Helby Petersen, Ole
This PhD dissertation studies national similarities and differences in policy and regulation of public-private partnerships (PPPs), with an empirical focus on Denmark and Ireland. The starting point and motivation for the study is the observation that whereas PPPs are often depicted in the academic...... time, and how can their similarities and differences be explained?; (iii) how do differing national policy and regulation frameworks serve to facilitate or hinder the formation of PPPs, exemplified by four case studies from the schools sector?; (iv) what framework conditions does the EU set for PPP...... literature and in policy practice as a globally disseminated governance scheme, in reality, a closer examination of the PPP reform landscape reveals significant differences in national governments’ PPP policy and regulation and in the amount of actually implemented PPP projects. By comparing the initiatives...
Miranda Sarmento, J.J.
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility.
Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole
Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded by t...
Lehmann, Martin; Jeppesen, S.
Public-private partnerships in the environmental field have emerged as one option in the pursuit of sustainable development. So-called ‘Green Networks’, ‘Cleaner Production Centres’, ‘Waste Minimisation Clubs’ are among others highlighted as alternatives to governmental regulation. While being...... these initiatives in an institutional framework and suggest how the experiences can be understood in their own rights....
Reynaers, A.; de Graaf, G.
Although public-private partnerships (PPPs) are often evaluated in terms of efficiency, their impact on public values is often neglected. In order to find out what we know about the public values-PPPs relation, this article reviews public administration literature and describes two opposite
Hodge, Graeme A.; Greve, Carsten; Boardman, Anthony E.
more to seeking economic growth and political success rather than demonstrating ‘one-best-way’ to deliver efficient infrastructure. This article traces where the infrastructure PPP idea has come from and what it is now becoming. It takes a global perspective and places Australian and international...... experience in this context, particularly through the global financial crisis. It concludes that PPP can become an integrated part of infrastructure development around the world, assuming learning occurs from past experience. It presents several lessons on deepening partnerships; on the multiplicity...
Although public-private partnerships (PPPs) are frequently analyzed and lauded in terms of efficiency, their impact on public values is often neglected. As a result, there is little empirical evidence supporting or rejecting the claim that PPPs have a negative effect on public values. This case
Hodge, Graeme; Greve, Carsten
This paper reviews the research agenda lineage on public-private partnerships (PPPs) from Broadbent and Laughlin's seminal piece in 1999. The PPP phenomenon is viewed at five levels: project delivery, organisational form, policy, governance tool and as a phenomenon within a broader historical and...
Bagley, Constance; Tvarnø, Christina D.
This article provides a game theory and law-and-management analysis of for- profit pharmaceutical public-private partnerships, a complex type of legal arrangement in the highly regulated pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical public-private partnership (PPPP) agreement is a legally binding...... and a practical perspective on how properly crafted PPPP arrangements can promote innovation more efficiently than traditional self-optimizing contracts. In particular, a properly framed binding contract, coupled with respect for positive incentives, can move the parties away from an inefficient prisoners...... systems to build and share innovation. When coupled with appropriate attention to the difficult task of coordinating the actions of interdependent actors, a PPPP arrangement can enhance the likelihood of successful commercialization of pharmacological discoveries by flipping the par- ties’ incentives...
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Honduras Threshold Country Program (TCP) aims to increase the efficiency and transparency of public financial management (PFM) and public private partnerships...
Full Text Available Background: In political and other debates much of attention is paid to public – private partnerships (PPPs. These partnerships are perceived as a tool of meeting public demand by private supply. In theory there are at least four different forms of contract partnerships according to the amount of risks transferred to the private sector.Conclusions: Public – private partnerships are neither the only neither the preferred way of providing public service. On one hand they tend to lower financial burden of the public sector but on the other hand PPPs require complex ways of management and monitoring. It is highly important to consider specific circumstances of individual projects in question.
Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc
The renegotiations of public–private partnership (PPP) contracts are commonly considered to be one of the pitfalls of PPPs, as they tend to undermine their (ex ante) efficiency. A renegotiation occurs when specific events change the conditions of a concession, frequently leading to a financial claim
Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bruun, Peter
element of this project, this report presents an inventory of public-private partnerships in Denmark. More specifically, it provides an inventory of past, present and proposed research projects related to food quality and food safety involving both public and private partners. Furthermore it points...... to a number of opportunities for developing public-private partnerships.......Food safety and food quality are issues that are high on the public agenda. To ensure that consumers are able to buy and consume safe and high quality foods is not a trivial matter. It involves numerous actors in the food chain, often from several countries as many food products cross national...
Buser, Martine; Koch, Christian
these various sectors in producing present public services. The paper analyse the emergent network and the metagovernance frame. Examples of Danish PPP are given highlighting the role of the construction firms. The experiences illustrate the importance of recognizing public private partnerships as emergent......The establishment of private public partnerships in Denmark in relation to construction has been a long and reluctant process. In the spring of 2004 however the government launched an action plan and PPP arrangements are now emerging. A first wave of PPP arrangements started flourishing however...... of networking, learning and establishing of institutions. Drawing on new public management perspectives it is argued that the future model of public services is the network of a mixed set of players (private, voluntary and public). Such networks might be strong in combining forces and strength from...
Public health focuses on health of the population and it is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. Anthropology covers most aspects that concern human beings. Both sciences converge on community and this fact represents a foundation for the partnership between public health and anthropology. Biological/medical anthropology is one of the highly developed fi elds of anthropology and the most important for public health.
... statute requires that such a program be based on public- private partnership (PPP) principles and maximize... implement a PPP equipage incentives program. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ann Tedford, Office of Finance...
Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Akintoye, A.; Beck, M.; Kumaraswamy, M.
This paper documents the Portuguese experience in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). Since 1993, Portugal has been using PPPs intensively, mainly for highway construction and in the health sector. This has enabled the country to close the infrastructure gap and avoid the budget constraints at the
Full Text Available The theoretical principles concerning the financing of public private partnership' projects are deepened and practical recommendations for improving the procedure of raising funds for projects of public-private partnerships through the use project bonds are substantiated.
Public-private partnerships in local disaster management: a panacea to all local ... It may be argued that a person's sense of environmental security in relation to ... and function of public-private partnerships (PPPs) between local government ...
This article seeks to answer three central questions pertaining to public-private partnership in early childhood education and care (ECEC provision) in Norway: How has public-private partnership developed during the last four decades? How is public-private partnership understood in Norwegian ECEC policy? What seem to be the future challenges in…
Full Text Available The paper studied the impact of a public-private partnership objectives and scope that are more beneficial for the community's private profit and social welfare for the public, in order to determine the next task: defining, identifyingfeatures and principles of public-private partnerships, identifying criteria for their classification, identification of objectives and benefits they can get a public private partnership, public private partnership development analysis inthe Republic of Moldova the importance of implementing this and proposed projects, identify gaps in regulation andproposing public private partnership for achieving performance in this direction.
Governments and businesses enter public-private partnerships (PPPs) to achieve better outcomes, but successful partnerships are not easily accomplished. Because businesses’ expectations about PPP outcomes affect how and whether they participate as partners, managing PPPs effectively requires...... knowing not just what governments loose or gain, but also the value businesses receive. The article demonstrates how structural, collaborative and participant factors associated with both public and private partners affect business value in PPPs. Based on a mixed methods approach, this study tests four...... hypotheses on how PPPs influence value creation for businesses. The findings show that PPP experience, trust and PPP size have significant effects on business value. However, they only increase certain types of value, depending on the presence and performance of other factors. Moreover, the results show...
Full Text Available Extract:The current importance of public debt requires governments to increasingly shift towards Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs. They are long-term contracts of private financing method providing or contributing to public service. The payment is made by the public partner and/or users of the service.The World Health Organization (WHO defines this type of partnership as ‘‘a means to bring together a set of actors for the common goal of improving the health of populations based on mutually agreed roles and principles.’’Historically, the principle of PPP was established by the Private Finance Initiative (PFI, launched by the conservative government of John Major in 1992. It was from this moment that this model quickly spread to the rest of the world. In the mid-90s and from Australia, PPP agreement began to become part of the language of governments. In 1997, Labour with Tony Blair leading, strongly developed this management method, first and particularly in hospitals and then, in the entire public sector and spreading to the Royal Navy. Today, 10-15% of British public investments are made using PFI method....
Heldeweg, Michiel A.; Sanders, Maurits
The discourse on Public Private Partnerships (PPP) is focused most on Procurement or on what we name ‘Market-PPP’. Placing PPP in the shift from government to governance calls for attention especially to those PPP, which are geared to exercise public legal powers. These ‘Authoritative PPP’ are most
Noluthando S Matsiliza
Full Text Available This article notes significant collaborations and partnerships adopted as training strategies applied for improving national skill development. The discourse followed here critically different roles and functions of structures such as public agencies, academic institutions, private sector and non-governmental training providers regulated by law. Scholars in various fields noted benefits and challenges of collaborative management and partnerships in training and skills development that enhance effective resources management, facilitation and participation of stakeholders in various organisations. Using a qualitative approach, this theoretical article argues that academics played a significant role in collaborating with policy-makers to up-skill the civil force. Even though, there are numerous actors at multi-level governance with diverse training needs and interests, there are still gabs in the model adopted by government to provide training of public officials in South Africa. Therefore it is recommended that the Government through the National School of Government should monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of these collaborations and partnerships to provide continuous improvement
E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ There is no doubt that Public private partnerships have been a dominant issue in governmental rhetoric’s but also in governmental practice. In many countries governments have turned to the idea of public private partnerships, or partnerships in general, as a vehicle
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Private-public partnership. 92.200 Section 92.200 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Requirements § 92.200 Private-public partnership...
Full Text Available In this paper is addressed the new media status, which is created in the digital age. Media in the digital age tends to be a business and policy partners, whether for traditional reasons, or because with new digital technology is not known where media is divided from the technology, so where is divided journalism as a profession from the business journalism. Media has become an equal partner with business and politics, but has lost its partnership with the public. Where is leading the journalism this partnership? Theoretical approach in this paper is within the critical cultural school and in which are intended to be detected trends, messages and ideologies of new digital media.
, poses legal challenges for the procurement of PPP contracts. The overall research objective of my doctoral thesis is to analyse, clarify and discuss potential legal challenges resulting from European Union public procurement law - provided in Directive 2004/18/EC – which a public authority is obliged......My PhD research focuses on the relationship between the formation and operation of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and public procurement law as a legal framework for the award of the PPP contract. The complex nature of PPP projects including long term high value contracts, long award process...... to apply when awarding a Public-Private Partnership contract, as well as to analyse if a deregulation of PPP’s award framework could potentially resolve these potential legal challenges. The latter consideration of deregulation of PPP award framework is based on comparison of highly regulated European...
This paper focuses on how international public-private partnership (PPP) policies are formulated and implemented by international organizations. PPPs for infrastructure projects are relevant and present in many countries around the world. The literature is full of studies of individual countries......, International Monetary Fund, OECD, UN, and the World Bank. The methodology is to examine the most recent policy papers (documents and reports) and compare their content and tools. The paper shows that international organizations cooperate on certain issues in policy Development and tools for PPPs. But each...
Hodge, Graeme; Greve, Carsten
. "The Challenge of Public - Private Partnerships" advances recent thought on PPPs in the areas of risk transfer, financial implications, contractual matters, politics, management and accountability. International case studies are presented from the United Kingdom, Europe, the US and Australasia...... these joint ventures to account and to provide lessons for the future. The aim of the book is to investigate how PPP reforms function in comparison to the more traditional methods of providing public sector services and infrastructure and who typically experiences the successes and failures of these reforms......, and the authors delineate the experience of PPPs in areas such as infrastructure and human services. A strong thread of accountability is woven throughout the book, synthesizing common issues, separating the rhetoric from the performance reality and providing strategies for better meeting the various...
Greve, Carsten; Hodge, Graeme
This paper is situated at the nexus of two literatures: theoretical ideas from political science on the relationship between politics and markets, and the more recent public policy phenomenon of public-private partnerships (PPPs). It aims firstly to map some of the primary theoretical underpinnings...... describing the enduring relationship between governments and businesses. It then focuses on the adoption of PPPs as a popular infrastructure policy, and asks to what extent a particular political-market logic for the adoption of PPP policies appears to exist in leading jurisdictions such as the UK, Australia...... and Canada. It suggests that the empirical evidence on the undue influence of business over political decision making is not one sided and that the arena is still hotly contested. It also suggests that the policy logic of PPPs may be dependent on the relative maturity of governance systems, the relative...
private sector in public service delivery and popularization of the concept of partnerships ... hierarchies, customer orientation, abolition of career civil service ... performance by public sector organizations, what the former US. Vice President Al ...
Full Text Available Todays, due to high construction costs and lack of economic potential of owners of old textures, public and private partnership is one of the restoration methods of these textures. Public-private partnership in the investment and implementation of worn and old textures’ restoration with guidance, support and supervision of governmental and public pillars is considered as a master key in restoration of old textures. This study aims at examining the effect of public and private partnership on restoration of old textures as well as providing strategies for strengthening and expanding this type of partnership. This article, based on descriptive-analytical approach, initially analyzes the existing problems and empowers the sections related to the rehabilitation and modernization of the textures. Then, through public and private partnership dealing with features such as shortening project times, reducing the project's financial problems, having financial–technical power, adopting equal rights for partners, and using flexible planning. Further, according to the findings of this study, in the case of legal infrastructures for public-private partnership, compliance of urbanism criteria with major goals of urban textures’ modernization, adequacy of facilities and incentive packages, the cooperation of owners, an increase in the supervision of the relevant institutions on partnership and the use of local experts and investors, the success of this partnership and restoration may be stably guaranteed.
Taylor, Thomas C.; Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob
Space transportation has evolved to entrepreneurs offering affordable transportation services to LEO. Society expects space tourism to produce low costs quickly, but entrepreneurs need the larger commercial transportation markets to raise the private money to build the orbital vehicles. Early heavy cargo is the logistics model of remote bases on Earth and is likely to be similar for off planet remote bases. Public Private Partnerships (PPP), (Norment, 2006) and other alliances with governments offer new transportation markets and combines private funding with government markets to accelerate the movement of mankind into space, (Kistler, 2004a). Entrepreneurs bring change like a multitude of innovation, changes to the traditional aerospace industry status quo, commercial market forces and the lowering of the cost of transportation to orbit. Within PPPs, government stretches space budgets, increases vehicle innovation without cost and gains cost advantages of larger markets. Examples of PPPs show some opportunity for change in space commerce is possible, (Stainback, 2000 and Spekman, 2000). Some of the items entrepreneurs bring include innovation in hardware, a maturing of the normal market forces such as the pressures from buyers and sellers rather than those from government planners or from regulation. Launch costs are high, society wants orbital hotels and current/future markets are not emerging because of high transportation costs. The paper proposes a new approach with examples, because mankind has taken a long time to transition from expendable launch vehicles to newer more affordable launch innovation and may require the introduction of new innovative approaches.
Full Text Available The development of infrastructure in developing country such as Malaysia was increasingly founded by the Public–Private Partnership (PPP scheme. Collaboration with private sector has become popular as a means to improve the delivery of public facilities. Yet, empirical evidence on how PPP initiative has benefits the delivery of public facilities within Malaysia context is lagging. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the perception of stakeholders on the benefits of adopting PPP in delivering public facilities in Malaysia. Literature review was carried out to identify PPP benefits, which were then incorporated into the questionnaire. The mean score and mean score ranking was conducted to assess the agreement level of stakeholders towards the PPP benefits. The overall findings show that the implementation of PPP has benefitted the delivery of public facilities in both financial and non-financial aspects. From the analysis, improvement in service quality is perceived as the top advantage followed by innovation in design and transfer of risk. The findings provide more informed basis on the rationale of PPP implementation and its potential in improving the delivery of public facilities within Malaysia context.
Full Text Available This study investigates the public-private partnership as a possible solution for regional development of renewable energy. Firstly, the study reveals the strong connection between renewable energy and sustainable regional development, and secondly, the study discloses some reasons for developing renewable energy through public-private partnerships in Romania’s regions. The findings of this study reveal that there is a strong need for a renewable energy partnership between public authorities, business community and civil society in order to achieve the regional development of renewable energy. The results of this study may be used for upcoming research in the area of implementing renewable energy projects through public-private partnerships in order to achieve sustainable regional development.
This paper presents a summary of the benefits of a communications infrastructure public-private partnership between the Minnesota Department of Transportation and the team of International Communications Systems (ICS) and Stone & Webster.
D. P. Moskvin
Full Text Available The article discusses the current state of sports infrastructure in Russia and also explores the experience of using public-private partnership at Olympic facilities construction in Sochi.
Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Johnson, Bjørn
-private partnerships. The role of universities if and when actively participating in ‘life outside the ivory tower’ is addressed. These partnerships are also discussed in a regional context. With point of departure in innovation theory, we combine ‘sustainable development’ with the Regional System of Innovation...... approach to propose a new concept – Sustainable Regional Innovation System – in which regional initiatives such as Public-Private(-Academic) Partnerships play an integrated role, not least in the context of ‘learning and innovation for sustainable development’. Two cases are presented to underline...... be playing in public-private partnerships for sustainable development, and the links and benefits this may provide towards universities fulfilling their first (science) and second (education) missions. In this paper, the first part is dedicated to the discussion and clarification of the concept of public...
Chowdhury, Shyamal K.
This paper evaluates two alternative mechanisms, Public-Private Partnership in Peru and Business-NGO Partnership in Bangladesh, that provide rural people with access to telecommunications. The two mechanisms that are examined here are considered as two best practices in the provision of rural telecommunications in the context of developing countries. Under two geographically distinct market segments, rural market characterized by low per-subscriber revenue and urban market characterized by hi...
Full Text Available PPP offers numerous benefits to both public and private partners in delivery of infrastructure projects. However this partnership also involves great risks which have to be adequately managed and mitigated. Private partners are especially sensitive to revenue risk, since they are mostly interested in the financial viability of the project. Thus they often expect public partners to provide some kind of risk-sharing mechanism in the form of Minimum Revenue Guarantees or abandonment options. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether the real option of abandoning the project increases its value. Therefore the binominal option pricing model and risk-neutral probability approach have been implemented to price the European and American abandonment options for the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT toll road investment. The obtained results suggest that the project value with the American abandonment option is greater than with the European abandonment option, hence implying that American options offer greater flexibility and are more valuable for private partners. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179066 and III 42006
Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to determine the situation of the public-private partnership model in agriculture sector, which has been started to apply in Turkey since 1980’s and in which an extensive increase has been observed in the number of projects in some fields such as airport, hospital, electric, etc. in recent years. In this scope, the legislation and the practices related to public-private partnership in Turkish agricultural sector have been examined after referring the literature, development process, features, advantages/disadvantages and various models of public-private partnership model, and the situation in the World and Europe respectively. The findings collected indicate that the public-private partnership model has been applied especially in major-substructure projects such as construction of electric, airport, road and healthcare facilities in Turkey since 1990, and that the budget allocated into the projects of agricultural sector has been quite low in comparison with other fields, although the number of projects executed in agriculture sector has been quite much. However, it is predicted that the practices of public-private partnership in agriculture sector in Turkey will increase much more in line with the legislative arrangements implemented and increasing experience in the projects.
Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc
This paper presents the main reasons why public-private partnerships (PPPs) are adopted as well as the possible disadvantages for the public and private sectors. By means of two case studies on bridge construction and railway infrastructure (Fertagus and Lusoponte), we elucidate how a PPP is
Marino L. Eyerkaufer
Full Text Available Private and public partnerships are defended by both guidelines for action and legal frameworks for disaster risk management. The objective of this study is to identify a framework for action that allows joint collaborative partnership between these sectors. The theoretical discussion brings concepts that raise questions that permeate the possibility of partnership based on the new Sendai framework, as well as corporate social responsibility in the value, balance and accountability (VBA integrative model. The presented framework is compared to the experience of the tornado which occurred in Brazil in the city of Xanxerê (Santa Catarina in 2015. We came to the conclusion that partnership advance results from paradigm shifts in both sectors, on the one hand, with the development of management mechanisms that clearly define roles and responsibilities of those involved, and, on the other hand, motivation for responsible business conduct.
Figueroa, Maria Josefina; Greve, Carsten
The provision of transport infrastructure and services creates fundamental value to society. With traditional sources of transport public funding running short, governments around the world are increasingly turning to public-private finance (PPPs) as a promising tool of public infrastructure...... of the public but of the private actor as well, to act perhaps motivated by corporate social responsibility, committing to bringing innovation and transparency in their efforts for advancing sustainability....
Robert J, Engeszer
Full Text Available A partnership to improve access to health information via an urban public library system was established in St. Louis, Missouri, in 2011. A multiyear project was outlined that included an information needs assessment, a training class for public library staff, information kiosks at library branches for delivering printed consumer health materials, and a series of health-related programming. The partnership evolved to include social service and community organizations to carry out project goals and establish a sustainable program that met the health and wellness interests of the community.
Schoen, Martin W; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Prewitt, Kim; Carothers, Bobbi J
In order to prevent chronic diseases, community-based programs are encouraged to take an ecological approach to public health promotion and involve many diverse partners. Little is known about measuring partnership in implementing public health strategies. We collected data from 23 Missouri communities in early 2012 that received funding from three separate programs to prevent obesity and/or reduce tobacco use. While all of these funding programs encourage partnership, only the Social Innovation for Missouri (SIM) program included a focus on building community capacity and enhancing collaboration. Social network analysis techniques were used to understand contact and collaboration networks in community organizations. Measurements of average degree, density, degree centralization, and betweenness centralization were calculated for each network. Because of the various sizes of the networks, we conducted comparative analyses with and without adjustment for network size. SIM programs had increased measurements of average degree for partner collaboration and larger networks. When controlling for network size, SIM groups had higher measures of network density and lower measures of degree centralization and betweenness centralization. SIM collaboration networks were more dense and less centralized, indicating increased partnership. The methods described in this paper can be used to compare partnership in community networks of various sizes. Further research is necessary to define causal mechanisms of partnership development and their relationship to public health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This report presents a methodological framework to evaluate public sector financial risk exposure when : delivering transportation infrastructure through public-private partnership (PPP) agreements in the United : States (U.S.). The framework is base...
Norma Suely Siqueira Eiras
Full Text Available The process of the neoliberalism reveals, at its more intense moment, the submission of all the levels of the life human being the mercantile transactions, the capitalist inclination to the world-wide trading. In this manner, the neoliberal proposals objectify, over all, the creation of an only feeling to guarantee the success of its ideals of globalization, free-economy and State minimum, not inhibit the social politics, but partnership of the market. Amongst the artifices used for the neoliberal proposers, placed the Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs with which this article concerns. From the conceptualization and characterization of the instrument Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs, national and European projects, developed through the PPPs, had been analyzed. The subjects of these projects involve Technology of Computer science and Communication and eLearning (education + technology + in the distance. Reflections had evidenced that the partnerships between governments and multinationals companies can lead to a loss of control on the part of the State on the educational formation of the citizens and the loss of identity of its resumes. The explanation for this phenomenon happens of the trend to the globalization. On the other hand, these partnerships bring profits politicians to the governments and economic to the companies.
US Agency for International Development — This dataset brings together information collected since 2001 on PPPs that have been supported by USAID. For the purposes of this dataset a Public-Private...
...; transactional volume information; and information on special or capital distributions by a partnership. The... Tokyo Stock Exchange); (4) A regional or local exchange; and (5) An interdealer quotation system that... opportunity to sell or exchange the interest through a public means of obtaining or providing information of...
van der Laan, G.; Ruys, P.H.M.; Talman, A.J.J.
This paper deals with the optimal provision of infrastructure by means of public-private partnership contracts.In the economic literature infrastructure is characterized as a large, indivisible and non-rival capital good that produces services for its users.Users can be both consumers and producers.
This research examines the possibility of operating a smooth Public Private Partnership (PPP) project for the entire concession period following financial closure, without recourse to litigation or arbitration for settlement of disputes by studying the causes and effects of disputes in construction projects procured in Nigeria ...
This study ex amine d the relationship between public -private partnership in the provision of Information Communication Technology (ICT) resources and academic library services in the South - East geo -political zone Nigeria. Seventeen (17) academic institutions (made up of nine universities and eight polytechnics) were ...
This paper examines foreign policy and public-private partnership for economic development in Nigeria. It proceeds from the assumption that foreign policy goes beyond spontaneous reaction to international issues and events, but an extrapolative and empirical attempt at achieving a state's short and long term goals ...
Carpintero, Samuel; Petersen, Ole Helby
This paper analyses the experience of the regional government of Aragon (Spain) that has extensively used public-private partnerships for the construction and operation of waste water treatment plants. The paper argues that although overall the implementation of this PPP program might be considered...
Jeppesen, Søren; Lehmann, Martin
Public-private partnerships in the environmental field have emerged as one option in the pursuit of sustainable development in different contexts. So-called ?Green Networks?, ?Cleaner Production Centres?, ?Waste Minimisation Clubs? are among others highlighted as alternatives to (governmental...
Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.
Abstract: This paper documents the Portuguese experience in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). Since 1993, Portugal has been using PPPs intensively, mainly for highway construction and in the health sector. This has enabled the country to close the infrastructure gap and avoid the budget
Oduwaiye, R. O.; Sofoluwe, A. O.; Bello, T. O.; Durosaro, I. A.
This study investigated the degree to which Public-Private Partnership (PPP) services are related to infrastructural development in Nigerian Universities. The research design used was descriptive survey method. The population for the study encompassed all the 20 universities in South-west Nigeria. Stratified random sampling was used to select 12…
Sørensen, Michael Tophøj; Aunsborg, Christian
The paper focuses formal as well as informal public-private partnerships (PPP) in Danish urban regeneration areas. The concept ‘urban regeneration areas’ was introduced in the 2003 Planning Act as old, remaining industrial areas within the city boundaries by now were recognized as an ressource...... into housing while neighbouring noisy industries go on. Beyond this, from a municipal point of view there are several public interests to manage when old, remaining industrial areas face re-development. The motive of the municipal council can either be regulative (safeguarding certain financial or other public....../neighbour interests, e.g. exceeding what is directly permitted by written law) or supporting (encourage developers to re-develop an area, e.g. by subsidies). The purpose of the paper is to describe the range of possible partnerships between public and private partners, and to investigate their legal background...
Full Text Available Under the legislation currently in force in the Republic of Moldova, public administration shall not bear the exclusive “burden” of organizing and managing public services on its own. Such a responsibility could be delegated to subjects outside the system of public administration. Scholars in the field call it an “indirect or delegated management” of public services. Public-private partnership is a new manner of delegating public services management. International experience has proven that such a partnership can be beneficial for public administration, contributing to improvements in public services quality. The reason is obvious: the private sector is competitive and client/user-oriented. However, the public-private partnership, which are not sufficiently operated in the legislation in force, also involves serious risks for the public partners.
Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole
and to what extent these small projects are sound businesses and represent operable units for the clients and citizens. Cases are developed within education and healthcare. The analysis suggests that another type of economy apparently is in play. It is thus characteristic within education projects in UK...... profound and longitudinal examples to rule out this thesis of “cradle- conditions”. In the paper these results is discussed vis a vis the development of the European public sector. It is potentially very important for local small units in the public services if small PPP are feasible. It is thus promising...
The issue of public/private partnership as it relates to the Sudbury District Energy Project was discussed. When completed, it will be the first cogeneration-based district heating and cooling project involving private sector/public sector partnership in Canada. The equal partners include Toromont Energy and Sudbury Hydro. Sudbury Hydro is a community owned energy and communications utility. It was the first electric utility in Ontario to retail natural gas in the new competitive market place. The Sudbury District Energy Project began in 1996, when the utility began the development of a community district energy system in partnership with the City of Sudbury. At the time, the downtown district heating/cooling system supplied cold and hot water to Sudbury's Wellness Centre. In 1998, Toromont Energy accepted a 50/50 partnership arrangement between themselves and the public sector partners to form the Sudbury District Energy Corporation. Sudbury Hydro will benefit from the project because it will reduce their peak loads and it will also be an alternate source of revenue. It is expected that the project will displace 39,600 tons of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming
David Carlton Taylor-Robinson
Full Text Available Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes.70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities.The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions.
Partnerships between the public and private sectors are an increasingly accepted method to deal with pressing global issues, such as those relating to health. Partnerships, comprised of states and international organizations (public sector) and companies, non-governmental organizations, research
Elena Nikolaevna Sidorova
Full Text Available The authors proceed from the thesis that the interaction between business and government is essential for the development of each state. This paper investigates the institutional framework of public-private partnership (PPP in the Russian Federation. Based on the assessment of regulations functioning in Russia, it is concluded that, despite a number of legislative acts designed to regulate the scope of partnerships between the public and the private sector, due to the limited range of the issues and the lack of essential problems range studied, the question of legislative support to the PPP is not resolved. The role of public institutions in the development of interaction between government and business is shown. Based on the analysis of a large factual material, the institutions of PPP development are evaluated: the Investment Fund of the Russian Federation, state corporations, venture innovation funds and special economic zones. This paper states that for each country and region it is essential to identify the priority sectors of public-private partnership.
V. R. Bodelan
Full Text Available The article summarizes the main approaches to the formation and the development of public-state partnership in foreign countries and in Ukraine. The category «Public-state Partnership» has no clear definition in science, and in public administration it is used in many senses. The lack of theoretical justification, no systematic approach to the separation of theoretical and methodological foundations of the public-state partnerships, the forms of its practical implementation does not allow our country to be competitive internationally. In particular, this applies to such an aspects such as social maturity of business and entrepreneurship. Such companies create NGOs that in many countries provide 3 to 9% of GDP, attract domestic and foreign investments, benefit society and are a form of targeting state impact on the condition and development of social processes and relationships. Ukraine has not yet established the culture of social entrepreneurship, both government authorities and NGOs are not aware how promising such activity authorized by the legislation of Ukraine is. The reserve and the capacity of NGOs when considering formation of a special investment climate, development of production, replenishment of the budgets at all levels, creating conditions for entrepreneurship etc. are not applied. Main role is assigned for the NGOs that make a significant contribution to socio-economic development of the country and become its reliable investment partner.
Elena S. Averkieva
Full Text Available The interaction system of national public and private sectors institutions is becoming increasingly important in the conditions that characterize the current stage of economic development (such as globalization and post-industrialization trends, geopolitical threats, transformation of production and financial processes. Instability and the dependence of national economies from external environment factors, exposure to systemic crises increase the vulnerability of national business and require the state institutions’ activation in order to support and promote national business initiatives. In these circumstances, one of the most adequate to modern realities forms of entrepreneurial activity stimulation is the public-private partnership model, which proved to be highly effective, both in foreign countries and in Russia. The author reveals potential of public-private partnership as an institution to stimulate entrepreneurial activity by analyzing features of its organizational and management mechanism in the Russian Federation. The practical aspects of the introduction of the public-private partnership model are studied on the example of the Rostov region. The author shows that the implemented programs to encourage entrepreneurship through PPP projects have a positive effect, but at the same time remain a number of problems in the development of the business sector in Russia. The improving ways of the interaction mechanism between government and business at the regional level are identified based on the assessing results of the PPP level in Russia as a whole and in separate regions, implemented by the Association "Center for PPP development".
A public-private partnership contract has the character of a relational contract. Relational contracts are incomplete agreements governing transactions where the contracting parties have mutually agreed that it is impossible or economically inefficient to contractually define ex ante possible difficulties and contingencies in the contract implementation, nor the difficulties and contingencies underlying the ex post control of contract performance by a third entity (court or arbitration). Cons...
Daniela Angelina JELINČIĆ
Full Text Available Over the past few decades public-private partnership or PPP has become a new way for delivering and fi nancing public sector projects. It may involve investment in fully economic infrastructure such as highways, railways, airports, seaports, etc. up to the investments in social infrastructure projects, such as schools, hospitals, museums and other signifi cant and historic buildings of public interest. The main objective of this article is to analyze the situation in Croatia, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia concerning the topic of public- private partnership (PPP in order to provide grounds for possible future investments in cultural heritage in these countries. For this purpose, a comparative analysis of legal and institutional frameworks was carried out as well as structured interviews with key stakeholders (public and private sector representatives. Special attention has been paid to the use of PPP projects in the revitalization of cultural heritage. The results of the analysis showed the lack of PPP investments in the cultural sector, and also identifi ed possible obstacles in public sector administrative procedures. The results of the analysis may be further used to stimulate both public authorities to set strategic directions for heritage revitalization plans based on PPP schemes as well as private investors who may seek feasible business models complemented with social responsibility benefits.
CORINA ALEXANDRA VITELAR
The term "public-private partnership" carries a specific meaning. First, it relates to the provision of public services or public infrastructure. Second, it necessitates the transfer of risk between partners. Arrangements that do not include these two concepts are not technically "public-private partnerships". The definition embraced by The Canadian Council for Public-Private Partnerships, for example is as follows: “A cooperative venture between the public and private sectors, built on the e...
Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about ethical problems that taint public-private partnership. Everybody talks about the economical benefits of encouraging firms to invest in the community using different incentives offered by the public institutions. In the same time, every day, newspapers bring to our attention cases of misuse of public resources for private gain or cases of private investors who give bribes in order to get a contract with a public institution. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize our understanding of the entrepreneurial movement and analyze its implications for potential problems of corruption that can arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.a
Public-private partnerships represent a new form of network governance, potentially offering flexibility, economic efficiencies and non-governmental participation in policy development. Such partnerships can be viewed in terms of sustainable development, achieving two of its three tenets - economic
Krell, Rayda K; Fisher, Marc L; Steffey, Kevin L
Public funding for Extension in the United States has been decreasing for many years, but farmers' need for robust information on which to make management decisions has not diminished. The current Extension funding challenges provide motivation to explore a different model for developing and delivering extension. The private sector has partnered with the public sector to fund and conduct agricultural research, but partnering on extension delivery has occurred far less frequently. The fundamental academic strength and established Extension network of the public sector combined with the ability of the private sector to encourage and deliver practical, implementable solutions has the potential to provide measurable benefits to farmers. This paper describes the current Extension climate, presents data from a survey about Extension and industry relationships, presents case studies of successful public- and private-sector extension partnerships, and proposes a framework for evaluating the state of effective partnerships. Synergistic public-private extension efforts could ensure that farmers receive the most current and balanced information available to help with their management decisions.
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership. 90.1408 Section 90.1408 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Partnership § 90.1408 Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership. (a) The Upper 700...
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership. 27.1308 Section 27.1308 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Partnership § 27.1308 Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership. (a) The Upper 700...
V. V. Gasilov
Full Text Available This article studies the main potential models of public-private partnership; it gives evaluation of risks for these models, considering their distribution between members of partnership. It offers the mechanism of making an optimal choice of a public-private partnership model for projects of transport system development.
Full Text Available This paper discusses recent changes in the way public services are delivered A marked increase in the cooperation between the public and private sector in the realization of complex projects, mostly concerning development of infrastructure, is the main characteristic of present-day developing economies. The creation of new, innovative agreements is driven by the limitation of public funds and an ever-growing demand for an increase in the quality of public services. Looking upon the western economies experience alternatives to the traditional public sector procurement are identified in the public/private partnership. The public/private partnership can be seen as one component in the rearrangement of the public sector with a management culture that focuses on the citizen or customer. Also included in this are accountability for results, investigation of a wide variety of alternative service delivery mechanisms, and competition between public and private bodies for contracts to deliver services consistent with cost recovery and the achievement of value for money. The partnership can be realized through an array of models and in this paper priority is given to the DBFO (design-build-finance-operate model, due to its importance in implementation. The DBFO model is considered to be a synonym for the public/private partnership, as it is the most suitable for complex projects and gains the most benefits.
Bergmans, Anne [Univ. of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Social and Political Sciences
Collective decision making in a democratic environment essentially is a process of negotiation. This assumption, as well as the failure of the formerly used topdown approach, led to a drastic change in the decision making process for siting a low level nuclear waste repository in Belgium. In two prospective communities, a local partnership was established between NIRAS-ONDRAF, the government organisation responsible for the Belgian nuclear waste, and representatives of the local communities. These partnerships are intended to bring the decision making process closer to the public concerned and to lower the threshold for active participation. The final outcome of this decision making exercise is therefore a mutual project, carried by both experts and local stakeholders, instead of an expert project imposed on an unwilling community.
Collective decision making in a democratic environment essentially is a process of negotiation. This assumption, as well as the failure of the formerly used topdown approach, led to a drastic change in the decision making process for siting a low level nuclear waste repository in Belgium. In two prospective communities, a local partnership was established between NIRAS-ONDRAF, the government organisation responsible for the Belgian nuclear waste, and representatives of the local communities. These partnerships are intended to bring the decision making process closer to the public concerned and to lower the threshold for active participation. The final outcome of this decision making exercise is therefore a mutual project, carried by both experts and local stakeholders, instead of an expert project imposed on an unwilling community
Amadeo, Vincent; Iannone, Stephen
This article will identify the challenges that post 9/11 law enforcement faces regarding privatepublic partnerships and describe in detail the NYPD Shield programme, created to combat those challenges. Recommendations made by the 911 Commission included the incorporation of the private sector into future homeland security strategies. One such strategy is NYPD Shield. This programme is a nationally recognized award-winning public-private partnership dedicated to providing counterterrorism training and information sharing with government agencies, non-government organizations, private businesses, and the community. Information is shared through several platforms that include a dedicated website, instruction of counterterrorism training curricula, e-mail alerts, intelligence assessments and the hosting of quarterly conferences. This article also details how the NYPD Shield is providing its successful template to other law enforcement agencies enabling them to initiate similar programmes in their respective jurisdictions, and in doing so joining a National Shield Network.
Workplace demands for high skills, adaptability, and continuous learning require public-private partnerships to develop effective training systems. Partnerships should serve the interests of all stakeholders, establish skills and certification standards, and create infrastructures for access. (SK)
Poole, Kimberly S.
This dissertation study documents in-depth the exploration of the Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) between the Dayton Regional STEM School (DRSS) and their industry partners as well as the establishment of a framework for evaluating and assessing PPPs. The public-private partnership agreements were studied in order to answer the over-arching research question: How is an effective public-private partnership established, assessed, and evaluated in education? A descriptive case study methodology was used to study DRSS' public-private partnership agreements to determine if goals and objectives were established and whether or not the partnerships met those goals and objectives. This case study also included the development and testing of a proposed evaluation framework that will allow for consistent, systematic inquiry that can produce defensible assertions regarding the assessment and evaluation of public-private partnerships in education. Results of the case study support the findings that utilization of an evaluation framework can serve to make public-private partnerships more successful. Results also indicated that establishment of goals and objectives enable effective evaluation for informal partnerships but could not be definitively stated for formal partnerships due to the lack of data points. The data from this case study revealed many emergent themes that should be considered in the development of future public-private partnerships. Overall this study contributes to the growing body of knowledge for public-private partnerships in education.
In our Research to Practice series, we profile academic research for an audience of practitioners, with an emphasis on extracting actionable takeaways that they can use in their everyday cross-sector work. As part of this series, we invite academics to write about their own research, asking them...... to highlight the key pieces of their work that might resonate in a real world context. This month, Lena Brogaard discusses her article “Drivers and Barriers in Public-Private Innovation Partnerships (PPI) in Healthcare and Eldercare in Denmark.”...
Full Text Available Improving sustainability performance in developing infrastructure projects is an important strategy for pursuing the mission of sustainable development. In recent years, the business model of public-private-partnership (PPP is promoted as an effective approach in developing infrastructure projects. It is considered that the distribution of the contribution on project investment between private and public sectors is one of the key variables affecting sustainability performance of PPP-type projects. This paper examines the impacts of the contribution distribution between public and private sectors on project sustainability performance. A model named the sustainability performance-based evaluation model (SPbEM is developed for assisting the assessment of the level of sustainability performance of PPP projects. The study examines the possibility of achieving better sustainability through proper arrangement of the investment distribution between the two primary sectors in developing PPP-type infrastructure projects.
Portilla, Lili M; Rohrbaugh, Mark L
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), academic medical centers and industry have a long and productive history in collaborating together. Decreasing R&D budgets in both the private and public sector have made the need for such collaborations paramount to reduce the risk of further declines in the number of innovative drugs reaching the market to address pressing public health needs. Doing more with less has forced both industry and public sector research institutions (PSRIs) to leverage resources and expertise in order to de-risk projects. In addition, it provides an opportunity to envision and implement new approaches to accomplish these goals. We discuss several of these innovative collaborations and partnerships at the NIH that demonstrate how the NIH and industry are working together to strengthen the drug development pipeline.
being the interventionist and marketization approach within the co-responsibility dimension and the structural and managerial approach in the relational governance dimension. Third, the reviewed vari-ety of classifications illustrates the infinitive number of criteria that can be used to order......While the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) is doubtless the most visible Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in the public debate it is by no means the only one. A number of scholars have outlined the ambiguity of the PPP concept beyond PFIs and pointed to the multiplicity of differing types...... and understandings. Thus, when examining up close, the PPP concept seems to cover a jungle of arrangements and settings. However, induc-tive explorations across disciplinary and professional borders are still scarce. This ar-ticle addresses this lack and reviews more than 100 publications for their PPP concepts...
Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai
This article presents the advantages and risks of the public-private partnership in realizing the public investments in Romania. Public-private partnerships refer to the forms of cooperation between public authorities and private entities and target the regulation of the design, financing, construction, operation, rehabilitation, development, rental and transfer of any public work, asset or public service. It is a formula agreed by the public authorities by which the solving of public problem...
Curtis, Valerie A; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth
Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships.
Full Text Available Public/Private Partnerships can be seen as one particular topos where the divide between the public domain, all levels of the Public Administration and the private initiative and private property is turned into a joint venture rather than a confrontation or a cleavage. Some of the possible combinations of public and private and where public/private partnerships might fit are displayed analytically. The importance of political theory or ideology in conceiving the relationships between ‘public’ and ‘private’, and the conceptions of a market economy as opposed to a social market economy cannot be exaggerated enough, but equally important are the legal or regulatory framework and the underlying dominant legal culture and legal principles, and of course the economic and financial situation. Public/private partnerships thrive in some conditions, but seem to wane in others, and the current predicament is not favourable, taking into account that only the regulatory framework is supportive of these ventures. Los partenariados público-privados se pueden entender como un espacio particular, en el que el sector público, todos los niveles de la administración pública, y la iniciativa privada y la propiedad privada, abordan una empresa conjunta, en lugar mantener posturas contrapuestas. Se muestran algunas de las posibles combinaciones del sector público y privado, en las que tendrían cabida los partenariados público/privados. Es patente la importancia de la teoría o la ideología política para entender las relaciones entre lo público y lo privado, y las concepciones de una economía de mercado frente a una economía social, pero tampoco se puede negar la importancia del marco legal o reglamentario y la cultura jurídica dominante subyacente, y los principios jurídicos, sin olvidar la situación económica y financiera. Los partenariados público-privados prosperan en algunas condiciones, pero no lo hacen siempre, y la situación econ
Richard J. W. Harker
Full Text Available Museums Connect is a program funded by the US Department of State and administered by the American Alliance of Museums that sponsors transnational museum partnerships. This program provides one model for teaching public history in a transnational context, and this article analyzes the experiences of two university-museums—the Museum of History and Holocaust Education (MHHE in the United States and the Ben M’sik Community Museum (BMCM in Morocco—during two grants between 2009 and 2012. In exploring the impact of the program on the staff, faculty, and students involved and by analyzing the experiences and reflections of participants, I argue that this program can generate positive pedagogical experiences. However, in addition to the successes of the MHHE and BMCM during their two grants, the participants encountered significant power differentials that manifested themselves in both the processes and products of the grants. It is the conclusion of this article that both partners in a public history project need to address and confront potential power issues at the outset in order to achieve a more balanced, collaborative partnership.
Thompson, David C.
In this article, the Kansas State University Chair of the Department of Educational Leadership reviews the strong history of his department's university and public school partnerships and the impact these partnerships have had on leadership preparation programs. Almost 30 years ago, Kansas State University foresaw the power of partnerships with…
Andrioti, Despena; Charalambous, George; Skitsou, Alexandra
Background: Targeted training programmes are more efficient towards skills development. Literature on assessing training needs in order to formulate programmes through international partnerships is very limited. This study intended to identify perceived training needs in public health with an aim...... at providing the respective training in cooperation with the World Health Organization, European Office. Method and Material: We distributed a questionnaire to Greek professionals such as doctors, nurses, administrative personnel and social scientists, employed in the public sector all over the country. We...... analysed 197 structured self-administered questionnaires using one way ANOVA to identify associations between individual characteristics of health professionals and perceived training needs. Results: The majority of participants were women (n=143, 73%) and men (n=53, 27%). In terms of motivation...
