WorldWideScience

Sample records for publications gulf breeze

  1. Sea Breeze Front Storm and Its Composite Analysis in Beibu Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the sea breeze front storm and its composite analysis in Beibu Gulf. [Method] By dint of routine observation data, ground automatic meteorology data and European numerical mode grid data, rainstorm caused by sea breeze in Guangxi during 1990 and 2007 and the strong convection triggered by sea breeze on June 5 in 2008 were expounded. The main characteristics of the configuration of circulation in the low and high latitude of breeze front of middle scale were summarized. [Resu...

  2. Warm Breeze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Middle-aged female painter Wang Yingchun is a first-grade artist at the Research Instituteof Chinese Painting. With a solid foundation in: Chinese painting, oil painting andsculpture she began to experiment in the early 1980s with stone carving, murals, folkart, landscapes, flowers and birds, cubism, expressionism and abstractionism. Living ina time of social transformation, she felt pressed to create her own artistic style. Aftervisiting South America, she produced a batch of works which drew the essence of theBeast Group and used a new technique, without sketching the contours of flowers, sothat the paintings look wild, romantic and exuberant. This painting Warm Breeze displaysWang’s style: While extensively studying the paintings of various schools, she makes hertraditional Chinese ink paintings tinted with modern color.

  3. Biomedical Publications Profile and Trends in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almundher Al-Maawali

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives There is a dearth of studies examining the relationship between research output and other socio-demographic indicators in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The three interrelated aims of this study were, first, to ascertain the number of biomedical publications in the GCC from 1970 to 2010; second, to establish the rate of publication according population size during the same period and, third, to gauge the relationship between the number of publications and specific socio-economic parameters. Methods: The Medline database was searched in October 2010 by affiliation, year and publication type from 1970 to 2010. Data obtained were normalised to the number of publications per million of the population, gross domestic product, and the number of physicians in each country. Results: The number of articles from the GCC region published over this 40 year period was 25,561. Saudi Arabia had the highest number followed by Kuwait, UAE, and then Oman. Kuwait had the highest profile of publication when normalised to population size, followed by Qatar. Oman is the lowest in this ranking. Overall, the six countries showed a rising trend in publication numbers with Oman having a significant increase from 1990 to 2005. There was a significant relationship between the number of physicians and the number of publications. Conclusion: The research productivity from GGC has experienced complex and fluctuating growth in the past 40 years. Future prospects for increasing research productivity are discussed with particular reference to the situation in Oman.

  4. 77 FR 64960 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC308 Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Gulf of Mexico Fishery... Mac), or by iPhone, iPad, or Android device with the GoToMeeting app available from the App Store or...

  5. 76 FR 12340 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA266 Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council will convene scoping meetings on a proposed amendment addressing crew size limits and...

  6. 78 FR 63966 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC930 Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; public meeting. SUMMARY: The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of the Socioeconomic Scientific and Statistical Committee...

  7. 78 FR 57840 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC879 Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; public meetings. SUMMARY: The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management... Fish Scientific and Statistical Committees (SSC). DATES: The meetings will be held from 1 p.m....

  8. 78 FR 78824 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XD051 Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; public meeting. SUMMARY: The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a webinar of the Socioeconomic Scientific and Statistical Committee...

  9. 78 FR 59656 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ...; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission's Law Enforcement Committee. DATES: The meeting will be... Biologist, Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; telephone: (813) 348-1630; fax: (813) 348-1711; email...

  10. 78 FR 79674 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...-XD054 Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Atran, Senior Fishery Biologist, Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; telephone: (813) 348-1630..., Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR Doc. 2013...

  11. 77 FR 42699 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Hearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...; Public Hearings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Biologist- Statistician; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; telephone: (813) 348-1630 x235..., Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE...

  12. 78 FR 9372 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Froeschke, Fishery Biologist- Statistician; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; telephone: (813) 348... collected through the Marine Recreational Information Program (MRIP). Programs considered must improve the...

  13. 75 FR 80469 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Froeschke, Fishery Biologist- Statistician; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; telephone: (813) 348... of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P ...

  14. 76 FR 103 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... for Gulf of Mexico yellowedge grouper and tilefish. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessments of the Gulf of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA118 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  15. 76 FR 13985 - Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Public Scoping Meetings for the Programmatic Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA222 Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Public Scoping Meetings for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill... (NOAA), U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public scoping meetings; correction. SUMMARY:...

  16. 76 FR 11426 - Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Public Scoping Meetings for the Programmatic Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA222 Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Public Scoping Meetings for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...), U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice; public scoping meetings. SUMMARY: In a February...

  17. Breezes Along the Coast of Tamaulipas, Northeastern Mexico: Contribution to the Wind Energy Potencial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, J. M.; Rivas, D.

    2012-12-01

    The near-surface wind along the coast of northeastern Mexico and western Gulf of Mexico, with emphasis on the breeze regime, is characterized. Wind data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) for the period from 2000 to 2010 are used, which are validated by comparison with surface in-situ observations (weather stations). The validation shows a good agreement between the NARR product and the observations. The preliminary results show that the diurnal frequency associated with breezes has a significant contribution to the variability of the wind in the study area. This suggests that the breeze regime can be important for the wind power generation, and given the extensive coastal plain of Tamaulipas, the implementation of electricity-generation prototypes in the area is possible.

  18. 78 FR 52761 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... to a public meeting notice. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 33 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico stocks of gag... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC642 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  19. 75 FR 1754 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... 33607. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Stephen Bortone, Executive Director, Gulf of Mexico Fishery... Amendment for Reef Fish Total Allowable Catch; and the Council will hold an open public comment period....m. - The Council will review and discuss reports from the committee meetings as follows: Reef...

  20. 77 FR 19227 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ....--Outreach and Education Committee will review the Crisis Communication Plan and receive an update on the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB130 Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council... Management Council (Council) will convene a public meeting. DATES: The meeting will be held April 16-19,...

  1. 76 FR 12942 - Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Meeting Location Correction for Public Scoping Meetings for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA222 Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Meeting Location Correction for Public Scoping Meetings for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the... meetings; correction. SUMMARY: In a March 2, 2011, Federal Register notice, the National Oceanic...

  2. 78 FR 9888 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ...; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Biologist- Statistician; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; telephone: (813) 348-1630 x235... Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine, Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P ...

  3. 78 FR 8110 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... dumerili). SUMMARY: The SEDAR 33 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico gag grouper and greater amberjack... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC480 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  4. 78 FR 9372 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC491 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: The South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA...

  5. 78 FR 67339 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... gag and greater amberjack webinars. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 33 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico stocks of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC948 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  6. 77 FR 53869 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Mexico Red Snapper Post-Data Workshop Webinar. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 31 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico Red... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC214 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  7. 78 FR 33069 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    .... SUMMARY: The SEDAR 33 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico stocks of gag (Mycteroperca microlepis) and greater... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC642 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  8. 78 FR 24730 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC642 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of SEDAR 33 Gulf of Mexico...

  9. 77 FR 70149 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... 28 Gulf of Mexico Spanish mackerel and cobia assessment Webinar. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 28 assessment of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC328 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  10. 78 FR 8111 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... red snapper assessment webinars. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 31 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico red snapper... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC479 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  11. 78 FR 54869 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC846 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of SEDAR 33 Gulf of Mexico...

  12. NUMERICAL EXPERIMENT ON THE EFFECT OF URBANIZATION UPON SUMMER LAND-SEA BREEZES IN THE COASTLAND OF GUANGXI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Wei-jun; SHEN Tong-li; DING Zhi-ying; SONG Jie-hui

    2010-01-01

    The 2003-2006 observations were utilized to analyze the surface characteristics of summer land-sea breezes along the coastland of Guangxi and the Weather Research and Forecast model was applied to simulate the breeze structure on August 1-2,2006.Results show that 1)the intensity and distributions of the breezes reproduced from improved urban underlying surface were close to observations.In the daytime the coastwise urban band was a convergent belt of sea breeze,corresponding to the centers of torrential rains; in the nighttime hours the surface of the Gulf of Tonkin(the Vietnamese name)or the Northern Bay(the Chinese name)acted as a convergent zone of land breezes,likely to produce convectivecloud cluster; 2)the experiment on urbanization showed the heat island effect enhancing(weakening)the sea(land)breeze development.Furthermore,the heat island effect mitigated the atmospheric cooling viaradiation over the cities in the night,weakening sinking motion correspondingly,thereby suppressing the dominant factor responsible for the steady development of temperature inversion.As a result,the inversion vigor was reduced greatly,but nevertheless no strong effect of the decreased subsidence was found upon the inversion height.

  13. 78 FR 15706 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries.... Participants include: data collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and...

  14. 78 FR 17357 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions, have implemented the Southeast Data... managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including...

  15. 78 FR 15708 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions, have implemented the Southeast Data... assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen...

  16. 78 FR 14983 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...Independent peer review of Gulf of Mexico Spanish Mackerel and Cobia stocks will be accomplished through written reviews because delays in completing the assessments prevented their consideration at the SEDAR 28 Review Workshop. This workshop is being held by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council to consider recommendations from the written reviews and develop recommendations for the......

  17. 77 FR 39998 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ...The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council) will convene its Law Enforcement Advisory Panel (LEAP) in conjunction with the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission's Law Enforcement Committee...

