends in nitrogen oxides (NO x) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) for many air pollution monitoring sites in European cities have stabilised in recent years. The lack of a decrease in the concentration of NO x and in particular NO 2 is of concern given European air quality standards are set in law. The lack of decrease in the concentration of NO x and NO 2 is also in clear disagreement with emission inventory estimates and projections. This work undertakes a comprehensive analysis of recent vehicle emissions remote sensing data from seven urban locations across the UK. The large sample size of 84,269 vehicles was carefully cross-referenced to a detailed and comprehensive database of vehicle information. We find that there are significant discrepancies between current UK/European estimates of NO x emissions and those derived from the remote sensing data for several important classes of vehicle. In the case of light duty diesel vehicles it is found that NO x emissions have changed little over 20 years or so over a period when the proportion of directly emitted NO 2 has increased substantially. For diesel cars it is found that absolute emissions of NO x are higher across all legislative classes than suggested by UK and other European emission inventories. Moreover, the analysis shows that more recent technology diesel cars (Euro 3-5) have clear increasing NO x emissions as a function of Vehicle Specific Power, which is absent for older technology vehicles. Under higher engine loads, these newer model diesel cars have a NO x/CO 2 ratio twice that of older model cars, which may be related to the increased use of turbo-charging. Current emissions of NO x from early technology catalyst-equipped petrol cars (Euro 1/2) were also found to be higher than emission inventory estimates - and comparable with NO x emissions from diesel cars. For heavy duty vehicles, it is found that NO x emissions were relatively stable until the introduction of Euro IV technology when

  8. 76 FR 18165 - Request for Public Comments Concerning Regulatory Cooperation Activities That Would Help...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Request for Public Comments Concerning Regulatory Cooperation Activities That Would Help Eliminate or Reduce Unnecessary Regulatory Divergences in... ``Help'' tab.) All comments and recommendations submitted in response to this notice will be made...

  9. Public concerns about transboundary haze: a comparison of Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Forsyth

    2014-01-01

    Public concerns about environmental problems create narrative structures that influence policy by allocating roles of blame, responsibility, and appropriate behavior. This paper presents an analysis of public concerns about transboundary haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia for crises experienced in 1997, 2005 and 2013. The source of the information is content analysis of 2231 articles from representative newspapers in each country. The study shows that newsp...

  10. Public concern for air quality: explaining change in Toronto, Canada, 1967-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworkin, J M [Univ of Arizona, Tucson; Pijawka, K D

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an empirical study of the change in perception of air quality in Toronto, Canada from 1968-1978. The data show a shift in public concern with and awareness of air quality. Despite the fact that the 1978 population regarded air quality as degraded, air pollution declined as a public concern, requiring a less serious response by government than other societal problems. The results of the study were reviewed in the context of existing perception studies. In explaining change, the study found: (1) perception of ambient air quality was not related to air pollution levels; (2) air pollution declines as a public concern as other socioeconomic problems surface; and (3) the mass media has an important role in affecting public attitudes and behavior over environmental quality issues.

  11. Academic dental public health diplomates: their distribution and recommendations concerning the predoctoral dental public health faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaste, L M; Sadler, Z E; Hayes, K L; Narendran, S; Niessen, L C; Weintraub, J A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the representation of academically based diplomates of the American Board of Dental Public Health (ABDPH) and to identify their perceptions on the training of dental public health predoctoral faculty. Data were collected by a mailed, self-administered, 13-item questionnaire. The population was the 48 diplomates of the ABDPH as of March 1997 associated with academic institutions. Twenty of the 55 US dental schools had a diplomate of the ABDPH with a mean of 1.8 diplomates per school with a diplomate. An average of 4.5 full-time faculty members per school were associated with teaching dental public health. A master's degree in public health (MPH) was the most frequently suggested educational requirement for dental public health faculty. Continuing education courses were training needs perceived for dental public health faculty. The lack of time, money, and incentives, along with perceived rigidity of requirements for board certification, were reported as major barriers for faculty becoming dental public health board certified. Numerous challenges confront the development of a strong dental public health presence in US dental schools. These challenges include, among others, insufficient numbers of academic dental public health specialists and insufficient motivations to encourage promising candidates to pursue specialty status.

  12. Physician privacy concerns when disclosing patient data for public health purposes during a pandemic influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Emam, Khaled; Mercer, Jay; Moreau, Katherine; Grava-Gubins, Inese; Buckeridge, David; Jonker, Elizabeth

    2011-06-09

    Privacy concerns by providers have been a barrier to disclosing patient information for public health purposes. This is the case even for mandated notifiable disease reporting. In the context of a pandemic it has been argued that the public good should supersede an individual's right to privacy. The precise nature of these provider privacy concerns, and whether they are diluted in the context of a pandemic are not known. Our objective was to understand the privacy barriers which could potentially influence family physicians' reporting of patient-level surveillance data to public health agencies during the Fall 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza outbreak. Thirty seven family doctors participated in a series of five focus groups between October 29-31 2009. They also completed a survey about the data they were willing to disclose to public health units. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the amount of patient detail the participants were willing to disclose, factors that would facilitate data disclosure, and the consensus on those factors. The analysis of the qualitative data was based on grounded theory. The family doctors were reluctant to disclose patient data to public health units. This was due to concerns about the extent to which public health agencies are dependable to protect health information (trusting beliefs), and the possibility of loss due to disclosing health information (risk beliefs). We identified six specific actions that public health units can take which would affect these beliefs, and potentially increase the willingness to disclose patient information for public health purposes. The uncertainty surrounding a pandemic of a new strain of influenza has not changed the privacy concerns of physicians about disclosing patient data. It is important to address these concerns to ensure reliable reporting during future outbreaks.

  13. Changing public space. The recent redevelopment of Dutch city squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melik, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Public spaces in Dutch city centres are increasingly subject to facelifts. The car parking that dominated city squares until the 1980s has been removed and replaced by modern street furniture, city stages, and an abundance of sidewalk caf鳮 At the same time, public spaces are more controlled by

  14. Human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats: a continuing public health concern in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, E R; Lind, L R; Long, J M; Moll, M E; Rankin, J T; Martin, K F; Deasy, M P; Dato, V M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    Rabid free-ranging cats have been a public health concern in Pennsylvania since raccoon variant rabies first was recognized in the state in the early 1980s. Over the last decade, between 1.5 and 2.5% of cats submitted to Pennsylvania's state laboratories for rabies testing have been positive. In this report, we describe the extent of rabies in free-ranging cats in Pennsylvania. We also present two examples of human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats that occurred in Pennsylvania during 2010-2011 and the public health actions taken to address rabies exposure in the humans and animals. We then describe the concerns surrounding the unvaccinated and free-ranging cat population in Pennsylvania and possible options in managing this public and animal health problem. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. A restatement of recent advances in the natural science evidence base concerning neonicotinoid insecticides and insect pollinators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godfray, H.C.J.; Blacquière, Tjeerd; Field, L.M.; Hails, R.S.; Potts, S.G.; Raine, N.E.; Vanbergen, A.J.; McLean, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Asummary is provided of recent advances in the natural science evidence base concerning the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators in a format (a ‘restatement’) intended to be accessible to informed but not expert policymakers and stakeholders. Important new studies have been

  16. A typology of health marketing research methods--combining public relations methods with organizational concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Wan, Thomas T H; Liberman, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Research plays a critical role throughout virtually every conduit of the health services industry. The key terms of research, public relations, and organizational interests are discussed. Combining public relations as a strategic methodology with the organizational concern as a factor, a typology of four different research methods emerges. These four health marketing research methods are: investigative, strategic, informative, and verification. The implications of these distinct and contrasting research methods are examined.

  17. Salaries of New Superintendents: A Public Relations Concern for Many Public School Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Salaries for new superintendents form a highly visible factor that has direct implications for school-community public relations. To provide a means for guiding school board members and to provide a format for justifying salaries, a model is presented that serves both purposes. Within this model, attention is afforded to specifying a relevant…

  18. Staff-less libraries - recent Danish public library experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav

    2012-01-01

    The article reports on Danish experiences with staff-less public libraries in terms of local community characteristics, their use- visits and loans, characcteristics of their users in terms of sex, age and, finally, an analysis of critical success factors revealed......The article reports on Danish experiences with staff-less public libraries in terms of local community characteristics, their use- visits and loans, characcteristics of their users in terms of sex, age and, finally, an analysis of critical success factors revealed...

  19. The global spread of Zika virus: is public and media concern justified in regions currently unaffected?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narayan Gyawali; Richard S.Bradbury; Andrew W.Taylor-Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Background:Zika virus,an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus,is fast becoming a worldwide public health concern following its suspected association with over 4000 recent cases of microcephaly among newborn infants in Brazil.Discussion:Prior to its emergence in Latin America in 2015-2016,Zika was known to exist at a relatively low prevalence in parts of Africa,Asia and the Pacific islands.An extension of its apparent global dispersion may be enabled by climate conditions suitable to support the population growth ofA.aegypti and A.albopictus mosquitoes over an expanding geographical range.In addition,increased globalisation continues to pose a risk for the spread of infection.Further,suspicions of alternative modes of virus transmission (sexual and vertical),if proven,provide a platform for outbreaks in mosquito non-endemic regions as well.Since a vaccine or anti-viral therapy is not yet available,current means of disease prevention involve protection from mosquito bites,excluding pregnant females from travelling to Zika-endemic territories,and practicing safe sex in those countries.Importantly,in countries where Zika is reported as endemic,caution is advised in planning to conceive a baby until such time as the apparent association between infection with the virus and microcephaly is either confirmed or refuted.The question arises as to what advice is appropriate to give in more economically developed countries distant to the current epidemic and in which Zika has not yet been reported.Summary:Despite understandable concern among the general public that has been fuelled by the media,in regions where Zika is not present,such as North America,Europe and Australia,at this time any outbreak (initiated by an infected traveler returning from an endemic area) would very probably be contained locally.Since Aedes spp.has very limited spatial dispersal,overlapping high population densities of mosquitoes and humans would be needed to sustain a focus of infection.However,as A

  20. The global spread of Zika virus: is public and media concern justified in regions currently unaffected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Narayan; Bradbury, Richard S; Taylor-Robinson, Andrew W

    2016-04-19

    Zika virus, an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus, is fast becoming a worldwide public health concern following its suspected association with over 4000 recent cases of microcephaly among newborn infants in Brazil. Prior to its emergence in Latin America in 2015-2016, Zika was known to exist at a relatively low prevalence in parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific islands. An extension of its apparent global dispersion may be enabled by climate conditions suitable to support the population growth of A. aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes over an expanding geographical range. In addition, increased globalisation continues to pose a risk for the spread of infection. Further, suspicions of alternative modes of virus transmission (sexual and vertical), if proven, provide a platform for outbreaks in mosquito non-endemic regions as well. Since a vaccine or anti-viral therapy is not yet available, current means of disease prevention involve protection from mosquito bites, excluding pregnant females from travelling to Zika-endemic territories, and practicing safe sex in those countries. Importantly, in countries where Zika is reported as endemic, caution is advised in planning to conceive a baby until such time as the apparent association between infection with the virus and microcephaly is either confirmed or refuted. The question arises as to what advice is appropriate to give in more economically developed countries distant to the current epidemic and in which Zika has not yet been reported. Despite understandable concern among the general public that has been fuelled by the media, in regions where Zika is not present, such as North America, Europe and Australia, at this time any outbreak (initiated by an infected traveler returning from an endemic area) would very probably be contained locally. Since Aedes spp. has very limited spatial dispersal, overlapping high population densities of mosquitoes and humans would be needed to sustain a focus of infection. However, as A

  1. Public Concern with Farm-Animal Welfare: Religion, Politics, and Human Disadvantage in the Food Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Danielle R.; Lobao, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The welfare of farm animals has become a continuing source of controversy as states seek greater regulation over the livestock industry. However, empirical studies addressing the determinants of public concern for farm-animal welfare are limited. Religion and politics, two institutional bases of attitudes, are rarely explored. Nor have…

  2. The African diaspora’s public participation in policy-making concerning Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norglo, Benhardt Edem Kofi; Goris, Margriet; Lie, Rico; Ong’ayo, Antony Otieno

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the involvement of African diaspora organizations in Dutch and European policy-making concerning Africa. It addresses the extent to which their inclusion or exclusion in public policy processes in their destination countries is likely to impact (development) policies relating to

  3. 76 FR 41178 - Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public Comment; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed policy statement; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: EPA issued a proposed policy statement in the Federal Register of June...

  4. Recent results concerning radiation-induced cancer in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    The most recent data of the prospective study among Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors support the following conclusions: (a) the dose-response relationship is consistent with a straight line through the origin, including the lowest dose group (approx. 3 rad); (b) sensitivity to cancer induction varies considerably by irradiated tissues. (c) most cancers show a radiation effect still increasing 40 years after exposure; (d) a small leukemia excess among those irradiated is still present in Hiroshima; (e) the thyroid cancer excess is declining at present; (g) smoking adds to lung cancer incidence; (g) certain benign tumors show a radiation-related effect; (h) children under 10 years old at time of bombing are presently showing the highest relative cancer risk compared to other survivors at equal attained age. If this effect persists, age-specific cancer risk coefficients are necessary [fr

  5. The Bible in discussion: Three recent South African publications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I shall first discuss the three publications and then try to determine their diffe rences, in order ... Van Wyk's rejection of reformed orthodoxy's. 930. HTS fr/4 .... adhere to certain rules for sound exegesis (Van Wyk 1990:51-54); and be alert to the ...

  6. Recent researches concerning the obtaining of functional textiles based on conductive yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A. L.; Manea, L. R.; Hristian, L.

    2016-08-01

    Modem textile industry is influenced both by consumers' lifestyle and by novel materials. Functional textiles can be included into the group of technical textiles. The functional activity can be shortly interpreted as "sense - react - adapt" to the environment while traditional materials meet only passive protective role, a barrier between body and environment. Functional materials cross the conventional limits because they are designed for specific performances, being part of domains as: telemedicine, medicine, aeronautics, biotechnology, nanotechnology, protective clothes, sportswear, etc. This paper highlights the most recent developments in the field of using conductive yarns for obtaining functional textiles. Conductive fabrics can be done by incorporating into the textile structure the conductive fibers / yarns. The technologies differ from embroidering, sewing, weaving, knitting to braiding and obtaining nonwovens. The conductive fabrics production has a quickly growth because it is a high demand for these textiles used for data transfer in clothing, monitoring vital signs, germ-free garments, brain-computer interface, etc. Nowadays it is of high interest surface treatments of fibers/yarns which can be considered as a novel kind of textile finishing. There are presented some researches related to obtaining conductive yarns by coating PET and PP yarns with PANi conductive polymer.

  7. Clothing Flammability and Burn Injuries: Public Opinion Concerning an Overlooked, Preventable Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Spivak, Steven M; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C; Salomon, Michele; Damant, Gordon H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe knowledge of clothing flammability risk, public support for clothing flammability warning labels, and stronger regulation to reduce the risk. As part of a national survey of homeowners about residential sprinkler systems, the authors included questions about clothing flammability. The authors used an online web panel to sample homeowners and descriptive methods to analyze the resulting data. The sample included 2333 homeowners. Knowledge of clothing flammability and government oversight of clothing flammability risk was low. Homeowners were evenly split about the effectiveness of current standards; however, when presented with clothing-related burn injury and death data, a majority (53%) supported stricter standards. Most homeowners (64%) supported warning labels and indicated that such labels would either have no effect on their purchasing decisions (64%) or be an incentive (24%) to purchase an item. Owners of sprinkler-equipped homes were more likely to support these interventions than owners of homes without sprinkler systems. Public knowledge about clothing flammability risks is low. Most homeowners supported clothing labels to inform consumers of this risk and increased government intervention to reduce the risk.

  8. Integrating social justice concerns into economic evaluation for healthcare and public health: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhanin, Vadim; Searle, Alexandra; Zwerling, Alice; Dowdy, David W; Taylor, Holly A; Merritt, Maria W

    2018-02-01

    Social justice is the moral imperative to avoid and remediate unfair distributions of societal disadvantage. In priority setting in healthcare and public health, social justice reaches beyond fairness in the distribution of health outcomes and economic impacts to encompass fairness in the distribution of policy impacts upon other dimensions of well-being. There is an emerging awareness of the need for economic evaluation to integrate all such concerns. We performed a systematic review (1) to describe methodological solutions suitable for integrating social justice concerns into economic evaluation, and (2) to describe the challenges that those solutions face. To be included, publications must have captured fairness considerations that (a) involve cross-dimensional subjective personal life experience and (b) can be manifested at the level of subpopulations. We identified relevant publications using an electronic search in EMBASE, PubMed, EconLit, PsycInfo, Philosopher's Index, and Scopus, including publications available in English in the past 20 years. Two reviewers independently appraised candidate publications, extracted data, and synthesized findings in narrative form. Out of 2388 publications reviewed, 26 were included. Solutions sought either to incorporate relevant fairness considerations directly into economic evaluation or to report them alongside cost-effectiveness measures. The majority of reviewed solutions, if adapted to integrate social justice concerns, would require their explicit quantification. Four broad challenges related to the implementation of these solutions were identified: clarifying the normative basis; measuring and determining the relative importance of criteria representing that basis; combining the criteria; and evaluating trade-offs. All included solutions must grapple with an inherent tension: they must either face the normative and operational challenges of quantifying social justice concerns or accede to offering incomplete policy

  9. Recent Findings Concerning PAMAM Dendrimer Conjugates with Cyclodextrins as Carriers of DNA and RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Motoyama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated the potential use of various polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer [dendrimer, generation (G 2-4] conjugates with cyclodextrins (CyDs as novel DNA and RNA carriers. Among the various dendrimer conjugates with CyDs, the dendrimer (G3 conjugate with α-CyD having an average degree of substitution (DS of 2.4 [α-CDE (G3, DS2] displayed remarkable properties as DNA, shRNA and siRNA delivery carriers through the sensor function of α-CDEs toward nucleic acid drugs, cell surface and endosomal membranes. In an attempt to develop cell-specific gene transfer carriers, we prepared sugar-appended α-CDEs. Of the various sugar-appended α-CDEs prepared, galactose- or mannose-appended α-CDEs provided superior gene transfer activity to α-CDE in various cells, but not cell-specific gene delivery ability. However, lactose-appended α-CDE [Lac-α-CDE (G2] was found to possess asialoglycoprotein receptor (AgpR-mediated hepatocyte-selective gene transfer activity, both in vitro and in vivo. Most recently, we prepared folate-poly(ethylene glycol-appended α-CDE [Fol-PαC (G3] and revealed that Fol-PαC (G3 imparted folate receptor (FR-mediated cancer cell-selective gene transfer activity. Consequently, α-CDEs bearing integrated, multifunctional molecules may possess the potential to be novel carriers for DNA, shRNA and siRNA.

  10. The use of a patient-reported outcome questionnaire to assess cancer survivorship concerns and psychosocial outcomes among recent survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steven C; Stricker, Carrie T; DeMichele, Angela M; Schapira, Marilyn; Glanz, Karen; Griggs, Jennifer J; Jacobs, Linda A

    2017-08-01

    Survivor distress is well represented in the literature, but less is known about survivors' concerns and how these relate to adaptation. Using a newly designed Survivorship Concern Scale, we examined concerns and their relationship to psychosocial adaptation among recent breast cancer (BC) survivors. One hundred forty-three stage 0-III BC survivors completed an online assessment including the Survivorship Concern Scale (0-3 scale; alpha = 0.91), unmet needs, quality of life (QoL), and anxiety and depressive symptoms within 1 year of end of treatment. Participants were predominately white (76%), middle-aged (51 years), married (70%), and college educated (79%). Eighty-two percent were stage I or II at diagnosis. Mean degree of survivorship concern was moderate (M = 1.75, SD = 0.70) though variable (range = 0.12-3.00). Survivorship concerns were not significantly related to disease, treatment, or demographic variables except income (p = 0.02). Degree of survivorship concern was significantly associated with all indices of psychosocial adaptation: unmet need (r = 0.50), physical and mental QoL (r = -0.32 and r = -0.32, respectively), depressive symptoms (r = 0.21), and anxiety symptoms (r = 0.51; all p psychosocial adaptation. Adequately addressing concerns may be a way to improve psychosocial outcomes early in the survivorship trajectory.

  11. The Bible in discussion: Three recent South African publications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three recent South African books on Scripture from various theological trad itio n s and social circles (one Reformed, one Dutch Reformed and one Methodist, two by white authors and one by a black author) are discussed in order to evaluate their arguments and ascertain their points of difference, with a view to enhancing ...

  12. Review of recent publications on bone implant interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseke, C.

    2001-01-01

    Review of recent development in bone implant manufacturing and properties have been reported. The desirable implant mechanical, chemical, biological and surface properties have been discussed. Implant materials as well as their surface treatment and coating for achievement of best therapeutic results have been also presented

  13. A restatement of recent advances in the natural science evidence base concerning neonicotinoid insecticides and insect pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfray, H Charles J; Blacquière, Tjeerd; Field, Linda M; Hails, Rosemary S; Potts, Simon G; Raine, Nigel E; Vanbergen, Adam J; McLean, Angela R

    2015-11-07

    A summary is provided of recent advances in the natural science evidence base concerning the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators in a format (a 'restatement') intended to be accessible to informed but not expert policymakers and stakeholders. Important new studies have been published since our recent review of this field (Godfray et al. 2014 Proc. R. Soc. B 281, 20140558. (doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.0558)) and the subject continues to be an area of very active research and high policy relevance. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. A restatement of recent advances in the natural science evidence base concerning neonicotinoid insecticides and insect pollinators

    OpenAIRE

    Godfray, H.C.J.; Blacquière, Tjeerd; Field, L.M.; Hails, R.S.; Potts, S.G.; Raine, N.E.; Vanbergen, A.J.; McLean, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Asummary is provided of recent advances in the natural science evidence base concerning the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators in a format (a ‘restatement’) intended to be accessible to informed but not expert policymakers and stakeholders. Important new studies have been published since our recent review of this field (Godfray et al. 2014 Proc. R. Soc. B 281, 20140558. (doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.0558)) and the subject continues to be an area of very active research and h...

  15. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D.; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L.; Boone, J. Scott; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Mash, Heath

    2017-01-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010–2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  16. 41 CFR 102-75.1015 - Are there any restrictions on Federal agencies concerning property donations to public bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... restrictions on Federal agencies concerning property donations to public bodies? 102-75.1015 Section 102-75... Donation to Public Bodies Restrictions § 102-75.1015 Are there any restrictions on Federal agencies concerning property donations to public bodies? Yes, Federal agencies must obtain prior concurrence of GSA...

  17. Avian Colibacillosis and Salmonellosis: A Closer Look at Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Control and Public Health Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Lutful Kabir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis are considered to be the major bacterial diseases in the poultry industry world-wide. Colibacillosis and salmonellosis are the most common avian diseases that are communicable to humans. This article provides the vital information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health concerns of avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis. A better understanding of the information addressed in this review article will assist the poultry researchers and the poultry industry in continuing to make progress in reducing and eliminating avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis from the poultry flocks, thereby reducing potential hazards to the public health posed by these bacterial diseases.

  18. 76 FR 50286 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...., subsidies, standards and technical regulations, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, government procurement... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for comments and notice of public hearing concerning China's compliance with its WTO...

  19. Publication concerning the scope of the agreement concerning privileges and exemptions of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The agreement of July 1, 1959, concerning the privileges and exemptions of the IAEA have come into force in Maroc on March 30, 1977, and in the Mongolian People's Republic on January 12, 1976, with some reservations. (HSCH) [de

  20. Public Interest Environmental Litigation: Recent Cases Raise Possible Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kidd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the broadening of locus standi in environmental cases by both Section 38 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, and Section 32 of the National Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998, two recent cases suggest that the preconstitutional approach to locus standi still holds sway in our Courts. Moreover, failure to recognise the environmental right in Section 24 of the Constitution may be an impediment to applicants' ability to bring an interdict application successfully. Correct use of the relevant constitutional provisions ought to obviate such problems, but alternatives are suggested. In the course of the article, it is suggested that the rule in Patz v Greene is no longer relevant and should be consigned to the history books.

  1. Recent publications in medical microbiology and immunology: a retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, H W; Cinatl, J

    2012-02-01

    A look back is done to some clinical and basic research activities recently published in medical microbiology and immunology. The review covers clinical experiences and in vitro experiments to understand the emergency, pathogenicity, epidemic spread, and vaccine-based prevention of avian and swine-origin flu. Some new developments and concepts in diagnosis, (molecular) epidemiology, and therapy of AIDS, viral hepatitis C, and herpesvirus-associated diseases are outlined. Regulation of immune system has been discussed in a special issue 2010 including some aspects of CNS affections (measles). Mycobacterial infection and its prevention by modern recombinant vaccines have reached new interest, as well as new concepts of vaccination and prophylaxis against several other bacteria. Adaptation to host niches enables immune escape (example brucella) and determines virulence (example N. meningitidis). Chlamydia pneumoniae, previously considered to trigger atherosclerosis, is hypothetically associated to Alzheimer disease, while CMV, another putative trigger of atherosclerosis, gains evidence of oncomodulation in CNS tumor diseases. In terms of globalization, exotic virus infections are increasingly imported from southern countries.

  2. Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cancer surveillance and information: balancing public health with privacy and confidentiality concerns (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deapen, Dennis

    2006-06-01

    Rapid advances in informatics and communication technologies are greatly expanding the capacity for information capture and transportation. While these tools can be used for great good, they also offer new opportunities for those who seek to obtain and use information for improper purposes. While issues related to identity theft for financial gain garner the most attention, protection of privacy in public health endeavors such as cancer surveillance is also a significant concern. Some efforts to protect health-related information have had unintended consequences detrimental to health research and public health practice. Achieving a proper balance between measures to protect privacy and the ability to guard and improve public health requires careful consideration and development of appropriate policies, regulations and use of technology.

  4. Public Health Concern on Fukushima Radiation Risks in Korea and Response Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chaewon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-Ro, Seoul 139-781 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the characteristics of public perception on radiation risks by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident and aims to suggest the appropriate strategies for minimizing social anxiety and managing the risk effectively on the basis of those features. In South Korea, the nearest country to Japan, fishery sales decreased 20% in 2013 due to consumers' fears over radiation contaminated seafood products. Public health concern is also increasing. The characteristics of public perception on the risk are the key factors of social anxiety, which are 'ongoing hazard' and 'uncertainty'. They can be translated same as the concepts of 'fear' and 'unknown risk', the psychometric factors of risk perception described in Slovic (1989)'s qualitative characteristics. News on a series of hazardous situations such as radioactive water leaks or radioactive steam at Fukushima is continually reported. Noting no expectation of accident settlement in near future, media coverage which has the expression of 'the maximum permissible level of radiation' without any translation of the measured dosimetric quantity causes the public's phobic fear. Uncertainties on health risks of low dose ionizing radiation in humans are not only the causes of fear but the challenges in building trust in risk communications. Rumours appear under ambiguous and uncertain situation with a lack of information. The communications among public authorities, related institutes, experts and the public become very important since the public health concern on radiation contamination turns into attention to the system of inspection, distribution, and regulation of imported food. The public shows deep interest in the safety standard of guidelines used in regulatory policy and safety management, which leads to a desire for participation in policy making process. Situational crisis communication theory can be applied to the situation quoted and

  5. Situation Concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector. Public Opinion Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, A.; Sala, R.; Lopez, M.

    2006-07-01

    This report summarizes the CIEMAT's contribution to the study {sup S}ituation concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector{sup ,} contract number TREN/ 04/NUC/ S07.39556 between the European Commission and Mutadis Consultants. The research was composed by Mutadis Consultants and CEPN (Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre) (France), University of Aberdeen (UK) and CIEMAT (Spain). The objective of the project was to build a detailed overview of the EU situation regarding information and participation practices in the nuclear domain, provide an elaborated assessment, and to produce reporting and recommendations in the field. CIEMAT contribution' focused on the review of public opinion polis. Thus, Eurobarometers Standard Surveys (EBs) were analysed to report about the European citizens' public opinion regarding public Information and participation in the nuclear field. Additionally, the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), and some additional national polis were analysed. In terms of the EU public opinion, the follow up of the public information and participation domains receiving as much attention as necessary. Extremely few questions dealing with the subject were identified in the Eurobarometers, the national polis and the ISSP (International Social Survey Program) surveys reviewed in this study. An unambiguous illustration of this lack of attention is the fact that no questions dealing with public participation issues emerged in the {sup n}uclear EBs{sup u}ntil 1998. Even though, Eurobarometers (EBs) still provide an invaluable source of information on the topics we are interested on at the EU allowing longitudinal descriptions (trend analysis) of some key issues in our area of interest. (Author) 11 refs.

  6. Situation Concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector. Public Opinion Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, A.; Sala, R.; Lopez, M.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the CIEMAT's contribution to the study S ituation concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector , contract number TREN/ 04/NUC/ S07.39556 between the European Commission and Mutadis Consultants. The research was composed by Mutadis Consultants and CEPN (Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre) (France), University of Aberdeen (UK) and CIEMAT (Spain). The objective of the project was to build a detailed overview of the EU situation regarding information and participation practices in the nuclear domain, provide an elaborated assessment, and to produce reporting and recommendations in the field. CIEMAT contribution' focused on the review of public opinion polis. Thus, Eurobarometers Standard Surveys (EBs) were analysed to report about the European citizens' public opinion regarding public Information and participation in the nuclear field. Additionally, the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), and some additional national polis were analysed. In terms of the EU public opinion, the follow up of the public information and participation domains receiving as much attention as necessary. Extremely few questions dealing with the subject were identified in the Eurobarometers, the national polis and the ISSP (International Social Survey Program) surveys reviewed in this study. An unambiguous illustration of this lack of attention is the fact that no questions dealing with public participation issues emerged in the n uclear EBs u ntil 1998. Even though, Eurobarometers (EBs) still provide an invaluable source of information on the topics we are interested on at the EU allowing longitudinal descriptions (trend analysis) of some key issues in our area of interest. (Author) 11 refs

  7. Ethical concerns and career satisfaction in obstetrics and gynecology: a review of recent findings from the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Victoria A; Leddy, Meaghan A; Lawrence, Hal; Schulkin, Jay

    2011-09-01

    Obstetricians-gynecologists (ob-gyns) are frequently confronted with situations that have ethical implications (e.g., whether to accept gifts or samples from drug companies or disclosing medical errors to patients). Additionally, various factors, including specific job-related tasks, costs, and benefits, may impact ob-gyns' career satisfaction. Ethical concerns and career satisfaction can play a role in the quality of women's health care. This article summarizes the studies published between 2005 and 2009 by the Research Department of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which encompass ethical concerns regarding interactions with pharmaceutical representatives and patient safety/medical error reporting, as well as ob-gyn career satisfaction. Additionally, a brief discussion regarding ethical concerns in the ob-gyn field, in general, highlights key topics for the last 30 years. Ethical dilemmas continue to be of concern for ob-gyns. Familiarity with guidelines on appropriate interactions with industry is associated with lower percentages of potentially problematic relationships with pharmaceutical industries. Physicians report that the expense of patient safety initiatives is one of the top barriers for improving patient safety, followed by fear of liability. Overall, respondents reported being satisfied with their careers. However, half of the respondents reported that they were extremely concerned about the impact of professional liability costs on the duration of their careers. Increased familiarity with guidelines may lead to a decreased ob-gyn reliance on pharmaceutical representatives and free samples, whereas specific and practical tools may help them implement patient safety techniques. The easing of malpractice insurance and threat of litigation may enhance career satisfaction among ob-gyns. This article will discuss related findings in recent years. Obstetricians & Gynecologists and Family Physicians. After the completing the CME

  8. Economic performance and public concerns about social class in twentieth-century books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunsong; Yan, Fei

    2016-09-01

    What is the association between macroeconomic conditions and public perceptions of social class? Applying a novel approach based on the Google Books N-gram corpus, this study addresses the relationship between public concerns about social class and economic conditions throughout the twentieth century. The usage of class-related words/phrases, or "literary references to class," in American English-language books is related to US economic performance and income inequality. The findings of this study demonstrate that economic conditions play a significant role in literary references to class throughout the century, whereas income inequality does not. Similar results are obtained from further analyses using alternative measures of class concerns as well as different corpora of English Fiction and the New York Times. We add to the social class literature by showing that the long-term temporal dynamics of an economy can be exhibited by aggregate class concerns. The application of massive culture-wide content analysis using data of unprecedented size also represents a contribution to the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid Assessment of Stakeholder Concerns about Public Health. An Introduction to a Fast and Inexpensive Approach Applied on Health Concerns about Intensive Animal Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij-Dirkzwager, Marleen; van der Ree, Joost; Lebret, Erik

    2017-12-11

    To effectively manage environmental health risks, stakeholders often need to act collectively. Stakeholders vary in their desire to act due to many factors, such as knowledge, risk perception, interests, and worldviews. Understanding their perceptions of the issues at stake is crucial to support the risk governance process. Even though concern assessment is a pivotal element of risk governance, few tools for rapid assessment are reported in the literature. We tested a rapid and relatively cheap approach, taking the Dutch debate on Intensive Animal Production Systems (IAPS) and health as an example. Dutch policy-oriented publications on IAPS and health and ten semi-structured in-depth interviews with a variety of stakeholders were analyzed to identify stakeholders and concerns involved in the Dutch debate about IAPS and health. Concerns were mapped and a stakeholder network was derived. Three classes of concerns were recognized in the discussions about IAPS and health: concerns related to health risks, concerns regarding the activity causing the risks (IAPS), and concerns about the process to control the risks. The notions of 'trust' and 'scientific uncertainty' appeared as important themes in the discussions. Argumentation based on concerns directly related to health risks, the activity causing the risk (IAPS), and its risk management can easily become muddled up in a societal debate, limiting the development of effective action perspectives. Acknowledging these multiple stakeholder concerns can clarify the positions taken by stakeholders and allow for more and other action perspectives to develop.

  10. Rapid Assessment of Stakeholder Concerns about Public Health. An Introduction to a Fast and Inexpensive Approach Applied on Health Concerns about Intensive Animal Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Kraaij-Dirkzwager

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To effectively manage environmental health risks, stakeholders often need to act collectively. Stakeholders vary in their desire to act due to many factors, such as knowledge, risk perception, interests, and worldviews. Understanding their perceptions of the issues at stake is crucial to support the risk governance process. Even though concern assessment is a pivotal element of risk governance, few tools for rapid assessment are reported in the literature. We tested a rapid and relatively cheap approach, taking the Dutch debate on Intensive Animal Production Systems (IAPS and health as an example. Dutch policy-oriented publications on IAPS and health and ten semi-structured in-depth interviews with a variety of stakeholders were analyzed to identify stakeholders and concerns involved in the Dutch debate about IAPS and health. Concerns were mapped and a stakeholder network was derived. Three classes of concerns were recognized in the discussions about IAPS and health: concerns related to health risks, concerns regarding the activity causing the risks (IAPS, and concerns about the process to control the risks. The notions of ‘trust’ and ‘scientific uncertainty’ appeared as important themes in the discussions. Argumentation based on concerns directly related to health risks, the activity causing the risk (IAPS, and its risk management can easily become muddled up in a societal debate, limiting the development of effective action perspectives. Acknowledging these multiple stakeholder concerns can clarify the positions taken by stakeholders and allow for more and other action perspectives to develop.

  11. The influence of Goiania radiological accident on Brazilian public opinion concerning new nuclear electric plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldonian, Nelson Leon; Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    1997-01-01

    The Brazilian society is against applications of nuclear energy, mainly respecting to construction of new nuclear power plants, believing that they are harmful to population's welfare and the environment. By this reason, Brazilian nuclear sector would promote a more intensive program of public discussion, not limited to technical and scientific community. Intending to contribute to a better judgment by society about the differences between diverse employment of nuclear energy, arguments concerned to its benefits are presented, pointing out that adverse accounts to nuclear electricity based on Goiania radiological accident, are not justified

  12. Partially wrong? Partial equilibrium and the economic analysis of public health emergencies of international concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutels, P; Edmunds, W J; Smith, R D

    2008-11-01

    We argue that traditional health economic analysis is ill-equipped to estimate the cost effectiveness and cost benefit of interventions that aim at controlling and/or preventing public health emergencies of international concern (such as pandemic influenza or severe acute respiratory syndrome). The implicit assumption of partial equilibrium within both the health sector itself and--if a wider perspective is adopted--the economy as a whole would be violated by such emergencies. We propose an alternative, with the specific aim of accounting for the behavioural changes and capacity problems that are expected to occur when such an outbreak strikes. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern; a Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Rouhipour, Alaleh; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Yousefifard, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) was first reported in 1976 with two concurrent outbreaks of acute viral hemorrhagic fever centered in Yambuku (near the Ebola river), Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Nzara, Sudan. The current outbreak of the Ebola virus was started by reporting the first case in March 2014 in the forest regions of southeastern Guinea. Due to infection rates raising over 13,000% within a 6-month period, Ebola is now considered as a global public health emergency and on August 8(th), 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. With more than 5000 involved cases and nearly 3000 deaths, this event has turned into the largest and most dangerous Ebola virus outbreak in the world. Based on the above-mentioned, the present article aimed to review the virologic characteristics, transmission, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Ebola virus disease.

  14. Nuclear wastes management. 1. round table - geologic disposal as questioned by the public in concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the last round table held at Paris. This meeting gathers representatives of the different actors of the nuclear industry, ministers, public authorities, non governmental organizations who argue the questions asked by peoples from the audience. The topics concern various aspects of waste management, like the quantity of wastes in concern, the reversibility of storages, the monitoring of waste facilities once closed down, the related costs, and the general safety questions about the suitability of the clay formation near the Bure site for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. A second part of the meeting addresses some remarks about the information of the general public and the decision making process. Finally, five presentations (slides) are attached to these proceedings and treat of: the safety of the disposal in deep geologic formation; the management of spent fuels in Canada; the nuclear wastes R and D in Sweden; the researches and projects in Belgium for the geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes; the results

  15. Documenting death: public access to government death records and attendant privacy concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    This Article examines the contentious relationship between public rights to access government-held death records and privacy rights concerning the deceased, whose personal information is contained in those same records. This right of access dispute implicates core democratic principles and public policy interests. Open access to death records, such as death certificates and autopsy reports, serves the public interest by shedding light on government agency performance, uncovering potential government wrongdoing, providing data on public health trends, and aiding those investigating family history, for instance. Families of the deceased have challenged the release of these records on privacy grounds, as the records may contain sensitive and embarrassing information about the deceased. Legislatures and the courts addressing this dispute have collectively struggled to reconcile the competing open access and privacy principles. The Article demonstrates how a substantial portion of the resulting law in this area is haphazardly formed, significantly overbroad, and loaded with unintended consequences. The Article offers legal reforms to bring consistency and coherence to this currently disordered area of jurisprudence.

  16. Genetically modified organisms in the United States: implementation, concerns, and public perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeschger, Max P; Silva, Catherine E

    2007-01-01

    We examine the state of biotechnology with respect to genetically modified (GM) organisms in agriculture. Our focus is on the USA, where there has been significant progress and implementation but where, to date, the matter has drawn little attention. GM organisms are the result of lateral gene transfers, the transfer of genes from one species to another, or sometimes, from one kingdom to another. The introduction of foreign genes makes some people very uncomfortable, and a small group of activists have grave concerns about the technology. Attempts by activists to build concern in the general public have garnered little attention; however, the producers of GM organisms have responded to their concerns and established extensive testing programs to be applied to each candidate organism that is produced. In the meantime, GM varieties of corn, cotton, soybean and rapeseed have been put into agricultural production and are now extensively planted. These crops, and the other, newer GM crops, have produced no problems and have pioneered a silent agricultural revolution in the USA.

  17. Experience of steam generator tube examination in the hot laboratory of EDF: analysis of recent events concerning the secondary side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, Y.; Bouvier, O. de; Boccanfuso, M.; Coquio, N.; Barbe, V.; Molinie, E.

    2011-01-01

    Until 2010, more than 60 steam generator (SG) tubes have been removed and analysed in the EDF hot laboratory of CEIDRE/Chinon. This article is particularly related to three recent events that lead to the extraction of several tubes dedicated to laboratory destructive examinations. The first event that constitutes a first occurrence on the EDF Park, concerns the detection of a circumferential crack on the external surface of a tube located at tube support plate elevation. After this observation, several tubes have been extracted from Bugey 3 and Fessenheim 2 nuclear power plants with steam generators equipped with 600 MA bundle. The other two events concern the consequences of chemical cleaning of the tube bundle steam generators. The examples chosen are from Cruas 4 et Chinon B2 units whose tubes were extracted following non destructive testing performed immediately after or at the completion of cycle following the chemical cleaning. In the case of Cruas 4, Eddy Current Testing (ET) were performed for requalification of steam Generators after chemical cleaning. They allowed the detection of an indication located at the bottom of tube for a large number of tubes; the ET signal was similar to that corresponding to 'deposit' corrosion. Moreover, inspections of Chinon-B2 SGs at the end of the operation cycle following the chemical cleaning, showed the presence of conductor deposits at the bottom of some tubes. The first part of this document presents the major results of laboratory examinations of the pulled tubes of Bugey 3 and Fessenheim 2 and their analysis. Hypothesis concerning damage mechanisms of the tubes are also proposed. The second part of the paper relates the results of the laboratory examinations of the pulled tubes of Cruas 4 and Chinon B 2 after chemical cleaning and their analysis. (authors)

  18. Means and tools to identify future public concerns as a basis for developing information and public involvement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Many studies have been devoted to the debate about nuclear power and nuclear waste. What are these studies exactly and what issues do they raise? What information do they provide to decision-makers? Can they help in formulating policy about communication and decision-making in the nuclear sphere? Today, the public is considered as a privileged partner with whom constructive dialog is possible. It is no longer simply a question of providing information, but of rethinking decision-making processes: is an active participation by the public in such processes desirable, and is it possible? This change in approach is of concern to social science researchers: do the bases underlying the studies carried out throughout the world need to be reviewed? Radical social change modifies the context in which decisions are taken and information and communication developed. A comprehensive and historical analysis of such change identifies elements which have to be taken into account in forward planning. The new methods the latter employ with regard to decision-making and development are the reflection of the questioning of science and expertise and the calls for greater environment protection and for a more democratic process on the part of the public. But having noted that the context is changing, how may the future be envisaged? A whole range of instruments is available to complete this comprehensive analysis: surveys of attitudes and opinions, monographs on actor interplay and press analysis. The analyses which are undertaken from studies to work in the field make it possible to identify a number of principles of action which, in turn, allow in theory to envisage possible strategies. But clearly, the application of studies to concrete situations raise problems: are statements made by the public to be taken literally? Must account be taken of claims? How are the values expressed by the public to be incorporated in the decisions taken? In fact, a project's future always depends on

  19. Public health concerns associated with care of free-living birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Julia K

    2011-09-01

    Free-living birds are not only susceptible to certain infectious diseases; wild bird populations serve as reservoirs of several important diseases of public health concern. Bacterial and viral diseases endemic in populations of free-living birds such as tuberculosis, avian influenza, arboviral infections, and enteropathogens have been classified as emerging or reemerging. Providing care to wild avian patients increases the opportunity for direct contact with infected birds and the possibility of transmission of infectious disease to human handlers. Awareness of disease potential is critical to disease monitoring of wild populations and will allow for the implementation of precautionary measures when working with wild avian species. Biosecurity measures designed to minimize risk must be evaluated by individual facilities.