Lukamba Muhiya Tshombe
Full Text Available This article examines the significance of Public Private Partnership (PPP in emerging economies. The major focus of the paper is the African continent. The article briefly discusses the origin and implementation PPPs in different continents across the globe. A qualitative research paradigm is adopted to analyse public private partnerships in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Qualitative research is exploratory and is frequently used to investigate a subject area in which there is limited information. This method of investigation sheds light on the different PPP projects. A case study strategy adopted in this study was used create understanding of the different process emanating from the implementation of PPPs in Africa continent. A comprehensive understanding of PPP implementation in SSA is essential. PPPs should be considered in sectors where there is a need to improve infrastructure and service delivery. Every government should have legislation in place as well as a regulatory framework on PPPs to facilitate local and foreign investors to implement new projects. The absence of a legal and regulatory framework on PPPs hinders close collaboration between the public and private sector in certain countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Anecdotal evidence from interviews with public officials indicates the need for government to focus on a specific project where it (government perceives a need for a private company to participate. This article argues that the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT project is an excellent model for governments in SSA where there is a deficit infrastructure, required to provide improved service delivery. Most BOT projects require sizeable financial investment. Most governments prefer to use BOT to construct specific infrastructure such as new electricity power plants, toll roads, prisons, dams and water plants. Experience has revealed that BOT agreements tend to reduce market and credit risk for the private sector because in most instances
Voronina, M. D.
The article considers individual questions connected with the application of the legislation on public private partnership and municipal private partnership agreements as new types of contracts at the newly built property development. Public private partnership and municipal private partnership agreements are contracts at the initial development stage. Their objective is to attract investments in the Russian economy including for the creation of separate real estate types (capital facilities). The Law enables one to build the relationship in such a way that joint efforts result in the grounds for the accrual of the ownership right to the built (reconstructed) asset. This circumstance certainly influences the infrastructural development of the Russian Federation and its municipal units, the rather that it occurs due to the attraction of extra-budgetary sources
... partnerships, publicly traded trusts and real estate investment trusts (REITs). 1.1445-8 Section 1.1445-8... estates upon the disposition of U.S. real property interests. Except as otherwise provided in this... Bonds § 1.1445-8 Special rules regarding publicly traded partnerships, publicly traded trusts and real...
Aleksandr Valeryevich Trynov
Full Text Available The article focuses on assessing the effectiveness of investment projects implemented on the principles of public-private partnership (PPP. This article puts forward the hypothesis that the inclusion of multiplicative economic effects will increase the attractiveness of public-private partnership projects, which in turn will contribute to the more efficient use of budgetary resources. The author proposed a methodological approach and methods of evaluating the economic efficiency of PPP projects. The author’s technique is based upon the synthesis of approaches to evaluation of the project implemented in the private and public sector and in contrast to the existing methods allows taking into account the indirect (multiplicative effect arising during the implementation of project. In the article, to estimate the multiplier effect, the model of regional economy — social accounting matrix (SAM was developed. The matrix is based on the data of the Sverdlovsk region for 2013. In the article, the genesis of the balance models of economic systems is presented. The evolution of balance models in the Russian (Soviet and foreign sources from their emergence up to now are observed. It is shown that SAM is widely used in the world for a wide range of applications, primarily to assess the impact on the regional economy of various exogenous factors. In order to clarify the estimates of multiplicative effects, the disaggregation of the account of the “industry” of the matrix of social accounts was carried out in accordance with the All-Russian Classifier of Types of Economic Activities (OKVED. This step allows to consider the particular characteristics of the industry of the estimated investment project. The method was tested on the example of evaluating the effectiveness of the construction of a toll road in the Sverdlovsk region. It is proved that due to the multiplier effect, the more capital-intensive version of the project may be more beneficial in
Full Text Available Public–private partnerships (PPPs play an important role in bringing private sector competition to public monopolies in infrastructure development and service provision and in merging the resources of both public and private sectors to better serve the public needs. However, in worldwide practices, there are mixed results, substantial controversy, criticism and conflict over PPPs. This paper proposes a systematic framework for the delivery of public works and services through PPPs in general. Justified by public procurement principles, aimed at a public–private win–win solution, and based on worldwide best industrial practices and lessons from unsuccessful projects, this framework integrates the four broadly divided stages that repeat over time: (1 design of a workable concession, (2 competitive concessionaire selection, (3 financial regulation, and (4 periodic reconcession and rebidding. The four-stage framework takes into account the requirements of public services, realignment of responsibility and reward among multiple participants in PPPs, the monopolistic rights of the concessionaire, and the wide range of risks and uncertainties in the long concession period. Varying competition elements are incorporated in each of the four stages for continuous performance improvement in the delivery of public works and services. The design of the right concession forms the base on which other stages are implemented in addition to planning the project and allocating risks for enhanced efficiency. The financial regulation allows the government to address changing conditions and to regulate the concession for efficient operation with due discretion, whereas the competitive concessionaire selection and periodic reconcession and rebidding play critical roles in achieving innovation, efficiency and cost effectiveness through direct competition rather than government discretionary intervention.
Verhoest, Koen; Petersen, Ole Helby; Scherrer, Walter
Taking an institutional perspective, in this article we develop an index of the governmental support for public private partnership (PPP) — a ‘PPP Governmental Support Index’ (GSI) — which aims to measure the extent to which national governments provide an institutional framework that is either...... conducive or preventive for the introduction and diffusion of PPPs within transport infrastructure and other sectors. First, based on a substantive review of the literature, we define the elements of the PPP GSI, including the policy and political commitment regarding PPPs, the legal and regulatory...... framework, and the presence/absence of dedicated PPP-supporting arrangements. Second, we calculate the PPP GSI for 20 European countries, cluster them and compare similarities and differences in national governmental support of infrastructure PPPs. Third, we explore the potential link between national...
KE Yongjian; LIU Xinping; WANG Shouqing
The feasibility study of a public-private partnership (PPP) project is regarded as one of the critical factors for successful implementation,but unfortunately the common financial evaluation methods currently used only represent the benefits of the private sector.There is,therefore,an urgent need to develop an equitable financial evaluation method for PPP projects.This paper presents a comprehensive literature review that examines international practices.An equitable financial evaluation method was then developed taking into account the inherent characteristics of PPP projects using six separate indicators and Monte Carlo simulations.The result for a bridge project in Romania shows that the method combines the viewpoints of all the relevant stakeholders to achieve an equitable financial evaluation of PPP projects.
Hunter, David; Perkins, Neil
Most of the research on partnerships has centred on health and social care, and while many of the findings remain relevant, public health partnerships concerned with 'wicked issues' give rise to a different and more complex set of issues which merit exploration. The study aimed to identify those factors promoting effective partnership working for health improvement; to assess the extent to which partnership governance and incentive arrangements were commensurate with the complexities of the problem; and to explore how far local partnerships contributed to better outcomes for individuals and populations. A three-year study of public health partnerships (2007-10) in nine localities across England involving semi-structured interviews at strategic and operational levels. Successful partnerships shared a number of characteristics: they were clear about goals and purpose; they were aware of partners' roles and responsibilities; and they had a clear strategic overview of performance through robust monitoring and evaluation. In many cases, partnerships were facades with a 'silo mentality' prevailing - there was an unwillingness to share information or resources, or to accord partnership working sufficient priority or support. Despite enthusiasm for partnerships and an insistence that they were essential, it was impossible to establish evidence of their impact on health outcomes. While the focus on partnerships tends to be on structures, relational factors, including high levels of trust and goodwill, were important ingredients of a well-functioning partnership. Less formal and more organic, operational partnerships were more effective than more formal, strategic level ones which were driven by targets. Finally, partnerships were, in part, shaped by the national policy context, with constant policy and organizational churn making it difficult to sustain long-term relationships. Future partnerships might be undertaken differently, adopting a complex adaptive systems
Dr.Sc. Iskra Belazelkoska Borizovska
Full Text Available The research involves determination of the extent to which the public-private partnership model can contribute to the improvement and enhancement of the healthcare services in Macedonia. To achieve this purpose, the research embraces comprehension of the common advantages and disadvantages of this model, encompassed with a case study of the public-private partnership in the specialized-consultative health protection for the health activity-dialysis, together with other efforts to ensure high quality health protection. It also reflects the attitudes of the public authorities and private sector entities regarding the significance of the public-private partnership model, consideration of the advantages and disadvantages before entering public-private partnerships and the ways public-private partnerships affect the employees and employments. The study outlines planned and realised efforts to implement this model to ensure better and more efficient healthcare system. Generally, the results from the survey and the outlined case study present this model as good solution for many healthcare challenges, since public-private partnerships offer different services to the citizens that neither the public nor the private sector could separately achieve. The public-private partnership model leads to new employment opportunities according to the opinion of the public authorities, while the private sector entities consider that public-private partnerships increase the responsibility of the employees in such partnership in comparison to the public sector. The outlined case study is an example of successful public-private partnership model in the field of healthcare and can serve as motivation for further implementation of this model to ensure better, enhanced and modern health system.
Chapitre dans: Piet de Vries and Etienne B. Yehoue, The Routledge Companion to Public-Private Partnerships, London, Routledge. Ouvrage à paraitre (publication prévue: été 2012); Public-Private Partnership has been high on the agenda of public decision makers since the 1990's. Primarily a contractual approach to the delivery of infrastructures, goods and services traditionally provided by the public sector or by private operators submitted to tight regulation, PPP is also a very special contra...
Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce a new strategic direction for the multinational pharmaceutical companies in terms of the access to essential, life-saving medicines. The multinational pharmaceutical companies have been severely criticized by their various stakeholders because of their business models, particularly because of the stringent patent protection on the pharmaceutical products. The multinational pharmaceutical companies should find a new strategic direction to balance their R&D-intensive, expensive business with the access to essential, lifesaving medicines since favorable public relations are critical for the multinational pharmaceutical companies to maintain their profitable business. This paper adopts an Analogical Reasoning Model (ARM to propose a new strategic direction for the multinational pharmaceutical companies in an effort to balance their expensive business with the enhanced social responsibility. In essence, the ARM helps the multinational pharmaceutical companies formulate viable strategies that can realize a win-win situation not only for their stakeholders but also for the pharmaceutical companies themselves. The ARM is constructed, analyzing the food and beverage industry as a source environment, and suggests a comprehensive, industry-wide, multi-stakeholder public-private partnership, led not by the public sector but by the multinational pharmaceutical companies.
Full Text Available A public-private partnership contract has the character of a relational contract. Relational contracts are incomplete agreements governing transactions where the contracting parties have mutually agreed that it is impossible or economically inefficient to contractually define ex ante possible difficulties and contingencies in the contract implementation, nor the difficulties and contingencies underlying the ex post control of contract performance by a third entity (court or arbitration. Considering the methodology of managing relational contracts, it is essential that the theory of relational contracts does not advocate for the establishment of relational contracts as a separate category of contracts, with specifically designated contractual instruments. This theory defines the relational contract as a category which legitimizes 'the relational mode' of a particular contract. The methodology of relational contracts is important for contracts on public-private partnership as it ensures that the contractual relationship is aligned with the changes in the immediate environment where the PPP contract operates. The aforementioned alignment has two aspects. The first one is the ex ante aspect of the alignment which is primarily aimed at preventing the detrimental effect of such alignment to the public partner's interests. Therefore, the intent to prevent such an effect shall be taken into account when defining the criteria for the selection of the most favorable private partner and the best offer. At the same time, it is essential to establish verifiable standards for measuring the private partner performance in the phase of contract implementation. For this goal to be achieved, it is crucial to specify the subject matter of the private partner's obligations, to establish the priority rank of PPP project objectives, to elaborate on the specific requirements governing the eligibility of private partners to participate in the bidding process, to specify
This podcast is the first of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about the history of public health partnerships with the for profit sector.
McClure, Kevin R.; Ryder, Andrew J.; DeVita, James M.
Despite the increasing popularity of public-private partnerships, empirical research about the origins, models, and long-term outcomes of this approach to financing, constructing, and managing college student housing is scant. In this study, we sought to investigate the origins, models, and outcomes of public-private partnerships in college…
Research shows that there are many bottle-necks in Public Private Partnership (PPP) Projects in Dutch spatial development. Due to the specific properties of Public Private Partnerships, these bottle-necks can lead to dysfunctional conflicts which are damaging the project. Hence the question is: how
This podcast is the sixth of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and Georgia State University's Michael Eriksen discuss whether the tobacco industry has forfeited its opportunity to participate in traditional public-private partnerships.
N. G. Gojda
Full Text Available Summary: Article is devoted to the legislation review of the public-private partnership projects of the healthcare sector inUkraine. Authors focused attention on the basic problems of public-private partnership projects inUkraine. Objective: Analysis of the legal framework provides the possibility of public-private partnerships in health care ofUkraine and confirms the relevance of the scientific concept of development of public-private partnerships in health care ofUkraine. Methods: There were used periodic data of legal, economic and medical research publications inUkraine and CIS countries on regulatory support public-private partnerships. Results: The researches in many countries have proven the established of state regulatory bodies that carefully study various aspects of the business partnership in the services of provision of health care. Developed numerical models as simple infrastructure projects implement business participation in providing non-medical services (construction, hotels and utilities, technical re-equipment etc. to complex integrated models that involve the transfer of important state functions to private partner (strategic planning, highly specialized medical care, research, medical education, etc.. Conclusion: The development of public-private partnerships in health care of Ukraine is possible only in condition of further improvement of legislation to the line with the norms and principles of international law, providing a clear and coordinated cooperation of all branches and friendly to business partnership administrative environment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Public-private partnerships (PPPs are potential instruments to enable private collaboration in the health sector. Despite theoretical debate, empirical analyses have thus far tended to focus on the contractual or project dimension, overlooking institutional PPPs, i.e., formal legal entities run by proper corporate-governance mechanisms and jointly owned by public and private parties for the provision of public-health goods. This work aims to fill this gap by carrying out a comparative analysis of the reasons for the adoption of institutional PPPs and the governance and managerial features necessary to establish them as appropriate arrangements for public-health services provisions. Methods A qualitative analysis is carried out on experiences of institutional PPPs within the Italian National Health Service (Sistema Sanitario Nazionale, SSN. The research question is addressed through a contextual and comparative embedded case study design, assuming the entire population of PPPs (4 currently in force in one Italian region as the unit of analysis: (i a rehabilitation hospital, (ii, an orthopaedic-centre, (iii a primary care and ambulatory services facility, and (iv a health- and social-care facility. Internal validity is guaranteed by the triangulation of sources in the data collection phase, which included archival and interview data. Results Four governance and managerial issues were found to be critical in determining the positive performance of the case examined: (i a strategic market orientation to a specialised service area with sufficient potential demand, (ii the allocation of public capital assets and the consistent financial involvement of the private partner, (iii the adoption of private administrative procedures in a regulated setting while guaranteeing the respect of public administration principles, and (iv clear regulation of the workforce to align the contracts with the organisational culture. Conclusions Findings
Cappellaro, Giulia; Longo, Francesco
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are potential instruments to enable private collaboration in the health sector. Despite theoretical debate, empirical analyses have thus far tended to focus on the contractual or project dimension, overlooking institutional PPPs, i.e., formal legal entities run by proper corporate-governance mechanisms and jointly owned by public and private parties for the provision of public-health goods. This work aims to fill this gap by carrying out a comparative analysis of the reasons for the adoption of institutional PPPs and the governance and managerial features necessary to establish them as appropriate arrangements for public-health services provisions. A qualitative analysis is carried out on experiences of institutional PPPs within the Italian National Health Service (Sistema Sanitario Nazionale, SSN). The research question is addressed through a contextual and comparative embedded case study design, assuming the entire population of PPPs (4) currently in force in one Italian region as the unit of analysis: (i) a rehabilitation hospital, (ii), an orthopaedic-centre, (iii) a primary care and ambulatory services facility, and (iv) a health- and social-care facility. Internal validity is guaranteed by the triangulation of sources in the data collection phase, which included archival and interview data. Four governance and managerial issues were found to be critical in determining the positive performance of the case examined: (i) a strategic market orientation to a specialised service area with sufficient potential demand, (ii) the allocation of public capital assets and the consistent financial involvement of the private partner, (iii) the adoption of private administrative procedures in a regulated setting while guaranteeing the respect of public administration principles, and (iv) clear regulation of the workforce to align the contracts with the organisational culture. Findings suggests that institutional PPPs enable national health
The report examines 23 case studies of public-private partnerships throughout the United States. They are organized by three environmental service areas: solid waste, wastewater treatment, and drinking water. The introduction explains the types and benefits of public-private partnerships and Chapter II lists the attributes of successful partnerships. The remainder of the report emphasizes case study examples in solid waste, wastewater treatment, and drinking water. Individual chapters are devoted to each of the three environmental service areas. Each case study is presented in a similar format which provides the reader with basic information on how the partnership was formed and implemented, as well as characteristics of the community
The report examines 23 case studies of public-private partnerships throughout the United States. They are organized by three environmental service areas: solid waste, wastewater treatment, and drinking water. The introduction explains the types and benefits of public-private partnerships and Chapter II lists the attributes of successful partnerships. The remainder of the report emphasizes case study examples in solid waste, wastewater treatment, and drinking water. Individual chapters are devoted to each of the three environmental service areas. Each case study is presented in a similar format which provides the reader with basic information on how the partnership was formed and implemented, as well as characteristics of the community.
The Federal Highway Administrations (FHWAs) : Office of Innovative Program Delivery (IPD) : assists States and local governments in developing : knowledge, skills, and abilities in innovative finance : techniques. Publicprivate partnerships ...
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the provisions of public-private partnership agreement (hereinafter: the 'PPP' in the context of control of the public interest in the process of preparing and implementing PPP projects. PPP agreements are a mechanism for defining rights and obligations of public and private partners in the process of realization of a particular PPP project. In spite of being defined as partnership, public and private interests largely remain competitive. However, in case it is not possible to achieve both interests at the same time, the public interest is deemed to have priority. The proper implementation of the supremacy of public interests over the private ones calls for an appropriate contractual definition of conditions and manner for such implementation. The methodology for exercising control of the public interest in PPP projects through agreements on public-private partnership has two aspects. The first aspect is to provide verifiable parameters of legal, economic and technological conditions, as well as the procedure for selecting the best bid for the realization of public-private partnership (ex ante methodological aspect; these conditions are the basis for future PPP agreement. Ex ante methodology has to provide instruments for control of the public interest through pre-established mechanisms aimed at verifying whether the private partner has fulfilled the agreement. If such verification is not possible or if it is considered unreasonable (either financially or otherwise, it may raise an issue whether the public-private partnership is an adequate modality for implementation of the project aimed at promoting the public interest; it further implies that the public partner should resort to other options (employing 'internal' resources or taking a loan for financing the projects of public interests. The second aspect is that the PPP agreements are to provide for the proper implementation of the elements that ensure some flexibility in
Andrey E. Berezin
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to study the evolution of social consciousness in the Russian Federation, determining the relationship of the change of paradigm of economic development and the evolution of society, with the development of the Institute for public-private partnership (PPP. The result of this research is to identify the prospects of building in Russia a socially oriented economy, the definition of performance indicators of state economic policy, which promotes the use of PPPs
Raymond, L.; Chandler, C.; Lowry, R.; Urban, E.; Moncoiffe, G.; Pissierssens, P.; Norton, C.; Miller, H.
Current literature on the topic of data publication suggests that success is best achieved when there is a partnership between scientists, data managers, and librarians. The Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) have developed tools and processes to automate the ingestion of metadata from BCO-DMO for deposit with datasets into the Institutional Repository (IR) Woods Hole Open Access Server (WHOAS). The system also incorporates functionality for BCO-DMO to request a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) from the Library. This partnership allows the Library to work with a trusted data repository to ensure high quality data while the data repository utilizes library services and is assured of a permanent archive of the copy of the data extracted from the repository database. The assignment of persistent identifiers enables accurate data citation. The Library can assign a DOI to appropriate datasets deposited in WHOAS. A primary activity is working with authors to deposit datasets associated with published articles. The DOI would ideally be assigned before submission and be included in the published paper so readers can link directly to the dataset, but DOIs are also being assigned to datasets related to articles after publication. WHOAS metadata records link the article to the datasets and the datasets to the article. The assignment of DOIs has enabled another important collaboration with Elsevier, publisher of educational and professional science journals. Elsevier can now link from articles in the Science Direct database to the datasets available from WHOAS that are related to that article. The data associated with the article are freely available from WHOAS and accompanied by a Dublin Core metadata record. In addition, the Library has worked with researchers to deposit datasets in WHOAS that are not appropriate for national, international, or domain
In an age of political turmoil and mistrust of governments, having an outlet for creative problem solving that involves all aspects of communities during disasters is critical. Additionally, there is a need for outlets that save taxpayer money for particular projects, such as road construction or infrastructure protection. Public-private partnerships are one way to accomplish these goals. Utilised correctly, a public-private partnership is a win-win situation for all participants. This paper will make the case for the continued support from all sectors for public-private partnerships. A description of public-private partnerships will be given to show the broad spectrum of opportunities for such a partnership. In addition, a case study of a public-private partnership called SAFER Santa Rosa is explored as the programme is oriented towards disasters, but keeps the community engaged all year round. Finally, an example is presented of an initiative that not only exemplifies the spirit of public-private partnerships, but has attracted international recognition because it is simple, replicable, cost-effective and valuable to both the private sector and the public sector. The Business Emergency Response Toolkit bag is a true public-private success story. It is hoped that the reader will be able to replicate the ideas discussed herein in their own community.
... diligence in order to approve the mixed-finance development of public housing prior to a financial closing... Information for Public Comment for: Public/ Private Partnerships for the Mixed-Finance Development of Public... comments on the subject proposal. The 1998 Public Housing Reform Act allowed the Mixed-Finance development...
Decision-makers increasingly mention public-private partnerships (PPPs) as potential tools for innovation in the public sector. In contrast, literature on PPPs has mostly evaluated their economic efficiency, whereas their ability to enhance innovation has been subordinated and sometimes assumed....... Empirical investigations of innovations in PPPs have been rather scarce and scattered between different PPP types and sectors. This article strives for a more comprehensive and reflexive approach and contribute to an increasing body of literature on public sector innovation by constructing a conceptual...... framework, which can be used to investigate the potential for innovation in different PPP types across sectors. The last decades have seen sequential waves of public sector reforms, which have resulted in an increased hybridity in the public sector, where ideas, goals and tools from hierarchy, market...
Daar Abdallah S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many articles have been written on conflicts of interests (COIs in fields such as medicine, business, politics, public service and education. With the growing abundance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs, often involving complex relationships among the partners, it is important to understand how COIs can be mitigated and managed in PPPs. Discussion We wanted to study PPPs, particularly in the areas of global health and agriculture, but discovered no single source of information available to identify and compare various approaches for avoiding and managing COIs in PPPs. This is a significant gap, especially for those wishing to study, compare and strengthen existing COI policies related to PPPs. In order to bridge this gap, we reviewed how PPPs currently address COIs and highlight what might be considered good practice in developing COI policies. We reviewed the online COI policies of 10 PPPs in global health and agriculture, and interviewed two global health PPP chief executives. Summary Based on our review of policies and interviews, we conclude that there exists a range of good practices including attention to accountability and governance, acknowledgement and disclosure, abstention and withdrawal, reporting and transparency, and independent monitoring. There appears to be a need for PPPs to interact closely and learn from each other on these parameters and to also place more emphasis on independent external monitoring of COIs as a means of strengthening their major social objectives on which their activities are largely predicated. We also recommend the establishment of a web based database, which would serve as a forum to discuss COI issues and how they can be resolved.
Omobowale, Emmanuel B; Kuziw, Michael; Naylor, Melinda Treurnicht; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A
Many articles have been written on conflicts of interests (COIs) in fields such as medicine, business, politics, public service and education. With the growing abundance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), often involving complex relationships among the partners, it is important to understand how COIs can be mitigated and managed in PPPs. We wanted to study PPPs, particularly in the areas of global health and agriculture, but discovered no single source of information available to identify and compare various approaches for avoiding and managing COIs in PPPs. This is a significant gap, especially for those wishing to study, compare and strengthen existing COI policies related to PPPs. In order to bridge this gap, we reviewed how PPPs currently address COIs and highlight what might be considered good practice in developing COI policies. We reviewed the online COI policies of 10 PPPs in global health and agriculture, and interviewed two global health PPP chief executives. Based on our review of policies and interviews, we conclude that there exists a range of good practices including attention to accountability and governance, acknowledgement and disclosure, abstention and withdrawal, reporting and transparency, and independent monitoring. There appears to be a need for PPPs to interact closely and learn from each other on these parameters and to also place more emphasis on independent external monitoring of COIs as a means of strengthening their major social objectives on which their activities are largely predicated. We also recommend the establishment of a web based database, which would serve as a forum to discuss COI issues and how they can be resolved.
De Pinho Campos, Katia; Norman, Cameron D; Jadad, Alejandro R
Almost a decade ago, public health initiated a number of innovative ventures to attract investments from multinational drug companies for the development of new drugs and vaccines to tackle neglected diseases (NDs). These ventures - known as product development public-private partnerships (PD PPPs) - represent the participation of the public and private actors toward the discovery and development of essential medicines to reduce the suffering of over one billion people worldwide living with NDs. This systematic review aimed to identify empirical-based descriptive articles to understand critical elements in the partnership process, and propose a framework to shed light on future guidelines to support better planning, design and management of existing and new forms of PPPs for public health. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed and synthesized using qualitative content analysis. The findings show that the development stage of PD PPPs requires a careful initiation and planning process including discussion on values and shared goals, agreement on mutual interests & equality of power relation, exchange of expertise & resources, stakeholder engagement, and assessment of the local health capacity. The management stage of PD PPPs entails transparency, extensive communication and participatory decision-making among partner organizations. This review illustrates the difficulties, challenges and effective responses during the partnering process. This model of collaboration may offer a way to advance population health at present, while creating streams of innovation that can yield future social and financial dividends in enhancing the public's health more widely. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai
Full Text Available This article presents the advantages and risks of the public-private partnership in realizing the public investments in Romania. Public-private partnerships refer to the forms of cooperation between public authorities and private entities and target the regulation of the design, financing, construction, operation, rehabilitation, development, rental and transfer of any public work, asset or public service. It is a formula agreed by the public authorities by which the solving of public problems of general interest is â€œcommissionedâ€ by attracting entrepreneurs from the private sector. One of the main arguments for supporting the public-private partnerships in case of public investment projects is the transfer of the managerial competencies and of the know-how from the private partner to the public one. One of the main risks of the public-private partnerships is related to the temptation of using the private-public partnerships as a means of eluding the budgetary pressure, which may lead to their inadequate use.
This podcast is the fourth of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about strategies that should serve as the cornerstone for partnership development.
Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Hansen, Jens Aage
The notion of Public-Private Partnerships has on several occasions been heralded as one of the pivotal mechanisms for a move towards more sustainable societies. Through such partnerships it is suggested that major stakeholders (governments, NGOs, international organisations, and the private sector...
The PPLF convenes stakeholders from across the power sector, spanning electricity supply, delivery, and end-use, and plays a key role in guiding the strategic direction of the Power Partnership. In addition, PPLF members support the implementation of activities set out in the Power Partnership Program of Work. Taken together, the activities of the PPLF span the dynamic landscape of power challenges and opportunities, with a focus on business models, ?nancial tools, and regulatory frameworks.
Linneman, S. R.
Community - Scientist partnerships take many forms. In the northwest corner of Washington state a large, active, serpentinitic earthflow has, for decades, shed >25,000 m^3/yr of asbestos-rich sediment into a small agricultural stream system. While the landslide, which moves 3 m/yr, and its unusual sediment have much attracted scientific interest, the situation also presents a great opportunity for community - scientist partnerships. The Swift Creek Landslide Observatory (SCLO) (http://landslide.geol.wwu.edu) is a partnership between scientists and technical staff at Western Washington University + local landowners + the state Department of Ecology + Whatcom County Public Works + a local video security firm. SCLO maintains two remote webcams from which current images are posted to the SCLO website hourly. Users can also view archived images from the cameras, create image-compare visualizations, and create time-lapse movies from the eight-year image archive. SCLO is used by local emergency managers and residents to evaluate the threat of debris flows and floods. It is also used by educators to dramatically illustrate hillslope evolution at a variety of time scales.
M.B. Kort (Michiel); E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Urban regeneration companies (URCs) are public-private entities appearing across Europe. They are created specifically to manage and implement more effectively urban regeneration projects. Core ideas behind the establishment of these newly emerging partnerships aim to
Ostapenko Victoriia M.
Full Text Available In the result of the study the article analyses modern tendencies of development of economy of Ukraine. It marks out problems connected with realisation of the state financial policy. It considers the essence of the state financial policy, its directions (such as budget-tax and monetary-credit, structural components and tasks. It emphasises the place of the public-private partnership as an instrument of realisation of the financial policy. It justifies tasks in the process of realisation of goals of the modern financial policy, which could be carried out with the help of the public-private partnership. The prospect of further studies in this direction is formation of practical recommendations on the use of the public-private partnership in the process of realisation of the state financial policy. Further improvement of the public-private partnership is connected with development of efficient mechanisms of its introduction and optimisation of its financial structure.
Pyroh Olha V.
Full Text Available The article is concerned with research on public-private partnership in foreign economic activity as process of interaction of the State and business-structures – entities of economic activity of Ukraine along with foreign entities of economic activity, this process includes attraction of investments, acceleration of economic development, etc. The factors determining public-private partnership in the foreign economic sphere (system of the State government bodies, system of economic relations in the State, financial resources of various States, experience in the implementation of public-private partnership projects, trust between partners are researched and generalized. Influence of each of the factors was defined by means of conjunctive analysis, determining that the system of economic relations in the State is most influenced by the formation of conditions, rules and implementation of principles of functioning of public-private partnership in the foreign economic sphere.
Reynaers, Anne Marie; Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan
Scholars' criticism of transparency in public-private partnerships (PPPs) often focuses on 'external' transparency, that is, the extent to which internal information is visible to the outside world. However, to achieve external transparency, internal transparency - the availability and inferability
Reynaers, A.; Grimmelikhuijsen, S
Scholars' criticism of transparency in public-private partnerships (PPPs) often focuses on 'external' transparency, that is, the extent to which internal information is visible to the outside world. However, to achieve external transparency, internal transparency - the availability and inferability
A growing number of State and local transportation agencies are considering the use of public-private : partnerships (P3s), in which a private entity is involved in designing, financing, constructing, operating, : and maintaining a transportation fac...
.... People cannot work together to solve these problems without communication. this dissertation project examines espoused and embedded preferences for specific communication practices in the context of a public/private partnership...
This primer addresses Value for Money Assessment for public-private partnerships (P3s). Companion : primers on Financial Assessment and Risk Assessment for P3s are also available as part of this series of : primers.
A P Vihrjan
Full Text Available The article describes a possibility of implementation of an institute of public-private partnership, mainly concessions, as a notable component of management system of the Union State's of Russia and Belarus Property.
This podcast is the first of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about the history of public health partnerships with the for profit sector. Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/6/2009.
Vera Maria Vidal Peroni
Full Text Available This paper aims to debate on the public-private partnerships in education and to bring elements from the third way and third sector as an important part of this topic. And to present some consequences of the partnerships for democratic management, that is, how the logic of market as a parameter of efficiency is incorporated by public administration, and the consequences of this fact on the educational policies.
This podcast is the sixth of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and Georgia State University's Michael Eriksen discuss whether the tobacco industry has forfeited its opportunity to participate in traditional public-private partnerships. Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/6/2009.
Kuznetsov Aleksey Alekseevich
Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity of extension and development of tools for methodological evaluation of effectiveness of public-private partnership (PPP projects both individually and in comparison of effectiveness of various mechanisms of projects realization on the example of traditional public procurement. The author proposed an original technique of modelling cash flows of private and public partners when realizing the projects based on PPP and on public procurement. The model enables us promptly and with sufficient accuracy to reveal comparative advantages of project forms of PPP and public procurement, and also assess financial effectiveness of the PPP projects for each partner. The modelling is relatively straightforward and reliable. The model also enables us to evaluate public partner's expenses for availability, find the terms and thresholds for interest rates of financing attracted by the partners and for risk probabilities to ensure comparative advantage of PPP project. Proposed criteria of effectiveness are compared with methodological recommendations provided by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation. Subject: public and private organizations, financial institutions, development institutions and their theoretical and practical techniques for effectiveness evaluation of public-private partnership (PPP projects. Complexity of effectiveness evaluation and the lack of unified and accepted methodology are among the factors that limit the development of PPP in the Russian Federation nowadays. Research objectives: development of methodological methods for assessing financial efficiency of PPP projects by creating and justifying application of new principles and methods of modelling, and also criteria for effectiveness of PPP projects both individually and in comparison with the public procurement. Materials and methods: open database of ongoing PPP projects in the Russian Federation and abroad was used. The
N. V. Polyanskova
Full Text Available Summary. Public-private partnership practically in all developed and developing countries of the world is recognized as the effective mechanism of social and economic tasks realization of society and state. The most popular use of the economic cooperation tools between business and government in areas such as the creation and modernization of infrastructure, transport infrastructure, road construction, municipal services (housing and communal services, the military-industrial complex, less social infrastructure. A large number of scientific, educational, recommendatory, reference and other books of domestic and foreign authors is developed for each of the called directions, various models of projects implementation of public-private partnership are developed and perfected. Unfortunately, to the sphere of culture it isn't paid due attention. State-private and municipal and private partnership in practice are quite successfully used for increase of efficiency of activity of establishments and objects of culture, but this positive experience isn't systematized and not fixed anywhere, the conceptual model of public-private partnership projects in culture is also not developed. Thus, a research objective is to design initiatives development and offers on modernization of the culture sphere on the basis of instruments of public-private partnership. The subject of the study is a set of administrative, economic and legal relations arising in the implementation of projects in the sphere of the Samara region culture on the basis of public-private partnerships. This article presents the results of a public-private partnerships study as uninvolved resource of the culture sphere modernization and the public-private partnership model developed by authors for projects in this sphere.
Nechaev, V S; Nisan, B A
The article deals with the issues of study of state-private partnership in the framework of development of strategic measures of regulation of this area in public health. It is demonstrated that the regulation of state-private partnership has to combine the dynamism inherent in entrepreneurship and the public stability needed for normal public health functioning. The control functions of state authorities in the area of public health policy developed into concept of "supervision" which obligates the state to manage the health system guided by norms of ethics and financial expediency. The regulation as a main tool of "supervision" in the state-private partnership has to meet the same two requirements. The activation of entrepreneur activity in public health by no means is caused by increase of privatization in this sector. Under these conditions, the implementation of market mechanisms in public health system make is more effective and efficient.
Full Text Available In the article we examined the main models and forms of public-private partnership, their role in the socio-economic development and deepening of financial convergence of countries-participants of the partnership. The attention was paid to decentralization of inter-state forms of public-private partnership as the basis of cross-border and transnational partnership. The scientific research, described in this publication, have found their practical application in the realization of the project within Euro-region “Bug”. This project has founded a joined Ukrainian – Polish institution of labor migration administration and also of granting necessary permissions for realization activities within Ukraine.
Luijten, Peter R; van Dongen, Guus A M S; Moonen, Chrit T; Storm, Gert; Crommelin, Daan J A
The way forward in multidisciplinary research according to former NIH's director Elias Zerhouni is to engage in predictive, personalized, preemptive and participatory medicine. For the creation of the optimal innovation climate that would allow for such a strategy, public-private partnerships have been widely proposed as an important instrument. Public-private partnerships have become an important instrument to expedite translational research in medicine. The Netherlands have initiated three large public-private partnerships in the life sciences and health area to facilitate the translation of valuable basic scientific concepts to new products and services in medicine. The focus of these partnerships has been on drug development, improved diagnosis and regenerative medicine. The Dutch model of public-private partnership forms the blueprint of a much larger European initiative called EATRIS. This paper will provide practical examples of public-private partnerships initiated to expedite the translation of new technology for drug development towards the clinic. Three specific technologies are in focus: companion diagnostics using nuclear medicine, the use of ultra high field MRI to generate sensitive surrogate endpoints based on endogenous contrast, and MRI guidance for High Intensity Focused Ultrasound mediated drug delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
O'Leary, Rosemary; Wise, Charles R.
The Supreme Court's Missouri v Jenkins decision changed the role of school administrators as well as their ability to set priorities and control implementation. By sanctioning court-ordered taxation, it also involved legislators in the partnership, although the courts are clearly senior partners in the relationship. (SK)
Full Text Available The article reveals the essence and role of public-private partnership (PPP. It is established that a public and private partnership is a powerful and promising tool of social and economic development at both the regional and local levels, as well as a means of raising funds to projects. The legal regulation of public and private partnership in Ukraine and its shortcomings are determined. It was found that the legislation contains a lot of controversial issues related to: communication problems between the partners; legislative and regulatory issues; financing problems. The number of the PPP projects in Ukraine is presented by sectors and investment in projects of public-private partnership is shown. It was determined that during 1992-2012, 58 PPP projects have been implemented in Ukraine, or 7.03% of the total number of implemented projects. The structure of PPP projects implemented in Ukraine is shown, where the lion’s share is taken by the energy sector (71%, telecommunications (24%, transport (2%, water supply and drainage (3%. The problems that hinder the development of public and private partnership in Ukraine were identified, namely the shortage of highly qualified specialists who are able to develop public-private partnership in the future – both on the part of business, and country; shortage of projects of public-private partnership as well as appropriate banking requirements to them; disinclination of business for stimulating the development of public-private partnership, since the number of private operators is negligible in a very few sectors; inability of public authorities to maintain partner relationships and the implementation of PPP projects; shortcomings of the legislative framework (such as concession and mismatch of enforcement activity; little activity of the regions in showing initiative to develop and implement PPP projects; inability to attract investment in long-term PPP projects, etc. The ways of improving the
Miller, D Gibbes
The obesity epidemic is a critical public health threat facing the USA. With the advent of American Evangelical Protestant (AEP) weight loss guides and narratives, AEP churches could potentially aid public health agencies in combatting obesity, and some scholars have called for investment in partnerships between public health agencies and religious institutions. This paper examines the theological and social underpinnings of AEP weight loss programs and considers the potential benefits and risks of public health partnerships with AEP churches to combat obesity. While AEP churches may be successful at empowering people to lose weight, AEP weight loss also carries several risks. These risks include reinforcing gendered bodily norms, stigmatizing both overweight bodies and unhealthy behaviors deemed to be sinful (for example, overeating), and failing to acknowledge social factors that promote obesity. These risks must be assessed and minimized to create appropriate public health weight loss partnerships with AEP communities.
Oksana N. Taranenko
Full Text Available Today modernization of relations between the government and the business sector is an important issue particularly relevant in the context of financial globalization in the transition to a market economy. The paper discusses the theoretical concept of public-private partnership, as a form of business organization, combining the functional features of an independent firm or companies and the government, which implementation is caused by the need to ensure the production of the most important benefits in various areas, as well as the features of the interaction of business and government. It is proposed to highlight the definition of public-private partnerships in the form of a special system of relations of economic agents, as well to determine the required features that separate this form of interaction as a partnership from other forms of interaction. Also the authors consider a system of public-private partnership in terms of coordination of joint relations between the government and business, try to identify the basic principles of interaction between the participants, identify their main advantages that each of the participants in the partnership seeks to contribute to the joint project, and identifiess areas to support sustainable development the country's economy. The paper describes the problems associated with the implementation of projects in the public-private partnership system and suggests ways to improve them, discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of such members, as the government and business.
Go Sport Free prize draw Win Go Sport vouchers by participating in a prize draw of the Staff Association! Thanks to our partnership, 30 vouchers of 50 euros each have been offered to us. To reward you for your loyalty, the Staff Association, organizes a free prize draw for its members. The 30 people who will specify a number that comes closest to the total number of participants to this draw will win a voucher. Deadline for participation: Monday 14th July 2014 – 2 p.m. To participate: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/concours-de-lassociation-du-personnel-2014-competition-staff-association Upon presentation of the Staff Association membership card Go Sport Val Thoiry offers a 15 % discount on all purchases in the shop (excluding promotions, sale items and bargain corner, and excluding purchases using Go Sport and Kadéos gift cards. Only one discount can be applied to each purchase). The manager of Go Sport Val Thoiry hands the discount vouchers to the presid...
Gholamzadeh Nikjoo, Raana; Jabbari Beyrami, Hossein; Jannati, Ali; Asghari Jaafarabadi, Mohammad
The present study was conducted to scrutinize Public- Private Partnership (PPP) models in public hospitals of different countries based on performance indicators in order to se-lect appropriated models for Iran hospitals. In this mixed (quantitative-qualitative) study, systematic review and expert panel has been done to identify varied models of PPP as well as performance indicators. In the second step we prioritized performance indicator and PPP models based on selected performance indicators by Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) technique. The data were analyzed by Excel 2007 and Expert Choice11 software's. In quality - effectiveness area, indicators like the rate of hospital infections (100%), hospital accidents prevalence rate (73%), pure rate of hospital mortality (63%), patient satisfaction percentage (53%), in accessibility equity area indicators such as average inpatient waiting time (100%) and average outpatient waiting time (74%), and in financial - efficiency area, indicators including average length of stay (100%), bed occupation ratio (99%), specific income to total cost ratio (97%) have been chosen to be the most key performance indicators. In the pri¬oritization of the PPP models clinical outsourcing, management, privatization, BOO (build, own, operate) and non-clinical outsourcing models, achieved high priority for various performance in¬dicator areas. This study had been provided the most common PPP options in the field of public hospitals and had gathered suitable evidences from experts for choosing appropriate PPP option for public hospitals. Effect of private sector presence in public hospital performance, based on which PPP options undertaken, will be different.
This podcast is the fourth of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about strategies that should serve as the cornerstone for partnership development. Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/6/2009.
Full Text Available This paper highlights the public private partnership nature of the Kerala Travel Mart ( KTM , a tourism trade show held in Kerala,India. The objective is to apply the theoretical framework from literature to analyse the effectiveness of the public private participatory nature of KTM. A case study approach has been adopted based on secondary data from Government records and from data compiled from KTM. KTM has been found to be a successful model for Public Private Partnership although there are some areas for improvement. This is the first such research study on the PPP nature of a collaborative venture in a destination which can be replicated by other destinations.
The Public Private Partnership (PPP) Model has been animportant alternative used by public authorities in the construction of infrastructurefacilities and public services after the 1990s. One of the most importantadvantages of the PPP is the solution to the problem of financing in publicservices. Another important advantage is that public services can be providedby private sector experience and methods. These and other advantages havegradually increased the preference rates of the PPP. Today,...
Karlavičius, Linas Vytautas
In recent years a marked increase in cooperation between public and private sectors is seen for the development a wide range of economic activities. Such Public – Private Partnership (PPP) arrangements were driven by the limitations in public funds to cover investment needs and also to increase the quality and efficiency of public services. Different aspects of PPP implementation are treated in the article. Considering risk, there are substantiated conditions for possibility to apply the prin...
Reynaers, A.-M.; Parrado, S.
Design-Build-Finance-Maintain-Operate (DBFMO) contracts are a particular type of public-private partnership whereby governments transfer the responsibility for the design, construction, financing, maintenance, and operation of a public infrastructure or utility service building to a multi-headed
This podcast is the fifth of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about how the economic downturn will increase the demands on public heath.
Bell, Jamie; Chesebrough, David; Cryan, Jason; Koster, Emlyn
A growing trend in natural history museums, science museums, and science centers is the establishment of innovative new partnerships with universities to bring scientific research to the public in compelling and transformative ways. The strengths of both kinds of institutions are leveraged in effective and publicly visible programs, activities,…
Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.