  18. Climate Change and Health on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Public Health Adaptation is Needed to Address Future Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Elisaveta P; Ebi, Kristie L; Culp, Derrin; Redlener, Irwin

    2015-08-11

    The impacts of climate change on human health have been documented globally and in the United States. Numerous studies project greater morbidity and mortality as a result of extreme weather events and other climate-sensitive hazards. Public health impacts on the U.S. Gulf Coast may be severe as the region is expected to experience increases in extreme temperatures, sea level rise, and possibly fewer but more intense hurricanes. Through myriad pathways, climate change is likely to make the Gulf Coast less hospitable and more dangerous for its residents, and may prompt substantial migration from and into the region. Public health impacts may be further exacerbated by the concentration of people and infrastructure, as well as the region's coastal geography. Vulnerable populations, including the very young, elderly, and socioeconomically disadvantaged may face particularly high threats to their health and well-being. This paper provides an overview of potential public health impacts of climate variability and change on the Gulf Coast, with a focus on the region's unique vulnerabilities, and outlines recommendations for improving the region's ability to minimize the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards. Public health adaptation aimed at improving individual, public health system, and infrastructure resilience is urgently needed to meet the challenges climate change may pose to the Gulf Coast in the coming decades.

  19. 77 FR 11066 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA924 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of SEDAR Data/Assessment...

  20. 78 FR 34046 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC708 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of SEDAR Data/Assessment...

  1. 78 FR 10607 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC491 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  2. A Climatology of the Sea Breeze at Cape Canaveral, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-22

    performed. The majority of sea-breeze studies have utilized two-dimensional numerical models (e.g., Walsh 1974; Arritt 1993; Estoque 1962; Bechtold et...The large-scale flow has a significant influence on the sea breeze (e.g., Zhong and 20 Takle 1993; Estoque 1962; Arritt 1993; Bechtold et al. 1991...the temperature gradient and the sea breeze ( Estoque 1962; Arritt 1993; Bechtold et al. 1991; Xian and Pielke 1991). The horizontal temperature

  3. Evaluation of the atmospheric model WRF on the Qatar peninsula for a converging sea-breeze event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Nayak, Sashikant; Panchang, Vijay

    2016-04-01

    Qatar, a narrow peninsula covering an area of 11437 sq km, extends northwards into the Arabian Gulf for about 160km and has a maximum width of 88km. The convex shape of the coast-line and narrowness of the peninsula results in the Qatar region experiencing complex wind patterns. The geometry is favorable for formation of the land-sea breeze from both coastal sides of the peninsula. This can lead to the development of sea breeze convergence zones in the middle of the country. Although circulations arising from diurnal thermal contrast of land and water are amongst most intensively studied meteorological phenomena, there is no reported study for the Qatar peninsula and very few studies are reported for the Arabian Gulf region as whole. It is necessary to characterize the wind field for applications such as assessing air pollution, renewable energy etc. A non-hydrostatic mesoscale model, Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a nested high resolution grid permits the investigation of such fine scale phenomena. Data from eighteen land based Automated Weather Stations (AWS) and two offshore buoys deployed and maintained by the Qatar Meteorological Department were analyzed. Based on the analysis a clear case of sea breeze convergence were seen on 18 September 2015. Model simulations were used to investigate the synoptic conditions associated with the formation of this event. The season is characterized by week ambient north westerly wind over the Arabian Gulf. The WRF model performance is validated using observed in-situ data. Model simulations show that vertical extent of sea breeze cell was up to 1 km and the converging sea breeze regions were characterized with high vertical velocities. The WRF simulation also revealed that with high resolution, the model is capable of reproducing the fine scale patterns accurately. The error of predictions in the inner domain (highest resolution) are found to be relatively lower than coarse resolution domain. The maximum wind speed

  4. Ocean Observing Public-Private Collaboration to Improve Tropical Storm and Hurricane Predictions in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R.; Leung, P.; McCall, W.; Martin, K. M.; Howden, S. D.; Vandermeulen, R. A.; Kim, H. S. S.; Kirkpatrick, B. A.; Watson, S.; Smith, W.

    2016-02-01

    In 2008, Shell partnered with NOAA to explore opportunities for improving storm predictions in the Gulf of Mexico. Since, the collaboration has grown to include partners from Shell, NOAA National Data Buoy Center and National Center for Environmental Information, National Center for Environmental Prediction, University of Southern Mississippi, and the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System. The partnership leverages complementary strengths of each collaborator to build a comprehensive and sustainable monitoring and data program to expand observing capacity and protect offshore assets and Gulf communities from storms and hurricanes. The program combines in situ and autonomous platforms with remote sensing and numerical modeling. Here we focus on profiling gliders and the benefits of a public-private partnership model for expanding regional ocean observing capacity. Shallow and deep gliders measure ocean temperature to derive ocean heat content (OHC), along with salinity, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, and CDOM, in the central and eastern Gulf shelf and offshore. Since 2012, gliders have collected 4500+ vertical profiles and surveyed 5000+ nautical miles. Adaptive sampling and mission coordination with NCEP modelers provides specific datasets to assimilate into EMC's coupled HYCOM-HWRF model and 'connect-the-dots' between well-established Eulerian metocean measurements by obtaining (and validating) data between fixed stations (e.g. platform and buoy ADCPs) . Adaptive sampling combined with remote sensing provides satellite-derived OHC validation and the ability to sample productive coastal waters advected offshore by the Loop Current. Tracking coastal waters with remote sensing provides another verification of estimate Loop Current and eddy boundaries, as well as quantifying productivity and analyzing water quality on the Gulf coast, shelf break and offshore. Incorporating gliders demonstrates their value as tools to better protect offshore oil and gas assets

  5. 75 FR 29724 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... 33607. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Stephen Bortone, Executive Director, Gulf of Mexico Fishery... Fish; AP Selection; SSC Selection; SEDAR Selection; Coastal Migratory Pelagics (Mackerel); Spiny... Mackerel Limited Access Privilege Program Advisory Panel, the Ad Hoc Reef Fish Limited Access...

  6. 75 FR 14427 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ...., Galveston, TX 77551. Council address: Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council, 2203 North Lois Avenue... update on the SEFSC Methodology for Age Composition for Red Drum. Although other non-emergency issues...

  7. Cosmic rays in a galactic breeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Giacinti, Gwenael

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the discovery of the nonthermal Fermi bubble features both below and above the Galactic plane, we investigate a scenario in which these bubbles are formed through galacto-centric outflow. Cosmic rays (CR) both diffusing and advecting within a galactic breeze outflow, interacting with the ambient gas present, give rise to γ -ray emission, providing an approximately flat surface brightness profile of this emission, as observed. Applying the same outflow profile further out within the disk, the resultant effects on the observable CR spectral properties are determined. A hardening in the spectra due to the competition of advective and diffusive propagation within a particular energy range is noted, even in the limiting case of equal CR diffusion coefficients in the disk and halo. It is postulated that this hardening effect may relate to the observed hardening feature in the CR spectrum at a rigidity of ≈200 GV .

  8. Cosmic Rays in a Galactic Breeze

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the discovery of the non-thermal Fermi bubble features both below and above the Galactic plane, we investigate a scenario in which these bubbles are formed through Galacto-centric outflow. Cosmic rays (CR) both diffusing and advecting within a Galactic breeze outflow, interacting with the ambient gas present, give rise to gamma-ray emission, providing an approximately flat surface brightness profile of this emission, as observed. Applying the same outflow profile further out within the disk, the resultant effects on the observable CR spectral properties are determined. A hardening in the spectra due to the competition of advective and diffusive propagation within a particular energy range is noted, even in the limiting case of equal CR diffusion coefficients in the disk and halo. It is postulated that this hardening effect may relate to the observed hardening feature in the CR spectrum at a rigidity of $\\approx 200$ GV.

  9. Florida, Bahamas, Cuba and Gulf Stream, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This unique photo offers a view of the Florida peninsula, western Bahamas, north central Cuba and the deep blue waters of the Gulf Stream, that hugs the east coast of Florida (27.0N, 82.0W). In addition to being an excellent photograph for showing the geographical relationships between the variety of landforms in this scene, the typical effect of the land-sea breeze is very much in evidence as few clouds over water, cumulus build up over landmass.

  10. 78 FR 4130 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... CONTACT: Dr. Stephen Bortone, Executive Director, Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; telephone.... --Recess-- ] Wednesday, February 6, 2013 8:30 a.m.-12 noon and 1:30 p.m.-5:30 p.m.--The Reef Fish... Committee Meeting; and discuss Exempted Fishing Permits related to Reef Fish (if any). The Reef...

  11. 78 FR 18961 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Stephen Bortone, Executive Director, Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council... Fish Management Committee will receive the status of ] SEDAR 31 Red Snapper Benchmark Assessment... Contractual Services; and, discuss Exempted Fishing Permits related to Reef Fish (if any). 3:30 p.m.-5:30...

  12. 77 FR 62217 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... 1100, Tampa, FL 33607. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Stephen Bortone, Executive Director, Gulf....m.--The Reef Fish Management Committee will discuss the Red Snapper Individual Fishing Quota 5-Year... Committee; and discuss Exempted Fishing Permits related to Reef Fish (if any). --Recess--...

  13. 75 FR 44769 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Stephen Bortone, Executive Director, Gulf of Mexico Fishery... discuss reports from the committee meetings as follows: Reef Fish; AP Selection; SEDAR Selection... Council - The AP Selection Committee and full Council will appoint a vice chair of the Ad Hoc Reef...

  14. 76 FR 26252 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    .... The Advisory Panel will discuss the current and future needs of VMS software including methods to improve VMS products and services to Gulf of Mexico VMS users. Presentations will be given from current... Management Council will convene a meeting of the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) Advisory Panel. DATES: The...

  15. 78 FR 15707 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Management Council will convene a meeting of the Standing, Special Mackerel and Ecosystem Scientific and... Integrated Ecosystems Assessment (IEA) project being conducted by the Southeast Fisheries Science Center. The... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC548 Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management...

  16. 78 FR 31519 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 101 (Friday, May 24, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 31519] [FR Doc No: 2013-12452] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC697 Gulf... Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR Doc....

  17. 78 FR 16472 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Gag and Greater Amberjack Data Scoping Webinar. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 33 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico... data determined to be pertinent in the assessment for Gulf of Mexico gag and greater amberjack prior to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC565 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast...