  20. ASPECTS CONCERNING THE PUBLICITY OF MOVABLES AND IMMOVABLES IN THE MARITIME FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena MARIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This document presents elements of publicity for a specific category of goods, namely, ships. It also analyzes the recording and registration of Romanian flag ships. Each of these items requires special procedures, depending on the operation recorded where the ship is registered. The registration of ships under construction and especially of Romanian flag ships, the granting, suspension and withdrawal of the right to navigate under the Romanian flag, the registration and removal of ships from records, the acquisition, transmission, transcription and extinction of real rights and/or obligations regarding ships and the procedure for issuance, extension of validity and renewal of the nationality documents require compliance with certain procedures. The present article may interest professionals concerned with these notions that are often met in maritime law and, to a lesser extent, in common law.

  1. Communicating about risk: strategies for situations where public concern is high but the risk is low

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Hooker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we summarise research that identifies best practice for communicating about hazards where the risk is low but public concern is high. We apply Peter Sandman’s ‘risk = hazard + outrage’ formulation to these risks, and review factors associated with the amplification of risk signals. We discuss the structures that determine the success of risk communication strategies, such as the capacity for early communication to ‘capture’ the dominant representation of risk issues, the importance of communicating uncertainty, and the usefulness of engaging with communities. We argue that, when facing trade-offs in probable outcomes from communication, it is always best to choose strategies that maintain or build trust, even at the cost of initial overreactions. We discuss these features of successful risk communication in relation to a range of specific examples, particularly opposition to community water fluoridation, Ebola, and routine childhood immunisation.

  2. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

    2013-12-01

    Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology.

  3. Strategic management and the performance of public organizations: Testing venerable Ideas against recent theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, Kenneth J.; O'Toole, Laurence J.; Boyne, George A.; Walker, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Miles and Snow, among others, argue that strategy content is an important influence on organizational performance. Their typology, applied recently to public organizations in the United Kingdom, divides strategic actors into four general types: prospectors, defenders, analyzers, and reactors. This

  4. A Multi-Criteria Methodology to Support Public Administration Decision Making Concerning Sustainable Energy Action Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Novello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For municipalities that have joined the Covenant of Mayors promoted by the European Commission, the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP represents a strategic tool for achieving the greenhouse gas reductions required by 2020. So far as the energy retrofit actions in their residential building stock are concerned, which in the small-to-medium municipalities are responsible for more than 60% of CO2 emissions, the scenarios for intervening are normally decided on the basis of an economic (cost/performance analysis. This type of analysis, however, does not take into account important aspects for small and medium-sized communities such as social aspects, environmental impacts, local economic development and employment. A more comprehensive and effective tool to support the choices of public administrators is the multi-criteria analysis. This study proposes a methodology that integrates multi-criteria analysis in order to support Public Administration/Local Authorities in programming Sustainable Energy Action Plans with a more targeted approach to sustainability. The methodology, based on the ELECTRE III method, was applied to a medium-size municipality in the Lombardy region of Italy. The results obtained with this approach are discussed in this paper.

  5. Eliciting Patients’ Health Concerns in Consulting Rooms and Wards in Vietnamese Public Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Thi Linh Nguyen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the doctor’s elicitation of the patient’s presenting health concern in two clinical settings in the Vietnamese public hospital system: the consulting room and the ward. The data were taken from 66 audio-recorded consultations. Our analysis shows that the elicitors used by the doctor in the consulting room often communicate a weak epistemic stance towards the patient’s health issue, while those used in the ward tend to signal a strong epistemic stance. In addition, this contrast between the elicitors employed in the consulting room and the ward is evident in our data regardless of whether the consultation is a first visit or a same follow-up (in which the doctor is the same one that treated the patient on their last visit, though the contrast is less clear for different follow-ups (in which the doctor has not treated the patient before. An additional finding is that the clinical setting has some bearing on the use of inappropriate elicitation formats (in which the doctor opens the visit with an elicitor which is more appropriate for another type of visit. The precise way in which each of the consulting room and the ward operates is, of course, a feature of the Vietnamese public hospital system itself. Hence, the overall contrast between the elicitors and elicitation formats used in these two settings illustrates how, on a more general level, the institutional context can have an impact on doctor-patient communication.

  6. Adoption Concerns for the Deployment of Interactive Public Displays at Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Lencastre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available JuxtaLearn is a research project focused on ‘performance’ as a means of provoking students’ understanding of science and technology through the creation and sharing of educational videos. As the videos will be shared in public displays, the Portuguese research team developed three workshops with twelve teachers from a Portuguese Secondary School representing different school departments and sharing organizational responsibilities. The aim was to generate scenarios of possible features and interaction for the curricular integration of the technological device. Our findings suggest that teachers are not motivated to use, on their own, technologies in the classroom, but receptive to new and challenging technologies when properly stimulated. They were able to generate scenarios that take advantage of the possibilities offered by digital public displays to stimulate learning processes. However, there are pedagogical, organizational and ethical concerns in the management and control of content that need to be resolved before they feel confortable to deal with change and technological innovation.

  7. Does marriage explain murders in a society? In what way is divorce a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Paul Andrew; Hudson-Davis, Angela; Sharpe-Pryce, Charlene; Clarke, Jeffery; Solan, Ikhalfani; Rhule, Joan; Francis, Cynthia; Watson-Coleman, Olive; Sharma, Anushree; Campbell-Smith, Janinne

    2014-01-01

    Like medicine, public health practitioners seek to understand causes of mortality, practices of humans and issues that can change population conditions, in order to preserve and care for life. The murder pandemic has been such in Jamaica that the World Bank sponsored a qualitative study on crime in urban areas in Jamaica in the late 1990s to provide a platform to guide policy intervention and programmes. As a result this study will fill the gap in the literature by providing the evidence to support that divorce and marriage are public health concerns from the perspective of murders. To evaluate the role of divorce and marital relationships on murders. The data for this study are taken from various Jamaica Government Publications. The period for this work is from 1950 through 2013. Data were recorded, stored and retrieved using the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows, Version 21.0. The level of significance that is used to determine statistical significance is less than 5% (0.05). Ordinary least square (OLS) regression analyses and curve estimations were used to determine models and best fitted models. On average, annually, 523 Jamaicans are murdered (± 484), with there being 9,531 marriages (± 22,747) and 904 divorces (± 468). Logged marriage rate and divorce rate are factors of murder rate, with both independent factors accounting for 82.2% of the variability in the murder rate. Both factors are positively correlated with the murder rate, with the divorce rate accounting for most of the variance in the murder rate (R2 = 79.2%). Death can be extremely devasting to families, however, murder among married couples can severely disrupt the lives of both families along with any children from such relationship.

  8. Public Sector Reform: Which way are we headed? An overview of recent literature and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.S. de; Nemec, J.; Spalkova, D.; Furova, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates recent literature and research on public sector reform and aims to answer the question to what degree public administration systems and reforms are still influenced by recommendations flowing from the NPM tradition. This paper distinguishes two dimensions of NPM: the internal

  9. 75 FR 45693 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ..., government procurement, trade-related investment measures, taxes and charges levied on imports and exports... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for comments and notice of public hearing concerning China's compliance with its WTO...

  10. 77 FR 50206 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ..., government procurement, trade-related investment measures, taxes and charges levied on imports and exports... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for comments and notice of public hearing concerning China's compliance with its WTO...

  11. A Scopus-Based Analysis of Publication Activity in Kazakhstan from 2010 to 2015: Positive Trends, Concerns, and Possible Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessirkepov, Marlen; Nurmashev, Bekaidar; Anartayeva, Mariya

    2015-12-01

    The article analyzes the publication activity of scientific authors from Kazakhstan based on Scopus and SCImago Journal & Country Rank data from 2010 to 2015. The number of indexed multidisciplinary and medical articles from the country has been steadily growing from 2011 onward and this can be due to the adoption of the new Law on Science in that year. Several regulatory legal acts have been issued in recent years aimed at improving the quality of local journals and the international recognition of academic degrees and titles. Publication activity of scientific authors from Kazakhstan was found to be higher than that from other countries in the Central Asian region. However, there are still many unresolved issues related to the English language barrier, lack of indexing status of local journals, and poor topical education on science writing and editing. As such, the number of articles published in 'predatory' journals remains sizable, and there are concerns over authors' negligence and plagiarism. The global solution to the discussed problems may be achieved by educating researchers, authors, reviewers, and editors.

  12. A Discourse Analysis of Denmark´s Public Health Policy Concerning Overweight among Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvig, Lene; Bak, Carsten Kronborg; Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg

    2017-01-01

    . Health care professionals’ approach to governing overweight pregnant women is affected by this breach in the discursive field. Thus, overweight pregnant women have become an issue for medical experts, who are encouraged to use stricter rhetoric when addressing them. This shift also renders pregnant women......A recent Danish public health report classified being overweight during pregnancy as a chronic disease, marking a discursive shift from its previous classification as a risk factor for complications in maternal and foetal health. This discursive shift is considered a breach in the discursive field...... subject to interventions by medical experts. The aim of this article is to critically analyse recommendations for how health professionals should govern these highrisk individuals and to discuss the implications of such governance for overweight pregnant women. In this study, overweight is classified...

  13. Understanding parents' concerns about their children with autism taking public school transportation in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Amber M; Solomon, Olga

    2018-05-01

    There are a number of recent US news media reports of children and youth with autism becoming lost, injured, or even dying while taking public school transportation, yet research on this problem is scarce. This ethnographic study examines the experiences of 14 parents whose children with autism take public school transportation in Los Angeles County. We present two case studies of children with autism being "lost" while in transit from school to home on the bus to (1) describe how the situation was experienced, responded to, and managed by the parents; (2) consider three interrelated themes that emerged from interviews with 14 parents, related to children's safety, independence, and participation, across multiple contexts and analytic levels; and (3) discuss the findings in relation to US news media reports of incidents involving children with autism on school buses to identify specific weaknesses in school transportation infrastructure, particularly in the context of privatization, that create conditions in which children with autism can "fall through the cracks" in potentially life-threatening ways. We argue that there is a critical need to address transportation accessibility for individuals on the autism spectrum to ensure their safety and support their independence and community participation.

  14. Geologic occurrences of erionite in the United States: an emerging national public health concern for respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Blitz, Thomas A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Pierson, M. Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Erionite, a mineral series within the zeolite group, is classified as a Group 1 known respiratory carcinogen. This designation resulted from extremely high incidences of mesothelioma discovered in three small villages from the Cappadocia region of Turkey, where the disease was linked to environmental exposures to fibrous forms of erionite. Natural deposits of erionite, including fibrous forms, have been identified in the past in the western United States. Until recently, these occurrences have generally been overlooked as a potential hazard. In the last several years, concerns have emerged regarding the potential for environmental and occupational exposures to erionite in the United States, such as erionite-bearing gravels in western North Dakota mined and used to surface unpaved roads. As a result, there has been much interest in identifying locations and geologic environments across the United States where erionite occurs naturally. A 1996 U.S. Geological Survey report describing erionite occurrences in the United States has been widely cited as a compilation of all US erionite deposits; however, this compilation only focused on one of several geologic environments in which erionite can form. Also, new occurrences of erionite have been identified in recent years. Using a detailed literature survey, this paper updates and expands the erionite occurrences database, provided in a supplemental file (US_erionite.xls). Epidemiology, public health, and natural hazard studies can incorporate this information on known erionite occurrences and their characteristics. By recognizing that only specific geologic settings and formations are hosts to erionite, this knowledge can be used in developing management plans designed to protect the public.

  15. Characteristics of public concern on haze in China and its relationship with air quality in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaling; Wang, Yuan; Zuo, Jian; Jiang, Hongqiang; Huang, Dacang; Rameezdeen, Raufdeen

    2018-10-01

    Severe air pollution associated with the rapid urbanization is a pressing issue in China. Moreover, the public awareness of environmental protection in China is awakening, which poses enormous pressure on governments to enforce environmental regulations. The study of environmental problems from the public perspective plays a crucial role in effective environmental governance. The Baidu search engine is the China's largest search engine. The search index of haze based on Baidu search engine reflects the public concern on air quality in China. The aim of this study is to uncover important relationships between public concern and air quality monitoring data based on the case study of haze pollution crisis in China. The results indicate that: (1) the year 2013 is the turning point of the public concern on air quality in China; (2) according to daily data analysis, the search index of haze has increased progressively with increased PM 2.5 concentration with a time lag of 0-4 days and the lag time has a declining tendency from 2013 to 2017; (3) according to annual data analysis, the public concern showed a weak correlation with air quality and they showed an opposite temporal trend. However, when the long-term annual trend was removed, the strong positive correlation emerges between the fluctuation parts of the search index of haze and monitoring data of air quality. This indicates the public is more sensitive to the short-term fluctuation of air quality. The results of this paper provide statistical evidence on the evolution of public concern on air quality from 2013 to 2017. This study will help policy makers to better understand the patterns of the public's perception of environmental problems and consequently improve the government's capability to deal with these challenges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 'Burden to others' as a public concern in advanced cancer: a comparative survey in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausewein, Claudia; Calanzani, Natalia; Daveson, Barbara A; Simon, Steffen T; Ferreira, Pedro L; Higginson, Irene J; Bechinger-English, Dorothee; Deliens, Luc; Gysels, Marjolein; Toscani, Franco; Ceulemans, Lucas; Harding, Richard; Gomes, Barbara

    2013-03-08

    Europe faces an enormous public health challenge with aging populations and rising cancer incidence. Little is known about what concerns the public across European countries regarding cancer care towards the end of life. We aimed to compare the level of public concern with different symptoms and problems in advanced cancer across Europe and examine factors influencing this. Telephone survey with 9,344 individuals aged ≥16 in England, Flanders, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Participants were asked about nine symptoms and problems, imagining a situation of advanced cancer with less than one year to live. These were ranked and the three top concerns examined in detail. As 'burden to others' showed most variation within and between countries, we determined the relative influence of factors on this concern using GEE and logistic regression. Overall response rate was 21%. Pain was the top concern in all countries, from 34% participants (Italy) to 49% (Flanders). Burden was second in England, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Breathlessness was second in Flanders and the Netherlands. Concern with burden was independently associated with age (70+ years, OR 1.50; 95%CI 1.24-1.82), living alone (OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.73-0.93) and preferring quality rather than quantity of life (OR 1.43, 95%CI 1.14-1.80). When imagining a last year of life with cancer, the public is not only concerned about medical problems but also about being a burden. Public education about palliative care and symptom control is needed. Cancer care should include a routine assessment and management of social concerns, particularly for older patients with poor prognosis.

  17. Public libraries in the 21 st century: issues for concern in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues surrounding the establishment and development of public libraries in Nigeria are captured in this piece of writing. The paper particularly discusses the origin and growth of public libraries, objectives and role of public libraries in Nigeria. It further looked at public libraries in the 21st century; problems and prospects of ...

  18. Impact of smoke from prescribed burning: Is it a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikerwal, Anjali; Reisen, Fabienne; Sim, Malcolm R; Abramson, Michael J; Meyer, Carl P; Johnston, Fay H; Dennekamp, Martine

    2015-05-01

    Given the increase in wildfire intensity and frequency worldwide, prescribed burning is becoming a more common and widespread practice. Prescribed burning is a fire management tool used to reduce fuel loads for wildfire suppression purposes and occurs on an annual basis in many parts of the world. Smoke from prescribed burning can have a substantial impact on air quality and the environment. Prescribed burning is a significant source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 aerodynamic diameterprescribed burning on air quality particularly focussing on PM2.5. We have summarised available case studies from Australia including a recent study we conducted in regional Victoria, Australia during the prescribed burning season in 2013. The studies reported very high short-term (hourly) concentrations of PM2.5 during prescribed burning. Given the increase in PM2.5 concentrations during smoke events, there is a need to understand the influence of prescribed burning smoke exposure on human health. This is important especially since adverse health impacts have been observed during wildfire events when PM2.5 concentrations were similar to those observed during prescribed burning events. Robust research is required to quantify and determine health impacts from prescribed burning smoke exposure and derive evidence based interventions for managing the risk. Given the increase in PM2.5 concentrations during PB smoke events and its impact on the local air quality, the need to understand the influence of PB smoke exposure on human health is important. This knowledge will be important to inform policy and practice of the integrated, consistent, and adaptive approach to the appropriate planning and implementation of public health strategies during PB events. This will also have important implications for land management and public health organizations in developing evidence based objectives to minimize the risk of PB smoke exposure.

  19. A systematic critical review of epidemiological studies on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, France; Ncube, Esper Jacobeth; Voyi, Kuku

    2017-03-01

    The ultimate aim of this review was to summarise the epidemiological evidence on the association between municipal solid waste management operations and health risks to populations residing near landfills and incinerators, waste workers and recyclers. To accomplish this, the sub-aims of this review article were to (1) examine the health risks posed by municipal solid waste management activities, (2) determine the strengths and gaps of available literature on health risks from municipal waste management operations and (3) suggest possible research needs for future studies. The article reviewed epidemiological literature on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling published in the period 1995-2014. The PubMed and MEDLINE computerised literature searches were employed to identify the relevant papers using the keywords solid waste, waste management, health risks, recycling, landfills and incinerators. Additionally, all references of potential papers were examined to determine more articles that met the inclusion criteria. A total of 379 papers were identified, but after intensive screening only 72 met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Of these studies, 33 were on adverse health effects in communities living near waste dumpsites or incinerators, 24 on municipal solid waste workers and 15 on informal waste recyclers. Reviewed studies were unable to demonstrate a causal or non-causal relationship due to various limitations. In light of the above findings, our review concludes that overall epidemiological evidence in reviewed articles is inadequate mainly due to methodological limitations and future research needs to develop tools capable of demonstrating causal or non-causal relationships between specific waste management operations and adverse health endpoints.

  20. A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS LYING BEHIND RECENT PUBLIC DEBT ACCUMULATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BILAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Following Romania’s accession to the EU, its public debt expressed as a share of GDP has seen a steep upward trend. Although this situation has not been unprecedented, as public debt massively increased in many other European countries once the economic crisis emerged, and the current level of Romania’s public debt is still well below the European limit of 60% of GDP, the previous experience of other developing countries tells us that this situation cannot be appreciated as a comfortable one. Against this background, it is important to investigate the factors that led to the recent growth of Romania’s public debt, to see if their action is only temporary or, on the contrary, if they persist over time, and to see if, by the promoted public indebtedness policies, prerequisites have been created to foster economic growth, as a rational support of further debt reduction. Thus, the aim of our paper is to identify and critically evaluate the contribution of different factors underlying the growth of Romania’s public debt in 2007-2013. Our analysis is supported by data (on public debt, public budgetary revenues, expenditures and budget balance, inflation rate, GDP growth rate, etc., collected from the reports of the Ministry of Public Finance of Romania or databases of international institutions (European Commission, International Monetary Fund.The main conclusion of our work is that although, like in other European countries, the economic crisis has contributed, through its effects on the GDP growth rate and budget balance, to the increase of Romania’s public debt, other specific and more persistent factors have also had an important contribution (as the pro-cyclical fiscal policy, the tax evasion, the large volume of arrears to public budgets, especially of public companies, the relatively low tax base, the high expenses on goods and services, salaries or even the interests payments on public debt.

  1. PARTICULARITIES CONCERNING THE CREATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MARKETING MIX IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Sica STANCIU

    2010-01-01

    The marketing mix is the essential instrument in implementing marketing in the public sector. This paper brings into evidence the particularities of conceiving, elaborating and applying the marketing mix in public institutions. The particularities of the marketing mix that is applied in public institutions are imposed, on one hand, by the role played by the public institution and the place it occupies in the contemporary society and, on the other hand, by the objectives it defines by its mark...

  2. Meeting the concerns of the public through participation. The point of view of the consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, M.

    1993-01-01

    The public participation in nuclear decision making supposes a previous information of this public. It is also necessary to have this participation when it is still possible to do something. Even if that kind of things are not easy to install, public participation in nuclear matter cannot be anything else but favourable

  3. [Metrology research on biomedical engineering publications from China in recent years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Su, Juan; Wang, Ying; Sha, Xianzheng

    2014-12-01

    The present paper is to evaluate the scientific research level and development trends of biomedical engineering in China using metrology analysis on Chinese biomedical engineering scientific literatures. Pubmed is used to search the biomedical engineering publications in recent 5 years which are indexed by Science Citation Index, and the number and cited times of these publications and the impact factor of the journals are analyzed. The results show that comparing with the world, although the number of the publication in China has increased in recent 5 years, there is still much room for improvement. Among Chinese mainland, Hongkong and Taiwan, Chinese mainland maintains the obvious advantage in this subject, but Hongkong has the highest average cited number. Shanghai and Beijing have better research ability than other areas in Chinese mainland.

  4. Understanding Parents' Concerns about Their Children with Autism Taking Public School Transportation in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Amber M.; Solomon, Olga

    2018-01-01

    There are a number of recent US news media reports of children and youth with autism becoming lost, injured, or even dying while taking public school transportation, yet research on this problem is scarce. This ethnographic study examines the experiences of 14 parents whose children with autism take public school transportation in Los Angeles…

  5. Public utilities and the public interest - raising and acknowledging this claim in proceedings concerning provisional legal protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischerhof, H.

    1976-01-01

    The following can be said of appeal proceedings against provisionally granted legal protection as claimed according to section 5 article 80 VwGO, the public utilities attending the proceedings, but not the licensing authority, being in the position to file this appeal: 1) The licensing authority takes part in the appeal proceedings and has the right to be heard. The licensing authority can also continue to act in the public interest in order to maintain the ordinances it issued, ordinances which were ordered to take immediate effect with public interest in mind. 2) The court of appeal has to examine the factual and the legal aspects of the previous instance's decision. 3) The public utility as the complainant can, within the framework of its official duties, combine the public interest with its own interests. (orig./HP) [de

  6. A Qualitative Exploration of Multiple Case Studies of the Perception of School Social Workers Concerning Their Roles in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Alesha Nicole

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative exploration in the form of multiple case studies interviewed a group of seven social workers from the St. Louis Metropolitan area to gain their perception as school social workers concerning their roles in public schools. The literature on school social workers indicated that school social workers brought unique knowledge and…

  7. Human Health Screening and Public Health Significance of Contaminants of Emerging Concern Detected in Public Water Supplies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Background information for human health margin of exposure paper. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Benson , B., O. Conerly , W. Sander, A....

  8. Situation concerning public information about and involvement in the decision-making processes in the nuclear sector. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadbois, S.; Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Vaillant, L.; Schneider, T.; Paterson, J.; Dawson, M.; Borg Barthet, J.; Prades, A.; Lopez, M.; Sala, R.

    2007-01-01

    The European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport (EC DGTREN) launched a study on 'the situation concerning public information about and involvement in decision-making processes in the nuclear sector' in January 2005. The main goal of this project was to inform the EC DGTREN and interested parties of recent developments in the Member States and to provide opportunities for decision-makers and stakeholders at local, national and EU level to exchange views. This study is based on the analysis of opinion polls, regulation and case studies where public information and involvement are a key dimension in the decision-making process and where innovative approaches have been observed. The research material and proposals were presented and discussed at a workshop with 50 delegates, representing the various stakeholders concerned by nuclear activities in Europe. As testified by recent opinion polls and feedback from case studies, there is a strong public demand for more participation in decision-making processes relating to the environment, and nuclear issues specifically. There is an increasing expectation that the phase of decision-framing which determines the scope and objectives of a regulation or of a decision on an industrial facility, involves not only experts and politics, but also NGOs, independent experts, local actors, etc. This expectation is now supported by significant legislation at EU and national levels, the foundation stone of which is the 'Aarhus Convention on the Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters' (1998). One can find different but convergent rationales behind these developments. On the one hand, there is a consideration that nuclear technologies have a potential impact on the public and accordingly require that their development involves affected parties. On the other hand, the problems raised by nuclear activities have an impact at several levels (local

  9. Situation concerning public information about and involvement in the decision-making processes in the nuclear sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadbois, S.; Heriard Dubreuil, G. [Mutadis, 75 - Paris (France); Vaillant, L.; Schneider, T. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire - CEPN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Paterson, J.; Dawson, M.; Borg Barthet, J. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom); Prades, A.; Lopez, M.; Sala, R. [CIEMAT, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport (EC DGTREN) launched a study on 'the situation concerning public information about and involvement in decision-making processes in the nuclear sector' in January 2005. The main goal of this project was to inform the EC DGTREN and interested parties of recent developments in the Member States and to provide opportunities for decision-makers and stakeholders at local, national and EU level to exchange views. This study is based on the analysis of opinion polls, regulation and case studies where public information and involvement are a key dimension in the decision-making process and where innovative approaches have been observed. The research material and proposals were presented and discussed at a workshop with 50 delegates, representing the various stakeholders concerned by nuclear activities in Europe. As testified by recent opinion polls and feedback from case studies, there is a strong public demand for more participation in decision-making processes relating to the environment, and nuclear issues specifically. There is an increasing expectation that the phase of decision-framing which determines the scope and objectives of a regulation or of a decision on an industrial facility, involves not only experts and politics, but also NGOs, independent experts, local actors, etc. This expectation is now supported by significant legislation at EU and national levels, the foundation stone of which is the 'Aarhus Convention on the Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters' (1998). One can find different but convergent rationales behind these developments. On the one hand, there is a consideration that nuclear technologies have a potential impact on the public and accordingly require that their development involves affected parties. On the other hand, the problems raised by nuclear activities have an impact at several

  10. Challenges created by data dissemination and access restrictions when attempting to address community concerns: individual privacy versus public wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, Amy; Aplin, Laura; Geary, Janis; Goodman, Karen J; Hatcher, Juanita

    2012-05-08

    Population health data are vital for the identification of public health problems and the development of public health strategies. Challenges arise when attempts are made to disseminate or access anonymised data that are deemed to be potentially identifiable. In these situations, there is debate about whether the protection of an individual's privacy outweighs potentially beneficial public health initiatives developed using potentially identifiable information. While these issues have an impact at planning and policy levels, they pose a particular dilemma when attempting to examine and address community concerns about a specific health problem. Research currently underway in northern Canadian communities on the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated diseases, such as stomach cancer, is used in this article to illustrate the challenges that data controls create on the ability of researchers and health officials to address community concerns. Barriers are faced by public health professionals and researchers when endeavouring to address community concerns; specifically, provincial cancer surveillance departments and community-driven participatory research groups face challenges related to data release or access that inhibit their ability to effectively address community enquiries. The resulting consequences include a limited ability to address misinformation or to alleviate concerns when dealing with health problems in small communities. The development of communication tools and building of trusting relationships are essential components of a successful investigation into community health concerns. It may also be important to consider that public wellbeing may outweigh the value of individual privacy in these situations. As such, a re-evaluation of data disclosure policies that are applicable in these circumstances should be considered.

  11. Exploring Twitter to analyze the public's reaction patterns to recently reported homicides in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounadi, Ourania; Lampoltshammer, Thomas J; Groff, Elizabeth; Sitko, Izabela; Leitner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Crime is an ubiquitous part of society. The way people express their concerns about crimes has been of particular interest to the scientific community. Over time, the numbers and kinds of available communication channels have increased. Today, social media services, such Twitter, present a convenient way to express opinions and concerns about crimes. The main objective of this study is to explore people's perception of homicides, specifically, how the characteristics and proximity of the event affect the public's concern about it. The analysis explores Twitter messages that refer to homicides that occurred in London in 2012. In particular, the dependence of tweeting propensity on the proximity, in space and time, of a crime incident and of people being concerned about that particular incident are examined. Furthermore, the crime characteristics of the homicides are analysed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that the proximity of the Twitter users' estimated home locations to the homicides' locations impacts on whether the associated crime news is spread or not and how quickly. More than half of the homicide related tweets are sent within the first week and the majority of them are sent within a month of the incident's occurrence. Certain crime characteristics, including the presence of a knife, a young victim, a British victim, or a homicide committed by a gang are predictors of the crime-tweets posting frequency.

  12. Policy Brief: Engagement with Sustainability Concerns in Public Procurement in India: Why and How

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Anandajit; Diljun, Gaurang Meher; Scrivastava, Nidhi

    2013-08-15

    A major part of the Indian GDP is spent on public procurement. Owing to large spending on procurement, Indian public sector can push towards a process of sustainable production and consumption through sustainable public procurement. Once such a process is implemented with specific contexts, it can create social, economic and environmental benefits. With this background, the policy brief explores why there is a need to promote sustainable public procurement within India. Further, it highlights how such a procurement process can be implemented within India by drawing from international experiences. This policy brief charts out an action plan to implement the procurement process with an analysis of roles and responsibilities of different agencies involved in the implementation. While laying down this action plan, the brief also indicates about the existing status of sustainable public procurement in India. Therefore, this policy brief creates a way forward for public sector agencies, policy and decision makers to implement sustainable public procurement within India by understanding the current context of the issue within the nation and abroad.

  13. Public and physician's expectations and ethical concerns about electronic health record: Benefits outweigh risks except for information security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entzeridou, Eleni; Markopoulou, Evgenia; Mollaki, Vasiliki

    2018-02-01

    Electronic Health Record systems (EHRs) offer numerous benefits in health care but also pose certain risks. As we progress toward the implementation of EHRs, a more in-depth understanding of attitudes that influence overall levels of EHR support is required. To record public and physicians' awareness, expectations for, and ethical concerns about the use of EHRs. A convenience sample was surveyed for both the public and physicians. The Public's Questionnaire was distributed to the public in a printed and an online version. The Physicians' Questionnaire was distributed to physicians in an online version. The questionnaires requested demographic characteristics followed by close-ended questions enquiring about awareness, perceived impact, perceived risks, and ethical issues raised by EHR use. In total, 46% of the public and 91% of physicians were aware of EHRs. Physicians' and public opinions were comparable concerning the positive impact of EHRs on better, more effective, and faster decisions on the patients' health, on better coordination between hospitals/clinics and on quality and reduced cost of health care. However, physicians were concerned that an EHR system would be a burden for their finances, for their time concerning training on the system, for their everyday workload and workflow. The majority of the public generally agreed that they would worry about the possibility that a non-authorized, third party might gain access to their personal health information (48.8%), and that they would worry about future discriminations due to possible disclosure of their health information (48.8%). Most physicians disagreed that EHRs will disrupt the doctor-patient relationship (58.1%) but they would worry about the safety of their patients' information (53.1%). Overall, both the public and physicians were in favor of the implementation of an EHR system, evaluating that possible benefits are more important than possible risks. The majority of the public believed that

  14. Public notice concerning the public funding of research and development work in the field of NMR tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Brief survey of the projects financed from public funds for the promotion of technical developments, of specific contrast media for NMR tomography and related biomedical research work. The financial means and relevant contracts are distributed and concluded under the authority of the DFVLR, Department for Medical Research. (HP) [de

  15. Communication of 6 September 2004 received from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation concerning the recent tragic events in Beslan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation, attaching a statement by the President of the Russian Federation, President Vladimir Putin, concerning the recent tragic events in Beslan. In the light of the request expressed in the letter, the text of the letter and its attachment is attached hereto

  16. Communication of 6 September 2004 received from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation concerning the recent tragic events in Beslan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-13

    The Director General has received a letter from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation, attaching a statement by the President of the Russian Federation, President Vladimir Putin, concerning the recent tragic events in Beslan. In the light of the request expressed in the letter, the text of the letter and its attachment is attached hereto.

  17. Addressing public concerns about ethical and environmental issues in the discussion on nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthi, A.

    1996-01-01

    According to Swiss Federal Law, the producers of radioactive waste are responsible for its safe disposal. The government, therefore, plays a relatively modest role in the public debate on nuclear waste management. Whenever asked to express an opinion, it tries to inform openly. Active public relations campaigns are led by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA). The operators of nuclear power plants are ready to compensate the siting community and its Canton for services rendered in the public interest. An important way to deal with ethical and environmental issues is the inclusion of opponents in every step of the time-consuming licensing procedure. This paper discusses the upcoming vote on a concession for a low and intermediate-level waste repository for which NAGRA is actively preparing. NAGRA's public relations work is based on recognition of the fact that the only way to diminish fear and gain credibility is to inform openly and regularly over many years, and to show that results achieved are based on serious, careful and transparent scientific work. Another aspect of radioactive waste management communication lies in the explanation of the ethics of 'inter-generational' and 'intra-generational' equity. Compensation will never make up for lack of safety. The ways in which the public voices its views are discussed, as well as the concept of seeking the co-operation of opponents in working groups. (author)

  18. Recent records of birds of conservation concern in the extreme north of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fischer Barcellos dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to communicate the occurrence of conservation concern bird species in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio Grande do Sul, in the town of Iraí (27°11’49”S, 53°14’32”W. Compositional data was collected from September 2006 to September 2008 through 364h of field work effort. We registered 23 bird species of conservation interest: sixteen are threatened with extinction in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, four are Near Threatened worldwide (including two regionally threatened, other four are near threatened regionally, and one species is uncommon in the state with poor records. Bird composition in the area shows the importance of conservation and restoration of forests in Iraí, as well as others located in the extreme north of Rio Grande do Sul, since these areas could represent one of the last remaining refuges for a great number of threatened bird species in that region.

  19. Act No 83-630 of 12 July 1983 concerning democratization of public enquiries and protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Henceforth separated from expropriation procedures, public enquiries have become compulsory for any plans, achievements or work likely to affect the environment because of their type, consistence or nature of the areas involved. Lists of operations subject to procedures, thresholds and technical criteria will be determined by decrees made in the Council of State. The purpose of the enquiry is to inform the public and obtain its suggestions. The enquiry is conducted by a Commissioner or a Commission whose independence is guaranteed vis-a-vis the constructor concerned. (NEA) [fr

  20. 76 FR 24860 - Request for Public Comments Concerning Regulatory Cooperation Between the United States and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... key trading partners to promote free and open trade and investment while also protecting public health and safety, the environment, intellectual property, and consumers' rights. In our trade and investment relationship with the European Union, the main impediments to greater trade and investment--and more open...

  1. Factors driving public tolerance levels and information-seeking behaviour concerning insects in the household environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoelitsz, Bruce; Poortvliet, P.M.; Takken, Willem

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The public's negative attitudes towards household insects drive tolerance for these insects and their control. Tolerance levels are important in integrated pest management (IPM), as are pest knowledge and information. The risk information seeking and processing (RISP) model describes the

  2. Concerning Support for SME’s as Suppliers of Public Health Tech Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    be ameliorated by developing public procurement of innovation policies specifically targeting SME promotion. Research limitations/implications The analysis of the literature remains on aggregate levels. The included firms worked with health tech innovation. Originality/value Unlike many studies and policy...

  3. Are Central Banks in CEE Countries Concerned about the Burden of Public Debt?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackiewicz-Łyziak Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the monetary policy rules in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, with public debt as an additional explanatory variable. We estimate linear rules by the GMM estimation and non-linear rules, using the Markov-switching model. Our findings suggest that in the Czech Republic and Poland the monetary authorities respond to growing public debt by lowering interest rates, while in Hungary the opposite may be observed. Moreover, we distinguish between passive and active monetary policy regimes and find that the degree of interest rate smoothing is lower and the response of the central banks to inflation and/or output gap is stronger in an active regime. In the passive regime, the output gap seems to be statistically insignificant.

  4. Method for Expressing Public Opinions Concerning the Introduction of an Emerging Technology to Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Ito, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Satoshi; Nishida, Shogo

    Emerging technology may have considerable social impact. Because emerging technology has not yet been introduced in society, it is needed general public express its opinions on emerging technology. It is important that expressing opinion must have social spirit. A method to limit facility of the Internet and activate social spirit is proposed. Evaluation experiment were conducted to test the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the participant could express opinion with social spirit.

  5. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Osunla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens.

  6. Framing the tax and health nexus: a neglected aspect of public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoy, David; Chigudu, Simukai; Tillmann, Taavi

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have described various associations between tax policy and health. Here we propose a unifying conceptual framework of 'Five R's' to stimulate awareness about the importance of tax to health improvement. First, tax can improve representation and democratic accountability, and help make governments more responsive to the needs of its citizens. Second, tax can create a revenue stream for a universal pool of public finance for health care and other public services. Third, progressive taxation when combined with appropriate public spending can help redistribute wealth and income and mitigate social and health inequalities. Fourth, the re-pricing of harmful products (e.g. tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy food) can help reduce their consumption. Fifth, taxation provides a route by which certain harmful industries can be regulated. The paper also discusses the barriers that hinder the full potential for taxation to be used to improve health, including: weak tax administrations, large 'shadow economies', international trade liberalisation, tax avoidance, transfer pricing by transnational corporations and banking secrecy. We suggest that a greater awareness of the manifold associations between tax and health will encourage health practitioners to actively promote fairer and better taxation, thereby helping to improve health and reduce health inequalities.

  7. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunla, Charles A; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-10-07

    Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens.

  8. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunla, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens. PMID:28991153

  9. Socio-economic aspects and public opinion concerning radioactive waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, V.

    1998-01-01

    Spain has nine nuclear power units in operation covering 33% of the country's electricity consumption. Radioactive waste management in Spain is carried out by Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA), a public sector company created by the Government in 1984. ENRESA has developed a management system for low and intermediate level waste. For spent fuel and high level waste, it has enlarged the capacity of the reactor pools and has licensed, in the United States and in Spain, a dual-use container for use in case the capacity of any pool is exhausted before the end of the reactor's service life. In Spain, as in all other countries, there is public opposition to radioactive waste management. This opposition is basically attributable to the lack of objective information causing the public to base its opinion on the alarmist approach taken by the mass media reports on radioactivity or nuclear power plants. ENRESA has had to conduct its activities in this context, pursuing an active policy of communication and information. (author)

  10. The recent decline of Montastraea annularis (complex coral populations in western Curaçao: a cause for concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W Bruckner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shallow leeward reefs off the western end of Curaçao are dominated by extensive populations of M. annularis (complex. These species are larger in size (mean= 66 cm diameter than all other species, with few small colonies (10 cm observed within transects, and most exhibited low levels of partial mortality (mean= 22.5%. These species were less abundant (38% of all colonies in 2005. Partial mortality among live colonies of M. annularis and M. faveolata increased by 85% (mean = 42% partial mortality and numerous dead colonies of M. faveolata and M. annularis were observed; M. franksi colonies were generally in excellent condition (14% partial tissue mortality. A high prevalence of coral diseases (3-30% was documented among M. annularis and M. faveolata, while all other species were less frequently affected. Yellow band disease (YBD emerged shortly after the 1995 bleaching event, and rapidly spread throughout all depths, with the highest prevalence between 1997-1999. YBD caused slow rates of mortality (=1 cm/month, but multiple focal lesions appeared on individual colonies, and these progressively radiated outward as they killed the colonies. By 2005, 44% of the tagged corals were dead; the remainder exhibited active YBD infections (21% or were in remission (31.6% but were missing on average >90% of their tissue. Although the incidence of YBD has declined since 2000, white plague (WP prevalence was unusually high (4-12% in 2001 and 2005, with affected colonies exhibiting recent mortality of up to 70%. Dead Montastraea spp. surfaces are being colonized by other corals, including poritids, agaricids, and other faviids, while recruits of M. annularis (complex are absent. If diseases and other biotic stressors persist on these reefs, M. annularis and M. faveolata populations may undergo a decline similar to that observed in the 1980s among Caribbean acroporids. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 45- 58. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.

  11. The Advancement of Public Awareness, Concerning TRU Waste Characterization, Using a Virtual Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, T. B.; Burns, T. P.; Estill, W. G.; Riggs, M. J.; Taggart, D. P.; Punjak, W. A.

    2002-01-01

    Building public trust and confidence through openness is a goal of the DOE Carlsbad Field Office for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The objective of the virtual document described in this paper is to give the public an overview of the waste characterization steps, an understanding of how waste characterization instrumentation works, and the type and amount of data generated from a batch of drums. The document is intended to be published on a web page and/or distributed at public meetings on CDs. Users may gain as much information as they desire regarding the transuranic (TRU) waste characterization program, starting at the highest level requirements (drivers) and progressing to more and more detail regarding how the requirements are met. Included are links to: drivers (which include laws, permits and DOE Orders); various characterization steps required for transportation and disposal under WIPP's Hazardous Waste Facility Permit; physical/chemical basis for each characterization method; types of data produced; and quality assurance process that accompanies each measurement. Examples of each type of characterization method in use across the DOE complex are included. The original skeleton of the document was constructed in a PowerPoint presentation and included descriptions of each section of the waste characterization program. This original document had a brief overview of Acceptable Knowledge, Non-Destructive Examination, Non-Destructive Assay, Small Quantity sites, and the National Certification Team. A student intern was assigned the project of converting the document to a virtual format and to discuss each subject in depth. The resulting product is a fully functional virtual document that works in a web browser and functions like a web page. All documents that were referenced, linked to, or associated, are included on the virtual document's CD. WIPP has been engaged in a variety of Hazardous Waste Facility Permit modification activities. During the

  12. Family characteristics and parents' and children's health behaviour are associated with public health nurses' concerns at children's health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutiainen, Hannele; Hakulinen, Tuovi; Mäki, Päivi; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed to establish whether family characteristics and the health behaviour and illnesses of parents and children are associated with public health nurses' (PHNs') concerns about children's physical health and psychosocial development in the context of health examinations. Factors affecting children's health and well-being should be identified as early as possible to provide children and families appropriate support. In 2007-2009, a cross-sectional study in Finland collected information about PHNs' concerns, children's health and well-being as well as the background factors affecting them during health examinations of preschool-age children and school-aged children (n = 4795). Associations between family characteristics, parents' and children's behaviour and diseases, and PHNs' concerns were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Overweight in children, the long-term illnesses of both children and parents, and parental smoking were the factors most strongly associated with PHNs' concerns about a child's physical health whereas non-nuclear family types, the father's low educational level and unemployment, the child's lack of sleep, and bullying were associated with concerns about the child's psychosocial development. The connections found demonstrate that health examinations should address factors that affect the whole family's well-being so as to comprehensively promote children's health, growth and development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. The functions of participation of the public in administrative procedures concerning large-scale projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronellenfitsch, M.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of the concepts of positive law and the dogmatic nature of law, the author examines the functions of participation of the public (purpose, intent) with a view to the type of administrative decisions to be taken, distinguishing between licensing and planning decisions. He discusses in particular the functions of information, participation, pacification, and legal protection. Legal protection is the example revealing the decisive difference in the two types of procedure. Balancing of legal protection is the goal, and if legal protection is made an issue already in the planning procedure, care must be taken to maintain balanced legal protection. (HSCH) [de

  14. Publication list concerning LMFBR-work of KFK from 1976 until 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1979-04-01

    This list is a continuation of the lists of the Karlsruhe Fast Breeder Project publications given in the earlier reports KFK-Ext. 25/7-1 and 25/76-1. Corresponding to the present organisation of the project in the framework of the cooperation between Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and France, the list is subdivided into the fields of the working groups of the 'Arbeitsausschuss F+E-Programme des SNR-300'. In the last part of the list general surveys of the project work and its objectives are quoted. (orig.) [de

  15. Organised crime and the efforts to combat it: a concern for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lucy; McKee, Martin

    2010-11-15

    This paper considers the public health impacts of the income-generating activities of organised crime. These range from the traditional vice activities of running prostitution and supplying narcotics, to the newer growth areas of human trafficking in its various forms, from international supply of young people and children as sex workers through deceit, coercion or purchase from family, through to smuggling of migrants, forced labour and the theft of human tissues for transplant, and the sale of fake medications, foodstuffs and beverages, cigarettes and other counterfeit manufactures. It looks at the effect of globalisation on integrating supply chains from poorly-regulated and impoverished source regions through to their distant markets, often via disparate groups of organised criminals who have linked across their traditional territories for mutual benefit and enhanced profit, with both traditional and newly-created linkages between production, distribution and retail functions of cooperating criminal networks from different cultures. It discusses the interactions between criminals and the structures of the state which enable illegal and socially undesirable activities to proceed on a massive scale through corruption and subversion of regulatory mechanisms. It argues that conventional approaches to tackling organised crime often have deleterious consequences for public health, and calls for an evidence-based approach with a focus on outcomes rather than ideology.