Abstract: This paper presents the main reasons why public-private partnerships (PPPs) are adopted as well as the possible disadvantages for the public and private sectors. By means of two case studies on bridge construction and railway infrastructure (Fertagus and Lusoponte), we elucidate how a PPP
Full Text Available Bontang Local Government has planned Bontang Industrial Estate (BIE to accommodate oil, gas, condensate and other industries. The estate will need investment for about IDR. 2.27 Trillion while the total annual local government budget is near to IDR 2 Trillion. Moreover, the estate has to be operated in a business manner while the local government officers have a culture in non-profit organisation as part of bureaucracy. However, the BIE feasibility study 2013 has determined that the estate will generate economic multipliers boosting the city development. Therefore, a partnership among government and private parties should be determined and accommodated in a proper cooperation arrangement. To design the partnership, we review literature, interview related private parties and confirm opinions of the private parties to the governments. A content analysis was used to assess information from the interviews. Considering the final outputs, BIE should be organised by a pure private enterprise or Ltd. to ensure the economic viable of the estate. The Ltd. is a partnership among the government and private parties via shareholders. The government can still hold a majority share with special arrangement in investment scheme. For the initial investments, the government can use its assets valued as 51% of total share while private parties can inject cash money equal to 49% of the total. With this capital arrangement, the estate can be operated with initial investment for about IDR. 267.11 Billion on 244.97 Ha land. This initial investment can be profitable with IDR. 650 Billion NPV, 19.93% IRR and 13.95 year PP.Bontang Local Government has planned Bontang Industrial Estate (BIE to accommodate oil, gas, condensate and other industries.
Alonazi, Wadi B
The natural assimilation of the process through which health partners sustain long-term relationships is a key issue in maintaining social well-being, reducing health risk factors, and sustaining public health programs. One global initiative in building effective healthcare systems is public-private partnerships (PPPs). This study elucidates the proposed key performance indicators initiated by the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia based on the projections of the government, known as Vision 2030, from the perspective of health risk factors. Through an inductive content analysis, this study assessed primary and secondary data in relation to the Saudi National Transformation Program (NTP). To identify the institutions that played a role in formulating the new Saudi Healthcare System, health policies, regulations, and reports published between 1996 and 2016 were categorized. After ranking the risk factors, the investigator selected 13 healthcare professionals in four focus group interviews to insightfully explore the challenges that the NTP faces from a health risk perspective. Thus, the study employed qualitative data gathered through focus group interviews with key figures as well as data extracted from written sources to identify distinct but interrelated partnerships practiced within risk management. A methodological overview of NTP priority and implementation offered practical guidance in the healthcare context. The five critical factors in maintaining successful and sustainable PPPs were (1) trustworthiness, (2) technological capability, (3) patient-centeredness, (4) competence, and (5) flexibility. Concession on primary and secondary healthcare services might be a good option based on the literature review and considering its popularity in other countries. A high outcome-based risk of PPPs was found as the most commonly shared perspective in risk management. Although the impact of the NTP rise has yet to be explored, its potential for challenging health
Carpintero, Samuel; Petersen, Ole Helby
Public–private partnership (PPP) projects may be organized in a variety of ways, depending on the level of integration of the so-called Special Purpose Vehicle. Based on the analyses of four major PPP light rail projects in Spain, this article outlines two fundamentally different models...... of organizing the Special Purpose Vehicle in PPP projects; moreover, the article examines the central principles of these two different models of organizing the private sector Special Purpose Vehicle and their implications for risk sharing and project management in large-scale infrastructure PPP projects....
Carpintero, Samuel; Petersen, Ole Helby
Local governments are increasingly utilising the public–private partnership (PPP) model as a means of organising service delivery in the public–private domain. This article examines the experiences with construction and operation of 131 PPP wastewater treatment plants in the region of Aragon, Spain...... to the complexity of implementing the projects. The findings contribute to the literature on local service delivery and provide insights regarding risk transfer in long-term PPP contracts for the delivery of local services in general and water services in particular....
C. A. G. Pereira
Full Text Available This paper examines the current regulation of public-private partnerships (PPPs and concessions of public services inBrazil. Under the Brazilian Constitution, certain public utility services and infrastructure works must be provided or built either directly by the government or through a government franchise. Such franchise takes the form of either concessions or PPPs. The difference between the two is based on the form of government contribution. PPPs are concessions in which part or all of the concessionaire’s compensation is paid by the government and does not come directly from the revenue gained through the service or work at issue. These contractual arrangements are available and actually employed throughout all government levels inBrazil. Most of the government activity in these areas in the past 20 years has adopted a concession or PPP format. By analyzing the main features of the Brazilian concession and PPP system, this paper aims to offer the international reader an introductory view of the legal framework behind most large-scale investments in Brazilian infrastructure.
Tatiana S. Cheremnaya
Full Text Available Abstract: In the article the questions of application of public-private partnership (PPP for the implementation of projects in infrastructure in the BRICS countries (BRICS. The analysis is carried out on the basis of a comparison of the legal framework in the field of public-private partnership and concession legislation, as well as the experience gained in the implementation of projects. Using data from open sources, materials of the meetings of the authorities and business on the issues of implementation of publicprivate partnerships, statements of responsible persons developed a comparative table that identified and summarized trends in the development of public-private partnership in the BRICS countries. Examines global trends in the sphere of use of PPP mechanisms in the five countries, as well as key sectors in which PPP projects. Identified current problems in the implementation of projects in the preparatory phase and in case of change of technical and financial parameters of the project. The practical significance of the results of this study is the feasibility of extending public-private partnership in the implementation of joint projects in the BRICS countries. The results of the study can be used in the formation of the General strategy of development of infrastructure of BRICS countries on how in-country and inter-state levels.
... public-private partnership? 636.119 Section 636.119 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... does this part apply to a project developed under a public-private partnership? (a) In order for a... Federal-aid procurement procedures will depend on the nature of the public-private agreement. (1) If the...
Public-private partnerships (P3s or PPPs) offer an innovative procurement method for the public sector. : P3s involve collaborations between the public and private sectors to finance, develop or maintain transportation : infrastructure. In an era of ...
Full Text Available Tourism is characterized as being a sector that stands out as one of the business activities with the greatest potential for worldwide expansion, and as an engine for economic growth. If at the national level, the appeal of tourism is significant, on the local level this sector presents itself as an essential tool in regional development, as a means to avoid regional desertification and stagnation, stimulating the potential of more undeveloped regions. In such a competitive sector as tourism, companies should develop synergies and achieve competitive advantage. In this context, public-private partnerships play an important role in regional development. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical context that combines different concepts and elements to explain and understand the public-private partnership phenomenon in tourism. A conceptual model of the role of public-private partnerships will be proposed in order to contribute to successful regional development.
Full Text Available Public-Private Partnership represents institutional and organizational alliance of the state and business, consisting of financial actors interaction, legal, social and policy oriented joint public and private resources from different sources into a single complex to solve strategic socio-economic problems of country. The aim of the research is to demonstrate the importance of financial institutions in publicprivate partnership projects implementation. Research methodology – in order to achieve the expected results, author applied recognized methods and techniques applied as economic investigations: comparative method, statistical method, logical analysis method. The research results, expressed by knowledge through mentioned field can be applied to improve the process of attracting local and international financial institutions to ensure success in public-private partnerships projects in Republic of Moldova.
In the past, public-private partnerships have been developed in all four countries involved in the project with varying levels of success. There are clear lessons to be learned from these approaches, and much potential to develop models which build on their success factors. Models that will be developed within the course of this research will address the inequalities and social exclusion within existing public-private partnership models in order to broaden access to electricity services. Fieldwork will be carried out in communities, using a sustainable livelihoods approach to assess existing approaches and develop the most promising models through a series of pilot projects in each country. The objective of this work was to define and test models for public-private partnerships to deliver electricity services to rural and under-served urban communities, to enable the provision of electricity for communal and domestic access. (author)
Barnes, Priscilla A; Curtis, Amy B; Hall-Downey, Laura; Moonesinghe, Ramal
This study examines whether partnership-related measures in the second version of the National Public Health Performance Standards (NPHPS) are useful in evaluating level of activity as well as identifying latent constructs that exist among local public health systems (LPHSs). In a sample of 110 LPHSs, descriptive analysis was conducted to determine frequency and percentage of 18 partnership-related NPHPS measures. Principal components factor analysis was conducted to identify unobserved characteristics that promote effective partnerships among LPHSs. Results revealed that 13 of the 18 measures were most frequently reported at the minimal-moderate level (conducted 1%-49% of the time). Coordination of personal health and social services to optimize access (74.6%) was the most frequently reported measure at minimal-moderate levels. Optimal levels (conducted >75% of the time) were reported most frequently in 2 activities: participation in emergency preparedness coalitions and local health departments ensuring service provision by working with state health departments (67% and 61% of respondents, respectively) and the least optimally reported activity was review partnership effectiveness (4% of respondents). Factor analysis revealed categories of partnership-related measures in 4 domains: resources and activities contributing to relationship building, evaluating community leadership activities, research, and state and local linkages to support public health activities. System-oriented public health assessments may have questions that serve as proxy measures to examine levels of interorganizational partnerships. Several measures from the NPHPS were useful in establishing a national baseline of minimal and optimal activity levels as well as identifying factors to enhance the delivery of the 10 essential public health services among organizations and individuals in public health systems.
Mohammad Asghari Jaafarabadi
Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted to scrutinize Public- Private Partnership (PPP models in public hospitals of different countries based on performance indicators in order to se-lect appropriated models for Iran hospitals.Methods: In this mixed (quantitative-qualitative study, systematic review and expert panel hasbeen done to identify varied models of PPP as well as performance indicators. In the second stepwe prioritized performance indicator and PPP models based on selected performance indicatorsby Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP technique. The data were analyzed by Excel 2007 andExpert Choice11 software’s.Results: In quality – effectiveness area, indicators like the rate of hospital infections(100%, hospital accidents prevalence rate (73%, pure rate of hospital mortality (63%, patientsatisfaction percentage (53%, in accessibility equity area indicators such as average inpatientwaiting time (100% and average outpatient waiting time (74%, and in financial – efficiency area,indicators including average length of stay (100%, bed occupation ratio (99%, specific incometo total cost ratio (97% have been chosen to be the most key performance indicators. In the prioritizationof the PPP models clinical outsourcing, management, privatization, BOO (build, own,operate and non-clinical outsourcing models, achieved high priority for various performance indicatorareas.Conclusion: This study had been provided the most common PPP options in the field of public hospitals and had gathered suitable evidences from experts for choosing appropriate PPP option for public hospitals. Effect of private sector presence in public hospital performance, based on which PPP options undertaken, will be different.
Pine, Cynthia M; Dugdill, Lindsey
Partnerships for health promotion are between two or more partners to work co-operatively towards a set of shared health outcomes; few public-private partnerships in oral health promotion have been established. To undertake a detailed analysis of a unique global public-private partnership to promote oral health between a global company, Unilever and the Féderation Dentaire International (FDI), a membership organisation representing more than one million dentists worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative, including: collating and analysing a wide range of partnership documents (n =164); reviewing film and pictorial records; undertaking structured interviews (n=34) with people who had a critical role in establishing and delivering the aims of the partnership, and external experts; and site visits to selected global projects active at the time of the evaluation. Over 1 million people have been reached directly through their engagement with 39 projects in 36 countries; an oral health message about the benefits of twice daily tooth brushing has appeared with the authority of the FDI logo on billions of packs of Unilever Oral Care's toothpastes worldwide; many individual members of National Dental Associations have participated in health promotion activities within their communities for the first time; some organisational challenges during the development and delivery of the partnership were recognised by both partners. The first phase of this unique global partnership has been successful in making major progress towards achieving its goals; lessons learned have ensured that the next phase of the partnership has significant potential to contribute to improving oral health globally. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.
Full Text Available In developing countries, the government which has limited budget for public infrastructure development should choose which infrastructure should be developed. Most countries decided to build more economic infrastructure than social infrastructure because former have direct economic impact for society. The involvement of private sector in public infrastructure financing has been accomplished for decades in the form of Public Private Partnership (PPP. However, the implementation is also more often for economic infrastructure, but some countries have started to implement PPP for social infrastructure (education, healthcare, care of the elderly, etc. when they think to add human capital and improve quality of life. This study attempts to review a set of public private partnership implementation models relevant for social infrastructure development in some countries. Moreover, this study also more explores to the challenges and issues in different areas of social infrastructure. The outcome is to show a trend public-private partnership for social infrastructure in some successful projects from different countries. The challenges and issues about implementation public-private partnership for social infrastructure also be a part of the results from this study. Finally, the study has a valuable input for implementation of PPP on social infrastructure in Indonesia.
Full Text Available The overview image of the public-private partnership is represented by cooperation between the public and private actors to carry out the activities of public interest, cooperation based on the capacities of each partner to allocate properly the resources, risks and benefits. The main elements of the institutional framework are established by the national legislation. The traditional domains for the development of the partnerships are necessary at the national level and for infrastructure. The increasing tendency toward decentralization of the provision of services introduces a lot of public-private opportunities like health, education and other social services in the non-traditional areas, as well. The study analysis presents the idea of partnership as a means of solving the problem of more and more limited resources which are at the disposal of public administration. The quality of legal framework and government policies for the development of partnerships gives to this way of cooperation, either the quality of strategy in the public policies, which purpose is to obtain greater benefits by combining the resources of those two sectors, or the limited solution to the re-launch of the economy and to meet the general interest.
Van den Hurk, Martijn; Brogaard, Lena; Lember, Veiko
Most countries that have adopted the public–private partnership (PPP) model as a means of implementing infrastructure projects have launched dedicated supporting units to guide policy development and stimulate project implementation. This paper draws on the theoretical notion of PPP-enabling fields...... to carry out a comparative analysis of the roles and functions of PPP-supporting units across 19 European countries with varying PPP experiences. We distinguish four categories of national support of PPPs, from skeptical systems of zero support to full-fledged PPP systems. Furthermore, we take initial...... steps to analyze the possible link between national differences in institutionalized PPP support and the amount of implemented PPP projects. Finally, pathways for further research on PPP-supporting units are discussed....
Effective communication between doctor and patient is a critical component of high-quality care. The physician's credibility has a significant effect on treatment outcomes. Because changes in medicine and larger cultural trends challenge the ability of clinicians to engage their patients' trust, new kinds of partnerships must be created. To do this effectively, physicians have to sharpen their communication skills and devise strategies for assuring that their patients become informed allies in their own treatment. A number of innovations are helping to build these alliances: training in communication skills; creative uses of the Internet and videotape technologies; improved "customer service" programs; critical pathways for patients; and special educational aids. All these tools promise to be useful, but they require careful development and evaluation.
Public Policy and Protection from Exclusion - Phase III ... and decision-makers active in the promotion of equitable health policies, with a view to promoting the emergence of an observatory of health systems in the ... Policy in Focus publishes a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.
Shigematsu, Yukako; Hatano, Yoko; Kimura, Hitoe
The objective of this study was to develop and test a Partnership Development Process Assessment (PDPA) scale for content and construct validity and internal consistency reliability. This is needed to document and evaluate community health partnership development processes between public health nurses and community-based organizations in Japan. The study was conducted in three phases. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted to generate items for a new scale. Thirty items were generated and reviewed by an expert panel for content validity and item refinement. A national postal survey of public health nurses was conducted to determine the scale's internal structure, evaluate its reliability, and explore its construct and criterion validity. Validity and reliability testing of the PDPA scale using a content validity index and analysis of correlations with an existing scale were performed. Twenty-six items were selected and grouped into four factors: activities to share roles to manage community health issues, platform activities to support partnerships, activities to evaluate partnership practices, and activities to share information regarding community health issues. After factor analysis, 23 items were retained. The PDPA scale is a valid and reliable instrument for public health nurses to assess partnership development activities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mudyarabikwa, Oliver; Tobi, Patrick; Regmi, Krishna
Aim To examine assumptions about public-private partnership (PPP) activities and their role in improving public procurement of primary healthcare surgeries. PPPs were developed to improve the quality of care and patient satisfaction. However, evidence of their effectiveness in delivering health benefits is limited. A qualitative study design was employed. A total of 25 interviews with public sector staff (n=23) and private sector managers (n=2) were conducted to understand their interpretations of assumptions in the activities of private investors and service contractors participating in Local Improvement Finance Trust (LIFT) partnerships. Realist evaluation principles were applied in the data analysis to interpret the findings. Six thematic areas of assumed health benefits were identified: (i) quality improvement; (ii) improved risk management; (iii) reduced procurement costs; (iv) increased efficiency; (v) community involvement; and (vi) sustainable investment. Primary Care Trusts that chose to procure their surgeries through LIFT were expected to support its implementation by providing an environment conducive for the private participants to achieve these benefits. Private participant activities were found to be based on a range of explicit and tacit assumptions perceived helpful in achieving government objectives for LIFT. The success of PPPs depended upon private participants' (i) capacity to assess how PPP assumptions added value to their activities, (ii) effectiveness in interpreting assumptions in their expected activities, and (iii) preparedness to align their business principles to government objectives for PPPs. They risked missing some of the expected benefits because of some factors constraining realization of the assumptions. The ways in which private participants preferred to carry out their activities also influenced the extent to which expected benefits were achieved. Giving more discretion to public than private participants over critical
Gaughan, Monica; Gillman, Laura B; Boumbulian, Paul; Davis, Marsha; Galen, Robert S
We describe and assess how the College of Public Health at the University of Georgia, established in 2005, has developed formal institutional mechanisms to facilitate community-university partnerships that serve the needs of communities and the university. The College developed these partnerships as part of its founding; therefore, the University of Georgia model may serve as an important model for other new public health programs. One important lesson is the need to develop financial and organizational mechanisms that ensure stability over time. Equally important is attention to how community needs can be addressed by faculty and students in academically appropriate ways. The integration of these 2 lessons ensures that the academic mission is fulfilled at the same time that community needs are addressed. Together, these lessons suggest that multiple formal strategies are warranted in the development of academically appropriate and sustainable university-community partnerships.
McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E
This paper explores a partnership between British American Tobacco (BAT) and the environmental organisation Earthwatch Europe (EE) and considers its implications for countries implementing Article 5.3 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. We reviewed approximately 100 internal BAT documents, interviewed EE's former executive director and examined media accounts and BAT and EE websites. We analysed materials by reviewing them iteratively, identifying themes, constructing a timeline of events and assembling a case study. BAT sought a partnership with EE to gain a global ally that could provide entrée into the larger non-governmental organisation (NGO) community. EE debated the ethics of working with BAT, resolving them in BAT's favour and taking a narrow view of its own overall organisational mission. To protect its reputation, EE delayed public disclosure of the partnership. Instead, EE promoted it to policy-makers and other NGOs, extending BAT's reputation and reach into influential circles. The potential for normalising the tobacco industry presence within government through NGO partnerships and the benefits that accrued to BAT even when the partnership was not being publicised show why governments seeking to protect effective tobacco control policies from industry influence need to consider ways to identify and discourage 'hidden' NGO partnerships.
Eghbalnia, Cynthia; Sharkey, Ken; Garland-Porter, Denisha; Alam, Mohammad; Crumpton, Marilyn; Jones, Camille; Ryan, Patrick H
The authors implemented and assessed the effectiveness of a public health initiative aimed at reducing traffic-related air pollution exposure of the school community at four Cincinnati public schools. A partnership was fostered with academic environmental health researchers and community members. Anti-idling campaign materials were developed and education and training were provided to school bus drivers, students, parents, and school staff. Pledge drives and pre- and posteducation assessments were documented to measure the effectiveness of the program. After completing the educational component of the public health initiative, bus drivers (n = 397), community members (n = 53), and staff (n = 214) demonstrated significantly increased knowledge about the health effects of idling (p public health intervention. A community-driven public health initiative can be effective in both 1) enhancing community awareness about the benefits of reducing idling vehicles and 2) increasing active participation in idling reduction. The partnership initially developed has continued to develop toward a sustainable and growing process.
Wadi B. Alonazi
Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural assimilation of the process through which health partners sustain long-term relationships is a key issue in maintaining social well-being, reducing health risk factors, and sustaining public health programs. One global initiative in building effective healthcare systems is public-private partnerships (PPPs. This study elucidates the proposed key performance indicators initiated by the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia based on the projections of the government, known as Vision 2030, from the perspective of health risk factors. Methods Through an inductive content analysis, this study assessed primary and secondary data in relation to the Saudi National Transformation Program (NTP. To identify the institutions that played a role in formulating the new Saudi Healthcare System, health policies, regulations, and reports published between 1996 and 2016 were categorized. After ranking the risk factors, the investigator selected 13 healthcare professionals in four focus group interviews to insightfully explore the challenges that the NTP faces from a health risk perspective. Thus, the study employed qualitative data gathered through focus group interviews with key figures as well as data extracted from written sources to identify distinct but interrelated partnerships practiced within risk management. Results A methodological overview of NTP priority and implementation offered practical guidance in the healthcare context. The five critical factors in maintaining successful and sustainable PPPs were (1 trustworthiness, (2 technological capability, (3 patient-centeredness, (4 competence, and (5 flexibility. Concession on primary and secondary healthcare services might be a good option based on the literature review and considering its popularity in other countries. A high outcome-based risk of PPPs was found as the most commonly shared perspective in risk management. Conclusions Although the impact of the NTP rise has yet
Tolstrup Christensen, Lene; Greve, Carsten
The paper examines how the PPP‐policy has developed in a country with low PPP activity. The paper focuses on the following research questions: How does collaboration occur between the public and private sector in relation to the provision of transport infrastructure and public service? How does...... infrastructure projects and public service provision contracts in the transport sector within roads and busses, bridges and tunnels, rail, airports and aviation and harbors. The projects will be categorized in relation to organizational and financial models and it leads to a. discussion of types of policy...
Full Text Available It’s known in the literature that public-private partnerships (PPPs are one the main instruments that permit private collaboration in projects that are public otherwise. It’s also clear that their implementation is different depending on the rules of the countries, their market level of acceptance etc. The first objective of this paper is to revise PPPs projects in the water sector in Albania, seen in the context of alternative financing ways for joint-stock companies of Albanian water sector, due to the nature of the market (a developing emerging market, in the context of bad financial times after 2008 (the start of the international financial crisis. The second objective is to describe the development of the Albanian legislation for management contracts introduced for the first time in the waters and sanitation sector in 2004 and privatization practices in public sector. The main conclusion is that in the developing markets creating possibilities for private sector participation in the infrastructure public services (especially in the drinking water and sanitation sector will be seen with skepticism because of failed previous privatization practices or the sensitivity degree of the water sector related to the penetration level of private factor in the sector. Public finance will be explored as a convenient alternative.
Hueskes, Marlies; Koppenjan, Joop; Verweij, Stefan
Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) have attracted considerable attention in the Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium), as witnessed by the recent wave of doctoral theses on this topic. This paper presents a review of fourteen Dutch and Flemish doctoral theses, published in the period 2012-2015. The
Adebayo, Florence Aduke; Ayegbusi, Emmanuel Taiwo
Public-Private Partnership could be defined as the collaboration between two for improved services to bring about change that will influence employment creation and boost the economy of any country. In this paper, it is perceived as a twin sister that could work together for effectiveness and efficiency to promote employment creation. While on the…
Reynaers, A.; Grimmelikhuijsen, S.
Scholars' criticism of transparency in public-private partnerships (PPPs) often focuses on ‘external’ transparency, that is, the extent to which internal information is visible to the outside world. However, to achieve external transparency, internal transparency - the availability and inferability
Various definitions have been framed for public-private partnerships (PPPs) in health depending on the desired relationship and the characteristics of the respective sectors. These relationships span from a continuum of loose relationships with narrow objectives, lack of a legal status and an absence of a formalized ...
This podcast is the third of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about how building credibility on preparedness issues can help develop support for initiatives around chronic disease prevention.
This podcast is the last installment of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and Georgia State University's Michael Eriksen discuss how some lessons learned in the tobacco control experience might be relevant for the obesity epidemic.
Ask for a definition of the word public-private partnership in a room filled with people from different cultures, and their answers may differ remarkably. The American of the group might refer to privatization and contracting out of traditional government services. A Dutch person might think of a
Kajkova Anastasija Ivanovna
Full Text Available In article historical stages of emergence and state-private partnership (SPP development as tool of the public relations are investigated, the main lines of process of its formation are revealed, potential subjects of business - "participants of SPP" in economic system "tourism" are considered.
van den Hurk, M.; Verhoest, K.
Although public-private partnership (PPP) in infrastructure development has gained foothold in Flanders (the northern part of Belgium) over time, dissimilar results are evident and the controversy around PPP remains. This paper investigates the contradictory achievements of the Flemish Sports
Simpson Steele, Jamie
El Sistema is a Venezuelan program of social change that has inspired a worldwide movement in music education. El Sistema inspires social transformation and musical excellence to occur simultaneously and symbiotically. This study examines: What does El Sistema look like within the context of a public school partnership in the United States? How do…
Daniela Soleri; Jonathan W. Long; Monica D. Ramirez-Andreotta; Ruth Eitemiller; Rajul Pandyaǁ
For many, citizen science is exciting because of the possibility for more diverse, equitable partnerships in scientific research with outcomes considered meaningful and useful by all, including public participants. This was the focus of a symposium we organized at the 2015 conference of the Citizen Science Association. Here we synthesize points made by symposium...
This podcast is the second of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about sharing resources and forming relationships that address chronic diseases, as well as urgent health threats, such as terrorism.
Leenaars, K.; Jacobs-van der bruggen, M.; Renders, C.M.
Introduction A public-private partnership (PPP) is an essential component of the Dutch community-based approach toward overweight prevention, Youth on Healthy Weight (JOGG). Beginning in 2010, 25 Dutch municipalities have implemented JOGG, but little is known about determinants of successful
This report details the evaluation of the Federal Highway Administrations Office of Innovative Program Delivery Public-Private Partnership (P3) Capacity Building Program (P3 Program). The evaluators focused on the P3 Programs P3 Toolkit as an e...
The 'Linking up: Public-Private Partnerships in Power Transmission in Africa' report examines private sector-led investments in transmission globally and how this approach is applicable in sub-Saharan Africa. The private sector has invested over US$25 billion in the generation sector in Africa, and across other regions, has also participated successfully in transmission networks in many co...
It is therefore essential to examine the reasons for the collapse to avoid the pitfalls of the past and to ensure that a more sustainable and competent partnership is built for the future. The Eastern Cape is one of the most impoverished provinces of South Africa and can only benefit by better cooperation between the public and ...
van den Hurk, M.; Verhoest, K.
A call for an increased use of standard contracts in public-private partnerships (PPPs) for infrastructure development is noticeable in practice. These contracts are expected to simplify and improve procurement by creating opportunities for learning, lower transaction costs, and better competition.
Record, Vincent N.
Purpose: The study aimed to define common characteristics of successful school-community partnerships supporting the improvement of academic achievement in public elementary schools. Based on the perceptions of elementary school administrators, this study identified important factors of, barriers to, and benefits of successful school-community…
Goto, Aya; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Van, Nguyen Thi Tu; Phuc, Trinh Huu; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Yasumura, Seiji; Khue, Nguyen Thi
Development of academic partnerships between developing and developed countries is a sustainable approach to build research capacity in the developing world. International collaboration between the Department of Public Health of Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine in Japan and the University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City…
Wills, Monica; Brewer, Curtis; Knoeppel, Robert; Witte, James; Pargas, Roy; Lindle, Jane Clark
In 2008, due to increasing stakeholder dissatisfaction with assessment results and school report cards, South Carolina revised its 1998 Educational Accountability Act and required public engagement with stakeholders including parents/guardians, educators, business and community leaders, and taxpayers. The legislation created partnerships between…
Massive growth in the numbers of fee-paying international students and an increasing private sector role are two of the most salient features of Australian higher education in the past quarter century. Both these trends were evident in a little known partnership, involving a public regional university and a private entrepreneur, which had its…
Nieto, Margaret; Kubo, Christine, Ed.
This guidebook was developed as an aid to communities seeking to create partnerships between public and private sector sources to reduce the youth unemployment among Hispanics. The International City Management Association (ICMA), as part of a project sponsored by the Department of Health and Human Services, identifies six model ventures using the…
S. B. Vasiliev
Full Text Available The article examines the basic approach to evaluating efficiency of financing transport infrastructure projects realized in the framework of public private partnership. The main ways of the project realization are identified, and their main advantages and disadvantages are described. Detailed elaboration and structuring of infrastructure projects are grounded.
E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans); G.R. Teisman (Geert)
textabstractPublic-Private Partnerships (PPPs) are becoming popular in Europe, but does the reality match the idea of co-operating actors who achieve added value together and share risks? An analysis of three PPPs in the Netherlands suggests that, in practice, PPPs are less ideal than the idea.
E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans); G.R. Teisman (Geert)
textabstractPublic Private Partnerships (PPP) have been much discussed throughout Europe, but does the practice match the idea of cooperating actors who achieve added value together and share risks? An analysis of three cases of PPP in The Netherlands suggests that practice tends to be less ideal
community within a public-private partnership model to drive an innovation economy forward for the nation. Ad- ditive manufacturing is a game-changer...also is an incredibly powerful teaching tool to reinvigorate Science, Technology, Engineering and Math - ematics—or STEM—education in the United States
Public-private partnerships governing global health are making progress in relation to the prevention and treatment of diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. This progress should not be underestimated as these partnerships are making strides above and beyond efforts of either the public
Full Text Available A public-private partnership is a long-term contractual partner relationship between the public and private sector which may involve financing, design, construction, operation and/or maintenance of infrastructure and/or provision of services by the private sector which is traditionally procured and provided by the public sector. This model is gaining popularity in our modern age when governments are facing the challenge of protecting the public interest on one hand and meeting different (individualized needs of the citizens on the other. Citizens´ expectations are rising together with the demand for better quality and more affordable public services. Moreover, the confidence citizens have in their government and leaders depends to a large extent on the quality of the services they provide. Therefore, the role and significance of public-private partnership is becoming increasingly important, as can be seen from contemporary academic works dealing with law and economics that discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this public policy model. The purpose of this paper is to offer a short theoretical insight into the role and significance of the publicprivate partnership, especially in Croatia. In this paper several examples of the applied models of public-private partnership in the Republic of Croatia will be presented. There are also suggestions based on theoretical and practical analysis, especially from a legal and institutional point of view, of how to improve the application of this model in order to ensure a more efficient and effective way of providing public products and services.
Igor Viktorovich Linev
Full Text Available Need of research and introduction of innovative mechanisms of growth of economy of Russia in the conditions of the accruing crisis tendencies and external restrictions causes relevance of consideration of close interaction and mutually providing production and social infrastructures of the economic development forming additional eff ects in all variety of branches of industrial complex. Formation becomes the initiating factor of such interaction in modern conditions and eff ective use of domestic enterprise potential a necessary condition of which is state – private partnership (PPP. In this regard it is necessary to consider problems and problems of formation of conditions, forms and methods of use of PPP, for development of infrastructure as necessary complex of BasicElements of formation of advanced socially oriented market economy. As an object of research in article the organizational and economic relations assuming eff ective partnership of the government and private institutions for formation of complete and highly eff ective system of the production and social infrastructure causing an intensifi cation of synergetic and multiplicative eff ects of development of a civilized society are considered. Purposes/tasks. The main objective of a statement of materials in this article consists in theoretical justifi cation of basic provisions of realization of PPP in system of production and social infrastructure. The task to prove need of application of PPP for strengthening of multiplicative eff ect at development of this system is set. Methodology. In the methodological plan this work represents the state-of-the-art review of the social and economic processes happening in system of social and production infrastructure. When writing article the complex of general scientifi c methods of research including generalization, economical and statistical, system and analytical cluster and others was applied Results. As a result of performance of this
Bonke, Sten; Olsen, Ib Steen
as sustainability and economic welfare and prosperity in society. One approach to increasing the focus and rate of innovation processes is to facilitate closer interaction between at public and private companies targeting new thinking and innovation. This strategy characterises a Plan of Action, published...... work and 4)dissemination and implementation. Lessons learned through the experimental cases are discussed, and the applicability of PPP as an approach to innovation in construction is evaluated. Keywords: public private partnership, partnering, experimental projects, innovation process...
This podcast is the fifth of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about how the economic downturn will increase the demands on public heath. Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/6/2009.
peer-reviewed This paper was obtained through PEER (Publishing and the Ecology of European Research) http://www.peerproject.eu Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) transfer significant responsibility for infrastructure and public service delivery to the private sector. This raises questions in relation to accountability in the context of PPP. An important accountability mechanism is the Value for Money (VFM) assessment which procuring authorities in Ireland must conduct prior to adopti...
De Clerck, Dennis
A Public-private partnership (PPP) is a settlement between a public party and a contractor or private sector consortium to engage in a long-term contractual agreement for designing, building, operating and/or maintaining capital intensive projects, while trying to attain value for money. PPPs are globally gaining importance in the construction industry. The risk transfer from the contracting government towards the private entity has important repercussions on the tender. Contractors need to c...
In a context in which the social politics tend to become an optimization instrument for adapting the social security system to the market’s forces, and the talk of some analysts about reinventing the European social model, the partnership between the public sector and the private one in the social domain presumes, besides a tight collaboration, a combination of advantages specific to the private sector, more competitive and efficient, with the ones from the public sector, more responsible tow...
Marek Krzysztof Zając; Alina Zając
From the end of the third quarter of year 2000 the number of penal individuals crosses the number of places provided for them. Therefore building of many convict prisons is necessary. The problem is if the private enterprises should or can participate in. Publication portrays in small degree the current situation of prison management, the idea of PPP as well as advantages and disadvantages of building prisons in support of Public Private Partnership model.
Marek Krzysztof Zając
Full Text Available From the end of the third quarter of year 2000 the number of penal individuals crosses the number of places provided for them. Therefore building of many convict prisons is necessary. The problem is if the private enterprises should or can participate in. Publication portrays in small degree the current situation of prison management, the idea of PPP as well as advantages and disadvantages of building prisons in support of Public Private Partnership model.
Tokhmakhian, Zaruhi; Eiweida, Ahmed
Public-Private Participation (PPP) schemes were successfully implemented in several water utilities in Armenia, yielding excellent results for the development of the water and wastewater sectors. Armenia is one of the few countries in the region to have had such a successful PPP experience. For many years after the collapse of the Soviet economy, most of the water supply and sanitation sys...
Wagenaar, F.P.; Jorna, F.; Das, E.; Jezewski, J
A language barrier prevents us from understanding how other cultures look at public administration, as "semantic fields" differ between languages. These differences can never be fully grasped, but what we can do is study what happens when a particular concept crosses the border. In this article we
Involving the private sector in managing irrigation water is a first in the country, ... The Government of Morocco is currently considering similar public-private ... a 10,000-hectare site that provides a unique opportunity to compare the two models.
In 1999, Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) school superintendent David Hornbeck introduced educators and religious leaders to his requirement that each public school in the city develop a relationship with a faith partner, a religious institution that could share facilities and resources with the school. Hornbeck saw religious institutions and schools…
In many urban districts, the public education landscape is being transformed as private-sector providers such as educational management organizations, charter management organizations, and partner support organizations partner with or run district schools. While some private-sector providers' visions for school reform have remained static…
Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Bird, Julia K
Multi-stakeholder partnerships are important facilitators of improving nutrition in developing countries to achieve the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. Often, the role of industry is challenged and questions are raised as to the ethics of involving for-profit companies in humanitarian projects. The Second International Conference on Nutrition placed great emphasis on the role of the private sector, including industry, in multi-stakeholder partnerships to reduce hunger and malnutrition. Governments have to establish regulatory frameworks and institutions to guarantee fair competition and invest in infrastructure that makes investments for private companies attractive, eventually leading to economic growth. Civil society organizations can contribute by delivering nutrition interventions and behavioral change-related communication to consumers, providing capacity, and holding governments and private sector organizations accountable. Industry provides technical support, innovation, and access to markets and the supply chain. The greatest progress and impact can be achieved if all stakeholders cooperate in multi-stakeholder partnerships aimed at improving nutrition, thereby strengthening local economies and reducing poverty and inequality. Successful examples of public-private partnerships exist, as well as examples in which these partnerships did not achieve mutually agreed objectives. The key requirements for productive alliances between industry and civil society organizations are the establishment of rules of engagement, transparency and mutual accountability. The Global Social Observatory performed a consultation on conflicts of interest related to the Scaling Up Nutrition movement and provided recommendations to prevent, identify, manage and monitor potential conflicts of interest. Multi-stakeholder partnerships can be successful models in improving nutrition if they meet societal demand with transparent decision-making and execution. Solutions to
Schmidt, David; Dmytryk, Neil
Difficulty in attracting allied health staff to rural areas is well known. In 2012, a small rural health facility and local private practice created an informal public-private partnership to recruit two new-graduate physiotherapists. Graduates were employed part-time in both the public and private sectors. This qualitative case study employed an appreciative enquiry framework to explore this partnership model. Three focus groups were held, and a combination of content and thematic analysis was used to derive and organise themes arising from the data. A regional public health service and private physiotherapy practice in the Bega Valley region of south-eastern New South Wales, Australia. New-graduate and second-year physiotherapists (n = 5), private sector managers (n = 3), and public sector managers (n = 4). Perceived benefits of the partnership model and improvements that could be made to further develop the model. Organisational benefits of a shared public-private role included the ability to attract high-quality applicants to difficult-to-fill positions, reduced the risk of new-graduate attrition due to social isolation, enhanced networking between sectors, and enhanced staff skill development through a broad range of clinical and non-clinical experiences. The model relied on management flexibility and has potential to expand to other areas and professions. Dedicated funding support, targeted recruitment strategies and increased planning to ease the transition into the workplace would further enhance the model. An informal public-private partnership to overcome established workforce shortages has proven successful to the benefit of the new graduates and both the public and private sectors. © 2014 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Full Text Available Public-private partnerships (PPP are an important governance strategy that has recently emerged as a solution to enhance the access of marginalised residents to urban infrastructures. With the inception of neo-liberal economic reforms in India, in Indian cities too PPP has emerged as an innovative approach to expand coverage of water supply and sanitation infrastructures. However, there has been little study of the dynamics of partnership efforts in different urban contexts: What role do they play in transforming existing infrastructure regimes? Do reform strategies such as partnerships result in increased privatisation or do they make the governance of infrastructures more participative? Reviewing some of the recent literature on urban political analysis, this article develops the concept of water supply regime to describe the context of water provision in three metropolitan cities in India. To further our understanding of the role of PPP within regimes, this article sketches five cases of water supply and sanitation partnerships located within these three metropolitan cities. From these empirical studies, the article arrives at the conclusion that while PPP are always products of the regime-context they are inserted within, quite often strategic actors in the partnership use the PPP to further their interests by initiating a shift in the regime pathway. This leads us to conclude that PPPs do play a role in making water supply regimes more participative but that depends on the nature of the regime as well as the actions of partners.
The literature on policy approaches for the market support of renewable electricity is dominated by narrow conceptualizations of policy, referring mostly to direct instruments for economic feasibility. Such approaches often led to unsatisfactory explanations of diffusion results. This is the case of wind power diffusion in Spain, the success of which is typically credited to the 'feed-in-tariff' instrument. This paper offers an alternative explanatory account for wind power diffusion in Spain. It is argued that diffusion can be explained by a less obvious policy of stimulating investments by means of public-private partnerships (PPPs). The three legal frameworks for economic feasibility applicable up to 2004 harbored high economic risks. Although projects could have high profitability because of generous investment subsidies, up to mid 1990s most investments were based on PPPs, to address the risk perceptions of early investors. Fully-private partnerships now dominate investments, though PPPs have not disappeared. Next to winning investors' confidence, the PPP policy led to an investment culture whereby partnership investments dominate. By 2000, 95.7% of the installed wind capacity was owned by partnerships, and only 4.3% by individual companies. Partnerships invest in larger projects, have ambitious investment plans, and these lead to a high diffusion tempo
Auriol, Emmanuelle; Blanc, Aymeric
The paper analyzes the costs and benefits of private participation in the electricity and water industries in Sub- Saharan Africa. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the participation of private unregulated firms in the supply of services for the middle class and poor is fairly common in the region. This private involvement reflects the extreme weakness of African governments. By contrast, service to the rich is provided by public utilities. Theory then suggests that prices should be high, so that the public firms make a profit. Yet piped water, and to a lesser extent electricity, are heavily subsidized. This signals a problem of capture by the ruling elite. It is a matter of justice and efficiency to increase public utilities revenues to subsidize investment and fiscal relief. This is especially relevant in electricity, where the economies of scale are much larger than in water. Electrification is the biggest challenge to the African economy because it requires huge investment. Local and regional private investors can play a non-negligible role in reducing penury. However, their involvement is conditional on the financial health of the sector and on strong government commitment. (authors)
Hawkes, Sarah; Buse, Kent; Kapilashrami, Anuj
The Global Public Private Partnerships for Health (GPPPH) constitute an increasingly central part of the global health architecture and carry both financial and normative power. Gender is an important determinant of health status, influencing differences in exposure to health determinants, health behaviours, and the response of the health system. We identified 18 GPPPH - defined as global institutions with a formal governance mechanism which includes both public and private for-profit sector actors - and conducted a gender analysis of each. Gender was poorly mainstreamed through the institutional functioning of the partnerships. Half of these partnerships had no mention of gender in their overall institutional strategy and only three partnerships had a specific gender strategy. Fifteen governing bodies had more men than women - up to a ratio of 5:1. Very few partnerships reported sex-disaggregated data in their annual reports or coverage/impact results. The majority of partnerships focused their work on maternal and child health and infectious and communicable diseases - none addressed non-communicable diseases (NCDs) directly, despite the strong role that gender plays in determining risk for the major NCD burdens. We propose two areas of action in response to these findings. First, GPPPH need to become serious in how they "do" gender; it needs to be mainstreamed through the regular activities, deliverables and systems of accountability. Second, the entire global health community needs to pay greater attention to tackling the major burden of NCDs, including addressing the gendered nature of risk. Given the inherent conflicts of interest in tackling the determinants of many NCDs, it is debatable whether the emergent GPPPH model will be an appropriate one for addressing NCDs.
Full Text Available Abstract The need for public-private partnerships arose against the backdrop of inadequacies on the part of the public sector to provide public good on their own, in an efficient and effective manner, owing to lack of resources and management issues. These considerations led to the evolution of a range of interface arrangements that brought together organizations with the mandate to offer public good on one hand, and those that could facilitate this goal though the provision of resources, technical expertise or outreach, on the other. The former category includes of governments and intergovernmental agencies and the latter, the non-profit and for-profit private sector. Though such partnerships create a powerful mechanism for addressing difficult problems by leveraging on the strengths of different partners, they also package complex ethical and process-related challenges. The complex transnational nature of some of these partnership arrangements necessitates that they be guided by a set of global principles and norms. Participation of international agencies warrants that they be set within a comprehensive policy and operational framework within the organizational mandate and involvement of countries requires legislative authorization, within the framework of which, procedural and process related guidelines need to be developed. This paper outlines key ethical and procedural issues inherent to different types of public-private arrangements and issues a Global Call to Action.
Kester, Donald L.; Plakos, John; Santos, Will
The report details the third-year evaluation of a transitional bilingual education project at Chester W. Nimitz Middle School in Huntington Park, California. The Family/School Partnership Project is designed to assist limited English proficient students in mastering English skills to transition to regular classroom activities by integrating…
Mannar, M G Venkatesh; van Ameringen, Marc
Iron, iodine, and vitamin A deficiencies prevent 30% of the world's population from reaching full physical and mental potential. Fortification of commonly eaten foods with micronutrients offers a cost-effective solution that can reach large populations. Effective and sustainable fortification will be possible only if the public sector (which has the mandate and responsibility to improve the health of the population), the private sector (which has experience and expertise in food production and marketing), and the social sector (which has grass-roots contact with the consumer) collaborate to develop, produce, and promote micronutrient-fortified foods. Food fortification efforts must be integrated within the context of a country's public health and nutrition situation as part of an overall micronutrient strategy that utilizes other interventions as well. Identifying a set of priority actions and initiating a continuous dialogue between the various sectors to catalyze the implementation of schemes that will permanently eliminate micronutrient malnutrition are urgently needed. The partners of such a national alliance must collaborate closely on specific issues relating to the production, promotion, distribution, and consumption of fortified foods. Such collaboration could benefit all sectors: National governments could reap national health, economic, and political benefits; food companies could gain a competitive advantage in an expanding consumer marketplace; the scientific, development, and donor communities could make an impact by achieving global goals for eliminating micronutrient malnutrition; and by demanding fortified foods, consumers empower themselves to achieve their full social and economic potential.
... Proposed Information Collection to OMB Public/Private Partnerships for the Mixed-Finance Development of... Mixed-Finance development of public housing units. This meant that Public Housing Authorities (PHAs) could create public housing projects using public housing grant or capital funds and non-HUD sources of...