  18. 78 FR 34348 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Gag and Greater Amberjack webinar. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 33 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico stocks of... inputs for the stock assessments of Gulf of Mexico Gag and Greater Amberjack. Although non-emergency... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC716 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast...

  19. 77 FR 27716 - Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment... and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of SEDAR 31 Gulf of Mexico red snapper (Lutjanus Campechanus) data scoping assessment process webinar. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 31 assessment of the Gulf...

  20. Dynamical analysis of sea-breeze hodograph rotation in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Moisseeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the diurnal evolution of sea-breeze rotation over an island in the mid-latitudes. Earlier research on sea-breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anti-clockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously-studied sea-breeze days and is shown to accurately capture the circulation on all coasts. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined and patterns of clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island with dramatically simplified topography, yet similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia. Dynamical analysis of the idealized case reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with complex topography and/or coastline.

  1. A bibliography of all known publications & reports on the Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melissa; Adler, Jennifer; Littles, Chanda; Randolph, April Norem; Nash, Ursula A.; Gillett, Bethan; Randall, Michael; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Brownell, Prescott

    2013-01-01

    This functional bibliography is meant to be a complete and comprehensive bibliography of all discoverable reports containing information on the Gulf Sturgeon (GS). This bibliography contains all known reports presenting, documenting, summarizing, listing, or interpreting information on the GS through 31 December 2013. Report citations are organized into four sections. Section I includes published scientific journal articles, books, dissertations and theses, published and unpublished technical reports, published harvest prohibitions, and online articles reporting substantive scientific information. Section II includes newspaper, newsletter, magazine, book, agency news releases, and online articles reporting on GS occurrences, mortalities, captures, jumping, boat collisions, aquaculture, historical photographs, and other largely non-scientific or anecdotal issues. Section III consists of books, theses, ecotour-guides, media articles, editorials, and blogs reporting a mix of anecdotal information, historical information, and opinion on GS conservation, habitat issues, exploitation, aquaculture, and human interaction - but presenting very limited or no substantive scientific information. Section IV includes videos, films and audio recordings documenting GS life history and behavior.

  2. Impact of Sea breeze event on air quality in tropical city: case of Greater Muscat city, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabi, Yassine

    2010-05-01

    Muscat is a tropical coastal city. In 2006, the population of the Muscat metropolitan witnessed a three-fold increase between 1970 and 2006 resulting in an enormous functional and spatial transition of land from agriculture to urban land uses. Muscat City had 797000 inhabitants. However, subsequent changes in the land-atmosphere energy balance relationships and air quality must have accompanied this urban transition as the case is in all other urban centers. One of the manifestations of these alterations is the "Urban heat island" in Muscat which is highly magnified by its topography of a narrow plane situated between mountain and sea. This configuration makes Muscat city a perfect trap for air pollutants advected by sea breeze from intense road traffic and their dispersion is blocked by steep mountain slopes. In Muscat city urban road system capacity is undergoing expansion, the pace of development of public transport facilities are not keeping up with improvements in car traffic facilities, and car use is in constant rising. A strategic project was developed in 2007 to observe, measure, model, and analyze the impact of this rapid growth of Muscat on the region's climate and air quality. Numerical simulations compared with field measurements are used to explain the effect of sea breezes on air quality in greater Muscat during summer and winter seasons. The sea breeze circulation is seen to develop early with larger strength and inland propagation in the summer case under the influence of moderate synoptic wind and strong heating conditions than in the NE monsoon and winter cases. The horizontal and vertical extents of thermal internal boundary layer are found to be larger in the summer case than in other cases. The analysis shows that air quality in greater Muscat is much more deteriorated in winter season than the summer cases. An analysis based on pollution amounts and sea breeze ventilation is carried out to divide Muscat into areas, each of which corresponds

  3. Environmental stress in the Gulf of Mexico and its potential impact on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, B; Turner, J; Walter, L; Lathan, N; Thorpe, D; Ogbevoen, P; Daye, J; Alcorn, D; Wilson, S; Semien, J; Richard, T; Johnson, T; McCabe, K; Estrada, J J; Galvez, F; Velasco, C; Reiss, K

    2016-04-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest maritime oil spill in history resulting in the accumulation of genotoxic substances in the air, soil, and water. This has potential far-reaching health impacts on cleanup field workers and on the populations living in the contaminated coastal areas. We have employed portable airborne particulate matter samplers (SKC Biosampler Impinger) and a genetically engineered bacterial reporter system (umu-ChromoTest from EBPI) to determine levels of genotoxicity of air samples collected from highly contaminated areas of coastal Louisiana including Grand Isle, Port Fourchon, and Elmer's Island in the spring, summer and fall of 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014. Air samples collected from a non-contaminated area, Sea Rim State Park, Texas, served as a control for background airborne genotoxic particles. In comparison to controls, air samples from the contaminated areas demonstrated highly significant increases in genotoxicity with the highest values registered during the month of July in 2011, 2013, and 2014, in all three locations. This seasonal trend was disrupted in 2012, when the highest genotoxicity values were detected in October, which correlated with hurricane Isaac landfall in late August of 2012, about five weeks before a routine collection of fall air samples. Our data demonstrate: (i) high levels of air genotoxicity in the monitored areas over last four years post DWH oil spill; (ii) airborne particulate genotoxicity peaks in summers and correlates with high temperatures and high humidity; and (iii) this seasonal trend was disrupted by the hurricane Isaac landfall, which further supports the concept of a continuous negative impact of the oil spill in this region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Photovoltaic at Hollywood and Desert Breeze Recreational Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammerman, Shane [Clark County Comprehensive Planning Department, NV (United States)

    2015-09-24

    Executive Summary Renewable Energy Initiatives for Clark County Parks and Recreation Solar Project DOE grant # DE-EE0003180 In accordance with the goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy for promoting solar energy as clean, carbon-free and cost-effective, the County believed that a recreational center was an ideal place to promote solar energy technologies to the public. This project included the construction of solar electricity generation facilities (40kW) at two Clark County facility sites, Desert Breeze Recreational Center and Hollywood Recreational Center, with educational kiosks and Green Boxes for classroom instruction. The major objectives and goals of this Solar Project include demonstration of state of the art technologies for the generation of electricity from solar technology and the creation of an informative and educational tool in regards to the benefits and process of generating alternative energy. Clark County partnered with Anne Johnson (design architect/consultant), Affiliated Engineers Inc. (AEI), Desert Research Institute (DRI), and Morse Electric. The latest photovoltaic technologies were used in the project to help create the greatest expected energy savings for60443 each recreational center. This coupled with the data created from the monitoring system will help Clark County and NREL further understand the real time outputs from the system. The educational portion created with AEI and DRI incorporates material for all ages with a focus on K - 12. The AEI component is an animated story telling the fundamentals of how sunlight is turned into electricity and DRI‘s creation of Solar Green Boxes brings environmental education into the classroom. In addition to the educational component for the public, the energy that is created through the photovoltaic system also translates into saved money and health benefits for the general public. This project has helped Clark County to further add to its own

  5. Transnational Academic Capitalism in the Arab Gulf: Balancing Global and Local, and Public and Private, Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlow, Sally; Hayes, Aneta L.

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the emerging theoretical construct of what has been called "transnational academic capitalism", characterised by the blurring of traditional boundaries between public, private, local, regional and international, and between market-driven and critically transformative higher education visions. Here we examine…

  6. Transnational Academic Capitalism in the Arab Gulf: Balancing Global and Local, and Public and Private, Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlow, Sally; Hayes, Aneta L.

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the emerging theoretical construct of what has been called "transnational academic capitalism", characterised by the blurring of traditional boundaries between public, private, local, regional and international, and between market-driven and critically transformative higher education visions. Here we examine…

  7. Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Clayton; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake

    2010-01-01

    Water is in high demand for farmers regardless of where you go. Unfortunately, farmers in southern Florida have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. There is an interest by the agricultural community about the effect weather has on usable surface water, however, research into viable weather patterns during La Nina and El Nino has yet to be researched. Using rainfall accumulation data from NASA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite, this project s purpose was to assess the influence of El Nino and La Nina Oscillations on sea breeze thunderstorm patterns, as well as general rainfall patterns during the summer season in South Florida. Through this research we were able to illustrate the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall accumulation for each oscillation in relation to major agricultural areas. The study period for this project is from 1998, when TRMM was first launched, to 2009. Since sea breezes in Florida typically occur in the months of May through October, these months were chosen to be the months of the study. During this time, there were five periods of El Nino and two periods of La Nina, with a neutral period separating each oscillation. In order to eliminate rainfall from systems other than sea breeze thunderstorms, only days that were conducive to the development of a sea breeze front were selected.

  8. Granulation of coke breeze fine for using in the sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke breeze is the main fuel used in the sintering process. The value of -3+1 mm. represents the most favorable particle size for coke breeze in the sintering process. About 20% of total coke fines (-0.5 mm are produced during different steps of preparation. Introducing these fines during the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus ,this study aims at investigating the production of granules resulting from these fines using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of an iron ore. The results showed that the granules having the highest mechanical properties were obtained with 14.5 wt % molasses addition. The sintering experiments were performed by using coke breeze in different shapes (-3+1 mm in size, coke breeze without sieving and coke breeze granules -3+1 mm. The reduction experiments, microscopic structure and X-ray analysis for the produced sinter were carried out. The results revealed that, all sinter properties (such as shatter test, productivity of sinter machine and blast furnace, reduction time and chemical composition for produced sinter by using coke breeze with size -3+1 mm and coke breeze granules were almost the same. The iron ore sinter which was produced by using coke breeze without sieving yielded low productivity for both sinter machine and blast furnace. Furthermore, using coke breeze without sieving in sintering of an iron ore decreases the vertical velocity of sinter machine and increases the reduction time.