  16. Organised crime and the efforts to combat it: a concern for public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the public health impacts of the income-generating activities of organised crime. These range from the traditional vice activities of running prostitution and supplying narcotics, to the newer growth areas of human trafficking in its various forms, from international supply of young people and children as sex workers through deceit, coercion or purchase from family, through to smuggling of migrants, forced labour and the theft of human tissues for transplant, and the sale of fake medications, foodstuffs and beverages, cigarettes and other counterfeit manufactures. It looks at the effect of globalisation on integrating supply chains from poorly-regulated and impoverished source regions through to their distant markets, often via disparate groups of organised criminals who have linked across their traditional territories for mutual benefit and enhanced profit, with both traditional and newly-created linkages between production, distribution and retail functions of cooperating criminal networks from different cultures. It discusses the interactions between criminals and the structures of the state which enable illegal and socially undesirable activities to proceed on a massive scale through corruption and subversion of regulatory mechanisms. It argues that conventional approaches to tackling organised crime often have deleterious consequences for public health, and calls for an evidence-based approach with a focus on outcomes rather than ideology. PMID:21078158

  17. Public accept for environmental taxes: self-interest, environmental and distributional concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Saelen, Haakon

    2010-07-15

    While strongly recommended by economists, it has often been politically difficult to impose taxes on externalities. There is a substantial literature on public attitudes towards environmental taxes. There have, however, been few comprehensive attempts to understand attitudes towards environmental taxes, and few attempts to isolate the effects of selfish and social preferences. The main research question in this paper is which factors influence support for fuel taxation. We propose a model of attitudes towards fuel taxation, and test this model as well as more specific hypotheses, using data from a representative survey of the adult Norwegian population. Our results suggest that support for fuel taxation is best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences, followed by beliefs about consequences to others. Beliefs about consequences to self ( self interest ) is the factor that explains the least variation in support for fuel taxation. The academically interesting result that support cannot be well explained without capturing a broad range of motivational factors is also highly policy relevant. It implies that there is no magic formula for increasing public support for environmental taxes. There are, however, some issues which can be addressed: trust in how well the government spends the revenue, and the perception that taxation does very little to change behaviour and thus to reduce environmental problems. (Author)

  18. Organised crime and the efforts to combat it: a concern for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKee Martin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the public health impacts of the income-generating activities of organised crime. These range from the traditional vice activities of running prostitution and supplying narcotics, to the newer growth areas of human trafficking in its various forms, from international supply of young people and children as sex workers through deceit, coercion or purchase from family, through to smuggling of migrants, forced labour and the theft of human tissues for transplant, and the sale of fake medications, foodstuffs and beverages, cigarettes and other counterfeit manufactures. It looks at the effect of globalisation on integrating supply chains from poorly-regulated and impoverished source regions through to their distant markets, often via disparate groups of organised criminals who have linked across their traditional territories for mutual benefit and enhanced profit, with both traditional and newly-created linkages between production, distribution and retail functions of cooperating criminal networks from different cultures. It discusses the interactions between criminals and the structures of the state which enable illegal and socially undesirable activities to proceed on a massive scale through corruption and subversion of regulatory mechanisms. It argues that conventional approaches to tackling organised crime often have deleterious consequences for public health, and calls for an evidence-based approach with a focus on outcomes rather than ideology.

  19. The recent decline of Montastraea annularis (complex coral populations in western Curaçao: a cause for concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W Bruckner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shallow leeward reefs off the western end of Curaçao are dominated by extensive populations of M. annularis (complex. These species are larger in size (mean= 66 cm diameter than all other species, with few small colonies (10 cm observed within transects, and most exhibited low levels of partial mortality (mean= 22.5%. These species were less abundant (38% of all colonies in 2005. Partial mortality among live colonies of M. annularis and M. faveolata increased by 85% (mean = 42% partial mortality and numerous dead colonies of M. faveolata and M. annularis were observed; M. franksi colonies were generally in excellent condition (14% partial tissue mortality. A high prevalence of coral diseases (3-30% was documented among M. annularis and M. faveolata, while all other species were less frequently affected. Yellow band disease (YBD emerged shortly after the 1995 bleaching event, and rapidly spread throughout all depths, with the highest prevalence between 1997-1999. YBD caused slow rates of mortality (=1 cm/month, but multiple focal lesions appeared on individual colonies, and these progressively radiated outward as they killed the colonies. By 2005, 44% of the tagged corals were dead; the remainder exhibited active YBD infections (21% or were in remission (31.6% but were missing on average >90% of their tissue. Although the incidence of YBD has declined since 2000, white plague (WP prevalence was unusually high (4-12% in 2001 and 2005, with affected colonies exhibiting recent mortality of up to 70%. Dead Montastraea spp. surfaces are being colonized by other corals, including poritids, agaricids, and other faviids, while recruits of M. annularis (complex are absent. If diseases and other biotic stressors persist on these reefs, M. annularis and M. faveolata populations may undergo a decline similar to that observed in the 1980s among Caribbean acroporids. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 45- 58. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.Los arrecifes someros a sotavento

  20. Public expectations concerning confidentiality protection of adolescents' sexual and reproductive health care in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Lazarus, Jeffrey Victor

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An adolescent's right to confidential healthcare is protected by international law and professional consensus. However, parental and social support for confidential sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, in particular, varies greatly. This study documents Lithuanian residents......' expectations with regard to confidentiality protection for adolescents in this domain, and explores the factors related to the diversity of these expectations. METHODS: Two national surveys of Lithuanian residents completed in 2005 and 2012 using anonymous questionnaires. Participants rated their expectations...... for confidentiality using a five-point Likert scale for eight types of SRH consultations. RESULTS: Public anticipation for confidentiality depended on whether issues related to sexual behaviour or to its consequences were addressed during adolescent consultation. Only younger respondents had higher expectations...

  1. Self-inflicted violence: a sociological concern and a public health problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo

    1998-04-01

    This paper has two objectives. The first is to reflect on the meaning of suicide as a sociological issue, commenting on an article by E.D. Nunes (1988) on the famous work by Durkheim. The second is to discuss the same issue within the field of public health, analyzing the contributions by the father of sociology and approaches by the fields of epidemiology, psychology, psychiatry, and psychoanalysis, highlighting the work of Brazilian authors. The paper presents information on the Brazilian epidemiological context and concludes by demonstrating that only from an analytical point of view can violent causes as a whole can be studied separately. Thus, they constantly require epistemological and epidemiological surveillance to construct indicators capable of contributing to change. This is all the more true because data on current violence need to be viewed within the context of the social crisis and changes Brazil is undergoing.

  2. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourdain F.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health.

  3. The Theory and Evidence Concerning Public-Private Partnerships in Canada and Elsewhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Boardman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs, as a way for governments to get infrastructure built, continues to grow. But while the public is often led to believe that this is because they result in a more efficient use of taxpayer funds and a more streamlined process, this is not necessarily the case. In fact, the clearest advantage that PPPs offers is to politicians, who are able to transfer to private partners the risks of miscalculated construction costs and revenue projections (as with a toll road, for example. For taxpayers, the deals can often work out worse than if the government had simply pursued a fixedprice design-build Public Sector Alternative (PSA arrangement. Even from the very start of the process, there are often a limited number of private consortia equipped to bid on major PPPs, which already leads to the potential for bidders to build in higher profits, and thus, higher costs for taxpayers. Nor are these private consortia oblivious to the risks they assume; they must therefore build into their bid an effective “insurance premium” to account for unforeseen delays and increased costs. The use of private debt to finance construction further inflates prices over a government’s lower cost of capital. To an incumbent government, a key advantage of PPPs is the ability to avoid upfront costs, and let the private consortium arrange financing until the project is complete, allowing politicians to take the credit for new infrastructure while passing future maintenance and operating costs off onto future politicians, taxpayers and/or users. This, however, only provides both the incentive and bookkeeping artifice — since costs are incurred off the government’s current balance sheet — for governments to build more infrastructure than might otherwise be justified. Advocates of PPP would argue that one clear benefit PPPs do offer the public is an impressive record of bringing in projects on time and on budget. It is true

  4. Public and Private Institutions: Educating Civil Society about European Security Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bardají

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available As an specialist in strategic studies and political adviser, the author developes three basic ideas in his speech: 1 the objective necessity of strategic thinking to increase defense awareness, with the goal of ameliorating the relations between civil society and the Armed Forces, and to create a strategic culture to help to make more permeable the Administration decision-making process; 2 public and private institutions have to understand each other, despite the fact that tradition and time pressures do negatively weigh on Administration decision-making; 3 both parts –Administration and specialists in security– have to make the effort of becoming more flexible, on the one hand, and more capable of producing relevant studies in political terms, on the other.

  5. The modern crisis in health services--professional concerns and the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheps, C G

    1981-01-01

    The modern crisis in the health service systems of developed nations is described. Six major issues are discussed. 1) The need for recognition of the wholeness of man and the implications of this for implementing the concept of essential unity in the development and organization of health services; 2) the creation of ample opportunity for health manpower to work effectively in team situations; 3) the need for community-wide epidemiologic intelligence that will allow for better identification of problems and solutions; 4) the need to move away from the entrepreneurial framework of health care and regionalize facilities; 5) the assessment of costs both in terms of actions and inactions; and 6) the need for the professionals and public to work together in order to improve health services.

  6. Exploring frontotemporal dementia through a case report: An emerging public health concern in disguise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Khadilkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia has been declared by the World Health Organization as a significant public health problem around the world. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD is a lesser known, yet the second most common type of dementia among older adults under the age of 65 years. Age of onset in FTD is around late fifties, which is not typical for a diagnosis of dementia. In dementia, it is common to see psychiatric symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions as initial presentations. However, FTD may mimic mood disorders. Unfortunately, there are no definitive treatments or ways to prevent FTD. Additionally, challenges such as an earlier age of onset, delay in diagnosis, and difficulties with placement in nursing homes may be encountered while treating FTD patients. Here, we explore FTD through the case of a 61-year-old Caucasian female who initially presented with suicidal ideations.

  7. Public health concerns of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 endemicity in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi Gabriel Fasanmi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5N1 was first officially reported in Africa in 2006; thereafter this virus has spread rapidly from Nigeria to 11 other African countries. This study was aimed at utilizing data from confirmed laboratory reports to carry out a qualitative evaluation of the factors responsible for HPAI H5N1 persistence in Africa and the public health implications; and to suggest appropriate control measures. Relevant publications were sought from data banks and repositories of FAO, OIE, WHO, and Google scholars. Substantiated data on HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry in Africa and in humans across the world were mined. HPAI H5N1 affects poultry and human populations, with Egypt having highest human cases (346 globally. Nigeria had a reinfection from 2014 to 2015, with outbreaks in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, and Burkina Faso throughout 2016 unabated. The persistence of this virus in Africa is attributed to the survivability of HPAIV, ability to evolve other subtypes through genetic reassortment, poor biosecurity compliance at the live bird markets and poultry farms, husbandry methods and multispecies livestock farming, poultry vaccinations, and continuous shedding of HPAIV, transboundary transmission of HPAIV through poultry trades; and transcontinental migratory birds. There is, therefore, the need for African nations to realistically reassess their status, through regular surveillance and be transparent with HPAI H5N1 outbreak data. Also, it is important to have an understanding of HPAIV migration dynamics which will be helpful in epidemiological modeling, disease prevention, control and eradication measures.

  8. Public acceptance for environmental taxes: Self-interest, environmental and distributional concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Saelen, Hakon

    2011-01-01

    While strongly recommended by economists, it has often been politically difficult to impose taxes on externalities. There is a substantial literature on public attitudes towards environmental taxes. There has, however, been few comprehensive attempts to understand attitudes towards environmental taxes. The main research question in this paper is which factors influence support for fuel taxation. We propose a model of attitudes towards fuel taxation, and test this model as well as more specific hypotheses, using data from a representative survey of the adult Norwegian population. Our results suggest that support for fuel taxation is best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences, followed by beliefs about consequences to others. Beliefs about consequences to self (self-interest) is the factor that explains the least variation in support for fuel taxation. The academically interesting result that support cannot be well explained without capturing a broad range of motivational factors is also highly policy relevant. It implies that there is no magic formula for increasing public support for environmental taxes. There are, however, some issues which can be addressed: trust in how well the government spends the revenue, and the perception that taxation does very little to change behaviour and thus to reduce environmental problems. - Research highlights: → Which factors influence support for fuel taxation? → We test a model of attitudes towards fuel taxes with data from a Norwegian survey. → Support for fuel taxation best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences. → Support for fuel taxation followed by beliefs about consequences to others. → Self-interest is the factor that explains the least variation in support.

  9. Public acceptance for environmental taxes: Self-interest, environmental and distributional concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallbekken, Steffen, E-mail: steffen.kallbekken@cicero.uio.n [CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo, PO Box 1129 Blindern, 0318 Oslo (Norway); Saelen, Hakon [CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo, PO Box 1129 Blindern, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-05-15

    While strongly recommended by economists, it has often been politically difficult to impose taxes on externalities. There is a substantial literature on public attitudes towards environmental taxes. There has, however, been few comprehensive attempts to understand attitudes towards environmental taxes. The main research question in this paper is which factors influence support for fuel taxation. We propose a model of attitudes towards fuel taxation, and test this model as well as more specific hypotheses, using data from a representative survey of the adult Norwegian population. Our results suggest that support for fuel taxation is best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences, followed by beliefs about consequences to others. Beliefs about consequences to self (self-interest) is the factor that explains the least variation in support for fuel taxation. The academically interesting result that support cannot be well explained without capturing a broad range of motivational factors is also highly policy relevant. It implies that there is no magic formula for increasing public support for environmental taxes. There are, however, some issues which can be addressed: trust in how well the government spends the revenue, and the perception that taxation does very little to change behaviour and thus to reduce environmental problems. - Research highlights: {yields} Which factors influence support for fuel taxation? {yields} We test a model of attitudes towards fuel taxes with data from a Norwegian survey. {yields} Support for fuel taxation best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences. {yields} Support for fuel taxation followed by beliefs about consequences to others. {yields} Self-interest is the factor that explains the least variation in support.

  10. Zoonoses: an occupational hazard for livestock workers and a public health concern for rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeJeune, J; Kersting, A

    2010-07-01

    Farming employs one of the most diverse work forces, while at the same time it is one of the most dangerous occupations in the U.S. Individuals associated with the livestock industry face an additional risk: zoonotic diseases. In an effort to improve the overall well-being of the farming community, this review addresses zoonoses as a health concern for the farming community. The discussion of agriculturally acquired zoonoses includes infections naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to man (e.g., rabies) and those common to animals and man (e.g., Salmonella). Special consideration is given to identifying individuals potentially at higher risk for developing disease. Case reports and epidemiological studies are reviewed from published veterinary and human-health literature to illustrate exposure scenarios and associated health outcomes. Additionally, key livestock zoonoses in the U.S. are summarized, and an overview of prevention and control strategies is provided. Findings show that livestock can transmit many zoonoses directly and indirectly, and human health can be significantly impacted, but the number of people adversely impacted is largely unknown. This review concludes that more education about zoonosis transmission and prevention is needed, and healthcare providers serving rural communities are a critical link in providing this information. In order for healthcare providers to address the educational gap, we recommend greater collaboration with veterinary specialists schooled in population medicine, zoonosis prevention and control, and animal production.

  11. Taxis and crowd-taxis: sharing as a private activity and public concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merethe Dotterud Leiren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The sharing economy has generated interest among economists for its customer focus and potential to enhance competition. However, it has also caused uproar in industries which have felt competitive pressure, for example among the established stakeholders in the taxi industry. While regulations currently impose considerable costs on the taxi industry, they do not cover virtual transport innovations such as Uber. The lack of a level playing field between taxis and such ‘crowd-taxis’ has generated media attention and conflict. Taxi owners worry about decreasing revenues and taxi drivers about poor working conditions. Other concerns are related to poor transport preparedness, accessibility issues, quality assurance and tax evasion. Despite considerable media attention, there has so far been a lack of scholarly literature addressing the consequences of the sharing economy in the transport sector. Focusing on the Norwegian taxi market, we argue that crowd-taxis will likely produce a range of unanticipated effects, necessitating regulation. For example, crowd-taxis may contribute to a loss of transport preparedness in rural areas. The findings are based on first and secondary data and 19 interviews.

  12. Safety assessments and public concern for genetically modified food products: the American view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlander, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    In the relatively short time since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States GM crops are regulated through a coordinated framework developed in 1992 and administered by three agencies-the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that ensures the products are safe to grow, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that ensures the products are safe for the environment, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that ensures the products are safe to eat. Rigorous food and environmental safety assessments must be completed before GM crops can be commercialized. Fifty-one products have been reviewed by the FDA, including several varieties of corn, soybeans, canola, cotton, rice, sugar beets, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, papaya, and flax. Because FDA considers these crops "substantially equivalent" to their conventional counterparts, no special labeling is required for GM crops in the United States and they are managed as commodities with no segregation or identity preservation. GM crops have thus made their way through commodity distribution channels into thousands of ingredients used in processed foods. It has been estimated that 70% to 85% of processed foods on supermarket shelves in the United States today contain one or more ingredients potentially derived from GM crops. The food industry and retail industry have been monitoring the opinions of their consumers on the GM issue for the past several years. Numerous independent groups have also surveyed consumer concerns about GM foods. The results of these surveys are shared and discussed here.

  13. Nuclear wastes management. 1. round table - geologic disposal as questioned by the public in concern; Gestion des dechets nucleaires. 1. table ronde le stockage geologique - la mise en question par les publics concernes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the last round table held at Paris. This meeting gathers representatives of the different actors of the nuclear industry, ministers, public authorities, non governmental organizations who argue the questions asked by peoples from the audience. The topics concern various aspects of waste management, like the quantity of wastes in concern, the reversibility of storages, the monitoring of waste facilities once closed down, the related costs, and the general safety questions about the suitability of the clay formation near the Bure site for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. A second part of the meeting addresses some remarks about the information of the general public and the decision making process. Finally, five presentations (slides) are attached to these proceedings and treat of: the safety of the disposal in deep geologic formation; the management of spent fuels in Canada; the nuclear wastes R and D in Sweden; the researches and projects in Belgium for the geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes; the results

  14. The recent and projected public health and economic benefits of cigarette taxation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Vardavas, Constantine I; Chaloupka, Frank J; Vozikis, Athanassios; Athanasakis, Konstantinos; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis; Bertic, Monique; Behrakis, Panagiotis K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-09-01

    Greece is in an economic crisis compounded by the costs caused by smoking. The present investigation estimates the economic and public health benefits ensuing from the recent cigarette excise tax increase in 2011 and projects the potential benefits from an additional €2.00 per pack cigarette tax increase. The effects of the recent cigarette excise tax increase were calculated on outcome measures: total price per pack, including specific excise, ad valorem tax, and value-added tax consumption; tax revenue; and per capita consumption of cigarettes. Additionally, smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses were estimated. Projected effects of an additional €2.00 per pack tax increase on consumption and tax revenue were also assessed. The cigarette excise tax increase in 2011 created €558 million in new tax revenue. Cigarette consumption reached a recent low of 24.9 billion sticks sold or 2197 sticks per person in 2011, indicating a 16% decrease in per capita cigarette consumption from the previous year. An additional €2.00 per pack increase in Greek cigarette taxes is projected to result in reduced cigarette sales by an additional 20% and lead to an increase in total cigarette tax revenues by nearly €1.2 billion and the prevention of 192,000 premature deaths. Nations such as Greece, should employ taxation as a crucial measure to promote public health and economic development in such dire times. International economic organisations should aggressively pursue programmes and policies that champion the economic benefits of tobacco taxation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Countering Ice Ages: Re-directing Public Concern from Global Warming (GW) to Global Cooling (GC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. F.

    2016-02-01

    I present here three arguments in favor of such a drastic shift - which involves also a shift in current policies, such as mitigation of the greenhouse (GH) gas carbon dioxide. 1. Historical evidence shows that cooling, even on a regional or local scale, is much more damaging than warming. The key threat is to agriculture, leading to failure of harvests, followed by famine, starvation, disease, and mass deaths. 2. Also, GC is reasonably sure, while GW is iffy. The evidence from deep-sea sediment cores and ice cores shows some 17 (Milankovitch-style) glaciations in the past 2 million years, each typically lasting 100,000 years, interrupted by warm inter-glacials, typically around 10,000-yr duration. The most recent glaciation ended rather suddenly about 12,000 years ago. We are now in the warm Holocene, which is expected to end soon. Most of humanity may not survive the next, inevitable glaciation. We need to consider also the warming-cooling (Dansgaard-Oeschger-Bond - DOB) cycles, which seem solar-controlled and have a period of approx 1000-1500 years; its most recent cooling phase, the "Little Ice Age" (LIA), ended about 200 years ago. For details, see Unstoppable Global Warming: Every 1500 years by Singer &Avery [2007]. 3. Available technology seems adequate to assure human survival - at least in industrialized nations. The main threat is warfare, driven by competition for food and other essential resources. With nuclear weapons and delivery systems widely dispersed, the outcome of future wars is difficult to predict. Using geo-engineering to overcome a future cooling looks promising for both types of ice ages - with relatively low cost and low risk to the physical and biological environment. I will describe how to neutralize the "trigger" of major glaciations, and propose a particular greenhouse scheme that may counter the cooling phase of DOB cycles.

  16. The road traffic crashes as a neglected public health concern; an observational study from Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Delpisheh, Ali; Monfared, Ayad Bahadori; Kazemi-Galougahi, Mohammad Hassan; Mehmandar, Mohammad Reza; Riahi, Mohammad; Salehi, Masoud; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Traffic crashes are multifactorial events caused by human factors, technical issues, and environmental conditions. The present study aimed to determine the role of human factors in traffic crashes in Iran using the proportional odds regression model. The database of all traffic crashes in Iran in 2010 (n = 592, 168) registered through the "COM.114" police forms was investigated. Human risk factors leading to traffic crashes were determined and the odds ratio (OR) of each risk factor was estimated using an ordinal regression model and adjusted for potential confounding factors such as age, gender, and lighting status within and outside of cities. The drivers' mean age ± standard deviation was 34.1 ± 14.0 years. The most prevalent risk factors leading to death within cities were disregarding traffic rules and regulations (45%), driver rushing (31%), and alcohol consumption (12.3%). Using the proportional odds regression model, alcohol consumption was the most significant human risk factor in traffic crashes within cities (OR = 6.5, 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.88-8.65) and outside of cities (OR = 1.73, 95% CI, 1.22-3.29). Public health strategies and preventive policies should be focused on more common human risk factors such as disregarding traffic rules and regulations, drivers' rushing, and alcohol consumption due to their greater population attributable fraction and more intuitive impacts on society.

  17. Factors driving public tolerance levels and information-seeking behaviour concerning insects in the household environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelitsz, Bruce; Poortvliet, P Marijn; Takken, Willem

    2018-06-01

    The public's negative attitudes towards household insects drive tolerance for these insects and their control. Tolerance levels are important in integrated pest management (IPM), as are pest knowledge and information. The risk information seeking and processing (RISP) model describes the relationships between personal factors and information-seeking behaviour. We combined IPM and RISP to determine important relationships between factors driving insect tolerance levels and information-seeking behaviour through an online survey and tested whether this model is valid and generally applicable. Relationships between variables from both IPM and RISP models were tested for seven insect species. Tolerance levels were measured with two factors: willingness to pay for pest control and whether insects are tolerated. Willingness to pay for control was positively affected by age, experience, risk perception, insect characteristics, and negative emotions and affected behavioural intention, by influencing information sufficiency and information-seeking behaviour. Tolerability was influenced by perception of insect characteristics and determines whether control measures are taken. It was possible to combine the RISP and IPM models. Relevant driving factors were a person's age, experience, risk perception, negative affective responses, tolerance levels, relevant channel beliefs about online forums, information sufficiency and information-seeking behaviour. There was, however, variation in important factors between different insects. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Price--Anderson Act: an imaginative approach to public liability concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenstein, R.

    1977-01-01

    Opposition to the Price-Anderson Indemnity Law is felt to be motivated by opposition to new nuclear power plant construction rather than against the insurance industry. Those who oppose nuclear power plants view them as an alternative rather than the additional source of energy needed to meet demand. The Act's historical background is reviewed, leading up to the insurance industry's conclusion that lack of actuarial statistics would prevent it from providing adequate insurance for potential liability claims. The 1957 Act was intended to provide public compensation in the event of an accident and to limit the liability of private industry. Several modifications were enacted over the years to close gaps in the original law and extend protection to new developments. Amendments were passed in 1975 that extend coverage to August 1, 1987, allow industry-financed indemnity to be substituted for government indemnity beyond the insurance available, and increase the limit of liability. Critics contend that (1) although the government has yet to pay out any claims, government indemnity amounts to a subsidy; (2) limits on liability are not reasonable if reactors are safe and licensable; and (3) liability coverage is a disincentive for reactor safety measures. These criticisms are not felt to be valid, however, and the amended bill's provisions are listed and found to be adequate

  19. Recent improvements concerning nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, M.

    1984-12-01

    Rare are the techniques of which development is not already touched by microelectronics and micro-data processing. Nondestructive testing and more particularly ultrasonic and Foucault current testing follow this general rule. With some examples, this paper focuses on the potential of numerical signal processing [fr

  20. All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) on the road: a serious traffic safety and public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Gerene; Jennissen, Charles; Harland, Karisa; Ellis, David; Buresh, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    On-road all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes are frequent occurrences that disproportionately impact rural communities. These crashes occur despite most states having laws restricting on-road ATV use. A number of overall risk factors for ATV-related injuries have been identified (e.g., lack of helmet, carrying passengers). However, few studies have determined the relative contribution of these and other factors to on-road crashes and injuries. The objective of our study was to determine whether there were differences between on- and off-road ATV crashes in their demographics and/or mechanisms and outcomes of injuries. Data were derived from our statewide ATV injury surveillance database (2002-2009). Crash location and crash and injury mechanisms were coded using a modification of the Department of Transportation (DOT) coding system. Descriptive analyses and statistical comparisons (chi-square test) of variables were performed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine relative risk. 976 records were included in the final analysis, with 38 percent of the injured individuals from on-road crashes. Demographics were similar for crashes at each location, with approximately 80 percent males, 30 percent under the age of 16, and 15 percent passengers. However, females and youths under 16 were over 4 times more likely to be passengers (P ≤ 0.0001), regardless of crash location. Compared to those off-road, on-road crash victims were approximately 10 times more likely to be involved in a vehicle-vehicle collision (P road crashes were also twice as likely to test positive for alcohol as those off-road (P road victims were only half as likely to be helmeted (P road crashes involved a collision with another vehicle, suggesting that ATVs on the road represent a potential traffic safety concern. Of note, helmets were associated with reduced risk for the number and severity of brain injuries, providing further support for the importance of helmet use. Finally

  1. Advice concerning radionuclide release of nuclear power plants and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Amongst the severe accidents with nuclear power plants, a number of scenario's is theoretically possible. These scenario's lead to more or less serious consequences for the environment. Characteristics for the category of accidents was the early breakdown of the containment of the reactor. In recent years more and more doubt has risen with regard to the most serious scenario KE. In the Netherlands the Committee for Reactor Safety (CRV) has reported on this subject (annex 1). According to the CRV the release of a number of important radionuclides, in the case of scenario KE, will be very much less than was supposed in the past. Also, the nuclides will be released much later than was supposed before. A committee of the Dutch Health Council, starting from the CRV-report, has made calculations on the radiological consequences of the KE-scenario, corrected in accordance with these new developments (KEH). As could be expected, this category KEH proves to be considerably less dangerous than was supposed before. Irradiation of the surrounding population with a lethal dose would not occur anymore. The number of somatic and genetic effects would be very small. The conclusions drawn from these calculations are given. These results are compared with calculated consequences of an accident of the KM-category. The CRV has defined a maximised accident from this category (KMM). The report includes the report of the Dutch Commission on Reactor Safety (CR-82-71) as an appendix. (Auth.)

  2. Phlebotomine sandflies and the spreading of leishmaniases and other diseases of public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, M; Feliciangeli, M D; Bichaud, L; Charrel, R N; Gradoni, L

    2013-06-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies transmit pathogens that affect humans and animals worldwide. We review the roles of phlebotomines in the spreading of leishmaniases, sandfly fever, summer meningitis, vesicular stomatitis, Chandipura virus encephalitis and Carrión's disease. Among over 800 species of sandfly recorded, 98 are proven or suspected vectors of human leishmaniases; these include 42 Phlebotomus species in the Old World and 56 Lutzomyia species in the New World (all: Diptera: Psychodidae). Based on incrimination criteria, we provide an updated list of proven or suspected vector species by endemic country where data are available. Increases in sandfly diffusion and density resulting from increases in breeding sites and blood sources, and the interruption of vector control activities contribute to the spreading of leishmaniasis in the settings of human migration, deforestation, urbanization and conflict. In addition, climatic changes can be expected to affect the density and dispersion of sandflies. Phlebovirus infections and diseases are present in large areas of the Old World, especially in the Mediterranean subregion, in which virus diversity has proven to be higher than initially suspected. Vesiculovirus diseases are important to livestock and humans in the southeastern U.S.A. and Latin America, and represent emerging human threats in parts of India. Carrión's disease, formerly restricted to regions of elevated altitude in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia, has shown recent expansion to non-endemic areas of the Amazon basin. © 2012 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Public-Private Partnership’s Contract in Malaysia: Some Areas of Concern in a Land Swap Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Muhamad Said

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper seeks to explore the public-private partnership initiative and salient provisions of government contracts in Malaysia. This paper further examines some areas of concern emphasising on a land swap type of contract. There are still many other provisions that need to be addressed for example on obligations, design and constructions, choosing the right type of contracts, operations and maintenance, sub-contracts, relief events, liability and damages, performance security, default and termination and dispute resolutions which is not dealt in this paper.

  4. Reporting patterns of adverse drug reactions over recent years in China: analysis from publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-jing; Ye, Xiao-fei; Wang, Xing-xing; Wang, Jing; Shi, Wen-tao; Gao, Qing-bin; Zhang, Tian-yi; Xu, Jin-fang; Zhu, Tian-tian; He, Jia

    2015-02-01

    The goal of this study was to clarify the reporting patterns of self-reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in China. A variety of sources were searched, including the official website of China FDA, the national center for ADR monitoring center, publications from PubMed, and so on. We retrieved the relevant information and made descriptive and comparative analysis from the year 2009 to 2013. The ADR reporting numbers were 638,996, 692,904, 852,799, 1,200,000 and 1,317,000 from 2009 to 2013, respectively. Healthcare professionals contributed significantly, and their proportion always exceeded 80% before 2012. The average report per million inhabitants has increased from 479 to 983 from 2009 to 2013. However, the proportion of new or serious report was always below 25%. The reports mainly concern anti-infective agents and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), especially TCM injection. The proportion of ADR reports in geriatric patients has increased for 4 consecutive years. ADR report numbers and reporting rates in China are on the rise. However, the proportion of new or serious reports as well as the proportion of reports contributed by consumers and pharmaceutical companies are still quite low. More attention should be paid to the elderly, anti-infective agents and TCM, especially TCM injections.

  5. Recent UK Experience of Involving the Public in Decisions on Radioactive Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E.; Weedon, C.J.; McGoff, A.; Bower, M.

    2001-01-01

    applications. Prior to public consultation, the Agency had not made any decisions on the BNFL applications. It will not do so until it has carefully considered and has been informed by all the consultation responses. To assist the consultation process, the Agency prepared an Explanatory Document (about 100 pages long) and draft authorisation (about 20 pages long) for each of the eight Magnox power stations concerned. These documents were intended to help members of the public and other consultees to understand BNFL's applications for each power station and the Agency's considerations up to the start of consultation. Each Explanatory Document included a bullet point summary, which was also made available as a leaflet which could be distributed separately. The consultation documents for each power station included: the application documents submitted by BNFL; questions raised by the Agency on the applications and BNFL's responses to them; information provided in response to statutory consultation with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE - the nuclear safety regulator) and the Food Standards Agency; relevant information provided by other Government bodies in response to Agency questions; the Explanatory Document; and the draft authorisation. The consultation documents were provided in two parts, namely a ring binder containing BNFL's application material, including its responses to the Agency's questions, and a bound document containing the Agency's Explanatory Document, its draft authorisation and information provided by other Government bodies

  6. Recent UK Experience of Involving the Public in Decisions on Radioactive Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency, London (United Kingdom); Weedon, C.J. [Environment Agency, Penrith (United Kingdom); McGoff, A.; Bower, M. [Environment Agency, Bedford (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    decisions on the applications. Prior to public consultation, the Agency had not made any decisions on the BNFL applications. It will not do so until it has carefully considered and has been informed by all the consultation responses. To assist the consultation process, the Agency prepared an Explanatory Document (about 100 pages long) and draft authorisation (about 20 pages long) for each of the eight Magnox power stations concerned. These documents were intended to help members of the public and other consultees to understand BNFL's applications for each power station and the Agency's considerations up to the start of consultation. Each Explanatory Document included a bullet point summary, which was also made available as a leaflet which could be distributed separately. The consultation documents for each power station included: the application documents submitted by BNFL; questions raised by the Agency on the applications and BNFL's responses to them; information provided in response to statutory consultation with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE - the nuclear safety regulator) and the Food Standards Agency; relevant information provided by other Government bodies in response to Agency questions; the Explanatory Document; and the draft authorisation. The consultation documents were provided in two parts, namely a ring binder containing BNFL's application material, including its responses to the Agency's questions, and a bound document containing the Agency's Explanatory Document, its draft authorisation and information provided by other Government bodies.

  7. Online public reactions to fMRI communication with patients with disorders of consciousness: Quality of life, end-of-life decision making, and concerns with misdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jennifer A; Sun, Jeffrey A; Racine, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the news media have reported on the discovery of covert awareness and the establishment of limited communication using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neuroimaging technique with several brain-injured patients thought to have been in a vegetative state. This discovery has raised many ethical, legal, and social questions related to quality of life, end-of-life decision making, diagnostic and prognostic accuracy in disorders of consciousness, resource allocation, and other issues. This project inquires into the public responses to these discoveries. We conducted a thematic analysis of online comments (n = 779) posted in response to 15 news articles and blog posts regarding the case of a Canadian patient diagnosed for 12 years as in a vegetative state, but who was reported in 2012 as having been able to communicate via fMRI. The online comments were coded using an iteratively refined codebook structured around 14 main themes. Among the most frequent public reactions revealed in the online comments were discussions of the quality of life of patients with disorders of consciousness, whether life-sustaining treatment should be withdrawn (and whether the fMRI communication technique should be used to ask patients about this), and misgivings about the accuracy of diagnosis in disorders of consciousness and brain death. These public perspectives are relevant to the obligations of clinicians, lawyers, and public policymakers to patients, families, and the public. Future work should consider how best to alleviate families' concerns as this type of research shakes their faith in diagnostic accuracy, to clarify the legal rules relating to advance directives in this context, and to address the manner in which public messaging might help to alleviate any indirect impact on confidence in the organ donation system.

  8. Concern and Helplessness: Citizens' Assessments of Individual and Collective Action on the Provision of Environmental Public Goods in a Coastal City at Risk of Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyan, Sabrina; Collins, Alan; Duffy, David

    2016-09-01

    Survey data from a representative sample of 1005 households in the UK coastal city of Portsmouth are examined to discern commonalities and contrasts in their assessment of actions to address the related environmental threats of climate change and flooding. The city of Portsmouth is at risk of inundation from rising sea levels and the city has recent experience of flooding. A simple local and global public good framework is used to organize the understanding of reported attitudes and their determinants. The findings show that it is not always the same individuals who express concern about both climate change and flooding. Investigation into perceptions of helplessness in tackling climate change indicates that individuals more often perceived themselves to be helpless in tackling climate but perceived local collective action to be more effective. Individuals considered local collective action to be more effective in tackling climate change. Perceptions of individual helplessness are in turn related to reported concern. Several socioeconomic characteristics of individuals are shown to be useful in explaining the determinants of concern and perceptions of helplessness among respondents. As other cities face climate change-related challenges, the empirical findings, based upon attitudes from an alert urban population, are informative to policy design.

  9. Is vitamin D deficiency a public health concern for low middle income countries? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Sheehy, Tony; O'Neill, Colette M

    2018-01-17

    Vitamin D deficiency has been receiving increasing attention as a potential public health concern in low and lower-middle income countries (LMICs), of which there are currently 83. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive systematic literature review (SLR) of available data on vitamin D status and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in all 83 LMICs. We followed the general methodology for SLRs in the area of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Highest priority was placed on identifying relevant population-based studies, followed by cross-sectional studies, and to a lesser extent case-control studies. We adopted the public health convention that a prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D  20% in the entire population and/or at-risk population subgroups (infants, children, women of child-bearing age, pregnancy) constitutes a public health issue that may warrant intervention. Our SLR revealed that of the 83 LMICs, 65% (n = 54 countries) had no published studies with vitamin D data suitable for inclusion. Using data from the remaining third, a number of LMICs had evidence of excess burden of vitamin D deficiency in one or more population subgroup(s) using the above convention (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Tunisia and Mongolia) as well as possibly other LMICs, albeit with much more limited data. Several LMICs had no evidence of excess burden. Vitamin D deficiency is a public health issue in some, but certainly not all, LMICs. There is a clear need for targeting public health strategies for prevention of vitamin D deficiency in those LMICs with excess burden.

  10. Nuclear wastes management. 1. round table - geologic disposal as questioned by the public in concern; Gestion des dechets nucleaires. 1. table ronde le stockage geologique - la mise en question par les publics concernes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the last round table held at Paris. This meeting gathers representatives of the different actors of the nuclear industry, ministers, public authorities, non governmental organizations who argue the questions asked by peoples from the audience. The topics concern various aspects of waste management, like the quantity of wastes in concern, the reversibility of storages, the monitoring of waste facilities once closed down, the related costs, and the general safety questions about the suitability of the clay formation near the Bure site for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. A second part of the meeting addresses some remarks about the information of the general public and the decision making process. Finally, five presentations (slides) are attached to these proceedings and treat of: the safety of the disposal in deep geologic formation; the management of spent fuels in Canada; the nuclear wastes R and D in Sweden; the researches and projects in Belgium for the geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes; the results

  11. A review on the application of constructed wetlands for the removal of priority substances and contaminants of emerging concern listed in recently launched EU legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorito, Ana M.; Ribeiro, Ana R.; Almeida, C.M.R.; Silva, Adrián M.T.

    2017-01-01

    The presence of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment, usually found at trace concentrations (i.e., between ng L −1 and μg L −1 or even lower, known as micropollutants), has been highlighted in recent decades as a worldwide environmental concern due to their difficult elimination by conventional water and wastewater treatment processes. The relevant information on constructed wetlands (CWs) and their application for the removal of a specific group of pollutants, 41 organic priority substances/classes of substances (PSs) and 8 certain other substances with environmental quality standards (EQS) listed in Directive 2013/39/EU as well as 17 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) of the Watch List of Decision 2015/495/EU, is herein reviewed. Studies were found for 24 PSs and 2 other substances with EQS: octylphenol, nonylphenol, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, trichloromethane, dichloromethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, pentachlorobenzene, benzene, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, naphthalene, fluoranthene, trifluralin, alachlor, isoproturon, diuron, tributyltin compounds, simazine, atrazine, chlorpyrifos (chlorpyrifos-ethyl), chlorfenvinphos, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol, endosulfan, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (or DDT) and dieldrin. A few reports were also published for 8 CECs: imidacloprid, erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, diclofenac, estrone, 17-beta-estradiol and 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol. No references were found for the other 17 PSs, 6 certain other substances with EQS and 9 CECs listed in EU legislation. - Highlights: • Directive 2013/39/EU includes 41 organic priority substances/classes of substances. • Watch List of Decision 2015/495/EU defines 17 contaminants of emerging concern. • Removal of these water micropollutants by constructed wetlands (CWs) is reviewed. • The need to study removal by CWs of more of these substances is emphasized. • More works with realistic concentrations

  12. 2013 Survey of Iowa groundwater and evaluation of public well vulnerability classifications for contaminants of emerging concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Claire E.; Libra, Robert D.; Fields, Chad L.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Borchardt, Mark R.; Spencer, Susan K.; Wichman, Michael D.; Hall, Nancy; Schueller, Michael D.; Furlong, Edward T.; Weyer, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies in Iowa have long documented the vulnerability of wells with less than 50 feet (15 meters) of confining materials above the source aquifer to contamination from nitrate and various pesticides. Recent studies in Wisconsin have documented the occurrence of viruses in untreated groundwater, even in wells considered to have little vulnerability to contamination from near-surface activities. In addition, sensitive methods have become available for analyses of pharmaceuticals and pesticides. This study represents the first comprehensive examination of contaminants of emerging concern in Iowa’s groundwater conducted to date, and one of the first conducted in the United States. Raw groundwater samples were collected from 66 public supply wells during the spring of 2013, when the state was recovering from drought conditions. Samples were analyzed for 206 chemical and biological parameters; including 20 general water-quality parameters and major ions, 19 metals, 5 nutrients, 10 virus groups, 3 species of pathogenic bacteria, 5 microbial indicators, 108 pharmaceuticals, 35 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and tritium. The wells chosen for this study represent a diverse range of ages, depths, confining material thicknesses, pumping rates, and land use settings. The most commonly detected contaminant group was pesticide compounds, which were present in 41% of the samples. As many as 6 pesticide compounds were found together in a sample, most of which were chloroacetanilide degradates. While none of the measured concentrations of pesticide compounds exceeded current benchmark levels, several of these compounds are listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Contaminant Candidate List and could be subject to drinking water standards in the future. Despite heavy use in the past decade, glyphosate was not detected, and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid, was only detected in two of 60 wells tested (3%) at the detection limit of 0.02

  13. Empirical Research Concerning the Impact of the Public Internal Audit on the Accounting System and its Reliability in Romanian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drăguşin Cristina-Petrina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is materialized in an empirical study concerning the impact of the internal audit on the accounting system and its reliability, in case of public universities in Romania. In order to achieve the study, it was necessary to know the different points of view of the representatives of the accounting departments of public institutions of academic education, using a statistical survey based on questionnaire. The research objectives were focused on obtaining conclusions regarding: the importance of internal auditing of the accounting system and its reliability; the extent to which the internal audit manages to provide reasonable assurances regarding the accounting and financial activity; the importance in auditing of the items related to the accounting activity; the assurance and the adequacy of the human resources allocated to the internal audit departments; the frequency with which the internal audit reports projects are modified in order to follow the audited structure recommendations; the extent to which the audit reports reflect the reality; the internal audit activity contribution in improving the accounting systems and their reliability in the Romanian universities.