McIntosh, Nathalie; Grabowski, Aria; Jack, Brian; Nkabane-Nkholongo, Elizabeth Limakatso; Vian, Taryn
Health care public-private partnerships (PPPs) between a government and the private sector are based on a business model that aims to leverage private-sector expertise to improve clinical performance in hospitals and other health facilities. Although the financial implications of such partnerships have been analyzed, few studies have examined the partnerships' impact on clinical performance outcomes. Using quantitative measures that reflected capacity, utilization, clinical quality, and patient outcomes, we compared a government-managed hospital network in Lesotho, Africa, and the new PPP-managed hospital network that replaced it. In addition, we used key informant interviews to help explain differences in performance. We found that the PPP-managed network delivered more and higher-quality services and achieved significant gains in clinical outcomes, compared to the government-managed network. We conclude that health care public-private partnerships may improve hospital performance in developing countries and that changes in management and leadership practices might account for differences in clinical outcomes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Yarmoshuk, Aaron N; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Mwangu, Mughwira; Cole, Donald C; Zarowsky, Christina
International university partnerships are recommended for increasing the capacity of sub-Saharan African universities. Many publications describe individual partnerships and projects, and tools are available for guiding collaborations, but systematic mappings of the basic, common characteristics of partnerships are scarce. To document and categorize the international interuniversity partnerships deemed significant to building the capacity of medicine, nursing, and public health programs of 4 East African universities. Two universities in Kenya and 2 in Tanzania were purposefully selected. Key informant interviews, conducted with 42 senior representatives of the 4 universities, identified partnerships they considered significant for increasing the capacity of their institutions' medicine, nursing, and public health programs in education, research, or service. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Partners were classified by country of origin and corresponding international groupings, duration, programs, and academic health science components. One hundred twenty-nine university-to-university partnerships from 23 countries were identified. Each university reported between 25 and 36 international university partners. Seventy-four percent of partnerships were with universities in high-income countries, 15% in low- and middle-income countries, and 11% with consortia. Seventy percent included medicine, 37% nursing, and 45% public health; 15% included all 3 programs. Ninety-two percent included an education component, 47% research, and 24% service; 12% included all 3 components. This study confirms the rapid growth of interuniversity cross-border health partnerships this century. It also finds, however, that there is a pool of established international partnerships from numerous countries at each university. Most partnerships that seek to strengthen universities in East Africa should likely ensure they have a significant education component. Universities should make
Vladimir B. Zotov
Full Text Available Public-private partnership (PPP is a complex mechanism, which includes a variety of industry legislation, which together form a system of legislative regulation of relations at the interaction of private and public parties in the realization of long-term capital-intensive investment projects for the development of public infrastructure. The article describes the current state of PPP in the Russian Federation, the analysis of the main problems and needs integrated action (regulatory, institutional and investment to improve and develop this project.
Koch, Christian; Buser, Martine
Implementing private public partnerships in Denmark has been a long and reluctant process. PPP developed among municipalities from the late nineties, but was halted because of a scandal in 2002. In 2004 the government launched an action plan, and PPP are emerging again. Drawing on new public...... management perspectives, public services are viewed as a network of mixed players with a regulatory framework, a metagovernance. Examples of Danish PPP initiatives are given. The present metagovernance consists of a comparator, guidelines, feasibility studies and a central competence unit. New issues like...... employment relations are surfacing. PPPs are thus emergent political arenas....
Koch, Christian; Buser, Martine
Implementing private public partnerships in Denmark has been a long and reluctant process. PPP developed among municipalities from the late nineties, but was halted because of a scandal in 2002. In 2004 the government launched an action plan, and PPP are emerging again. Drawing on new public...... management perspectives, public services are viewed as a network of mixed players with a regulatory framework, a metagovernance. Examples of Danish PPP initiatives are given. The present metagovernance consists of a comparator, guidelines, feasibility studies and a central competence unit. New issues like...... employment relations are surfacing. PPPs are thus emergent political arenas....
Full Text Available The procedure for making a decision on the implementation of public-private partnership, which has developed in Ukraine was examined in the article. Three consecutive stages of preparation for the implementation of projects of partnership between the state and business were сomprehensively considered. The main disadvantages of each stage were determined and suggestions for their improvement were given.
Ignacio De Los Ríos-Carmenado
Full Text Available There is growing interest in the ability of both private–public partnerships and entrepreneurship to promote sustainable rural development. This research outlines the historical chronology and the importance of the PPP (Private Public Partnership for rural entrepreneurship; the complexity of PPP management dimensions is also analyzed. In addition, this research is based on an empiric study of a PPP for entrepreneurship in sustainable development in the North Highland of Madrid’s community, with more than 20 years of experience. This PPP is managed according to the Working With People (WWP model, which is for the management of complex projects in the sustainable rural development field, and aims to promote the development of competences amongst the parties involved. The results show the positive effects in terms of entrepreneurship’s competences for sustainable rural development and the parties involved who create the PPP management model for entrepreneurship and the Torrearte Project.
This podcast is the last installment of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and Georgia State University's Michael Eriksen discuss how some lessons learned in the tobacco control experience might be relevant for the obesity epidemic. Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/6/2009.
This article provides a structured framework for research into the accounting implications of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs). PPPs worldwide have taken on increasing significance as a tool that governments can use to develop infrastructure and for the delivery of services. Given the minimal coverage in the literature of the Victorian State Government experience to date regarding the efficacy of PPPs, this report establishes a number of parameters from which academics can conduct research ...
This paper investigates the framework for human capital development in Nigeria through a public-private partnership (PPP) approach. No doubt, population of a country determines the subsisted human capital resources and this in turn determines the economic status of such country. Therefore, human capital development becomes a mantra for economic development. Unfortunately, government spending on education and health is so negligible as to make any meaningful impact on Nigerian economy. It is...
Perry, Cheryl L; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kohl III, Harold W
Background Childhood obesity remains a significant global problem with immediate and long-term individual health and societal consequences. Targets for change should include the most potent and predictive factors for obesity at all levels of the personal, social and physical environments. The Michael & Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living (?the Center?) is a public-private partnership that was developed to address child health issues through research, service, and education. This overview pap...
This podcast is the second of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about sharing resources and forming relationships that address chronic diseases, as well as urgent health threats, such as terrorism. Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/6/2009.
This podcast is the third of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about how building credibility on preparedness issues can help develop support for initiatives around chronic disease prevention. Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/6/2009.
Ezebilo, Eugene E; Animasaun, Emmanuel D
In most developing countries public-private sector partnership is becoming increasingly applied in household waste management service delivery especially in urban areas to reduce cost and improve effectiveness. This paper reports a study of householders' perceptions of public-private sector partnership in provision of household waste management services in Ilorin, south-west Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 224 households for the study. The data generated from the survey were analysed using a binary logit model. The results show that most of the respondents were of the opinion that the public-private partnership has not been able to improve household waste management services. Time taken to visit solid waste collection point, income and marital status negatively influenced their perceptions, while activities of sanitary inspectors, occupation and gender had positive influence. The public-private partnership will be more effective and sustainable if the public sector could pay more attention to performance monitoring and accountability.
This paper examines the impact of strategic interactions on Private-Public Partnerships (PPPs) in space. Though there is substantial business and economics literature on PPPs, it is traditionally focused on the relationships within the partnerships (low level) and the respective factors affecting its success. The contribution of this paper is that it examines the political economy of PPPs, analysing how `high-level' strategic interactions across public-private sectors in Europe and the US determine their behaviour and success. Within this context, the European case of Galileo and other national space projects, such as the US plans for a space-based anti- missile defence, are each based on different types of PPPs, confined within the geographical borders of the two areas. The security and commercial benefits of such programmes for the respective space industries and economies have a direct impact on the other area's industry and sense of security. The paper shows that trans- Atlantic cooperation at public policy level is essential to allow the respective industries to explore the benefits of cross-border strategic research partnerships (SRPs). This will reduce the costs of the respective programmes, addressing security concerns.
Sturchio, Jeffrey L; Cohen, Gary M
The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), established in 2003, is widely recognized as one of the most ambitious and successful bilateral programs ever implemented to address a single disease. Part of the program's success is attributable to the participation of the private sector, working in partnership with the US and local governments and implementing organizations to maximize the reach and effectiveness of every dollar spent. We examined key public-private partnerships that grew out of PEPFAR to identify features that have made them effective. For example, PEPFAR's Supply Chain Management System took advantage of private industry's best practices in logistics, and a partnership with the medical technology company BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company) improved laboratory systems throughout sub-Saharan Africa. We found that setting ambitious goals, enlisting both global and local partners, cultivating a culture of collaboration, careful planning, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and measuring outcomes systematically led to the most effective programs. The Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator and PEPFAR should continue to strengthen their capacity for private-sector partnerships, learning from a decade of experience and identifying new ways to make smart investments that will make the most efficient use of taxpayer resources, expand proven interventions more rapidly, and help ensure the sustainability of key programs.
Pana Elena Cristina
Full Text Available Public-private partnership (PPP is considered an important tool in financing public sector investments, its purpose being to provide more capital to invest in the most efficient manner. PPPs development has become more important as the economic and financial crisis has challenged the ability of the public bugets to raise adequate financial means and to allocate resources to specific projects. Local governments agree with the participation in realization of PPPs, which leads to increased efficiency, a shorter implementation and a value of the provision of services as large as possible. The advantages of implementing concern: appropriate sharing of risks and responsibilities; mainly public sector retains sovereign powers and the private sector has tasks requiring the implementation; private investment lifecycle as decisive elements of the forms of stimulation of PPP is long; it provides a long-term contractual relationship and offers innovation, in particular by specification of results, level of service and payment mechanisms . In the Member States of the European Union, the adoption of public-private partnership was made differently from one sector to another and from one country to another. At this point one can distinguish three types, namely: " Advanced PPP adopters" with very important projects in the transport sector (road, rail and in the construction of public buildings and equipment (schools, hospitals, prisons but also in the environment sector( water / waste treatment, waste management ; "Medium PPP adopters ", with projects completed or under execution and excellent results in the transport sector; " PPP adopters at a low level ", where PPP is lacking in all sectors and is in a preliminary stage of adoption. Great Britain, Spain and Romania are three countries and at the same time three levels of adopting, corresponding to the three types of PPP adopters. Although the partnership is thought as one which must bring benefits to both
Full Text Available Public-private partnership (PPP is a means for the public sector to complete infrastructure projects by using the skills and the experience of the private sector. In many cases, PPP may also mean that the private sector finances public infrastructure investments. PPPs can present difficult and complex contractual issues for both the public and the private sector partners. The goal of this paper is to emphasize and to analyze the advantages and the risks posed by the publicprivate partnerships starting from the presentation of the experience acquired by the actors involved in the construction and the use of the Channel Tunnel. In addition, the paper aims to analyze the situation of the PPPs in Romania. Taking into consideration that, in the context of accession to the European Union, an increase in the number and importance of the PPP projects was observed at the level of several member states, the interest of the Romanian local public authorities in PPPs is prefigured to increase in the next period. The final part of the paper analyzes the causes of the reluctance manifested by the Romanian local authorities in using private resources to accomplish public investments.
Dai, Yue; Sun, Hong; Zhou, Li
Due to the quasi-public attributes of medical service, the supply mode and system could influence equity and fairness of general people's health. Based on the view of public economics, the purpose of this paper was to explain the economic nature of medical service supply. By analyzing the practice of public-private partnership (PPP) mode in medical care supply and the related public economic issues, we summarized the feasibility and risks of PPP model in Chinese medical care supply market. Finally, we discussed the innovative medical service system provided by government, public hospitals, and social capitals together. Therefore, to guarantee further development of this new medical service supply--PPP mode, we should pay attention to some practical problems, such as the share of cooperation cost and the balance between the benefit and risk among all partners.
Simeone, Jr, Matthew J
.... Virtual public-private partnerships (VP3s) offer local law enforcement agencies an effective and efficient way to leverage a vast and resourceful private sector for the purpose of enhancing ILP...
Private public partnerships are hesitant innovations, with a complex cross sectorial origin and domain. This is also the case in Denmark: In a first round, a PPP variant, sale and lease back, developed among municipalities from the late nineties, but was halted because of a scandal in 2002....... In 2004 the government launched an action plan, and PPP are emerging again, this time in several variants. Drawing on multiple perspectives, public services are viewed as a network of mixed players across sectors like construction, management consulting and finance, accompanied by a set of regulatory...
Valery Anatolyevich Tsevtkov; Kobilzhon Khodzhievich Zoidov; Alexey Anatolyevich Medkov
The article considers the main directions of the implementation of the current transportation and transit projects on the basis of the institution of public-private partnership in Russia. This work is a continuation of the study of the theory and practice of the application of public-private partnership in the investment projects aimed at the development and realization of the transportation and transit potential of the country. On the methodological basis of evolutionary and institu...
Dergachova Viktoriia V.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching the world experience of efficient interaction between the public and private sectors, defining the main advantages of the implementation of public-private partnership (PPP relations, identifying problems in the legislative base on regulation of the PPP process in Ukraine. Introduction and formation of public-private partnership as an instrument of attraction of investment resources and interaction of public and private sectors are considered. It has been found that lack of financing and negative experience of privatization of the State property caused the introduction of the PPP institute in the world practice. However, there is no single unified approach to the regulation of relations in the sphere of PPP presently, which would meet the needs of all countries. In Ukraine, this mechanism is being implemented, but it is not a widespread practice because of terminological discrepancies and lack of a uniform procedure for providing the State support to the implementation of PPP. The advantages of the PPP implementation for the public and private sectors have been determined.
Full Text Available Examining the interrelationships among critical success factors (CSFs for public private partnership (PPP projects is of importance for improving PPP project performance and maintaining the sustainability of PPP project implementation. Previous studies mostly focused on the identification of the CSFs for PPP projects; limited studies investigated the interrelationships among CSFs. Hence, the research objectives are (a to determine the interrelationships among CSFs of PPP projects taking into account the public and (b to identify influence paths contributing to take advantage of CSFs in the process of PPP implementation. A literature review and expert interviews were adopted to construct the CSFs framework; nine hypotheses were constructed and tested by the structural equation modelling (SEM based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey. This research reveals that the relationship between public and private partners is the leader-follower relationship, not the partnership relationship, in PPP projects, indicating that the responsibilities, power or resources existing among partners are very unequal. It also highlights that public involvement has a negative effect on the process of service provisions, and costs and risks exist in the process of public involvement in PPP projects. The determined interrelationships among CSFs will contribute to the sustainability and success of a PPP project.
and a review of literature on issues related to integration of FM considerations in the planning, design and construction of facilities has been made. Some case studies on the influence of elements in partnerships to the integration of FM are being prepared. Results: The results indicate that the effect of PPP......Purpose: The paper is based on a research project investigating whether PPP´s are good for the procurement of FM, i.e. are PPP´s advantageous for the integration of FM considerations into the planning, design and construction of buildings? Background: In Public-Private Partnerships FM services...... process and the relationships between the actors are paramount for the integration of FM. Practical Implications: The results imply that FM practitioners should pay interest to issues related to the sociology of the construction process rather than legal arrangements like PPP....
general public. Best practices included consistent communication, developing government-staffed subsector offices for malaria control on-site, engaging commercial plantations to provide financial and human resources for malaria control activities, and the development of new worker screening programmes. The successes and challenges associated with partnerships between the public and commercial sector can serve as an example for other malaria-eliminating countries with large plantation sectors, and may also be applied to other sectors that employ migrant workers or have commercial enterprises in hard to reach areas. PMID:24443824
Sanders, Kelly C; Rundi, Christina; Jelip, Jenarun; Rashman, Yusof; Smith Gueye, Cara; Gosling, Roly D
Countries in the Asia Pacific region have made great progress in the fight against malaria; several are rapidly approaching elimination. However, malaria control programmes operating in elimination settings face substantial challenges, particularly around mobile migrant populations, access to remote areas and the diversity of vectors with varying biting and breeding behaviours. These challenges can be addressed through subnational collaborations with commercial partners, such as mining or plantation companies, that can conduct or support malaria control activities to cover employees. Such partnerships can be a useful tool for accessing high-risk populations and supporting malaria elimination goals. This observational qualitative case study employed semi-structured key informant interviews to describe partnerships between the Malaysian Malaria Control Programme (MCP), and private palm oil, rubber and acacia plantations in the state of Sabah. Semi-structured interview guides were used to examine resource commitments, incentives, challenges, and successes of the collaborations. Interviews with workers from private plantations and the state of Sabah MCP indicated that partnerships with the commercial sector had contributed to decreases in incidence at plantation sites since 1991. Several plantations contribute financial and human resources toward malaria control efforts and all plantations frequently communicate with the MCP to help monitor the malaria situation on-site. Management of partnerships between private corporations and government entities can be challenging, as prioritization of malaria control may change with annual profits or arrival of new management. Partnering with the commercial sector has been an essential operational strategy to support malaria elimination in Sabah. The successes of these partnerships rely on a common understanding that elimination will be a mutually beneficial outcome for employers and the general public. Best practices included
Full Text Available In a context in which the social politics tend to become an optimization instrument for adapting the social security system to the market’s forces, and the talk of some analysts about reinventing the European social model, the partnership between the public sector and the private one in the social domain presumes, besides a tight collaboration, a combination of advantages specific to the private sector, more competitive and efficient, with the ones from the public sector, more responsible toward the society regarding the public money spending. The existence of the private health insurances cannot be tied, causally, to a social politics failure, reason for which they don’t intend, usually, to replace the public insurances, but rather, to offer a complementary alternative for them. In such a context, the public-private partnership’s goal regards both increasing the insurant’s satisfaction and increasing his/her access degree to services, and increasing the investments profitability made by the insurant and insurer. We are facing thus a mixed competitive system that combines the peculiarities of the public and private sectors. Interesting is the fact that, although the different meanings for the quality term may generate some problems regarding implementing quality management in the two health insurance sectors, the experts in the area reckon that establishing a good relationship between public buyers and private providers of healthcare can reduce the costs of public health programs. An essential condition for operating efficiently the partnership model is defining correctly the basic medical services packet financed by the public budget. Which doesn’t exclude the possibility of administrating by the private insurers, the sums of money gathered from the employees and employers contributions to the health fund, as a recently initiated project of law intends to do in Romania.
Albert G. Mnatsakanyan
Full Text Available The article examines the current state of public-private partnership in the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation, provides a refined definition of public-private partnership. The authors give a full determination of the public-private partnership in Russia. The structure of existing agro-industrial clusters on the territory of the Russian Federation is studied. The article contains characteristics of the agro-industrial complex, which affect the low involvement of private investment. The state of the agro-industrial complex is analyzed, the main problems of applying public-private partnerships in the agro-industrial complex are revealed, and recommendations for improving the mechanism for applying public-private partnerships are given. The study highlights the main advantages of using the mechanism of public-private partnership, analyzes trends and prospects for using this mechanism. The scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of public-private partnership and agro-industrial complex became the methodological basis of scientific research. System analysis, a set of methods of economic and statistical analysis, methods of synthesis and analysis of economic information, a comparative method were used as the methods of research. The article concludes that it is necessary to use the mechanisms of public-private partnership in the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation regarding the need for significant investments in the industry to maintain competitiveness. It is necessary to use such forms of public-private partnership that will use financial and administrative resources of state authorities even at the initial stage of the project, and later private business will repay the share of the invested state funds, up to the privatization of the property complex. This form of cooperation will help reduce the risks of private investors and attract new investments in the agro-industrial complex of the Russian
Margarita Yur’evna Molchanova
Full Text Available Healthcare financing reform in the Russian Federation, besides its positive consequences, has led to the emergence of several major organizational and economic problems that hinder the expansion of financing sources for this sphere, which also involves public-private partnership (PPP. The paper highlights the regional specifics of such healthcare projects compared to similar projects of other spheres of the national economy. The author describes the problems of PPP projects implementation in healthcare; they include the insufficiency of substantiation of public-private partnership application in healthcare, and the absence of typical models for establishment of relations between PPP participants. The paper presents the healthcare priorities put forward by the author; these priorities are based on the theory of the life cycle of a service. The author presents her own model for organizing a regional concession, which is the most common form of public-private partnership in healthcare so far. The cluster brings together on a voluntary basis the legally independent organizations that are interested in improving the quality and increasing the accessibility of health services. These can include medical institutions of various forms of ownership located in the region, clinics, facilities, institutions that train healthcare workers, authorities, etc. The author shows that a favorable environment for the formation and implementation of PPP projects can be created under the cluster approach to the organization of healthcare. When establishing the medical cluster, the main task is to organize interaction between all its subjects in the interest of the overall development of healthcare in the region and the implementation of one’s own interests
Idongesit William Williams
Full Text Available It is the quest of every government to achieve universal Access and service of telecommunication services and ICTs. Unfortunately due to the high cost of deploying infrastructure in rural areas of developing countries due to non-significant or no economic activity, this dream of achieving Universal access and service of telecommunications/ICTs have been stalled. This paper throws light on a possible Public Private Partnership framework as a development path that will enable affordable network technologies to be deployed in rural areas at a cost that will translate to what the rural dweller in a developing country in Africa can afford. The paper is a conceptual paper
Dalack, Gregory W; Blow, Adrian J; Valenstein, Marcia; Gorman, Lisa; Spinner, Jane; Marcus, Sheila; Kees, Michelle; McDonough, Susan; Greden, John F; Ames, Barbara; Francisco, Burton; Anderson, James R; Bartolacci, James; Lagrou, Robert
The conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq have greatly increased the number of veterans returning home with combat exposure, reintegration issues, and psychiatric symptoms. National Guard soldiers face additional challenges. Unlike active duty soldiers, they do not return to military installations with access to military health services or peers. The authors describe the formation and activities of a partnership among two large state universities in Michigan and the Michigan Army National Guard, established to assess and develop programming to meet the needs of returning soldiers. The process of forming the partnership and the challenges, opportunities, and benefits arising from it are described.
Holden, Debra J; Reiter, Kristin; O'Brien, Donna; Dalton, Kathleen
In 2007, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) launched the NCI Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP) as a public-private partnership with community hospitals with a goal of advancing cancer care and research. In order to leverage federal dollars in a time of limited resources, matching funds from each participating hospital were required. The purpose of this paper is to examine hospitals' level of and rationale for co-investment in this partnership, and whether there is an association between hospitals' co-investment and achievement of strategic goals. Analysis using a comparative case study and micro-cost data was conducted as part of a comprehensive evaluation of the NCCCP pilot to determine the level of co-investment made in support of NCI's goals. In-person or telephone interviews with key informants were conducted at 10 participating hospital and system sites during the first and final years of implementation. Micro-cost data were collected annually from each site from 2007 to 2010. Self-reported data from each awardee are presented on patient volume and physician counts, while secondary data are used to examine the local Medicare market share. The rationale expressed by interviewees for participation in a public-private partnership with NCI included expectations of increased market share, higher patient volumes, and enhanced opportunities for cancer physician recruitment as a result of affiliation with the NCI. On average, hospitals invested resources into the NCCCP at a level exceeding $3 for every $1 of federal funds. Six sites experienced a statistically significant change in their Medicare market share. Cancer patient volume increased by as much as one-third from Year 1 to Year 3 for eight of the sites. Nine sites reported an increase in key cancer physician recruitment. Demonstrated investments in cancer care and research were associated with increases in cancer patient volume and perhaps in recruitment of key cancer physicians, but not in increased
Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S.; Rowley, P.; Crowley Conn, K.
The complexity and scale of climate change-related challenges requires more than one strategy to share meaningful information with public audiences. This presentation will discuss a few initiatives to engage the public originating from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. First, a local partnership between the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) and the Aldo Leopold Nature Center (ALNC), an informal learning center with a new climate change "classroom" which recently acquired a Science on a Sphere (SOS) exhibit. Second, an informal education project funded by the NOAA Office of Education coordinated by CIMSS in partnership with the national SOS Network with the goal of helping museum docents share meaningful interpretation of real-time weather and climate data. CIMSS staff has been conducting weather and climate discussions on a Magic Planet display for several years. This "mini-SOS" is powered by a solar panel on the roof, modeling the essential Sun-Earth connection and the first principle of climate literacy. However, the convenient proximity of CIMSS and ALNC provides a perfect opportunity to test "SOS-scale" talking points posted on a weekly docent blog to the benefit of the entire SOS Network. Two other Wisconsin projects of note include the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts, a partnership between the University and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and a pilot project between CIMSS and NOAA's National Weather Service to engage storm spotters in climate mitigation and stewardship. Ideally, the synergistic benefits and lessons learned from these collaborations can inform similar efforts in order to galvanize meaningful responses to climate change.
The objective of the dissertation is to examine organizational responses of public actors to customer requirements which drive the transformation of value networks and promote public-private partnership in the electricity distribution industry and elderly care sectors. The research bridges the concept of offering to value networks where capabilities can be acquired for novel product concepts. The research contributes to recent literature, re-examining theories on interactions of customer requirements and supply management. A critical realist case study approach is applied to this abductive the research which directs to describe causalities in the analyzed phenomena. The presented evidence is based on three sources, which are in-depth interviews, archival analysis and the Delphi method. Service provision requires awareness on technology and functionalities of offering. Moreover, service provision includes interactions of multiple partners, which suggests the importance of the co-operative orientation of actors. According to the findings, portfolio management has a key role when intelligent solutions are implemented in public service provision because its concepts involve a variety of resources from multiple suppliers. However, emergent networks are not functional if they lack leaders who have access to the customer interface, have power to steer networks and a capability to build offerings. Public procurement policies were recognized to focus on a narrow scope in which price is a key factor in decisions. In the future, the public sector has to implement technology strategies and portfolio management, which mean longterm platform development and commitment to partnerships. On the other hand, the service providers should also be more aware of offerings into which their products will be integrated in the future. This requires making the customer's voice in product development and co-operation in order to increase the interconnectivity of products. (orig.)
Suchman, Lauren; Hart, Elizabeth; Montagu, Dominic
Social health insurance (SHI), one mechanism for achieving universal health coverage, has become increasingly important in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as they work to achieve this goal. Although small private providers supply a significant proportion of healthcare in LMICs, integrating these providers into SHI systems is often challenging. Public-private partnerships in health are one way to address these challenges, but we know little about how these collaborations work, how effectively, and why. Drawing on semi-structured interviews conducted with National Health Insurance (NHI) officials in Kenya and Ghana, as well as with staff from several international NGOs (INGOs) representing social franchise networks that are partnering to increase private provider accreditation into the NHIs, this article examines one example of public-private collaboration in practice. We found that interviewees initially had incomplete knowledge about the potential for cross-sector synergy, but both sides were motivated to work together around shared goals and the potential for mutual benefit. The public-private relationship then evolved over time through regular face-to-face interactions, reciprocal feedback, and iterative workplan development. This process led to a collegial relationship that also has given small private providers more voice in the health system. In order to sustain this relationship, we recommend that both public and private sector representatives develop formalized protocols for working together, as well as less formal open channels for communication. Models for aggregating small private providers and delivering them to government programmes as a package have potential to facilitate public-private partnerships as well, but there is little evidence on how these models work in LMICs thus far.
Kostyak, L; Shaw, D M; Elger, B; Annaheim, B
In the last two decades international public-private partnerships have become increasingly important to improving public health in low- and middle-income countries. Governments realize that involving the private sector in projects for financing, innovation, development, and distribution can make a valuable contribution to overcoming major health challenges. Private-public partnerships for health can generate numerous benefits but may also raise some concerns. To guide best practice for public-private partnerships for health to maximize benefits and minimize risks, the first step is to identify potential benefits, challenges, and motives. We define motives as the reasons why private partners enter partnerships with a public partner. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using the PRISMA guidelines. We reviewed the literature on the benefits and challenges of public-private partnerships for health in low- and middle-income countries provided by international pharmaceutical companies and other health-related companies. We provide a description of these benefits, challenges, as well as of motives of private partners to join partnerships. An approach of systematic categorization was used to conduct this research. We identified six potential benefits, seven challenges, and three motives. Our main finding was a significant gap in the available academic literature on this subject. Further empirical research using both qualitative and quantitative approaches is required. From the limited information that is readily available, we conclude that public-private partnerships for health imply several benefits but with some noticeable and crucial limitations. In this article, we provide a description of these benefits and challenges, discuss key themes, and conclude that empirical research is required to determine the full extent of the challenges addressed in the literature. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Mensah, George A; Czajkowski, Susan M
The prevention and effective treatment of many chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes are dependent on behaviors such as not smoking, adopting a physically-active lifestyle, eating a healthy diet, and adhering to prescribed medical and behavioral regimens. Yet adoption and maintenance of these behaviors pose major challenges for individuals, their families and communities, as well as clinicians and health care systems. These challenges can best be met through the integration of the biomedical and behavioral sciences that is achieved by the formation of strategic partnerships between researchers and practitioners in these disciplines to address pressing clinical and public health problems. The National Institutes of Health has supported a number of clinical trials and research initiatives that demonstrate the value of biomedical and behavioral science partnerships in translating fundamental discoveries into significant improvements in health outcomes. We review several such examples of collaborations between biomedical and behavioral researchers, describe key initiatives focused on advancing a transdisciplinary translational perspective, and outline areas which require insights, tools and findings from both the biomedical and behavioral sciences to advance the public's health.
Satkowski, L.; Tewksbury, J.
With increasing exposure to extreme hurricane and flooding events, a growing number of communities, companies, and civil society organizations around the world are looking to assess climate impacts and vulnerability, and to develop resilience plans. Currently, efforts to turn data into actionable plans are constrained by limited access to robust, actionable data and information. The Partnership for Resilience and Preparedness (PREP), public-private collaboration that seeks to empower a data-driven approach to building climate resilience, aims to facilitate the process for planners, investors, resource managers, and others to routinely incorporate climate risks into their decisions, by enhancing access to relevant data and facilitating collective learning. Together, this peer-to-peer initiative of approximately 30 government, NGO, and business partners built PREPdata, an intuitive, open map-based platform that enables users to visualize, download and layer data to inform adaptation decision-making. The platform also connects practitioners to data providers, closing the feedback loop between them and enhancing the climate data ecosystem. In this session participants will learn how public-private partnerships can reduce barriers to discovering, accessing climate data and will be given an interactive tutorial on PREPdata, specific to the Gulf of Mexico and hurricane and flooding events. Participants will discover ways to incorporate local data with national and global data, learn about PREPdata application case studies, and how PREPdata can be used to analyze risk in hurricane vulnerable geographies.
Lee, Hyun Sook
To find the fit that is most apt for the current situation in Korea and to find new ways of identifying potential partners for the purpose of public-private partnership (PPP). The research was conducted using domestic and international literature where the concept and definition of PPP was stated, and cases of PPP reported by the World Health Organization and cases in developed countries were investigated. Data were collected from 237 PPP potential partner organization, government agencies, and the government under a special law, local governments, businesses, hospitals, and private organizations through their internet webpage. The Delphi questionnaire was given to relevant institutions and questionnaire was surveyed general hospitals. Groups that were likely to realize most of the partnership were nonprofit or nongovernmental organizations, the central government, the private sector, public healthcare services, and products. In order to secure the position of exceptional comparative advantage of international expertise in the field of healthcare, we must implement PPP strategy that is in ordinance of domestic situation.
Greenberg, Henry; Shiau, Stephanie
The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) is a regional trade agreement currently being negotiated by 11 Pacific Rim countries, excluding China. While the negotiations are being conducted under a veil of secrecy, substantive leaks over the past 4 years have revealed a broad view of the proposed contents. As it stands the TPPA poses serious risks to global public health, particularly chronic, non-communicable diseases. At greatest risk are national tobacco regulations, regulations governing the emergence of generic drugs and controls over food imports by transnational corporations. Aside from a small group of public health professionals from Australia, the academic public health community has missed these threats to the global community, although many other health-related entities, international lawyers and health-conscious politicians have voiced serious concerns. As of mid-2014 there has been no comment in the leading public health journals. This large lacuna in interest or recognition reflects the larger problem that the public health education community has all but ignored global non-communicable diseases. Without such a focus, the risks are unseen and the threats not perceived. This cautionary tale of the TPPA reflects the vulnerability of being ill informed of contemporary realities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the basic elements of the status of public-private partnerships in community law. Displays an overview of EU legislation that deals with the PPP and the basic principles of community law and their impact on PPP arrangements. In particular, analyzes Articles 56 and 49 of the EU Treaty on the freedom to provide services and freedom of establishment and the positive provisions on transparency, and examples from the case law of the European Court of Justice. It analyzes the Public Procurement Directives of the European Commission and its impact on PPP. In particular, we analyze the relationship Directive as concessions as a PPP model and other contractual PPPs, as well as their position in relation to the EU Treaty and the fundamental principles of community law. In conclusion summarizing the shortcomings of the current EU legislative framework in relation to PPP.
Full Text Available This working proposal aims to establish an Internal Medicine Network (IMN model for the appropriate management of the poly-pathological complex patient in the different phases of his illness natural hystory. The IMN is based on an organization recalling the Hub and Spoke system already used for existing specialized networks. The Internal Medicine Unit (IMU is the natural destination of acutely ill patients suffering from systemic or multi-organ diseases. Three are the IMU specific tasks: i to stabilize acute, severe, poly-pathologic and complex patients; ii to develop difficult etiological diagnosis in these patients and in those who should necessarily be admitted to the hospital, not being possible, for different reasons, alternative routes; iii to select the acute poly-pathological complex patient’s priorities. The expected results of a new model of integration system inside the IMN are: i reduction and rationalization of expenditure in the medical area, increasing effectiveness, quality and safety guaranteeing patient centrality; ii patients stratification based on characteristics of gravity, acute illness, estimated duration of hospitalization; iii reduction of inappropriate hospital admissions ensuring connections between hospital and primary care units; iv definition of different care pathways for patients hospitalized due to non-communicable diseases; v implementation of new common medical records. The public-private partnership inside the IMN could be able to increase appropriateness reducing health costs. Patient-centered problems assessment, together with integration, cooperation, coordination and effective communication are some simple rules useful to achieve tangible results in a complex system and the IMN model represents its practical application.
Kraak, Vivica I; Harrigan, Paige B; Lawrence, Mark; Harrison, Paul J; Jackson, Michaela A; Swinburn, Boyd
Transnational food, beverage and restaurant companies, and their corporate foundations, may be potential collaborators to help address complex public health nutrition challenges. While UN system guidelines are available for private-sector engagement, non-governmental organizations (NGO) have limited guidelines to navigate diverse opportunities and challenges presented by partnering with these companies through public-private partnerships (PPP) to address the global double burden of malnutrition. We conducted a search of electronic databases, UN system websites and grey literature to identify resources about partnerships used to address the global double burden of malnutrition. A narrative summary provides a synthesis of the interdisciplinary literature identified. We describe partnership opportunities, benefits and challenges; and tools and approaches to help NGO engage with the private sector to address global public health nutrition challenges. PPP benefits include: raising the visibility of nutrition and health on policy agendas; mobilizing funds and advocating for research; strengthening food-system processes and delivery systems; facilitating technology transfer; and expanding access to medications, vaccines, healthy food and beverage products, and nutrition assistance during humanitarian crises. PPP challenges include: balancing private commercial interests with public health interests; managing conflicts of interest; ensuring that co-branded activities support healthy products and healthy eating environments; complying with ethical codes of conduct; assessing partnership compatibility; and evaluating partnership outcomes. NGO should adopt a systematic and transparent approach using available tools and processes to maximize benefits and minimize risks of partnering with transnational food, beverage and restaurant companies to effectively target the global double burden of malnutrition.
Full Text Available Public private partnerships (PPPs are increasingly advocated as beneficial for the delivery of public services, facilities, and infrastructure for municipal governments. However, such partnerships often raise serious concerns about transparency and accountability. While municipal governments across Canada have tried to increase public participation in local affairs, PPPs can impede such efforts. This article presents a case study of the Lansdowne Park PPP redevelopment in the City of Ottawa. We focus on how transparency and citizen engagement have been compromised and circumvented and link to broader issues of how to balance the privileged status of business and the demands for commercial confidentiality with the public interest, transparency, and citizen engagement in projects that use PPPs. The article concludes by arguing that some projects and some conditions can render the use of PPPs inappropriate and counterproductive in terms of both effectiveness and the basic principles of good governance. / Les partenariats public-privé (PPP sont de plus en plus préconisés par les municipalités comme étant une solution avantageuse pour la prestation de services publics ainsi que la réalisation de projets d’installations et d’infrastructures publiques. Toutefois, de tels partenariats soulèvent souvent d’importantes préoccupations quant à la transparence et la reddition de compte en lien avec ce processus. Plusieurs municipalités canadiennes ont fait de grands progrès pour accroître la participation des citoyens aux affaires municipales, mais les PPP peuvent représenter un obstacle important à de tels efforts. Cet article présente une étude de cas sur le réaménagement du parc Lansdowne dans le cadre d’un PPP à la Ville d’Ottawa. L’article se concentre sur la façon dont la transparence et l’engagement des citoyens ont été compromis et contournés dans ce processus. Cette analyse est liée à des considérations sur la
Oprea, Traian; Teleanu, Mihai; Dobrescu, Dan
/////In the frame of economy type that characterized Romania before 1990, the infrastructure and public utilities development, from which the hydropower sector is integral part, was ensured from public funds. The power generation belongs to the public services, which make profits on an average or long terms, in the benefit of the society. The demand for these services is increasing because of both economical increasing and the private sector weight in economy increasing. But, the quality increasing of these services needs investments, that is access to the long-term loans. Romanian banks are not prepared for long-run loans, and the international agencies don't have sufficient investment funds for all necessary projects. One of the options is or, could be, the transfer of entirely responsibility for infrastructure in the private sector hands, but this is not feasible in many cases. For this reason the government can choose a middle way realizing a private public partnership for solving the problem of the investment funds. In a general manner, this scenario consists in the fact of appealing to the private sector to finance, build and operate, for a limited period, an infrastructure, power or tourism project, necessary to the development. The impact zone between the public sector interest and private sector interest defined the concept of 'private public partnership' in its multiple alternatives (BOT, BOO, BOOT, ROT, etc.). The first official mentioning of a project in private public development under the name of BOOT 'Build, Own, Operate, Transfer' has been used in Turkey, in 1984, by the prime-minister ever since, Turgut Ozal, as part of a huge development program through the privatization in the power sector, infrastructure and tourism. The 'private public partnership' concept was studied and promoted, beginning with '95 years by the European Community too, with the view of this financing model utilization to the infrastructure projects development. One of the most
Lee Jae Sung
Full Text Available The Republic of Korea came to realize the acute necessity of launching the public-private partnership (PPP at the turn of the 90s, the country happened to fall short of such infra facilities as roadways, railroads, sea ports and airports and the government found itself unable to fully finance their construction works. Although the PPP institutional framework started to get purposely and mostly formed in the first half of the 90s in Korea the PPP itself actually came into occasional practice even before, owing to some legislation, covering roadways and sea ports. There are four main stages to be noted in the development of PPP, consecutively ranging from 1968 to 1994, from 1994 to 1999, from 1999 to 2004 and since 2005 till now. The PPP periods are much related to various amendments to the basic PPP law, initially adopted in August 1994 as the Act on Promotion of Private Capital Investment in Social Overhead Capital which was transformed into the Act on Private Participation in Infrastructure (briefly called the PPP Act in December 1998. Along with this Act, Korea's PPP institutional basis currently laid by the Enforcement Decree of the Act on Public-Private Partnerships in Infrastructure, the PPP Basic Plan and the PPP Implementation Guidelines. It is the PPP Act that determines 49 types of PPP project-eligible infra facilities, categorized into 15 groups such as roads, railroads, ports, airports, communications, water resources, energy, environment, forestry, logistics, welfare, public housing, military housing, education, culture/tourism. In the aspect of the globally-recognized types of PPP procurement methods, the PPP Act primarily determines the use of such mechanisms as BTL, BTO, BOT, BOO.
In the face of the extreme challenges posed by the South African HIV/AIDS epidemic, collaboration between public and private partners is often called for in an attempt to mobilise additional resources and generate synergies. This paper shows that the ability to successfully use public-private partnerships to address complex challenges, such as an HIV/AIDS epidemic, is influenced by the fabric of society, one important aspect being historical legacies. The first part of the article shows how South Africa's apartheid past affects the ability of public and private partners to collaborate in a response to HIV and AIDS today. It also takes into account how reconciliation and nation-building policies in the immediate post-transformation period have affected the ability to form and sustain partnerships concerning HIV/AIDS issues. The second part of the article analyses more recent developments regarding the information that these hold as to the feasibility of public-private partnerships and whether these continue to be affected by the legacies of the past. Two events with symbolic political value in South Africa, namely the 2010 FIFA World Cup soccer event and the recent changes in government, are systematically examined on the basis of three analytical queries, regarding: the impact of the event on nation-building and transcending cleavages in society; the event's impact on the ability to form public-private partnerships in general; and the role of HIV/AIDS in connection with the event. Conclusions are drawn a propos the influence of historic factors on the ability of South African society to effectively use public-private partnerships in the response to HIV and AIDS, and the continued dynamics and likely future directions of these partnerships.
A changing climate has impacted Alaska communities at unprecedented rates, and the need for efficient and effective climate change learning in the Boreal and Arctic regions is urgent. Learning programs that can both increase personal understanding and connection to climate change science and also inform large scale scientific research about climate change are an attractive option for building community adaptive capacity at multiple scales. Citizen science has emerged as a powerful tool for facilitating learning across scales, and for building partnerships across natural sciences research, education, and outreach disciplines. As an early career scientist and interdisciplinary researcher, citizen science has become the centerpiece of my work and has provided some of the most rewarding moments of my career. I will discuss my early career journey building a research and leadership portfolio integrating climate change research, learning research, and public outreach through citizen science. I will share key experiences from graduate student to early career PI that cultivated my leadership skills and ability to build partnerships necessary to create citizen science programs that emphasize synergy between climate change research and education.
И. С. Калгина
Full Text Available Aims and goals of this paper. The article is devoted to analysis of issues related to development of public-private partnership (PPP projects in mineral resources sector of Russia. The special emphasis is given to the most common PPP model in the field of industrial infrastructure construction using the Investment Fund of RF. We offer specific tools to be used with Russian models for assessment of PPP projects and forecasting of its efficiency for its participants. This model allows evaluating the results of the whole deposit development process, constructing graphs of all types of expenditures and revenues (by years, and having rent assessment of deposit NPV (net present value and internal rent rate (IRR.Methods and results. The iteration process at each step enables assessment of budget revenue forecast, living standards indexes, ecological parameters and performance indicators, as well as a certain variant of PPP project implementation for investors (direct government expenses on implementation of infrastructure objects and environmental activities, tax benefits. We have a set of tools for supporting the management decision making process in developing efficient PPP mechanism, balancing long-term government interests, private sector and local people interests arising during socio-economic development of mineral resources area. This method using the suggested tools for analyzing efficiency of a specific partnership mechanism is shown on the examples of projects of developing different deposits in Transbaikal region.
Solodovnik Olesia O.
Full Text Available The article provides the interrelation of the conditions and factors that form the sphere of public-private partnership (PPP, disclosure of the essence and contents of its evaluation, and substantiation for a methodical approach to the extent of impact on the sphere of PPP an the interests of the parties. The article defines the key conditions for implementation of PPP and the factors of influence on their formation, possibilities of partnership to impact different groups of factors are determined. Consideration of existing methodical approaches to the evaluation of the environment of economic entities in the context of the PPP characteristics, which are conditioned upon the nature of such relationships, helped to substantiate the necessity of further development of the methodology for diagnosing the PPP sphere and suggest a methodical approach to the evaluation of the PPP sphere, which, unlike existing ones, allows to evaluate the influence of the PPP factors on the interests of partners (in static and dynamic and identify the factors that can be sources of threats to implementation of such interests. Application of the suggested methodical approach in practice should contribute to the inclusive and secure development of PPP. Prospects for future research in this direction will be further development of the theoretical foundations and elaboration of a methodology for ensuring security of PPP.
Надежда Викторовна Шуленина
Full Text Available Public-private partnership show great development in modern Russia. Since the technology of interaction between business and government came from abroad it requires detailed consideration of the successes and current practices in the modern world. It is particularly important to identify relationships between form of government and decision making, both for political and economic decisions, as in most cases, these factors have the strongest influence on the formation of public-private partnership as an institution of the modern political process in Russia.