  9. A Numerical Study of Sea Breeze and Spatiotemporal Variation in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian-Qian; Cai, Xu-Hui; Song, Yu; Kang, Ling

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations of sea breezes and the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at Hainan Island, China during summer and winter are discussed. The different behaviour of sea breezes and the ABL on the leeward and windward sides of the island are examined, and it is found that offshore flows are more likely to create a strong sea-breeze signature, whereas the process of sea-breeze development under onshore flows is difficult to capture. At the location where the sea-breeze signal is remarkable, the height of the coastal ABL displays an abnormal decrease, corresponding to a transitional point from a continental ABL to a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formed under sea-breeze conditions. This is corroborated by the sudden increase in the water vapour mixing ratio and/or wind speed, indicating the arrival of the sea breeze. Regarding the spatial distribution, the TIBL height decreases abruptly just ahead of the sea-breeze front, and above the cold air mass. When the sea-breeze front occurs with a raised head, a cold air mass is separated from the sea-breeze flow and penetrates inland. This separation is attributed to the interaction between the sea breeze and valley breeze, while the dry airflow entraining to the sea-breeze flow may also partially contribute to this air mass separation.

  10. Sea breezes and coastal jets in southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmeier, Christoph; Palacio-Sese, Pablo; Kalthoff, Norbert; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Fiedler, Franz

    2000-11-01

    Sea breezes and low-level jet (LLJ) streams are studied in the region between the Eastern Castilla-La Mancha and the Mediterranean coast of southeastern Spain. The simplified concept of two-dimensional terrain and meteorological conditions explains the spatially and diurnally varying wind system consistently. The changes, as a function of time, height and distance to the coast, of temperature, pressure and wind as well as of certain observed phenomena, such as LLJs and strongly baroclinic zones, result from the response of the mesoscale flow to differential heating. Wind changes are generally found to be consistent with mesoscale changes in geostrophic winds as estimated from station pressure measurements. The LLJs mark the penetration depth of the sea breeze during daytime, where a baroclinic zone develops at the transition between continental air masses and marine air masses, typically at a distance of 150 km from the coast. The analysis is based on aerological data and ground-based measurements from the European Field Experiment in a Desertification Threatened Area (EFEDA) experiments in 1991 and 1994 as well as on 3-hourly data from three synoptic stations of the Spanish meteorological network for April-October in 1991 and 1994. After corrections were made for instrument errors and atmospheric tides, diurnal pressure variations document vertically integrated mass fluxes perpendicular to the coast. Amplitudes of diurnal pressure and temperature changes scatter significantly and are largest in midsummer. They are weakly correlated and pressure amplitudes remain large in spring and autumn when diurnal temperature changes are reduced. With about 6 h delay to the regular development of onshore winds at the coast during daytime, pronounced wind peaks are observed over the eastern plateau at Albacete and Barrax in the late afternoon. Case studies show that they are accompanied by development of baroclinically driven LLJs, whereas winds at Tomelloso, 220-km inland

  11. Accuracy of Wind Prediction Methods in the California Sea Breeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumers, B. D.; Dvorak, M. J.; Ten Hoeve, J. E.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the accuracy of measure-correlate-predict (MCP) algorithms and log law/power law scaling using data from two tall towers in coastal environments. We find that MCP algorithms accurately predict sea breeze winds and that log law/power law scaling methods struggle to predict 50-meter wind speeds. MCP methods have received significant attention as the wind industry has grown and the ability to accurately characterize the wind resource has become valuable. These methods are used to produce longer-term wind speed records from short-term measurement campaigns. A correlation is developed between the “target site,” where the developer is interested in building wind turbines, and a “reference site,” where long-term wind data is available. Up to twenty years of prior wind speeds are then are predicted. In this study, two existing MCP methods - linear regression and Mortimer’s method - are applied to predict 50-meter wind speeds at sites in the Salinas Valley and Redwood City, CA. The predictions are then verified with tall tower data. It is found that linear regression is poorly suited to MCP applications as the process produces inaccurate estimates of the cube of the wind speed at 50 meters. Meanwhile, Mortimer’s method, which bins data by direction and speed, is found to accurately predict the cube of the wind speed in both sea breeze and non-sea breeze conditions. We also find that log and power law are unstable predictors of wind speeds. While these methods produced accurate estimates of the average 50-meter wind speed at both sites, they predicted an average cube of the wind speed that was between 1.3 and 1.18 times the observed value. Inspection of time-series error reveals increased error in the mid-afternoon of the summer. This suggests that the cold sea breeze may disrupt the vertical temperature profile, create a stable atmosphere and violate the assumptions that allow log law scaling to work.

  12. Application of fine-grained coke breeze fractions in the process of iron ore sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Niesler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The testing cycle, described in the paper, included fine-grained coke breeze granulation tests and iron concentrate sintering tests with the use of selected granulate samples. The use of granulated coke breeze in the sintering process results in a higher process efficiency, shorter sintering duration and fuel saving.

  13. Impacts of topography and land degradation on the sea breeze over eastern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, J.F.; Kroon, L.J.M.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional non-hydrostatic atmospheric model RAMS, version3b, is used to examine the impact of complex topography on the sea breeze under heterogeneous and degradation land use characteristics. In the study, it is shown that topography plays an important role in the sea-breeze circulation b

  14. Sea breeze Initiated Rainfall over the east Coast of India during the Indian Southwest Monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, M; Warrior, H; Raman, S; Aswathanarayana, P A; Mohanty, U C; Suresh, R

    2006-09-05

    Sea breeze initiated convection and precipitation is investigated along the east coast of India during the Indian southwest monsoon season. The sea breeze circulations are observed approximately 70 to 80% of the days during the summer months (June to August) along the Chennai coast. Observations of average sea breeze wind speeds are stronger at a rural location as compared to the wind speeds observed inside the urban region of Chennai. The sea breeze circulation is shown to be the dominant mechanism for initiating rainfall during the Indian southwest monsoon season. Roughly 80% of the total rainfall observed during the southwest monsoon over Chennai is directly related to the convection initiated by sea breeze circulation.

  15. Hot Jupiter Breezes: Time-dependent Outflows from Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, James E

    2015-01-01

    We explore the dynamics of magnetically controlled outflows from Hot Jupiters, where these flows are driven by UV heating from the central star. In these systems, some of the open field lines do not allow the flow to pass smoothly through the sonic point, so that steady-state solutions do not exist in general. This paper focuses on this type of magnetic field configuration, where the resulting flow becomes manifestly time-dependent. We consider the case of both steady heating and time-variable heating, and find the time scales for the corresponding time variations of the outflow. Because the flow cannot pass through the sonic transition, it remains subsonic and leads to so-called breeze solutions. One manifestation of the time variability is that the flow samples a collection of different breeze solutions over time, and the mass outflow rate varies in quasi-periodic fashion. Because the flow is subsonic, information can propagate inward from the outer boundary, which determines, in part, the time scale of the...

  16. Dispersal of seeds by the tropical sea breeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, D F; Quesada, M; Calogeropoulos, C

    2008-01-01

    Given the dependence of most wind-pollinated and wind-dispersed species on low relative humidity (RH) for abscission, and the minimization of RH in the early afternoon, there ought to be a marked directional bias in seed dispersal at sites with a strong local diurnal circulation. We filmed the abscission of seeds of five wind-dispersed tropical species near the coast of Mexico (Jalisco). We found that (1) most abscission occurred during the period from 10:00 to 17:00 hours; (2) there was a strong bias for landward dispersal due to the midday sea breeze; (3) the little nocturnal dispersal that occurred was toward the sea (due to the night land breeze); (4) there was no abscission in the absence of wind (i.e., indoors) except for one species; and (5) holding relative humidity constant, the proportion of seeds diurnally abscising is strongly correlated with horizontal wind speed. We predict that a similar bias (this time for upslope dispersal) for xerochastic dispersal will occur in complex terrain. We conclude that in coastal and mountainous terrain, dispersal models (and inverse modeling efforts) must include a directionality term.

  17. Observations of Lake-Breeze Events During the Toronto 2015 Pan-American Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Zen; Dehghan, Armin; Joe, Paul; Sills, David

    2017-09-01

    Enhanced meteorological observations were made during the 2015 Pan and Parapan American Games in Toronto in order to measure the vertical and horizontal structure of lake-breeze events. Two scanning Doppler lidars (one fixed and one mobile), a C-band radar, and a network including 53 surface meteorological stations (mesonet) provided pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind speed and direction measurements over Lake Ontario and urban areas. These observations captured the full evolution (prior, during, and after) of 27 lake-breeze events (73% of observation days) in order to characterize the convective and dynamic processes driving lake breezes at the local scale and mesoscale. The dominant signal of a passing lake-breeze front (LBF) was an increase in dew-point temperature of 2.3 ± 0.3°C , coinciding with a 180° shift in wind direction and a decrease in air temperature of 2.1 ± 0.2°C . Doppler lidar observations over the lake detected lake breezes 1 hour (on average) before detection by radar and mesonet. On days with the synoptic flow in the offshore direction, the lidars observed wedge-shaped LBFs with shallow depths, which inhibited the radar's ability to detect the lake breeze. The LBF's ground speed and inland penetration distance were found to be well-correlated (r = 0.78 ), with larger inland penetration distances occurring on days with non-opposing (non-offshore) synoptic flow. The observed enhanced vertical motion ({>} 1 m s^{-1}) at the LBF, observed by the lidar on 54% of lake-breeze days, was greater (at times {>} 2.5 m s^{-1} ) than that observed in previous studies and longer-lasting over the lake than over land. The weaker and less pronounced lake-breeze structure over land is illustrated in two case studies highlighting the lifetime of the lake-breeze circulation and the impact of propagation distance on lake-breeze intensity.