  14. Recent Trends in Publications of US and European Directors in Vascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurshina, Afsha; Hingorani, Anil; Hingorani, Amrit; Marks, Natalie; Ascher, Enrico

    2018-02-24

    We hypothesized that there may be significant differences between academic productivity of the vascular training programs in the United States (US) and Europe. In an effort to explore this theory, we reviewed the number of vascular publications listed in PubMed from 2010 to 2015 for US and European directors in vascular surgery. The list of program directors from the Association of Program Directors in Vascular Surgery (APDVS) and the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS) were queried for the names of the directors of vascular surgical training programs at the end of 2015. PubMed listed 5,474 citations published from 2010 to 2015. Three thousand five hundred sixty-one were from Europe while 1,912 were from the US. UK and German programs did not list their directors' names in the EUMS website and were thus not included in the European data. The average number of citations in PubMed per program director was 2.36 per year. In Europe, each of the 273 program directors averaged 2.17 publications per year, whereas each of the 114 US program directors averaged 2.80 publications per year (P = 0.37). Journal of Vascular Surgery (JVS) publications made up 24.0% (12.7% in Europe and 45.0% in the US). In the US, the top third produced 69% of the publications and 77% of the JVS publications, whereas in Europe, the top third produced 87% of the publications and 98% of the JVS publications. In the US, 5 program directors (4.4%) had no publications and 21 (18.4%) had no JVS publications. In Europe, 82 program directors (30.0%) had no publications, whereas 180 (65.9%) had no JVS publications. Abstracts were categorized by topic for comparison. In both Europe and the US, the top third produced more than two-thirds of the publications, with the disparity being even more pronounced in Europe where the top third produced almost 90% of the total publications. Comparing the topics of the publications from Europe and the US, it was found that the US program directors published a

  15. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  16. A brief history of 'lone' atrial fibrillation: from 'a peculiar pulse irregularity' to a modern public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the original description of a 'peculiar pulse irregularity', atrial fibrillation (AF) has been studied extensively and has come a long journey from the recognition of its cardiac origins, to the modern concept of AF as a serious public health challenge with profound social and economic implications. This arrhythmia affects around 2% of adult population, and the most common underlying heart diseases accompanying AF in the modern era are hypertension, heart failure and coronary artery disease, as well as valvular heart diseases and numerous other cardiac as well as non-cardiac disorders which have been shown to predispose to AF. On occasions, AF occurs in young otherwise apparently healthy individuals (so called 'lone AF'). For a long time, 'lone' AF has been believed to bear a favourable prognosis as compared to AF with underlying structural heart disease, but increasing evidence suggests that 'lone' AF patients represent a rather heterogeneous cohort, with highly variable individual risk profiles due to the presence of various subclinical cardiovascular risk factors or genetically determined subtle alterations at the cellular or molecular level. For these reasons, the existence of truly 'lone' AF has recently been questioned. In this review article, we present a brief history of the recognition of the public health burden of AF. We discuss some of the misconceptions and breakthroughs on modern knowledge on AF, including the rise (and fall) of the 'lone' AF concept.

  17. Identifying the public's concerns and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's reactions during a health crisis: An analysis of a Zika live Twitter chat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M; Lazard, Allison J; Wilcox, Gary B; Mackert, Michael; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2016-12-01

    The arrival of the Zika virus in the United States caused much concern among the public because of its ease of transmission and serious consequences for pregnant women and their newborns. We conducted a text analysis to examine original tweets from the public and responses from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during a live Twitter chat hosted by the CDC. Both the public and the CDC expressed concern about the spread of Zika virus, but the public showed more concern about the consequences it had for women and babies, whereas the CDC focused more on symptoms and education. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability of Portfolio: A Closer Look at Findings from Recent Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskay, Ozge Ozyalcin; Schallies, Michael; Morgil, Inci

    2008-01-01

    In this review article, conventional portfolio assessment and new developments in portfolio assessment are investigated. The concept of portfolio, portfolio building steps, contents of portfolio, evaluation of portfolio, advantages, disadvantages and concerns in using portfolio as well as validity and reliability of portfolio assessment are…

  19. When Others' Performance Just Isn't Good Enough: Educational Leaders' Framing of Concerns in Private and Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Le Fevre, Deidre; Robinson, Viviane M. J.; Pope, Denyse

    2013-01-01

    Effective instructional leadership demands that leaders address the inevitable problems and concerns that exist in any educational organization. Unfortunately, much evidence suggests that many important concerns, including teacher performance issues, continue to be unaddressed and unresolved. This article portrays the nature of concerns facing 77…

  20. The Crisis of the European Union and its Reflection in the Romanian Public Sphere. Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bârgăoanu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the implications of the euro crisis, which turned from „a Greek mess" to a political, institutional, economic and confidence crisis of the European Union. In our view, the EU public sphere is relevant for the current debate surrounding the crisis because it represents the setting where solidarity among EU citizens and EU states is created. Given our interest in the concept of the EU public sphere and the way the crisis of the European Union influences the debates in the public sphere, the way in which solidarity among EU citizens and EU states is imagined and enacted, we carried out a research project focused on the Romanian public sphere in the context of the crisis. The research project was carried out around a crucial event in the process of crisis resolution: the signing of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union by 25 EU member states at the beginning of March 2012. The results show that in Romania, for the moment at least, the "EU" has not fallen victim to the crisis. There is a considerable drop in public trust in the EU, but it is our assessment that the descending trend could be reversed, provided a clear vision, accompanied by strong leadership, emerges.

  1. Technical difficulties. Recent health IT security breaches are unlikely to improve the public's perception about the safety of personal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Cinda

    2006-02-20

    Consumers who claimed in recent surveys that they were "more afraid of cyber crimes than physical crimes" may have had reason for caution. A spate of well-publicized information thefts and security breaches at healthcare organizations have eroded trust in technology, says Carol Diamond, left, of the Markle Foundation, and that could have an adverse effect on acceptance of electronic medical records.

  2. Characterization of HIV Recent Infection Among High-Risk Men at Public STI Clinics in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hong-Ha M; Fatch, Robin; Grant, Robert M; Mathur, Meenakshi; Kumta, Sameer; Jerajani, Hemangi; Kellogg, Timothy A; Lindan, Christina P

    2018-02-16

    We examined associations with HIV recent infection and estimated transmitted drug resistance (TDR) prevalence among 3345 men at sexually transmitted infection clinics in Mumbai (2002-2005). HIV seroincidence was 7.92% by the BED-CEIA and was higher at a clinic located near brothels (12.39%) than at a hospital-based clinic (3.94%). HIV recent infection was associated with a lifetime history of female sex worker (FSW) partners, HSV-2, genital warts, and gonorrhea. TDR prevalence among recent infection cases was 5.7%. HIV testing services near sex venues may enhance case detection among high-risk men who represent a bridging population between FSWs and the men's other sexual partners.

  3. Detecting themes of public concern: a text mining analysis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Ebola live Twitter chat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Allison J; Scheinfeld, Emily; Bernhardt, Jay M; Wilcox, Gary B; Suran, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of Ebola on US soil triggered widespread panic. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention held a live Twitter chat to address public concerns. This study applied a textual analytics method to reveal insights from these tweets that can inform communication strategies. User-generated tweets were collected, sorted, and analyzed to reveal major themes. The public was concerned with symptoms and lifespan of the virus, disease transfer and contraction, safe travel, and protection of one's body. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Have Recent Financial Reforms Improved Financial Accountability in the Australian Commonwealth Public Sector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Bowrey

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s the Australian Commonwealth public sector has undergone significant financialreforms, due primarily to the current federal Liberal government’s drive to improve the financialaccountability of the Commonwealth Government. These reforms include the adoption of accrualaccounting and budgeting and the development and implementation of an outcomes and outputs framework.These reforms culminated in the first full federal budget to be developed on an accrual basis in 1999 – 2000.This paper will examine the implementation of these reforms and the associated processes to determinewhether or not the Commonwealth government is more financially transparent and better able to dischargeits financial accountability. It is argued the complexity of the processes associated with, and the reportingrequirements of these reforms may have actually decreased the level of accountability to the key party towhom accountability is due — the Australian public.

  5. Public Nordic Cultural Policy - Historical preconditions, overriding objectives, significant developments, recent challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Public Nordic cultural policy have, especially since the 1960s, in large part been characterised by convergence regarding major elements. In addition the Nordic countries, like other European national states are today confronted with and affected by fundamental late-modern processes: Globalisation......, migration, economic instrumentalisation, political colonisation, questions of the freedom of speech, issues on national identity vs. cosmopolitanism etc. By these and other reasons it is reasonable to speak of a pan-Nordic cultural policy model in 2016, while still highlighting the fact, that cultural...... policies in Norden also differ mutual in many aspects. The survey introduces and discusses major common public cultural policy elements in the five Nordic national states (Denmark, Island, Norway, Sweden and Finland), the autonomous and semi autonomous small nations (Greenland, The Faeroe Islands...

  6. A Summary of the Naval Postgraduate School Research Program and Recent Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    necessary to support the strategy, and design control systems to monitor the effectiveness of the N.C. Roberts and P.J. King, "Policy Entrepreneurs ...Competitive & PJ. King, "Policy Entrepreneurs " Catalysts for Strategies Methodology (U)," Master’s Thesis. Innovative Public Policy," Academy of...mechanism and ice oscillation on interaction". Amer. Geophys. Union, San Francisco, millennial time scales". Annals of Glaciology, 14, 3-4 December

  7. Personal Protective Equipment Supply Chain: Lessons Learned from Recent Public Health Emergency Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anita; D'Alessandro, Maryann M; Ireland, Karen J; Burel, W Greg; Wencil, Elaine B; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) that protects healthcare workers from infection is a critical component of infection control strategies in healthcare settings. During a public health emergency response, protecting healthcare workers from infectious disease is essential, given that they provide clinical care to those who fall ill, have a high risk of exposure, and need to be assured of occupational safety. Like most goods in the United States, the PPE market supply is based on demand. The US PPE supply chain has minimal ability to rapidly surge production, resulting in challenges to meeting large unexpected increases in demand that might occur during a public health emergency. Additionally, a significant proportion of the supply chain is produced off-shore and might not be available to the US market during an emergency because of export restrictions or nationalization of manufacturing facilities. Efforts to increase supplies during previous public health emergencies have been challenging. During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014 Ebola virus epidemic, the commercial supply chain of pharmaceutical and healthcare products quickly became critical response components. This article reviews lessons learned from these responses from a PPE supply chain and systems perspective and examines ways to improve PPE readiness for future responses.

  8. The Bible in discussion: Three recent South African publications on Scripture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. Deist

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Three recent South African books on Scripture from various theological trad itio n s and social circles (one Reformed, one Dutch Reformed and one Methodist, two by white authors and one by a black author are discussed in order to evaluate their arguments and ascertain their points of difference, with a view to enhancing a meaningful South African dialogue on Scripture.

  9. Recent publications on environmental law. Bibliography covering the period July 1, 1991 till June 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.; Doerner, E.

    1992-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1685 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [de

  10. Bioeffects and health risks of low-level exposures to radiofrequency and microwave fields-scientific facts and public concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2001-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations, parts of the electromagnetic spectrum at wave frequencies of 0.1 - 300 MHz and 300 MHz - 300 GHz, respectively, can penetrate human tissues and exert various bioeffects at relatively low field power densities. Exposure of the general public to RF/MW radiation in the environment is generally below intensities which are considered as responsible for evoking such bioeffects. Use of mobile phones (MP) considerably increased local exposure to 900 or 1800 MHz MWs and raised concerns of the risk of brain tumors and other neoplasms of the head. At present the experimental and epidemiological bulk of evidence is too limited for valid assessment of the risks. Health consequences of long-term use of MPs are not known in detail, but available data indicate that development of non-specific health symptoms is possible, at least in 'MW-hypersensitive' subjects. In contrast to cellular terminals, which emit locally relatively high intensity MW fields, transmitting antennas and base stations contribute to MW environmental contaminations only with a small portion of the energy and do not pose established health risks. Two available epidemiological studies of brain cancer morbidity in MP users did not confirm an increased risk for all types of neoplasms, but unexplained excesses of particular types and/or locations of the tumors has been reported. Experimental investigations revealed the possibility of epigenetic activity of certain MW exposures (frequently limited to particular frequencies and/or modulations of the carrier wave), but there exists no satisfactory support from epidemiological studies for the increased cancer risk in MW-exposed subjects. However, there exist single epidemiological studies which indicate increased mortality of certain types of neoplasms in workers exposed to microwave radiation. As an example, the multiyear study of cancer morbidity in Polish military personnel exposed to 2 - 10 W/m2 will be presented

  11. Primary care careers among recent graduates of research-intensive private and public medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Phillip A; Xu, Shuai; Ayanian, John Z

    2013-06-01

    Despite a growing need for primary care physicians in the United States, the proportion of medical school graduates pursuing primary care careers has declined over the past decade. To assess the association of medical school research funding with graduates matching in family medicine residencies and practicing primary care. Observational study of United States medical schools. One hundred twenty-one allopathic medical schools. The primary outcomes included the proportion of each school's graduates from 1999 to 2001 who were primary care physicians in 2008, and the proportion of each school's graduates who entered family medicine residencies during 2007 through 2009. The 25 medical schools with the highest levels of research funding from the National Institutes of Health in 2010 were designated as "research-intensive." Among research-intensive medical schools, the 16 private medical schools produced significantly fewer practicing primary care physicians (median 24.1% vs. 33.4%, p schools. In contrast, the nine research-intensive public medical schools produced comparable proportions of graduates pursuing primary care careers (median 36.1% vs. 36.3%, p = 0.87) and matching in family medicine residencies (median 7.4% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.37) relative to the other 66 public medical schools. To meet the health care needs of the US population, research-intensive private medical schools should play a more active role in promoting primary care careers for their students and graduates.

  12. Comparison of public exposures from different sources of radioactive contamination in recent years in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, B.; Krizman, M.

    2003-01-01

    In spite of that Slovenia is a small country it contains a considerable variety of radioactive sources, which cause radioactive contamination of the environment. These sources mostly belong to nuclear fuel cycle, as the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant, the Zirovski vrh Uranium Mine (in the decommissioning), the TRIGA Research Reactor and Central low and intermediate level radioactive waste storage. Some other technological enhanced natural radiation sources, for example, the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant have also an impact to the environment. The comparison of the public exposure due to various sources of radioactive releases to the exposure of a members of the public in Slovenia shows that the critical group in the vicinity of the Zirovski Vrh uranium mine is the most exposed one in Slovenia. The global contamination due to the Chernobyl accident and the past nuclear tests was estimated to be around 10 μSv in Slovenia while the estimated annual dose for all other radioactive facilities are in the order of magnitude of one μSv. In this review the releases from the hospitals are not reported but some studies showed that it is not negligible. (authors)

  13. Markets for Collective Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Ossandón, José; Pallesen, Trine

    Despite the recent fall-out of finance, confidence in the market does not seem to be diminishing, but, on the contrary, market mechanisms are becoming key instruments to deal with core contemporary collective concerns, including global warming, education, environmental pollution, supply of energy......, quality of education, poverty and health care (Mirowski 2013). Recent research within STS has started to focus on such kind of arrangements and in this presentation we will critically engage with this literature. Our main results are twofold. On the one hand, we recognize there are important conceptual...... tools already available - such as 'matters of public concern' (Marres 2007) and 'hybrid forums' (Callon et al. 2001; Callon 2009)- that help in framing the particularity of these arrangements. On the other hand, previous STS-market research notions developed mostly in the field of finance studies cannot...

  14. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign, 1979: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages and Addendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This report provides expert opinion on the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and ways to inform the public of teratogenic risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In the absence of firm evidence that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to FAS and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of labeling of alcoholic beverages, a…

  15. Food sources of total energy and overconsumed nutrients of public health concern among US adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is high intake of energy and overconsumed nutrients of public health concern in adolescents' diet. Overconsumed nutrients are sodium, saturated fatty acids (SFA), and added sugars. Our objective was to identify the most commonly consumed foods by adolescents as percentage of total energy, tota...

  16. 78 FR 49787 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ..., standards and technical regulations, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, government procurement, trade... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... with its WTO commitments. SUMMARY: The interagency Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) will convene a...

  17. Economic evaluation of HBV vaccination: A systematic review of recent publications (2000-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Mannocci, Alice; Saulle, Rosella; Colamesta, Vittoria; Meggiolaro, Angela; Mipatrini, Daniele; Sinopoli, Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the economic evaluations (EE) of HBV vaccination, taking also into account the studies published in the new millennium. An extensive scientific literature review was conducted using two electronic medical journal databases: Scopus and PubMed engines for published studies on EE of HBV vaccination. 22 articles were reviewed, 9, 5 and 8 cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit and cost-utility analysis, respectively. Studies were mainly concerning EE of universal vaccination (UV), mostly with regards to low or low-medium income countries. For high income countries, EE were focused on the possible implementation of HBV vaccination in particular settings, such as diabetic, renal and other chronic conditions care, as well as infectious diseasesUV has usually a very good cost-effectiveness ratio (80%), ranging from cost-saving (China) or few Euro per LY/QALY gained (in Thailand, and Vietnam) to 630.00$/QALY in USA (Asian and Pacific Islands) Moreover, EE of HBV vaccination are favorable in the infectious diseases field as well as for chronic conditions. In relation to diabetes the studies gave controversial results. This systematic review highlighted the importance of introducing HBV vaccination not only for infant UV program but also for other settings in which patients are people affected by communicable and non-communicable diseases.

  18. Recent developments concerning French fuel elements used in natural uranium - graphite - CO{sub 2} reactor systems; Developpements recents des elements combustibles francais de la filiere uranium naturel - graphite - CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesse, M; Stohr, J A; Jeanpierre, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The policy followed in France for the development of fuel elements for reactors belonging to the Electricite de France has been to benefit as much as possible, for each new pile from the most recent technical progress by developing in each case a fuel element allowing the maximum power per channel. The two latest fuel elements thus studied by the French Atomic Energy Commission are of two different types: a tubular uranium element closed at both ends and cooled externally. (This type of element, chosen for the reactors EDF 2, EDF 3 and EDF 4 makes it possible to attain maximum specific powers of the order of 6 MW/metric ton.); an open tubular uranium element cooled both internally and externally, called an annular element which in being studied as a possibility for EDF 5. Such an element makes it possible to attain specific powers of over 12 MW/metric ton. The two types of element have the following common characteristics: - the can, for external cooling, has herning-bone type fins. This type of profile which has been vastly improved recently thereby increasing its thermal efficiency, has the important advantage of avoiding vibration of the element, but has posed problems of resistance to thermal cycling necessitating much research. - the fuel rods are placed inside graphite jackets, this limiting the vertical forces to which they are subjected and protecting them during charging and discharging. On the other hand, these elements present very different problems as for as the following points are concerned: - the characteristics required of the uranium tubes apart of course from a good dimensional stability during irradiation in the two cases are in the case of the closed tubes a very high resistance to external pressure, and in the case of the annular elements a low neutron absorption. Thus for each of these two cases it has been necessary to develop a suitable type of alloy. - a possible loosening of the can during thermal cycling, which is peculiar to the

  19. New psychoactive substances: an overview on recent publications on their toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R

    2016-10-01

    This review article covers English-written and PubMed-listed review articles and original studies published between January 2015 and April 2016 dealing with the toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics of new psychoactive substances. Compounds covered include stimulants and entactogens, synthetic cannabinoids, tryptamines, NBOMes, phencyclidine-like drugs, benzodiazepines, and opioids. First, an overview and discussion is provided on timely review articles followed by an overview and discussion on recent original studies. Both sections are then concluded by an opinion on these latest developments. This review shows that the NPS market is still highly dynamic and that the data published on their toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics can hardly keep pace with the appearance of new entities. However, data available are very helpful to understand and predict how NPS may behave in severe intoxication. The currently best-documented parameter is the in vitro metabolism of NPS, a prerequisite to allow detection of NPS in biological matrices in cases of acute intoxications or chronic consumption. However, additional data such as their chronic toxicity are still lacking.

  20. The WTO and the Millennium Round: What Is at Stake for Public Education? Common Concerns for Workers in Education and the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education International, Brussels (Belgium).

    On the eve of the year 2000, global public spending on education tops one trillion dollars. Against the backdrop of globalization, public education is currently being subjected to attacks by proponents of privatization and deregulation. The process is already underway, as is apparent from an important agreement reached by the World Trade…

  1. A Critical Analysis of the Library-Related Literature Concerning Censorship in Public Libraries and Public School Libraries in the United States during the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Randy L.

    This content analysis examines library science and education literature on censorship in public and public school libraries in the 1980s. The first chapter discusses the organization and activities of right-wing and left-wing pressure groups together with ways in which librarians have responded to their pressure. The distinction between censorship…

  2. [The scientometric analysis of dissertation studies in the field of specialty public health and health care concerning children population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albitskiy, V S; Ustinova, N V; Antonova, Ye V

    2014-01-01

    The article considers trends and priority directions of research studies of the field of public health and health care of children population. The interpretative content analysis was applied to study dissertations in the field of public health and health care in 1991-2012. The sampling included 4194 units of information. The first stage of study established that problems of children population are considered in 14.8% dissertations defended on the mentioned specialty. The next stage the categories of content-analysis were examined. They were divided on the following axes: axis I "Main problem of study", axis II "Localization of study", axis III "Examined age groups", axis IV "Distribution of studies on gender of examined contingent", axis V "Examined contingent", axis VI "Additional medical specialty". It is established that in dissertations on public health and health care of children population on axis I prevails organizational subject matter (27.2%). The health condition of various contingents of children population (16.8%), preventive aspects of pediatrics (12.2%), examination of particular conditions/diseases/classes of diseases (10.8%) are fixed as priority directions. In the most dissertations the regional character of studies is presented (98.2%). The prevailing age group in studies is the adolescent group (19.9%). The inter-disciplinary relationships of dissertations on problems of public health and health care of children population are revealed with such specialties as "Pediatrics" (16.2%), "Obstetrics and gynecology" (3.8%) and "Hygiene" (3.4%). With consideration for recognition of health promotion and optimization of health care of children population as priority directions of public health policy amount of research studies in this field is to be admitted as inadequate. With purpose of optimization of scientific knowledge and development of system of medical social care to children population it is needed to promote research studies of problems of

  3. The Effects of Public Concern for Information Privacy on the Adoption of Health Information Exchanges (HIEs) by Healthcare Entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Pouyan

    2018-05-08

    The implementation of Health Information Exchanges (HIEs) by healthcare organizations may not achieve the desired outcomes as consumers may request that their health information remains unshared because of information privacy concerns. Drawing on the insights of concern for information privacy (CFIP) literature, this work extends the application of CFIP to the HIE domain. This study attempts to develop and test a model centered on the four dimensions of CFIP construct (collection, errors, unauthorized access, and secondary use) and their antecedents to predict consumers' opt-in behavioral intention toward HIE in the presence of the perceived health status' effects. We conducted an online survey in the United States using 826 samples. The results demonstrate that the perceived health information sensitivity and computer anxiety meaningfully contribute to information privacy concerns and CFIP construct significantly impedes consumers' opt-in decision to HIEs. Interestingly, contrary to our expectation, perceived poor health status considerably attenuates the negative effects exerted by CFIP on opt-in intention. The model proposed by this study can be used as a useful conceptual tool by both further studies and practitioners to examine the complex nature of patients' reactions to information privacy threats associated with the use of HIE technology in the healthcare industry.

  4. Word protocol of the public hearing concerning the projected interim storage facility at Ahaus, June 21-29, 1983. Pt. 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    According to the procedural regulations under atomic law (Sect. 9, Atomic Energy Act; Sect. 3, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Federal Construction Act), a public hearing concerning the projected interim storage facility at Ahaus was not mandatory. It was held, however, for political reasons in order to assure public acceptance of the project. The word protocol of the controversial discussions is presented in three volumes. The discussions covered the whole spectrum of the 15-year-old nuclear controversy in West Germany including the effects of low radiation doses and nuclear waste management. (HP) [de

  5. Using Multicriteria Analysis in Issues Concerning Adaptation of Historic Facilities for the Needs of Public Utility Buildings with a Function of a Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obracaj, Piotr; Fabianowski, Dariusz

    2017-10-01

    Implementations concerning adaptation of historic facilities for public utility objects are associated with the necessity of solving many complex, often conflicting expectations of future users. This mainly concerns the function that includes construction, technology and aesthetic issues. The list of issues is completed with proper protection of historic values, different in each case. The procedure leading to obtaining the expected solution is a multicriteria procedure, usually difficult to accurately define and requiring designer’s large experience. An innovative approach has been used for the analysis, namely - the modified EA FAHP (Extent Analysis Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process) Chang’s method of a multicriteria analysis for the assessment of complex functional and spatial issues. Selection of optimal spatial form of an adapted historic building intended for the multi-functional public utility facility was analysed. The assumed functional flexibility was determined in the scope of: education, conference, and chamber spectacles, such as drama, concerts, in different stage-audience layouts.

  6. Nuclear information in Finmark. Research concerning public need for information about nuclear fallout and nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A.K.

    1994-10-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to discover whether there is a co-ordination between public and governmental problem recognition, and between demand and supply of nuclear information. Another objective was to identify relevant object groups and to prepare for communication strategy planning. 27 refs., 49 tabs

  7. 78 FR 49789 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning Russia's Implementation of Its WTO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... its obligations as a Member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). SUMMARY: The interagency Trade... the WTO are contained in the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (WTO... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing...

  8. From Boutique to Big Box: A Case Study Concerning Teacher Change Transitioning to a Public Montessori Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Public Montessori schools have grown in number significantly in the United States. This case study chronicles the journey of teachers as they navigate the tension of balancing the Montessori approach with an accountability Standards model. Although Montessori may be in demand among parents in the nation, exhibited by the increase in public…

  9. The review of constitutional norms concerning local public administration in the view of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission)

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolache, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    The proposals of the Commission to review the Constitution of Romania were subject to the analysis of experts from the European Commission for Democracy through Law (the Venice Commission), who expressed their opinion in a report adopted at the 98th plenary session of the European body. The article analyzes the recommendations of the Venice Commission regarding the proposed changes to the constitutional norms governing local public administration, comprising some general aspects concern...

  10. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    by Catherine Ciepiela Sarlo, Beatriz. Jorge Luis Borges: A Writer on the Edge by Maria Elena Solifio Sitney, P. Adams. Modernist Montage by Georgiana M.M. Colvile Vishevsky, Anatoly. Soviet Literary Culture of the 1970s: The Politics of Irony by Eric Lozowy Wang, David Der-wei. Fictional Realism in Twentieth-Century China: Mao Dun, Lao She, Shen Congwen by Xiaobing Tang

  11. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chanan, Michael. Cuban Cinema David William Foster Izenberg, Gerald N. Modernism and Masculinity: Mann, Wedekind, Kandisnky through World War I. Aaron J. Cohen Jonsson, Stefan. Subject Without Nation: Robert Musil and the History of Modern Identity. Post-Contemporary Interventions. Albrecht Classen Kaiser, David Aram. Romanticism, Aesthetics and Nationalism. Cambridge Studies in Romanticism 34. Catherine Grimm Lopez de Martinez, Adelaida and Harriet Turner. The Cambridge Companion to the Spanish Novel: From 1600 to the Present. Toni Dorca McCulloh, Mark R. Understanding W.G. Sebald. Peter C. Pfeiffer Peterson, Dale E. Up From Bondage: The Literatures of Russian and African American Soul. Kathleen M. Ahren

  12. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aizenberg, Edna. Parricide on the Pampa? A New Study and Translation of Alberto Gerchunoffs "Los gauchos judíos" by Jan Mennell Emerson, Caryl, ed. Critical Essays on Mikhail Bakhtin by Michael Barry Finney, Gail. Christa Wolf by Stephen Brockmann Hoeg, Jerry. Science, Technology, and Latin American Narrative in the Twentieth Century and Beyond by Paul Fallon Mendez-Ramirez, Hugo. Neruda's Ekphrastic Experience: Mural Art and Canto general by Agustin Boyer Perriam, Chris, Michael Thompson, Susan Frenk, and Vanessa Knights. A New History of Spanish Writing: 1939 to the 1990s by William Sherzer Soto, Francisco. Reinaldo Arenas by Marina Llorente

  13. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture and Theory Conley, Verena Andermatt, ed. Rethinking Technologies by Laurence M. Porter Leitch, Vincent B. Cultural Criticism, Literary Theory, Poststructuralism by Merry M. Pawlowski French Studies Bersani, Leo and Ulysse Dutoit. Arts of Impoverishment: Beckett, Rothko, Resnais by Thomas Trezise Boldt-Irons, Leslie Anne. On Bataille: Critical Essays by Walter A. Strauss Deleuze, Gilles. Negotiations . Trans. Martin Joughin by Charles J. Stivale Fisher, Dominique D. Staging of Language and Language(s of the Stage: Mallarmé's poëme critique and Artaud's poetry-minus-text by Maryse Fauvel Goodall, Jane. Artaud and the Gnostic Drama by Claudine G. Fisher Lydon, Mary. Skirting the Issue: Essays in Literary Theory by Carol J. Murphy German Studies Barnouw, Dagmar. Critical Realism: History, Photography, and the Work of Siegfried Kracauer by Florence Martin Pfandl-Buchegger, Ingrid. David Lodge als Literaturkritiker, Theoretiker and Romanautor by Charles A. Grair Samuels, Clarise. Holocaust Visions: Surrealism and Existentialism in the Poetry of Paul Celan by Francis Michael Sharp Stefan, Verena. Shedding and Literally Dreaming. Shedding. Trans. Johanna Steigleder Moore and Beth E. Weckmueller; Literally Dreaming . Trans. Johanna Albert and Tobe Levin; "Euphoria and Cacophony." Trans. and Afterword Tobe Levin by Miriam Frank Stern, J.P. The Dear Purchase: A Theme in German Modernism by Theodore Ziolkowski Russian Studies Berry, Ellen E. and Anesa Miller-Pogacer, eds. Re-Entering the Sign: Articulating New Russian Culture by Rolf Hellebust Erlich, Victor. Modernism and Revolution: Russian Literature in Transition by Henry Elbaum Hohne, Karen and Helen Wussow, eds. A Dialogue of Voices: Feminist Literary Theory and Bakhtin by Laura Beraha Masing-Delic, Irene. Abolishing Death: A Salvation Myth of Russian Twentieth-Century Literature by Rolf Hellebust Paperno, Irina and Joan Delaney Grossman, eds. Creating Life: The Aesthetic Utopia of Russian Modernism by Constantin V. Ponomareff Spanish Studies Cardenal, Ernesto. The Doubtful Strait . Trans. John Lyons by Juan Carlos Galeano Garcia Marquez, Gabriel. Of Love and Other Demons by John Cussen Lindstrom, Naomi. Twentieth-Century Spanish American Fiction by Norma Helsper Meyer, Doris, Ed. Reinterpreting the Spanish American Essay: Women Writers of the 19th and 20th Centuries by Judy Maloof and Fernando Unzueta Nantell, Judith. The Poetry of Francisco Brines: The Deconstructive Effects of Languages by Anita M. Hart Taylor, Diana and Juan Villegas, Eds. Negotiating Performance: Gender, Sexuality, & Theatricality in Latin America by Anne M. Pasero

  14. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paul Kong. The Raiders and Writers of Cervantes’ Archive: Borges, Puig, and García Márquez by José Fernando Olascoaga J. J. Long. W. G. Sebald: Image, Archive, Modernity by Helen Finch Andrew Baruch Wachtel. Plays of Expectations: Intertextual Relations in Russian Twentieth-Century Drama by Volha Isakava David Jenemann. Adorno in America by Ruth Starkman Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe. Heidegger and the Politics of Poetry by Derek Hillard Horacio Legras. Literature and Subjection: the Economy of Writing and Marginality in Latin America by Abraham Acosta Hélène Cixous. Love Itself in the Letterbox by Natalie Edwards Zulema Moret. Esas niñas cuando crecen, ¿Dónde van a parar? by Julia A. Kushigian Terry Eagleton. Trouble with Strangers: A Study of Ethics by Melanie Collado Dominic Moran. Pablo Neruda by Donald Shaw

  15. Review of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Christine Daigle. Jean-Paul Sartre by Candice Nicolas Anna Marie Sandoval. Toward a Latina Feminism of the Americas: Repression and Resistance in Chicana and Mexicana Literature by Yajaira M. Padilla Ruth Cruickshank. Fin de millénaire French Fiction: The Aesthetics of Crisis by Martine Motard-Noar Sanna Turoma. Brodsky Abroad: Empire, Tourism, Nostalgia by Galya Diment Svetlana Alexievich. Voices from Chernobyl: the Oral History of a Nuclear Disaster by Teresa Polowy Leslie Raymond Williams. A Companion to Gabriel García Márquez by David William Foster

  16. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sara Lennox. Cemetery of the Murdered Daughters: Feminism, History, and Ingeborg Bachmann by Kristin T. Vander Lugt Birgit Tautz. Reading and Seeing Ethnic Differences in the Enlightenment: From China to Africa by Susanne Kelley Patrick Greaney. Untimely Beggar. Poverty and Power from Baudelaire to Benjamin by Christine Rinne Philip Payne, Graham Bartram, and Galin Tihanov, eds. A Companion to the Works of Robert Musil by Geoffrey C. Howes Jennifer Willging. Telling Anxiety: Anxious Narration in the Work of Marguerite Duras, Annie Ernaux, Nathalie Sarraute and Anne Hébert by Natalie Edwards Michael Lucey. Never Say I: Sexuality and the First Person in Colette, Gide, and Proust by Elissa Gelfand Anthony Waine. Changing Cultural Tastes. Writers and the Popular in Modern Germany by Katrin Völkner Susan Ireland and Patrice Proulx, eds. Textualizing the Immigrant Experience in Contemporary Quebec by Amy Hubbell Cristina Peri Rossi. State of Exile . Trans. Marilyn Buck. by Reina Ruiz

  17. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne Fuchs, Mary Cosgrove, and Georg Grote. German Memory Contests: The Quest for Identity in Literature, Film, and Discourse since 1990 by Helen Cafferty Herschel Farbman. The Other Night: Dreaming, Writing, and Restlessness in Twentieth-Century Literature by Sidney Feshbach Richard Neupert. A History of the French New Wave Cinema by Candice Nicolas Dianne Marie Zandstra. Embodying Resistance: Griselda Gambaro and the Grotesque by James Gustafson Matthew J. Marr. Postmodern Metapoetry and the Replenishment of the Spanish Lyrical Genre, 1980-2000 by John Wilcox Gail A. Bulman. Staging Words, Performing Worlds: Intertextuality and Nation in Contemporary Latin American Theater by Patricia Tomé Alex E. Blazer. I Am Otherwise: The Romance Between Poetry and Theory after the Death of the Subject by Salah Khan Marcelline Block. Situating the Feminist Gaze and Spectatorship in Postwar Cinema by Marzia Caporale

  18. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Alonso, Carlos J. The Burden of Modernity: The Rhetoric of Cultural Discourse in Spanish America Reviewed by Melvin S. Arrington, Jr. Kolocotroni, Vassiliki, Jane Goldman, and Olga Taxidou, eds, Modernism: An Anthology of Sources and Documents Reviewed by Gerd Bayer Motte, Warren. Small Worlds: Minimalism in Contemporary French Literature Reviewed by William Cloonan Melton, Judith M. The Face of Exile: Autobiographical Journeys Reviewed by Claude P. Desmarais Redding, Arthur. Raids on Human Consciousness: Writing, Anarchism, and Violence Reviewed by Gail Finney Chambers, Ross. Facing It: AIDS Diaries and the Death of the Author Reviewed by Melissa A. Fitch Marx-Scouras, Danielle. The Cultural Politics of Tel Quel: Literature and the Left in the Wake of Engagement Reviewed by Diane Fourny Foster, David William. Buenos Aires: Perspectives on the City and Cultural Production Reviewed by Gustavo Geirola Nelson, Ardis L., ed. Guillermo Cabrera Infante: Assays, essays, and other arts Reviewed by José Luis Martinez-Dueñas Fox, Claire F. The Fence and the River: Culture and Politics at the U.S.-Mexico Border Reviewed by Robert Neustadt

  19. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Bjornson, Richard. The African Quest for Freedom and Identity: Cameroonian Writing and the National Experience by Thomas A. Hale Cixous, Hélène. 'Coming to Wrting' and Other Essays by Randi Brox Birn Derwin, Susan. The Ambivalence of Form: Lukacs, Freud, and the Novel by Eva L. Corredor Kaminsky, Amy K. Reading the Body Politic: Feminist Criticism and Latin American Women Writers by Naomi Lindstrom Nägele, Rainer. Theater, Theory, Speculation: Walter Benjamin and the Scenes of Modernity by Alice A. Kuzniar Tomlinson, John. Cultural Imperialism by Michael Filcher Weisberg, Richard. Poethics and Other Strategies of Law and Literature by Sara B. Blair

  20. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    various authors

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Elisabeth Bronfen. Over Her Dead Body: Death, Feminity and the Aesthetic by Lisa Maruca Jacques Dupin: Selected Poems . (Translated by Paul Auster, Stephen Romer, and David Shipiro. by Maryann De Julio Carolyn A. Durham. The Contexture of Feminism: Marie Cardinal and Multicultural Literacy by Yolanda Astarita Patterson Mike Gonzalez and David Treece. The Gathering of Voices: The Twentieth-Century Poetry of Latin America by Steven F. White Emily D. Hicks. Border Writing: The Multidimensional Text by Roselyn Constantino Robin Régine. Socialist Realism: An Impossible Aesthetic by Peter Hitchcock Kari Weil. Androgyny and the Denial of Difference by Brigitte Roussel

  1. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esperança Bielsa. The Latin American Urban Crónica: Between Literature and Mass Culture by Miguel González-Abellás Gene H. Bell-Villada, ed. Gabriel García Márquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude: A Casebook by Miguel González-Abellás Albert Memmi. Decolonization and the Decolonized . Trans. Robert Bononno by Christa Jones Erin Graff Zivin. The Wandering Signifier: Rhetoric of Jewishness in the Latin American Imaginary by Naomi Lindstrom Dawn Fulton. Signs of Dissent: Maryse Condé and Postcolonial Crticism by Jane E. Evans Anne Lambright. Creating the Hybrid Intellectual: Subject, Space and the Feminine in the Narrative of José María Arguedas by Arturio Arias Andrew Sobanet. Jail Sentences: Representing Prison in Twentieth-Century French Fiction by Elisabeth-Christine Muelsch Olga López-Valero Colbert. The Gaze on the Past: Popular Culture and History in Antonio Muñoz Molina’s Novels by Jorge Pérez Warren Motte. Fiction Now: The French Novel in the Twenty-First Century by Martine Fernandes Hélène Cixous. Hyperdream . Trans. Beverley Bie Brahic. by Amy Baram Reid Jean-Michel Rabaté. 1913: The Cradle of Modernism by Safoi Babana-Hampton

  2. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Elisabeth Mermann-Jozwiak and Nancy Sullivan. Conversations with Mexican American Writers: Languages and Literatures in the Borderlands by Tanya González Barbara Mennel. The Representation of Masochism and Queer Desire in Film and Literature by Amy Gates-Young David Damrosch. How to Read World Literature by Lisabeth Hock Maria DiFrancesco. Feminine Agency and Transgression in Post-Franco Spain: Generational Becoming in the Narratives of Carme Riera, Cristina Fernández Cubas and Mercedes Abad by Maryanne L. Leone Jennifer Wawrzinek. Ambiguous Subjects: Dissolution and Metamorphosis in the Postmodern Sublime by Claudine Fisher Maria Cristina Fumagalli. Caribbean Perspectives on Modernity: Returning Medusa’s Gaze by Laurence M. Porter Macedonio Fernández. The Museum of Eterna’s Novel by Todd S. Garth Russell West-Pavlov. Space in Theory: Kristeva, Foucault, Deleuze by Zoe Petropoulou Maria Beville. Gothic-postmodernism: Voicing the Terrors of Postmodernity by Terri Engnoth Sharae Deckard. Paradise Discourse, Imperialism, and Globalization: Exploiting Eden by Miguel González-Abellás Sangeeta Ray. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak: In Other Words by Cybelle H. McFadden

  3. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Anderson, Stephanie. Le Discours Féminin de Marguerite Duras by Julia Lauer-Chéenne Booker, M. Keith. Literature and Domination: Sex, Knowledge, and Power in Modern Fiction by Frédérique Chevillot Chevillot, Frédérique. La Réouverture du texte by Susan Ireland Cixous, Hélène. Three Steps on the Ladder of Writing by Jeff Schneider Descombes, Vincent. The Barometer of Modern Reason: On the Philosophies of Current Events by André Pierre Colombat Holmgren, Beth. Women's Works in Stalin's Time: On Lidiia Chukovskaia and Nadezhda Mandelstam by Serafima Roll Lyotard, Jean François. Political Writings . Trans. Bill Readings and Kevin Paul Geiman by Ronald Bogue McPherson, Karen S. Incriminations: Guilty Women/Telling Stories by Colette Hall Melnick, Daniel C. Fullness of Dissonance. Modern Fiction and the Aesthetics of Music by Walter A. Strauss Scatton, Linda Hart. Mikhail Zoshchenko: Evolution of a Writer by Eric Lozowy Sollers, Philippe. Watteau in Venice by T. Douglas Doyle Steele, Cynthia. Politics, Gender, and the Mexican Novel, 1968-1988: Beyond the Pyramid by Jill S. Kuhnheim Webb, Barbara J. Myth and History in Caribbean Fiction. Alejo Carpentier, Wilson Harris and Eduard Glissant by Nicasio Urbina

  4. Review of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Bishop, Michael, ed. Women's Poetry in France, 1965-1995 . by Martine Antle Black, Stanley. Juan Goytisolo and the Poetics of Contagion: The Evolution of a Radical Aesthetic in the Later Novels by Bernardo Antonio González Fachinger, Petra. Rewriting Germany from the Margins: "Other" German Literature of the 1980s and 1990s by Cornelius Partsch Graham-Jones, Jean. Exorcising History: Argentine Theater under Dictatorship by Daniel Altamiranda Wishnia, Kenneth J. Twentieth-Century Ecuadorian Narrative by Adelaida López de Martínez

  5. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Julian W. Connolly, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Nabokov . Thomas Seifrid Simon Franklin and Emma Widdis, eds. National Identity in Russian Culture: An Introduction . Keith Livers Sander L. Gilman. Franz Kafka . Esther K. Bauer Jill Robbins, ed. P/herversions: Critical Studies of Ana Rossetti . Roberta Johnson Jennifer Warburton. John Fowles: A Life in Two Worlds . John Fowles. The Journals, Vol. I . Ed. Charles Drazin Gerd Bayer

  6. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    various authors

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Granqvist, Raoul, editor. Canonization and Teaching of African Literature. Matatu 7 by Claire L. Dehon Margolis, Joseph. Texts Without Referents: Reconciling Science and Narrative by David J. Depew Keitel, Evelyne. Reading Psychosis, Readers, Texts and psychoanalysis by Reinhild Steingrover Shaviro, Steven. Passion and excess: Blanchot, Bataille, and Literary Theory by Steven Ungar Kellner, Douglas. Jean Baudrillard From Marxism to Postmodernism and Beyond by Allan Stoeld Pecorora, Vincent P. Self & Form in Modern Narrative by Walter A. Strauss Jordan, Barry. Writers and Politics in Franco's Spain by Salvador J. Fajardo Motard-Noar, Martine. Les Fictions d'Hélène Cixous. Une autre lanque de femme by Randi Brox Birn Alexandrov, Vladimir E. Nabokov's Otherworld by Dale E. Peterson Baker, Peter. Obdurate Brilliance: Exteriority and the Modern Long Poem by Steven Winspur

  7. Socioeconomic aspects and public opinion concerning radioactive wastes; Aspectos socieconomicos y de opinion publica en emplazamientos para residuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Valentin [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos (ENRESA) (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear energy aspects in Spain are presented. The role of ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A.) a public company, that manages low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Spain is discussed. ENRESA activities such as radioactive wastes transportation and processing, radioactive wastes disposal, decommissioning of an uranium plant, environmental recovery procedures, geological studies, information dissemination of nuclear energy, sponsoring of conferences, courses, etc, are briefly reported

  8. Health Effects and Public Health Concerns of Energy Drink Consumption in the United States: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaar, Laila; Vercammen, Kelsey; Lu, Chang; Richardson, Scott; Tamez, Martha; Mattei, Josiemer

    2017-01-01

    As energy drink consumption continues to grow worldwide and within the United States, it is important to critically examine the nutritional content and effects on population health of these beverages. This mini-review summarizes the current scientific evidence on health consequences from energy drink consumption, presents relevant public health challenges, and proposes recommendations to mitigate these issues. Emerging evidence has linked energy drink consumption with a number of negative health consequences such as risk-seeking behaviors, poor mental health, adverse cardiovascular effects, and metabolic, renal, or dental conditions. Despite the consistency in evidence, most studies are of cross-sectional design or focus almost exclusively on the effect of caffeine and sugar, failing to address potentially harmful effects of other ingredients. The negative health effects associated with energy drinks (ED) are compounded by a lack of regulatory oversight and aggressive marketing by the industry toward adolescents. Moreover, the rising trend of mixing ED with alcohol presents a new challenge that researchers and public health practitioners must address further. To curb this growing public health issue, policy makers should consider creating a separate regulatory category for ED, setting an evidence-based upper limit on caffeine, restricting sales of ED, and regulating existing ED marketing strategies, especially among children and adolescents.