Jernigan, David H; Sparks, Michael; Yang, Evelyn; Schwartz, Randy
Excessive alcohol use causes approximately 80,000 deaths in the United States each year. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recommends reducing the density of alcohol outlets - the number of physical locations in which alcoholic beverages are available for purchase either per area or per population - through the use of regulatory authority as an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. We briefly review the research on density of alcohol outlets and public health and describe the powers localities have to influence alcohol outlet density. We summarize Regulating Alcohol Outlet Density: An Action Guide, which describes steps that local communities can take to reduce outlet density and the key competencies and resources of state and local health departments. These include expertise in public health surveillance and evaluation methods, identification and tracking of outcome measures, geographic information systems (GIS) mapping, community planning and development of multisector efforts, and education of community leaders and policy makers. We illustrate the potential for partnerships between public health agencies and local communities by presenting a contemporary case study from Omaha, Nebraska. Public health agencies have a vital and necessary role to play in efforts to reduce alcohol outlet density. They are often unaware of the potential of this strategy and have strong potential partners in the thousands of community coalitions nationwide that are focused on reducing alcohol-related problems.
Mckinney, Marvin; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Winn, Donna-Marie; Babcock, Patrick
Research findings documenting the issues and challenges of boys prebirth through age 5 years have barely penetrated the arena of public policy making nor has it permeated the public agenda of politicians, government, or other funding stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to articulate pathways for researchers to enter into the policy-making process. We review critical issues related to implementing the process of public policy. We argue that the policy process needs to be informed by more dynamic theoretical models of human development, and that researchers and clinicians need to be exposed more deeply to the processes required to inform and subsequently change public policy. We contend that most quantitative research on boys at risk occurs at the micro- and the mesosystem level rather than at the exo- and the macrosystem levels where structural societal policies embedded in economic and racial inequities contribute to risk. Researchers, clinicians, and policy makers need to create collaborative partnerships designed to develop, advocate, and implement more evidence-based policies designed to enhance the quality of life for boys at risk. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Full Text Available For more than two decades, Public Private Partnerships (PPP had developed worldwide as an instrument to procure public infrastructure where government funds are limited. This practice supports the covergent theory of the public and private sector. Indonesia experience with PPP follows most of what had been done by countries overseas with some deviations. The main reasons for going for PPP for Indonesia government is to fill the gap in finance and capability in procuring the infrastructure. Unofficial reason such as for off-balance sheet and ideological is not relevant. Up to now, the Government only allow investment in hard economic infrastructure. Instead of using pure private finance, Indonesia Government facilitates public funds either from Central Government or Local Governments to finance PPP projects. In most cases, this involvement is because of marginality of the project. This results in the condition where the Government still has dominant role in the existing PPP projects. Compared to the PPP framework in other countries like in the UK, Indonesia PPP lacks of attention on output specification and risk transfer. This may be because of lacking of experiences as well as due to high degree of Government involvement. Rigorous policy is needed in this area to ensure Government to achieve better value for money.
Matsushita, J; Ozaki, M; Nishimura, S; Ohgaki, S
The Urban Development Corporation (UDC) is one of the biggest implementation bodies for urban development in Japan. UDC has developed rainwater infiltration technology since 1975. This technology has effectively reduced runoff to a river and sewer system in the new town project areas. Recently, UDC has developed a new system which is defined as a "Rainwater Recycle Sewer System", which is supported by "Rainwater Storage and Infiltration Technology (RSIT)" applicable to new town creation and urban renewal. The new system consists of two elements: RSIT components based on Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and a stormwater drainage system. Herein, the private sector is responsible for the main part of RSIT, and the public sector is responsible for the stormwater drainage from the development area. As a result, the capacity of public facilities, such as rainwater sewers and stormwater reservoirs, can be reduced effectively. In parallel, the initial/running cost of public facilities is expected to be reduced. In conclusion, the authors would stress the importance of a co-maintenance system also based on PPP, which will be required especially in order to properly operate the whole system for the long term.
The holistic (comprehensive] approach to the methodological framework for the analysis of public-private partnership is essential presumption for the transformation of the public and private interests from the conflicting ones to the parallel and convergent ones. Private and public interests are to be regarded not as the divided particulars but as the element of the dynamics of PPP as a whole. The holistic approach facilitates interaction which brings new 'added values' in the exercise of the...
Oni, Gbolahan; Fatusi, Adesegun; Tsui, Amy; Enquselassie, Fikre; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer; Taulo, Frank; Quakyi, Isabella
Poor reproductive health constitutes one of the leading public health problems in the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We report here an academic partnership that commenced in 2003 between a US institution and six universities in SSA. The partnership addresses the human resources development challenge in Africa by strengthening public health education and research capacity to improve population and reproductive health (PRH) outcomes in low-resource settings. The partnership's core activities focused on increasing access to quality education, strengthening health research capacity and translating scholarship and science into policy and practices. Partnership programmes focused on the educational dimension of the human resources equation provide students with improved learning facilities and enhanced work environments and also provide faculty with opportunities for professional development and an enhanced capacity for curriculum delivery. By 2007, 48 faculty members from the six universities in SSA attended PRH courses at Johns Hopkins University, 93 PRH courses were offered across the six universities, 625 of their master's students elected PRH concentrations and 158 had graduated. With the graduation of these and future student cohorts, the universities in SSA will systematically be expanding the number of public health practitioners and strengthening programme effectiveness to resolve reproductive health needs. Some challenges facing the partnership are described in this article.
Full Text Available Joan C Lo,1–3 Thomas E Baudendistel,2,3 Abhay Dandekar,3,4 Phuoc V Le,5 Stanton Siu,2,3 Bruce Blumberg6 1Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, CA, USA; 3Graduate Medical Education, Kaiser Permanente East Bay, Oakland, CA, USA; 4Department of Pediatrics, Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, CA, USA; 5School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA; 6Graduate Medical Education, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA Abstract: Collaborative partnerships between community-based academic residency training programs and schools of public health, represent an innovative approach to training future physician leaders in population management and public health. In Kaiser Permanente Northern California, development of residency-Masters in Public Health (MPH tracks in the Internal Medicine Residency and the Pediatrics Residency programs, with MPH graduate studies completed at the University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, enables physicians to integrate clinical training with formal education in epidemiology, biostatistics, health policy, and disease prevention. These residency-MPH programs draw on more than 50 years of clinical education, public health training, and health services research – creating an environment that sparks inquiry and added value by developing skills in patient-centered care through the lens of population-based outcomes. Keywords: graduate medical education, public health, master’s degree, internal medicine, pediatrics, residency training
The last few decades have seen a dramatic increase in public-non-governmental organisation (NGO) partnerships in the health sector of many low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) as a means of improving the public's health. However, little research has focused to date on the nature, facilitators and barriers of these partnerships. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 participants from five different NGOs and their collaboration with state partners in the Ghanaian health sector at the national and local levels in four regions of the country (Northern, Upper East, Greater Accra, and Eastern) to explore the drivers and nature of these partnerships and their advantages and disadvantages in the effort to improve the public's health. Major findings reveal that: 1) each collaboration between civil society organisations (CSOs) and the state in the health sector demands different partnerships; 2) partnership types can range from equal, formal contractual, decentralized to advocacy ones; 3) commitment by the state and NGOs to work in collaboration lead to improved service delivery, reduced health inequities and disparities; 4) added value of NGOs lies in their knowledge, expertise, community legitimacy, ability to attract donor funding and implementation capacity to address health needs in geographical areas or communities where the government does not reach and for services, which it does not provide and 5) success factors and challenges to be considered, moving forward to promote such partnerships in other LMICs. Recommendations are offered for NGOs, governments, donors, and future research including studying the organisational effectiveness and sustainability of these partnerships to deliver effective and efficient health outcomes to recommend universal best practices in health care.
Martin, Lawrence; Lawther, Wendell; Hodge, Graeme
Transportation financing public-private partnerships (P3s) are a common practice in many countries. However, they represent a relatively new approach to transportation infrastructure financing for state and local governments in the United States. In a transportation financing P3 project, a private...... sector partner designs-builds-finances-operates- maintains (DBFOM) a transportation infrastructure asset (road, highway, bridge, tunnel, etc.) with an emphasis on financing. Under this type of arrangement, the private sector partner is primarily responsible for securing all or substantially all...... of the funding necessary to construct new transportation infrastructure and/or rehabilitate existing transportation infrastructure. This study reviews the international experience of national and sub-national governments with transportation financing P3s. The primary purpose of this study is to identify...
Larsen, Malene Rode; Aust, Birgit; Høgelund, Jan
Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether a multidimensional public-private partnership intervention, focussing on improving the quality and efficiency of sickness benefit case management, reduced the sickness benefit duration and the duration until self-support. Methods We used...... a difference-in-difference (DID) design with six intervention municipalities and 12 matched control municipalities in Denmark. The study sample comprised 282,103 sickness benefit spells exceeding four weeks. The intervention group with 110,291 spells received the intervention, and the control group with 171......,812 spells received ordinary sickness benefit case management. Using register data, we fitted Cox proportional hazard ratio models, estimating hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI). Results We found no joint effect of the intervention on the sickness benefit duration (HR 1.02, CI 0...
N. O. Sinyenko
Full Text Available It was discussed the possibilities and the reality of the e-medicine challenges through technology of public-private partnership (PPP. It is shown that the use of e-medicine is one of the most important levers of improving the quality of medical care in Ukraine. Taking into account that the computerization of health care is extremely expensive project its rapid implementation is possible for the widest possible PPP. It is believed that mobile medicine is the best example of modern PPP. It is postulated that for the effective control of the quality of medical care it should be created specialized expertise and advisory mechanisms in a specialized system of state control of the new system of electronic health systems with strictly defined principles such as objectivity, complimentarily, law and so on.
Yildirim, Oktay; Gottwald, Matthias; Schüler, Peter; Michel, Martin C
Drug development faces the double challenge of increasing costs and increasing pressure on pricing. To avoid that lack of perceived commercial perspective will leave existing medical needs unmet, pharmaceutical companies and many other stakeholders are discussing ways to improve the efficiency of drug Research and Development. Based on an international symposium organized by the Medical School of the University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany) and held in January 2016, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of three specific areas, i.e., public-private partnerships, adaptive designs and big data. Public-private partnerships come in many different forms with regard to scope, duration and type and number of participants. They range from project-specific collaborations to strategic alliances to large multi-party consortia. Each of them offers specific opportunities and faces distinct challenges. Among types of collaboration, investigator-initiated studies are becoming increasingly popular but have legal, ethical, and financial implications. Adaptive trial designs are also increasingly discussed. However, adaptive should not be used as euphemism for the repurposing of a failed trial; rather it requires carefully planning and specification before a trial starts. Adaptive licensing can be a counter-part of adaptive trial design. The use of Big Data is another opportunity to leverage existing information into knowledge useable for drug discovery and development. Respecting limitations of informed consent and privacy is a key challenge in the use of Big Data. Speakers and participants at the symposium were convinced that appropriate use of the above new options may indeed help to increase the efficiency of future drug development.
Full Text Available Drug development faces the double challenge of increasing costs and increasing pressure on pricing. To avoid that lack of perceived commercial perspective will leave existing medical needs unmet, pharmaceutical companies and many other stakeholders are discussing ways to improve the efficiency of drug Research & Development. Based on an international symposium organized by the Medical School of the University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany and held in January 2016, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of three specific areas, i.e. public-private partnerships, adaptive designs and big data. Public-private partnerships come in many different forms with regard to scope, duration and type and number of participants. They range from project-specific collaborations to strategic alliances to large multi-party consortia. Each of them offers specific opportunities and faces distinct challenges. Among types of collaboration, investigator-initiated studies are becoming increasingly popular but have legal, ethical and financial implications. Adaptive trial designs are also increasingly discussed. However, adaptive should not be used as euphemism for the repurposing of a failed trial; rather it requires carefully planning and specification before a trial starts. Adaptive licensing can be a counter-part of adaptive trial design. The use of Big Data is another opportunity to leverage existing information into knowledge useable for drug discovery and development. Respecting limitations of informed consent and privacy is a key challenge in the use of Big Data. Speakers and participants at the symposium were convinced that appropriate use of the above new options may indeed help to increase the efficiency of future drug development.
Full Text Available As of 2015, cyber threats have become more prevalent due to high-profile cases like the Target, JPMorgan Chase & Co., Home Depot, and Sony Entertainment breaches. In order to prevent what former Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta characterized as a “Cyber Pearl Harbor,” the US government has to engage the private sector in order to build a solid public-private partnership (PPP for cybersecurity. For there to be a successful cybersecurity PPP between the US government and the private sector, there must be a PPP founded on a model composed of four essential elements: a high level of trust between the public and private entities that corresponds to a mutual belief in the positive gains of both partners; clear baseline guidance imposed from legislation, which should be reinforced with government training and financial incentives; a bottom-up structural approach for efficient operations that allows for more autonomy at lower levels on local needs and resources; and, gaining influential community involvement in the formation of PPPs from all levels of the participating organizations, as well as civil leadership and the general public.
Afeez Olalekan Sanni
Full Text Available The implementation of public private partnership (PPP procurement method is expected to help governments in the development of infrastructures and provides an opportunity for the reduction in the governments’ debt profiles. This method has been adopted in Nigeria for more than a decade and with these years of implementation, few infrastructural projects have been developed using this method while some have been unsuccessful. This study aims to examine the PPP projects implementation in Nigeria and identify the most critical factors that could determine the success of such projects. A total of 184 questionnaires were received from public and private sectors’ participants in the implementation of PPP projects. An exploratory factor analysis identified seven critical success factors as projects feedback, leadership focus, risk allocation and economic policy, good governance and political support, short construction period, favourable socio-economic factors, and delivering publicly needed service. This study shows that more developmental projects could be delivered through PPP if the government could focus on these main factors in the implementation process. The result will influence policy development towards PPP and guide the partners in the development of PPP projects.
Full Text Available It is estimated that Africa needs $93 billion annually until 2020 in order to bridge its infrastructure deficit. It is through significant investment in infrastructure development that economic growth and poverty alleviation can be enhanced. However central to all construction projects is an effective and sustainable procurement system. There is a notable shift by some African governments to turn to the private sector to design, build, finance and operate infrastructure facilities previously provided by the public sector in the form of Public Private Partnerships (PPP’s. As an innovative financing model, PPPs present an opportunity to governments to improve service delivery. Accordingly, this paper focuses on assessing international best practices as to how some developing nations tap into the resources of the private sector in implementing their infrastructure projects. The study is a result of critical review, synthesis and contextualization of relevant academic literature, conference and journal publications. A thorough document review method was employed to assess how some developing countries have institutionalized PPP as part of their development strategy. The paper will be of significant value to senior government officials as understanding the concept and dynamics of PPP will result in accelerated and effective service delivery.
Full Text Available Some forms of Public Private Partnership (PPP have been long since used in the procurement and operation of water infrastructure, as shown in the first part of the paper. The main object of the paper is to highlight the mechanisms of PPP in the water sector and to suggest that in times of economic and financial distress, when both the public sector and the private sector face additional risks and challenges, various models of PPP may be used to manage and mitigate the risks and to improve performance in providing the public services of Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS. The economic and financial risks of the WSS sector are commonly classified in two broad categories but within these broad categories there are many more specific risks. Therefore, we shall analyse some of these main risks and their potential interrelations, by employing several methodologies: literature review, case studies, performance indicators, risk matrix, analysis and synthesis. The mechanisms, features and experiences of PPP in this branch of the water sector are summarized and comparatively analysed, from the viewpoint of risk sharing, leading to some conclusions and recommendations on the opportunity and effectiveness of implementing such arrangements especially in Romania.
This paper compares public-private partnerships (PPPs) in education in post-war Singapore and Hong Kong. After the Second World War the Singapore government shied away from PPPs, while the state in Hong Kong collaborated extensively with the non-state sector in education. Singapore was a small city-state flanked by two Muslim nations, and its…
Verdouw, C.N.; Bondt, N.; Schmeitz, H.; Zwinkels, H.
The horticulture and propagation materials sector has been designated as one of the so-called top sectors in which the Netherlands excels globally and that are a government priority. The top sector approach for further innovation is based on public-private partnerships (PPPs) in which businesses,
... government and non-government financing in order to encourage the development of mixed-income housing that... are mixed with other government and non-government financing in order to encourage the development of... Proposed Information Collection to OMB Public/Private Partnerships for the Mixed-Finance Development of...
- Legitimacy of public-private partnerships for combatting cybercrime partially depends on whether or not law enforcement data processing activities are subject to the same data protection-related restrictions, whether they involve cooperation of private parties or not. - Information sharing within
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the President's Advisory Council on Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: A notice was published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, to announce a meeting of the President's Advisory Council on Faith-Based...
Benitez Avila, Camilo Andres; Hartmann, Andreas; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.; Henseler, Jörg
Defining the nature of the relationship between contractual and relational governance is critical for understanding how to maintain commitment and coordination between private and public organizations in long-term partnerships. In this study, a theoretical model explains Public-Private Partnership
Shibayeva, Marina; Serebryakova, Yelena; Shalnev, Oleg
Growing demand to increase the investment volume in modernization and development projects for transport infrastructure define the urgency of the current study. The amount of private sector investments in the field is insufficient to implement the projects for road construction due to their significant capital intensity and long payoff period. The implementation of social significant infrastructure projects on the principles of public-private partnership is one of the key strategic directions of growth for transport facilities. The authors come up with a concept and methodology for modeling the investment and innovation activity in the transport facility construction. Furthermore, there is developed a model to find the balance between public and private sector investments in implementing construction projects for transport infrastructure with involvement of PPP (further - public-private partnership). The suggested concepts aim to improve the efficiency rate of the investment and innovation activity in the field of transport facility construction on the basis of public and private sectors collaboration.
Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima
Developing countries are currently struggling to achieve the Millennium Development Goal Five of reducing maternal mortality by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. Many health systems are facing acute shortages of health workers needed to provide improved prenatal care, skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric services - interventions crucial to reducing maternal death. The World Health Organization estimates a current deficit of almost 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Complicating matters further, health workforces are typically concentrated in large cities, while maternal mortality is generally higher in rural areas. Additionally, health care systems are faced with shortages of specialists such as anaesthesiologists, surgeons and obstetricians; a maldistribution of health care infrastructure; and imbalances between the public and private health care sectors. Increasingly, policy-makers have been turning to human resource strategies to cope with staff shortages. These include enhancement of existing work roles; substitution of one type of worker for another; delegation of functions up or down the traditional role ladder; innovation in designing new jobs;transfer or relocation of particular roles or services from one health care sector to another. Innovations have been funded through state investment, public-private partnerships and collaborations with nongovernmental organizations and quasi-governmental organizations such as the World Bank. This paper focuses on how two large health systems in India--Gujarat and Tamil Nadu--have successfully applied human resources strategies in uniquely different contexts to the challenges of achieving Millennium Development Goal Five.
Full Text Available Abstract Developing countries are currently struggling to achieve the Millennium Development Goal Five of reducing maternal mortality by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. Many health systems are facing acute shortages of health workers needed to provide improved prenatal care, skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric services – interventions crucial to reducing maternal death. The World Health Organization estimates a current deficit of almost 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Complicating matters further, health workforces are typically concentrated in large cities, while maternal mortality is generally higher in rural areas. Additionally, health care systems are faced with shortages of specialists such as anaesthesiologists, surgeons and obstetricians; a maldistribution of health care infrastructure; and imbalances between the public and private health care sectors. Increasingly, policy-makers have been turning to human resource strategies to cope with staff shortages. These include enhancement of existing work roles; substitution of one type of worker for another; delegation of functions up or down the traditional role ladder; innovation in designing new jobs;transfer or relocation of particular roles or services from one health care sector to another. Innovations have been funded through state investment, public-private partnerships and collaborations with nongovernmental organizations and quasi-governmental organizations such as the World Bank. This paper focuses on how two large health systems in India – Gujarat and Tamil Nadu – have successfully applied human resources strategies in uniquely different contexts to the challenges of achieving Millennium Development Goal Five.
Chambers, L. H.
Cloud and aerosol feedbacks remain the largest source of uncertainty in understanding and predicting Earth's climate (IPCC, 2013), and are the focus of multiple ongoing research studies. Clouds are a challenge because of their extreme variability and diversity. This is also what makes them interesting to people. Clouds may be the only essential climate variable with an Appreciation Society (https://cloudappreciationsociety.org/). As a result, clouds led me into a multi-decade effort to engage a wider public in observing and understanding our planet. A series of experiences in the mid-1990's led to a meeting with educators that resulted in the creation of the Students' Cloud Observations On-Line Project (S'COOL), which I directed for about 2 decades, and which engaged students around the world in ground truth observation and data analysis for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instruments. Beginning around 2003, I developed a contrail observation protocol for the GLOBE Program to serve a similar function for additional audiences. Starting in 2004, I worked with an interdisciplinary team to launch the MY NASA DATA Project, an effort to make the vast trove of NASA Earth Science data actually usable in K-12 classrooms and student projects. Later I gained key experiences around strategic partnerships as I worked from 2008 onward with tri-agency partners at NOAA and NSF to integrate activities around climate change education. Currently I serve as Program Scientist for Education & Communication in the Earth Science Division at NASA, where I have the privilege to oversee and guide these and related activities in education and public engagement around Earth system science. As someone who completed advanced degrees in aerospace engineering without ever taking an Earth science class, this ongoing engagement is very important to me. Understanding Earth processes should be integral to how all people choose to live on our planet. In my experience
Альберт Илдусович Абдрахманов
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the study o/f political and legal terms for Public-Private Partnerships (PPP development while PPP becomes the issue of today for Russian political and social-economic life. The article covers particularly the analysis of the effective legislation of PPP at the federal and regional levels and appraisal of the current political trends regarding the development of legal partnership between the government and companies in the connection with the legislation. The author provides research especially of the prospects of the PPP federal Draft Law and reveals key specifics and problems of the legal environment of PPP in districts of the Russian Federation.
A public private partnership (PPP or P3), according to the FHWA, is a contractual agreement : between a public agency and a private entity for private sector participation in the delivery of : transportation projects. One of the most innovat...
Kaan , Christopher; Liese , Andrea
Abstract This article compares two transnational public?private partnerships against hunger and malnutrition, the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition and the International Alliance Against Hunger with regard to their degree of business involvement and their input and output legimacy. We examine the participation of stakeholders, the accountability and transparency of the decision-making process, and the perceived provision of a public good. We identify a link between business in...
The aim of this bachelors work is the analysis of Public Private Partnership (PPP) and the financing of transport infrastructure. A partial aim is the definition of a PPP project, determining areas of operation and performace of participants in these projects. In addition closer financing PPP projects. The practical part indicate PPP project of highway D3 and expressway R3, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of a PPP project and the normal public order.
Bubela, Tania; Bonter, Katherine; Lachance, Silvy; Delisle, Jean-Sébastien; Gold, E Richard
Cellular immunotherapies promise to transform cancer care. However, they must overcome serious challenges, including: (1) the need to identify and characterize novel cancer antigens to expand the range of therapeutic targets; (2) the need to develop strategies to minimize serious adverse events, such as cytokine release syndrome and treatment-related toxicities; and (3) the need to develop efficient production/manufacturing processes to reduce costs. Here, we discuss whether these challenges might better be addressed through forms of public-private research collaborations, including public-private partnerships (PPPs), or whether these challenges are best addressed by way of standard market transactions. We reviewed 14 public-private relationships and 25 underlying agreements for the clinical development of cancer cellular immunotherapies in the US. Most were based on bilateral research agreements and pure market transactions in the form of service contracts and technology licenses, which is representative of the commercialization focus of the field. We make the strategic case that multiparty PPPs may better advance cancer antigen discovery and characterization and improved cell processing/manufacturing and related activities. In the rush toward the competitive end of the translational continuum for cancer cellular immunotherapy and the attendant focus on commercialization, many gaps have appeared in our understanding of cellular biology, immunology, and bioengineering. We conclude that the model of bilateral agreements between leading research institutions and the private sector may be inadequate to efficiently harness the interdisciplinary skills and knowledge of the public and private sectors to bring these promising therapies to the clinic for the benefit of cancer patients.
Shrivastava, Ritu; Gadde, Renuka; Nkengasong, John N
After the launch of the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief in 2003, it became evident that inadequate laboratory systems and services would severely limit the scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus infection prevention, care, and treatment programs. Thus, the Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Becton, Dickinson and Company developed a public-private partnership (PPP). Between October 2007 and July 2012, the PPP combined the competencies of the public and private sectors to boost sustainable laboratory systems and develop workforce skills in 4 African countries. Key accomplishments of the initiative include measurable and scalable outcomes to strengthen national capacities to build technical skills, develop sample referral networks, map disease prevalence, support evidence-based health programming, and drive continuous quality improvement in laboratories. This report details lessons learned from our experience and a series of recommendations on how to achieve successful PPPs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Karawajczyk, Anna; Orrling, Kristina M; de Vlieger, Jon S B; Rijnders, Ton; Tzalis, Dimitrios
The European Lead Factory (ELF) is a public-private partnership (PPP) that provides researchers in Europe with a unique platform for translation of innovative biology and chemistry into high-quality starting points for drug discovery. It combines an exceptional collection of small molecules, high-throughput screening (HTS) infrastructure, and hit follow-up capabilities to advance research projects from both private companies and publicly funded researchers. By active interactions with the wider European life science community, ELF connects and unites bright ideas, talent, and experience from several disciplines. As a result, ELF is a unique, collaborative lead generation engine that has so far resulted in >4,500 hit compounds with a defined biological activity from 83 successfully completed HTS and hit evaluation campaigns. The PPP has also produced more than 120,000 novel innovative library compounds that complement the 327,000 compounds contributed by the participating pharmaceutical companies. Intrinsic to its setup, ELF enables breakthroughs in areas with unmet medical and societal needs, where no individual entity would be able to create a comparable impact in such a short time.
This essay addresses several dimensions that promote and consolidate the growing participation by private stakeholders in the decision-making process in health, emphasizing international and domestic factors that have facilitated and sustained the persistence of the neoliberal political and ideological perspective over the course of nearly thirty years (since the 1990s). The article emphasizes the role of intergovernmental organizations in this process, highlighting public-private interactions at the global and domestic levels, with a specific focus on so-called public-private partnerships (PPPs). The working premise is that such linkages alter the power relations in policy formulation and implementation, with a predominance of private stakeholders. The article presents an overview of the development of PPPs in Europe, Latin America, and Brazil, identifying their specific origins and the simultaneity of triggering events. The text reiterates the importance of not overlooking the power of these actors in dislodging them from this political position, whether in multilateral organizations or national health systems. The aim is to emphasize the importance of more in-depth reflection on the subject, backing debates within the sector. This entire dynamic requires rethinking strategies of resistance to preserve the rights won through centuries of struggle.
Igumbor, Jude; Pascoe, Sophie; Rajap, Shuabe; Townsend, Wendy; Sargent, John; Darkoh, Ernest
The increasing number of people requiring HIV treatment in South Africa calls for efficient use of its human resources for health in order to ensure optimum treatment coverage and outcomes. This paper describes an innovative public-private partnership model which uses private sector doctors to treat public sector patients and ascertains the model's ability to maintain treatment outcomes over time. The study used a retrospective design based on the electronic records of patients who were down-referred from government hospitals to selected private general medical practitioners (GPs) between November 2005 and October 2012. In total, 2535 unique patient records from 40 GPs were reviewed. The survival functions for mortality and attrition were calculated. Cumulative incidence of mortality for different time cohorts (defined by year of treatment initiation) was also established. The median number of patients per GP was 143 (IQR: 66-246). At the time of down-referral to private GPs, 13.8% of the patients had CD4 count private sector based programme can be effectively and efficiently used to either target specific health concerns, key populations or serve as a stop-gap measure to meet urgent health needs.
Pakhomova, E. O.; Goosen, E. V.; Nikitenko, S. M.
Public-private partnership (PPP) as a form of interaction between the public and private sectors contributes to the improvement of social and economic situation in the country. PPP is viewed in a broad context and is presented as a system of financial and non-financial relations between government and business. A number of legislative initiatives contributed to the emergence of a new form of PPP that is a special investment contract (SPIC). In the Russian regions there are legislative initiatives that provide differences in terms of contracting. In a number of regions a federal-specific volume of mandatory investment has been reduced to attract investors, while there are regions where this volume is higher than at the federal level. Monitoring of regional legislation showed that the authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation are striving to obtain guarantee obligations to create jobs and receive salaries above the average in the region. Measures to encourage investors have been determined, and the benefits to the government and business from the implementation of a SPIC have been shown.
Full Text Available Public-Private Partnerships (PPP is a ubiquitous reality. In Africa, the wave of PPP has hit states in their infancy – still moulding following only 50 years since independence. The common perspective of PPP on the realms of scholarship is transactional (focused on the delivery-end of infrastructure. This paper presents a deeper and broader perspective, and it is a distillate of a case study on PPP as a policy phenomenon. It dissects and illuminates the interaction between the forces of state formation and the wave of PPP hitting the continent. The lens of this case study is Institutional Rational Choice (IRC. The tools are a variety, comprising textual analysis, hermeneutics and econometrics – in keeping with the essence of case study (explication of reality in-situ. The product is not the orthodox generalization (claiming ‘the way’. Instead, the explication offers a viewpoint (and trigger questions on public space of Africa, while underpinning the non-ergodic character of that space
Full Text Available Private investors have been encouraged to participate in the development and operation of urban rail projects in China through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs, given the fact that subnational governments are suffering from urgent development demands and severe fiscal pressure. However, there is no formal assessment to determine the private involvement in a PPP project. This problem is particularly critical in the sector of urban rail, in which the huge investment cannot rely on the private sector alone. This study hence aimed to uncover and identify the influencing factors. Multiple research methods, including content analysis, case study and focus group discussion were adopted to achieve the research purpose. Seven types of influencing factors were identified, including project financial model, government fiscal commitment, risk allocation, public accountability, efficiency considerations, policy and regulations, and organisational marketing strategies. The findings add to the current knowledge base by uncovering the drivers behind private involvement in a PPP project. They are also beneficial for industry practitioners as a basis/checklist to determine the private involvement.
Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F
Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, affecting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston public school teachers established a partnership of formal scholarly dialogue to create 11th- to 12th-grade high school curricula about critical health-related concepts, with the goal of increasing scientific literacy and influencing health-related decisions. The curricula are based on the great diseases (infectious diseases, neurological disorders, metabolic disease, and cancer). Unlike most health science curricular interventions that provide circumscribed activities, the curricula are comprehensive, each filling one full term of in-class learning and providing extensive real-time support for the teacher. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented the infectious disease curriculum, and its impacts. The high school teachers and students showed robust gains in content knowledge and critical thinking skills, whereas the Tufts scientists increased their pedagogical knowledge and appreciation for health-related science communication. The results show how formal interactions between medical schools and K-12 educators can be mutually beneficial.
Phong, Nguyen Thanh; Likhitruangsilp, Veerasak; Onishi, Masamitsu
Transportation projects require an enormous amount of capital investment resulting from their tremendous size, complexity, and risk. Due to the limitation of public finances, the private sector is invited to participate in transportation project development. The private sector can entirely or partially invest in transportation projects in the form of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) scheme, which has been an attractive option for several developing countries, including Vietnam. There are many factors affecting the success of PPP projects. The accurate prediction of traffic volume is considered one of the key success factors of PPP transportation projects. However, only few research works investigated how to predict traffic volume over a long period of time. Moreover, conventional traffic volume forecasting methods are usually based on deterministic models which predict a single value of traffic volume but do not consider risk and uncertainty. This knowledge gap makes it difficult for concessionaires to estimate PPP transportation project revenues accurately. The objective of this paper is to develop a probabilistic traffic volume prediction model. First, traffic volumes were estimated following the Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) process. Monte Carlo technique is then applied to simulate different scenarios. The results show that this stochastic approach can systematically analyze variations in the traffic volume and yield more reliable estimates for PPP projects.
Full Text Available Considering that there are few success chances for isolated businesses, public-private partnerships represent the basis of tourism businesses’ sustainable development, aiming to attract increasing numbers of visitors in tourism destinations. Within this context, the main aim of the present paper is to identify tourism stakeholders’ intentions to participate in public-private partnerships for a sustainable tourism development of urban destinations. Focused on the increased importance of partnerships between tourism stakeholders, with the common goal of sustainable tourism development, a survey was conducted among the tourism service providers from the Romanian urban destination, Braşov. The research results outline the defi ciencies in the analyzed destination, which lead to a low notoriety of the destination’s management and marketing organization among local tourism stakeholders. In addition, the results show a low level of involvement of tourism operators in supporting the collaboration efforts of this organization. Based on the research results, a theoretical model was proposed for the identifi cation of the signifi cant factors which infl uence local stakeholders’ intentions to participate in public-private partnerships for a sustainable tourism development.
Barlow, James; Roehrich, Jens; Wright, Steve
Prompted in part by constrained national budgets, European governments are increasingly partnering with the private sector to underwrite the costs of constructing and operating public hospitals and other health care facilities and delivering services. Through such public-private partnerships, governments hope to avoid up-front capital expenditure and to harness private-sector efficiencies, while private-sector partners aim for a return on investment. Our research indicates that to date, experience with these partnerships has been mixed. Early models of these partnerships-for example, in which a private firm builds a hospital and carries out building maintenance, which we term an "accommodation-only" model-arguably have not met expectations for achieving greater efficiencies at lower costs. Newer models described in this article offer greater opportunities for efficiency gains but are administratively harder to set up and manage. Given the shortages in public capital for new infrastructure, it seems likely that the attractiveness of these partnerships to European governments will grow.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The last few decades have seen a dramatic increase in public-non-governmental organisation (NGO partnerships in the health sector of many low- and middle- income countries (LMICs as a means of improving the public’s health. However, little research has focused to date on the nature, facilitators and barriers of these partnerships. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 participants from five different NGOs and their collaboration with state partners in the Ghanaian health sector at the national and local levels in four regions of the country (Northern, Upper East, Greater Accra, and Eastern to explore the drivers and nature of these partnerships and their advantages and disadvantages in the effort to improve the public’s health. Results Major findings reveal that: 1 each collaboration between civil society organisations (CSOs and the state in the health sector demands different partnerships; 2 partnership types can range from equal, formal contractual, decentralized to advocacy ones; 3 commitment by the state and NGOs to work in collaboration lead to improved service delivery, reduced health inequities and disparities; 4 added value of NGOs lies in their knowledge, expertise, community legitimacy, ability to attract donor funding and implementation capacity to address health needs in geographical areas or communities where the government does not reach and for services, which it does not provide and 5 success factors and challenges to be considered, moving forward to promote such partnerships in other LMICs. Conclusions Recommendations are offered for NGOs, governments, donors, and future research including studying the organisational effectiveness and sustainability of these partnerships to deliver effective and efficient health outcomes to recommend universal best practices in health care.
The Federal Highway Administrations (FHWAs) Office : of Innovative Program Delivery (IPD) assists States : and local governments in developing knowledge, skills, : and abilities in innovative finance techniques. Publicprivate : partnerships ...
Sergey Viktorovich Zakharov
Full Text Available Logic of expectations about the effects and benefits of management of development of different forms of PPP with the levels of institutional management tools developed by the state is proved based on the analysis of the theory and practice of public-private partnerships (PPP. It is shown that the implementation of programs and projects the main effects should be expected at the microeconomic and project levels, i.e. where goods and services are produced and sold. However, budgetary and other savings for socio-economic development of regions and municipalities could be achieved at management levels. The prospects, contradictions and problems of development and efficiency of PPP with using of software and project management are analyzed and measures are outlined to accelerate overcoming the negative effects of the economic crisis. A multi-level classification of institutional means of regulating the functioning of the different forms of PPP in the Russian economy are proposed. Disadvantages of institutional regulation of PPP are identified. It proposed to make extensive use of the tools of development and improve the effectiveness of partnerships that are created on the technological basis of electronic and open government. Purpose: to develop and implement new institutional means of PPP regulation for accelerating socio-economic development of the territory. Methodology: methodology of institutional economics; classification, analysis of economic relations and contradictions in the development of different forms of PPP and synthesis of solutions methods; methods of software management; design and systemic, comprehensive approaches. Results: contradictions of PPP development, reducing the importance of partnerships in the Russian economy are identificated; criteria are proposed which allows to identify the facts and PPP projects from the totality of the analyzed material; enlarged model is constructed which allows logically to connect expectations
Hanssen, L.; Gremmen, B.
The Centre for BioSystems Genomics (CBSG) is a Dutch public-private partnership in plant genomics active in potato and tomato research and exploitation. Its Societal Interface Group (SIG) has been developed to inform its communication strategy and governance practice. This new instrument identifies
Johnston, Lee M; Finegood, Diane T
Over the past few decades, cross-sector partnerships with the private sector have become an increasingly accepted practice in public health, particularly in efforts to address infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Now these partnerships are becoming a popular tool in efforts to reduce and prevent obesity and the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. Partnering with businesses presents a means to acquire resources, as well as opportunities to influence the private sector toward more healthful practices. Yet even though collaboration is a core principle of public health practice, public-private or nonprofit-private partnerships present risks and challenges that warrant specific consideration. In this article, we review the role of public health partnerships with the private sector, with a focus on efforts to address obesity and noncommunicable diseases in high-income settings. We identify key challenges-including goal alignment and conflict of interest-and consider how changes to partnership practice might address these.
Amir Hussin B. Baharuddin
Full Text Available The growth and development of any nation is greatly dependent on the availability of basic social infrastructure like good road, efficient power supply, buildings, ports, rails etcetera. Over fifty years after independent Nigeria is still in a very undesirable state of infrastructural development; variety of broad-based opinion surveys in recent years have shown that prominent infrastructure deficiencies are responsible for the country’s disappointing economic performance. This paper is designed to unfold factors responsible for the slow adoption of public private partnership PPPs in Nigeria and proffer workable solutions that could help revised the current trend. A questionnaire survey was conducted seeking the opinions of one hundred (100 experienced professionals within the industry comprising architects, engineers, quantity surveyors, project managers and contractors. Out of 100 questionnaires sent out, 61 came back resulting in a response rate of 61%. The result shows that high rate of corruption in government, high cost of participation and lack of adequate security have all combined to slow the uptake and use of PPPs for the provision of public infrastructures and services. In order to improve the use of PPPs to provide the much needed infrastructures to enhance economic growth and well-being of the growing population of the country, it was found that the elimination of corruption in government, the building of strong financial institutions, improvement in security and improving the knowledge of professionals in the PPP procurement strategy would greatly assist the country to overcome the dearth of public services and enhance economic growth.
Vann, Timi S.; Venezia, Robert A.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Earth Science Enterprise is engaged in applications of NASA Earth science and remote sensing technologies for public health. Efforts are focused on establishing partnerships with those agencies and organizations that have responsibility for protecting the Nation's Health. The program's goal is the integration of NASA's advanced data and technology for enhanced decision support in the areas of disease surveillance and environmental health. A focused applications program, based on understanding partner issues and requirements, has the potential to significantly contribute to more informed decision making in public health practice. This paper intends to provide background information on NASA's investment in public health and is a call for partnership with the larger practice community.
Reddy, Sunita; Mary, Immaculate
The Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance (RACHI) in Andhra Pradesh (AP) has been very popular social insurance scheme with a private public partnership model to deal with the problems of catastrophic medical expenditures at tertiary level care for the poor households. A brief analysis of the RACHI scheme based on officially available data and media reports has been undertaken from a public health perspective to understand the nature and financing of partnership and the lessons it provides. The analysis of the annual budget spent on the surgeries in private hospitals compared to tertiary public hospitals shows that the current scheme is not sustainable and pose huge burden on the state exchequers. The private hospital association's in AP, further acts as pressure groups to increase the budget or threaten to withdraw services. Thus, profits are privatized and losses are socialized.
van den Hurk, M.; Hueskes, M.
The value of public–private partnerships has typically been sought in financial and budgetary benefits. In both research and practice, important aspects of nonfinancial value have remained under the radar. This article discusses four “white raven” public–private partnerships that have shown rather
Brandsen, T.; Kumar, S.
Accountability is an under researched aspect ofpublic-private partnerships. For partnerships to be successful, they must incorporate mechanisms that ensure that partners are answerable for their performance. Although it is often assumed that rendering an account is a straightforward process of
This Bachelor Thesis deals with Public Private Partnership. In the first part there is a PPP definition, there are specified basic characteristic features of this partnership and sumed up basic historical findings about PPP. The Thesis concentrates on advantages and disadvantages, resulting from this partnership, on definition of basic types of PPP projects and their sector division. The second part of the Thesis is focused on particular PPP project Buildind-up and Operating of Prison with Hi...
Pernille Tanggaard Andersen
Full Text Available This study explored the Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership (SPCP which builds upon a collaboration between two Danish municipalities targeted at the prevention of tobacco smoking. The aim of the study was to describe the processes of SPCP, to examine the difficulties this collaboration faced, and to assess how these experiences could be used to improve future partnership collaboration. We employed qualitative methodology comprising 12 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with SPCP’s stakeholders and an analysis of the partnership documents and reports. The findings suggested that the main potentials of the partnership were the personal relations between the members and stakeholders with the possibilities of the creation of new connections with other actors. Barriers to successful partnership building were the implementation of the new Local Government Reform as a competing task, and that the two municipalities were heterogenic in respect to organizational issues and working methods. Other impediments included the lack of continuity in leadership, the lack of clarity regarding the form of collaboration and roles, as well as different expectations of the stakeholders. We conclude that four factors remain critical for partnerships. The first is the clarity of the collaborative effort. Second, partnerships need to take into account the structural circumstances and culture/value systems of all stakeholders. Third is the impact of contextual factors on the development of the partnership; and the fourth factor is the bearing of personal/individual factors on the partnership e.g., personal engagement in the project. Early attention to these four factors could contribute to more effective partnership working.
Hans W. Ittmann
Full Text Available Background: Freight transport infrastructure is an indispensable requirement for economic growth, development and prosperity. Public–private partnerships (PPPs, as a mechanism to fund and construct freight transport infrastructure, have been suggested by many in private and public sectors. Objectives: The concept of PPPs is dealt with, and the relevance of this mechanism is expanded upon. It is clear that PPPs in the rail environment present huge challenges and complexities. The objective was to determine whether PPPs are a viable mechanism to fund freight transport infrastructure in South Africa. Method: Experiences with rail PPPs worldwide have shown that many failures occurred implementing these. The challenges and complexities of PPPs, in the freight rail environment, are highlighted together with the benefits, risks and best practices of PPPs. It is shown that suitable policies, legislation and regulations concerning PPPs are in place in South Africa. Results: A proper framework and methodology to proceed should be in place. PPPs take time and are complex. Government involvement remains essential. Firm contractual agreements between parties are essential. Risk handling, risk sharing and the magnitude of risks should be clarified with agreement on where the risks reside. Financial viability, with value for money (VfM and financial benefits for private sector role players are non-negotiable. Conclusion: Appropriate legislation for implementing PPPs must be in place while two further important elements are economic circumstances and proper project execution. Taking all these factors into consideration, the freight transport sector can only benefit from successfully negotiated and implemented PPPs.
Dinh Thi Thuy Hang
Full Text Available It is expected that in the period of 2011-2020 projects under the model of public- private partnership (PPP in Vietnam will continue to increase in both number and volume of financing. Despite the substantial volumes of the already performed investments, many practitioners in the field question the viability of Vietnamese PPP projects, in the road sector in particular. Enhancing the viability of these projects is, therefore, vital in the context of the ongoing economic growth. This research is proposing a qualitative value for money assessment, in order to examine the factors influencing PPP projects’ viability in Vietnam. Employing the method of Structural Equation Modeling, the following two aspects will be included in the analysis: 1 financial performance & economic environment; 2 technical capacity & legal environment. The former encompasses “financial interest”, “profitability”, “economic policy” and “demand of service”; while the latter covers “service quality”, “flexibility of contracts”, “legal framework” and “statutory compliance”.
Michel, G.; Gunasekera, R.; Werner, A.; Galy, H.
Similar to 2001, 2004, and 2005, 2011 was another year of unexpected international catastrophe events, in which insured losses were more than twice the expected long-term annual average catastrophe losses of USD 30 to 40bn. Key catastrophe events that significantly contributed these losses included the Mw 9.0 Great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, the Jan. 2011 floods in Queensland, the October 2011 floods in Thailand, the Mw 6.1 Christchurch earthquake and Convective system (Tornado) in United States. However, despite considerable progress in catastrophe modelling, the advent of global catastrophe models, increasing risk model coverage and skill in the detailed modelling, the above mentioned events were not satisfactorily modelled by the current mainstream Re/Insurance catastrophe models. This presentation therefore address problems in models and incomplete understanding identified from recent catastrophic events by considering: i) the current modelling environment, and ii) how the current processes could be improved via: a) the understanding of risk within science networks such as the Willis Research Network, and b) the integration of risk model results from available insurance catastrophe models and tools. This presentation aims to highlight the needed improvements in decision making and market practices, thereby advancing the current management of risk in the Re/Insurance industry. This also increases the need for better integration of Public-Private-Academic partnerships and tools to provide better estimates of not only financial loss but also humanitarian and infrastructural losses as well.