  18. The impact of sea breeze under different synoptic patterns on air pollution within Athens basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrakou, Thaleia; Philippopoulos, Kostas; Deligiorgi, Despina

    2012-09-01

    Air quality in densely populated urban coastal areas is directly related to the coupling of the synoptic and the local scale flows. The dispersion conditions within Athens basin, under the influence of different meteorological forcings, lead to distinct spatio-temporal air pollution patterns. The aim of the current observational research is to identify and examine the effect of sea breeze under different atmospheric circulation patterns on air pollution levels for a one-year study period (2007). The study employs surface pressure maps, routine meteorological observations at two coastal sites and nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) concentrations from a network of four air quality stations within the Athens basin. A three-step methodology is applied that incorporates a set of criteria for classifying atmospheric circulation and identifying sea breeze events under each circulation pattern. Two types of sea breeze development are identified (pure sea breeze-PSB and modified sea breeze-MSB) with distinct characteristics. Sea breeze is found to develop more frequently under offshore compared to onshore and parallel to the shoreline background flows. Poor dispersion conditions (high nitrogen oxides-NO(x) and O(3) concentrations) are connected to the pure sea breeze cases and to those cases where sea breeze interacts with a moderate northerly flow during the warm period. The levels of NO(x) and O(3) for the northern Athens basin area are found to be significantly higher during the sea breeze days compared to the Etesian days. Regarding the diurnal variation of ozone for the sea breeze days, peak concentrations and higher intra-daily ranges are observed. Day-to-day pollution accumulation (build-up effect) is measured for O(3) at the northern stations in the Athens basin.

  19. Photovoltaic at Hollywood and Desert Breeze Recreational Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammerman, Shane [Clark County Comprehensive Planning Department, NV (United States)

    2015-09-24

    Executive Summary Renewable Energy Initiatives for Clark County Parks and Recreation Solar Project DOE grant # DE-EE0003180 In accordance with the goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy for promoting solar energy as clean, carbon-free and cost-effective, the County believed that a recreational center was an ideal place to promote solar energy technologies to the public. This project included the construction of solar electricity generation facilities (40kW) at two Clark County facility sites, Desert Breeze Recreational Center and Hollywood Recreational Center, with educational kiosks and Green Boxes for classroom instruction. The major objectives and goals of this Solar Project include demonstration of state of the art technologies for the generation of electricity from solar technology and the creation of an informative and educational tool in regards to the benefits and process of generating alternative energy. Clark County partnered with Anne Johnson (design architect/consultant), Affiliated Engineers Inc. (AEI), Desert Research Institute (DRI), and Morse Electric. The latest photovoltaic technologies were used in the project to help create the greatest expected energy savings for60443 each recreational center. This coupled with the data created from the monitoring system will help Clark County and NREL further understand the real time outputs from the system. The educational portion created with AEI and DRI incorporates material for all ages with a focus on K - 12. The AEI component is an animated story telling the fundamentals of how sunlight is turned into electricity and DRI‘s creation of Solar Green Boxes brings environmental education into the classroom. In addition to the educational component for the public, the energy that is created through the photovoltaic system also translates into saved money and health benefits for the general public. This project has helped Clark County to further add to its own

  20. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C. J.; Dorling, S. R.; von Glasow, R.; Bacon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s-1 offshore gradient wind, from 0 km to 21 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the opposite coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high along-shore gradient wind speed (>15 m s-1) conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature and initializing vertical thermodynamic profile do not significantly alter the resulting circulation, though the strengths of the simulated sea breezes are modulated if the effective land-sea thermal contrast is altered. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be considered in order to improve the accuracy of both assessments of the offshore wind energy climate and

  1. Interactions between the thermal internal boundary layer and sea breezes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyn, D.G. [The Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Geography, Atmospheric Science Programme, Vancouver (Canada)

    1997-10-01

    In the absence of complex terrain, strongly curved coastline or strongly varying mean wind direction, the Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) has well known square root behaviour with inland fetch. Existing slab modeling approaches to this phenomenon indicate no inland fetch limit at which this behaviour must cease. It is obvious however that the TIBL cannot continue to grow in depth with increasing fetch, since the typical continental Mixed Layer Depths (MLD) of 1500 to 2000 m must be reached between 100 and 200 km from the shoreline. The anticyclonic conditions with attendant strong convection and light winds which drive the TIBL, also drive daytime Sea Breeze Circulations (SBC) in the coastal zone. The onshore winds driving mesoscale advection of cool air are at the core of TIBL mechanisms, and are invariably part of a SBC. It is to be expected that TIBL and SBC be intimately linked through common mechanisms, as well as external conditions. (au)

  2. The seasonal characteristics of the breeze circulation at a coastal Mediterranean site in South Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, S.; Pasqualoni, L.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria;

    2010-01-01

    at about 600 m from the coastline in a flat open area at the foot of a mountain chain located in a region of complex orography. We study the seasonal behaviour of the sea-land breeze circulation by analysing two years of hourly data of wind speed and direction, temperature, radiation and relative humidity......We present a study on the characteristics of the sea breeze flow at a coastal site located in the centre of the Mediterranean basin at the southern tip of Italy. This study is finalized to add new data on breeze circulations over a narrow peninsula and present a unique experimental coastal site...... from a surface meteorological station, eighteen-months data from a wind profiler, and two-year data from the ECMWF analysis. Results show that breezes dominate the local circulation and play a major role for the local climate. They are modulated by the season, through the sea-land temperature...

  3. A numerical simulation of an observed lake breeze over Southern Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddukuri, C. Subbarao

    1982-07-01

    A time-dependent, two-dimensional primitive-equation atmospheric boundary-layer model has been applied to the South shore of Lake Ontario, using data obtained by Estoque et al. (1976). The model has correctly predicted the times of onset, maximum intensity and disappearance of the lake breeze. However, it underestimated the maximum inland penetration of the lake breeze, probably due to the fact that horizontal variations of surface potential temperature over the land had not been taken into account.

  4. Temperature, comfort and pollution levels during heat waves and the role of sea breeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Dimitris K; Melas, Dimitris; Bartzanas, Thomas; Kittas, Constantinos

    2010-05-01

    During the summer of 2007 several Greek regions suffered periods of extreme heat, with midday temperatures of over 40 degrees C on several consecutive days. High temperatures were also recorded on the east coast of central Greece, where a complex sea breeze circulation system frequently develops. The more intense events occurred at the end of June and July. The highest temperatures were observed on 26 June and 25 July, while the sea breeze developed only on 25 July. Meteorological data collected at two sites-a coastal urban location and an inland suburban site that is not reached by the sea breeze flow-as well as pollution data collected at the urban site, were analysed in order to investigate the relationship between sea breeze development and the prevailing environmental conditions during these two heat wave events. The analysis revealed that sea breeze development affects temperature and pollution levels at the shoreline significantly, causing a decrease of approximately 4 degrees C from the maximum temperature value and an increase of approximately 30% in peak PM10 levels. Additionally, several stress indices were calculated in order to assess heat comfort conditions at the two sites. It was found that nocturnal comfort levels are determined mainly by the urban heat island effect, the intensity of which reaches up to 8 degrees C, while the applied indices do not demonstrate any significant daytime thermal stress relief due to sea breeze development.

  5. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Steele

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the Southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s−1 offshore gradient wind, from 10 km to 40 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes, respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the eastern coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high gradient wind speed (>15 m s−1 conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature during the sea breeze season do not significantly affect the circulation, suggesting that a thermal contrast is only needed as a precondition to the development of the sea breeze. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be considered in order to improve the accuracy of

  6. Numerical study of the evolution of a sea-breeze front under two environmental flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhaoming; Wang, Donghai

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of a sea-breeze front (SBF) in parallel and offshore environmental flows was investigated by using high-resolution simulations of two SBF cases from the Bohai Bay region, China. The results show that the combination of a distinct vertical wind shear caused by the sea-breeze circulation with a neutral or slightly stable atmospheric stratification associated with the thermal inner boundary layer promoted the occurrence and maintenance of a Kelvin-Helmholtz billow (KHB). In a parallel environmental flow, the SBF evolved into a few connected segments because of the inhomogeneity of the sea-breeze direction and intensity as it penetrated inland. A significant upward vertical motion occurred at the two ends of the SBF segment owing to the sea-breeze convergence and was accelerated by the KHB. The KHB made a notable contribution to the intensity at the ends of the segment, whereas the intensity at the middle segment was primarily attributed to the convergence between the sea breeze and the parallel flow. In the offshore environmental flow, the clockwise rotation of the offshore flow varying with time increased the downstream convergence of the interface between the sea breeze and the offshore flow and pushed the downstream convergence zone to an orientation consistent with the offshore flow. The air parcels ascending from the downstream part of the SBF were continuously lifted by the downstream convergence zone during their advection, leading to a significant downstream development of the SBF. The significant upward vertical motion caused by the sea-breeze convergence behind the upstream end of the SBF was shifted to the upstream end of the SBF by the KHB, which enhanced the intensity of the upstream end of the SBF.

  7. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Steele

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s−1 offshore gradient wind, from 0 km to 21 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the opposite coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high along-shore gradient wind speed (>15 m s−1 conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature and initializing vertical thermodynamic profile do not significantly alter the resulting circulation, though the strengths of the simulated sea breezes are modulated if the effective land-sea thermal contrast is altered. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be

  8. Breeze transients as triggers for the initiation of deep moist convection on mountains slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaiotti, D.; Stel, F.; Gladich, I.; Giacomini, A.

    2010-09-01

    Deep moist convection frequency is characterized by seasonal and diurnal cycles, related to the interplay between the different elements which force and sustain it: onset, instability, wind pattern. Besides the instability diurnal cycles, the low level triggers initiating the convective motions are considered responsible for the modulations of the cycle. In some areas, like in the southern side of the Alpine ridge, the onset and the reversal of breezes produce microscale areas of flow convergence, at the lower levels, due breezes transients and breezes interaction with the orography. This work presents a numerical analysis of the convection initiation generated by breezes transients. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) has been used to make simplified case studies and real cases simulations in which orography, solar radiation exposure and sea surface temperature variations are considered. General results support the thesis that the daily modulation of thunderstorm development is significantly accounted by the trigger effect of breezes transients, when synoptic winds are negligible of course. The results produced by the large set of simulations are compared with the climatological data of convective cells development in the Northeastern Italian region.