  9. Health Effects and Public Health Concerns of Energy Drink Consumption in the United States: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Al-Shaar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As energy drink consumption continues to grow worldwide and within the United States, it is important to critically examine the nutritional content and effects on population health of these beverages. This mini-review summarizes the current scientific evidence on health consequences from energy drink consumption, presents relevant public health challenges, and proposes recommendations to mitigate these issues. Emerging evidence has linked energy drink consumption with a number of negative health consequences such as risk-seeking behaviors, poor mental health, adverse cardiovascular effects, and metabolic, renal, or dental conditions. Despite the consistency in evidence, most studies are of cross-sectional design or focus almost exclusively on the effect of caffeine and sugar, failing to address potentially harmful effects of other ingredients. The negative health effects associated with energy drinks (ED are compounded by a lack of regulatory oversight and aggressive marketing by the industry toward adolescents. Moreover, the rising trend of mixing ED with alcohol presents a new challenge that researchers and public health practitioners must address further. To curb this growing public health issue, policy makers should consider creating a separate regulatory category for ED, setting an evidence-based upper limit on caffeine, restricting sales of ED, and regulating existing ED marketing strategies, especially among children and adolescents.

  10. Kyoto or non-Kyoto - people or politics: results of recent public opinion surveys on energy and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, Peta; Gardner, John; Littleboy, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Full text: We present the results of a survey of an Australian public opinion survey in the area of climate change and energy technologies and compare the results with similar studies conducted in the other major non-Kyoto-adherent party, the United States, as well as to Kyoto-adherent countries including the UK, Japan, Sweden and Spain. We explore some of the differences and similarities in attitudes and understandings. In our survey, Australians place environment, health care and petrol prices as the most important issues facing their country, while in America it is terrorism, health care and the economy and in the UK it is asylum seekers, crime and health care. In many other areas, the differences are considerably smaller and there are some remarkable similarities. Whereas climate change is increasingly cited as the leading environmental issue in most countries surveyed, in Australia, climate change is second to water availability as the top environmental concern. The study examines where climate change and energy technologies fit within these broader national and environmental priorities and identifies the general public's preferred solutions. We find clear support in Australia and the other countries surveyed for renewable energy technologies, particularly solar energy and to a lesser extent wind and biomass energy. We also find considerable disagreement in all countries regarding the future of nuclear power as well as with regard to carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (albeit the latter with much larger uncertainty). The paper also explores the current knowledge levels of the general public in a number of countries about carbon dioxide emissions and how much as individuals, they are prepared to pay to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. We find that, in general, at a more detailed level in terms of both attitudes and understandings of energy and climate issues there is considerable agreement across disparate countries Gudged on their national

  11. Outcome and Efficacy of Interventions by a Public Figure Threat Assessment and Management Unit: A Mirrored Study of Concerning Behaviors and Police Contacts Before and After Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David V; Farnham, Frank R

    2016-09-01

    Specialized units for the assessment and management of concerning behaviors towards public figures have been set up in various jurisdictions. Their efficacy has been demonstrated descriptively and in terms of reduction in concern rates. This study of 100 consecutive cases from the Fixated Threat Assessment Centre (FTAC) in the UK uses a novel measure of outcome in the form of reduction in behaviors of concern and in police call-outs/stops, using data culled from police and health service records. It adopts a mirrored design, comparing individuals over 12-month and 2-year periods before and after FTAC intervention. It demonstrates significant reductions in both numbers of individuals involved in, and number of actual incidents of, concerning communication and problematic approach, as well as police call-outs/stops. Most results are consistent across subgroups with regard to gender, previous convictions, concern level, compulsory hospitalization and grievance-driven behavior. Such threat assessment units reduce risky behavior and save police time and, possibly, costs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of ETOG-3Q, ETOG-3, FLANGE-II, XLACS, NJOY and LINEAR/RECENT/GROUPIE computer codes concerning to the resonance contribution and background cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaf, J.; Chalhoub, E.S.

    1988-12-01

    The NJOY and LINEAR/RECENT/GROUPIE calculational procedures for the resolved and unresolved resonance contributions and background cross sections are evaluated. Elastic scattering, fission and capture multigroup cross sections generated by these codes and the previously validated ETOG-3Q, ETOG-3, FLANGE-II and XLACS are compared. Constant weighting function and zero Kelvin temperature are considered. Discrepancies are presented and analysed. (author) [pt

  13. A review of public concerns and reactions about food safety following a release of food contaminants (radioactive or otherwise)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, B.

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out, by questionnaire and personal interview, to assess the extent of the public's knowledge of the procedures employed by MAFF, and other agencies following a food contamination incident involving radioactive contamination. It was also designed to gauge the public's perception of relative risk from routine discharges into the environment and other agents. The study populations were located in 5 locations - 3 near nuclear facilities, and 2 control groups (1 close to a potential chemical polluting plant). The study was not intended to be rigorous (in terms of sex, age and socio-economic group) in random selection of subjects for interview but it was judged that a fairly representative selection of views was obtained from about 50 people at each location. Overall, and importantly, although about 60% claimed that some their diet was locally grown, most people even in these rural areas purchased nearly all of their food and milk in supermarkets. It was difficult to get the interviewees to take the concept of a large incident involving food bans seriously but they seemed to expect the local authority and the police to be prominent in announcing the news. They did not seem to have much confidence in the broadcast media but, when prompted, thought that a MAFF 'hot-line' would be of greatest use in obtaining on-going information. House to house leaf letting was also mentioned as an effective means of disseminating information. Every-one seemed to want more clear information about food contamination in advance of it becoming a real problem - although how they would react to this information was not clear. All groups were fairly conservative when asked about personal risk but became more extreme over risks to society as a whole, particularly in relation to transport and the environment. Overall, as expected, the public perception of relative risk was somewhat divorced from reality. Because of their geographical location and confidents, the study group

  14. Ethical Obligations in the Face of Dilemmas Concerning Patient Privacy and Public Interests: The Sasebo Schoolgirl Murder Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadooka, Yasuhiro; Okita, Taketoshi; Asai, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    A murder case that had some features in common with the Tarasoff case occurred in Sasebo City, Japan, in 2014. A 15-year-old high school girl was murdered and her 16-year-old classmate was arrested on suspicion of homicide. One and a half months before the murder, a psychiatrist who had been examining the girl called a prefectural child consultation centre to warn that she might commit murder, but he did not reveal her name, considering it his professional duty to keep it confidential. Article 134 of the Japanese Criminal Law states that doctors should not disclose patient information obtained in clinical practice without a legitimate reason, but the Japanese Supreme Court has not specified what constitutes a legitimate reason. Mass media and commentators suggested that the murder could have been prevented if the psychiatrist had disclosed the girl's name to the authorities or had isolated her coercively in a psychiatric ward. However, the authors disagree with such claims. This article discusses obligations imposed on concerned individuals and third party members in cases involving ethical dilemmas regarding patient confidentiality and information disclosure. It is concluded that everyone should fulfill their obligations to prevent such tragedies and one should judge the appropriateness of others' actions based not on the consequences of their actions, but on the processes used to decide on a course of action and their commitment. It is necessary for us to establish a society in which concerned parties can do what they think is ethically best without fearing ungrounded charges. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Widespread Occurrence of Zoonotic Cryptosporidium Species and Subtypes in Dairy Cattle from Northeast China: Public Health Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei; Li, Yijing; Yang, Hang; Song, Mingxin; Lu, Yixin; Li, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Bovine cryptosporidiosis constitutes a threat to the livestock industry and public health worldwide. In the present study we investigated dairy cattle of all ages in northeast China for the prevalence and genetic traits of Cryptosporidium. Nested polymerase chain reaction of the small subunit rRNA gene was used to identify Cryptosporidium species or genotype. The parasite was detected in 130 of 537 (24.2%) animals sampled from the cities of Harbin (35.2%, 69/196) and Qiqihar (32.1%, 61/190). Cryptosporidium parvum (87/130) was identified as the dominant species by sequence analysis followed by Cryptosporidium bovis (28/130), Cryptosporidium ryanae (5/130), Cryptosporidium andersoni (2/130), Cryptosporidium suis-like genotype (2/130), and mixed C. ryanae/ C. bovis (1/130). Subtyping of C. parvum isolates was based on the DNA polymorphisms of the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene. Subtyping of the C. parvum isolates recognized subtypes IIdA15G1 (24/87) in Harbin and IIdA20G1 (48/87) in Qiqihar. A diversity of Cryptosporidium species/genotype and subtypes was identified in cattle from northeast China. Widespread occurrence of human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species and subtypes is of public health significance. This is the first study reporting C. parvum subtype IIdA20G1 in China. The findings improve the epidemiological knowledge of bovine cryptosporidiosis in China, highlighting the importance of ongoing Cryptosporidium surveillance.

  16. Results of comparative evaluations concerning the psychic process of perceiving and assessing risk-objects by the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.P.; Renn, O.

    1983-01-01

    The perception of risk has become a mayor research field, after scientists and politicians recognized that scientific risk studies like the Rasmussen-Report on nuclear energy had no large impact on the public acceptance. With our surveys we aimed to combine two methodological approaches (object perception and attitude theory) and to develop a technique in which the psychic process of perceiving and assessing risk-objects by the general public was followed up and analyzed. Psychological experiments in the field of isolating relevant factors of qualitative risk properties as well as demographic surveys for the measurement of the belief structure were carried out. Our results indicate that in objection to the common conception by natural scientists people in general have a good estimative ability to judge the expected value of different risks. But beyond this estimation of fatalities people also use other criteria (like personal control) to order different objects in respect to their riskiness. The perceived risk is but one factor influencing attitude. A simplified model of the acceptance-building process is carried out showing that acceptance-building is not a purely individual process. Individuals are linked together by their social environment so that every individual decision is influenced by the decision of other people

  17. Lost in a Plethora of Concerns? Match, Mismatch and Hypnotism: The Case of the New Zealand Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikram Chatterjee

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is centred on the theme that the significance attached to attaining higher‘efficiency’ standards in monetary/ numeric terms to attain better ‘economy’ in New Zealandmay have led to a change in concept of ‘ethics.’ This is due to higher stress attached duringthe New Zealand public sector reform to attaining higher efficiency and economic supremacycompared to before the reform. Again, an endeavour to attain economic supremacy at themacro level does not lead to attaining higher efficiency standards at the specific organisationallevels and vice versa. The authors suggest that the hypnotic state of the authors has beenbrought by a dearth of research in regard to the match/mismatch of these three Es, that is,economy, efficiency and ethics. Following this hypnotic state of authors’ future research issuggested in regard to the conceptual schema of existence of these three Es in New Zealandpublic sector.

  18. The concern for nature, a natural process for public policy? How to promote sustainable development in urban environmental agendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Barrionuevo Mora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is a leader worldwide for its recognition of the Rights of Nature and the Rights of the City in its Constitution. In so far as Quito, its capital, has positioned itself among the first municipalities that have demonstrated their compliance with the international commitments on climate change, it is a relevant case study. From the experience of this city, we aim to identify the main factors that contribute to local government taking on a sustainability agenda. Although the national and international context influence on the positioning of such topics, such factors as leadership, the influence of international networks, the level of specialization of the bureaucratic apparatus and local regulations have permitted to include issues related to sustainable development in the public policy agenda and thus have given visibility to cities as relevant actors in the pursuit of sustainable development.

  19. Informing radiography curriculum development: The views of UK radiology service managers concerning the ‘fitness for purpose’ of recent diagnostic radiography graduates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloane, C.; Miller, P.K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Recent years have seen significant changes in the way medical imaging services are delivered, rapid changes in technology and big increases in the number and ranges of examinations undertaken. Given these changes the study aimed to critically evaluate the fitness for purpose of newly qualified diagnostic radiography. Method: The study employed a grounded theory approach to analyse the interviews of 20 radiology managers from a range of medical imaging providers across the UK. Results: Four key themes emerged from the analysis. These were: curriculum content and structure review; diversification in the role of the radiographer; professionalism and coping and the reformation of career structures. Conclusion: The results indicate the role of the radiographer is now in a state of flux and challenge radiology managers and educators to design curricula and career structures which are better matched the role of the radiographer in the very rapidly changing technological, organisational and social contexts of modern society. - Highlights: • Imaging services have undergone many changes in recent years. • The role of the radiographer is now in a state of flux. • The role of the radiographer varies greatly between employers. • There is a need to develop curricula and career structure's which match roles. • Graduates must be excellent communicators, resilient and have realistic expectations.

  20. An overview of tests for animal tissues in feeds applied in response to public health concerns regarding bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, G; van Raamsdonk, L W D; Baeten, V; Murray, I; Berben, G; Brambilla, G; von Holst, C

    2003-04-01

    Enforcing the ban on meat-and-bone meal in feed for farmed animals, and especially ruminants, is considered an important measure to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The authors describe current analytical methods for the detection and identification of animal tissues in feed. In addition, recently approved requirements, such as the ban of intra-species recycling (practice of feeding an animal species with proteins derived from the bodies, or parts of bodies, of the same species) are described. In principle, four different approaches are currently applied, i.e. microscopic analysis, polymerase chain reaction, immunoassay analysis and near infrared spectroscopy or microscopy. The principal performance characteristics of these methods are presented and compared, and their specific advantages and disadvantages described. Special emphasis is also placed on the impact of rendering conditions, particularly high temperatures and on the use of molecular biology techniques.

  1. Recent recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Steve Goldfarb

    The University of Michigan ATLAS Collaboratory Project would like to announce the publication of a number of recent web lectures concerning ATLAS and the LHC. Most recently, we produced a series of presentations made at the First ATLAS Physics Workshop of the Americas, held at SLAC in August. The complete set of lectures can be found here.There is a lot of outstanding material there, relevant to all of ATLAS, including detector summaries, trigger and physics talks, software and computing presentations, and an overview of operations. Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.Additional ATLAS material, including plenary lectures, workshops and tutorials, can be found via our portal athttp://www.wlap.org/atlasincluding: First ATLAS Physics Workshop of the Americas (Aug 2007) Glasgow Overview Week Plenary Sessions (Jul 2007) CTEQ Workshop: "Physics at ...

  2. The effects of dancehall genre on adolescent sexual and violent behavior in Jamaica: A public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Alexay D

    2010-03-01

    Research has shown that there is a direct correlation between the loud 'hard-core' music played on public transportation and the proliferation of sexual activities on these said transportations. To determine the extent to which dancehall music/genre impacts adolescent behavior. The study is informed by quantitative and qualitative data, which were collected during the period February-May 2008. Convenience and judgmental sampling were used to target 100 subjects. Of the 100 adolescent cases (50 male, 50 female), females (40%) were more likely to gravitate to sexually explicit lyrical content than their male counterparts (26%). Females (74%) were also more likely to act upon lyrical contents than males (46%). There was no significant difference where males (100%) and females (98%) subconsciously sings the dancehall lyrics even without hearing it; as well as inspire their dreams 64% and 62% respectively. However, more females (74%) than males (46%) acted on lyrical contents of the dancehall genre. There is a correlation between hard-core dancehall genre and the sexual and violent behavior of adolescents.

  3. Informing radiography curriculum development: The views of UK radiology service managers concerning the 'fitness for purpose' of recent diagnostic radiography graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, C; Miller, P K

    2017-09-01

    Recent years have seen significant changes in the way medical imaging services are delivered, rapid changes in technology and big increases in the number and ranges of examinations undertaken. Given these changes the study aimed to critically evaluate the fitness for purpose of newly qualified diagnostic radiography. The study employed a grounded theory approach to analyse the interviews of 20 radiology managers from a range of medical imaging providers across the UK. Four key themes emerged from the analysis. These were: curriculum content and structure review; diversification in the role of the radiographer; professionalism and coping and the reformation of career structures. The results indicate the role of the radiographer is now in a state of flux and challenge radiology managers and educators to design curricula and career structures which are better matched the role of the radiographer in the very rapidly changing technological, organisational and social contexts of modern society. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seeking for the Definition of "Culture": Current Concerns and their Implications. A Comment on Gustav Jahoda's Article "Critical Reflections on some Recent Definitions of "Culture'"'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironenko, Irina A; Sorokin, Pavel S

    2018-06-01

    This article takes as a starting point the critical analysis of attempts to define "culture", offered by Jahoda in 2012. Basing on the observed proliferation of various, often contradicting, definitions of "culture" (for instance, trying to refer to its both internal and external aspects), Jahoda arrives at the conclusion that attempts to define the concept of "culture" are vain and useless and it is quite practicable simply to use the term without seeking to define it. We find it hard to agree with this statement. Elaborating on Jahoda reflections and drawing on the recent debates in social sciences, cultural studies and philosophy, we argue that seeking for the definition of culture is necessary in the context of contemporary development of social and humanitarian knowledge. Moreover, we claim that the debates about culture indicate the need for a large-scale methodological reorganization of the social and humanitarian sciences, in response to the novel ontological congruence between internal and external, the fundamental "ontological shift", "reversing the poles" of the human-related reality. The human individual becomes its core element and pivot. Other "objects", "external" in relation to the individual (for instance, social structures and institutions), undergo such massive and rapid changes that grow progressively fuzzy and sometimes even less "real", comparing to the individual. The "inner" nature of the individual also transforms: from being "subjected" to think, act and feel according to certain external conditions, an individual becomes an Actor, who is empowered to change the environment following his purposive plans, desires and visions.

  5. Graphical review: The redox dark side of e-cigarettes; exposure to oxidants and public health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Wang, Chen

    2017-10-01

    Since the initial marketing in 2005, the use of e-cigarettes has increased exponentially. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the ineffectiveness of e-cigarettes in leading to smoking cessation, and decreasing the adverse health impacts of cigarette smoking. The number of adolescents adapted to e-cigarettes has been increasing substantially each year, and this adaptation has promoted openness to tobacco smoking. The present review discusses controversies regarding the smoking cessation effects of e-cigarettes, recent governmental policies and regulations of e-cigarette use, toxic components and vaporization products of e-cigarettes, and the novel molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse health impacts of e-cigarettes leading to oxidative stress in target tissues, and consequent development of cardiopulmonary diseases (i.e. COPD), neurodegenerative disorders (i.e. Alzheimer's' disease), and cancer. Health warning signs on the packaging and professional consultation to avoid adaptation in risk groups might be helpful solutions to control negative impacts of e-cigarettes. It is also recommended to further expand basic and clinical investigations to reveal more detailed oxidative stress mechanisms of e-cigarette induced damages, which would ultimately result in more effective protective strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Graphical review: The redox dark side of e-cigarettes; exposure to oxidants and public health concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial marketing in 2005, the use of e-cigarettes has increased exponentially. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the ineffectiveness of e-cigarettes in leading to smoking cessation, and decreasing the adverse health impacts of cigarette smoking. The number of adolescents adapted to e-cigarettes has been increasing substantially each year, and this adaptation has promoted openness to tobacco smoking. The present review discusses controversies regarding the smoking cessation effects of e-cigarettes, recent governmental policies and regulations of e-cigarette use, toxic components and vaporization products of e-cigarettes, and the novel molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse health impacts of e-cigarettes leading to oxidative stress in target tissues, and consequent development of cardiopulmonary diseases (i.e. COPD, neurodegenerative disorders (i.e. Alzheimer's’ disease, and cancer. Health warning signs on the packaging and professional consultation to avoid adaptation in risk groups might be helpful solutions to control negative impacts of e-cigarettes. It is also recommended to further expand basic and clinical investigations to reveal more detailed oxidative stress mechanisms of e-cigarette induced damages, which would ultimately result in more effective protective strategies.

  7. Ethnic disparities among food sources of energy and nutrients of public health concern and nutrients to limit in adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-01-01

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Mexican American (MA) adults is needed to help with public health efforts in implementing culturally sensitive and feasible dietary recommendations. The objective of this study was to determine the food sources of energy and nutrients to limit [saturated fatty acids (SFA), added sugars, and sodium] and nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium) by NHW, NHB, and MA adults. This was a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of NWH (n=4,811), NHB (2,062), and MA (n=1,950) adults 19+ years. The 2003-2006 NHANES 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. Multiple differences in intake among ethnic groups were seen for energy and all nutrients examined. For example, energy intake was higher in MA as compared to NHB; SFA, added sugars, and sodium intakes were higher in NHW than NHB; dietary fiber was highest in MA and lowest in NHB; vitamin D was highest in NHW; calcium was lowest in NHB; and potassium was higher in NHW as compared to NHB. Food sources of these nutrients also varied. Identification of intake of nutrients to limit and of public health concern can help health professionals implement appropriate dietary recommendations and plan interventions that are ethnically appropriate.

  8. Engineers, energy and public concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    This lecture points out that the majority of engineers are content to allow their profession to be undervalued in the eyes of society. On many issues, energy in particular, the engineer has an authoritative voice to speak with, and an incisive point to argue. U.K. energy policy is discussed and a programme is suggested to include breeder reactors and generation of 60% of the electricity demand by nuclear stations by A.D. 2000. (U.K.)

  9. RESEARCH CONCERNING THE EFFECTS OF THE PUBLIC POLICIES ON THE UNEMPLOYMENT AMONG THE YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE NORTH-EAST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian CONDRATOV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper has the goal to identify the specific role that various regulatory institutions of the labor market have on the variation of the macroeconomic indicators which describe the employment situation of the young people on the labor market in the North-East Region of Romania. In this research we have used statistic data provided by the National Institute of Statistics of Romania among which we have selected a series of relevant variables regarding the characterization of the public policies for the labor market and the legislation of employees’ protection. Their influence on the variation of the unemployment rate and the employment rate concerning the young people in the North-East Region was studied using the method of the statistics regression, undergoing a filtration using the Stepwise procedure, implemented within the informatics program SPSS.

  10. Anger, Sadness and Fear in Response to Breaking Crime and Accident News Stories: How Emotions Influence Support for Alcohol-Control Public Policies via Concern about Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solloway, Tyler; Slater, Michael D.; Chung, Adrienne; Goodall, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Prior research shows that discrete emotions, notably anger and fear, can explain effects of news articles on health and alcohol-control policy support. This study advances prior work by coding expressed emotional responses to messages (as opposed to directly manipulated emotions or forced responses), incorporating and controlling for central thoughts, including sadness (a particularly relevant response to tragic stories), and examining concern’s mediating role between emotion and policy support. An experiment with a national online adult panel had participants read one of 60 violent crime or accident news stories, each manipulated to mention or withhold alcohol’s causal contribution. Multi-group structural equation models suggest that stories not mentioning alcohol had a direct effect on policy support via fear and central thoughts, unmediated by concern. When alcohol was mentioned, sadness and anger affects alcohol-control support through concern. Findings help confirm that emotional responses are key in determining news story effects on public support of health policies. PMID:26491487

  11. The unknown on the doorstep: Hong Kong's fears concerning Daya Bay, China's first major nuclear power station and the public relations challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Albert

    1995-01-01

    The Guangdong Nuclear Power Station at Daya Bay is located east of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in Southern China. It is a joint venture between Hong Kong and China. In terms of construction schedule, budget and performance, Daya Bay ranks amongst the best plants anywhere. This achievement is even more apparent when one takes into account the fact that Daya Bay is the first major nuclear power station in China and that a large amount of interface and co-ordination is required to bring together French and British technologies in a non-English speaking environment. This Paper addresses the various and challenging public relations issues faced by Daya Bay during the last 15 years (from feasibility study stage). The negotiation for the Daya Bay nuclear power station project coincided with the political negotiations between China and Britain over the future of Hong Kong - the 1997 issue. (The political negotiations commenced in September 1982 and concluded in late 1984). Concerns over the nuclear project were heard during this phase but were limited to local environmental groups rather than the general public. The focus was more on the environmental and radiological impact of a nuclear power station than specific technical and safety issues. As for the general public, the project wasn't much of an issue until April, 1986 (Chernobyl accident). Period from 1986-1993 was the period of construction of the Daya Bay nuclear power station. An antinuclear campaign was launched by a few local activists who claimed to have collected signatures from one million people in Hong Kong urging the Chinese Government to shelve the project. The Hong Kong public did not understand the difference between Chernobyl type and PWR-type nuclear reactors (Daya Bay is a PWR) nor were they aware that even in the case of Chernobyl, only residents within 30 km needed to be evacuated. These rational arguments and facts could not compete with the horror stories and news photos appearing in the

  12. The unknown on the doorstep: Hong Kong's fears concerning Daya Bay, China's first major nuclear power station and the public relations challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Albert [Hong Kong Nuclear Investment Co Ltd., Hongkong (China)

    1995-07-01

    The Guangdong Nuclear Power Station at Daya Bay is located east of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in Southern China. It is a joint venture between Hong Kong and China. In terms of construction schedule, budget and performance, Daya Bay ranks amongst the best plants anywhere. This achievement is even more apparent when one takes into account the fact that Daya Bay is the first major nuclear power station in China and that a large amount of interface and co-ordination is required to bring together French and British technologies in a non-English speaking environment. This Paper addresses the various and challenging public relations issues faced by Daya Bay during the last 15 years (from feasibility study stage). The negotiation for the Daya Bay nuclear power station project coincided with the political negotiations between China and Britain over the future of Hong Kong - the 1997 issue. (The political negotiations commenced in September 1982 and concluded in late 1984). Concerns over the nuclear project were heard during this phase but were limited to local environmental groups rather than the general public. The focus was more on the environmental and radiological impact of a nuclear power station than specific technical and safety issues. As for the general public, the project wasn't much of an issue until April, 1986 (Chernobyl accident). Period from 1986-1993 was the period of construction of the Daya Bay nuclear power station. An antinuclear campaign was launched by a few local activists who claimed to have collected signatures from one million people in Hong Kong urging the Chinese Government to shelve the project. The Hong Kong public did not understand the difference between Chernobyl type and PWR-type nuclear reactors (Daya Bay is a PWR) nor were they aware that even in the case of Chernobyl, only residents within 30 km needed to be evacuated. These rational arguments and facts could not compete with the horror stories and news photos appearing in the

  13. The Nature and Impact of Late Imperial Chinese Academies: A Review of Some Recent Publications in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    This review essay analyzes the historiography of Confucian academies ("shuyuan") in imperial China, focusing on five representative books published in China between 2008 and 2014, including two new editions of books originally published in 1995 and 2004. The five authors share a deep concern about the nature of academies, particularly…

  14. Holding of the public hearing concerning the alteration in reactor installations (addition of Unit 3 and 4) in the Genkai Nuclear Power Station of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission held a public hearing concerning the addition of Unit 3 and 4 in Kyushu Electric's Genkai Nuclear Power Station in Karatsu City, Saga prefecture, on June 18th, 1984. The selected persons (and other attendants) expressed opinions etc. and personnel in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry answered them. Results of the public hearing are to be taken into conservation in NSC's safety examination. The following are described concerning the public hearing held: date and place, participants, hearing program, documents distributed, names of the persons expressing opinions etc. and the respective summary items of opinions etc. (Mori, K.)

  15. Do Public School Teachers "Really" Receive Lavish Benefits? Richwine and Biggs' Recent Report Doesn't Make the Grade. EPI Issue Brief #324

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Monique

    2012-01-01

    When most people think of the perks of teaching, an image that comes to mind is a shiny apple presented by a gap-toothed pupil. A recent paper by Jason Richwine of the Heritage Foundation and Andrew Biggs of the American Enterprise Institute claims that public school teachers enjoy lavish benefits that are more valuable than their base pay and…

  16. Recent developments in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1985-01-01

    Nowadays there is growing interest by the food industry, government and consumers in the use of food irradiatin to kill harmful insects, prevent diseases and keep food fresher longer. This interest has been stimulated by growing public concern over chemicals used in foods. While food irradiation technologies have been around for more than 50 years, only recently have they become cost effective and gained prominent attention as potentially safer ways of protecting food products and public health. This paper looks at recent developments in food irradiation processing and discusses the issues that lie ahead. (author)

  17. Arcobacter: an emerging food-borne zoonotic pathogen, its public health concerns and advances in diagnosis and control - a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramees, Thadiyam Puram; Dhama, Kuldeep; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Rathore, Ramswaroop Singh; Kumar, Ashok; Saminathan, Mani; Tiwari, Ruchi; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Arcobacter has emerged as an important food-borne zoonotic pathogen, causing sometimes serious infections in humans and animals. Newer species of Arcobacter are being incessantly emerging (presently 25 species have been identified) with novel information on the evolutionary mechanisms and genetic diversity among different Arcobacter species. These have been reported from chickens, domestic animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, dogs), reptiles (lizards, snakes and chelonians), meat (poultry, pork, goat, lamb, beef, rabbit), vegetables and from humans in different countries. Arcobacters are implicated as causative agents of diarrhea, mastitis and abortion in animals, while causing bacteremia, endocarditis, peritonitis, gastroenteritis and diarrhea in humans. Three species including A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus and A. skirrowii are predominantly associated with clinical conditions. Arcobacters are primarily transmitted through contaminated food and water sources. Identification of Arcobacter by biochemical tests is difficult and isolation remains the gold standard method. Current diagnostic advances have provided various molecular methods for efficient detection and differentiation of the Arcobacters at genus and species level. To overcome the emerging antibiotic resistance problem there is an essential need to explore the potential of novel and alternative therapies. Strengthening of the diagnostic aspects is also suggested as in most cases Arcobacters goes unnoticed and hence the exact epidemiological status remains uncertain. This review updates the current knowledge and many aspects of this important food-borne pathogen, namely etiology, evolution and emergence, genetic diversity, epidemiology, the disease in animals and humans, public health concerns, and advances in its diagnosis, prevention and control.

  18. Ohio Appalachia public health department personnel: human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability, and acceptance and concerns among parents of male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldach, Benjamin R; Katz, Mira L

    2012-12-01

    Public health departments (n = 48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8 %) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported most frequently were lack of knowledge about the vaccines, concerns about potential side effects, the newness of the HPV vaccines, and parents believing their children were not sexually active or were too young to receive an HPV vaccine. Provider reports of the primary differences in the acceptability of an HPV vaccine among parents of males compared to the parents of females were lack of awareness that an HPV vaccine was available for males, not understanding why the vaccine should be given to males, and fear of vaccination increasing sexual promiscuity among female adolescents. Half of the health departments (n = 24) reported that parents of females were more receptive toward HPV vaccination, 16 health departments reported no difference in acceptability based on gender of the child, and 5 health departments reported that parents of males were more receptive. This study suggests that there are different informational needs of males and females and parents of male and female children when making an informed decision about HPV vaccination. Findings highlight content to include in strategies to increase HPV vaccination rates among Appalachia Ohio residents.

  19. Study of public understanding and evaluation of messages concerning the policy of 'Pu thermal utilization' based on results of interview survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoko; Kosugi, Motoko; Senda, Yasuko; Takada, Kaori; Iwatsuki, Akihito; Tamagawa, Hiromi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the kind of information the nuclear industry should provide for the general public to understand and trust in the plan of plutonium utilization for mixed-oxide fuel in light water reactors, i.e., Pu thermal utilization. We conducted an interview survey for 30 people who live in the Tokyo metropolitan area to analyze what they know and how they feel about Pu thermal utilization, and to compare three information materials based on their subjective evaluation of the degree of understanding, trust and so on. The content analysis of interviewees' comments regarding Pu thermal utilization shows that they have vague but correct knowledge, that is, 'Pu thermal utilization is to recycle nuclear fuel or nuclear waste.' However, people do not have background information concerning the necessity of Pu utilization, such as the resource limitation of uranium. According to the comparative analysis of the three materials, a material that presents the necessity and usefulness of Pu thermal utilization using figures and graphs was evaluated most understandable, informative, trustful, and persuasive. The material including information of risk was evaluated more informative, but the evaluation of trust indicated a divided opinion. People who feel anxiety about nuclear power generation evaluated the material including risk messages more trustful than other materials. Others evaluated it less trustful because the risk management of Pu thermal utilization and the process to solve remaining problems, such as HLW disposal, are uncertain. (author)

  20. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: A focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale Adam J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people’s attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Methods Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218 were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Results Analysis indicated that participants’ objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1 scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2 a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to ‘punish’ the moderate drinker; and (3 concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at ‘problem’ and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. Conclusions There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most

  1. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: A focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people’s attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Methods Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218) were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Results Analysis indicated that participants’ objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1) scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2) a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to ‘punish’ the moderate drinker); and (3) concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at ‘problem’ and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. Conclusions There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most significant barrier to

  2. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: a focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Adam J; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Hagger, Martin S

    2012-11-23

    UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people's attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218) were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Analysis indicated that participants' objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1) scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2) a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to 'punish' the moderate drinker); and (3) concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at 'problem' and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most significant barrier to public support. Findings also suggest that clearer

  3. Going Concern eller Concerned Going

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraszuk, Anni; Hartmann, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Højsæsonen for revision af årsrapporter 2011 er på trapperne; men hvordan håndterer revisorer egentlig going concern i praksis - i en tid præget af stejle op- og nedture?......Højsæsonen for revision af årsrapporter 2011 er på trapperne; men hvordan håndterer revisorer egentlig going concern i praksis - i en tid præget af stejle op- og nedture?...

  4. Public comments on the proposed 10 CFR Part 51 rule for renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses and supporting documents: Review of concerns and NRC staff response. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review of public comments provided in response to the NRC's proposed amendments to 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 51, which establish new requirements for the environmental review of applications for the renewal of operating licenses of nuclear power plants. The public comments include those submitted in writing, as well as those provided at public meetings that were held with other Federal agencies, State agencies, nuclear industry representatives, public interest groups, and the general public. This report also contains the NRC staff response to the various concerns raised, and highlights the changes made to the final rule and the supporting documents in response to these concerns

  5. The Green Paper on the modernization of public procurement policy of the EU: Towards a socially-concerned market or towards a market-oriented society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Losada Fraga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Green Paper on the modernization of public procurement policy of the European Union launched a reflection on how such EU rules can contribute to fulfill the objectives proposed in the Europe 2020 strategy. This paper analyzes its proposals and identifies its inconsistencies. In particular, it is stressed how European integration has subverted the order of priorities in public procurement rules, upgrading the promotion of the free market to the top of the list. An economistic approach to the legal issue of public procurement seems to be the reason behind such reorganization of priorities. The conflict between political and economic rationalities, which underlies the Green Paper, gives rise to a number of questions, such as how targets other than free competition –mainly the social and environmental ones– shall be taken into account in public procurement; as well as to some proposals, for instance concerning the joint procurement by different administrations (in both the vertical and horizontal sense, and even encouraging a cross-border component, which seems to point to a reorganization of bureaucracy according to economic rationality. The paper, in a final step, aims at describing the (European social model that implicitly underlies these proposals. El Libro Verde sobre la modernización de la política de contratación pública de la Unión Europea propone una reflexión acerca de qué modo las normas comunitarias sobre la materia pueden contribuir a hacer realidad los objetivos propuestos en la estrategia Europa 2020. En este trabajo se analizan las propuestas recogidas en el Libro Verde y se identifican sus incoherencias. En particular se hace hincapié en cómo el proceso de integración europea ha alterado el orden de prioridades de las normas de contratación pública, elevando la promoción del libre mercado a la cúspide de las mismas. La razón de esa reorganización de prioridades parece radicar en la aplicación de un enfoque

  6. Trends and Recent Estimates: Contraceptive Use among U.S. Teens. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2006-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetta, Kerry; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Manlove, Jennifer; Ikramullah, Erum

    2006-01-01

    This Research Brief draws on recently released nationally representative data to provide information on teenagers' patterns of contraceptive use during heterosexual, vaginal intercourse. In this brief, the authors examine these patterns for males and females, for members of racial and ethnic groups, and for younger and older teenagers. Among the…

  7. Public-non-governmental organisation partnerships for health: an exploratory study with case studies from recent Ghanaian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hushie, Martin

    2016-09-13

    The last few decades have seen a dramatic increase in public-non-governmental organisation (NGO) partnerships in the health sector of many low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) as a means of improving the public's health. However, little research has focused to date on the nature, facilitators and barriers of these partnerships. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 participants from five different NGOs and their collaboration with state partners in the Ghanaian health sector at the national and local levels in four regions of the country (Northern, Upper East, Greater Accra, and Eastern) to explore the drivers and nature of these partnerships and their advantages and disadvantages in the effort to improve the public's health. Major findings reveal that: 1) each collaboration between civil society organisations (CSOs) and the state in the health sector demands different partnerships; 2) partnership types can range from equal, formal contractual, decentralized to advocacy ones; 3) commitment by the state and NGOs to work in collaboration lead to improved service delivery, reduced health inequities and disparities; 4) added value of NGOs lies in their knowledge, expertise, community legitimacy, ability to attract donor funding and implementation capacity to address health needs in geographical areas or communities where the government does not reach and for services, which it does not provide and 5) success factors and challenges to be considered, moving forward to promote such partnerships in other LMICs. Recommendations are offered for NGOs, governments, donors, and future research including studying the organisational effectiveness and sustainability of these partnerships to deliver effective and efficient health outcomes to recommend universal best practices in health care.

  8. Bridgman's concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    In 1956 P.W. Bridgman published a letter to the editor in the Journal of Applied Physics reporting results of electrical resistance measurements on iron under static high pressure. The work was undertaken to verify the existence of a polymorphic phase transition at 130 kbar (13 GPa) reported in the same journal and year by the Los Alamos authors, Bancroft, Peterson and Minshall for high pressure, shock-compression loading. In his letter, Bridgman reported that he failed to find any evidence for the transition. Further, he raised some fundamental concerns as to the state of knowledge of shock-compression processes in solids. Later it was determined that Bridgman's static pressure scale was in error, and the shock observations became the basis for calibration of pressure values in static high pressure apparatuses. In spite of the error in pressure scales, Bridgman's concerns on descriptions of shock-compression processes were perceptive and have provided the basis for subsequent fundamental studies of shock-compressed solids. The present paper, written in response to receipt of the 1993 American Physical Society Shock-Compression Science Award, provides a brief contemporary assessment of those shock-compression issues which were the basis of Bridgman's 1956 concerns

  9. Outcome measures and definition of cure in female stress urinary incontinence surgery: a survey of recent publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Peter A; Espaillat-Rijo, Luis M; Davila, G Willy

    2010-03-01

    Much variability exists in outcome measures used to report success of SUI surgery. We set out to evaluate outcome measures and definitions of cure in SUI surgery studies. Outcome measures, success rates, and definition of cure were analyzed from published series and compared to recommendations by leading authorities. Ninety-one publications were analyzed. Thirty (33%) utilized solely subjective measures, four (4%) utilized only objective measures, and 57 (63%) included both. Sixty-one (67%) used symptom questionnaires, 56 (60%) QOL questionnaires, and six (7%) visual analog scale. Twelve (13%) used voiding diaries and 52 (56%) used self-reporting as an outcome measure. Objective measures: 52 (57%) cough stress test, 37 (41%) urodynamic evaluation, 28 (31%) pad testing and a combination in 33 (36%). Few studies adhered to one set of outcome recommendations. Outcome measures used to evaluate success of anti-incontinence procedures lack consensus and comparability.

  10. Public Comments on the proposed 10 CFR Part 51 rule for renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses and supporting documents: Review of concerns and NRC staff response. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This volume contains several appendices. Appendix A contains the list of individuals and organizations providing comments at various stages of the rulemaking process. The names of commenters at the public meetings are listed in the order that they spoke at the meeting; those who submitted written comments are listed by docket number. Appendix B contains the summaries of comments made. Each comment summary is identified by a unique comment number. Appendix C presents the concerns and NRC staff responses. Each concern embodies one or more comments on similar or related issues. The associated comment numbers are referenced for each concern. The concerns are organized by topic areas. A three-letter identifier for the topic, followed by a number, is assigned to each concern

  11. Public Comments on the proposed 10 CFR Part 51 rule for renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses and supporting documents: Review of concerns and NRC staff response. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This volume contains several appendices. Appendix A contains the list of individuals and organizations providing comments at various stages of the rulemaking process. The names of commenters at the public meetings are listed in the order that they spoke at the meeting; those who submitted written comments are listed by docket number. Appendix B contains the summaries of comments made. Each comment summary is identified by a unique comment number. Appendix C presents the concerns and NRC staff responses. Each concern embodies one or more comments on similar or related issues. The associated comment numbers are referenced for each concern. The concerns are organized by topic areas. A three-letter identifier for the topic, followed by a number, is assigned to each concern.

  12. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  13. Allaying public concern regarding CO{sub 2} geological sequestration through the development of automated stations for the continuous geochemical monitoring of gases in the near surface environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunziatellis, A.; Beaubien, S.E.; Ciotoli, G.; Lombardi, S. [La Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2005-07-01

    Several carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) enhanced oil recovery projects conducted in North America have demonstrated that the deep, onshore geological sequestration of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} is technically feasible. However, the technology has yet to be proven to regulators and the general public. It must be demonstrated that carbon sequestration will result in the long-term isolation of the injected CO{sub 2} and that there is no health risk for local residents due to the leakage of CO{sub 2} at surface. It was suggested that in order to alleviate these concerns, low-cost, early warning systems should be installed to monitor gas compositions and concentrations in the soil gas and groundwater. Doing so, would trigger a warning if any increased concentrations of CO{sub 2} or other associated gases were noted in these phases, and allow for early examination of the cause of the anomalous value. In addition, since gas flow is typically along natural faults or abandoned bore holes, installation of monitoring stations around these higher risk sites would help maximize efficiency while minimizing costs. In this study, gas permeable tubing was used to sample soil gas or gases dissolved in groundwater via diffusion. In the case of equilibration with a gas phase the gas concentration within the tubing will eventually match that of the surrounding environment, whereas in the aqueous phase the internal volume of the tube will represent a head space where equilibrium concentrations will be governed by Henry's Constant. CO{sub 2}, hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide from either soil-gas or groundwater were analyzed with low cost infra-red electrochemical detectors. The data was processed with an integrated computer and the results were sent automatically via modem to a central laboratory. The prototype was installed in the San Vittorino Plain in central Italy where it has collected over 5 months of continuous CO{sub 2} data in an area susceptible to sinkhole formation caused by the

  14. [Advances in research of complementary and integrative medicine: a review of recent publications in some of the leading medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamus, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the evidence for effectiveness, adverse effects and cost-effectiveness of complementary therapies, as reflected in publications in high impact factor medical journals during the years 2012-2014. The search detected 13 randomized controlled studies (RCTs) and 14 meta-analyses, which collectively assessed results of 191 RCTs involving the participation of several thousand patients. Pain was the major focus of acupuncture research in both clinical and fMRI studies, which demonstrated that the effect of acupuncture is beyond the placebo effect. In addition, RCTs supported the use of acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in moderate to severe depression. A promising trend was reported for the ameliorating effect of acupuncture in gout. Spinal manipulations may be helpful in cervical pain and yoga may be a useful treatment option for chronic neck pain, chronic low back pain and for pain-related disability. Beneficial effects of adding hypnosis and massage therapy to the treatment of fibromyalgia patients were also documented. Tai-chi may reduce balance impairment in mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease and improve symptoms in patients with osteoarthritis. Products containing cranberry are associated with protective effects in some subgroups of patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. Chinese herbs may assist in glycemic control of diabetes patients and improve survival rate of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Some of the complementary therapies were found to be cost-effective. Physicians should be aware of the possible adverse effects of these treatments and of possible drug-herb interactions. Further larger scale trials are justified.