Hashim, H.; Che-Ani, A. I.; Ismail, K.
Public Private Partnership (PPP) in Malaysia aims to stimulate economic growth and overcome the weakness of conventional system. Over the years, many critics have been reported along the massive growth of PPP project development. Within that context, this study provides a review of issues and challenges for PPP pertaining to project performance in Malaysia. The study also attempts to investigate four performance measurement models around the globe as a basis for improvement of PPP in Malaysia. A qualitative method was used to analyse literature review from previous published literatures while comparative analysis was carried out within the models to identify their advantages and disadvantages. The findings show that the issues and challenges occurred were related to human, technical and financial factor that could hinder the implementation of PPP project in Malaysia. From the analysis, KPIs, guideline / framework, risk allocation, efficiency & flexibility are perceived as dominant issues. Finally, the findings provide an informed basis on the opportunity areas to be considered for improvement in order to achieved project effectiveness.
Full Text Available Public Private Partnership (PPP Housing scheme in Nigeria is intended to complement government effort toward increasing housing stock and providing affordable housing in the country. However, Bauchi state government adopted the construction of 5,000 phases PPP Housing. But 6 years after the commencement of the scheme, only a few numbers of housing units were completed and commissioned. Therefore, it becomes imperative to carry out research on the impact level of those factors affecting the implementation of the scheme. The aim of the study is to investigate impact level of factors affecting the implementation of PPP housing projects in Bauchi state with a view to find out possible ways that will improve the implementation of the scheme. The descriptive and explorative research design was adopted for this study. 54 structured Questionnaires were administered to construction professional’s staff under private housing developers and relevant government agencies in Bauchi state. 42 valid Questionnaires were retrieved and analysed with SPSS software. The result of the quantitative data analysis shows that creation of favourable investment environment and government support have very high Impact on the implementation of Bauchi PPP housing projects. Therefore, this study recommends that government and other stakeholders should give more attention to the creation of favourable investment environment, support in policy formulation and managerial strategies in the future for improving the implementation of PPP housing projects.
Olabode Emmanuel Ogunsanmi
Full Text Available The study investigates key performance indicators (KPIs that could improve performance of public-private partnership (PPP projects in Nigeria. The study objectives include a comparison of stakeholders’ perception on KPIs and to investigate if significant difference exists between stakeholders’ perceptions on most KPIs. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information from various respondents who were recently involved in PPP projects. Random sampling technique was used to select forty-five (45 respondents out of which thirty-one (31 responses were used for the data analysis. The results indicate that top KPIs for performance improvement are levels of design complexity and technological advancement, and return on investment. Stakeholders agree on most of the rankings of the KPIs. The general perception of stakeholders was similar on most KPIs except for a few divergent opinions. The study findings have an implication for policy and decision making such that stakeholders could pay special attention to the KPIs identified, that could improve construction project performance. Finally the study recommends further research to explore KPIs for other procurement options.
Gottwald, Matthias; Becker, Andreas; Bahr, Inke; Mueller-Fahrnow, Anke
The pharmaceutical industry is faced with significant challenges in its efforts to discover new drugs that address unmet medical needs. Safety concerns and lack of efficacy are the two main technical reasons for attrition. Improved early research tools including predictive in silico, in vitro, and in vivo models, as well as a deeper understanding of the disease biology, therefore have the potential to improve success rates. The combination of internal activities with external collaborations in line with the interests and needs of all partners is a successful approach to foster innovation and to meet the challenges. Collaboration can take place in different ways, depending on the requirements of the participants. In this review, the value of public-private partnership approaches will be discussed, using examples from the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI). These examples describe consortia approaches to develop tools and processes for improving target identification and validation, as well as lead identification and optimization. The project "Kinetics for Drug Discovery" (K4DD), focusing on the adoption of drug-target binding kinetics analysis in the drug discovery decision-making process, is described in more detail. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full Text Available Financing plays an important role for renewal of old city building is find suitable financing plan. A proper financial management in one hand has a direct relationship with project main factors such as: time, cost and quality of the project, and on the other hand, achieving project goals requires a comprehensive insight of project, stockholders as well as other relative situation in regard with the project. Considering the complication of execution such projects and the number of shareholders, one of the best attitudes towards the project management is risk management. This research is a qualitative and practical, which reviews the effects of project management factors on financial return of urban renewal sachem. The required information gained through a survey and via questionnaire and interviews with specialists. This article first describes the public private financial partnership and then, based on the results gained from a case study done on one of the renewal schemes in Mashhad metropolitan areas. Next, it identifies and evaluates of positive and negative risks, which lead to threats and opportunities will be performed and will attempt to respond the existent risks. Finally, we provide a framework for the risk assessment of the housing units.
Full Text Available Cities are one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change poses serious threat to urban infrastructure, quality of life, and entire urban systems. Cities need to adopt an integrated approach for improvement of city services in order to adapt to climate change and reduce their greenhouse emissions. However, the magnitude of investment required to bridge the widening infrastructure service provision demand-supply gap along with the additional investment to mitigate climate change demands the need to look for innovative financing solutions. Private investments through public private partnership (PPP route offer an innovative mechanism for meet both the goals of infrastructure development and climate change mitigation. Private parties in PPP, however, focuses on the project economics only though they have the potential to provide innovative technical, financial and managerial solutions. The paper aims to answer the question how to integrate climate change mitigation objective in procurement process of PPP projects. The study has focused only on PPP projects in Municipal Solid Waste Management sector. The integration of climate change mitigation objective has been through design of a modified procurement protocol which promote private sector to devise project structure that fulfil both the objectives of climate change mitigation and provision of quality infrastructure services.
The Resource File is an in-depth bibliography of 166 practical and action-oriented energy conservation publications and materials. It is a reference tool, designed for Federal, state, and local energy managers or people who are asked to recommend how-to conservation guides to the public. Each listing describes a publication's intended audience and provides a summary of its contents. Included are operations and maintenance manuals, life-cycle costing handbooks, home insulation manuals, films on fuel-saving driving techniques, and courses devoted exclusively to home weatherization. 166 items.
Purcărea, V L; Coculescu, B I; Coculescu, E C
During the transition period, the Romanian medical system, subject (like other areas) to a process of reform, had to go through a difficult path, not without obstacles (malpractice, underfunding, embezzlement scandals in the media etc.). Consequently, Romania has faced (and unfortunately still is still facing) the massive exodus of health professionals to countries where they can benefit from better working conditions and payment, and those who suffer from health care crisis are the patients. Reform means "the people in the system for the people", which requires a change of mindset within the medical staff, especially in the continuous professional development. However, to talk about the quality of the medical act requires that all those involved in the medical system should create appropriate conditions - i.e. advanced technical equipment and appropriate salaries. In addition, as underfunding is the main cause of failure in the health system, that management remains the only tool that can lead to the appropriate use of the existing resources and the quality of health services. Therefore, the idea of public-private partnership - which occurred as a challenge, especially after the EU accession - can be considered a solution designed to improve the quality and cost of health services. In other words, the cooperation of the private sector with the public authority means increasing the rigor of the medical equipment performance, fostering professional competition, and an increased attention to the patient, in a word: performance. Currently, more and more frequently, the management has studied to identify opportunities for innovation in health care services in an attempt to bring together patients and practitioners in the field by resorting to the identification of the ways they can receive health care services promptly, fairly and efficiently. Therefore, a clear and responsible design in the spirit of ethics and medical ethic will help the marketing manager solve many
Full Text Available The proposed article aims to illustrate an experimental model applicable, in the planning stage, to an appraisal of the capital gains in a residential requalification in public/ private partnership. The model develops a method using a conventional cost value through a multicriteria model which evaluates the influence of qualitative exogenous variables to the market value of the property. The aim is to develop a synthetic procedure, transparent, shared and easy to use by the public authorities, in determining the total benefits associated with urban transformations, in order to achieve a fair sharing of profits between public and private entities.
Nemani, R. R.; Lee, T. J.; Michaelis, A.; Ganguly, S.; Votava, P.
NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a data, computing and knowledge collaborative that houses satellite, climate and ancillary data where a community of researchers can come together to share modeling and analysis codes, scientific results, knowledge and expertise on a centralized platform with access to large supercomputing resources. As a part of broadening the community beyond NASA-funded researchers, NASA through an agreement with Amazon Inc. made available to the public a large collection of Climate and Earth Sciences satellite data. The data, available through the Open NASA Earth Exchange (OpenNEX) platform hosted by Amazon Web Services (AWS) public cloud, consists of large amounts of global land surface imaging, vegetation conditions, climate observations and climate projections. In addition to the data, users of OpenNEX platform can also watch lectures from leading experts, learn basic access and use of the available data sets. In order to advance White House initiatives such as Open Data, Big Data and Climate Data and the Climate Action Plan, NASA over the past six months conducted the OpenNEX Challenge. The two-part challenge was designed to engage the public in creating innovative ways to use NASA data and address climate change impacts on economic growth, health and livelihood. Our intention was that the challenges allow citizen scientists to realize the value of NASA data assets and offers NASA new ideas on how to share and use that data. The first "ideation" challenge, closed on July 31st attracted over 450 participants consisting of climate scientists, hobbyists, citizen scientists, IT experts and App developers. Winning ideas from the first challenge will be incorporated into the second "builder" challenge currently targeted to launch mid-August and close by mid-November. The winner(s) will be formally announced at AGU in December of 2014. We will share our experiences and lessons learned over the past year from OpenNEX, a public-private partnership for
Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; El Ansari, Walid; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara
, and that the two municipalities were heterogenic in respect to organizational issues and working methods. Other impediments included the lack of continuity in leadership, the lack of clarity regarding the form of collaboration and roles, as well as different expectations of the stakeholders. We conclude that four...... factors remain critical for partnerships. The first is the clarity of the collaborative effort. Second, partnerships need to take into account the structural circumstances and culture/value systems of all stakeholders. Third is the impact of contextual factors on the development of the partnership......; health professions education; leadership...
Full Text Available The holistic (comprehensive] approach to the methodological framework for the analysis of public-private partnership is essential presumption for the transformation of the public and private interests from the conflicting ones to the parallel and convergent ones. Private and public interests are to be regarded not as the divided particulars but as the element of the dynamics of PPP as a whole. The holistic approach facilitates interaction which brings new 'added values' in the exercise of the public interest by using the PPP construction: economic, social and political. This concept allows the PPP to 'take the best of both worlds' (the protection of the public interest and solidarity from the public sector, and the entrepreneurial logic from the private sector]. In light of the sui generis structure of mutual relations between the public and the private partner in the PPP framework, the contractual basis of public-private partnership has the character of relational contracts. Relational contracts differ from traditional contracting mechanisms. The parties to traditional contracts have equal information at their disposal, which enables them to define ex ante the terms of the transaction insofar as the consequences of performance or non-performance are anticipated at the time of contract conclusion. On the other hand, relational contracts are incomplete agreements: the parties to relational contracts mutually agree that it is impossible or economically inefficient to define ex ante the possible difficulties and circumstances of the transaction at issue (which is possible in classical contracts]. In this respect, in relational contracts the rationale for commitment is relatively flexible. The public-private partnership agreement is a relational contract. Relational contracts within the PPP framework limit the opportunistic behaviour on both parties and promote the development of their co-operation and exchange of information. Relational contracts
Надежда Викторовна Шуленина
Full Text Available Public-private partnership is a new institute of collaboration between business and government for Russia. Formulated in 2004, the position of top officials on this matter gave a significant acceleration to the process of launching projects using the PPP. But due to lack of necessary experience and knowledge there is often a substitution of notions. This entails the disruption of important projects for the national economy.
Albalate, Daniel, 1980-; Bel i Queralt, Germà, 1963-; Geddes, R. Richard
We use an ordered logistic model to empirically examine the factors that explain varying degrees of private involvement in the U.S. water sector through public-private partnerships. Our estimates suggest that a variety of factors help explain greater private participation in this sector. We find that the risk to private participants regarding cost recovery is an important driver of private participation. The relative cost of labor is also a key factor in determining the degree of private invo...
This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared in connection with the application (the Application) by Alternative Energy, Inc. (AEI), Northeast Empire Limited Partnership number-sign 2 (the Partnership) and Maine Public Service Company (MPS and, collectively with AEI and the Partnership, the Applicants), filed on January 6, 1992, for authorization to transmit electric energy to a foreign country. The electric energy to be exported would be produced by a 39-megawatt (MW), wood-fired powerplant (the Project) to be developed by AEI and to be built by the Partnership in Ashland, Maine, which is located in MPS' service territory. In the Application, the Applicants requested authorization for MPS to transmit electricity generated by the Project from Maine through New Brunswick, Canada, on route back to the US for domestic use by Central Maine Power Company (MP). The need to cross the US -Canadian border arises due to the geography of the area and to facilitate access to an existing transmission line. None of the power will be used in Canada. This EA addresses the environmental impacts associated with the export of electric energy and the connected actions which are expected to result from the authorization of those exports. The electricity would be exported over cross-border transmission facilities maintained between MPS and New Brunswick Power Corporation (NB Power). No new cross-border facilities, and no modification of any existing cross-border facilities, are required in connection with the proposed action
Phelps, A.D.R.; Carter, R.G.; Clunie, D.; Bowater, S.P.; Ellis, D.; Gamble, D.; Large, T.; Lucas, W.; Pettit, C.; Poole, M. W.; Smith, H.; Smith, P.W.; Wilcox, D.M.
The High Power Radio Frequency (HPRF) Faraday Partnership is a UK technology forum for all users, designers, developers and researchers of RF and microwave devices and systems. High power RF and microwave engineering are key enabling technologies in a wide range of industrial sectors. Formed in October 2001 and funded initially by the UK Department of Trade and Industry and the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, the purpose of the HPRF Faraday Partnership is the development of a vibrant research, development and manufacturing base capable of exploiting opportunities in high power radio-frequency engineering. The partnership includes the key UK industrial companies, research laboratories and university research groups. The number of partners is constantly growing and already numbers over thirty. The partnership provides the enabling technology for future high power RF systems and their power supplies through its research programme. It is training people for the sector through PhD studentships and employment as Research Associates. It is planned to develop a Masters Training program. Support and involvement in research for companies in the supply chain is provided through a Partnership Office, a web site and through a range of government funded research schemes. The HPRF Faraday Partnership is seeking to establish more long term international research and development collaborations
Ho, S. Ping; Hsu, Yaowen
In order to meet the requirements of the rapid economic growth, many countries demand an increasing number of power plants to meet the increasing electricity usage. Since high capital requirements of power plants present a big issue for these countries, PPPs have been considered an alternative to provide power plant infrastructure. In particular, in emerging or developing countries, PPPs may be the fastest way to provide the infrastructure needed. However, while PPPs are a promising alternative to providing various types of infrastructure, many failed power plant PPP projects have made it evident that PPPs, under certain situations, can be very costly or even a wrong choice of governance structure. While the higher efficiency due to better pooling of resources is greatly emphasized in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs), the embedded transaction inefficiencies are often understated or even ignored. Through the lens of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE), this paper aims to answer why and when PPPs may become a costly governance structure for power plants. Specifically, we develop a TCE-based theory of PPPs as a governance structure. This theory suggests that three major opportunism problems embedded in infrastructure PPPs are possible to cause substantial transaction costs and render PPPs a costly governance structure. The three main opportunism problems are principal-principal problem, firm's hold-up problem, and government-led hold-up problem. Moreover, project and institutional characteristics that may lead to opportunism problems are identified. Based on these characteristics, an opportunism-focused transaction cost analysis (OTCA) for PPPs as a governance structure is proposed to supplement the current practice of PPP feasibility analysis. As a part of theory development, a case study of PPP power plants is performed to evaluate the proposed theory and to illustrate how the proposed OTCA can be applied in practice. Policies and administration strategies for power
Erik Jon Byker
Full Text Available This article reports on a Public Private Partnership (PPP program in South India that provided information and communication technology (ICT to rural elementary schools. The article examined the current status of rural, government-run elementary schools in India by reviewing reports like the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER in India. Challenges like teacher absences, student drop-outs, lack of electricity, lack of separate toilets for genders, and a lack of teaching resources is discussed. To meet these challenges, the article describes the rise in popularity of India’s PPPs. Then the article reports on a case study of a PPP, called the SSA Foundation, which implemented a “one laptop per school” program in rural areas in the Indian States of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Using ethnographic data from field research, the case study includes a description of how the students in a rural Karnataka elementary school use their school’s laptop. The school was situated in a small village where most travel was non-motorized. Walking, usually without shoes, was the main form of transportation. A bicycle was considered a luxury. Most villagers worked in the surrounding ragi and millet fields; laboring, often with only simple tool blades. Wood fires were the main source of fuel for cooking. In this village, the school’s laptop became a prized possession. The case study offers a “thick description” (Geertz, 1973 of how the village school’s students used the laptop for learning basic computing skills and for learning English.
Angela van der Berg
Full Text Available It is anticipated that the occurrence and intensity of disasters will increase globally and in South Africa where typical disasters include droughts, floods, extreme hailstorms, gales, fires and earthquakes, as well as sinkholes arising from mining activity in dolomitic areas. Disasters such as these result in human suffering and damage to the resources and infrastructure on which South Africans rely for their survival and the maintenance of their quality of life. Section 24 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 affords to everyone the right to an environment that is not harmful to his or her health and well-being. It may be argued that a person's sense of environmental security in relation to the potential risks and dangers of disaster falls within the scope of the protection provided by section 24. The responsibility to intervene for the protection of the interests inherent in the constitutional environmental right lies with the government of South Africa. Disaster management specifically is a functional area of competence of national and provincial government, but practice has shown that the actual implementation of and planning for disaster management happens in the local government sphere. Against the backdrop of these introductory discussions and, given the fact that several municipalities in South Africa are under-resourced, this article very specifically aims to critically discuss and describe from a legal perspective the potential and function of public-private partnerships (PPPs between local government (municipalities and the private sector (such as industries in fulfilling the legally entrenched disaster management mandate of municipalities. Through a critical evaluation of some existing PPPs, this article illustrates that the private sector has a key role to play in assisting municipalities to fulfil their legally entrenched disaster management mandate.
Oleg Vasilyevich Inshakov
Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of trends in organizational, industrial and infrastructural development of innovative territorial clusters (ITC in the Russian Federation. Parameters and characteristics of subsidies allocated from various sources for these purposes in 2013-2015 are disclosed. The study of the conducted ITC’s support policies reflects the concentration of clusters’ control levers by the regional authorities, that causes certain risks of clustering processes containment in general. The spatial and temporal unevenness of clusters’ organizational development process, the instability of their financial support and strengthening the vertical channels of influence that could give rise to corruption, stagnation and ignoring the views of cluster participants when making strategic decisions are revealed. The authors reveal the necessity of conceptual enrichment of the methods and tools of formation and implementation of ITC’s strategies aimed at achieving high feasibility and concretization of their goals and means, providing strong link between tactical measures and ongoing projects, and balancing the interests of stakeholders. It is proved in the article that the urgent task of enhancing the state of clustering policy in Russia has become a framework to improve the quality of ITC’s projects initiated and creating an adequate system for monitoring the effectiveness of their implementation. While assessing the ITC projects it is proposed to take into account the investment effectiveness, associated with the home region development strategy, sectoral strategies, profile programs of companies’ innovative development on the public-private partnership basis, regional universities development programs, as well as the similar projects implemented in other regions of Russia.
Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for public-private partnerships PPP) in local government water services infrastructure. Water services infrastructure assets are key to the provision of basic services. Data were collected from various stakeholders, i...
Full Text Available The popularity of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs, as a way for governments to get infrastructure built, continues to grow. But while the public is often led to believe that this is because they result in a more efficient use of taxpayer funds and a more streamlined process, this is not necessarily the case. In fact, the clearest advantage that PPPs offers is to politicians, who are able to transfer to private partners the risks of miscalculated construction costs and revenue projections (as with a toll road, for example. For taxpayers, the deals can often work out worse than if the government had simply pursued a fixedprice design-build Public Sector Alternative (PSA arrangement. Even from the very start of the process, there are often a limited number of private consortia equipped to bid on major PPPs, which already leads to the potential for bidders to build in higher profits, and thus, higher costs for taxpayers. Nor are these private consortia oblivious to the risks they assume; they must therefore build into their bid an effective “insurance premium” to account for unforeseen delays and increased costs. The use of private debt to finance construction further inflates prices over a government’s lower cost of capital. To an incumbent government, a key advantage of PPPs is the ability to avoid upfront costs, and let the private consortium arrange financing until the project is complete, allowing politicians to take the credit for new infrastructure while passing future maintenance and operating costs off onto future politicians, taxpayers and/or users. This, however, only provides both the incentive and bookkeeping artifice — since costs are incurred off the government’s current balance sheet — for governments to build more infrastructure than might otherwise be justified. Advocates of PPP would argue that one clear benefit PPPs do offer the public is an impressive record of bringing in projects on time and on budget. It is true
McKenzie, J.J. Jr.
Dr. McKenzie says a national energy policy does exist, being based on synthetic fuels from coal and nuclear energy to meet future demands, and based on a complete lack of attention to conservation. In meeting energy demands for the future, he feels the opportunity still exists to create the scenario that will require meaningful jobs in the process, jobs requiring less capital and less energy. On the risks of nuclear energy, Dr. McKenzie discusses the funding, research, and results of the Atomic Energy Commission's safety program. He airs his views on WASH-1400, the study by Professor Norman Rasmussen, dealing with the possibilities of reactor core meltdowns. He thinks a worse problem resulting from nuclear power plants is that of waste disposal and cites AEC's poor record of managing these wastes in Kansas and elsewhere. In concluding, Dr. McKenzie says: (1) nuclear power may not be the best thing in the world, maybe we should look at other alternatives; (2) conservation is most important, and creates jobs at the same time if handled correctly; (3) AFL-C10 should sponsor a study on energy systems investigating its employment potential, net energy, economic factors, and capital requirements; and (4) construction of nuclear and coal plants will create jobs, but building solar plants will create jobs with fewer restraints on the environment. A panel discussion follows this, the third paper, on nuclear safety for workers and the public
Lee, Hai Yong; Kim, Jong Hyung; Kim, Hyeog Ju; Kim, Ji Soon; Oh, Hyeon Joo; Kim, Cheol Hyeon; Yang, Hyun Kyu [Korea Food and Drug Administraion, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan Il [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
A nationwide survey was conducted to give representative levels of effective doses to patient for 17 types of CT examination and also representative level of MGD (mean glandular dose) to standard breast for mammography X-ray equipment. The effective doses to patient from 16 CT scanners were estimated from measurement of CTDI (Computed Tomography Dose Index) in air by multiplying conversion coefficients which are specified by National Radiological Protection Board in United Kingdom. The lowest and hightest mean values of effective dose measured to patient from CT scanner were 0.05 mSv for IAM examination and 17.75 mSv for routine abdomen examination, respectively. The average values of 17 effective doses were lower than other results of foreign countrys' surveys. The mean glandular doses to a standard breast for 26 mammography units were estimated from measurement of the air kerma at the surface of a 40 mm plain Perspex phantom by applying conversion factors described in Report 59 of the Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine of United Kingdom. The exposure factors for this measurement were those used clinically at each hospital. The average MGD to standard breast was 1.06 mGy in units with grid and 0.49 mGy in units without grid. These results are lower than guidance levels by IPSM and AAPM. These results will be used for risk estimation to the Korean public from the medical radiation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Public-private partnerships (PPP could be effective in scaling up services. We estimated cost and cost-effectiveness of different PPP arrangements in the provision of tuberculosis (TB treatment, and the financing required for the different models from the perspective of the provincial TB programme, provider, and the patient. Methods Two different models of TB provider partnerships are evaluated, relative to sole public provision: public-private workplace (PWP and public-private non-government (PNP. Cost and effectiveness data were collected at six sites providing directly observed treatment (DOT. Effectiveness for a 12-month cohort of new sputum positive patients was measured using cure and treatment success rates. Provider and patient costs were estimated, and analysed according to sources of financing. Cost-effectiveness is estimated from the perspective of the provider, patient and society in terms of the cost per TB case cured and cost per case successfully treated. Results Cost per case cured was significantly lower in PNP (US $354–446, and comparable between PWP (US $788–979 and public sites (US $700–1000. PPP models could significantly reduce costs to the patient by 64–100%. Relative to pure public sector provision and financing, expansion of PPPs could reduce government financing required per TB patient treated from $609–690 to $130–139 in PNP and $36–46 in PWP. Conclusion There is a strong economic case for expanding PPP in TB treatment and potentially for other types of health services. Where PPPs are tailored to target groups and supported by the public sector, scaling up of effective services could occur at much lower cost than solely relying on public sector models.
Public-private mix (PPM) can supplement public sector initiatives, including public health. As National Tuberculosis Control Programmes around the world embrace PPM, conforming to the four key principles of partnership values of beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, and equity as espoused by the World Health Organization can provide a useful framework to guide successful implementation. This is a qualitative case study of PPM in tuberculosis (TB) control, which utilised a purposive sample of 30 key stakeholders involved in TB control in Ghana. Respondents comprised an equal number of respondents from both the public and private sectors. Semi-structured in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with respondents. Data emanating from the IDIs were analysed deductively. Although the respondents' perceptions about beneficence were unanimous, their views about non-maleficence, autonomy, and equity appeared incongruous with the underlying meanings of the PPM values. Underlying the unfavourable perceptions were disruptions in funding, project implementers' failure to follow-up on promised incentives, and private providers lost interest. This was perceived to have negatively affected the smooth implementation of PPM in the country. Going forward, it is imperative that future partnerships are built around utilitarian principles and also adhere to the dictates of agreements, whether they are 'soft' or standard contracts.
Jeffrey S. Reznick
Full Text Available The article deals with the ongoing strategic partnership between the History of Medicine Division at the National Library of Medicine and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech to allow researchers, educators, and students access to new forms of cooperative work through a growing network of resources.
Bos, Eltje; de Zeeuw, Anna; van Vliet, Pieter; de Kreek, Mike
In our recently started multiple case study - funded by the Netherlands Scientific Board (NWO) - on these processes of collaboration, we focused on the dynamics in growing partnerships between citizens, community social workers and civil servants. Three cases of social neighbourhood initiatives are
AMO's research and development partnerships with industry have resulted in more than 220 technologies and other solutions that can be purchased today. This document includes a description of each solution, its benefits, and vendor contact information. The document also identifies emerging technologies and other resources to help industry save energy.
Freedman, Susan; Aschheim, Barbara
This document describes six industry-education partnerships in Massachusetts selected as exemplary and 14 selected as outstanding. They represent innovative and collaborative ways to address dropout prevention, at-risk and special needs students, adult literacy, basic skill development, and enrichment needs of students. Each entry provides this…
Sanders, Maurits; Heldeweg, Michiel A.; Harmsen, M.
To realize a proper ‘energy transition’ government has to collaborate with private sector organizations. In the energy sector these latter organizations are often already involved in private-private partnerships for collaboration towards energy transition. The question seems justified if, upon
Oluoha, Chukwuemeka; Ahaneku, Hycienth
The vision of Nigeria’s immunization program is to reach and sustain routine immunization coverage of greater than 90% for all vaccines by 2020. In order to achieve this, Abia state embarked on a unique private-public partnership (PPP) between private health facilities and the Abia state ministry of health. The aim of this partnership was to collaborate with private health facilities to provide free childhood immunization services in the state - the first of its kind in Nigeria. This is a retrospective study of the 2011 Abia state, Nigeria monthly immunization data. In the 4 local governments operating the PPP, 45% (79/175) of the health facilities that offered immunization services in 2011 were private health facilities and 55% (96/175) were public health facilities. However, 21% of the immunization services took place in private health facilities while 79% took place in public health facilities. Private health facilities were shown to have a modest contribution to immunization in the 4 local governments involved in the PPP. Efforts should be made to expand PPP in immunization nationally to improve immunization services in Nigeria. PMID:28299112
The climate change agenda requires adequate financial flows in the near future in order to support mitigation and adaptation efforts and the low-carbon development of emerging and new economies. The potentials of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) – as a risk-sharing structure bringing private funds on the table – are presented in the new climate change context. This article discusses and provides recommendations on PPPs as a good financing model to mainstream climate change into the development agenda of emerging and less-developed economies.
Counts, Jacqueline; Gillam, Rebecca; Garstka, Teri A; Urbach, Ember
The challenge of maximizing the well-being of children, youth, and families is recognizing that change occurs within complex social systems. Organizations dedicated to improving practice, advancing knowledge, and informing policy for the betterment of all must have the right approach, structure, and personnel to work in these complex systems. The University of Kansas Center for Public Partnerships and Research cultivates a portfolio of innovation, research, and data science approaches positioned to help move social service fields locally, regionally, and nationally. Mission, leadership, and smart growth guide our work and drive our will to affect positive change in the world.
E. E. Zhukov
Full Text Available Article is devoted to actual problems and prospects of perfection of public private partnership mechanisms at important social and economic investment projects realization. The analysis of foreign practice in the PPP field is carried out. Features of Russian PPP development model are considered. The main difficulties on this way are designated. Such as: absence of the normal competitive environment during the choice of the private partner-investor; absence of the qualified experts in the PPP; imperfect legislative base; corruption of officials, etc. Main offers of perfection of PPP-mechanism in Russia, accounting forthcoming modernization and innovative development of Russian economy are given.
Musoke, David; Gibson, Linda; Mukama, Trasias; Khalil, Yesmean; Ssempebwa, John C
Partnerships between developed and developing country institutions are increasingly becoming important in addressing contemporary global health challenges faced by health systems. Inter-university health collaboration such as the Nottingham Trent University (UK) and Makerere University School of Public Health (Uganda) partnership provide opportunities for working together in training, research and service delivery while strengthening health systems. This paper shares the experiences, achievements and opportunities of this partnership in co-learning and supporting the health system in Uganda. This includes a project being implemented to strengthen the training, supervision and motivation of community health workers in rural Uganda. Training and research are a key focus of the partnership and have involved both staff and students of both institutions including guest lectures, seminars and conference presentations. The partnership's collaboration with stakeholders such as the Ministry of Health (Uganda) and local health authorities has ensured participation necessary in supporting implementation of sustainable interventions. The partnership uses several channels such as email, telephone, Skype, Dropbox and WhatsApp which have been useful in maintaining constant and effective communication. The challenges faced by the partnership include lack of funding to support student mobility, and varying academic schedules of the two institutions. The experiences and prospects of this growing partnership can inform other collaborations in similar settings.
phenomenon. This Research Paper, by contrast, considers another source of data that could inform this analysis, namely the financial intelligence (FININT generated by the huge quantities of transaction data gathered by the financial-services industry as it processes bank transfers, ATM withdrawals and credit-card transactions. It asks what barriers exist to greater partnership and information sharing between the security authorities and the financial-services industry in tackling terrorism. And whether, within the parameters of acceptable data-privacy restrictions, an intelligent and intelligence-led relationship between the security authorities and the financial-services industry could provide greater and more timely insight into which individuals are travelling to Syria or are already in-country, and (perhaps most importantly who, having been exposed to the extremist ideology espoused by groups such Daesh, has returned home. The lack of partnership and information sharing between the public and private sectors is dramatically hindering the valuable role banks could play in assisting in disrupting terrorism. Advances in technology and transaction-monitoring systems have immeasurably improved the capabilities of banks and other financial institutions, such as large-scale remittance companies, to play the front-line role that is required of them by the authorities. The security threat posed by FTFs – and the apparent struggle faced by national security authorities in identifying and tracking such individuals – provides an ideal and timely platform from which to discuss the role that banks can play in countering terrorist threats, which requires urgent re-evaluation and enhancement. The FTF phenomenon has caught security authorities across the globe off guard. Authorities in many Western capitals only awoke, belatedly, to the threat once many hundreds of their citizens had made the journey to Syria and had begun openly to promote their actions via social media. Significant
Liudmila V. Goryainova
Full Text Available The article outlines the theoretical approaches to the study of the transformation of the forms of interaction between government and firms under the influence of the evolution of the productive forces and relations of production, depending on the mechanism for the coordination of economic activity, the level of competition and the dominant form of ownership. Substantiated, that partnerships between government and firms are a natural result of the transformation of these relations in the post-industrial economy.
Massetti, Greta M; Vivolo, Alana M
Violence is a leading cause of death and disability for U.S. youth. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) is committed to developing communities' capacity to engage in evidence-based youth violence (YV) prevention. We discuss the characteristics of communities that exert influence on the development and epidemiology of YV, and discuss opportunities for how community-research partnerships can enhance efforts to prevent violence in communities. The needs for YV prevention are unique; the nature and phenomenology of violence are community specific. Communities also vary widely in infrastructure and systems to support coordinated, evidence-based YV prevention strategies. These conditions highlight the need for community-research partnerships to enhance community capacity, employ local resources, and engage community members in the research process. DVP is committed to working towards creating communities in which youth are safe from violence. Approaches to YV prevention that emphasize community-research partnerships to build capacity and implement evidence-based prevention strategies can provide a supportive context for achieving that goal.
Lobo, M.; Guntur, R. D.; Nalley, H. M.
A research about partnership program in education between the government of Indonesia and Australia in East Nusa Tenggara Province (ENTP) has been conducted. The aim is to list the programs between the countries on the region in the last twenty years, together with their implementations to the community based on all the stakeholders’ perspectives. The samples taken by purposive sampling which targeted those who had direct involvement to the programs in the Districts of Sikka, Ende and Ngada. A literature review, questioners and a depth interview were employed in the data collection. The results show that the main partnership projects were NTT-PEP (Nusa Tenggara Timur-Primary Education Partnership), AIBEP (Australia Indonesia Building Education Project) and ProDEP (Professional Development for Education Personal). While the first and the third programs were targeting on human resources development, the second project was more focusing on the infrastructures. The analysis shows that in general, the majority of people think that the program implementation was good. Similar results were also reflected in the group of superintendent and the community. However, totally different feature was found in the group of government officials where all of them perceived that the program was good and need to be continued and sustained.
Valery Anatolyevich Tsvetkov
Full Text Available The article discusses the theory and practice of the implementation and development of transport and transit potential (TTP of Russia. This could be an effective way to replace the natural resource rent as the main source of income for the state and economic actors. For the modernization of national economic system the key importance are innovative technologies in the development of transport and transit potential through the organization of the production of goods and services with the highest added value in Russia. We proposed and substantiated the hypothesis about the necessity of creation of a Federal company responsible for the financing and implementation of Russia’s transport and transit potential development projects on the principles of public-private partnership (PPP. The authors have revealed the economic, institutional and organizational prerequisites for the establishment of such a public-private partnership company. We have provided the opinions of scientists and experts showing the urgent need to create in one form or another a single operator to transport goods on the territory of Russia and the Eurasian economic Union. To prove the hypothesis, we presented a description and analysis of the factors affecting the value of transit freight transport on Euro-Asian routes. We paid the special attention to identify the reasons of the increasing competitive advantage of Maritime transport in the world’s goods movement system. The authors based the main conclusion that, first of all, the created publicprivate partnership company should be large due to tough competition of developing transit freight by land routes with the global Maritime container services. Secondly, it needs a significant state participation since the management of the world’s cargo flows requires the effort of foreign policy and geo-economic nature. We emphasized that this business entity would become an active proponent and lobbyist of the most effective
Full Text Available There is a lot of methods which are currently used for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation e.g. economic analysis, mostly Cost-Benefit Analysis – CBA, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis - CEA, hybrid methods, measurement methods (survey e.g. among passengers and measurement of traffic volume, vehicles capacity etc., and multicriteria decision aiding methods (multicriteria analysis. The main aim of multicriteria analysis is the choice of the most desirable solution from among alternative variants according to different criteria which are difficult to compare against one another. There are several multicriteria methods for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation, e.g. AHP, ANP, Electre, Promethee, Oreste. The paper presents an application of one of the most popular variant ranking methods – Electre III method. The algorithm of Electre III method usage is presented in detail and then its application for assessment of variants of urban public transport system integration in Cracow is shown. The final ranking of eight variants of integration of urban public transport system in Cracow (from the best to the worst variant was drawn up with the application of the Electre III method. For assessment purposes 10 criteria were adopted: economical, technical, environmental, and social; they form a consistent criteria family. The problem was analyzed with taking into account different points of view: city authorities, public transport operators, city units responsible for transport management, passengers and others users. Separate models of preferences for all stakeholders were created.
Aartsen, Wendy; Peeters, Paul; Wagers, Scott; Williams-Jones, Bryn
Projects in public-private partnerships, such as the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI), produce data services and platforms (digital assets) to help support the use of medical research data and IT tools. Maintaining these assets beyond the funding period of a project can be a challenge. The reason for that is the need to develop a business model that integrates the perspectives of all different stakeholders involved in the project, and these digital assets might not necessarily be addressing a problem for which there is an addressable market of paying customers. In this manuscript, we review four IMI projects and the digital assets they produced as a means of illustrating the challenges in making digital assets sustainable and the lessons learned. To progress digital assets beyond proof-of-concept into widely adopted tools, there is a need for continuation of multi-stakeholder support tailored to these assets. This would be best done by implementing a structure similar to the accelerators that are in place to help transform startup businesses into growing and thriving businesses. The aim of this article is to highlight the risk of digital asset loss and to provoke discussion on the concept of developing an "accelerator" for digital assets from public-private partnership research projects to increase the chance that digital assets will be sustained and continue to add value long after a project has ended.
Hanssen, Lucien; Gremmen, Bart
The Centre for BioSystems Genomics (CBSG) is a Dutch public-private partnership in plant genomics active in potato and tomato research and exploitation. Its Societal Interface Group (SIG) has been developed to inform its communication strategy and governance practice. This new instrument identifies and discusses early signals from society by bringing together people from different societal backgrounds with members of CBSG management. This interactive learning process facilitates the inclusion of public concerns and needs in scientific developments in the field of plant genomics, and simultaneously enables genomics scientists to search for more societal aims, meanings, and starting points for their research agenda. Analysis of the SIG sessions revealed that the input of public expertise is not threatening or irrational, but provides the opportunity to harness the creative potential of future users highly relevant for the development of societal practices in which plant genomics plays a role.
... Act: Title III--A New Paradigm for Importers; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... announcing a public meeting entitled ``FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: Title III--A New Paradigm for... provided. Request special accommodations due By March 22, 2011.... Patricia M. Kuntze, 301- to disability...
Haupt, Sue Ellen [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is pleased to have led a partnership to advance the state-of-the-science of solar power forecasting by designing, developing, building, deploying, testing, and assessing the SunCast™ Solar Power Forecasting System. The project has included cutting edge research, testing in several geographically- and climatologically-diverse high penetration solar utilities and Independent System Operators (ISOs), and wide dissemination of the research results to raise the bar on solar power forecasting technology. The partners include three other national laboratories, six universities, and industry partners. This public-private-academic team has worked in concert to perform use-inspired research to advance solar power forecasting through cutting-edge research to advance both the necessary forecasting technologies and the metrics for evaluating them. The project has culminated in a year-long, full-scale demonstration of provide irradiance and power forecasts to utilities and ISOs to use in their operations. The project focused on providing elements of a value chain, beginning with the weather that causes a deviation from clear sky irradiance and progresses through monitoring and observations, modeling, forecasting, dissemination and communication of the forecasts, interpretation of the forecast, and through decision-making, which produces outcomes that have an economic value. The system has been evaluated using metrics developed specifically for this project, which has provided rich information on model and system performance. Research was accomplished on the very short range (0-6 hours) Nowcasting system as well as on the longer term (6-72 hour) forecasting system. The shortest range forecasts are based on observations in the field. The shortest range system, built by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and based on Total Sky Imagers (TSIs) is TSICast, which operates on the shortest time scale with a latency of only a few
Valery Anatolyevich Tsevtkov
Full Text Available The article considers the main directions of the implementation of the current transportation and transit projects on the basis of the institution of public-private partnership in Russia. This work is a continuation of the study of the theory and practice of the application of public-private partnership in the investment projects aimed at the development and realization of the transportation and transit potential of the country. On the methodological basis of evolutionary and institutional economics, historical approach, system-oriented analysis and the theory of firms, the main current projects for the development of Russian transportation and transit system using public-private partnership are considered. They are the construction of a high-speed line of Moscow — Kazan with subsequent extension to the Chinese border; functioning of the transport and logistics in the Chelyabinsk region; infrastructure of transit cargo by Northern Sea Route; participation of foreign investors in the development of Russian seaports and sea gates. It is shown that the competitive advantage of transit traffic by a particular route requires more traversing speed of cargo with a minimum of stops, handling and overloads in the way. Revenue from transportation and transit potential implementation can be comparable to the size of the resource rent in the case of the development in Russia of the production and transit sector of the economy, and not only of a transit one . In this regard, the emphasis is placed on the determination of the possibility and necessity of organizational changes associated with the development of a large public-private transportation company, able to compete with global sea container services of the route of Asia — Europe. The main directions and activities under the proposed national project «Development of transit economy in Russia: Uniting Eurasia» and its subprogram «Creation of innovative rolling stock for container and multimodal
Anyaehie, Usb; Nwakoby, Ban; Chikwendu, C; Dim, Cc; Uguru, N; Oluka, Cpi; Ogugua, C
In Nigeria, concerns on the quality and financing of health-care delivery especially in the public sector have initiated reforms including support for public-private partnerships (PPP) at the Federal Ministry of Health. Likewise, Enugu State has developed a draft policy on PPP since 2005. However, non-validation and non-implementation of this policy might have led to loss of interest in the partnership. The aim of this study was to provide evidence for planning the implementation of PPP in Enugu State health system via a multi-sectoral identification of challenges, constraints and prospects. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered to 466 respondents (251 health workers and 215 community members), selected by multi-stage sampling method from nine Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria, over a study period of April 2011 to September 2011. Data from the questionnaires were collated manually and quantitative data analyzed using SPSS version 15 (Chicago, IL, USA). Only 159 (34.1%, 159/466) of all respondents actually understood the meaning of PPP though 251 (53.9%) of them had claimed knowledge of the concept. This actual understanding was higher among health workers (57.8%, 145/251) when compared with the community members (6.5%, 14/215) (P < 0.001). Post-PPP enlightenment reviews showed a more desire for PPP implementation among private health-care workers (89.4%, 101/113) and community leaders/members (55.4%, 119/215). PPP in health-care delivery in Enugu State is feasible with massive awareness, elaborate stakeholder's engagements and well-structured policy before implementation. A critical challenge will be to convince the public sector workers who are the anticipated partners to accept and support private sector participation.
Solodovnik Olesia O.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying and substantiating the theoretical and methodological aspects of development, analysis and assessment of strategic decisions in the sphere of financial and economic security of public-private partnership (PPP in the context of the risks of their implementation. A study on the essence and characteristics of strategic decisions in the sphere of financial and economic security of PPP has led to the conclusion that each such decision should be considered and assessed in the context of the risks of its implementation, and the risk theory could be seen as the scientific basis for defining strategic alternatives and developing a criteria base for assessing them. The article proposes a list and systematization of the PPP risks that allow to: itemize the risks to the external and internal environment of PPP and to identify the prerequisites and sources of threats to the financial and economic interests of parties to the partnership; analyze and evaluate the strategic alternatives for risk distribution among partners in the context of implications for financial and economic security of PPP; determine the risks of achieving the objectives of the strategy for financial and economic security of PPP and to evaluate alternative strategies in terms of partners; account the potential occurrence and development of systemic risks and threats to the financial and economic security of PPP, as well as the use of complementary protective mechanisms; evaluate the results of a strategy to protect the financial and economic interests of parties to the PPP.
Full Text Available The introduction of public-private partnerships (PPPs into the educational sphere has opened up the sector to a wide range of new private providers in India and Pakistan. The global literature has indicated that the growth in partnerships that provide targeted programmes for girls, in locations where parents prefer to enrol their daughters in these new private schools rather than state schools, will further reduce any existing gender gap. A specific focus on gender equality considerations within PPP programmes is necessary to analyse new evidence on gender equality. A review of national documents on education for India and Pakistan indicates that the concept of gender equality was not included in the original education policy documents, and gender concerns were introduced through a particular institutional history of engagement between international and national policy interventions.District and village data show that there was very little gendered difference in how parental generations studied viewed the educational pathways of their sons and daughters. The younger generation studied are not confident that they will be able to enter gainful employment, which raises policy concerns that the lack of employment for this younger generation could undo any reduction in the gender gap as increased poverty pushes girls out of school in the next two decades.