  9. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. L. Sills

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes were found to occur on 90% of study days, often occurring in conditions previously thought to impede their development. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Michigan and northern Ohio, occasionally penetrating inland from 100 km to over 200 km. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This more accurate depiction of observed lake breezes allows a better understanding of their influence on the production and transport of pollutants in this region.

    The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses will assist with interpretation of results from air quality modelling driven by this meteorological model.

  10. Warm Breeze from the starboard bow: a new population of neutral helium in the heliosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiak, M A; Sokół, J M; Swaczyna, P; Grzedzielski, S; Alexashov, D B; Izmodenov, V V; Moebius, E; Leonard, T; Fuselier, S A; Wurz, P; McComas, D J

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the signals from neutral He atoms observed from Earth orbit in 2010 by IBEX. The full He signal observed during the 2010 observation season can be explained as a superposition of pristine neutral interstellar He gas and an additional population of neutral He that we call the Warm Breeze. The Warm Breeze is approximately two-fold slower and 2.5 times warmer than the primary interstellar He population, and its density in front of the heliosphere is ~7% that of the neutral interstellar helium. The inflow direction of the Warm Breeze differs by ~19deg from the inflow direction of interstellar gas. The Warm Breeze seems a long-term feature of the heliospheric environment. It has not been detected earlier because it is strongly ionized inside the heliosphere, which brings it below the threshold of detection via pickup ion and heliospheric backscatter glow observations, as well as by the direct sampling of GAS/Ulysses. Possible sources for the Warm Breeze include (1) the secondary population of inters...

  11. Large-eddy simulation of sea breeze at an idealized peninsular site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Umberto; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Anabor, Vagner; Degrazia, Gervasio A.; Maldaner, Silvana

    2015-08-01

    A high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) has been performed to simulate a sea-breeze circulation over an idealized peninsular domain. The simulation is forced with the surface latent/sensible heat fluxes and the large-scale horizontal pressure gradient that are obtained from a mesoscale simulation. This methodology allows the investigation of the physical phenomena that are peculiar for a sea-breeze circulation and that generally require spatial resolution approximately equal to 100 m or less. Here, small-scale dynamical effects associated to these phenomena, i.e. the interaction between the sea-breeze front with the convective turbulence generated over-land, the formation of the zero-velocity layer, and the development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz billows, are investigated. Results from the present numerical study have revealed the formation of a zero-velocity layer that is initially near the ground then it rises to define a well-marked sea-breeze depth. Scaling analysis applied to the LES output fields reveals that during the phase of inland penetration the scaling laws for sea-breeze strength and depth have both a proportionality coefficient equal to 0.15.

  12. Urban effects of Chennai on sea breeze induced convection and precipitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Matthew Simpson; Sethu Raman; R Suresh; U C Mohanty

    2008-12-01

    Doppler radar derived wind speed and direction profiles showed a well developed sea breeze circulation over the Chennai, India region on 28 June, 2003. Rainfall totals in excess of 100 mm resulted from convection along the sea breeze front. Inland propagation of the sea breeze front was observed in radar reflectivity imagery. High-resolution MM5 simulations were used to investigate the influence of Chennai urban land use on sea breeze initiated convection and precipitation. A comparison of observed and simulated 10 m wind speed and direction over Chennai showed that the model was able to simulate the timing and strength of the sea breeze. Urban effects are shown to increase the near surface air temperature over Chennai by 3.0 K during the early morning hours. The larger surface temperature gradient along the coast due to urban effects increased onshore flow by 4.0m s−1. Model sensitivity study revealed that precipitation totals were enhanced by 25 mm over a large region 150 km west of Chennai due to urban effects. Deficiency in model physics related to night-time forecasts are addressed.

  13. Numerical simulation of the sea breeze, ideal and realistic: Baja California, Mexico case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado, G.; Mateos, E.; Ayala, R.

    2016-12-01

    In studies, with data from weather stations in Bahia de Todos Santos, Baja California, Mexico, was found that the sea-land breeze is an important component of the wind circulation. Therefore, its behaviour was simulated numerically with the WRF model to identify not only the surface field, but the vertical component of this phenomenon, in addition to quantifying the number of events during the year 2010. The model was forced with NARR data, and triple nested meshes were defined, whose smallest nest has a horizontal resolution of 2 km. In parallel to realistic simulation, an idealized numerical experiment was done with the WRF-idealize sea breeze example to verify whether the WRF model can reproduce the sea breeze. In order to do this, three variables were analyzed: temperature, relative humidity and the U component of the wind.

  14. The impact of land and sea surface variations on the Delaware sea breeze at local scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher P.

    The summertime climate of coastal Delaware is greatly influenced by the intensity, frequency, and location of the local sea breeze circulation. Sea breeze induced changes in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation influence many aspects of Delaware's economy by affecting tourism, farming, air pollution density, energy usage, and the strength, and persistence of Delaware's wind resource. The sea breeze front can develop offshore or along the coastline and often creates a near surface thermal gradient in excess of 5°C. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the dynamics of the Delaware sea breeze with a focus on the immediate coastline using observed and modeled components, both at high resolutions (~200m). The Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.5) was employed over southern Delaware with 5 domains (4 levels of nesting), with resolutions ranging from 18km to 222m, for June 2013 to investigate the sensitivity of the sea breeze to land and sea surface variations. The land surface was modified in the model to improve the resolution, which led to the addition of land surface along the coastline and accounted for recent urban development. Nine-day composites of satellite sea surface temperatures were ingested into the model and an in-house SST forcing dataset was developed to account for spatial SST variation within the inland bays. Simulations, which include the modified land surface, introduce a distinct secondary atmospheric circulation across the coastline of Rehoboth Bay when synoptic offshore wind flow is weak. Model runs using high spatial- and temporal-resolution satellite sea surface temperatures over the ocean indicate that the sea breeze landfall time is sensitive to the SST when the circulation develops offshore. During the summer of 2013 a field campaign was conducted in the coastal locations of Rehoboth Beach, DE and Cape Henlopen, DE. At each location, a series of eleven small, autonomous thermo-sensors (i

  15. 78 FR 62300 - Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC's application for...

  16. Land Breeze and Thermals: A Scale Threshold to Distinguish Their Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Land breeze is a type of mesoscale circulation developed due to thermal forcing over a heterogeneous landscape. It can contribute to atmospheric dynamic and hydrologic processes through affecting heat and water fluxes on the land-atmosphere interface and generating shallow convective precipitation. If the scale of the landscape heterogeneity is smaller than a certain size, however, the resulting land breeze becomes weak and becomes mixed up with other thermal convections like thermals. This study seeks to identify a scale threshold to distinguish the effects between land breeze and thermals. Two-dimensional simulations were performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to simulate thermals and land breeze. Their horizontal scale features were analyzed using the wavelet transform. The thermals developed over a homogeneous landscape under dry or wet conditions have an initial scale of 2-5 km during their early stage of development. The scale jumps to 10-15 km when condensation occurs. The solution of an analytical model indicates that the reduced degree of atmospheric instability due to the release of condensation potential heat could be one of the contributing factors for the increase in scale.The land breeze, on the other hand, has a major scale identical to the size of the landscape heterogeneity throughout various stages of development. The results suggest that the effects of land breeze can be clearly distinguished from those of thermals only if the size of the landscape heterogeneity is larger than the scale threshold of about 5 km for dry atmospheric processes or about 15 km for moist ones.

  17. Estimating the seaward extent of sea breeze from QuickSCAT scatterometry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aparna, M.; Shetye, S.R.; Shankar, D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.

    , 1964; Balasubrahmanyam et al., 2001] and C24115 km off Florida [Arritt, 1989] (both in the tropics). [3] The advent of satellites made possible global obser- vational studies on sea breeze. Simpson [1994] used the Gemini XI photographs showing offshore... cloud bands to estimate the seaward extent (100–120 km) of the sea breeze off the Indian west coast. Gille et al. [2003] used QuikSCAT data to determine a statistically significant signal along most of the world’s coastlines based on the change in wind...

  18. 77 FR 16812 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Marine Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process... collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency...

  19. 77 FR 60967 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including... Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22...

  20. Increasing Public Access to Scientific Research through Stakeholder Involvement: Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.; DeLorme, D. E.; Ruple, D.; Graham, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) has the potential to have a myriad of deleterious effects on coastal ecology and human infrastructure. Stakeholders, including managers of coastal resources, must be aware of potential consequences of SLR and adjust their plans accordingly to protect and preserve the resources under their care. Members of the public, particularly those who live or work in coastal areas, should also be informed about the results of scientific research on the effects of SLR. However, research results are frequently published in venues or formats to which resource managers and the broader public have limited access. It is imperative for scientists to move beyond traditional publication venues in order to more effectively disseminate the results of their research (Dennison, W. 2007, Estu. Coast. Shelf Sci. 77, 185). One potentially effective way to advance public access to research is to incorporate stakeholder involvement into the research project process in order to target study objectives and tailor communication products toward stakeholder needs (Lemos, M. & Morehouse, B. 2005, Glob. Env. Chg. 15, 57). However, it is important to manage communication and clarify participant expectations during this type of research (Gawith, M. et al. 2009, Glob. Env. Chg. 19, 113). This presentation describes the process being undertaken by an ongoing 5-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM), to improve accessibility and utility of scientific research results through stakeholder engagement. The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing the ecological risks from SLR along the Mississippi, Alabama and Florida Panhandle coasts, coastal habitats, and floodplains. It has incorporated stakeholder involvement throughout the research process so as to better target and tailor the emerging research products to meet resource managers' needs, as well as to facilitate eventual public dissemination of results. An

  1. Idealised numerical simulations of aerodynamic roughness length effects on sea breeze characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prtenjak, M.T. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Andrija Mohorovicic Geophysical Inst.