  15. Public-non-governmental organisation partnerships for health: an exploratory study with case studies from recent Ghanaian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hushie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last few decades have seen a dramatic increase in public-non-governmental organisation (NGO partnerships in the health sector of many low- and middle- income countries (LMICs as a means of improving the public’s health. However, little research has focused to date on the nature, facilitators and barriers of these partnerships. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 participants from five different NGOs and their collaboration with state partners in the Ghanaian health sector at the national and local levels in four regions of the country (Northern, Upper East, Greater Accra, and Eastern to explore the drivers and nature of these partnerships and their advantages and disadvantages in the effort to improve the public’s health. Results Major findings reveal that: 1 each collaboration between civil society organisations (CSOs and the state in the health sector demands different partnerships; 2 partnership types can range from equal, formal contractual, decentralized to advocacy ones; 3 commitment by the state and NGOs to work in collaboration lead to improved service delivery, reduced health inequities and disparities; 4 added value of NGOs lies in their knowledge, expertise, community legitimacy, ability to attract donor funding and implementation capacity to address health needs in geographical areas or communities where the government does not reach and for services, which it does not provide and 5 success factors and challenges to be considered, moving forward to promote such partnerships in other LMICs. Conclusions Recommendations are offered for NGOs, governments, donors, and future research including studying the organisational effectiveness and sustainability of these partnerships to deliver effective and efficient health outcomes to recommend universal best practices in health care.

  16. Public Policy Issues Associated with Tsunami Hazard Mitigation, Response and Recovery: Transferable Lessons from Recent Global Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2004, a sequence of devastating tsunamis has taken the lives of more than 300,000 people worldwide. The path of destruction left by each is typically measured in hundreds of meters to a few kilometers and its breadth can extend for hundreds even thousands of kilometers, crossing towns and countries and even traversing an entire oceanic basin. Tsunami disasters in Indonesia, Chile, Japan and elsewhere have also shown that the almost binary nature of tsunami impacts can present some unique risk reduction, response, recovery and rebuilding challenges, with transferable lessons to other tsunami vulnerable coastal communities around the world. In particular, the trauma can motivate survivors to relocate homes, jobs, and even whole communities to safer ground, sometimes at tremendous social and financial costs. For governments, the level of concentrated devastation usually exceeds the local capacity to respond and thus requires complex inter-governmental arrangements with regional, national and even international partners to support the recovery of impacted communities, infrastructure and economies. Two parallel projects underway in California since 2011—the SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) tsunami scenario project and the California Tsunami Policy Working Group (CTPWG)—have worked to digest key lessons from recent tsunami disasters, with an emphasis on identifying gaps to be addressed in the current state and federal policy framework to enhance tsunami risk awareness, hazard mitigation, and response and recovery planning ahead of disaster and also improve post-disaster implementation practices following a future California or U.S. tsunami event.

  17. Effects of Student Characteristics, Principal Qualifications, and Organizational Constraints for Assessing Student Achievement: A School Public Relations and Human Resources Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip; Vang, Maiyoua; Young, Karen Holsey

    2008-01-01

    Standards-based student achievement scores are used to assess the effectiveness of public education and to have important implications regarding school public relations and human resource practices. Often overlooked is that these scores may be moderated by the characteristics of students, the qualifications of principals, and the restraints…

  18. Environmental Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alma, Peter

    1995-04-01

    This series of A-level social biology topic books responds to the changing demands of social biology syllabuses, with each text dealing with a particular area of interest. Although the series is primarily intended for students of A-level social biology, the books will appeal to students studying a wide range of biological subjects at A-level. Environmental Concerns covers topics common to several A-level human and social biology syllabuses. It is particularly relevant to the human ecology and conservation options. The text focuses on the social and economic implications of current ecological issues as well as the basic biological concepts involved. It deals with the causes, effects and prevention of atmospheric and water pollution as well as with the disruption of ecosystems by changes in land use. The conflict of interests between conservation and exploitation is discussed, along with management techniques including the controversial method of culling to maintain diversity. The moral and aesthetic aspects of conservation and management are emphasised throughout, in addition to the scientific background of these techniques.

  19. Elusive Justice, Changing Memories and the Recent Past of Dictatorship and Violence in Uruguay: An Analysis of the 2012 Public Act in the Gelman Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Lessa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Public Act of Acknowledgment of International Responsibility and Recovery of the Memory of María Claudia García de Gelman held in the Uruguayan parliament on 21 March 2012 through a theoretical framework of memory narratives. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ordered Uruguay to hold the Public Act as part of its February 2011 ruling in the Gelman v. Uruguaycase, which condemned its failure to investigate and prosecute individuals responsible for disappearing María Claudia García de Gelman and illegally adopting her baby daughter Macarena, while denying her knowledge of her true identity for over two decades. The Public Act was a memorialising event intended as an act of reparation, which also triggered irruptions of memory in Uruguay, resurfacing memory debates and discussions about the recent past of dictatorship and violence. The Public Act exposed once again the continued antagonisms between memory narratives of violence and justice that have existed in the Uruguayan political and social landscape since 1985. While the Act was an expression of the “state terrorism” narrative, its unfolding resulted in the resurfacing of narratives of “war” and “two demons” in the social and political arenas and of new interpretations of these narratives in light of events and politics in 2012.

  20. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    OpenAIRE

    Shugart, Erika C.; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or ?Sagan effect? associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist?s career. There are a varie...

  1. Fairness and nanotechnology concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A; Besley, John C

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that fairness perceptions matter to people who are asked to evaluate the acceptability of risks or risk management. Two separate national random surveys (n = 305 and n = 529) addressed Americans' concerns about and acceptance of nanotechnology risk management in the context of the degree to which they view scientists and risk managers as fair. The first survey investigated general views about scientists across four proposed dimensions of fairness (distributional, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). The results show that respondents who believe that the outcomes of scientific research tend to result in unequal benefits (distributional fairness) and that the procedures meant to protect the public from scientific research are biased (procedural fairness) were more concerned about nanotechnology. Believing scientists would treat them with respect (interpersonal fairness) and ensure access to information (informational fairness) were not significant predictors of concern. The second study also looked at these four dimensions of fairness but focused on perceptions of risk managers working for government, universities, and major companies. In addition to concern, it also examined acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Study 2 results were similar to those of study 1 for concern; however, only perceived informational fairness consistently predicted acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Overall, the study points to the value of considering fairness perceptions in the study of public perceptions of nanotechnology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Decree of 2 July 1986 concerning the technical/scientific pluridisciplinary commission to study problems in certain fields requiring public protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Decree of 2nd July 1986 (published in the Official Gazette of 29th July 1986) sets up a pluridisciplinary Commission which will advise the Minister for Protection of the Public in case of emergency situations in certain fields requiring public protection measures. The risks covered are the following: seismic, nuclear, volcanic, hydrological, chemical/industrial and ecological and finally, risks which may arise during transport. (NEA) [fr

  3. Recent Naval Postgraduate School Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    SCIENCE TECHNICAL REPORTS AND NOTES (cont’d) McCoy, E E, Carey, B J Desirable properties of a network taxonomy Naval Postgraduate School, (NPS-52-80-007...Postgraduate School, (NPS-53-81-002), Mar., 1981. Franker R H; ]ay achandran, T A slu-y o’fth properties of a new goodness-of-fit test Sponsored by Foundation...of the Psycometric Soc. Mcftaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Aug., i§76. Weitzman 111 A Test bias: one of those partial correlations is the

  4. Recent Naval Postgraduate School Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-30

    Univ. of Texas - Arlington. 1983. Evered, R The Falklands War: Intercultural and transcultural issues Int. Soc. of Political Psychol. Conf., Oxford Univ...OF NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS (cont’d) Valenta, J Empire strikes back: Falkland Islands crisis Atlantic Allies and Discord...H; Darius R G Responding to crisis in Southwest Asia: the RDJTF and its alternatives IN R. H. Magnus and J. W. Amos: Regional reaction to the RDJTF

  5. Recent Naval Postgraduate School Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    School,, (IPS-.531071O1)p 1W7. 3* Conhri Aceofthecna taraW 8to ncoen 0 mnkionai goostrophic adibxamat with. f1 itt 1 oh1 maduate School, (BPS-531h77041...Nor h Holand , 1977. 267 p. MorAn techniques of 3.A. - dynamic programming (Ch. 141) IN Naval operations analysis, 2nd ed. Naval lust. Press, 1977, p

  6. Recent Naval Postgraduate School Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    U.S. Army Training & Doctrine Ccmmand, Fort Monroe, Va. Naval Postgraduate School, (NPS-55-80-023), June, 1980. 42 p. Hartman, J K Grcund movement ... movement Elmsford, N.Y., Pergamon, 1980. 300 p. Amos, J W Deception and the Middle East war IN D. C. Daniel and K. L. Herbig, eds.: Strategic military...Service, (NOAA), i6 p., (1980). * Moose, P B The qradient maqnetC- telluric method at the sea floor IEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 19, no. 1

  7. Recent Naval Postgraduate School Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    Tax code helps oil industry? Give me a break Wall Street Journal, (July 16, 1985). Henderson, D R The economics of fuel economy standards Regulation...1983. Valenta, J Soviet strategy in the Caribbean Basin: Avoidance of conflicts between the superpowers ISA Congr., Mexico City, Mexico, Apr. 5-10...statistical analyses of retinal blood vessel pattern parameters Biometrics Conf., Sandia Labs, Albuquerque, NM, 1986. Poock, G K- Blackstone , S W A. Speech I

  8. Recent Naval Postgraduate School Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-30

    pay, performance ratings and voluntary separations 12th Annual Convention, Eastern Econ. Asso., Philadelphia, PA, Apr., 1986. Sol nick, L M...ilow above the Marine boundary layer 4th Conference Meteorol. and Oceano . Coastal Zone, Anaheim, CA., February, 3-5, 1988. Smith, R Computational

  9. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  10. An internet-based survey in Japan concerning social distance and stigmatization toward the mentally ill among doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tomoo; Hanya, Manako; Kishi, Masanori; Kondo, Yuki; Cates, Marshall E; Kamei, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-28

    Stigma associated with psychiatric disorders tends to be manifested as negative attitudes or behavior toward the mentally ill. It has negative influences, such as leading to difficulty in establishing trust-based relationships and interfering with medical treatment. In order to reduce such stigma, it is necessary to clarify its extent and characteristics in healthcare professionals. Considering this, an Internet-based questionnaire survey was conducted, involving doctors (n = 186), nurses (n = 161), and pharmacists (n = 192) in comparison with the general public (n = 331), and using the Whatley Social Distance Scale (WSDS) and Index of Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (IATM) as stigma-related indices. Median total WSDS scores and interquartile range were as follows: doctors: 15.5(12.0-18.0), nurses: 14.0(12.0-16.5), pharmacists: 15.0(13.0-17.0), and the general public: 16.0(13.0-18.0). Similarly, median IATM scores were as follows: doctors: 39.0(36.0-42.0), nurses: 39.0(37.0-43.0), pharmacists: 40.0(36.0-42.0), and the general public: 37.0(33.0-41.0). IATM scores were significantly higher in the professional groups than the general public group. Both healthcare professionals and the general public with prior exposure to mental illness were more favorable attitudes toward the mentally ill. Especially among healthcare professionals, they working in psychiatric departments were more favorable attitudes. These results suggest that the stigma of healthcare professionals toward the mentally ill was shown to have a smaller and relatively favorable attitude than that of the general public. In order to correct the stigma it was suggested that a good contact experience with the patient such as work and training in psychiatry is effective. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Ethical considerations and proposed guidelines for the use of radio frequency identification: especially concerning its use for promoting public safety and national security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Amber McKee; Labay, Vladimir

    2006-04-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is quickly growing in its applications. A variety of uses for the technology are beginning to be developed, including chips which can be used in identification cards, in individual items, and for human applications, allowing a chip to be embedded under the skin. Such chips could provide numerous benefits ranging from day-to-day convenience to the increased ability of the federal government to adequately ensure the safety of its citizens. However, there are also valid concerns about the potential of this technology to infringe on privacy, creating fears of a surveillance society. These are concerns that must be addressed quickly, with sensitivity to individual interests and societal welfare, allowing humanity to reap the benefits of convenience and safety without paying an unacceptable price in the loss of privacy.

  12. Submission of the national commission of the public debate on the options concerning the long life high and medium activity radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document deals with the presentation of a public debate on the radioactive wastes management and the opportunities of its organization. It presents successively the long life high and medium activity radioactive wastes, the today radioactive wastes management policy and some questions and topics which could be discussed during the debate. (A.L.B.)

  13. 67. Anniversary festival of the VSE 23 May 1981, at Interlaken. [Attitude of VSE to the legal requirements concerning the use of nuclear energy and protection of the public from radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-17

    The meeting report contains six statements relating to the attitude of the Swiss Engineers to the legal requirements concerning the use of nuclear energy and the protection of the public from radiation. These imply that the present laws make it almost impossible to proceed with nuclear energy development. Although a proposed article has been introduced into the constitution accepting nuclear power development in parallel with conventional sources, the legal framework is inadequate to support this in practice.

  14. Committed dose equivalent per intake of unit activity of radionuclides, for four age-groups, concerning the members of the public for the environmental impact evaluation's of radioactive releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.; Brofferio, C.; Sacripanti, A.

    1983-01-01

    In the present work, with the aim of estimating more realistically the committed dose equivalent for the members of the public in the environmental impact evaluation's of nuclear plants, the authors supply a methodology for calculating the committed dose equivalents for inhalation and ingestion, and the values for fiftheen organs and sixi-three radionuclides, concerning four specific age-groups on the ground of data published by Icrp n.30 part 1, 2, 3

  15. Assessment of the fears of the public concerning possible hazards from HF electromagnetic fields of mobile phone equipment - annual enquiries. Final report on the enquiry of 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belz, Janina

    2007-01-01

    The BfS (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Federal Radiation Protection Office) carries out a continuous series of investigations on citizens' fears concerning the potential hazards of HF electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones (''Ermittlung der Befuerchtungen und Aengste der breiten Oeffentlichkeit hinsichtlich moeglicher Gefahren der hochfrequenten elektromagnetischen Felder des Mobilfunks''). For this purpose, enquiries by telephone were carried out annually between 2003 and 2006 among representative parts of the population by the Institut fuer angewandte Sozialwissenschaft. These are to investigate the awareness of the population of health risks of electromagnetic fields and also show changes in awareness over the period under investigation. (orig.) [de

  16. Consideration on the Enhancement of Nuclear Crisis Communication based on the State-of-the-Art of Other Spheres of Public Concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ju; Hah, Yeon Hee

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Organizations (NROs) around the world are aware that the demand on information and transparency regarding nuclear activities is increasing day by day. No NRO feels immune to a crisis, and whichever is the nature of a crisis, the demand of information is extraordinary and NROs face the challenge of handling the situation professionally under high pressure and public scrutiny. Crisis communication is defined as the design, planning and implementation of communicative actions in order to satisfy the obligations and demands regarding public information and transparency in a situation of media pressure and reputational risk for the NRO. This study reviews and compares overall status of crisis and/or risk management activities in other spheres of technical society as well as nuclear sphere, which are currently implemented, by comprehensively identifying and surveying management framework, general communication system, status of responsible staffs, and manual preparation in each part

  17. Public notice no. 23/77, concerning the application for a license to establish a rationalisation syndicate for nuclear fuel supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The public utilities Badenwerk AG, EVS, VEW, ELEKTROMARK (Hagen), Neckarwerke (Esslingen) and TW (Stuttgart) applied for a licence in order to conclude a syndicate contract according to article 5 paragraph 2 and 3 of the Corporation Law. The contract provides cooperation in the field of acquisition of nuclear fuel. The partners involved founded the 'Gesellschaft fuer Kernbrennstoff mbH (GKB) [Nuclear Fuel Company Limited] with a registered seat in Bonn. Essential contents of the contract is given in full. (HP) [de

  18. Ohio Appalachia public health department personnel: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability, and acceptance and concerns among parents of male and female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Oldach, Benjamin R.; Katz, Mira L.

    2012-01-01

    Public health departments (n=48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8%) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported mo...

  19. Public appraisal of government efforts and participation intent in medico-ethical policymaking in Japan: a large scale national survey concerning brain death and organ transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hajime; Akabayashi, Akira; Kai, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Background Public satisfaction with policy process influences the legitimacy and acceptance of policies, and conditions the future political process, especially when contending ethical value judgments are involved. On the other hand, public involvement is required if effective policy is to be developed and accepted. Methods Using the data from a large-scale national opinion survey, this study evaluates public appraisal of past government efforts to legalize organ transplant from brain-dead bodies in Japan, and examines the public's intent to participate in future policy. Results A relatively large percentage of people became aware of the issue when government actions were initiated, and many increasingly formed their own opinions on the policy in question. However, a significant number (43.3%) remained unaware of any legislative efforts, and only 26.3% of those who were aware provided positive appraisals of the policymaking process. Furthermore, a majority of respondents (61.8%) indicated unwillingness to participate in future policy discussions of bioethical issues. Multivariate analysis revealed the following factors are associated with positive appraisals of policy development: greater age; earlier opinion formation; and familiarity with donor cards. Factors associated with likelihood of future participation in policy discussion include younger age, earlier attention to the issue, and knowledge of past government efforts. Those unwilling to participate cited as their reasons that experts are more knowledgeable and that the issues are too complex. Conclusions Results of an opinion survey in Japan were presented, and a set of factors statistically associated with them were discussed. Further efforts to improve policy making process on bioethical issues are desirable. PMID:15661080

  20. Pigs and wild boar in Corsica harbor Echinococcus canadensis G6/7 at levels of concern for public health and local economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhang, Gérald; Richomme, Céline; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Boué, Franck

    2014-05-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic zoonosis widespread in the Mediterranean area. The parasite is commonly maintained in a domestic cycle involving dogs and livestock species. As no new data have been made available for the last 15 years concerning the French Mediterranean island of Corsica, a cross-sectional survey at the slaughterhouse was conducted in 2009-2010 to describe the current presence of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in intermediate hosts. Only pig infections with the G6/7 genotype of Echinococcus canadensis were observed. No infection was detected in other breeding species but this should be interpreted with caution because 75% of the cows inspected during the survey were calves, and all sheep and goats were younger than two months old. In parallel four wild boars harvested during the 2010-2011 hunting season were also infected by the same genotype. These data constitute the first report of E. canadensis in France and the first molecular characterization of E. granulosus sensu lato in a wild species in France. The current prevalence observed in pigs (5.9%, n=2527) highlights the fact that CE is still of economic concern on Corsica, an island where certain regional products are produced using pig's liver ("Figatelli"). This prevalence, and the similar one observed in wild boars (4.0%, n=101), is a consequence of certain breeding practices and hunting practices which enable circulation of the parasite in the environment in close contact with humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Pharmaceutical counseling of non-conventional dosage forms concerning the health-literacy and the patient adherence in public medication dispensing -Questionnaire surveys in Hungarian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, O; Zelko, R

    Although the non-conventional dosage forms (e.g. modified release per oral systems or transdermal patches) have more significant advantages than other conventional dosage forms, the pa- tients have to apply them correctly in their home medicine using to reach the effective and safe therapy. A guideline of relevant application instructions contribute to development of an effective pharmaceutical counseling in community pharmacies. The counseling and advices can improve the patients' knowledge concerning application rules of different new dosage forms (health- literacy) with patient adherence. Finally it will result more effective and safer therapies. The aim of our Hungarian questionnaire surveys was to explore the patients' drug application habits or application errors and improve special verbal counseling of mentioned non-conventional dosage forms in community pharmacies. Understandable patient information leaflets were developed about application rules and besides the levels of patients' reading comprehension was evaluated in case of the leaflet of medicinal patches. The results show that a properly developed text is useful for the majority of patients but they need the verbal explanation as well, moreover there is a demand for the verbal counseling in community pharmacies. The most common application errors were explored and the most effective instructions or application rules were collected for the pharmacists and patients concerning the modified release tablets or capsules and transdermal patches.

  2. Zika virus diseases – The new face of an ancient enemy as global public health emergency (2016: Brief review and recent updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Passi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV disease is caused by a virus transmitted by Aedes mosquito. It presents as flu-like symptoms lasting for 5–7 days and shows potential association with neurological and autoimmune complications such as congenital microcephaly and adult paralysis disorder, Guillain–Barré syndrome. Treatment measures are conservative as the disease is self-limiting. ZIKV earlier affected several tropical regions of Africa and Asia from 1951 to 2006. Subsequently, it moved out from these regions to land as outbreaks in Yap Island, French Polynesia, South America, and most recently in Brazil. The WHO declared it as an international public health emergency in 2016 and an extraordinary event with recommendations for improving communications, tightening vigil on ZIKV infections, and improving mosquito control measures. The authors in this article aim to briefly discuss ZIKV infection, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and prevention.

  3. Public health hazards in Poland posed by foodstuffs contaminated with [i]E.Coli[/i] O104:H4 bacterium from the recent European out break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Biliński

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin producing [i]Escherichia coli[/i] (STEC are the most virulent diarrhoeagenic [i]E. coli [/i]known to date. They can spread with alarming ease via the food chain, as recently demonstrated by the large outbreak of STEC O104:H4 borne by sprouted seeds in 2011, clustered in northern Germany, and subsequently affecting other countries. Indeed, a significant number of infections to verocytotoxin producing [i]Escherichia coli[/i] O104:H4 have been reported from the WHO European Region resulting in many cases of bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Germany, 15 other European countries and North America. Eventually, the European Food Standards Agency, (EFSA, identified the likely source to a single consignment of fenugreek seeds from an Egyptian exporter as being linked to the two outbreaks in Germany and France. The situation was closely monitored by the Chief Sanitary Inspectorate public health authority in Poland where actions undertaken ensured that the public was well informed about the dangers of STEC contamination of food, how to avoid infection, and what to do if infected. Tracing the fenugreek distributors also enabled the identification of suspected batches and their isolation. As a result, there were very few reported cases of STEC infection in Poland. Effective control over such outbreaks is therefore a vital public health task. This should include early detection and rapid identification of the contagion mode, followed by removing the foodstuff(s from the market, providing consumer advice, and preventing secondary spreading. As a mitigation measure, screening/monitoring those involved in food handling is also warranted to exclude carriers who can be asymptomatic.

  4. Public expectations concerning confidentiality protection of adolescents' sexual and reproductive health care in Lithuania: findings of the surveys conducted in 2005 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Lazarus, Jeffrey Victor

    2014-04-01

    An adolescent's right to confidential healthcare is protected by international law and professional consensus. However, parental and social support for confidential sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, in particular, varies greatly. This study documents Lithuanian residents' expectations with regard to confidentiality protection for adolescents in this domain, and explores the factors related to the diversity of these expectations. Two national surveys of Lithuanian residents completed in 2005 and 2012 using anonymous questionnaires. Participants rated their expectations for confidentiality using a five-point Likert scale for eight types of SRH consultations. Public anticipation for confidentiality depended on whether issues related to sexual behaviour or to its consequences were addressed during adolescent consultation. Only younger respondents had higher expectations for confidentiality in both contexts. Public expectations regarding confidentiality were less demanding in 2012 than in 2005. The expectation of confidentiality protection was greater for topics related to sexual behaviour than for the consequences of sexual behaviour, such as pregnancy, abortion or a sexually transmitted infection. This implies a need for targeted information strategies for the general population and explicit guidance for physicians on when and for whom care should remain confidential.

  5. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  6. E-SovTox: An online database of the main publicly-available sources of toxicity data concerning REACH-relevant chemicals published in the Russian language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Blinova, Irina; Aruoja, Villem; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Legrand, Nicolas; Kahru, Anne

    2010-08-01

    A new open-access online database, E-SovTox, is presented. E-SovTox provides toxicological data for substances relevant to the EU Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) system, from publicly-available Russian language data sources. The database contains information selected mainly from scientific journals published during the Soviet Union era. The main information source for this database - the journal, Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevania [Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases], published between 1957 and 1992 - features acute, but also chronic, toxicity data for numerous industrial chemicals, e.g. for rats, mice, guinea-pigs and rabbits. The main goal of the abovementioned toxicity studies was to derive the maximum allowable concentration limits for industrial chemicals in the occupational health settings of the former Soviet Union. Thus, articles featured in the database include mostly data on LD50 values, skin and eye irritation, skin sensitisation and cumulative properties. Currently, the E-SovTox database contains toxicity data selected from more than 500 papers covering more than 600 chemicals. The user is provided with the main toxicity information, as well as abstracts of these papers in Russian and in English (given as provided in the original publication). The search engine allows cross-searching of the database by the name or CAS number of the compound, and the author of the paper. The E-SovTox database can be used as a decision-support tool by researchers and regulators for the hazard assessment of chemical substances. 2010 FRAME.

  7. Teachers’ Perceptions of and Concerns for the Implementation of the New First Grade English Textbook at Iran’s Public Junior High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Asadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Changing the English textbook of the first grade junior high school at Iran’s public schools after 27 years has sparked researchers’ interests in conducting evaluations of the new English textbook to get insights into its strengths and weaknesses. In line with this trend, this study aimed at evaluating the new textbook (Prospect 1 from teachers’ perspectives. To attain this objective, 30 junior high school teachers were interviewed and the data were then analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The results revealed that from teachers’ perspectives, there were some pitfalls with the new textbook such as applying an unsuitable method of literacy instruction; over-attention to the communication skills at the expense of literacy skills; over-localization of the content; overlooking the development of intercultural competence in students; and lack of authenticity in the presentation of the content. Finally, as the central figures in the process of educational change, the participant teachers offered some suggestions to amend the new textbook with the hope that their voices be heard by the pertinent authorities.

  8. Municipal Wastewater Effluents as a Source of Listerial Pathogens in the Aquatic Milieu of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: A Concern of Public Health Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel E.O. Odjadjare

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effluent quality of an urban wastewater treatment facility in South Africa and its impact on the receiving watershed for a period of 12 months. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of potential Listeria pathogens (L. ivanovii and L. innocua and the physicochemical quality of the treated wastewater effluent was assessed, with a view to ascertain the potential health and environmental hazards of the discharged effluent. Total listerial density varied between 2.9 × 100 and 1.2 × 105 cfu/mL; free living Listeria species were more prevalent (84%, compared to Listeria species attached to planktons (59–75%. The treated effluent quality fell short of recommended standards for turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrite, phosphate and Listeria density; while pH, temperature, total dissolved solids and nitrate contents were compliant with target quality limits after treatment. The Listeria isolates (23 were sensitive to three (15% of the 20 test antibiotics, and showed varying (4.5–91% levels of resistance to 17 antibiotics. Of seven resistance gene markers assayed, only sulII genes were detected in five (22% Listeria strains. The study demonstrates a potential negative impact of the wastewater effluent on the receiving environment and suggests a serious public health implication for those who depend on the receiving watershed for drinking and other purposes.

  9. The Occupy Central (Umbrella) movement and mental health distress in the Hong Kong general public: political movements and concerns as potential structural risk factors of population mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Kim, Yoona; Wu, Anise M S; Wang, Zixin; Huang, Bishan; Mo, Phoenix K H

    2017-05-01

    Political tension, as expressed by mass movements such as the Occupy Central movement (2014) in Hong Kong, is a potential but understudied structural factor of population mental health. A random population-based telephone survey anonymously interviewed 344 Hong Kong Chinese adults aged 18-65 years during the 2 weeks since the termination date of the 2-month-long Occupy Central movement (15/12/2014). Linear regression models were fit using mental distress (depression, anxiety and negative mood) and self-perceived changes in mood/sleeping quality as dependent variables. Prevalence of participation in the movement was 10.5% (self), 17.7% (family members/relatives), and 34.0% (peers); 8.5% had participated for ≥2 days. Young age, but not participation, was associated with mental distress. In adjusted analysis, three types of responses to the movement (worry about safety, negative emotional responses to media reports, and conflicts with peers about the movement) and emotional responses to local political situations were significantly associated with all/some of the dependent variables related to mental distress. The variable on emotions toward local political situations was correlated with the three responses to the movement; it fully mediated the associations between such responses and mental distress. Many citizens participated in the movement, which was led by youths and might have increased the general public's mental distress. Negative personal responses to the movement and emotions toward political situations were potential risk factors. As the political tension would last and political pessimism is globally found, politics may have become a regular and persistent structural risk factor negatively affecting population mental health.

  10. The influence of Goiania radiological accident on Brazilian public opinion concerning new nuclear electric plants; A influencia do acidente radiologico de Goiania na aceitacao publica de novas usinas nucleoeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldonian, Nelson Leon; Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Energia e Ambiente

    1997-12-31

    The Brazilian society is against applications of nuclear energy, mainly respecting to construction of new nuclear power plants, believing that they are harmful to population`s welfare and the environment. By this reason, Brazilian nuclear sector would promote a more intensive program of public discussion, not limited to technical and scientific community. Intending to contribute to a better judgment by society about the differences between diverse employment of nuclear energy, arguments concerned to its benefits are presented, pointing out that adverse accounts to nuclear electricity based on Goiania radiological accident, are not justified 10 refs., 5 tabs.; e-mail: meldonia at net.ipen.br

  11. [Floods and public health: a review of the recent scientific literature on the causes, consequences and responses to prevention and mitigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli

    2012-06-01

    Floods are among the most frequent natural disasters and they affect the lives of approximately 102 million people each year, mainly in developing countries and in major urban areas with a tendency to grow further over the coming decades. The scope of this paper is to provide input for a clearer understanding of these events through the results and experiences to be gleaned from the recent scientific literature. From the Pubmed database, 70 articles were analyzed that fulfilled the criteria to address at least one of the items selected for analysis, namely: 1) causes; 2) consequences; 3) responses and actions: submission of proposals and solutions for the prevention and/or mitigation of the risks and impacts of flooding. Tables for each of the items selected were organized in order to systematize and synthesize the results for causes (attributed to natural and human activities); environmental, infrastructure and services, and health consequences (injuries and diseases classified according to chapters of ICD-10); prevention and mitigation responses and actions. It was concluded that given the scenarios of increased frequency and severity of these events, the challenges facing public health for disaster risk reduction require integrated responses with broad policies for sustainable development.

  12. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  13. Recent recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Steven Goldfarb

    The University of Michigan ATLAS Collaboratory Project is happy to announce the publication of a number of recent web lectures, including the full Plenary Session from the ATLAS Overview Week, held at CERN in October. Archives from that event are located here and directly on the Indico agenda. Click on the pictures below to access more information. Latest NewsAs announced in the Collaborative Tool Workshop, held on Tuesday of the Overview Week, future events in the Michigan Archives will be available for viewing with a Flash Player plug-in (right image above), as well as the usual Real Player plug-in. This additional option, made possible by our usage of the Lecture Object and standard formats for storing all media and metadata, allows the viewer to choose her/his preferred environment. As always, viewing of the lectures is supported on all major platforms and browsers and there is also the option to download lectures for remote viewing with limited or no network bandwidth.ATLAS 2007 ArchivesAdditional...

  14. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  15. Estimating the Duration of Public Concern After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Accident From the Occurrence of Radiation Exposure-Related Terms on Twitter: A Retrospective Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Naoki; Ota, Mizuki; Yagahara, Ayako; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2016-11-25

    After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan on March 11, 2011, a large number of comments, both positive and negative, were posted on social media. The objective of this study was to clarify the characteristics of the trend in the number of tweets posted on Twitter, and to estimate how long public concern regarding the accident continued. We surveyed the attenuation period of the first term occurrence related to radiation exposure as a surrogate endpoint for the duration of concern. We retrieved 18,891,284 tweets from Twitter data between March 11, 2011 and March 10, 2012, containing 143 variables in Japanese. We selected radiation, radioactive, Sievert (Sv), Becquerel (Bq), and gray (Gy) as keywords to estimate the attenuation period of public concern regarding radiation exposure. These data, formatted as comma-separated values, were transferred into a Statistical Analysis System (SAS) dataset for analysis, and survival analysis methodology was followed using the SAS LIFETEST procedure. This study was approved by the institutional review board of Hokkaido University and informed consent was waived. A Kaplan-Meier curve was used to show the rate of Twitter users posting a message after the accident that included one or more of the keywords. The term Sv occurred in tweets up to one year after the first tweet. Among the Twitter users studied, 75.32% (880,108/1,168,542) tweeted the word radioactive and 9.20% (107,522/1,168,542) tweeted the term Sv. The first reduction was observed within the first 7 days after March 11, 2011. The means and standard errors (SEs) of the duration from the first tweet on March 11, 2011 were 31.9 days (SE 0.096) for radioactive and 300.6 days (SE 0.181) for Sv. These keywords were still being used at the end of the study period. The mean attenuation period for radioactive was one month, and approximately one year for radiation and radiation units. The difference in mean duration between the keywords was attributed

  16. Understanding Going Concern in Auditing: Seker Poultry, Inc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Zeynep Suer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Under the going concern assumption, an entity is viewed as continuing in business for the foreseeable future. General purpose financial statements are prepared on a going concern basis, unless management either intends to liquidate the entity or to cease operations, or has no realistic alternative but to do so. In this case study, we examine the recent financial problems of Seker Poultry, Inc. – one of the listed companies in Borsa Istanbul –and their impacts on the financial statement audit process. This case provides an opportunity to examine the auditor‘s judgment process and responsibilities regarding the going concern assumption. This case uses information in Seker‘s recent publicly available financial statements and annual reports. The case can be used in undergraduate or graduate level audit courses.

  17. Recent measurements concerning uranium hexafluoride-electron collision processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajmar, S.; Chutjian, A.; Srivastava, S.; Williams, W.; Cartwright, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Scattering of electrons by UF 6 molecule was studied at impact energies ranging from 5 to 100 eV and momentum transfer, elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections were determined. The measurements also yielded spectroscopic information which made possible to extend the optical absorption cross sections from 2000 to 435A. It was found that UF 6 is a very strong absorber in the vacuum UV region. No transitions were found to lie below the onset of the optically detected 3.0 eV feature

  18. Recent data concerning contribution of various greenhouse effect gas sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, G.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect contributes to a +33 degrees C warming of the earth atmosphere (mean temperature of +15 deg C instead of -18 deg C without any greenhouse effect). The roles of water vapour, carbon dioxide and methane in greenhouse effect are discussed; the CH 4 raise seems to be due to rice cultivation and cattle farming; the CO 2 raise is mainly due oil, coal and natural gas burning. Greenhouse gas increase will cause a 2 to 4 deg C increase of the earth mean temperature but the anthropogenous causes will be obviously seen only during the next century

  19. Recent results from the ICARUS experiment - Measurements concerning neutrino velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslik, K.

    2014-01-01

    The ICARUS T600 detector at the LNGS Gran Sasso underground Laboratory is the first large mass Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC) designed to study the ν μ → ν τ oscillation for neutrinos from the CERN-CNGS beam, the atmospheric neutrinos and matter stability. In stable conditions the detector has been collecting data since October 2010. The results, presented here, of the search for analogue to the Cherenkov radiation at superluminal speeds and the measurement of the neutrino time of flight are incompatible with the OPERA collaboration claiming that CNGS muon neutrinos arrive to Gran Sasso, after covering a distance of about 732 km, earlier than expected from the luminal speed. (author)

  20. A Quiz on Recent Court Decisions Concerning Student Conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a 10-question quiz based on court decisions reported from 1977 through 1979. Three areas are covered--student discipline, student searches, and student expression. Answers and explanations are given for each question. (IRT)

  1. Recent Japanese Industrial Standards concerned with radiological monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Akira

    1983-01-01

    JIS has achieved large role to keep the quality and performance of products above certain levels and to assure the uniformity and interchangeability. The JIS in radiation field is roughly divided into that of radiation measurement and that of X-ray generators, and there were about 90 standards as of the end of March, 1983. The equipment related to radiation is large variety, small quantity products, and highly technical compound products. For the inspection and test, special instruments are required. Though some merchandise related to radiation is specified to indicate JIS marks, actually there is not anything that obtained the approval. The JIS related to radiation can be said the recommendation standards, and it is a feature that the standards of software are regarded as important. Two or three drafts of new JIS related mainly to environmental gamma-ray monitoring and X-ray equipment have been drawn up every year. Here, the JIS regarding radiation measurement, which is published after March 1, 1983, is outlined. The method of establishing JIS, JIS published or expected to be published, JIS of hardware and software, the contents of four standards, that is, environmental gamma-ray continuous monitor, method of its calibration, thermo-luminescence dosimeter and survey meter for X-ray and gamma-ray, the international standards and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Recent Developments and Probable Future Scenarios Concerning Seafarer Labour Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne; Poulsen, René Taudal

    2009-01-01

      During the past 25 years, demand for seafarers has changed a great deal, due to the creation of second registers in Western Europe as well as ship register adjustments in other flag states. Concurrently, supply patterns have shifted, with new supply centres emerging in especially Asia and Easte...

  3. Revised dose limits and new respiratory tract model and their implications for annual limits of intake of radioactive materials - A review of recent ICRP publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.; Silverman, I.; Shapira, M.

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation may cause immediate and/or delayed biological damages to the body of the exposed person and/or his/her progeny. The exposure may be caused by an external source or may arise due to internal contamination by a radioactive material. In order to prevent such exposure, or to reduce the probability that it will occur, national authorities and international organizations that are engaged in radiation safety and protection have set limits for the exposure to ionizing radiation from either source. The sensitivity of the body to ionizing radiation usually decreases with age. For this reason and due to the limited possibilities to control the exposure of the general public, different limits have been set for for occupational exposure and for the exposure of members of the public of different age groups. The general principles of these limits and guidelines for their calculations are set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and published in the Annals of the ICRP. The basic philosophy of the Commission, which includes the principles of justification, optimization and dose limits, the basic radiobiological models, and the distinction between stochastic and non-stochastic effects has been presented in its publication no. 26 . Based on this philosophy, the Commission issued between 1979 and 1988 a series of publications followed by annexes and addenda known as publication no. 30 . This series presented models describing the metabolism of radioactive materials which enter the body by inhalation and ingestion, the transfer of such materials from the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract to the blood, and from there to the body organs and the excretion of the material from the body. This series presented also values for biokinetic parameters of these systems and transfer paths, and methods for calculating limits on intake which ensure that the exposure from internal contamination will not exceed the dose limits set by the

  4. Revised dose limits and new respiratory tract model and their implications for annual limits of intake of radioactive materials - A review of recent ICRP publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, T; Silverman, I; Shapira, M [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1996-12-01

    Ionizing radiation may cause immediate and/or delayed biological damages to the body of the exposed person and/or his/her progeny. The exposure may be caused by an external source or may arise due to internal contamination by a radioactive material. To prevent such exposure, or to reduce the probability that it will occur, national authorities and international organizations engaged in radiation safety and protection have set limits for the exposure to ionizing radiation from either source. The sensitivity of the body to ionizing radiation usually decreases with age. For this reason and due to the limited possibilities to control the exposure of the general public, different limits have been set for for occupational exposure and for the exposure of members of the public of different age groups. The general principles of these limits and guidelines for their calculations are set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and published in the Annals of the ICRP. The basic philosophy of the Commission, which includes the principles of justification, optimization and dose limits, the basic radiobiological models, and the distinction between stochastic and non-stochastic effects has been presented in its publication no. 26. Based on this philosophy, the Commission issued between 1979 and 1988 a series of publications followed by annexes and addenda known as publication no. 30. This series presented models describing the metabolism of radioactive materials which enter the body by inhalation and ingestion, the transfer of such materials from the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract to the blood, and from there to the body organs and the excretion of the material from the body. This series presented also values for biokinetic parameters of these systems and transfer paths, and methods for calculating limits on intake which ensure that the exposure from internal contamination will not exceed the dose limits set.

  5. Managing Public Accountability : How Public Managers Manage Public Accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillemans, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Accountability is of growing importance in contemporary governance. The academic literature on public accountability is fraught with concerned analyses, suggesting that accountability is a problematic issue for public managers. This article investigates how public managers experience accountability

  6. A public private partnership to fight against malaria along the Chad-Cameroon pipeline corridor: I. Baseline data on socio-anthropological aspects, knowledge, attitudes and practices of the population concerning malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyou-Somo, Roger; Essomba, Paul; Songue, Eva; Tchoubou, Natacha Nsiewe; Ntambo, Anita; Hiol, Huguette Ngo; Kemajou, Jacques Pokam; Essi, Marie-José; Millet, Pascal

    2013-10-29

    Malaria is ranked as the major public health problem in Cameroon, representing 50% of illness in less than five year old children, 40-45% of medical consultation and 40% of the annual home income spent on health. The Cameroon Oil Transportation Company (COTCO) that exploits the Chad-Cameroon pipeline in Cameroon territory, initiated in 2010, a public private partnership project to control malaria along the pipeline corridor. A research component was included in the project so as to guide and evaluate the control measures applied in this pipeline corridor. This study presents the baseline socio-anthropological data as well as the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the local population concerning malaria, its transmission, management and prevention. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four sentinel sites (one site per ecological zone) along the Chad-Cameroon pipeline corridor. Three structured questionnaires were used for the survey. Two of them were addressed to the heads of households (one for census and the other to collect information concerning the characteristics of houses and living conditions in households as well as their knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning malaria). The last questionnaire was used to collect information on malaria management and prevention. It was addressed to women who had delivered a living child within the past three years. Interviewers were recruited from each village and trained for two consecutive days on how to fill the different questionnaires. All data were analysed at 5% significant level using Epi-Info, SPSS and Cs PRO 4.0 STATA. Values of p ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Interviews were conducted in 2597 households (Bipindi 399, Bélabo 835, in Meidougou 820 and Dompta 543). Whatever the study site, 50% of the heads of household were workers of the agro-pastoral sector. Most of the heads of household were men (average 77.4% for men and 22.6% for females). The walls of

  7. The development of hazardous waste management as a state policy concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzik, E.B.

    1992-01-01

    Hazardous waste management has become a primary concern of state governments. This concern is relatively recent, with state governments assuming a leading role in hazardous waste policy development and implementation only in the past decade. This article outlines the scope of the hazardous waste problem to which state governments must respond. The scope of the problem is then linked to changing public perceptions and intergovernmental relationships to explain the expanding state government policy role in hazardous waste management. 15 refs., 1 tab

  8. Oh β s concerns surface after spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A spill of uranium- and radium-contaminated water from a reservoir at the Key Lake Mine in northern Saskatchewan in early January 1984 created extensive public concern. Now attention is being focussed on the issue of worker safety

  9. Contaminants of Emerging Concern - Methods Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical methods developed by EPA to identify and measure certain contaminants of emerging concern. These methods are not approved under 40 CFR Part 136, but may be of interest to regulated entities, permitting authorities, and the public.

  10. Concerned with computer games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimiri, Niklas Alexander; Andersen, Mads Lund; Jensen, Tine

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on a particular matter of concern within computer gaming practices: the concern of being or not being a gamer. This matter of concern emerged from within our collective investigations of gaming practices across various age groups. The empirical material under scrutiny...... was generated across a multiplicity of research projects, predominantly conducted in Denmark. The question of being versus not being a gamer, we argue, exemplifies interesting enactments of how computer game players become both concerned with and concerned about their gaming practices. As a collective...... of researchers writing from the field of psychology and inspired by neo-materialist theories, we are particularly concerned with (human) subjectivity and processes of social and subjective becoming. Our empirical examples show that conerns/worries about computer games and being engaged with computer game...