Wodschow, Astrid; Nathan, Iben; Cerutti, Paolo
This paper discusses how participatory policy-making processes such as the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) negotiations are and should be organised to foster political legitimacy and support. The VPAs are bilateral agreements between the European Union (EU) and timber producing countries....... VPAs constitute a cornerstone in EU's Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) programme, the most important tool for the EU to address illegal logging problems. The EU requires that national VPA negotiations include participation by the relevant stakeholders. Based on primary data, we...... compare the VPA negotiations in Cameroon (2006–2009) with three different ‘ideal’ models of participatory policy-making: the rationalist, the communicative incremental and the mixed model, which we expect have different implications for legitimacy. We conclude that the Cameroonian process is closest...
Characteristics of health professions schools, public school systems, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the numbers of underrepresented minority students entering health professions education.
Carline, Jan D; Patterson, Davis G
To identify characteristics of health professions schools, public schools, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the number of underrepresented minority students entering health professions. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the W. K. Kellogg Foundation funded the Health Professions Partnership Initiative program developed from Project 3000 by 2000 of the Association of American Medical Colleges. Semi-structured interviews were completed with awardees and representatives of the funding agencies, the national program office, and the national advisory committee between the fall of 2000 and the summer of 2002. Site visits were conducted at ten sites, with representatives of partner institutions, teachers, parents, and children. Characteristics that supported and hindered development of successful partnerships were identified using an iterative qualitative approach. Successful partnerships included professional schools that had a commitment to community service. Successful leaders could work in both cultures of the professional and public schools. Attitudes of respect and listening to the needs of partners were essential. Public school governance supported innovation. Happenstance and convergence of interests played significant roles in partnership development. The most telling statement was "We did it, together." This study identifies characteristics associated with smoothly working partnerships, and barriers to successful program development. Successful partnerships can form the basis on which educational interventions are built. The study is limited by the definition of success used, and its focus on one funded program. The authors were unable to identify outcomes in terms of numbers of children influenced by programs or instances in which lasting changes in health professions schools had occurred.
Walwyn, David R; Nkolele, Adolph T
Public-private partnerships (PPPs), widely used as a means of leveraging the skills, expertise and resources of the private sector to mutual advantage, were similarly adopted by South Africa to support public sector delivery. This study has evaluated one such partnership, namely the Biovac Institute, which was established in 2003 to cover vaccine research and development, manufacturing, and supply. The initiative was highly unusual given that it attempted to combine all three aspects in a single PPP. The research has followed a concurrent mixed methods approach. In the quantitative study, data for prices and product volumes were extracted from secondary data sources and used to calculate the economic cost and value-for-money of the PPP. Simultaneously, a qualitative study was undertaken in which a number of key stakeholders were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire on their perceptions of the PPP's value. The institute earns a premium on the procurement cost of a broad range of vaccines required by the South African National Department of Health for its immunisation programme, the net value of which was US$85.7 million over the period 2010 to 2014. These funds were used to finance the institute's operations, including vaccine research, distribution and quality control. Capital expenditure to support the establishment of facilities for laboratory testing, packaging and labelling, filling, formulation and, finally, active pharmaceutical ingredient manufacture, approximately US$40 million in total, had to be secured through loans and grants. According to the respondents in the qualitative survey, the principal benefit of the PPP has been the uninterrupted supply of vaccines and the ability to respond quickly to vaccine shortages. The main disadvantages appear to have been a slow and ineffectual establishment of a vaccine manufacturing centre and, initially, a limited ability to negotiate highly competitive vaccine prices. Overall, it is concluded that a
Kermen M. Maksimova
Full Text Available Public-private partnership is a significant factor of socio-economic development of the territory, the widespread use of which should enhance the investment attractiveness of the region, increase revenues for the regional budget, as well as the implementation of socially significant investment projects in the Republic of Kalmykia. The study found that today a public-private partnership is in the process of its formation in the Republic of Kalmykia. In the near future there is need to carry out substantial and systematic work on the development of partnership and improvement of regulatory legal base, regulating the issues of property rights, sharing risks and responsibility; the creation of a specialized structure, responsible for the development and coordination of the interaction between the state (municipal agencies and private businesses; the training of highly qualified specialists among the employees of the regional and municipal levels, as well as the issue of financial security of projects.
This paper draws on the findings from a research project on partnership arrangements between the police and housing departments on three Australian public housing estates to tackle problems associated with illicit drug activity and anti-social behaviour (ASB). The analysis focused on the setting up of the partnerships and the interactions that followed from these institutional arrangements. The assumption that informs the paper is that when studying partnerships there is a need for a more critically framed analysis. The temptation to posit "a successful model" of what partnership entails and then to judge practices in relation to this model is considerable, but it inevitably falls into the trap of constructing a narrative of partnership success or failure in terms of individual agency (that is, the degree of commitment from individuals). The analysis undertaken in this paper has therefore sought to fathom a more complex set of organizational processes. Rather than confine the discussion to issues of success and failure, the study foregrounds the subjective accounts of individuals who work within partnership and the constraints they encounter. The paper therefore makes explicit the cultural tensions within and across agencies, contestation as to the extent of the policy "problem," and the divergent perspectives on the appropriate modes of intervention.
Huang, Zhengfeng; Zheng, Pengjun; Ma, Yanqiang; Li, Xuan; Xu, Wenjun; Zhu, Wanlu
The choice of investment strategy has a great impact on the performance of transport infrastructure. Positive projects such as the "Subway plus Property" model in Hong Kong have created sustainable financial profits for the public transport projects. Owing to a series of public debt and other constraints, public-private partnership (PPP) was introduced as an innovative investment model to address this issue and help develop transport infrastructure. Yet, few studies provide a deeper understanding of relationships between PPP strategy and the performance of such transport projects (particularly the whole transport system). This paper defines the research scope as a regional network of freeway. With a popular PPP model, travel demand prediction method, and relevant parameters as input, agents in a simulation framework can simulate the choice of PPP freeway over time. The simulation framework can be used to analyze the relationship between the PPP strategy and performance of the regional freeway network. This study uses the Freeway Network of Yangtze River Delta (FN-YRD) in China as the context. The results demonstrate the value of using simulation models of complex transportation systems to help decision makers choose the right PPP projects. Such a tool is viewed as particularly important given the ongoing transformation of functions of the Chinese transportation sector, including franchise rights of transport projects, and freeway charging mechanism.
S. Verweij (Stefan)
markdownabstractAbstract Much attention is being paid to the planning of public-private partnership (PPP) infrastructure projects. The subsequent implementation phase – when the contract has been signed and the project ‘starts rolling’ – has received less attention. However, sound agreements
De Vogli, Roberto; Renzetti, Noemi
This article aims to examine the potential health effects of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment partnership (TTIP). Our review indicates that, although proponents of the TTIP claim that the treaty will produce benefits to health-enhancing determinants such as economic growth and employment, evidence shows that previous trade liberalization policies are associated with increasing economic inequities. By reducing Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and by promoting increased cooperation between US and EU governmental agencies in the pharmaceutical sector, the TTIP could result in improved research cooperation and reduced duplication of processes. However, the TTIP chapter on Intellectual Property (IP) and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) that expand and extend patent monopolies, and delay the availability of generic drugs, are likely to cause underutilization of needed medications among vulnerable populations. The TTIP's Investor to State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) arbitration system, a mechanism that allows transnational companies (TNCs) to sue governments when a policy or law reduces the value of their investment, is likely to generate a negative impact on regulations aimed at increasing access to healthcare, and reducing tobacco, alcohol consumption, and diet-related diseases. The Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards (SPS) of the TTIP is expected to weaken regulations in the food and agricultural sectors especially in the EU, with potentially negative effects on food safety and foodborne diseases. Finally, the ISDS is likely to infringe the ability of governments to tackle environmental problems such as climate change deemed to be the most important global health threat of the century. Our review concludes by discussing policy implications and the effect of the TTIP on democracy, national sovereignty and the balance of power between large TNCs and governments. It also discusses the adoption of an evidence-based precautionary principle
Müller, Susanne; Weigelt, Johan
The productivity of the pharmaceutical industry, as assessed by the number of NMEs produced per US dollar spent in R&D, has been in steady decline during the past 40 years. This decline in productivity not only poses a significant challenge to the pharmaceutical industry, but also to society because of the importance of developing drugs for the treatment of unmet medical needs. The major challenge in progressing a new drug to the market is the successful completion of clinical trials. However, the failure rate of drugs entering trials has not decreased, despite various technological and scientific breakthroughs in recent decades, and despite intense target validation efforts. This lack of success suggests limitations in the fundamental understanding of target biology and human pharmacology. One contributing factor may be the traditional secrecy of the pharmaceutical sector, a characteristic that does not promote scientific discovery in an optimal manner. Access to broader knowledge relating to target biology and human pharmacology is difficult to obtain because interactions between researchers in industry and academia are typically restricted to closed collaborations in which the knowledge gained is confidential.However, open-access collaborative partnerships are gaining momentum in industry, and are also favored by funding agencies. Such open-access collaborations may be a powerful alternative to closed collaborations; the sharing of early-stage research data is expected to enable scientific discovery by engaging a broader section of the scientific community in the exploration of new findings. Potentially, the sharing of data could contribute to an increased understanding of biological processes and a decrease in the attrition of clinical programs.
Energy management at public-private partnerships. A reference model for energy efficient building construction projects; Energiemanagement bei Oeffentlich-Privaten Partnerschaften. Ein Referenzmodell fuer energieeffiziente Hochbauprojekte
The enhancement of the energy efficiency reduces the life cycle costs of real estates, and is an important component in achieving global climate goals. In the construction and operation of public building constructions, the state has to assume the function of a role model. Due to the budgetary position of the public authority continuously in deficit, the alternative form of procurement public-private partnerships will become increasingly important. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the design of building construction projects of public-private partnerships in order to guarantee an energy efficient operation. A reference model with process descriptions for the single phases of the project is developed. The author describes the possible benefit of this model by means of an application example.
Ridderhof, John C; Moulton, Anthony D; Ned, Renée M; Nicholson, Janet K A; Chu, May C; Becker, Scott J; Blank, Eric C; Breckenridge, Karen J; Waddell, Victor; Brokopp, Charles
Beginning in early 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Public Health Laboratories launched the Laboratory Efficiencies Initiative (LEI) to help public health laboratories (PHLs) and the nation's entire PHL system achieve and maintain sustainability to continue to conduct vital services in the face of unprecedented financial and other pressures. The LEI focuses on stimulating substantial gains in laboratories' operating efficiency and cost efficiency through the adoption of proven and promising management practices. In its first year, the LEI generated a strategic plan and a number of resources that PHL directors can use toward achieving LEI goals. Additionally, the first year saw the formation of a dynamic community of practitioners committed to implementing the LEI strategic plan in coordination with state and local public health executives, program officials, foundations, and other key partners.
Ruiters, Cornelius; Matji, Maselaganye P
This paper presents public-private partnership (PPP) framework models for funding and financing of water services infrastructure at local government (municipalities) level (sphere) in South Africa. Data were assembled from various stakeholders, viz., private and public sector institutions in the Gauteng and Limpopo Provinces of South Africa. The framework for PPPs identified three models, viz. state, hybrid and private sector models. In the 'state model' the water services value chain is 100%...
Full Text Available In spite of the complexity in defining the boundary, the concept of Economic Zones (EZ has been evolved as a way forward for the government of the developing countries for enhancing the national trade. Similarly the recent phenomenon of widespread Public Private Partnership (PPP practices especially in infrastructure sector is also providing a window to develop many of such economic zones through PPP model as EZ typically is capital intensive. Bangladesh has discrete success both under PPP and EZ regime. However, developing EZ under PPP model has few commercial complexities as both the public and private sector need to bear some roles and obligations one of which is selection of appropriate location for EZ development. The location study for PPP EZ development therefore receives paramount attention both from developer and lenders perspective. Such location study generally is not typical project site study by nature; rather it is more economic concentrated. This paper will try to identify the factors that are essential to consider for conducting these location studies based on the examples of Bangladesh. The paper will also identify the appropriate methods and approaches required for successful EZ development through PPP.
Mallett, Christopher A.
Privatized service delivery within Medicaid has greatly increased over the past two decades. This public program-private sector collaboration is quite common today, with a majority of Medicaid recipients receiving services in this fashion; yet controversy remains. This article focuses on just one program within Medicaid, school-based services for…
Due to economic and environmental consequences of nitrogen (N) lost from fertilizer applications in corn (Zea mays L.), considerable public and industry attention has been devoted to development of N decision tools. Now a wide variety of tools are available to farmers for managing N inputs. However,...
Research is needed over a wide geographic range of soil and weather scenarios to evaluate methods and tools for corn N fertilizer applications. The objectives of this research were to conduct standardized corn N rate response field studies to evaluate the performance of multiple public-domain N deci...
Weiss, Luise; Serlis-McPhillips, Sophia; Malafi, Elizabeth
Aligning with current difficult economic times, this book helps libraries assist users entering or already involved in the small business community. Authors Weiss, Serlis-McPhillips, and Malafi are public librarians who have incorporated small business services within their library. In their book they point the way to addressing the needs of job…
Konjar, Miha; Nikšič, Matej; Grom, Janez Peter; Mujkić, Sabina; Fikfak, Alenka
Lack of financial resources has become one of the main issues in fulfilling social and physical needs in urban development. The declining levels of public resources make the collaboration between public and private investors necessary. When facing the challenges of ageing population, shared investment may contribute to the appropriate development of sheltered housing to meet the goals of spatial planning as well as certain standards at the level of urban design. By ensuring appropriate living conditions for all generations such urban PPP projects may contribute to the fulfilment of the public interest. The paper presents practice of PPP implementation in Ljubljana, Slovenia, where local authority with the collaboration of private partners ensured more than 400 sheltered apartments in the last years. Examples show the extension of the idea from the 70s onwards in finding new models of housing for the aging population. The development of new models can be a good example of strengthening the cooperation between public and private partners in the field of urban development practice.
Zhang, Ju-Yang; Long, Ru-Yin; Yan, Hai; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo
Purpose: Since the beginning of the new health care reform in 2009, the state has illustrated the top design and health care improvement strategy of "encouraging social capital to participate in the reform of public hospitals", in accordance with the program's general objective. All areas have been explored on this matter and the results obtained are very interesting, not to mention the acquisition of significant experience. At present, the existing business models in China are mainly the following: Rebuild-Operate-Transfer (ROT), franchise business model, Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) model, mixed ownership model and business insurance model. This paper introduces a variety of alternative models, and provides a simple analysis of the advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, for the reform of public hospitals, the government shares should go into franchise mode or mixed ownership, and all property rights should be transferred to the government to ensure the conservation and proliferation of state-owned assets.
The paper developed organizational and financial mechanism development of railway transport services, which, unlike the existing ones, includes participants of investment and transportation process, the state target program, a list of potential private and public sources of financing of investment projects, the system of state financial control, which allows to provide the necessary storage the volume of investment funds, effective funding for the achievement of strategic, technical and techn...
Eziyi Offia Ibem
Full Text Available The application of Public-Private Partners (PPPs in housing provisioning is on the increase across the world. However, there is a paucity of empirical studies on the specific factors considered at the initiation, and measures taken to ensure transparency at the procurement stages, of PPP housing projects. This study examined project selection factors and transparency measures in PPP housing projects using data sourced from oral interviews with 27 experts in nine PPP housing schemes in Nigeria. Results of the content analysis revealed that the top two selection factors considered by both the public and private sector operators of PPP housing projects in Nigeria are the availability of land and viability of the funding arrangements. Whereas the public-sector partners also consider the availability of competent private sector to deliver the projects, the private developers are concerned with the location of proposed projects. It was also found that the two key measures taken to ensure transparency at the procurement stage of the projects are transparent and competitive bidding and open advertisements of tender opportunities. These imply that before embarking on PPP housing projects, operators should ensure that there is available land in good locations, sound funding arrangements, and measures for achieving transparency in the schemes.
Miles, K; Conlon, M; Stinshoff, J; Hutton, R
Although Papua New Guinea (PNG) has made some progress in social development over the past 30 years, the country's Human Development Index has slowed in recent years, placing it below the regional average. In 2012, the estimated HIV prevalence for adults aged 15-49 years was 0.5% and an estimated 25,000 people were living with HIV. Although reduced from previous estimates, the country's HIV prevalence remains the highest in the South Pacific region. While the faith-based and non-governmental sectors have engaged in HIV interventions since the epidemic began, until recently the corporate sector has remained on the margins of the national response. In 2008, the country's largest oil and gas producer began partnering with national and provincial health authorities, development partners and global financing institutions to contribute to the national HIV strategy and implementation plan. This article provides an overview of public-private partnerships (PPPs) and their application to public health program management, and then describes the PPP that was developed in PNG. Innovative national and local PPPs have become a core component of healthcare strategy in many countries. PPPs have many forms and their use in low- and middle-income countries has progressively demonstrated increased service outputs and health outcomes beyond what the public sector alone could achieve. A PPP in PNG has resulted in an oil and gas producer engaging in the response to HIV, including managing the country's US$46 million HIV grant from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Given the increasing expectations of the international community in relation to corporate responsibility and sustainability, the role of the corporate sector in countries like PNG is critical. Combining philanthropic investment with business strategy, expertise and organisational resource can contribute to enhancing health system structures and capacity.
Njau, R J A; Mosha, F W; De Savigny, D
Various definitions have been framed for public-private partnerships (PPPs) in health depending on the desired relationship and the characteristics of the respective sectors. These relationships span from a continuum of loose relationships with narrow objectives, lack of a legal status and an absence of a formalized membership or governing body to high level institutionalization. The latter includes concrete objectives, the presence of a legal status and permanent multi-sectoral membership. The study used qualitative research methods including case studies, literature review and interview with key informants. The research undertakes an extensive literature review of various PPP models in health in scale and in scope which are aimed at advancing public health goals in developing countries. The major emphasis is on a qualitative description of some of the PPPs in the planning and implementation phases, including the challenges encountered. This background is used to analyse in-depth two case studies which are both health oriented; the first one is a national level NGO consortium with a focus on malaria and the second one is an international advocacy group with an overarching goal of protecting children against malaria through an innovative mechanism. The case study approach is used to analyze why the PPP approach was used to address malaria control and how it was implemented. Both PPPs demonstrated that relationships between the public and private sector may begin from very humble and loose beginnings. However, with perseverance from committed individuals, a vision and trustworthiness may become powerful advocates for meeting prescribed health agendas. In conclusion, three key themes (trust, sacrifice and championship) run vividly through the case studies and are significant for developing countries to emulate.
Moosavi, S. C.
By their very nature, the geosciences address societal challenges requiring a complex interplay between the research community, geoscience educators and public engagement with the general population to build their knowledge base and convince them to act appropriately to implement policies guided by scientific understanding. The most effective responses to geoscience challenges arise when strong collaborative structures connecting research, education and the public are in place to afford rapid communication and trust at all stages of the investigative and policy implementation processes. Educational programs that involve students and scientists via service learning exploring high profile issues of community interest and outreach to teachers through professional development build the network of relationships with geoscientists to respond rapidly to solve societal problems. These pre-existing personal connections simultaneously hold wider credibility with the public than unfamiliar scientific experts less accustomed to speaking to general audiences. The Geological Society of America is leveraging the research and educational experience of its members to build a self-sustaining state/regional network of K-12 professional development workshops designed to link the academic, research, governmental and industrial communities. The goal is not only to improve the content knowledge and pedagogical skills which teachers bring to their students, but also to build a diverse community of trust capable of responding to geoscience challenges in a fashion relevant to local communities. Dr. Moosavi is building this program by drawing on his background as a biogeochemistry researcher with 20 years experience focused on use of place-based approaches in general education and pre- and in-service teacher preparation in Research 1 and comprehensive universities, liberal arts and community colleges and high school. Experience with K-12 professional development working with the Minnesota
As part of an effort to shape Federal policy for environmentally sound, sustainable economic development, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy sponsored a workshop in Boise, Idaho on February 1--2, 1995. The Boise Idaho workshop focused on the sustainable use of natural resources, a topic of considerable interest in Idaho. The workshop gave representatives from industry, academia, research, the public, and local and state government an opportunity to provide input to lawmakers and policymakers for establishing a National Environmental Technology Strategy to be issued by Earth Day, 1995.
M.Comm. PPPs have developed out of a realisation by governments that in order to improve health systems efficiency there is a need to involve the private sector. Governments throughout the world have opted for PPPs to deliver public services, share risks and attain common goals. While the idea of PPPs is not new, it nonetheless has grown in application in recent years especially in developing countries such as South Africa. The neo-liberal GEAR macro-economic policy, that seeked to reduce ...
Enloe, Stephanie K.; Schulte, Lisa A.; Tyndall, John C.
In recognition that Iowa agriculture must maintain long-term production of food, fiber, clean water, healthy soil, and robust rural economies, Iowa recently devised a nutrient reduction strategy to set objectives for water quality improvements. To demonstrate how watershed programs and farmers can reduce nutrient and sediment pollution in Iowa waters, the Iowa Water Quality Initiative selected the Boone River Watershed Nutrient Management Initiative as one of eight demonstration projects. For over a decade, diverse public, private, and non-profit partner organizations have worked in the Boone River Watershed to engage farmers in water quality management efforts. To evaluate social dynamics in the Boone River Watershed and provide partners with actionable recommendations, we conducted and analyzed semi-structured interviews with 33 program leaders, farmers, and local agronomists. We triangulated primary interview data with formal analysis of Boone River Watershed documents such as grant applications, progress reports, and outreach materials. Our evaluation suggests that while multi-stakeholder collaboration has enabled partners to overcome many of the traditional barriers to watershed programming, scale mismatches caused by external socio-economic and ecological forces still present substantial obstacles to programmatic resilience. Public funding restrictions and timeframes, for example, often cause interruptions to adaptive management of water quality monitoring and farmer engagement. We present our findings within a resilience framework to demonstrate how multi-stakeholder collaboration can help sustain adaptive watershed programs to improve socio-ecological function in agricultural watersheds such as the Boone River Watershed.
A key question facing both well-developed industrial countries and emerging economies is how to reduce future disaster losses while still providing financial protection to victims from these events. This paper proposes a strategy for the use of cost-effective risk mitigation measures coupled with insurance and/or new capital market instruments to achieve these objectives. The mix of these measures will depend on the governance structure and the institutional arrangements in the particular country. There will always be a need for a combination of policy tools and the interaction among key interested parties from both the private and public sectors in developing a disaster management strategy. Two examples, one from US and the other from Honduras, illustrate differences between strategies that countries can adopt.
The Discounted Cash Flow method is a long since well-known tool to assess the feasibility of investment projects, as the background which shapes a broad range of techniques, from the Cost-Benefit Analysis up to the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Its rationale lies in the comparison of deferred values, only once they have been discounted back to the present. The DCF variant proposed here fits into a specific application field. It is well-suited to the evaluations required in order to structure equitable transactions under the umbrella of Public-Private Partnership. •The discount rate relies upon the concept of expected return on equity, instead than on those of weighted average cost of capital, although the latter is the most common reference within the scope of real estate investment valuation.•Given a feasible project, whose Net Present Value is more than satisfactory, we aim to identify the amount of the additional burdens that could be charged to the project, under the condition of keeping the same economically viable.•The DCF variant essentially deals with an optimization problem, which can be solved by means of simple one-shot equations, derived from financial mathematics, or through iterative calculations if additional constraints must be considered.
Full Text Available The high level of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI is also supported by the availability of infrastructure to the remote area where the investment will be implemented. However, with limited funds from both APBN and APBD, infrastructure development can not be fully done by the government. Therefore, the government will cooperate with the investor (private in the implementation of infrastructure development known as public private partnership. The main problem in implementing PPP is the allocation of risk to PPP projects. The different bargaining positions between the government and the private sector resulted in the fact that most of them impose risks on private parties (private. Implementation of PPP is closely related to the emergence of various risks including and not limited to regulatory risks, force majeure, etc. If there is no risk allocation arrangement proportionally based on governance principles, it weakens the pattern of PPP cooperation in Indonesia. PPP as one form of risk sharing in infrastructure investment should not release the role and government support to private parties / investors. Even in practice, PPP implementation in Indonesia only relies on BOT (Build Operate and Transfer scheme which is expected to minimize government support in project implementation. This will ultimately lead to project failure.
Full Text Available This study evaluated the long-term implications of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP on livelihoods and natural resource (NR dynamics under a market-oriented approach to conservation. Drawing examples from the Luangwa Valley in eastern Zambia, the study sought to answer questions on two closely interrelated aspects. These included the contribution of PPP to sustainable livelihoods in and around Protected Areas (PAs and its impacts on natural resources in Game Management Areas (GMAs. Quantitative data were collected from PPP participating and non-PPP households using standardized structured interviews, while qualitative data were obtained from three chiefdoms using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Taking the case of Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO in eastern Zambia, results of this study showed that PPP contributed to sustainable livelihoods and overall natural resources management through varied ways. These include promotion of conservation farming, agroforestry, poacher transformation (individuals who have given up poaching due to PPP interventions and provision of markets for the produce of participating households. Further, impacts of PPP on soil fertility, crop, and honey yields were statistically significant (p ˂ 0.05. A combination of increased crop productivity and household incomes has seen a 40-fold increase in poacher transformation. The results of this study suggest that PPPs, if well-structured, have the potential to address both livelihoods and enterprise needs with an ultimate benefit of promoting both sustainable livelihoods and natural resources management around PAs in tropical Africa.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of health organizations in developing countries to expand access to quality services depends in large part on organizational and human capacity. Capacity building includes professional development of staff, as well as efforts to create working environments conducive to high levels of performance. The current study evaluated an approach to public-private partnership where corporate volunteers give technical assistance to improve organizational and staff performance. From 2003 to 2005, the Pfizer Global Health Fellows program sent 72 employees to work with organizations in 19 countries. This evaluation was designed to assess program impact. Methods The researchers administered a survey to 60 Fellows and 48 Pfizer Supervisors. In addition, the team conducted over 100 interviews with partner organization staff and other key informants during site visits in Uganda, Kenya, Ghana, South Africa and India, the five countries where 60% of Fellows were placed. Results Over three-quarters of Fellowships appear to have imparted skills or enhanced operations of NGOs in HIV/AIDS and other health programs. Overall, 79% of Fellows reported meeting all or most technical assistance goals. Partner organization staff reported that the Fellows provided training to clinical and research personnel; strengthened laboratory, pharmacy, financial control, and human resource management systems; and helped expand Partner organization networks. Local staff also reported the Program changed their work habits and attitudes. The evaluation identified problems in defining goals of Fellowships and matching Organizations with Fellows. Capacity building success also appears related to size and sophistication of partner organization. Conclusion Public expectations have grown regarding the role corporations should play in improving health systems in developing countries. Corporate philanthropy programs based on "donations" of personnel can help build
Vian, Taryn; Richards, Sarah C; McCoy, Kelly; Connelly, Patrick; Feeley, Frank
The ability of health organizations in developing countries to expand access to quality services depends in large part on organizational and human capacity. Capacity building includes professional development of staff, as well as efforts to create working environments conducive to high levels of performance. The current study evaluated an approach to public-private partnership where corporate volunteers give technical assistance to improve organizational and staff performance. From 2003 to 2005, the Pfizer Global Health Fellows program sent 72 employees to work with organizations in 19 countries. This evaluation was designed to assess program impact. The researchers administered a survey to 60 Fellows and 48 Pfizer Supervisors. In addition, the team conducted over 100 interviews with partner organization staff and other key informants during site visits in Uganda, Kenya, Ghana, South Africa and India, the five countries where 60% of Fellows were placed. Over three-quarters of Fellowships appear to have imparted skills or enhanced operations of NGOs in HIV/AIDS and other health programs. Overall, 79% of Fellows reported meeting all or most technical assistance goals. Partner organization staff reported that the Fellows provided training to clinical and research personnel; strengthened laboratory, pharmacy, financial control, and human resource management systems; and helped expand Partner organization networks. Local staff also reported the Program changed their work habits and attitudes. The evaluation identified problems in defining goals of Fellowships and matching Organizations with Fellows. Capacity building success also appears related to size and sophistication of partner organization. Public expectations have grown regarding the role corporations should play in improving health systems in developing countries. Corporate philanthropy programs based on "donations" of personnel can help build the organizational and human capacity of frontline agencies
Saunders, Carla; Carter, David J
Objective The overall aim of the study was to investigate and assess the feasibility of improving the timeliness of public hospital care through a New South Wales (NSW)-wide public-private hospital partnership. Methods The study reviewed the academic and professional grey literature, and undertook exploratory analyses of secondary data acquired from two national health data repositories informing in-patient access and utilisation across NSW public and private hospitals. Results In 2014-15, the NSW public hospital system was unable to deliver care within the medically recommended time frame for over 27400 people who were awaiting elective surgery. Available information indicates that the annual commissioning of 15% of public in-patient rehabilitation bed days to the private hospital system would potentially free up enough capacity in the NSW public hospital system to enable elective surgery for all public patients within recommended time frames. Conclusions The findings of the study justify a strategic whole-of-health system approach to reducing public patient wait times in NSW and highlight the need for research efforts aimed at securing a better understanding of available hospital capacity across the public and private hospital systems, and identifying and testing workable models that improve the timeliness of public hospital care. What is known about the topic? There are very few studies available to inform public-private hospital service partnerships and the opportunities available to improve timely health care access through such partnerships. What does this paper add? This paper has the potential to open and prompt timely discussion and debate, and generate further fundamental investigation, on public-private hospital service partnerships in Australia where opportunity is available to address elective surgery wait times in a reliable and effective manner. What are the implications for practitioners? The NSW Ministry of Health and its Local Health Districts
Investment in low carbon infrastructure is considered as an important component of the fight against climate change. The mechanisms of climate regulation (such as carbon offsets) transfer to project developers the risks associated with reducing emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, i.e. operational and technological risk, or risks associated with the environmental monitoring and the regulatory mechanism itself. The success of projects - and thus their ability to attract private capital - depends importantly on the risk sharing arrangements between the private and public partners involved in the project. We show that the delegation of tasks between the partners can create risks that affect the environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency of the project. Contracts need to be well designed to mitigate those risks. For a sample of landfill gas flaring projects financed under the Clean Development Mechanism, it is shown that the out-sourcing of the provision of technology creates additional risks. The out-sourcing of the development of the Project Design Documents as required by UNFCCC and the separation of the operation of the landfill and the CDM project appear to be manageable by risk sharing arrangements between partners. In the latter case, each partner should bear the risk associated with his own responsibility. In fact, if carbon revenues are the only income stream for the CDM project developer, the incentive to reduce GHG emissions is maintained. (author)
Tarride, J E; Harrington, K; Balfour, R; Simpson, P; Foord, L; Anderson, L; Lakey, W
To evaluate the My Health Matters! (MHM) program, a multifaceted workplace intervention relying on education and awareness, early detection and disease management with a focus on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. The MHM program was offered to 2,000 public servants working in more than 30 worksites in British Columbia, Canada. The MHM program included a health risk assessment combined with an opportunity to attend an on-site screening and face-to-face call back visits and related on-site educational programs. Clinical and economic outcomes were collected over time in this one-year prospective study coupled with administrative and survey data. Forty three per cent of employees (N=857) completed the online HRA and 23 per cent (N=447) attended the initial clinical visit with the nurse. Risk factors for metabolic syndrome were identified in more than half of those attending the clinical visit. The number of risk factors significantly decreased by 15 per cent over six months (N=141). The cost per employee completing the HRA was $205 while the cost per employee attending the initial clinical visit was $394. Eighty-two per cent of employees would recommend the program to other employers. This study supports that workplace interventions are feasible, sustainable and valued by employees. As such, this study provides a new framework for implementing and evaluating workplace interventions focussing on metabolic disorders.
Galvin, James E; Tolea, Magdalena I; George, Nika; Wingbermuehle, Cheryl
In a collaborative effort between the Missouri Department of Health, Area Agencies on Aging (AAA), Alzheimer Association, and academic researchers, we tested whether early dementia detection and comprehensive care consultations would improve health outcomes in care receivers (CRs) and their family caregivers (FCGs), therefore addressing an important public health concern. A total of 244 community-dwelling older adults screened for early-stage dementia by the AAA field staff were referred to the Alzheimer Association and participated in Project Learn MORE (Missouri Outreach and Referral Expanded) (PLM) - a 2-year, nonrandomized multisite intervention consisting of comprehensive care consultations to improve coping skills. PLM participants were compared against 96 controls receiving the Alzheimer Association's "usual services" between January 2011 and December 2012. We examined CR and FCG outcomes, including burden, care confidence, and mood, as effects of PLM, on delaying transitions in level of care. CRs showed improved knowledge (P=0.002) and reduced depression (P=0.007), while FCGs demonstrated improved knowledge (P=0.003) and ability to identify sources of support for the CR (P=0.032) and for themselves (P=0.043). However, FCGs were more burdened after PLM (P=0.02), due to increased awareness of Alzheimer's disease. PLM delayed transitions in care (odds ratio [OR] 3.32, 95% confidence level [CI]: 1.25-8.83) with the number needed to treat =6.82. PLM was successful in improving detection of incident cases of dementia in the community and in connecting patients and their families with needed services. Our findings support the use of state agencies and community service partners to detect dementia. Early implementation of psychosocial interventions could have significant impact in improving patient- and family-centered outcomes, potentially providing a cost-efficient alternative to pharmacotherapy.
Melo, Janaina; Moreno, Adriana; Ferriani, Virginia; Araujo, Ana Carla; Vianna, Elcio; Borges, Marcos; Roxo, Pérsio; Gonçalves, Marcos; Mello, Luane; Parreira, Rosa; Silva, Jorgete; Stefanelli, Patricia; Panazolo, Larissa; Cetlin, Andrea; Queiroz, Luana; Araujo, Rosângela; Dias, Marina; Aragon, Davi; Domingos, Nélio; Arruda, L Karla
Asthma is under-diagnosed in many parts of the world. We aimed to assess the outcome of a capacitating program on asthma for non-specialist physicians and other healthcare professionals working in the public system in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. A group of 16 asthma specialists developed a one-year capacitating program in 11 healthcare clinics in the Northern District of the city, which included lectures on asthma, training on inhalation device use and spirometry, and development of an asthma management protocol. Researchers visited one health unit 2-4 times monthly, working with doctors on patients' care, discussing cases, and delivering lectures. Asthma education was also directed to the general population, focusing on recognition of signs and symptoms and long-term treatment, including production of educational videos available on YouTube. Outcome measures were the records of doctors' prescriptions of individual asthma medications pre- and post-intervention. Prior to the program, 3205 units of inhaled albuterol and 2876 units of inhaled beclomethasone were delivered by the Northern District pharmacy. After the one-year program, there was increase to 4850 units (51.3%) for inhaled albuterol and 3526 units (22.6%) for inhaled beclomethasone. The albuterol increase followed the recommendation given to the non-specialist doctors by the asthma experts, that every patient with asthma should have inhaled albuterol as a rescue medication, by protocol. No increase was observed in other districts where no capacitating program was conducted. A systematic capacitating program was successful in changing asthma prescription profiles among non-specialist doctors, with increased delivery of inhaled albuterol and beclomethasone.
Laj, C. E.
As a research scientist I have always been interested in sharing whatever I knew with the general public and with teachers, who have the responsibility of forming young people, our ambassadors to the future. The turning point in my educational activities was in 2002, when the European Geosciences Union (EGU) welcomed my proposition to develop a Committee on Education. One of the committee's main activities is the organisation of GIFT (Geosciences Information for Teachers) workshops, held annually during the EGU General Assembly. Typically, these workshops bring together about 80 teachers from 20-25 different countries around a general theme that changes every year. Teachers are offered a mixture of keynote presentations by renowned scientists, and participate to classroom hands-on activities led by high-class educators. They also participate to a poster session, open to every participant to the GA, in which they can show to everyone the activities they have developed in their classroom. Therefore, EGU GIFT workshops spread first-hand scientific information to science teachers, and also offer teachers an exceptional way to networking with fellow teachers worldwide. Speakers are chosen from the academic world, national geosciences organisations such as BGS (UK), BRGM (France), INGV (Italy), the European Space Agency (ESA), CEA (France), from private companies (Total), or from International Organizations for policy makers such as the International Energy Agency (IEA), and IPCC. Since 2010, EGU GIFT workshops have been organized beyond Europe, in connection with EGU Alexander von Humboldt Conferences and other major International Conferences, or in collaboration with local or international organisations. A `Teachers at Sea' program has also been developed for teachers to be able to take part in an Oceanographic cruise. Also, in collaboration with the media manager of EGU the Committee has participated in "Planet Press", a program of geoscience press releases for
S. M. Jack
Full Text Available Introduction: The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP is a home-visit program for young and first-time, socially and economically disadvantaged mothers. Evidence from three United States randomized controlled trials (RCTs on the effectiveness of this intervention at improving pregnancy outcomes, improving child health and development, and increasing maternal economic self-sufficiency is robust. However, the effectiveness of the NFP in Canada, with its different health and social care context, needs to be determined. The purpose of this article is to describe the complex process for moving the NFP from the research arena to full implementation in Canada. Methods: This process of evaluation in Canada includes (1 adapting the intervention; (2 piloting the intervention in small-scale feasibility and acceptability studies; and (3 conducting an RCT and process evaluation through a study called the British Columbia Healthy Connections Project (BCHCP. This large-scale evaluation also creates an opportunity to expand the NFP evidence base by conducting an additional study to examine potential biological mechanisms linking intervention and behavioural outcomes in children. Results: Adaptation of the NFP home-visit materials is a continuous process. A pilot project determined that it was feasible to enrol eligible women into the NFP. This pilot also determined that, in Canada, it was most appropriate for public health agencies to implement the NFP and for public health nurses to deliver the intervention. Finally, the pilot showed that this intensive home-visit program was acceptable to clients, their family members and health care providers. Through the BCHCP, the next steps—the RCT and process evaluation—are currently underway. The BCHCP will also set the foundation for long-term evaluation of key public health outcomes in a highly vulnerable population of families.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Capacity building has been employed in international health and development sectors to describe the process of ‘experts’ from more resourced countries training people in less resourced countries. Hence the concept has an implicit power imbalance based on ‘expert’ knowledge. In 2011, a health research strengthening workshop was undertaken at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Solomon Islands to further strengthen research skills of the Hospital and College of Nursing staff and East Kwaio community leaders through partnering in practical research projects. The workshop was based on participatory research frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies, which sought to challenge historical power imbalances and inequities. Our research question was, “Is research capacity strengthening a two-way process?” Methods In this qualitative study, five Solomon Islanders and five Australians each responded to four open-ended questions about their experience of the research capacity strengthening workshop and activities: five chose face to face interview, five chose to provide written responses. Written responses and interview transcripts were inductively analysed in NVivo 9. Results Six major themes emerged. These were: Respectful relationships; Increased knowledge and experience with research process; Participation at all stages in the research process; Contribution to public health action; Support and sustain research opportunities; and Managing challenges of capacity strengthening. All researchers identified benefits for themselves, their institution and/or community, regardless of their role or country of origin, indicating that the capacity strengthening had been a two-way process. Conclusions The flexible and responsive process we used to strengthen research capacity was identified as mutually beneficial. Using community-based participatory frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies is assisting to redress
Full Text Available El tema de articulaciones público-privadas se ha extendido, especialmente en educación, con más discurso que prácticas. Entre los actores los desacuerdos superan todavía a las convergencias. La visión de lo público, como lo colectivo y no solo estatal, facilita las articulaciones al colocar a todos los actores como responsables, con roles particulares, insustituibles. En educación, bien público por excelencia, se abren caminos para una nueva cultura de diálogo entre actores del Estado, sector empresarial y sociedad civil. Es preciso disolver encantamientos y sospechas para afrontar las articulaciones, transparentando su dimensión política. La defensa de los derechos constituye el corazón de las articulaciones y la exigibilidad - que implica participación integral y permanente - su línea maestra. Este enfoque confiere a las articulaciones un carácter estratégico y posibilita encarnar los derechos en las grandes y cotidianas conquistas por la calidad-equidad en la educación.The theme of public-private partnerships, especially in education, has been disseminated much more through speeches than practice. Among players, disagreements far outnumber convergences. Seeing public as collective, not only state-owned, facilitates partnerships, since all players thus become responsible and are given particular, irreplaceable roles. In education, the common good par excellence, paths have been developed that allow for a new dialog culture among the State, entrepreneurs and the civil society. Enchantments and suspicions must be allayed to deal with these partnerships and reveal their political dimension. Defending rights is at the heart of such partnerships and enforceability - which implies total and permanent participation - is their master line. Such focus endows these partnerships with a strategic feature and allows to insert rights among the important, daily conquests towards quality-equity in education.
Vieira, F; Sanha, M; Riccardi, F; Colombatti, R
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is widespread in Africa, but weak health systems in developing countries, often display poor quality of care with delays in case identification, irrational therapy and drug shortage, clinical mismanagement, unnecessary expenditures for patients, reduced adherence and increased mortality. Public-private partnership has demonstrated to increase TB case detection, but less is known about its effects on quality of care, mortality and costs for hospitalized TB patient...
International audience; Project-financing and public-private partnership schemes are joint projects of investment that are generally submitted to investment valuation criteria based on compound discounting. However, the theoretical basis of these criteria is at issue nowadays. According to recent studies on relational contracting economics and behavioral finance, joint projects of investment can be considered as special relational environments where the project's returns improve on alternativ...
This thesis deals with the Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects and their use as alternative forms of financing in Hungary. The work is divided into three parts. In the first part, terms that relate to PPP projects are generally defined. In addition, types of PPP projects are described, as well as the main advantages and disadvantages that come with the use of these concepts. The second part deals with the current situation on the Hungarian PPP market and provides three examples of proje...
Peter G. Romerosa
Full Text Available The implementation of the Senior High School program in the Philippines illuminates the State’s response to the changing landscape of the global market economy. Its salient features focus on the additional two year-senior high school program which highlights the development of middle level skills for national development and global competitiveness. In order to concretize the implementation of the program, the State entered into collaboration with the private schools which is commonly known as Public Private Partnership (PPP. In this collaboration, the government provides the guidelines and financing while the private educational institutions provide the academic service. Framed from a socio-cultural approach to policy making in education, this study aimed to unpack a particular implementation of PPP of a private institution in an urban area, examine the institutional policies that were created in response to PPP, and interrogate the impacts of these policies on micro social processes. Using interviews and focus group discussions for methodology, the researcher drew narratives and insights from on-the-ground actors. Further, the investigation looked into how authorized policy actors (school administrators and nonauthorized policy actors (teachers, parents, and students are appropriating policies within the operational framework of the PPP in the implementation of the senior high school program. The results demonstrated that multi- layered appropriation and exercise of the agency were explicitly and implicitly deployed in diverse social spaces by actors as a pragmatic and creative response to the new educational arrangement. The paper provides a lens to further develop under-standing on how policy appropriation and production from the local context can inform institutional approaches in facilitating relevant student experience within the realm of PPP in education.
2012/2013 There is an increasingly widespread acknowledgement among all active actors in the development co-operation sector that the Public Private Partnership (PPP) can be a new important tool, not only to build important infrastructure (public works) but also to provide services to the citizens at central and local level as well as to have a strategic value in the Cross-Border Co-operation (CBC) in the next future. The European Commission defines PPPs in a rather broad and general wa...
Hodge, Graeme; Greve, Carsten
that whilst there has indeed been much experience with Long Term Infrastructure Contract PPPs, some of the primary debates around performance are likely to remain unresolved and continue into the future. The paper seeks to move beyond older debates and address several contemporary areas of PPP performance...... the role of PPP as governance tool, the influence of PPP on urban and regional planning matters, PPPs and pension funds, changing forms of PPP transparency, and the psychological appeal of PPPs to citizens, ministers and markets. And above this, a meta-frame of the internationalisation of the PPP...
research traditions. The lack of conceptual clarity leads to false statements about PPP, since what is true for one specific PPP-type does not necessarily apply to other forms of PPP. This paper reviews the literature on PPP and argues that there exist at least five distinct approaches in the burgeoning...
Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Salako, Babatunde Lawal; Akpalu, Albert; Anteyi, Emmanuel; Ka, Mamadou Mourtalla; Deen, Gibrilla; Akande, Temilola; Abellona U, Mei Ran; Lemoine, Maud; McConnochie, Mairi; Foster, Matthew; Walker, Richard; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David; Jawad, Ali
in-service training of healthcare workers is essential for improving healthcare services and outcome. The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6 Partnership for African Clinical Training (M-PACT) program was an innovative in-service training approach designed and implemented by the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and West African College of Physicians (WACP) with funding from Eco Bank Foundation. The goal was to develop sustainable capacity to tackle MDG 6 targets in West Africa through better postgraduate medical education. Five training centres were establised: Nigeria (Abuja, Ibadan), Ghana (Accra), Senegal (Dakar) and Sierra Leone (Freetown) for training 681 physicians from across West Africa. A curriculum jointly designed by the RCP-WACP team was used to deliver biannual 5-day training courses over a 3-year period. Of 602 trained in clinical medicine, 358 (59.5%) were males and 535 (88.9%) were from hosting countries. 472 (78.4%) of participants received travel bursaries to participate, while 318 (52.8%) were residents in Internal Medicine in the respective institutions. Accra had the highest number of participants (29.7%) followed by Ibadan, (28.7%), Dakar, (24.9%), Abuja, (11.0%) and Freetown, (5.6%). Pre-course clinical knowledge scores ranged from 35.1% in the Freetown Course to 63.8% in Accra Course 1; whereas post-course scores ranged from 50.5% in the Freetown course to 73.8% in Accra course 1. M-PACT made a positive impact to quality and outcome of healthcare services in the region and is a model for continued improvement for healthcare outcomes, e.g malaria, HIV and TB incidence and mortality in West Africa.
Nikitenko, S. M.; Goosen, E. V.
The article explores the possibility of using instruments of public-private partnership for a paradigm shift in subsoil use in the fuel and energy complex of Russia. The modern Russian fuel and energy complex (FEC) is characterized by high depreciation of production assets, technological inferiority compared to the developed countries, etc. The solution to all these problems seems to be closely connected with the transition from extensive use of natural resources to comprehensive mineral exploration (CME), with a stable socio-economic development of territories and mutually beneficial partnership between science, business and government based on the principles of public-private partnership (PPP). The article discussed the three main directions of PPP projects development in subsoil use. The first direction comprises the projects aimed at the establishment of core mineral resource businesses on the basis of concession agreements and production sharing contracts. The second direction concerns the projects focused on the development of territories and objects of industrial and social infrastructure in resource regions. The third direction is formed by the projects aimed at the development of new industries, focused on the creation of centers of innovative development, formation of markets for innovative products and innovative clusters in the energy industry.
Zhang, Sheng; Liang, Fei; Li, Wenfeng
The decision to make protocols of phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) publicly accessible by leading journals was a landmark event in clinical trial reporting. Here, we compared primary outcomes defined in protocols with those in publications describing the trials and in trial registration. We identified phase III RCTs published between January 1, 2012, and June 30, 2015, in The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, The Journal of the American Medical Association, and The BMJ with available protocols. Consistency in primary outcomes between protocols and registries (articles) was evaluated. We identified 299 phase III RCTs with available protocols in this analysis. Out of them, 25 trials (8.4%) had some discrepancy for primary outcomes between publications and protocols. Types of discrepancies included protocol-defined primary outcome reported as nonprimary outcome in publication (11 trials, 3.7%), protocol-defined primary outcome omitted in publication (10 trials, 3.3%), new primary outcome introduced in publication (8 trials, 2.7%), protocol-defined nonprimary outcome reported as primary outcome in publication (4 trials, 1.3%), and different timing of assessment of primary outcome (4 trials, 1.3%). Out of trials with discrepancies in primary outcome, 15 trials (60.0%) had discrepancies that favored statistically significant results. Registration could be seen as a valid surrogate of protocol in 237 of 299 trials (79.3%) with regard to primary outcome. Despite unrestricted public access to protocols, selective outcome reporting persists in a small fraction of phase III RCTs. Only studies from four leading journals were included, which may cause selection bias and limit the generalizability of this finding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tamara A Mylnikova
Conclusions: Implementation of an organizational model of specialized traumatological and orthopedic care for children in the Novosibirsk region using mechanisms associated with public–private partnerships has proved to be very positive. Application of the model allowed improvements in the availability of specialized traumatological and orthopedic care for children to ensure succession in the stages of medical care and to increase the number of cases entering rehabilitation. Therefore, this model demonstrates the viability of providing medical care to the population through the mechanisms of public–private partnership.
Jones, Bob; Casu, Francesco
The feasibility of using commercial cloud services for scientific research is of great interest to research organisations such as CERN, ESA and EMBL, to the suppliers of cloud-based services and to the national and European funding agencies. Through the Helix Nebula - the Science Cloud  initiative and with the support of the European Commission, these stakeholders are driving a two year pilot-phase during which procurement processes and governance issues for a framework of public/private partnership will be appraised. Three initial flagship use cases from high energy physics, molecular biology and earth-observation are being used to validate the approach, enable a cost-benefit analysis to be undertaken and prepare the next stage of the Science Cloud Strategic Plan  to be developed and approved. The power of Helix Nebula lies in a shared set of services for initially 3 very different sciences each supporting a global community and thus building a common e-Science platform. Of particular relevance is the ESA sponsored flagship application SuperSites Exploitation Platform (SSEP ) that offers the global geo-hazard community a common platform for the correlation and processing of observation data for supersites monitoring. The US-NSF Earth Cube  and Ocean Observatory Initiative  (OOI) are taking a similar approach for data intensive science. The work of Helix Nebula and its recent architecture model  has shown that is it technically feasible to allow publicly funded infrastructures, such as EGI  and GEANT , to interoperate with commercial cloud services. Such hybrid systems are in the interest of the existing users of publicly funded infrastructures and funding agencies because they will provide "freedom of choice" over the type of computing resources to be consumed and the manner in which they can be obtained. But to offer such freedom-of choice across a spectrum of suppliers, various issues such as intellectual property, legal responsibility
Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Nikniaz, Alireza; Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Zakeri, Akram; Azami, Saber
Iran started a new public-private partnership model in form of health coopera¬tives which is somehow different from other types of health cooperatives throughout the world. In this study we compared the performance and quality of health services in public health cen¬ters (PHCs) and cooperative health centers (CHCs). In this comparative study performance quality of two cohorts of public and coopera¬tive health centers were compared in several health service delivery programs over the time pe¬riod of 2001- 2002. Screening program: the rate of visited population during screening program was higher in CHCs. Maternal health care program: In some of studied programs CHCs had better results. Child health care: Most indicators were better or similar in CHCs. School health program and Health education: All indices were better or similar in CHCs. Environmental health: population based positive function was not significantly different for the population covered by CHCs compared to population covered by PHCs. Client and staff satisfaction as well as participation and attitudes of personnel towards management was better in CHCs. Mean annual cost per capita of the covered population by PHCs was higher. CHCs as a public private partnership model in Iran may deliver preventive health care services as effective as PHCs in many fields and even better in some areas.
Dugdill, Lindsey; Pine, Cynthia M
The partnership between the Féderation Dentaire International (FDI), and Unilever Oral Care, aims to raise awareness of oral health globally; to enable FDI member associations to promote oral health; and to increase the visibility of the FDI and authority of Unilever oral care brands worldwide. Country Projects between National Dental Associations (NDAs), the member associations of FDI, and Unilever Oral Care local companies have been established as a key strand of the partnership. This paper reports on the evaluation of an in-depth sample of Country Projects (n=5) to determine their potential to impact on oral health. Five country sites were selected as being indicative of different programme delivery types. Each site received a two-day visit during Spring-Summer 2009, which enabled the evaluators to audit what was delivered in practice compared with the original written project briefs and to undertake interviews of study site staff. 39 projects in 36 countries have been initiated. In those examined by site visits, clear evidence was found of capacity building to deliver oral health. In some countries, widespread population reach had been prioritised. Effectiveness of partnership working varied depending on the strength of the relationship between the NDA and local Unilever Oral Care representatives and alignment with national marketing strategy. The quality of internal evaluation varied considerably. Over a million people had been reached directly by Country Projects and this public-private partnership has made a successful start. To move towards improving oral health rather than only awareness raising; future Country Projects would benefit from being limited to certain evidence-based intervention designs, and using an agreed core indicator set in order to allow cross-country comparison of intervention outcomes. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.
Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.
Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. Method: In "Research Ethics III", they review the RCR domains of publication…
Arbulú, Italo; Lozano, Javier; Rey-Maquieira, Javier
This article analyzes the influence of tourism on the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system taking as reference the case study of Mallorca, an internationally renowned destination. The characteristics of tourism such as seasonality and land scarcity, set interesting challenges to public-private partnerships related to MSWM system. The analysis of Mallorca's experience shows that land endowment strongly influences the choice of treatment technologies in tourism destinations. Furthermore, tourism seasonality significantly affects management costs which should be considered on PPP contracts. Finally, the tariff system in this kind of environmental PPPs in tourist destinations still need to improve to promote waste minimization and recycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
S. V. Suchkov
Full Text Available The article considers the key problems of the transition of the national health system to a new platform of personalized medicine and, in particular, pediatrics. In the second part, published in this issue, the main mechanisms for building a new model are analyzed. The main prerequisites (financial and economic, fundamental research and applied research, the emergence and construction in the structure of global trends in the development of health care markets, actualized at the end of the last century, are presented. It is indicated that one of the main incentives for the development of personalized medicine is a noticeable increase in individual and social demand for preventive drugs and the corresponding tools. The development of programs for managing their own health is gaining in importance, and new business-development models (including public and private partnerships are being developed and implemented. The evidence is examined that a progressive scenario for the development of a model of personalized medicine will provide a significant reduction in the cost of medical care. A large section of the article is devoted to the development of the provision that the understanding and awareness of the importance of the protection and management of one's own health by a modern state, medical audience and individual citizen is the most important aspect of the educational and educational activities of a doctor and a nurse. The perspectives of personalized pediatrics as a global instrument for restructuring the entire healthcare system are considered in detail.
Health system's barriers hindering implementation of public-private partnership at the district level: a case study of partnership for improved reproductive and child health services provision in Tanzania.
Kamugumya, Denice; Olivier, Jill
Public-private partnership (PPP) has been suggested as a tool to assist governments in lower to middle income countries fulfil their responsibilities in the efficient delivery of health services. In Tanzania, although the idea of PPP has existed for many years in the health sector, there has been limited coordination, especially at a district level - which has contributed to limited health gains or systems strengthening obviously seen as a result of PPP. This case study was conducted in the Bagamoyo district of Tanzania, and employed in-depth interviews, document reviews, and observations methods. A stakeholder analysis was conducted to understand power distribution and the interests of local actors to engage non-state actors. In total 30 in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants that were identified from a stakeholder mapping activity. The initial data analysis guided further data collection in an iterative process. The provision of Reproductive and Child Health Services was used as a context. This study draws on the decision-space framework. Study findings reveal several forms of informal partnerships, and the untapped potential of non-state actors. Lack of formal contractual agreements with private providers including facilities that receive subsidies from the government is argued to contribute to inappropriate distribution of risk and reward leading to moral hazards. Furthermore, findings highlight weak capacity of governing bodies to exercise oversight and sanctions, which is acerbated by weak accountability linkages and power differences. Disempowered Council Health Services Board, in relation to engaging non-state actors, is shown to impede PPP initiatives. Effective PPP policy implementation at a local level depends on the capacity of local government officials to make choices that would embrace relational elements dynamics in strategic plans. Orientation towards collaborative efforts that create value and enable its distribution is argued to
Kay, John; Azenkeng, Alexander; Fiala, Nathan; Jensen, Melanie; Laumb, Jason; Leroux, Kerryanne; McCollor, Donald; Stanislowski, Joshua; Tolbert, Scott; Curran, Tyler
Industries and utilities continue to investigate ways to decrease their carbon footprint. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) can enable existing power generation facilities to meet the current national CO2 reduction goals. The Partnership for CO2 Capture Phase III focused on several important research areas in an effort to find ways to decrease the cost of capture across both precombustion and postcombustion platforms. Two flue gas pretreatment technologies for postcombustion capture, an SO2 reduction scrubbing technology from Cansolv Technologies Inc. and the Tri-Mer filtration technology that combines particulate, NOx, and SO2 control, were evaluated on the Energy & Environmental Research Center’s (EERC’s) pilot-scale test system. Pretreating the flue gas should enable more efficient, and therefore less expensive, CO2 capture. Both technologies were found to be effective in pretreating flue gas prior to CO2 capture. Two new postcombustion capture solvents were tested, one from the Korea Carbon Capture and Sequestration R&D Center (KCRC) and one from CO2 Solutions Incorporated. Both of these solvents showed the ability to capture CO2 while requiring less regeneration energy, which would reduce the cost of capture. Hydrogen separation membranes from Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation were evaluated through precombustion testing. They are composed of vanadium alloy, which is less expensive than the palladium alloys that are typically used. Their performance was comparable to that of other membranes that have been tested at the EERC. Aspen Plus® software was used to model the KCRC and CO2 Solutions solvents and found that they would result in significantly improved overall plant performance. The modeling effort also showed that the parasitic steam load at partial capture of 45% is less than half that of 90% overall capture, indicating savings that
Kostyanev, T; Bonten, M J M; O'Brien, S; Steel, H; Ross, S; François, B; Tacconelli, E; Winterhalter, M; Stavenger, R A; Karlén, A; Harbarth, S; Hackett, J; Jafri, H S; Vuong, C; MacGowan, A; Witschi, A; Angyalosi, G; Elborn, J S; deWinter, R; Goossens, H
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a global public health threat. Despite the emergence of highly resistant organisms and the huge medical need for new drugs, the development of antibacterials has slowed to an unacceptable level worldwide. Numerous government and non-government agencies have called for public-private partnerships and innovative funding mechanisms to address this problem. To respond to this public health crisis, the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking programme has invested more than €660 million, with a goal of matched contributions from the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, in the development of new antibacterial strategies. The New Drugs for Bad Bugs (ND4BB) programme, an Innovative Medicines Initiative, has the ultimate goal to boost the fight against ABR at every level from basic science and drug discovery, through clinical development to new business models and responsible use of antibiotics. Seven projects have been launched within the ND4BB programme to achieve this goal. Four of them will include clinical trials of new anti-infective compounds, as well as epidemiological studies on an unprecedented scale, which will increase our knowledge of ABR and specific pathogens, and improve the designs of the clinical trials with new investigational drugs. The need for rapid concerted action has driven the funding of seven topics, each of which should add significantly to progress in the fight against ABR. ND4BB unites expertise and provides a platform where the commitment and resources required by all parties are streamlined into a joint public-private partnership initiative of unprecedented scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
A general background is given of the implications the BEIR-III Report may have on societal decision-making in the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides are discussed
A general background is given of the implications the BEIR-III Report may have on societal decision-making in the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides are discussed. (ACR)
Wong, Eliza L Y; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong; Chau, Patsy Y K; Yam, Carrie H K; Cheung, Annie W L; Fung, Hong
The World Health Organization advocates the goal of universal coverage of health systems to ensure that everyone can avail the services they need and are protected from the associated financial risks. Governments are increasingly engaging and interacting with the private sector in initiatives collectively referred to as public-private partnerships (PPPs) to enhance the capacity of health systems to meet this objective. Understanding the values that motivate partners and demonstrating commitment for building relationships were found to be key lessons in building effective PPPs; however there, remain many research gaps. This study focusses on the practice of PPPs at the inter-organisational (meso) level and interpersonal (micro) level in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The influence of the structural components of different PPPs on stakeholder interpretation and actions, as well as the eventual outcomes of the PPPs, is examined, in terms of a realist evaluation, which applies a context-mechanism-outcome configuration as the research methodology. Seven key factors initiating commitment in a partnership, critical for sustainable PPPs, were identified as follows: (1) building of trust; (2) clearly defined objectives and roles; (3) time commitment; (4) transparency and candid information, particularly in relation to risk and benefit; (5) contract flexibility; (6) technical assistance or financial incentive behind procedural arrangements; and (7) the awareness and acceptability of structural changes related to responsibility and decisions (power and authority). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
The nuclear industry claims that it wants a partnership with renewable energy as part of a balanced energy programme. The author looks at information on renewables supplied by the nuclear industry and finds it economical with the truth. (author)
resource assessment, integration of diverse energy sources, systems modeling, and business models for In partnership with the Organization of American States and other multinational organizations, NREL , Industry and Tourism; Finance and Public Credit; and Agriculture. Europe NREL collaborates with many
Full Text Available The performance evaluation index system was established on the basis of 4E (Efficiency, Economic, Effectiveness, Equity theory to improve performance evaluation of Public-Private Partnership Projects for Residential Renovation (4P2R. Moreover, the index weighting model was demonstrated based on Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA. Finally, the cloud model was used for performance evaluation, through the cloud uncertainty reasoning to determine the quantitative performance evaluation index value, the positive reverse cloud to calculate the qualitative performance evaluation index value, and the normal cloud to measure the project performance. The proof-of-concept application shows that the performance evaluation index system and evaluation model can better identify the deficiencies in the project, and provide targeted improvement measures for similar projects in the future.
Nájera Morrondo, Rafael
The "Instituto de Salud Carlos III" is the Central Public Health Laboratory in Spain with an important component of scientific research in health related areas, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, infectious diseases and environmental health. The article describes the development of the Public Health Institutes. arising from the introduction and development of scientific and laboratory based medicine and the introduction of vaccination and sanitation with the control of water and food. At about the same time, the discoveries in microbiology and immunology were produced, being the research activities incardinated with the practical advances in the control of products. To cope with the practical needs, Institutions were created with the responsibility of providing smallpox vaccine but incorporating very soon production of sera and other vaccines and water and sanitation control and foods control. At the same time. colonization of countries specially in Africa, South East Asia and explorations in Central America confront the Europeans with new diseases and the need of laboratories where to study them. These circumstances gave rise to the birth of the Central Public Health Laboratories and the National institutes of Health at the beginning of the XX century in many countries. In Spain, the Spanish Civil War was a breaking point in the development of such an institution that finally was reinvented with the creation of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, in 1986, incorporating research and epidemiological surveillance and control of diseases and also the responsibilities of the Food and Drug Control, lately separated from it.
Kelly, Elish; O'Connell, Philip J.; Mc Guinness, Seamus
Policy paper This paper uses data from the 2003 and 2006 National Employment Surveys to analyse the public-private sector wage gap in Ireland. In particular, we investigate the impact of awards implemented under a number of wage setting institutions on the pay differential. These include the pay increases awarded by the Public Service Benchmarking Body in its first report and the increases given to higher-level posts in the public sector by the Review Body on Higher Remuneration in the ...
Veronica V. Turgeneva
Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of this article is to analyze the Russian experience in using public-private partnership mechanism (further – PPP for the supply and maintenance of rolling stock for Moscow public transport vehicle fleet under the «Life Сycle Сontract» (further – LLC. Overview of LLC, benefits, strengths and weakness identification are needed to achieve the objectives. Methods: methodological and theoretical background of the article based on feasibility study of LCC implementation projects as well as practical experience of LCC in CUE «Mosgortrans» and CUE «Moscow Metro». Information based on official data from Ministry of Economic development of the RF, Moscow Mayor official website, Moscow City Investment Agency. Results: research into LCC in PPP system, strengths and weaknesses identification will allow to minimize risks and to improve system. Conclusions and Relevance: this article proves that LCC model under the tready of of rolling stock procurement and maintenance contracts for Moscow public transport can provide a city with the new generation rolling stock, increase comfort and safety, obtain additional reliability assurance and timekeeping, remain high properties of rolling stock during exploitation period.
Full Text Available Participants in the Tampa Bay Estuary Program have agreed to adopt nitrogen-loading targets for Tampa Bay based on the water-quality and related light requirements of underwater seagrasses. Based on modeling results, it appears that light levels can be maintained at necessary levels by “holding the line” at existing nitrogen loadings; however, this goal may be difficult to achieve given the 20% increase in the watershed’s human population and associated 7% increase in nitrogen loading that are projected to occur over the next 20 years. To address the long-term management of nitrogen sources, a nitrogen management consortium of local electric utilities, industries, and agricultural interests, as well as local governments and regulatory agency representatives, has developed a consortium action plan to address the target load reduction needed to “hold the line” at 1992 to 1994 levels. To date, implemented and planned projects collated in the Consortium Action Plan meet and exceed the agreed-upon nitrogen-loading reduction goal. An example of the success of the private partnership aspect of this program can be seen in three phosphate fertilizer mining and manufacturing companies with facilities located on Tampa Bay. These companies are participants in the Estuary Program and the Nitrogen Management Consortium to provide support and input for a program that advocates voluntary, nonregulatory cooperation to reach environmental goals.
Melissa S. Weddell; Brett A. Wright; Kenneth F. Backman
The partnership phenomenon has received considerable attention as an alternative management strategy for public agencies. The growing use of partnerships has created a need to understand key elements of partnership success and failure, how partnerships address park and recreation management paradoxes, and guidelines for best practices (Mowen & Kerstetter, 2006)....
As part of the 20th Anniversary of the Public Understanding of Science journal, the journal has been reflecting on how the field and journal have developed. This research note takes a closer look at some of the trends, considering the journal's 50 most cited papers and using IRaMuTeQ, an open-source computer text analysis technique. The research note presents data that show that the move within public engagement from deficit to dialogue has been followed by a further shift from championing dialogue to criticising its practice. This shift has taken place alongside a continued, but changing, interest in media coverage, surveys and models of public understanding. © The Author(s) 2014.
以风险共担、利益共享的理念剖析公私合作的内生机理,从系统视域构建公私合作下的政府部门信用风险的传导模型,揭示公私合作下政府部门信用风险的传导机理.研究表明公私合作模式所具有的信用风险内部化特征,促使政府部门信用风险沿着微分动力系统的演变轨迹进行传导,系统均衡状态的均衡点就是信用风险在政府和社会资本之间最优的配置点.在上述基础上,设计公私合作模式下政府部门信用风险管控机制.%This paper analyzes the endogenous mechanism of public-private partnerships based on the concept of risk sharing and benefit sharing. Then,constructs the conduction model of credit risk of government departments under public-private partnership from the point of view of system,andreveals the conduction mechanism of credit risk of government departments under public-private partnership. Research shows that the characteristics of internal credit risk model of public-private partnership promote the government credit risk to conduct along the evolution track of a differential dynamic system,the equilibrium point of system equilibrium state is the optimal allocation point of credit risk between government and social capital. On this basis,designs the credit risk control mechanism of government departments under public-private partnership.
Davis, Jeffrey R.
In May of 2007, The Space Life Sciences Strategy was published, launching a series of efforts aimed at driving human health and performance innovations that both meet space flight needs and benefit life on Earth. These efforts, led by the Space Life Science Directorate (SLSD) at the NASA Johnson Space Center, led to the development and implementation of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) in October 2010. The NHHPC now has over 100 members including seven NASA centers; other federal agencies; some of the International Space Station partners; industry; academia and non-profits. The NHHPC seeks to share best practices, develop collaborative projects and experiment with open collaboration techniques such as crowdsourcing. Using this approach, the NHHPC collaborative projects are anticipated to be at the earliest possible stage of development utilizing the many possible public-private partnerships in this center. Two workshops have been successfully conducted in 2011 (January and October) with a third workshop planned for the spring of 2012. The challenges of space flight are similar in many respects to providing health care and environmental monitoring in challenging settings on the earth. These challenges to technology development include the need for low power consumption, low weight, in-situ analysis, operator independence (i.e., minimal training), robustness, and limited resupply or maintenance. When similar technology challenges are identified (such as the need to provide and monitor a safe water supply or develop a portable medical diagnostic device for remote use), opportunities arise for public-private partnerships to engage in co-creation of novel approaches for space exploration and health and environmental applications on earth. This approach can enable the use of shared resources to reduce costs, engage other organizations and the public in participatory exploration (solving real-world problems), and provide technologies with multiple uses
Mench, J A; Swanson, J C; Arnot, C
The growing emphasis on ensuring the sustainability of animal agriculture is providing an impetus for the adoption of new approaches to structuring and conducting research. Sustainability is a complex topic involving many considerations related to the economic, social, and environmental impacts of production systems. Successfully addressing this topic requires multidisciplinary research as well as a high degree of communication with food system stakeholders to ensure that the research results contribute to informed decision making. In this paper, we provide an overview of a public-private partnership, the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES), which was formed to support research evaluating the sustainability of laying hen housing systems. Because of increasing public concerns about the behavioral restriction imposed on laying hens housed in conventional cages, the U.S. egg industry is faced with a need to transition to alternative systems. However, before the CSES project, there was limited information available about how this transition might affect trade-offs related to the sustainability of egg production. The goal of the CSES project was to provide this information by conducting holistic research on a commercial farm that had 3 different hen housing systems. The CSES members represented a variety of stakeholders, including food retailers and distributors, egg producers, universities, and governmental (USDA ARS) and nongovernmental organizations. The CSES was facilitated by a not-for-profit intermediary, the Center for Food Integrity, which was also responsible for communicating the research results to food system stakeholders, including via quantitative and qualitative consumer research. In this paper, we describe the structural aspects of the CSES that were responsible for the successful completion and dissemination of the research as well as the insights that were gained regarding multidisciplinary and multi-institutional collaboration, conducting
Martin, Atyia; Williams, Jim
This paper presents an overview of the public health and medical services continuity of operations, response and recovery efforts in the aftermath of the Boston bombings. Countless public and private organisations and agencies came together to support the community and the survivors. The efforts of these organisations define what it means to be Boston Strong.
An evaluation of the Public Health Responsibility Deal: Informants' experiences and views of the development, implementation and achievements of a pledge-based, public-private partnership to improve population health in England.
Durand, Mary Alison; Petticrew, Mark; Goulding, Lucy; Eastmure, Elizabeth; Knai, Cecile; Mays, Nicholas
The Coalition Government's Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) was launched in England in 2011 as a public-private partnership designed to improve public health in the areas of food, alcohol, health at work and physical activity. As part of a larger evaluation, we explored informants' experiences and views about the RD's development, implementation and achievements. We conducted 44 semi-structured interviews with 50 interviewees, purposively sampled from: RD partners (businesses, public sector and non-governmental organisations); individuals with formal roles in implementing the RD; and non-partners and former partners. Data were analysed thematically: NVivo (10) software was employed to manage the data. Key motivations underpinning participation were corporate social responsibility and reputational enhancement. Being a partner often involved making pledges related to work already underway or planned before joining the RD, suggesting limited 'added value' from the RD, although some pledge achievements (e.g., food reformulation) were described. Benefits included access to government, while drawbacks included resource implications and the risk of an 'uneven playing field' between partners and non-partners. To ensure that voluntary agreements like the RD produce gains to public health that would not otherwise have occurred, government needs to: increase participation and compliance through incentives and sanctions, including those affecting organisational reputation; create greater visibility of voluntary agreements; and increase scrutiny and monitoring of partners' pledge activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Longo, Maria Cristina
The research analyzes good practices in health care "management experimentation models," which fall within the broader range of the integrative public-private partnerships (PPPs). Introduced by the Italian National Healthcare System in 1991, the "management experimentation models" are based on a public governance system mixed with a private management approach, a patient-centric orientation, a shared financial risk, and payment mechanisms correlated with clinical outcomes, quality, and cost-savings. This model makes public hospitals more competitive and efficient without affecting the principles of universal coverage, solidarity, and equity of access, but requires higher financial responsibility for managers and more flexibility in operations. In Italy the experience of such experimental models is limited but successful. The study adopts the case study methodology and refers to the international collaboration started in 1997 between two Italian hospitals and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC - Pennsylvania, USA) in the field of organ transplants and biomedical advanced therapies. The research allows identifying what constitutes good management practices and factors associated with higher clinical performance. Thus, it allows to understand whether and how the management experimentation model can be implemented on a broader basis, both nationwide and internationally. However, the implementation of integrative PPPs requires strategic, cultural, and managerial changes in the way in which a hospital operates; these transformations are not always sustainable. The recognition of ISMETT's good management practices is useful for competitive benchmarking among hospitals specialized in organ transplants and for its insights on the strategies concerning the governance reorganization in the hospital setting. Findings can be used in the future for analyzing the cross-country differences in productivity among well-managed public hospitals.
Full Text Available Procurement instruments by Public Private Partnerships (PPP have shown their amazing capacity in procuring public works from around the globe. Their success rate has been immense as they are known to bring efficiency, quality, innovation, experience, funds, and most importantly, the art of risk sharing to developed projects. This research aims to pinpoint the critical success factors (CSFs that are needed to implement PPPs in transitional economies. We have taken UAE as a case study and will be comparing its results with that of the UK’s; a developed country. Relevant data was collected through a questionnaire to establish the PPP critical success factors for the each of the two countries. In this questionnaire, data was collected from 30 participants residing in the UAE and 62 participants residing in the UK. A comparative analysis between the results of the UK and UAE showed a great deal of similarity between the two in PPP practice trends in the critical success factors. Both countries ranked the same nine factors as the most significant ones out of the eighteen critical success factors for implementing PPPs. These factors were commitment of public and private parties, appropriate risk allocation, committed and competent public agency, transparent procurement process, strong private consortium, competitive procurement process, political support, detailed cost/benefits assessment, and good governance. Whereas, the major differences were related to local financial market, macro-economic conditions, and favourable legal framework. The findings were validated through a small sample of practitioners using the Partnering Performance Index, and were found to be comprehensive, objective, reliable, practical, replicable, and adaptable.
Bordet, Régis; Lang, Marie; Dieu, Christelle; Billon, Nathalie; Duffet, Jean-Pierre
A public-private (51/49 %) partnership was initiated in 2007 in France to improve the attractiveness of French sites in industry-sponsored international clinical trials. This initiative developed and implemented a combination of structuring actions and support actions. Here we report the assessment of the impact after 6 years on participation of French study sites in industry-sponsored clinical trials. We performed a prospective before-after study of clinical research activities in French public hospitals to assess the impact of actions developed and implemented by CeNGEPS. The programme involved a combination of structuring actions (establishment of sites of excellence, national networks and dedicated clinical research assistants (CRAs)), support actions (tools, templates and training) and competitive budget allocation for sites or networks based on performance. The impact was assessed using the following performance criteria: 1) reduction of the delay to contract signature to ≤ 60 days for 80 % of the trial sites; 2) inclusion of ≥80 % of the planned number of patients by at least 80 % of trial sites; 3) closure of attractiveness for industry-sponsored clinical research. The two main actions, i.e. establishing sites of excellence throughout the country with well-trained, dedicated staff and establishing a national network of clinical investigators, could be adapted to other countries in Western Europe to improve Europe's attractiveness to industry-funded trials.
Full Text Available Public-private cooperation on the level of project finance, and provision of large-scale infrastructure projects, is increasing on the global level. This paper uses a multi-actor analysis, in order to explore the critical success factors (CSFs for sound implementation of public-private partnerships (PPPs in the port context, and to determine the diverging opinions of stakeholders with regard to the importance of these CSFs. The results indicate that eight CSFs are of superior importance in port PPPs: the concreteness and preciseness of the concession agreement, the ability to appropriately allocate and share risk, the technical feasibility of the project, the commitment made by partners, the attractiveness of the financial package, a clear definition of responsibilities, the presence of a strong private consortium and a realistic cost/benefit assessment. The reason for their importance is their deal-breaking character, which can lead to a total failure of PPP projects during the early stages of project conception.
Meier, Florian; Schöffski, Oliver; Schmidtke, Jörg
In recent years scientific progress has dramatically raised the potential of genetic services, but the actual benefits of these developments are not universally shared. In countries of low and middle incomes, improvements in genetic services frequently lag behind. Since this is generally caused by lack of resources and not by the lack of political will, the question arises, how can one most easily acquire the necessary capital to improve the health care in these areas. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) offer one approach to solve this issue, aiming at the inclusion of private enterprises in the realisation of public authority services. So far PPPs have been used exclusively in other health service areas. In this paper a first attempt is being made to discuss the feasibility of transferring the concept of PPP to genetic services, and consideration is given as to where the most promising starting point might be. We start by defining a multilevel structure that needs to be considered in providing comprehensive genetic care. We continue by explaining the concept of PPPs and their current types of implementation in medical services. We then examine how the PPP model could be applied to genetic services or sections thereof. We arrive at the conclusion that a likely starting point for PPP in genetic services is at the level of the infrastructure building service.
Some considerations on the legal regulation of the process for public licitation, contracts and agreements on the establishment of educational partnerships between the government and the private sector
Adriana A. Dragone Silveira
Full Text Available Currently the joint between the public administration and the private sector assumes new contours in function of the of the Brazilian State reform, configuring itself as a trend that if it has accented in the educational area, in the São Paulo’s cities, from the municipalization (municipal ownership of elementary school education, with the consolidation of partnerships and agreements involving the purchase of educational private system’s for municipal education net’s, the vacant subvention in private entities and the hiring of private institutions, aiming at the elaboration of educational politics for the management municipal. (ADRIÃO, BORGHI, 2008. Thus being, this article to look for introduce and to analyze, from the national legislation, the procedures for the establishment of these different partnership’s modalities between the municipal government and private institutions, physical or corporation body, discussing the rules for the licitation process for the services and works hiring, property and consumer goods acquisition, for the contracts celebration and the accords establishment with social organizations to transfer it of public resources, to look for understand the legal possibilities for the introduction of the privatizations mechanisms in the education.
Ratnendra R. Shinde
Full Text Available Background The main objective of Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP was early detection of disease outbreaks. This could be possible only when the public health authorities have a strong and effective surveillance system in collaboration with Private Health Sector. Objectives 1 To assess knowledge, attitude & practice about notification of diseases amongst Private Medical Practitioners (PMPs. 2 To find out barriers experienced by PMPs in reporting of diseases under surveillance. 3 To assess feasibility of various alternative ways of reporting convenient for PMPs. 4 To develop a Public Private Partnership Model of disease notification based on feasible options obtained in the study. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in the F South Municipal ward of Mumbai city during April-May 2011. Two stage simple random sampling was used to select 104 PMPs for the study. Results and Conclusions Nearly 98% PMPs felt importance of notification in health system, but only 46% had practiced it. Most common reason for non-reporting was lack of information about reporting system. The convenient way of reporting for PMPs was to report to the nearest health post personally or to District Surveillance Unit through SMS/phone call and both at weekly interval.
Full Text Available The study essentially aims to assess the public-private partnership (PPP as a thriving strategy in natural resources maintenance that largely is dependent on stakeholders’ participation forest bio-diversity and green management. In an age of climate change and global warming, as a threat due to unavoidable consequences of human activities, natural resource management is now one of the prime concern around the developed and developing countries in terms of creating responsible attitude towards green maintenance. Governments have, by and large, agreed on sustainable employ and conservation of forests in several international forums during the last three decades. In fact, public sector has already proved its inefficiency and ineffective mode to protect natural resources due to lack of skills, human and material resources, and rampant corruption which have encouraged the government to introduce the strategy of PPP. The study was conducted at Lawachhara national park through a sample survey by employing stratified sampling as well as some other tools of data collection incorporating both quantitative and qualitative approaches. It is evident in the study that most of the respondents commonly believe PPP may change the existing ineffective and inefficient mode of natural resources management. Another important finding included that challenges are not possible to overcome unless the active participation of the stakeholders are possible to ensure.
Steenhoff, Andrew P; Crouse, Heather L; Lukolyo, Heather; Larson, Charles P; Howard, Cynthia; Mazhani, Loeto; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Niescierenko, Michelle L; Musoke, Philippa; Marshall, Roseda; Soto, Miguel A; Butteris, Sabrina M; Batra, Maneesh
Child mortality remains a global health challenge and has resulted in demand for expanding the global child health (GCH) workforce over the last 3 decades. Institutional partnerships are the cornerstone of sustainable education, research, clinical service, and advocacy for GCH. When successful, partnerships can become self-sustaining and support development of much-needed training programs in resource-constrained settings. Conversely, poorly conceptualized, constructed, or maintained partnerships may inadvertently contribute to the deterioration of health systems. In this comprehensive, literature-based, expert consensus review we present a definition of partnerships for GCH, review their genesis, evolution, and scope, describe participating organizations, and highlight benefits and challenges associated with GCH partnerships. Additionally, we suggest a framework for applying sound ethical and public health principles for GCH that includes 7 guiding principles and 4 core practices along with a structure for evaluating GCH partnerships. Finally, we highlight current knowledge gaps to stimulate further work in these areas. With awareness of the potential benefits and challenges of GCH partnerships, as well as shared dedication to guiding principles and core practices, GCH partnerships hold vast potential to positively impact child health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Kempenaar, C.; Blom-Zandstra, M.; Brouwer, T.A.; Putter, De H.; Vries, De S.; Hengsdijk, H.; Janssens, S.R.M.; Kessel, G.J.T.; Koesveld, Van J.M.; Meijer, B.J.M.; Pronk, A.A.; Schoutsen, M.; Beke, Ter F.; Brink, Van Den L.; Michielsen, J.M.; Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Wustman, R.; Zhang, X.; Qiu, Y.T.; Haverkort, A.J.
Since 2013 the Netherlands Ministries of Economic and Foreign Affairs has been involved in private companies in research and development (R&D) in developing countries. This in a policy going “from aid to trade”. Especially in upcoming markets, R&D is carried out through Public Private
Due to economic and environmental consequences of nitrogen (N) lost from fertilizer applications in corn (Zea mays L.), considerable public and industry attention has been devoted to development of N decision tools. Now a wide variety of tools are available to farmers for managing N inputs. However,...
Nijkamp, P.; van der Burch, M.; Vindigni, G.
In the spirit of the devolution of public policy, we have recently witnessed an increasing popularity of decentralised forms of decision-making in urban land-use policy, in which both local (or regional) authorities and the private sector play a more prominent joint role in the preparation and
Wokadala, J.; Barungi, M.
The study establishes whether government spending on private universal secondary education (USE) schools is equitable across quintiles disaggregated by gender and by region in Uganda. The study employs benefit incidence analysis tool on the Uganda National Panel Survey (UNPS 2009/10) data to establish the welfare impact of public subsidy on…
Public speaking is one of life's greatest fears for many people. However, with practice, repetition, and planning, you can safely leave your comfort zone and make a presentation that will engage the members of the audience, attract their attention, and cause them to take action on your material. This third article in the series will discuss what to do after the last slide is shown.
Green, Christine Godward; Klein, Elizabeth G
Active transportation has been considered as one method to address the American obesity epidemic. To address obesity prevention through built-environment change, the local public health department in Columbus, Ohio, established the Columbus Healthy Places (CHP) program to formally promote active transportation in numerous aspects of community design for the city. In this article, we present a case study of the CHP program and discuss the review of city development rezoning applications as a successful strategy to link public health to urban planning. Prior to the CHP review, 7% of development applications in Columbus included active transportation components; in 2009, 64% of development applications adopted active transportation components specifically recommended by the CHP review. Active transportation recommendations generally included adding bike racks, widening or adding sidewalks, and providing sidewalk connectivity. Recommendations and lessons learned from CHP are provided.
To date, the most relevant Project outcomes consist 87 municipalities involved, a structured database of energy audit and data about 144 buildings and about 46,000 public light points. Moreover, an effective engagement of public and private stakeholders, lays the foundation for a strong Energy Performance Contract framework able to leverage financing based on minimun guaranteed energy savings of 20% in respect to baseline values.
Huray, Paul G.
This is the final report for the "Partnership in Computational Science" (PICS) award in an amount of $500,000 for the period January 1, 1993 through December 31, 1993. A copy of the proposal with its budget is attached as Appendix A. This report first describes the consequent significance of the DOE award in building infrastructure of high performance computing in the Southeast and then describes the work accomplished under this grant and a list of publications resulting from it.
Taren, Douglas L; Varela, Frances; Dotson, Jo Ann W; Eden, Joan; Egger, Marlene; Harper, John; Johnson, Rhonda; Kennedy, Kathy; Kent, Helene; Muramoto, Myra; Peacock, Jane C; Roberts, Richard; Sjolander, Sheila; Streeter, Nan; Velarde, Lily; Hill, Anne
The objective of the article is to provide the socio-cultural, political, economic, and geographic conditions that justified a regional effort for training maternal and child health (MCH) professionals in the Rocky Mountain region, describe a historical account of factors that led to the development of the Rocky Mountain Public Health Education Consortium (RMPHEC), and present RMPHEC as a replicable model developed to enhance practice/academic partnerships among state, tribal, and public health agencies and universities to enhance public health capacity and MCH outcomes. This article provides a description of the development of the RMPHEC, the impetus that drove the Consortium's development, the process used to create it, and its management and programs. Beginning in 1997, local, regional, and federal efforts encouraged stronger MCH training and continuing education in the Rocky Mountain Region. By 1998, the RMPHEC was established to respond to the growing needs of MCH professionals in the region by enhancing workforce development through various programs, including the MCH Certificate Program, MCH Institutes, and distance learning products as well as establishing a place for professionals and MCH agencies to discuss new ideas and opportunities for the region. Finally over the last decade local, state, regional, and federal efforts have encouraged a synergy of MCH resources, opportunities, and training within the region because of the health disparities among MCH populations in the region. The RMPHEC was founded to provide training and continuing education to MCH professionals in the region and as a venue to bring regional MCH organizations together to discuss current opportunities and challenges. RMPHEC is a consortium model that can be replicated in other underserved regions, looking to strengthen MCH training and continuing education.
Admissibility and policies of public-private partnerships on communal level in the field of energy supply; Rechtliche Zulaessigkeit und Handlungsvorgaben gemischt-wirtschaftlicher Unternehmen mit kommunaler Beteiligung im Bereich der Energieversorgung
The investigation comprised four steps. In the first step, background information on public-private partnerships is presented, and trends are outlined. The relationship between PPP and privatisation is discussed, definitions are given, and basic models of PPP are presented before proceeding to a discussion of public-private partnerships in the energy supply sector. The second part focuses on communal energy supply. The role of energy supply within the range of services provided by communal administration is defined, and public-private partnerships in the communal sector are gone into. In the third section, legal boundary conditions for the establishment of public-private energy utilities in the communal sector are analyzed. The emphasis is on the legal requirements and limitations to be observed by communities intending to establish public-private energy utilities or cooperate in them. Finally, the fourth section goes into the policies that should be adapted by communal PPP utilities under energy industry law. A distinction is made between the different activities of energy utilities, i.e. as grid operators and power suppliers, and the different legal obligations involved. Pricing is another important consideration. For this reason, the regulations of cartel law and energy industry law concerning pricing in power supply are investigated in detail, especially as grid connection, grid access and base load power supply are concerned.
Kot, Felly Chiteng
In recent years, international partnerships have been viewed increasingly as having the potential to help African academic institutions develop the human capacity needed to contribute to African development. Although the rationales for establishing partnerships are often clear, a question that has been largely unaddressed in empirical research is:…
Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Wang, Weile; Michaelis, Andrew; Votava, Petr; Ganguly, Sangram
The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a collaborative computing platform that has been developed with the objective of bringing scientists together with the software tools, massive global datasets, and supercomputing resources necessary to accelerate research in Earth systems science and global change. NEX is funded as an enabling tool for sustaining the national climate assessment. Over the past five years, researchers have used the NEX platform and produced a number of data sets highly relevant to the National Climate Assessment. These include high-resolution climate projections using different downscaling techniques and trends in historical climate from satellite data. To enable a broader community in exploiting the above datasets, the NEX team partnered with public cloud providers to create the OpenNEX platform. OpenNEX provides ready access to NEX data holdings on a number of public cloud platforms along with pertinent analysis tools and workflows in the form of Machine Images and Docker Containers, lectures and tutorials by experts. We will showcase some of the applications of OpenNEX data and tools by the community on Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud and the NEX Sandbox.
Virginia Senosiain Ortega
Full Text Available The present paper is focused on how the model of Public Private Partnership (PPP fits into the work against climate change and to promote sustainable development. Even If our main idea to study the importance of this model as a tool to protect the environment, is necessary to approach to the problem of climate change first; the proper characteristics of the problem will determinate its suitability. We will follow analyzing the special character of this model and some international good practices, to finish with the conclusions of the present studyEl presente estudio tiene como objeto la posible adecuación del modelo del partenariado público privado a la lucha contra el cambio climático y al desarrollo sostenible. Dado que nos centraremos en la aplicación de esta figura de colaboración en la protección del medio ambiente, entendemos necesario realizar una sucinta aproximación a la problemática del cambio climático, al ser sus propias características las que determinen la idoneidad o no del modelo del partenariado en este campo. Posteriormente analizaremos la especial naturaleza del partenariado en el ámbito medioambiental, para proseguir analizando sendos ejemplos de buenas prácticas internacionales, y concluir valorando los resultados del presente estudio.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2009396