    2002-07-01

    A two-dimensional hydrostatic meso-{gamma}-scale model was used to study possible effects of a step change in roughness on the daytime sea breeze. Idealised numerical simulations with the length of aerodynamical roughness (z{sub 0}) ranging from 0.05 m to 1.0 m and by an increase of 0.05 m in all land grid points were made. Two z{sub 0} effects could be pointed out: an increase in the mixing process and a reduction in the wind speeds in the surface layer. An increase of both heights and magnitudes of the sea breeze circulation, caused by a vertical extension of the turbulent field, followed a faster inland penetration of the sea breeze. The second effect resulting from a successive increase in z{sub 0} values was a retardation of the sea breeze front near the ground, visible in its slope. This effect allowed the already faster inland penetration of the marine air high above the land. (orig.)

  2. The Effects of Highly Detailed Urban Roughness Parameters on a Sea-Breeze Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varquez, Alvin Christopher G.; Nakayoshi, Makoto; Kanda, Manabu

    2015-03-01

    We consider the effects of detailed urban roughness parameters on a sea-breeze simulation. An urban roughness database, constructed using a new aerodynamic parametrization derived from large-eddy simulations, was incorporated as a surface boundary condition in the advanced Weather Research and Forecasting model. The zero-plane displacement and aerodynamic roughness length at several densely built-up urban grids were three times larger than conventional values due to the consideration of building-height variability. A comparison between simulations from the modified model and its default version, which uses uniform roughness parameters within a conventional method, was conducted for a 2-month period during summer. Results showed a significant improvement in the simulation of surface wind speed but not with temperature. From the 2-month study period, a day with an evident sea-breeze penetration was selected and simulated at higher temporal resolution. Sea-breeze penetration weakened and was more delayed over urbanized areas. The slow sea-breeze penetration also lessened heat advection downwind allowing stronger turbulent mixing and a deeper boundary layer above urban areas. Horizontal wind-speed reduction due to the increased urban surface drag reached heights of several hundreds of metres due to the strong convection.

  3. Impact of Bay-Breeze Circulations on Surface Air Quality and Boundary Layer Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Goldberg, Daniel; Satam, Chinmay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Crawford, James H.; Knapp, David J.; Montzka, Denise D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological and air-quality model simulations are analyzed alongside observations to investigate the role of the Chesapeake Bay breeze on surface air quality, pollutant transport, and boundary layer venting. A case study was conducted to understand why a particular day was the only one during an 11-day ship-based field campaign on which surface ozone was not elevated in concentration over the Chesapeake Bay relative to the closest upwind site and why high ozone concentrations were observed aloft by in situ aircraft observations. Results show that southerly winds during the overnight and early-morning hours prevented the advection of air pollutants from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan areas over the surface waters of the bay. A strong and prolonged bay breeze developed during the late morning and early afternoon along the western coastline of the bay. The strength and duration of the bay breeze allowed pollutants to converge, resulting in high concentrations locally near the bay-breeze front within the Baltimore metropolitan area, where they were then lofted to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Near the top of the PBL, these pollutants were horizontally advected to a region with lower PBL heights, resulting in pollution transport out of the boundary layer and into the free troposphere. This elevated layer of air pollution aloft was transported downwind into New England by early the following morning where it likely mixed down to the surface, affecting air quality as the boundary layer grew.

  4. Impact of sea breeze on wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Neetu; Satish Shetye; P Chandramohan

    2006-04-01

    After withdrawal of the Indian Summer Monsoon and until onset of the next monsoon,i.e.,roughly during November-May, winds in the coastal regions of India are dominated by sea breeze.It has an impact on the daily cycle of the sea state near the coast.The impact is quite significant when large scale winds are weak.During one such event,1 –15 April 1997,a Datawell directional waverider buoy was deployed in 23 m water depth off Goa,west coast of India.Twenty-minute averaged spectra,collected once every three hours,show that the spectrum of sea-breeze-related ‘wind-seas’ peaked at 0.23 ± 0.05 Hz. These wind-seas were well separated from swells of frequencies less than 0.15 Hz.The TMA spectrum (Bouws et al 1985) matched the observed seas spectra very well when the sea-breeze was active and the fetch corresponding to equilibrium spectrum was found to be 77 ± 43 km during such occasions. We emphasize on the diurnal cycle of sea-breeze-related sea off the coast of Goa and write an equation for the energy of the seas as a function of the local wind.

  5. The Sea Breeze Convergence Zone and Its Relationship to Fair Weather Electricity in East Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    and Rodebust 1948; Gentry and Moore 1954; Estoque 1962; Frank et al. 1967; Neumann 1971; Pielke 1974; Blanchard and Lopez 1985; Waston et al. 1987...convection and boundary layer interactions. J. Appl. Meteor., 21, 953-977. Estoque , M.A., 1962: The sea breeze as a function of the prevailing synoptic

  6. Impact of sea breeze on the wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Neetu, S.; Shetye, S.R.; Chandramohan, P.

    After withdrawal of the Indian Summer Monsoon and until onset of the next monsoon, i.e. roughly during November-May, winds in the coastal region of India are dominated by sea breeze. It has an impact on the daily cycle of the sea state near...

  7. Sea breeze-induced wind sea growth in the central west coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Seemanth, M.; Samiksha, S.V.; Sudheesh, K.; Kerkar, J.; Vethamony, P.

    Fine resolution wind data is required in wave models to study the interaction between wind seas generated by coastal winds, and swells. In the present study, a mesoscale model, MM5, which is capable of reproducing fine details of sea breeze...

  8. Characteristics of Sea Breeze Front Development with Various Synoptic Conditions and Its Impact on Lower Troposphere Ozone Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyo-Eun JI; Soon-Hwan LEE; Hwa-Woon LEE

    2013-01-01

    To examine the correlation between the sizes of sea breeze fronts and pollutants under the influence of synoptic fields,a numerical simulation was conducted in the southeast coastal area of the Korean Peninsula,where relatively high concentrations of pollutants occur because of the presence of various kinds of industrial developments.Sea breeze and sea breeze front days during the period 2005-09 were identified using wind profiler data and,according to the results,the number of days were 72 and 53,respectively.When synoptic forcing was weak,sea breeze fronts moved fast both in horizontal fields and in terms of wind velocity,while in thc case of strong synoptic forcing,sea breeze fronts remained at the coast or moved slowly due to strong opposing flows.In this case,the sea breeze front development function and horizontal potential temperature difference were larger than with weak synoptic forcing.The ozone concentration that moves together with sea breeze fronts was also formed along the frontal surfaces.Ozone advection and diffusion in the case of strong synoptic forcing was suppressed at the frontal surface and the concentration gradient was large.The vertical distribution of ozone was very low due to the Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) being low.

  9. Nearshore Coastal Dynamics on a Sea-Breeze Dominated Micro-Tidal Beach (NCSAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Ruiz de Alegría-Arzaburu, A.; Figlus, J.; Mendoza, T.; Pintado-Patino, J. C.; Pieterse, A.; Chardon-Maldonado, P.; DiCosmo, N. R.; Wellman, N.; Garcia-Nava, H.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; Roberts, T.; López-González, J.; Bravo, M.; Ojeda, E.; Medellín, G.; Appendini, C. M.; Figueroa, B.; González-Leija, M.; Enriquez, C.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Salles, P.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive field experiment devoted to the study of coastal processes on a micro-tidal beach was conducted from March 30th to April 12th 2014 in Sisal, Yucatán México. Wave conditions in the study area are controlled by local (i.e., sea-breezes) and meso-scale (i.e., Nortes) meteorological events. Simultaneous measurements of waves, tides, winds, currents, sediment transport, runup, and beach morphology were obtained in this experiment. Very dense nearshore instrumentation arrays allow us the study of the cross-/along- shore variability of surf/swash zone dynamics during different forcing conditions. Strong sea-breeze wind events produced a diurnal cycle with a maximum wind speed of 14 m/s. The persistent sea-breeze system forces small-amplitude (Hs1 m) Norte event, lasting 48 hours, reached the coast on April 8th generating a long-period swell (Tp>10 s) arriving from the NNW. This event induced an eastward net sediment transport across a wide surf zone. However, long-term observations of sand impoundment at a groin located near the study area suggests that the net sediment transport in the northern Yucatan peninsula is controlled by sea-breeze events and hence swash zone dynamics play an important role in the net sediment budget of this region. A comparative study of surf and swash zone dynamics during both sea-breeze and Norte events will be presented. The Institute of Engineering of UNAM, throughout an International Collaborative Project with the University of Delaware, and CONACYT (CB-167692) provided financial support. The first author acknowledges ONR Global for providing financial support throughout the Visiting Scientist Program.

  10. Gulf of Mexico Nutrient, carbon, CTD data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gulf of Mexico cruise, nearshore and CTD data collected by the USEPA during 2002 - 2008. This dataset is associated with the following publications: Pauer , J., T....