  11. Report on the bill concerning the modernization and development of electricity public service, adopted with modifications by the National Assembly at new reading; Rapport sur le project de loi, adopte avec modifications par l'Assemblee nationale en nouvelle lecture, relatif a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revol, Henri [Senat, Paris (France)

    2000-01-20

    This document is a report presented on behalf of Commission of Economic Affairs and Plan on the project of law concerning the renovation and development of electricity public service, adopted with modifications by the National Assembly at new reading. The general outlook comprises three points titled: A. Examination conditions showing little respect of Parliament; B. A position of National Assembly inspired of dogmatic considerations; C. A text adopted by the National Assembly which turns the back to Europe and does a disservice to France's industry. The examination of the articles follows. This part is structured on the following titles: The public service of electricity, (five articles); The production of electricity (seven articles); The transport and distribution of electricity (two chapters and nine articles); Access to public electricity grids (three articles); The accounting dissociation and transparency (two articles); Regulation (twelve articles); The object of EDF (one article); Diverse and transient measures (six articles). A comparative table completes the document. It contains the texts adopted by the National Assembly at first reading, the text adopted by the Senate at first reading and the text adopted by the National Assembly at new reading.

  12. Trends in publications in fluvial geomorphology over two decades: A truly new era in the discipline owing to recent technological revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piégay, Hervé; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Minear, J. Toby; Vaudor, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Trends in the field of fluvial geomorphology have been reviewed by a number of authors, who have emphasized the dramatic change occuring in the field in the last two decades of the twentieth century, largely as a result of technological advances. Nevertheless, no prior authors have systematically compiled data on publications in fluvial geomorphology over a long period and statistically analyzed the resulting data set. In this contribution we present a quantitative analysis of fluvial geomorphology papers published in the twenty-two-year period 1987–2009 in five journals of the discipline with a more specific focus on Geomorphology and Earth Surface Processes and Landforms (ESPL), identifying authorships, geographic origin of authors, and spatial and temporal scales covered. We also documented the tools employed, demonstrating the transformation of the field with the emergence of new tools over this period, and conducted a cluster to highlight links between tools and a set of factors (country of author's origin, journals, time, and spatial and temporal scales). Of the 1717 papers published in the five journals during this period, the results showed an increased diversity in the nationality of the first author, mainly when dealing with present time scale, and channel feature. Our data show a significant change in methods used in the field as a result of the increase in data availability and new sources of information from remote sensing (ground, airborne and, satellite). Clearly, a new era in knowledge production is observed since 2000, showing the emergence of a second period of active quantification and an internationalization of the fields.

  13. [The role of cultural identities and public health services in the municipalization process taken place in recent decades on small towns of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Margarita Gaviria; Périco, Eduardo; Oliveira, Laura Barbieri

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents a preliminary results of an ethnographic study in which we observe how is socially experienced the municipality process in six counties of the Forqueta Watershed in Rio Grande do Sul, where the municipal fragmentation has been used as an administrative strategy since the 1990s. Deal about cultural elements and social actions that support construction and/or reconstruction identities to define territories-county's borders. Sociological and anthropological theories have been used to think the identities and the assumption that the integration of social spaces into a territory creates the social necessity to produce a territorial identity, closely linked to a socio-political context and cultural setting. We realize that the decentralization process in small municipalities helps stem the rural exodus, being health services determinant in curbing the migratory flow that characterized these locations reality in recent decades as a result of the agribusiness growth. Today, in these same places, health services represent the main support of collective identity with the territory-county and, instead of emigration, stimulate the immigration.

  14. What did you drink yesterday? Public health relevance of a recent recall method used in the 2004 Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Greenfield, Tom K

    2008-06-01

    To (i) compare the Yesterday method with other methods of assessing alcohol use applied in the 2004 Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) in terms of extent of under-reporting of actual consumption assessed from sales data; and (ii) illustrate applications of the Yesterday method as a means of variously measuring the size of an Australian 'standard drink', the extent of risky/high-risk alcohol use, unrecorded alcohol consumption and beverage-specific patterns of risk in the general population. The homes of respondents who were eligible and willing to participate. A total of 24 109 Australians aged 12 years and over. The 2004 NDSHS assessed drug use, experiences and attitudes using a 'drop and collect' self-completion questionnaire with random sampling and geographic (State and Territory) and demographic (age and gender) stratification. Self-completion questionnaire using quantity-frequency (QF) and graduated-frequency (GF) methods plus two questions about consumption 'yesterday': one in standard drinks, another with empirically based estimates of drink size and strength. The Yesterday method yielded an estimate of 12.8 g as the amount of ethanol in a typical Australian standard drink (versus the official 10 g). Estimated coverage of the 2003-04 age 12+ years per-capita alcohol consumption in Australia (9.33 ml of ethanol) was 69.17% for GF and 64.63% for the QF when assuming a 12.8 g standard drink. Highest coverage of 80.71% was achieved by the detailed Yesterday method. The detailed Yesterday method found that 60.1% of Australian alcohol consumption was above low-risk guidelines; 81.5% for 12-17-year-olds, 84.8% for 18-24-year-olds and 88.8% for Indigenous respondents. Spirit-based drinks and regular strength beer were most likely to be drunk in this way, low- and mid-strength beer least likely. Compared to more widely used methods, the Yesterday method minimizes under-reporting of overall consumption and provides unique data of public health

  15. Zika virus: Current concerns in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Bhardwaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With confirmation of Zika virus (ZIKV presence in India, screening of a large number of febrile illness samples yielded only four positive cases. In this review, we address the current concern with context to India. The possible reasons for low level of Zika prevalence in India have been discussed, by extracting some probable explanations from previous experience of chikungunya virus-vector model/studies. In the current context, it is hypothesized that Indian mosquito strains have lower susceptibility gradient/threshold for ZIKV. The very low positivity in the humans also indicates low levels of mosquito-human-mosquito transmission cycle. There is also a need to look for the existence of any such animal cycle/sylvatic involvement in India. The recently detected four cases in India show local transmission of ZIKV suggesting that ZIKV might have been present in India since long time. The earlier vector-virus relationship studies with chikungunya suggested that in due course of time, ZIKV might become a major public health concern in the future.

  16. Art as Social Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her eleventh- and twelfth-grade portfolio class used art as a social concern through a sketchbook and a linoleum print. Students thumbed through copies of the "New York Times" to find an article that described a modern-day social concern. Students were assigned to choose an article, summarize it, and come…

  17. Cosmetic Concerns Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Marc Zachary; Goldberg, David J

    2018-01-01

    Men are interested in reducing signs of aging, while maintaining a masculine appearance. A chief concern among men is maintenance of scalp hair. Men are also concerned with reducing under eye bags and dark circles. The concern of feminization is of significant importance. Neuromodulators remain the most common cosmetic procedure performed in men. Men often prefer a reduction in facial rhytids, as opposed to elimination of the lines. Softening facial lines in men is meant to maintain an appearance of wisdom, without appearing fragile. Men also wish to maintain a taut jawline and a slim waist and reduce breast tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay attention to and regulate positional...... their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world that improve...... concerns, it would be in virtue of their impact on the social product and individuals’ conditions of living....

  19. Medical Students Raising Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn R; Hickey, Andrea; Warrens, Anthony N; Westwood, Olwyn M R

    2016-09-16

    After a number of high-profile incidents and national reports, it has become clear that all health professionals and all medical students must be able to raise concerns about a colleague's behavior if this behavior puts patients, colleagues, or themselves at risk.Detailed evidence from medical students about their confidence to raise concerns is limited, together with examples of barriers, which impair their ability to do so. We describe a questionnaire survey of medical students in a single-center, examining self-reported confidence about raising concerns in a number of possible scenarios. Thematic analysis was applied to comments about barriers identified.Although 80% of respondents felt confident to report a patient safety issue, students were less confident around issues of probity, attitude, and conduct. This needs to be addressed to create clear mechanisms to raise concerns, as well as support for students during the process.

  20. Existential concerns about death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Background Research suggests that addressing dying patients’ existential concerns can help improve their quality of life. Common existential conditions, such as a search for meaning and considerations about faith, are probably intensified in a palliative setting and existential concerns about death...... are likewise intensified when patients face their impending death. Knowledge of modern, secular existential concerns about death is under-researched, and therefore, it is difficult to develop and implement specifically targeted support to dying patients. Aim The aim of this paper is to present the results from...... a qualitative field study illuminating the variety of dying patients´ existential concerns about their impending death. Method Data was generated through ethnographic fieldwork comprising 17 semi-structured interviews with dying patients and 38 days of participant observation at three Danish hospices. Results...

  1. Hydrologic Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  2. LGBT Caregiver Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    LGBT CAREGIVER CONCERNS IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS FOR LGBT CAREGIVERS LGBT CAREGIVER CONSIDERATIONS As a caregiver for someone with Alzheimer’s disease, you will face various challenges. Some are common among all ...

  3. Public procurement process

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NESG Policy Brief: April 2017. Public ... transparency in public procurement; and greater concerns about efficiency, fairness, and equity. ... government enacted the Public Procurement Act (2007) [1] which provides legislative framework for.

  4. Directive of the Secretary of State for Social Affairs and Public Health of 18 December 1969, no. 133.024, Stcrt. 253, concerning the Nomination of Civil Servants in Implementation of Section 58, paragraphs 1 and 3 of the Nuclear Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Further to the Directive of 29 November 1969 (Stcrt.239) on officials responsible for supervising observance of the provisions of the Nuclear Energy Act, this Directive concerns the appointment of medical and veterinary inspectors under the authority of the Government Public Health Inspectorate. (NEA) [fr

  5. Royal Order of 11 February 1987 amending the Royal Order of 28 February 1987 laying down General Regulations concerning Protection of the Public and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Order implements European Community legislation on radiation protection. It refers to the 1980 Community Directive (as amended in 1984) and concerns standards for liquid or gaseous radioactive effluent releases to the environment. (NEA) [fr

  6. Public Procurement of Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, Danish policy interest in public procurement has mainly been driven by efficiency and cost-effectiveness concerns. Public-procurement policies have in general focused on the utilisation of economies of scale as a Means of achieving lower prices on goods and services. Attempts...... to develop mandatory procurement systems have also been gradually developing, while the focus on innovation has been relatively modest in Danish procurement policies until recently. This picture is currently changing, as several initiatives emphasising public procurement as a means of stimulating innovation...... have been launched. Whether this gradual change of focus in Danish procurement policies will make a deep and lasting impact on the role of public procurement as a driver for innovationis, however, yet an open question....

  7. Proposed nomination of sites for site characterization and recommendation of issues for environmental assessments and site characterization plans. Technical report. Summary of issues and concerns expressed during the April-May 1983 US Department of Energy public hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    As required by Section 112(b)(2) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Public Law 97-425), the US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a series of nine formal public hearings during April and May 1983 in local communities in the vicinity of seven identified potentially acceptable salt sites and in the state capitals of the States of Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and Utah. The public hearings focused on the proposed nomination of the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana; the Richton and Cypress Creek Salt Dome sites in Mississippi; the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County bedded salt sites in Texas; and the Davis and Lavender Canyon bedded salt sites in Utah. The issues expressed during area public hearings are summarized in this document, which serves as a digest of and as an index to the public hearing records of each of the four salt states. Specifically, almost 1100 paraphrased public hearing comments are identified and grouped into 62 subjects within the following nine general topical areas: NWTS Program Planning Process, Consultation and Cooperation, Engineering/Repository Design, Geology, Hydrology, Transportation, Public Health and Safety, Environmental Quality, and Socioeconomics

  8. Ontology of Public Health in University Curriculum: Exploring Basic Elements of an Interdisciplinary Field of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Zahirul

    2017-01-01

    Public health has constituted itself as a distinct academic discipline. The present paper attempts to understand ontology of this discipline. A study has recently been carried out which concerns, first, conceptualization of ontology of public health, secondly, nature of public health, and thirdly, curriculum development. Ontology is a…

  9. Collection of regulatory texts relative to radiation protection. Part 2: orders and decisions taken in application of the Public Health Code and Labour Code concerning the protection of populations, patients and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    This collection of texts includes the general measures of population protection, exposure to natural radiations, general system of authorizations and statements, protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiations for medical purpose, situations of radiological emergency and long exposure to ionizing radiations, penal dispositions, application of the Public Health code and application of the Labour code. Chronological contents by date of publication is given. (N.C.)

  10. Online Public Access Catalogs. ERIC Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Pauline A.

    A listing is presented of 17 documents in the ERIC database concerning the Online Catalog (sometimes referred to as OPAC or Online Public Access Catalog), a computer-based and supported library catalog designed for patron use. The database usually represents recent acquisitions and often contains information about books on order and items in…

  11. Concern for older parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, E.; Spink, T.; Cookson, B.; Tenera, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    For the last half decade, regulatory expectations of the procurement process for nuclear commercial-grade safety-related materials have increase. The changes have been driven by concern for fraudulent or misrepresented parts and the loss of original equipment manufacturers. The industry responded to these concerns by developing improved procurement programs that changed how parts were specified and received and provided for verification of attributes that were critical to the successful performance of safety functions(s). Like its counterparts, Duquesne Light Company (DLCo), Beaver Valley power station began applying these enhanced requirements to procurements initiated after January 1, 1990, in response to the Nuclear Management and Resources Council initiative on dedication. Procurements prior to this data were not subject to the new requirements

  12. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  13. Existential Concerns About Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Lene; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-01-01

    psychology or Kübler-Ross’ theory about death stages. The complex concerns might be explained using Martin Heidegger’s phenomenological thinking. We aimed to illuminate dying patients´ existential concerns about the impending death through a descriptive analysis of semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer...... patients in Danish hospices. The main findings demonstrated how the patients faced the forthcoming death without being anxious of death but sorrowful about leaving life. Furthermore, patients expressed that they avoided thinking about death. However, some had reconstructed specific and positive ideas about...... afterlife and made accurate decisions for practical aspects of their death. The patients wished to focus on positive aspects in their daily life at hospice. It hereby seems important to have ongoing reflections and to include different theoretical perspectives when providing existential support to dying...

  14. Career Concerns in Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Auriol, Emmanuelle; Friebel, Guido; Pechlivanos, Lambros

    2002-01-01

    We investigate how changes in the commitment power of a principal affect cooperation among agents who work in a team. When the principal and her agents are symmetrically uncertain about the agents' innate abilities, workers have career concerns. Then, unless the principal can commit herself to long-term wage contracts, an implicit sabotage incentive emerges. Agents become reluctant to help their teammates. Anticipating this risk, and in order to induce the desired level of cooperation, the pr...

  15. IMPORTANT CONCERN INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SINTEA (ANGHEL LUCICA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of probabilities, uncertainties and risks has concerned society since ancient times. By probability we can see the possible realization of an act or event under certain conditions. Uncertainty is caused by emotional status of the decision maker due to more subjective factors or to the knowledge to achieve an objective. Risk is a combination of the two elements characterized by a possible description of probabilities under insecurity uncertainty conditions.

  16. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    OpenAIRE

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has be...

  17. Addressing Parental Vaccine Concerns: Engagement, Balance, and Timing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Glanz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent United States measles epidemic has sparked another contentious national discussion about childhood vaccination. A growing number of parents are expressing concerns about the safety of vaccines, often fueled by misinformation from the internet, books, and other nonmedical sources. Many of these concerned parents are choosing to refuse or delay childhood vaccines, placing their children and surrounding communities at risk for serious diseases that are nearly 100% preventable with vaccination. Between 10% and 15% of parents are asking physicians to space out the timing of vaccines, which often poses an ethical dilemma for physicians. This trend reflects a tension between personal liberty and public health, as parents fight to control the decisions that affect the health of their children and public health officials strive to maintain high immunization rates to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Interventions to address this emerging public health issue are needed. We describe a framework by which web-based interventions can be used to help parents make evidence-based decisions about childhood vaccinations.

  18. Contaminants of Emerging Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-ug/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  19. What risks are Chinese people concerned about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaofei; Wang, Mei; Xu, Liancang

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate public perceived risk on various issues in present-day China. Two surveys were conducted in urban China in 1996 and 1998. In the first survey, risk perceptions of different occupational groups are compared. Gender differences within each occupational group are also analyzed. In the second survey, participants with diverse employment status were recruited. The overall risk rankings of both surveys indicate great concern with risks that threaten national stability and economic development, and less concern with high-technology risk such as threat from a nuclear power plant. It is also found that employees from high-profit firms are more concerned about macroscopic catastrophic risks, whereas laid-off workers and employees from money-losing enterprises are more concerned about daily life or self-concerned risks. The importance of actual exposure to risk, mass media coverage, culture, and psychometric dimensions are discussed.

  20. Recent Literature on Government Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide government information scholars and students with a broad overview of recent publications about government information from the literature of librarianship, archives, information technology management, public policy and law. Given the volume of literature produced in this field, a columnist cannot claim…

  1. Nuclear information in Finmark. Research concerning public need for information about nuclear fallout and nuclear emergency preparedness; Atominformasjon i Finnmark. Analyse av befolkningens behov for informasjon om radioaktivt nedfall og atomulykkesberedskap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, A.K.

    1994-10-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to discover whether there is a co-ordination between public and governmental problem recognition, and between demand and supply of nuclear information. Another objective was to identify relevant object groups and to prepare for communication strategy planning. 27 refs., 49 tabs.

  2. Body Image Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Dibba, Emily; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the socio-demographic, lifestyle and well-being variables that are associated with body image concerns (BIC) and whether these associations differed between female and male students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey; 3,706 undergraduate students...... (2,699 females, 765 males) from seven universities in the UK completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed socio-demographic, lifestyle, well-being and BIC based on the Body Shape Questionnaire developed by Cooper et al. Multifactorial logistic regression analysis examined the odds ratios...

  3. Food Safety Concerns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYONG

    2004-01-01

    In China, there is an old saying:food is the first necessity of humans. The main concern of the Chinese used to be the security of the food supply rather than the safety of the food itself. However,after a long time fighting food shortages,China became self-sufficient in food in 1995. At this time, the country began for the first time to regulate food safety. Yet China has still not established a legal systern efficient in ensuring this safety. Many problems are rooted in the administration regime and China's priority of economic development.

  4. Health Data Concerning Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-27

    from Machala to Piedras. A less-than-adequate road connects Piedras to Loja . The age of the automobile has not fully arrived in Ecuador and, although...virus from the arthropod and simian reservoirs is not known. 16. Plague. Plague occurs in two provinces of Ecuador : Lojas and Chim- borazo. The disease is...27-01-1960 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Health Data Concerning Ecuador 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  5. A trajetória do Banco do Brasil no período recente, 2001-2006: banco público ou banco estatal "privado"? The recent path of the bank of Brazil, 2001-2006: public bank or "private" state-owned bank?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Pereira de Andrade

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é avaliar a performance do Banco do Brasil (BB no período 2001-2006, enfatizando os seguintes aspectos: O desempenho do BB correspondeu ao de um banco público tradicional que atua como um importante instrumento de governo para a promoção do desenvolvimento? Ou, ao invés disso, a trajetória recente do banco pode ser caracterizada pelo reforço de uma lógica privada de atuação? O texto procura levantar algumas questões relativas ao papel do Estado na atividade econômica, particularmente o papel que um grande banco estatal pode e deve ter para financiar o desenvolvimento em um país periférico (e desigual como o Brasil. A conclusão mais geral é que, desde meados dos anos 1980, o Banco do Brasil tem perdido crescentemente a função básica que costumava exercer como banco público.The purpose of this paper is to assess the performance of the Bank of Brazil (BB in the 2001-2006 period, with a focus on the following aspects: has the BB actually performed the role of a typical public bank, functioning as an important instrument to foster development in Brazil? Or, instead, has its recent path been characterised by the reinforcement of a private logic of behaviour? The paper aims at raising a few questions regarding the role of the state in the economic activity, particularly the role that a big state-owned bank can and must perform to finance development in a peripheral (and unequal country like Brazil. The general conclusion is that, since the mid-80s, the BB has increasingly lost the key function that it formerly exerted as a public bank. A distinct pattern of behaviour has emerged, characterised by the bank's transformation into a "more private, less public" institution.

  6. Concerned for Humanity club

    CERN Multimedia

    Concerned for humanity club

    2010-01-01

    Join the Comité International de Soutien à Adlène Hicheur Since October 8, 2009 our colleague Adlène Hicheur, a French-Algerian physicist working in LHCb has been arrested and then held in a French prison under suspicion of terrorism linked with AQMI. No material proof has been presented, only exchanges of messages on some forum sites suspected of Islamism have been mentioned. Adlène has continuously denied any link with AQMI and lives in a Kafkaesque situation since 14 mois. His lawyer has several times asked for his release and these requests have been turned down. As Adlène’s colleagues, we have been chocked by his arrest and are deeply concerned by the prolongation of his detention for his future in particle physics, even if he will be recognized innocent. Few Concerned-club members and colleagues have created an International committee to support Adlène in his defense presently having 65 members. We invite you t...

  7. Mobile phones and health concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaikuntam, Shreenivas; Pushparaja

    2003-01-01

    As Mobile Cellular phone ownership grows throughout the developed as well as the developing world, concerns about the health risks due to radio frequency emissions from the mobile phone base stations and due to usage of mobile handsets are slowly growing. This article has a look at the concepts used in the mobile phone technology, the power outputs from base stations and mobile handsets, the quantities Specific Energy Absorption Rate (SAR) and power density as a means to assess the effects on biological tissue. The precautionary approach to manage the health risks from mobile phones by specifying exposure guidelines is explored. Having surveyed the relevant epidemiological surveys and finding them inconclusive, NRPB, United Kingdom's national regulatory body has issued exposure guidelines based on the potential of RF radiation to cause illness or injury through heating of body tissues. USA's Federal Communications Commission (FCC) limits are also listed for comparison. ICNIRP has issued two-tier guidelines, differentiating between occupational and public exposure. The public exposure limits are kept at one-fifth of the occupational exposure limits. The evidence till date, suggests that exposure to RF radiation below NRPB and ICNIRP limits do not cause adverse effects to the general population. However, the gaps in our knowledge warrant a precautionary approach. (author)

  8. Emergency Preparedness Concerns for Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-01-26

    This podcast discusses the special concerns many older adults face during a disaster. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 1/26/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) and Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response (COTPER).   Date Released: 1/26/2009.

  9. HEPA filter concerns - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J.F. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated a complete review of the DOE High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Program to identify areas for improvement. Although this process is currently ongoing, various issues and problems have already been identified for action that not only impacts the DOE HEPA filter program, but potentially the national and international air cleaning community as well. This paper briefly reviews a few of those concerns that may be of interest, and discusses actions initiated by the DOE to address the associated issues and problems. Issues discussed include: guidance standards, in-place testing, specifications, Test Facilities, portable units, vacuum cleaners, substitute aerosols, filter efficiencies, aging/shelf life/service life, fire suppression, handbook, Quality Products List (QPL), QA testing, and evaluations.

  10. Global environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Increased concern about global climate change is leading to an examination of options for reducing the emissions of gases believed to be the principal contributors to the Greenhouse Effect. Carbon dioxide is believed to be the largest contributor to such an effect, and the use of fossil fuels is the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions. geothermal energy is likely to receive increased attention in the years ahead as a way to reduce emissions of CO 2 . Several countries in Asia and the Pacific already have active geothermal programs. The Philippines have the second-largest installed geothermal capacity in the world. Japan and New Zealand have used geothermal energy for several decades. The present and future contributions of geothermal energy to the overall energy supply and reductions in carbon dioxide emissions in Asia and the Pacific are discussed in this paper

  11. Aesthetics of Concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line Marie

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the tsunami that hit Japan in 2011, several artists turned  their  practices  towards  the  subject  of  disaster  support.  Drawing on the philosophy of Bruno Latour, I argue that these artistic practices come  to articulate and  represent the multitude of concerns interwoven with disaster.  ...

  12. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  13. Alignment of concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn

    E-health promises to enable and support active patient participation in chronic care. However, these fairly recent innovations are complicated matters and emphasize significant challenges, such as patients’ and clinicians’ different ways of conceptualizing disease and illness. Informed by insight...... from medical phenomenology and our own empirical work in telemonitoring and medical care of heart patients, we propose a design rationale for e-health systems conceptualized as the ‘alignment of concerns’....

  14. Recent advances in renal tubular calcium reabsorption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensenkamp, A.R.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Knowledge of renal Ca2+ reabsorption has evolved greatly in recent years. This review focuses on two recent discoveries concerning passive and active Ca2+ reabsorption. RECENT FINDINGS: The thiazide diuretics are known for their hypocalciuric effect. Recently, it has been

  15. Selection of persons expressing opinions etc. and attendants in the public hearing concerning the alteration in reactor installations (addition of Unit 3 and 4) in the Genkai Nuclear Power Station of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission has selected 18 persons expressing opinions etc. and 255 (other) attendants for the public hearing on the alteration of reactor installations (addition of Unit 3 and 4) in Kyushu Electric's Genkai Nuclear Power Station to be held on June 18th, 1984. The order of expressing opinions etc., number of reception, names, addresses, ages and occupations are given of the persons expressing opinions etc. For both the groups, against the selected numbers there are given applicants etc. in number by towns and city. (Mori, K.)

  16. The public information imperative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, S.

    2001-01-01

    Public approval hinges not only on delivering the information the public wants but on providing tangible evidence that we are listening to public concerns. We must respond. Public acceptance depends on making real change which speaks to people's concerns. The message that the public wants to hear is that government are listening and acting on what they hear. In Canada, the nuclear regulator is increasingly active in the public arena. We held cross-country consultations as we prepared Canada's strong new Act and regulations. We have developed information vehicles such as the Radiation Index and our web site. We continue to extensively involve the public in our licensing process. All licensing hearings are open to the public. Nothing is harder to capture than public trust. This conference marks a substantial investment in learning and in our common future. We can work to build our credibility as regulators who acts on public concerns. (N.C.)

  17. Concern about the Expanding Prescription Drug Epidemic: A Survey of Licensed Prescribers and Dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R Eric; Reed, Nia; Carnes, Neal; Kooreman, Harold E

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse and abuse has reached epidemic levels in the U.S., and stands as a leading cause of death. As the primary gatekeepers to the medications contributing to this epidemic, it is critical to understand the views of licensed health care professionals. In this study, we examine health care professionals' concern regarding prescription drug abuse in their communities and the impact their concern has had on their prescribing and dispensing practices. An online survey of licensed health care providers. Conducted in Indiana. This study was a state-wide evaluation of Indiana's prescription drug monitoring program. The questionnaire asked respondents how concerned they were about prescription drug abuse in their community. Variation in the level of concern was examined using ordinary least squares regression and information about the respondents' demographic background and clinical experience. In addition, we used logistic regression to examine whether concern was associated with changing prescribing and/or dispensing behavior. The majority of providers indicated they were "moderately" or "extremely concerned" about prescription drug abuse in their communities. The level of concern, however, varied significantly by profession, with pharmacists, physicians, nurse practitioners/physician assistants being more concerned than dentists. Additional analyses indicate that providers with higher levels of concern were those who also reported recently changing their prescribing and/or dispensing behavior. The voluntary nature and geographical focus of the study limits the generalizability of the findings. Concern about prescription drug abuse is generally high across the major health care professions; however, a significant minority of providers, particularly among dentists, expressed little or no concern about the epidemic. Increasing health care providers' general level of concern about prescription drug abuse may be an effective public health tool for

  18. Concerning ethical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckle, F.

    1991-01-01

    After a fundamental consideration of the concept of responsibility and 'long-term responsibility' for late sequelae, the problems of an ehtical assessment of risks were illustrated: The concept of risk itself poses three problems - predicting the probability of occurrence, assessing the damage = subjective classification of the degree of damage, determining whether the advantages outweigh the risks. It is not possible to weigh the advantages and risks against each other without assessing the goals and the priorities which have been set. Here ethics is called for, because it concerns itself with the reasonableness of evaluative decisions. Its task is to enable us to become aware of and comprehend our system of values in all of its complexity in reference to real life. Ethics can only fulfill its task if it helps us to adopt an integral perspective, i.e. if it centers on the human being. 'One must assess all technical and economic innovations in terms of whether they are beneficial to the development of mankind on a long-term basis. They are only to be legitimized insofar as they prove themselves to be a means of liberating mankind and contributing to his sense of dignity and identity, as a means of bringing human beings together and encouraging them to care for one another, and as a means of protecting the natural basis of our existence. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Populations of concern: Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Janet; Balbus, John; Berger, Martha; Bouye, Karen; Campbell, Vince; Chief, Karletta; Conlon, K.; Crimmins, Allison; Flanagan, Barry; Gonzalez-Maddux, C.; Hallisey, E.; Hutchins, S.; Jantarasami, L.; Khoury, S.; Kiefer, M.; Kolling, J.; Lynn, K.; Manangan, A.; McDonald, M.; Morello-Frosch, R.; Hiza, Margaret; Sheffield, P.; Thigpen Tart, K.; Watson, J.; Whyte, K.P.; Wolkin, A.F.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is already causing, and is expected to continue to cause, a range of health impacts that vary across different population groups in the United States. The vulnerability of any given group is a function of its sensitivity to climate change related health risks, its exposure to those risks, and its capacity for responding to or coping with climate variability and change. Vulnerable groups of people, described here as populations of concern, include those with low income, some communities of color, immigrant groups (including those with limited English proficiency), Indigenous peoples, children and pregnant women, older adults, vulnerable occupational groups, persons with disabilities, and persons with preexisting or chronic medical conditions. Planners and public health officials, politicians and physicians, scientists and social service providers are tasked with understanding and responding to the health impacts of climate change. Collectively, their characterization of vulnerability should consider how populations of concern experience disproportionate, multiple, and complex risks to their health and well-being in response to climate change. Some groups face a number of stressors related to both climate and non-climate factors. For example, people living in impoverished urban or isolated rural areas, floodplains, coastlines, and other at-risk locations are more vulnerable not only to extreme weather and persistent climate change but also to social and economic stressors. Many of these stressors can occur simultaneously or consecutively. Over time, this “accumulation” of multiple, complex stressors is expected to become more evident1 as climate impacts interact with stressors associated with existing mental and physical health conditions and with other socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  20. Winning public and political support for nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear industry is entering an historic battle for the hearts and minds of Canadians as government decides on nuclear new build. Recent polls indicate that public support is rising for nuclear power. However, the support could be eroded by negative events or intense lobbying by anti-nuclear groups. The nuclear industry must deal with concerns raised about nuclear power, such as cost, safety, reliability and waste. The nuclear industry should build upon the positive movement in public support. The industry must go to Canadians with a credible message which responds effectively to public concerns. It must be remembered that winning public support will be essential to winning and maintaining political support. (author)

  1. Winning public and political support for nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFadden, D.J. [Gowling LaFleur Henderson, LLP, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The nuclear industry is entering an historic battle for the hearts and minds of Canadians as government decides on nuclear new build. Recent polls indicate that public support is rising for nuclear power. However, the support could be eroded by negative events or intense lobbying by anti-nuclear groups. The nuclear industry must deal with concerns raised about nuclear power, such as cost, safety, reliability and waste. The nuclear industry should build upon the positive movement in public support. The industry must go to Canadians with a credible message which responds effectively to public concerns. It must be remembered that winning public support will be essential to winning and maintaining political support. (author)

  2. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.

  3. Health concerns associated with unconventional gas mining in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haswell, Melissa R; Bethmont, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Many governments globally are investigating the benefits and risks associated with unconventional gas mining for shale, tight and coal seam gas (coalbed methane) to determine whether the industry should proceed in their jurisdiction. Most locations likely to be developed are in rural areas, with potential impact on farmers and small communities. Despite significant health concerns, public health knowledge and growing evidence are often overlooked in decision-making. It is difficult to gain a broad but accurate understanding of the health concerns for rural communities because the evidence has grown very recently and rapidly, is complex and largely based in the USA, where the industry is advanced. In 2016, a concerned South Australian beef and lamb farmer in an area targeted for potential unconventional gas development organised visits to homes in developed unconventional gas areas of Pennsylvania and forums with leading researchers and lawyers in Pennsylvania and New York. Guided by priorities identified during this trip, this communication concisely distils the research evidence on these key concerns, highlighting the Australian situation where evidence exists. It summarises key information of particular concern to rural regions, using Australia as an example, to assist rural health professionals to be better prepared to engage in decision-making and address the challenges associated with this new industry. Discussions with communities and experts, supported by the expanding research from the USA and Australia, revealed increasing health concerns in six key areas. These are absence of a safe solution to the toxic wastewater management problems, air pollution, land and water competition, mental health and psychosocial wellbeing risks, fugitive methane emissions and lack of proven regulatory regimes. Emerging epidemiological studies suggesting interference with foetal development and birth outcomes, and exacerbation of asthma conditions, are particularly concerning

  4. Prediction of future dispute concerning nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This investigation is the third research on the public acceptance of nuclear power generation by the National Congress on Social Economics. In this study, how the energy dispute including that concerning nuclear power generation will develop in 1980s and 1990s, how the form of dispute and the point of controversy will change, were predicted. Though the maintenance of the concord of groups strongly regulates the behavior of people, recently they have become to exercise individual rights frequently. The transition to the society of dispute is the natural result of the modernization of society and the increase of richness. The proper prediction of social problems and the planning and execution of proper countermeasures are very important. The background, objective, basic viewpoint, range and procedure of this investigation, the change of social dispute, the history of the dispute concerning nuclear power generation, the basic viewpoint in the prediction of the dispute concerning nuclear power generation, the social situation in 1980s, the prediction and avoidance of the dispute in view of social and energy situations, and the fundamental strategy for seeking a clue to the solution in 1980s and 1990s are described. The establishment of neutral mediation organs and the flexible technologies of nuclear reactors are necessary. (Kako, I.)

  5. Below regulatory concern - or simply exempt?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission published a policy statement last summer on ''below regulatory concern'' (BRC), which exempted small quantities of radioactive material from regulatory control and would allow the deregulated disposal of some low level waste. The policy drew opposition from several groups. NRC is not planning to revise its BRC policy statement, but wants to develop a concensus on how to implement the policy. Although the Commission's publication of a long needed policy framework for guiding exemption decisions should be welcomed by those of us who have been concerned with making such decisions, there is an urgent need for further consensus building. The policy statement offers only broad guidelines, some of which could be confusing and seem contradictory. The policy statement by itself could further erode public confidence in the NRC's commitment to specific limits of risk, and the ability of its staff to independently evaluate the risks. Another reason why it is appropriate and urgent to embark upon consensus building involving all parties and the public, is that the risks of low level radioactive waste disposal as practiced and proposed in the United States have long been exaggerated in biased reports that receive most media attention. A consensus process needs to be established so that the public can have confidence that its concerns have been properly addressed. (author)

  6. Spectral information (gas, liquid and solid phase from EUV-VUV-UV-Vis-NIR) and related data (e.g. information concerning publications on quantum yield studies or photolysis studies) from published papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noelle, A.; Hartmann, G. K.; Martin-Torres, F. J.

    2010-05-01

    The science-softCon "UV/Vis+ Spectra Data Base" is a non-profit project established in August 2000 and is operated in accordance to the "Open Access" definitions and regulations of the CSPR Assessment Panel on Scientific Data and Information (International Council for Science, 2004, HYPERLINK "http://www.science-softcon.de/spectra/cspr.pdf" ICSU Report of the CSPR Assessment Panel on Data and Information; ISBN 0-930357-60-4). The on-line database contains currently about 5600 spectra (from low to very high resolution, at different temperatures and pressures) and datasheets (metadata) of about 850 substances. Additional spectra/datasheets will be added continuously. In addition more than 250 links to on-line free available original publications are provided. The interdisciplinary of this photochemistry database provides a good interaction between different research areas. So, this database is an excellent tool for scientists who investigate on different fields such as atmospheric chemistry, astrophysics, agriculture, analytical chemistry, environmental chemistry, medicine, remote sensing, etc. To ensure the high quality standard of the fast growing UV/Vis+ Spectra Data Base an international "Scientific Advisory Group" (SAG) has been established in 2004. Because of the importance of maintenance of the database the support of the scientific community is crucial. Therefore we would like to encourage all scientists to support this data compilation project thru the provision of new or missing spectral data and information.

  7. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. Ormandy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine, and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science. As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature.

  8. Advice concerning radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Dutch National cancer incidence figures were calculated by using the reliable data on cancer incidence in the Eindhoven area and population forecasts and information obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics. Several radiotherapy departments suffer from under capacity (a lack of resources and understaffing). Data have also shown that 35% of cancer patients receive radiotherapy, instead of 50%. Calculations have been made by the committee on the present and future needs with regard to equipment and staff. In 1983, the number of megavoltage therapy units amounted to 38, but should have been 65. It should be 80 in 1990 and 90 in 2000. Since building and installing such equipment is a lengthy process a considerable effort is needed to make up for the arrears. The committee advocates the extension of the system of regional cooperation in cancer care (comprehensive cancer centres), in which radiotherapy departments play a crucial role. Working parties from the committee provided a comprehensive description of current radiotherapy practice with reference to physical, technical, clinical and management aspects. Another working party assessed the results of cancer treatment with regard to many different tumour sites. Recent and expected developments were analysed or indicated. The Radiotherapy Committee commissioned an external team to conduct a project to achieve a picture of future developments using methods different to those of the committee's. An interim advice has been added on this subject. (Auth.)

  9. The rise and fall of concern about urban sprawl in the United States: an updated analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Fan; David N. Bengston; Robert S. Potts; Edward G. Goetz

    2005-01-01

    An indicator of public concern about urban sprawl is presented, based on computer content analysis of public discussion in the news media from 1995 through 2004. More than 50,000 news stories about sprawl were analyzed for expressions of concern. Overall concern about sprawl grew rapidly during the latter half of the 1990s. Concern about the environmental impacts of...

  10. Myths concerning alpine skiing injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert J; Ettlinger, Carl F; Shealy, Jasper E

    2009-11-01

    There are many commonly discussed myths about ski safety that are propagated by industry, physicians, and skiers. Through a review of the literature concerning 12 such topics, this article demonstrates that the following are untrue: (1) Broken legs have been traded for blown-out knees. (2) If you know your DIN (a slang term for release indicator value), you can adjust your own bindings. (3) Toe and heel piece settings must be the same to function properly. (4) Formal ski instruction will make you safer. (5) Very short skis do not need release bindings. (6) Spending a lot of money on children's equipment is not worth the cost. (7) Children need plenty of room in ski boots for their growing feet. (8) If you think you are going to fall, just relax. (9) Exercise can prevent skiing injuries. (10) Lower release settings can reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. (11) Buying new ski equipment is safer than renting. (12) Skiing is among the most dangerous of activities. It is important for the skiing public, physicians, and all those interested in improving skiing safety to verify the measures they advocate. The statements analyzed here are simply untrue and have the potential to cause harm if taken as fact by those exposed to these unsupported opinions.

  11. Comparing recent uranium supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, N.; Gufler, K.

    2014-01-01

    For more than one decade – even after the Fukushima accidents - an increase in global nuclear energy generation capacity is widely expected. At the same time a variety of uranium supply scenarios were published by industry, academics or international organizations, drawing different pictures of future uranium supply. They were created with the background of a uranium market facing several challenges. First an excursion in the uranium market price, in 2007, then reduced nuclear growth expectations after 2011, at least in non-Asian countries, also implying considerable changes to the supply side. For this publication a meta-study was carried out identifying, evaluating and comparing different recent scenarios on the availability of uranium. While there are some differences in the frame conditions (e.g. the expected uranium demand, the time fame, the considered mining projects,..), there are also notable similarities in these scenarios. This concerns long lead times for mine openings as well as the dependence on large mining projects (e.g. Olympic Dam, Cigar Lake). Generally, a decline in production in about 10 years is assumed, and thus the necessity of the timely development of mining projects is pointed out. In addition the omission of uranium from Russian nuclear weapons and the chances of keeping the changes in secondary supplies in balance with primary production have been widely discussed. Here, the production growth in Kazakhstan but also the role of the current market situation are central aspects. As another aspect the possible contribution from unconventional resources is of interest, particularly against the background of rising production costs for conventional resources. Finally, it shall be reflected how well older scenarios were able to map the reality and which trends could or could not be anticipated. It is relevant to identify which aspects in the development of mining capacities are essential for security of supply, and can therefore be regarded

  12. Recent results from CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    With the increase in center-of-mass energy, a new energy frontier has been opened by the Large Hadron Collider. More than 25 fb^-1 of proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s)=13 TeV have been delivered to both ATLAS and CMS experiments during 2016. This enormous dataset can be used to test the Standard Model in a complete new regime with tremendous precision and it has the potential to unveil new physics or set strong bounds on it. In this talk some of the most recent results made public by the CMS Collaboration will be presented. The focus will mainly be on searches for physics beyond the Standard Model, with particular emphasis on searches for dark matter candidates.

  13. Concerns Boys Have about Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Concerns Boys Have About Puberty Page Content Article Body Boys have pubertal concerns ... just part of growing up. Involuntary Erections During puberty, boys get erections spontaneously, without touching their penis ...

  14. Concerns Girls Have about Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Concerns Girls Have About Puberty Page Content Article Body Girls have pubertal concerns and worries, too, including: Breast Development Some girls ...

  15. Public Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    by the media? Does the choice of public sociology mean the relinquishment of scientific integrity and critical conviction? These questions will also be addressed in this book - together with a host of others related to the topic of public sociology.   The chapters included in this book are all manuscripts......What is the role of sociology in society? How can - and should - sociology contribute with insights relevant and useful to the outside world? Is sociology attuned to accommodate the demands of the wider public and of surrounding society? Who benefits from the knowledge produced and provided...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...

  16. A recente reforma dos serviços de saúde na província do Québec, Canadá: as fronteiras da preservação de um sistema público Recent health services reform in Quebec Province, Canada: on the frontier of preserving a public system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonor Minho Conill

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisa mudanças recentes no sistema de saúde canadense por meio do estudo de caso do Quebec. Última província a adotar princípios federais de universalização, integralidade e gestão pública, sua reforma realizada em 1971 ultrapassou esses objetivos com características inovadoras. Na década de 80 e início dos anos 90, ocorrem avaliações nessa província e no conjunto canadense, iniciando-se um período de transformações. As principais medidas em curso são descritas: descentralização e gestão regional, virada ambulatorial, redução seletiva da oferta, novos mecanismos de alocação de recursos e de controle social. Observa-se uma tendência para um ambiente de competição pública, mas o modo de regulação adotado não corresponde aos principais modelos discutidos para países centrais. Em um cenário de restrições orçamentárias, medidas tecnocraticamente definidas permitiram acomodar interesses, preservando princípios norteadores do sistema. Essa constatação é uma contribuição importante da análise comparada para reformas de países periféricos. Relações dessas medidas com a tendência de controle de custos e políticas de ajustes são apontadas, discutindo-se implicações nos serviços.This paper analyzes recent changes in the Canadian health system through a case study of Quebec. As the last Province to adopt federal principles of universal coverage, comprehensiveness, and public management, its reform, conducted in 1971, met these objectives by means of key innovations. In the 1980s and early 90s, a process of health services evaluation in this Province and in Canada as a whole launched a period of extensive changes. The relevant measures are described herein: decentralization and regional management, "clinical shift", selective reduction in the supply of services, and new mechanisms for resource allocation and social control. There is a tendency towards an environment of public competition

  17. Malaysia's contributions towards global climate change concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzlaini Mohd Yusop; Yvonne Lunsong; Norhayati Kamaruddin

    2000-01-01

    Concerns about Green House Gas (GHG) emissions and global climate change were voiced by the scientific community as far back as the International Geophysical year in 1957 when climate changes scenarios and impacts were analysed. More recently, the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change (UNFCCC) was adopted in 1992, renewing a global acknowledgement and commitment towards curbing GHG emissions. Little progress was made until the adoption of Kyoto Protocol in December 1997, over 5 years later. Basically, developed countries would not commit to strong measures if there were no global effort (i. e. corresponding efforts by developing countries) while developing countries are waiting for developed countries to show concrete results first. Since 1950, developed countries cumulatively produced more than 80% of worldwide GHG emissions. Between 1950 and 1990, North America alone contributed 40 billion tons of carbon while Western and Eastern Europe contributed 57 billion tons. Developing countries produced only 24 billion tons of carbon emissions during the same period. At present, per capita emission in developed countries are also about ten times higher than those of developing countries. This imbalance has caused most developing countries to adopt a wait till others do it stance and justifiably so. Nonetheless, curbing GHG emissions should be a larger community effort (which includes business and the public) and not just the efforts of Governments and officials. Thus, the deciding factors should make more business or economic sense. It is likely that business and the general public would listen and contribute positively if they are made aware of potential cost savings and international competitiveness to be derived from these efforts. During the current economic slowdown, especially in East Asia, it makes business sense to defer the capital investment in new electricity generating capacity and related energy supply infrastructure. Pusat Tenaga Malaysia

  18. Special nutritional concerns for the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A

    2006-06-01

    Inadequate dietary intake is the primary nutritional concern of today's female athlete. As these athletes fail to consume enough energy to support the physical demands of training, they become at risk for disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, conditions collectively identified as the female athlete triad. This review addresses nutritional concerns of the female athlete, identification of those at risk, relationship of energy intake to menstrual irregularities, and recently identified chronic diseases associated with the female athlete triad. Strategies are offered to prevent harmful behaviors leading to the comorbidities associated with inadequate dietary intakes.

  19. List of recent land mammals from Mexico, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Pulido, Jose; Gonzalez-Ruiz, Noe; Gardner, Alfred L.; Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    We provide an updated list of the Recent land mammals of Mexico and include information on the taxonomy of certain species, and where appropriate, the endemic and threatened status of all species listed. Several taxonomic and nomenclatural changes have been made since publication of the last list of the Mexican terrestrial mammalian fauna. Within the period from 2005 to present, there have been at least 209 changes concerning the nomenclature of this fauna; these we evaluated in this paper. The land mammals of Mexico comprise 168 genera, 496 species, and 881 subspecies.

  20. Recent advances in vaccine development against Ebola threat as bioweapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Prachi; Gupta, Ankit; Verma, Priyanka; Singh, Joginder; Gupta, Jeena

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing rate of Ebola virus appearance, with multiple natural outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, it is worthy of consideration as bioweapon by anti-national groups. Further, with the non-availability of the vaccines against Ebola virus, concerns about the public health emerge. In this regard, this review summarizes the structure, genetics and potential of Ebola virus to be used as a bioweapon. We highlight the recent advances in the treatment strategies and vaccine development against Ebola virus. The understanding of these aspects might lead to effective treatment practices which can be applied during the future outbreaks of Ebola.

  1. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood – European database on contaminant levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J.; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called “contaminants of emerging concern” are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database ( (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu)), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. - Highlights: • Development of a European database regarding contaminants of emerging concern. • Current status on knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation. • Review on the occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood.

  2. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood – European database on contaminant levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandermeersch, Griet, E-mail: griet.vandermeersch@ilvo.vlaanderen.be [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Animal Sciences Unit – Fisheries, Ankerstraat 1, 8400 Oostende (Belgium); Lourenço, Helena Maria [Division of Aquaculture and Upgrading (DivAV), Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA), Lisboa (Portugal); Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona (Spain); Cunha, Sara [LAQV-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Diogène, Jorge [Institute of Research and Technology in Food and Agriculture (IRTA), Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain); Cano-Sancho, German [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovirai Virgili University (URV), Reus (Spain); Sloth, Jens J. [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU Food), Søborg (Denmark); Kwadijk, Christiaan [Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies (IMARES), Wageningen University and Research Center, Ijmuiden (Netherlands); Barcelo, Damia [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona (Spain); Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Animal Sciences Unit – Fisheries, Ankerstraat 1, 8400 Oostende (Belgium); Fernandes, José Oliveira [LAQV-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Marques, Antonio [Division of Aquaculture and Upgrading (DivAV), Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA), Lisboa (Portugal); and others

    2015-11-15

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called “contaminants of emerging concern” are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database ( (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu)), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. - Highlights: • Development of a European database regarding contaminants of emerging concern. • Current status on knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation. • Review on the occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood.

  3. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood - European database on contaminant levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment...... to seafood.So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus...... potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data...

  4. Opinião de escolares e educadores sobre saúde: o ponto de vista da escola pública de uma região periférica do Município de São Paulo Opinions of students and educators concerning health: the public school perspective in a peripheral area of the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia B. Soares

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tomou como objeto as concepções vigentes na sociedade sobre os problemas e necessidades de saúde dos adolescentes. Com base nas preocupações da saúde coletiva com as políticas públicas de proteção social, objetivou apreender a opinião da escola pública sobre esses temas. Referenciou-se na teoria da determinação social do processo saúde-doença e na visão de que as necessidades de saúde se traduzem em demandas de transformação dos processos nocivos conseqüentes às relações de produção. A apreensão dos dados foi realizada mediante entrevistas com Coordenadores Pedagógicos e grupos focais com adolescentes das escolas públicas do Distrito de Raposo Tavares (Município de São Paulo. Os resultados mostraram que os participantes reconheceram: (1 a esfera dos determinantes sociais na base dos problemas de saúde dos adolescentes; (2 além dos processos mórbidos, um conjunto de problemas sociais que repercutem sobre o processo saúde-doença, destacando o uso de drogas e a violência. As necessidades de saúde se traduziram em demandas por políticas sociais públicas intersetoriais.This study focused on prevailing concepts in society concerning adolescents' health problems and needs. Based on concerns in the field of Collective Health in relation to public policies for social protection, the study attempted to grasp the public school perspective concerning these issues. The study's theoretical reference was the social determination of the health-disease process and the view that health needs are translated into demands for changes in the harmful processes resulting from relations in the production process. Data were gathered through interviews with pedagogical coordinators and focus groups with adolescents in public schools from the Raposo Tavares School District (Municipality of São Paulo. The results showed that the participants recognized: (1 the sphere of social determinants at the base of adolescents

  5. Perfil socioeconômico, nutricional e de saúde de adolescentes recém-ingressos em uma universidade pública brasileira Socioeconomic, nutritional and health profile of adolescents recently admitted to a Brazilian public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina Ribeiro VIEIRA

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se delinear o perfil socioeconômico, nutricional e de saúde de adolescentes recém-ingressos em uma universidade pública brasileira. As variáveis comportamentais foram obtidas por meio de questionário, o percentual de gordura corporal (%GC pelo somatório das dobras cutâneas e o estado nutricional pelo Índice de Massa Corporal. A maioria dos adolescentes era do sexo feminino (57,3%, não residia com familiares (89,8%, consumia bebida alcoólica (73,5%, omitia alguma refeição principal (57,3% e rejeitava um ou mais alimentos do grupo das hortaliças (79,5%. Cerca de 57,0% não realizavam atividade física e 7,0% fumavam. Em torno de 72,0% e 25,0%, respectivamente, consumiam hortaliça e fruta cinco ou mais vezes na semana. Os eutróficos predominavam, mas 58,7% destes apresentavam %GC elevado. Concluiu-se que considerável parcela dos indivíduos estudados residia sem os familiares e apresentava, além de inadequação da composição corporal e do comportamento alimentar, outros fatores de risco à saúde, como o consumo de álcool e a inatividade física.The objective of this work was to describe the socioeconomic, nutritional and health profile of adolescents recently admitted to a Brazilian public university. The behavioral variables were obtained by interview, the body fat percentage (BF% by the sum of the four skinfold thicknesses and the nutritional status by body mass index. Most of the students were female (57.3%, lived away from their families (89.8%, drank alcohol (73.5%, skipped a main meal (57.3% and rejected one or more types of vegetables (79.5%. About 57.0% did not practice any physical activity and 7.0% smoked. About 72.0% and 25.0%, respectively, consumed vegetable and fruit five times or over during the week. The eutrophic subjects predominated, but 58.7% of them presented a high BF%. The results showed that a considerable number of the subjects lived away from their families and had inadequate body

  6. Going Concern Disclosure for Local Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Chun Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Going concern opinions (GCOs indicate that auditors have significant doubt about an entity’s ability to continue operation one year after the financial statement date. This study addresses the following research questions: What are the factors that motivate auditors to issue GCOs to governmental entities? Does a governmental entity disclose going concern uncertainty in the footnotes or the MD&A section of annual financial reports (AFRs either the year before or the year when the entity receives a GCO? To what extent does the entity disclose the GCO factors used by auditors? We find that auditors most often cited two reasons, “Deficiency in Funds” and “Losses or Revenue Declines,” accounting for the majority of reasons given for a going concern opinion. Further, the disclosure is most likely to be in the notes to the AFRs. In addition, we find that going concern reporting varies by auditor type (state auditors vs. public accounting firms, government size, and government type. We also find some evidence that going concern disclosures improve after the enactment of GASB No. 56. The results of our study should be of interest to stakeholders’ interested in lead indicators of fiscal distress.

  7. Inactive Publics: The Forgotten Publics in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, Kirk

    2000-01-01

    Notes that recent public relations theory has largely ignored inactive publics, stakeholder groups that demonstrate low levels of knowledge and involvement in the organization or its products, services, candidates, or causes, but are important to an organization. Examines the nature of inactive publics and proposes a model that locates inactive…

  8. Engaging the public in biodiversity issues

    OpenAIRE

    Novacek, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    To engage people in biodiversity and other environmental issues, one must provide the opportunity for enhanced understanding that empowers individuals to make choices and take action based on sound science and reliable recommendations. To this end, we must acknowledge some real challenges. Recent surveys show that, despite growing public concern, environmental issues still rank below many other problems, such as terrorism, health care, the economy, and (in the U.S.) family values. Moreover, m...

  9. Maternal Concern for Child Undereating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callie L; Pesch, Megan H; Perrin, Eliana M; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C

    To describe features of maternal concern for her child undereating; examine maternal and child correlates of maternal concern for undereating; and determine whether maternal concern for undereating is associated with feeding practices. This was a cross-sectional analysis of an observational study with 286 mother-child dyads (mean child age, 71 months). Maternal concern for undereating was assessed using a semistructured interview. Mothers completed questionnaires to assess picky eating, food neophobia, and feeding practices. Feeding practices were further assessed using videotaped mealtime observations. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of maternal and child characteristics with maternal concern for undereating. Regression was used to assess the association of maternal concern for undereating with feeding practices, controlling for covariates. Over a third of mothers (36.5%) expressed concern that their child does not eat enough. Correlates of concern for undereating included child body mass index z-score (BMIz; odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.77) and picky eating (OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.26-4.59). Maternal concern for undereating was associated with greater reported pressure to eat (relative risk [RR] = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.55-2.50), greater observed bribery (OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.50-4.60), and higher observed pressure (OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.08-3.36) during mealtimes. Mothers of children who are picky eaters and have a lower BMIz are more likely to be concerned that their children do not eat enough, and maternal concern for undereating is associated with pressuring and bribing children to eat. Pediatricians might address maternal concern for undereating by advising feeding practices that do not involve pressure and bribery, particularly among healthy weight children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2010-01-01

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors.

  11. Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jian [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, 700 Planetarium Place, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States); Dasgupta, Purnendu K., E-mail: Dasgupta@uta.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, 700 Planetarium Place, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States)

    2010-07-19

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors.

  12. Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2010-01-01

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors. PMID:20599024

  13. Nanotechnology in medicine: concepts and concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancino, Juliana; Marangoni, Valeria S.; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2014-01-01

    The recent advances in the development of nanomaterials have opened new and exciting opportunities for their applications in medicine. These applications include molecular imaging, drug-delivery, and photothermal therapy. Despite the progress in medicinal applications of nanomaterials, several key problems remain unaddressed. Recent advances in this area include the enhancement of sensitivity in early diagnosis and therapy, in addition to investigations into the possible toxicity of nanomaterials. However, since little is known about the toxicity of nanomaterials, the regulation of these materials is a slow and complex process. This paper reviews the current scenario in the applications of nanomaterials in medicine as well as the main concerns and regulatory questions. (author)

  14. 42 CFR 423.2260 - Definitions concerning marketing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., yellow pages, or the Internet. (ii) Marketing representative materials such as scripts or outlines for... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions concerning marketing materials. 423... Marketing Requirements § 423.2260 Definitions concerning marketing materials. As used in this subpart...

  15. Anticoagulant rodenticides on our public and community lands: spatial distribution of exposure and poisoning of a rare forest carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad W Gabriel; Leslie W. Woods; Robert Poppenga; Rick A. Sweitzer; Craig Thompson; Sean M. Matthews; J. Mark Higley; Stefan M. Keller; Kathryn Purcell; Reginald H. Barrett; Greta M. Wengert; Benjamin N. Sacks; Deanna L. Clifford

    2012-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) poisoning has emerged as a significant concern for conservation and management of nontarget wildlife. The purpose for these toxicants is to suppress pest populations in agricultural or urban settings. The potential of direct and indirect exposures and illicit use of ARs on public and community forest lands have recently raised concern for...

  16. Obesity epidemic in Brazil and Argentina: a public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, Alberto K; Rocha, Denise R T W; Aizenberg, Marisa; Ciruzzi, Maria S

    2014-06-01

    The obesity epidemic is rapidly advancing in South America, leading to inevitable health consequences. Argentinian and Brazilian health policies try to become adapted to the new economic and social framework that follows from this epidemic. It is in incipient and ineffective control so far since the prevalence of obesity was not restrained. The Argentine national legislation is more advanced, through the so-called "Ley de Obesidad." In Brazil, there are numerous local initiatives but still not a comprehensive law. National policies relating to decisions regarding obesity are discussed in this paper. Trends in decisions issued in higher courts of Argentina (Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation--CSJN) and Brazil (Supreme Court of Justice--STF), in the last 15 years, seek to clarify the approach of each country and court's resolutions. Marked differences were found in their positions. Finally, legal and health solutions to this obesity epidemic are proposed.

  17. Cyclosporiasis: an emerging public health concern around the world ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: All literature on Cyclospora, C. cayetanensis,cyclosporiasis in Africa, and endemic cyclosporiasis was searched from libraries,colleagues and internet but only literature on its history, clinical presentation, epidemiology in endemic settings, and occurrence inAfrica were scrutinised. Results: In Sub Saharan Africa, ...

  18. Why Zika virus infection has become a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Lan; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2016-04-01

    Prior to 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV) outbreaks had occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Although a causal relationship between Zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. In May 2015, the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Currently, ZIKV outbreaks are ongoing and it will be difficult to predict how the virus will spread over time. ZIKV is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitos, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are the principle vectors of dengue, and ZIKV disease generally is reported to include symptoms associated with acute febrile illnesses that clinically resembles dengue fever. The laboratory diagnosis can be performed by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on serum, viral nucleic acid and virus-specific immunoglobulin M. There is currently no vaccine and antiviral treatment available for ZIKV infection, and the only way to prevent congenital ZIKV infection is to prevent maternal infection. In February 2016, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) activated ZIKV as a Category V Notifiable Infectious Disease similar to Ebola virus disease and MERS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  19. Why Zika virus infection has become a public health concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Lan Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV outbreaks had occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Although a causal relationship between Zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. In May 2015, the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Currently, ZIKV outbreaks are ongoing and it will be difficult to predict how the virus will spread over time. ZIKV is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitos, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are the principle vectors of dengue, and ZIKV disease generally is reported to include symptoms associated with acute febrile illnesses that clinically resembles dengue fever. The laboratory diagnosis can be performed by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR on serum, viral nucleic acid and virus-specific immunoglobulin M. There is currently no vaccine and antiviral treatment available for ZIKV infection, and the only way to prevent congenital ZIKV infection is to prevent maternal infection. In February 2016, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC activated ZIKV as a Category V Notifiable Infectious Disease similar to Ebola virus disease and MERS.

  20. SEX PREFERENCESAMONG RURAL COMMUNITY: PUBLIC HEALTH AND SOCIAL CONCERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalok Kumar Singh, Sunil Thitame, Reecha Ghimire

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sex preference is choice of selecting the sex of children by their parents or family members. The objective of the study was to study the existence of sex preference among rural community. Material and methods: A Cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 ever married women of reproductive age group. Random digits sampling method was used to select 10 villages in Rahata Tehsil of Ahmednagar, while systematic sampling was applied for selection of 20 samples in each village. Results: In the previous sex preference for male child was 37.3%, 58.75%, 88.5%, 100% and 100% from firstchild to fifth respectively, while female preference and either sexpreference was decreasing. In the current sex preference for male, female and either was 36.8%, 25% and 38.2% respectively. Future sex preference was 40.9% for male child, 22.7% for female child and 36.4% for either sex. The main reason for son preference was for old age care and support, to continue the family name and earning member in the family. Conclusion: Study confirms that son preference still existsin the rural community of Maharashtra. Attitude for son preference is mainly because of the economic earning, old age care and continuation of the family nameamong all groups.

  1. Burgeoning menopausal symptoms: An urgent public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: There is a high burden of postmenopausal symptoms which have shown an increasing trend with advancement of age. This calls for establishment of specific health interventions for postmenopausal women in the health-care settings.

  2. Recent Transmission of Tuberculosis - United States, 2011-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M Yuen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that may result from recent transmission or from an infection acquired many years in the past; there is no diagnostic test to distinguish the two causes. Cases resulting from recent transmission are particularly concerning from a public health standpoint. To describe recent tuberculosis transmission in the United States, we used a field-validated plausible source-case method to estimate cases likely resulting from recent transmission during January 2011-September 2014. We classified cases as resulting from either limited or extensive recent transmission based on transmission cluster size. We used logistic regression to analyze patient characteristics associated with recent transmission. Of 26,586 genotyped cases, 14% were attributable to recent transmission, 39% of which were attributable to extensive recent transmission. The burden of cases attributed to recent transmission was geographically heterogeneous and poorly predicted by tuberculosis incidence. Extensive recent transmission was positively associated with American Indian/Alaska Native (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 3.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9-4.4, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (aPR = 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.5, and black (aPR = 3.0, 95% CI 2.6-3.5 race, and homelessness (aPR = 2.3, 95% CI 2.0-2.5. Extensive recent transmission was negatively associated with foreign birth (aPR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.2-0.2. Tuberculosis control efforts should prioritize reducing transmission among higher-risk populations.

  3. Changes in Aleut concerns following the stakeholder-driven Amchitka independent science assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2009-08-01

    There is widespread agreement that stakeholders should be included in the problem-formulation phase of addressing environment problems and, more recently, there have been attempts to include stakeholders in other phases of environmental research. However, there are few studies that evaluate the effects of including stakeholders in all phases of research aimed at solving environmental problems. Three underground nuclear blasts were detonated on Amchitka Island from 1965 to 1971. Considerable controversy developed when the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to "close" Amchitka. Concerns were voiced by subsistence Aleuts living in the region, resource trustees, and the State of Alaska, among others. This article evaluates perceptions of residents of three Aleutian village before (2003) and after (2005) the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation's (CRESP) Amchitka Independent Science Assessment (AISA). The CRESP AISA provided technical information on radionuclide levels in biota to inform questions of seafood safety and food chain health. CRESP used the questions asked at public meetings in the Aleut communities of Atka, Nikolski, and Unalaska to evaluate attitudes and perceptions before and after the AISA. Major concerns before the AISA were credibility/trust of CRESP and the DOE, and information about biological methodology of the study. Following the AISA, people were most concerned about health effects and risk reduction, and trust issues with CRESP declined while those for the DOE remained stable. People's relative concerns about radionuclides declined, while their concerns about mercury (not addressed in the AISA) increased, and interest in ecological issues (population changes of local species) and the future (continued biomonitoring) increased from 2003 to 2005. These results suggest that questions posed at public meetings can be used to evaluate changes in attitudes and perceptions following environmental research, and the results are

  4. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  5. Submission of the national commission of the public debate on the options concerning the long life high and medium activity radioactive wastes management; Saisine de la commission nationale du debat public sur les options generales en matiere de gestion des dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document deals with the presentation of a public debate on the radioactive wastes management and the opportunities of its organization. It presents successively the long life high and medium activity radioactive wastes, the today radioactive wastes management policy and some questions and topics which could be discussed during the debate. (A.L.B.)

  6. Public participation in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, A.H.; Nealey, S.M.

    1979-04-01

    The recent report of the Interagency Review Group (IRG) on Nuclear Waste Management formalized what has become increasingly clear in recent years: public participation in nuclear waste management decisions is a fact of life and will be more emphasized in the future than in the past. The purpose of this paper is to discuss, and stimulate discussion, of major issues which must be considered before attempting to design and implement a program to encourage public participation in this complex and sensitive area. Public participation is a term with many possible meanings. The term is used here to stand for a very wide range of activities including: providing information about programs and intended actions, seeking advice or permission from state or local officials, conducting public meetings to announce plans and receive reactions, conducting hearings, establishing consultative panels of outside experts or special interest group members, and even conducting surveys of public opinion and concern. This paper is not a proposal or a set of specific recommendations, but a stimulus to thought and discussion. It was prepared with DOE's role in waste management in mind, and benefits from the authors' opportunity to observe the public participation process in this topic area to data. The paper is organized into four sections that take account of (1) past participation efforts, (2) why public participation is necessary and what might be gained by it, (3) considerations in designing a participation program, and (4) major principles involved in conducting a public participation program, including a brief review of participation procedures

  7. Willkommen, Mr. Chance: Methodologische Betrachtungen zur Gute empirischer Forschung in der Padagogik, diskutiert vor allem an der neueren Untersuchung uber Gewalt von Heitmeyer u.a. (1995) = Welcome, Mr. Chance: Methodological Considerations Concerning the Quality of Empirical Research in Educational Science Based on a Recent Study on Violence Published by Heitmeyer et al. (1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenreuther, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Argues that the usefulness of strictly quantitative research is still questioned in educational studies, primarily due to deficiencies in methodological training. Uses a critique of a recent study by Heitmeyer et al. (1995) to illustrate the requirements of "good" empirical research. Considers the problems of hypothesis testing in field research.…

  8. 14 CFR 1213.109 - News releases concerning international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Headquarters offices of External Relations and Public Affairs. (b) NASA Centers and Headquarters offices will report all visits proposed by representatives of foreign news media to the Public Affairs Officer of the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false News releases concerning international...

  9. Public relations and the radiation processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, T. Donna

    The world's uneasiness and mistrust regarding anything nuclear has heightened in recent years due to events such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Opinion polls and attitude surveys document the public's growing concern about issues such as the depletion of the ozone layer, the resulting greenhouse effect and exposure of our planet to cosmic radiation. Ultimately, such research reveals an underlying fear regarding the unseen impacts of modern technology on the environment and on human health. These concerns have obvious implications for the radiation processing industry, whose technology is nuclear based and not easily understood by the public. We have already seen organized nuclear opponents mobilize public anxiety, fear and misunderstanding in order to oppose the installation of radiation processing facilities and applications such as food irradiation. These opponents will no doubt try to strengthen resistance to our technology in the future. Opponents will attempt to convince the public that the risks to public and personal health and safety outweigh the benefits of our technology. We in the industry must head off any tendency for the public to see us as the "enemy". Our challenge is to counter public uneasiness and misunderstanding by effectively communicating the human benefits of our technology. Clearly it is a challenge we cannot afford to ignore.

  10. Public relations and the radiation processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, T.D. (Nordion International Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    The world's uneasiness and mistrust regarding anything nuclear has heightened in recent years due to events such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Opinion polls and attitude surveys document the public's growing concern about issues such as the depletion of the ozone layer, the resulting greenhouse effect and exposure of our planet to cosmic radiation. Ultimately, such research reveals an underlying fear regarding the unseen impacts of modern technology on the environment and on human health. These concerns have obvious implications for the radiation processing industry, whose technology is nuclear based and not easily understood by the public. We have already seen organized nuclear opponents mobilize public anxiety, fear and misunderstanding in order to oppose the installation of radiation processing facilities and applications such as food irradiation. These opponents will no doubt try to strengthen resistance to our technology in the future. Opponents will attempt to convince the public that the risks to public and personal health and safety outweigh the benefits of our technology. We in the industry must head off any tendency for the public to see us as the ''enemy''. Our challenge is to counter public uneasiness and misunderstanding by effectively communicating the human benefits of our technology. (author).

  11. An Examination of the Use of Lists of Recent Publications Found in Selected Journals in British and European History for Collection Development and Current Awareness by Librarians and Historians: A Master's Paper for the M.S. in L.S. Degree, July, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Sallie H.

    This master's paper examines the use, by historians and librarians, of lists of recent publications, bibliographies, and reviews appearing in selected British and European history journals. Part 1 contains: (1) an introduction; (2) background information; (3) a literature review; (4) the problem statement; (5) a definition of terms; and (6) the…

  12. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood--European database on contaminant levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio; Robbens, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Social media in health--what are the safety concerns for health consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Annie Y S; Gabarron, Elia; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Armayones, Manuel

    Recent literature has discussed the unintended consequences of clinical information technologies (IT) on patient safety, yet there has been little discussion about the safety concerns in the area of consumer health IT. This paper presents a range of safety concerns for consumers in social media, with a case study on YouTube. We conducted a scan of abstracts on 'quality criteria' related to YouTube. Five areas regarding the safety of YouTube for consumers were identified: (a) harmful health material targeted at consumers (such as inappropriate marketing of tobacco or direct-to-consumer drug advertising); (b) public display of unhealthy behaviour (such as people displaying self-injury behaviours or hurting others); (c) tainted public health messages (i.e. the rise of negative voices against public health messages); (d) psychological impact from accessing inappropriate, offensive or biased social media content; and (e) using social media to distort policy and research funding agendas. The examples presented should contribute to a better understanding about how to promote a safe consumption and production of social media for consumers, and an evidence-based approach to designing social media interventions for health. The potential harm associated with the use of unsafe social media content on the Internet is a major concern. More empirical and theoretical studies are needed to examine how social media influences consumer health decisions, behaviours and outcomes, and devise ways to deter the dissemination of harmful influences in social media.

  14. Effect of Providing Information on Students' Knowledge and Concerns about Hydraulic Fracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Nakata, Kimi; Liang, Laura; Pittfield, Taryn; Jeitner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, and the public are faced with understanding and responding to new development practices and conditions in their local and regional environment. While hydraulic fracking (fracking) for shale gas has been practiced for over 50 years in some states, it is a relatively recent event in the northeastern United States. Providing environmental health information to the public about fracking requires understanding both the knowledge base and the perceptions of the public. The knowledge, perceptions, and concerns of college students about fracking were examined. Students were interviewed at Rutgers University in New Jersey, a state without any fracking, although fracking occurs in nearby Pennsylvania. Objectives were to determine (1) knowledge about fracking, (2) rating of concerns, (3) trusted information sources, (4) importance of fracking relative to other energy sources, and (5) the effect of a 15-min lecture and discussion on these aspects. On the second survey, students improved on their knowledge (except the components used for fracking), and their ratings changed for some concerns, perceived benefits, and trusted information sources. There was no change in support for further development of natural gas, but support for solar, wind, and wave energy decreased. Data suggest that students' knowledge and perceptions change with exposure to information, but many of these changes were due to students using the Internet to look up information immediately after the initial survey and lecture. Class discussions indicated a general lack of trust for several information sources available on the Web.

  15. EFFECT OF PROVIDING INFORMATION ON STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND CONCERNS ABOUT HYDRAULIC FRACKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Nakata, Kimi; Liang, Laura; Pittfield, Taryn; Jeitner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, and the public are faced with understanding and responding to new development practices and conditions in their local and regional environment. While hydraulic fracking (fracking) for shale gas has been practiced for over 50 years in some states, it is a relatively recent event in the northeastern United States. Providing environmental health information to the public about fracking requires understanding both the knowledge base and the perceptions of the public. The knowledge, perceptions, and concerns of college students about fracking were examined. Students were interviewed at Rutgers University in New Jersey, a state without any fracking, although fracking occurs in nearby Pennsylvania. Objectives were to determine (1) knowledge about fracking, (2) rating of concerns, (3) trusted information sources, (4) importance of fracking relative to other energy sources, and (5) the effect of a 15-min lecture and discussion on these aspects. On the second survey, students improved on their knowledge (except the components used for fracking), and their ratings changed for some concerns, perceived benefits, and trusted information sources. There was no change in support for further development of natural gas, but support for solar, wind, and wave energy decreased. Data suggest that students’ knowledge and perceptions change with exposure to information, but many of these changes were due to students using the Internet to look up information immediately after the initial survey and lecture. Class discussions indicated a general lack of trust for several information sources available on the Web. PMID:25965194

  16. Public Inaccuracy in Meta-perceptions of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, J.; Fraser, J.

    2012-12-01

    Public perceptions of climate change and meta-perceptions of the public and climate scientist's perceptions of climate change were assessed to benchmark the National Network for Climate Change Interpretation's impacts. Meta-perceptions are important to examine because they can have implications for willingness to take action to address climate change. For instance, recent research suggests a tendency to misperceive that there is disagreement among climate scientists is predictive of lack of support for climate change policies. Underestimating public concern about climate change could also be problematic: it could lead individuals to withdraw from personal efforts to reduce impact and engage others in discussions about climate change. Presented results will demonstrate that respondents in a national survey underestimated the percent of the public who were very concerned, concerned or cautious about climate change and overestimated the extent others were disengaged, doubted, or non-believers. They underestimated the percent of the public who likely believed that humans caused climate change and overestimate the percent that believed climate change was not happening nor human induced. Finally, they underestimated the percent of the public that believed climate change threatened ocean health. The results also explore sources of misperceptions. First, correlates with TV viewing habits suggest that inaccuracy is a result of too little attention to network news, with one exception: Greater attention to FOX among doubters reduced accuracy. Second, adding to other evidence that basic cognitive heuristics (such as availability heuristic) influence perceptions of climate change, we show that that false consensus effects account for meta-perceptions of the public and climate scientists beliefs. The false consensus effect, in combination with underestimating concern among the public, results in those most concerned about climate change and those who believe it to be human

  17. Recent advances in benefits and hazards of engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radad, Khaled; Al-Shraim, Mubarak; Moldzio, Rudolf; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2012-11-01

    Over recent decades, engineered nanoparticles are increasingly produced as the result of the rapid development in nanotechnology. They are currently used in a wide range of industrial and public sectors including healthcare, agriculture, transport, energy, materials, and information and communication technologies. As the result, an increasing concern has been raised over the potential impacts of engineered nanoparticles to human health. In the light of this, it is the purpose of the present review to discuss: (1) novel properties of engineered nanoparticles particularly in biomedical sciences, (2) most recently reported adverse effects of manufactured nanoparticles on human health and (3) different aspects of toxicological risk assessment of these nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The art of alignment transaction cost economics and the provision of public services at the local level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genugten, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    This book is situated against the background of the debate on recent institutional changes in the public sector. These changes concern the privatization, liberalization and autonomization of different kinds of public services. The main incentives for introducing such new modes of governance were,

  19. Women trafficking: causes, concerns, care!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Shaneela Sadaruddin; Tharani, Ambreen Jawed; Agha, Ajmal; Karamaliani, Rozina Sherali

    2012-08-01

    Pakistan is both a country of origin and destination as far as women trafficking is concerned. Poverty, gender discrimination, lack of education, and ignorance about legal rights are some of the underlying causes. Available data suggest several areas of concern, like, for instance: direct health effects, maladaptive coping leading to the use of illicit drugs, and inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. Therefore, numerous interventions would be required at three levels: the prevention of trafficking, the protection of victims and the prosecution of the traffickers.

  20. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    van Zoonen, Liesbet

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in research about people's concerns about privacy: one dimensions represents that people perceive particular data as more personal and sensitive than others, the other dimension represents that people'...

  1. The interplay between societal concerns and the regulatory frame on GM crops in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Yann; Reheul, Dirk; De Waele, Danny; Van Speybroeck, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Recapitulating how genetic modification technology and its agro-food products aroused strong societal opposition in the European Union, this paper demonstrates how this opposition contributed to shape the European regulatory frame on GM crops. More specifically, it describes how this opposition contributed to a de facto moratorium on the commercialization of new GM crop events in the end of the nineties. From this period onwards, the regulatory frame has been continuously revised in order to slow down further erosion of public and market confidence. Various scientific and technical reforms were made to meet societal concerns relating to the safety of GM crops. In this context, the precautionary principle, environmental post-market monitoring and traceability were adopted as ways to cope with scientific uncertainties. Labeling, traceability, co-existence and public information were installed in an attempt to meet the general public request for more information about GM agro-food products, and the specific demand to respect the consumers' and farmers' freedom of choice. Despite these efforts, today, the explicit role of public participation and/or ethical consultation during authorization procedures is at best minimal. Moreover, no legal room was created to progress to an integral sustainability evaluation during market procedures. It remains to be seen whether the recent policy shift towards greater transparency about value judgments, plural viewpoints and scientific uncertainties will be one step forward in integrating ethical concerns more explicitly in risk analysis. As such, the regulatory frame stands open for further interpretation, reflecting in various degrees a continued interplay with societal concerns relating to GM agro-food products. In this regard, both societal concerns and diversely interpreted regulatory criteria can be inferred as signaling a request - and even a quest - to render more explicit the broader-than-scientific dimension of the actual

  2. 42 CFR 61.14 - Separate consideration of information concerning moral character or loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... moral character or loyalty. 61.14 Section 61.14 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Separate consideration of information concerning moral character or loyalty. No information in the records or possession of the Public Health Service concerning the moral character or loyalty of a fellow will...

  3. Some Recent Data on the Mechanism of Radioleukemogenisis; Quelques Donnees Recentes Concernant le Mecanisme de la Radioleucemogenese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duplan, J. F. [Institut du Radium, Laboratoire Pasteur et Fondation Curie, Paris (France)

    1967-07-15

    A large number of studies have been devoted in the past twenty years, the problem of Radioleukemogenisis that we had to limit this discussion to the study of some experimental facts to enlighten the mechanism of Radioleukemogenisis C57 mice Bl Between 1950 and 1960, a series of studies conducted by H.S. Kaplan has a strong foundation based on a theory of lymphoid Radioleukemogenisis. I remember the most important elements to the extent they are directly involved in the interpretation of experiments that follow [French] Un si grand nombre de travaux ont ete consacres, dans le courant des vingt dernieres annees, au probleme des radioleucemies que nous avons du limiter cet expose a l'etude de quelques faits experimentaux susceptibles d'eclairer le mecanisme de la radioleucemogenese chez les souris C57 Bl. Entre 1950 et 1960, une serie de recherches dirigees par H. S. Kaplan a permis de fonder sur des bases solides une theorie de la radioleucemogenese lymphoiede. J'en rappellerai les elements les plus importants, dans la mesure ou ils interviennent directement dans l'interpretation des experiences qui suivront.

  4. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization...... of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....

  5. Radioactive waste below regulatory concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuder, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published two notices in the Federal Register concerning radioactive waste below regulatory concern. The first, a Commission Policy Statement and Implementation Plan published August 29, 1986, concerns petition to exempt specific radioactive waste streams from the regulations. The second, an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking published Decemger 2, 1986, addresses the concept of generic rulemaking by the NRC on radioactive wastes that are below regulatory concern. Radioactive waste determined to be below regulatory concern would not be subject to regulatory control and would not need to go to a licensed low-level radioactive waste disposal site. The Policy Statement and Implementation Plan describe (1) the information a petitioner should file in support of a petition to exempt a specific waste stream, (2) the decision criteria the Commission intends to use for judging the petition, and (3) the internal administrative procedures to use be followed in order to permit the Commission to act upon the petition in an expedited manner

  6. Recent Developments in SHERPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, Jennifer; Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank; Schonherr, Marek; Schumann, Steffen; Siegert, Frank; Winter, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Supersymmetric Standard Model with Feynman rules from (11), the ADD-model of extra dimensions (12, 13), and a model with an extra U(1) singlet coupling to the Higgs boson only (14). The code has been thoroughly tested and validated (15). This code, however, is limited, especially in the treatment of many ((ge) 6) external QCD particles. Therefore, in the near future, SHERPA will incorporate another, new matrix element generator, COMIX, which is based on Berends-Giele recursion relations (16) and color-dressing (17) rather than color-ordering. In Tabs. 1 and 2 some example cross sections for gg → ng at fixed energies and pp → b(bar b) + n jets obtained with this program are exhibited and compared to those from other programs. In addition, concerning the calculation of higher-order matrix elements and cross sections, there have been first steps towards an automation of such calculations at truly next-to leading order accuracy. They manifest themselves in the implementation of a procedure (19) to fully automatically construct and evaluate Catani-Seymour dipole subtraction terms (20) for the real part of such NLO calculations. The results from the matrix element calculations are merged with the subsequent parton shower through the formalism of (21, 22). The results of its implementation in SHERPA (23) has recently been compared with other algorithms (24). Although there remains some dispute about the theoretical equivalence of the different approaches, the overall results show satisfying agreement with each other, such that they can be used with confidence for data analysis.

  7. Recent crustal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelzer, H.

    Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.

  8. Collection of regulatory texts relative to radiation protection. Part 2: orders and decisions taken in application of the Public Health Code and Labour Code concerning the protection of populations, patients and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations; Recueil de textes reglementaires relatifs a la radioprotection. Partie 2: arretes et decisions pris en application du Code de Sante Publique et du Code du Travail concernant la protection de la population, des patients et des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This collection of texts includes the general measures of population protection, exposure to natural radiations, general system of authorizations and statements, protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiations for medical purpose, situations of radiological emergency and long exposure to ionizing radiations, penal dispositions, application of the Public Health code and application of the Labour code. Chronological contents by date of publication is given. (N.C.)

  9. Identity-driven differences in stakeholder concerns about hunting wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lute, Michelle L; Bump, Adam; Gore, Meredith L

    2014-01-01

    Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT) has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet) with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n  =  666) cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management.

  10. Publication ethics in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David; Elger, Bernice S

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we describe and analyse three issues in publication ethics that are raised when conducting research in emergencies and disasters. These include reluctance to share data and samples because of concerns about publications, loss of individual authorship in high high-profile multi-entity publications, and the deaths of authors during dangerous research projects. An emergency research pledge may be useful in avoiding some of these issues. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Advertising expenses examined in recent rulings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-08

    Courts and commissions have handed down numerous rulings on the subject of utility advertising expenditures. Much controversy still abounds of who should be made to pay for such costs. Some specific cases concerning this issue are discussed. The majority of recent decisions agree that ratepayers should not have to pay for promotional or political advertising campaigns conducted by regulated utilities. Disagreement does exist as to how those terms should be defined in practice. Titles I and III of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 direct state regulatory agencies to investigate advertising expenses by electric and natural gas utilities and to adopt, if appropriate, a policy denying recovery (from ratepayers) of expenses incurred for promotional or political advertising. Importantly, the act also purports to define those terms by explaining what type of expenditures do and do not fall within those categories. Title I and III contain parallel definitions for both electric and natural gas utilities. Only those portions of the act applicable to electric utilities are discussed, with the troublesome area of nuclear advertising noted. (MCW)

  12. Findings of recent IEA work 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This new edition of 'Findings of recent IEA work' provides a sample of the Agency's activities since its 2005 Ministerial meeting. Each page focuses on a specific subject or project, including references to IEA work that will be of use to governments, academics, journalists and the wider public. This volume is not all-inclusive, but seeks to highlight IEA efforts to respond to the concerns of its member countries and identify ways to overcome the energy challenges we face. Since the last meeting of IEA energy ministers in May 2005, the global energy picture has changed. The challenges of energy security and climate change have moved higher on the agenda. To this end, the IEA ministers and the G8 have asked the IEA to make concrete recommendations to achieve a 'clean, competitive and clever energy future'. Energy efficiency is a vital first step, but strong commitment to research, development and deployment of technology is essential for the longer term. Some specific topics reported included are: Coal: responding to the challenges; CO{sub 2} emissions from fuel combustion; Emissions trading for climate policy; CO{sub 2} capture and storage technologies; Russian energy policy developments; and Coal in China.

  13. Public relations as public information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coninx, C.

    1983-01-01

    To the man in the street, the topic of nuclear energy on the one hand is a highly emotional subject incorporating dangers hard to assess. However, on the other hand, there is in most cases little inclination to concern oneself with problems of energy economy. Public relations activities therefore frequently must motivate their adresses to accept information before they can actually inform. In this connection, the informing party must appear trustworthy and avoid that a teacher : pupil relationship is created. In addition, the changes in the socio-political environment must be taken into account. Within the industries and organizations engaged in the nuclear field there is the problem that the effects and the impact of public relations work can hardly be gaged by individually, which greatly hampers quantification of the work actually done.

  14. Public private partnership as a last resort for traditional public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojović Viktorija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent changes in the way public services are delivered A marked increase in the cooperation between the public and private sector in the realization of complex projects, mostly concerning development of infrastructure, is the main characteristic of present-day developing economies. The creation of new, innovative agreements is driven by the limitation of public funds and an ever-growing demand for an increase in the quality of public services. Looking upon the western economies experience alternatives to the traditional public sector procurement are identified in the public/private partnership. The public/private partnership can be seen as one component in the rearrangement of the public sector with a management culture that focuses on the citizen or customer. Also included in this are accountability for results, investigation of a wide variety of alternative service delivery mechanisms, and competition between public and private bodies for contracts to deliver services consistent with cost recovery and the achievement of value for money. The partnership can be realized through an array of models and in this paper priority is given to the DBFO (design-build-finance-operate model, due to its importance in implementation. The DBFO model is considered to be a synonym for the public/private partnership, as it is the most suitable for complex projects and gains the most benefits.

  15. Health effects of ambient air pollution – recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Cizao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. Air quality in developed countries has been generally improved over the last three decades. However, many recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations between low-level exposure to air pollution and health outcomes. Thus, adverse health effects of air pollution, even at relatively low levels, remain a public concern. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges in this field and to identify future research directions for air pollution epidemiological studies.

  16. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were ap......:10.1038/ejcn.2013.165....

  17. Empathic concern drives costly altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Mobbs, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Why do we self-sacrifice to help others in distress? Two competing theories have emerged, one suggesting that prosocial behavior is primarily motivated by feelings of empathic other-oriented concern, the other that we help mainly because we are egoistically focused on reducing our own discomfort. Here we explore the relationship between costly altruism and these two sub-processes of empathy, specifically drawing on the caregiving model to test the theory that trait empathic concern (e.g. general tendency to have sympathy for another) and trait personal distress (e.g. predisposition to experiencing aversive arousal states) may differentially drive altruistic behavior. We find that trait empathic concern – and not trait personal distress – motivates costly altruism, and this relationship is supported by activity in the ventral tegmental area, caudate and subgenual anterior cingulate, key regions for promoting social attachment and caregiving. Together, this data helps identify the behavioral and neural mechanisms motivating costly altruism, while demonstrating that individual differences in empathic concern-related brain responses can predict real prosocial choice. PMID:25462694

  18. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van Zoonen (Liesbet)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in

  19. School Safety Concerns All Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Megan

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that school safety is an issue that concerns all students. Discusses how the staff of the Rockwood South (Missouri) "RAMpage" covered the shootings at Columbine High School in a 14-page issue and in follow-up issues. Suggests that the student newspaper covered the controversial topic in an appropriate, tasteful manner. (RS)

  20. Current Concerns in Validity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    Validity is concerned with the clarification and justification of the intended interpretations and uses of observed scores. It has not been easy to formulate a general methodology set of principles for validation, but progress has been made, especially as the field has moved from relatively limited criterion-related models to sophisticated…