  11. Effect of sea breeze circulation on aerosol mixing state and radiative properties in a desert setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derimian, Yevgeny; Choël, Marie; Rudich, Yinon; Deboudt, Karine; Dubovik, Oleg; Laskin, Alexander; Legrand, Michel; Damiri, Bahaiddin; Koren, Ilan; Unga, Florin; Moreau, Myriam; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Karnieli, Arnon

    2017-09-01

    Chemical composition, microphysical, and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol deep inland in the Negev Desert of Israel are found to be influenced by daily occurrences of sea breeze flow from the Mediterranean Sea. Abrupt increases in aerosol volume concentration and shifts of size distributions towards larger sizes, which are associated with increase in wind speed and atmospheric water content, were systematically recorded during the summertime at a distance of at least 80 km from the coast. Chemical imaging of aerosol samples showed an increased contribution of highly hygroscopic particles during the intrusion of the sea breeze. Besides a significant fraction of marine aerosols, the amount of internally mixed marine and mineral dust particles was also increased during the sea breeze period. The number fraction of marine and internally mixed particles during the sea breeze reached up to 88 % in the PM1-2. 5 and up to 62 % in the PM2. 5-10 size range. Additionally, numerous particles with residuals of liquid coating were observed by SEM/EDX analysis. Ca-rich dust particles that had reacted with anthropogenic nitrates were evidenced by Raman microspectroscopy. The resulting hygroscopic particles can deliquesce at very low relative humidity. Our observations suggest that aerosol hygroscopic growth in the Negev Desert is induced by the daily sea breeze arrival. The varying aerosol microphysical and optical characteristics perturb the solar and thermal infrared radiations. The changes in aerosol properties induced by the sea breeze, relative to the background situation, doubled the shortwave radiative cooling at the surface (from -10 to -20.5 W m-2) and increased by almost 3 times the warming of the atmosphere (from 5 to 14 W m-2), as evaluated for a case study. Given the important value of observed liquid coating of particles, we also examined the possible influence of the particle homogeneity assumption on the retrieval of aerosol microphysical characteristics

  12. A case study of sea breeze blocking regulated by sea surface temperature along the English south coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Sweeney

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of sea breeze structure to sea surface temperature (SST and coastal orography is investigated in convection-permitting Met Office Unified Model simulations of a case study along the south coast of England. Changes in SST of 1 K are shown to significantly modify the structure of the sea breeze. On the day of the case study the sea breeze was partially blocked by coastal orography, particularly within Lyme Bay. The extent to which the flow is blocked depends strongly on the static stability of the marine boundary layer. In experiments with colder SST, the marine boundary layer is more stable, and the degree of blocking is more pronounced. The implications of prescribing fixed SST from climatology in numerical weather prediction model forecasts of the sea breeze are discussed.

  13. The Impact of Synoptic-Scale Flow on Sea Breeze Front Propagation and Intensity at Eglin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Blanchard and Lopez 1985). Numerical ( Estoque 1962; Bechtold et al. 1991; Arritt 1993) and observational (Kingsmill 1995; Atkins and Wakimoto 1997...observation and numerical research suggest that the sea breeze evolves differently under the influence of a prevailing background synoptic flow ( Estoque 1962...penetration of the sea breeze are strongly modulated by the presence of a background flow. a. Model Studies Estoque (1962) was one of the first

  14. Florida Agriculture - Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects Upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake; Cooley, Zachary Clayton; Mitchell, Brandie

    2010-01-01

    This project utilizes Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Landsat satellite data to assess the impact of sea breeze precipitation upon areas of agricultural land use in southern Florida. Water is a critical resource to agriculture, and the availability of water for agricultural use in Florida continues to remain a key issue. Recent projections of statewide water use by 2020 estimate that 9.3 billion gallons of water per day will be demanded, and agriculture represents 47% of this demand (Bronson 2003). Farmers have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. Sea breeze thunderstorms are responsible for much of the rainfall delivered to Florida during the wet season (May-October) and have been recognized as an important overall contributor of rainfall in southern Florida (Almeida 2003). TRMM satellite data was used to analyze how sea breeze-induced thunderstorms during El Nino and La Nina affected interannual patterns of precipitation in southern Florida from 1998-2009. TRMM's Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager provide data to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere, precipitation rates and intensity, and the distribution of precipitation. Rainfall accumulation data derived from TRMM and other microwave sensors were used to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of rainfall during each phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Through the use of TRMM and Landsat, slight variations were observed, but it was determined that neither sea breeze nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida were strongly affected by ENSO during the study period. However, more research is needed to characterize the influence of ENSO on summer weather patterns in South Florida. This research will provide the basis for continued observations and study with the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission.

  15. A climatological study of sea breeze clouds in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (Alicante, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin-Molina, C. [Grupo de Climatologia, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Cataluna (Spain)]. E-mail: cazorin@ceam.es; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A. [Grupo de Climatologia, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Cataluna (Spain); Calbo, J. [Grupo de Fisica Ambiental, Universidad de Girona, Campus Montilivi, Cataluna (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Sea breezes blow under anticyclonic weather types, weak surface pressure gradients, intense solar radiation and relatively cloud-free skies. Generally, total cloud cover must be less than 4/8 in order to cause a thermal and pressure difference between land and sea air which allows the development of this local wind circulation. However, many numerical and observational studies have analyzed the ability of sea breezes to generate clouds in the convective internal boundary layer and in the sea breeze convergence zone. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to statistically analyze the impact of sea breezes on cloud types in the convective internal boundary layer and in the sea breeze convergence zone. The study area is located in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (province of Alicante, Spain) and the survey corresponds to a 6-yr study period (2000-2005). This climatological study is mainly based on surface cloud observations at the Alicante-Ciudad Jardin station (central coastal plain) and on an extensive cloud observation field campaign at the Villena-Ciudad station (Prebetic mountain ranges) over a 3-yr study period (2003-2005). The results confirm the hypothesis that the effect of sea breezes on cloud genera is to increase the frequency of low (Stratus) and convective (Cumulus) clouds. Sea breezes trigger the formation of thunderstorm clouds (Cumulonimbus) at the sea breeze convergence zone, which also have a secondary impact on high-level (Cirrus, Cirrocumulus, Cirrostratus), medium-level (Altostratus, Altocumulus) and low-level clouds (Stratus, Stratocumulus, Nimbostratus) associated with the Cumulonimbus clouds (e.g., Cumulonimbus anvil). [Spanish] Las brisas marinas soplan bajo tipos de tiempo anticiclonicos, debiles gradientes de presion atmosferica, radiacion solar intensa y cielos practicamente despejados. Por lo general, la cobertura nubosa total debe ser inferior a 4/8 para que se genere un diferencial termico y de presion entre el aire sobre las

  16. A Mathematical Model of Sea Breezes Along the Alaskan Beaufort Sea Coast: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozo, Thomas L.

    1982-07-01

    A nonlinear, time-dependent, two-dimensional sea breeze model allowing imposition of prevailing large-scale wind conditions has been developed. The model is an extension of Estoque's model with modifications in the treatment of the continuity equation, eddy diffusivity (unstable conditions), surface heating function and the numerical scheme.The model is applied to a cross section of the Beaufort Sea Coast using typically measured arctic conditions as input. These include u-w plane velocity vectors, isotachs of the u, v and w wind velocity components, temperature contours, surface wind vectors at varying distances from the coastline, and wind speed and direction profiles for various simulated synoptic wind directions.The mathematical results reproduced measurements of atmospheric boundary layer turning of the wind with height (pilot balloon data), temporal surface wind vector turning and inversion height variations, while also giving evidence that sea breeze circulation could be strengthened by weak offshore (southwesterly and westerly winds) opposing synoptic winds.

  17. Reducibility mill scale industrial waste via coke breeze at 850-950ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is a very attractive industrial waste due to its elevated iron content (about = 69.33% Fe besides being suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characteristics of raw materials and the briquettes produced from this mill scale were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of coke breeze at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. The activation energy of this reaction ≈ 61.5 kJ/mole for reduction of mill scale with coke breeze in the form of briquettes with 2% molasses where the chemical reaction interface model is applicable.

  18. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  19. The Relationship Between Sea Breeze Forcing and HF Radar-Derived Surface Currents in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    and Mr. Richard Lind, to whom I owe great appreciation. I would like to thank Mr. Mike Cook again for making me an expert in Matlab . He also assisted...such as aircraft, lidar , radiosondes and wind profilers, have been used over the years to measure the horizontal and vertical movement of sea breeze...useful, and it was made easy due to the existing MATLAB HFR_Progs toolbox. Using harmonic analysis for winds was not a common idea, but it provided

  20. Synoptic-Scale Influence on the Monterey Bay Sea-Breeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    circulation often dictate circulation development more than the direct forcing terms. Studies such as Estoque (1962) and Arritt (1993) have demonstrated...penetration of the circulation ( Estoque , 1962). Along the eastern portion of the East Pacific Anticyclone, the immediate inland areas receive intense daytime...Marine Inversion Layer off the Central California Coast: Mesoscale Conditions." Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 335-351. Estoque , M.A., 1962: "The Sea Breeze as

  1. Investigation of sea-breeze convergence in Salento Peninsula (southeastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Alcimoni Nelci; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Rizza, Umberto; Acevedo, Otavio Costa; Degrazia, Gervasio Annes

    2015-06-01

    The frequency, the location and the characteristics of convective rainfall events induced by the convergence of different sea breeze systems on a Mediterranean peninsula (Salento, in southeastern Italy) are analyzed. Such events have been studied considering satellite/radar images and output fields from two Limited Area Models in the summer period of 2011-2013. A total of 20 days have been detected in which the precipitation due to sea-breeze convergence was clearly observed in satellite and radar images. The synoptic conditions associated with these events have been identified considering the averages of some relevant meteorological parameters in the selected days and the anomaly with respect to the climate. The presence of a cold trough in the central Mediterranean basin appears as a fundamental ingredient for the occurrence of sea breeze convergence and associated precipitation. High-resolution simulations with two state-of-art numerical models have revealed that both of them are generally able to simulate a convergence pattern correctly, apart from a couple of cases for each model. The higher rainfall amounts occur with weak synoptic wind, and weak-to-moderate values of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). When the synoptic wind is of moderate intensity, the region of convergence moves toward the Adriatic coast for a prevailing southerly component, and toward the Ionian coast for a prevailing northerly component. On the opposite, the skin sea surface temperature is relatively uniform and the difference between the Ionian and the Adriatic Seas, surrounding the peninsula on the east and west side, is generally smaller than 1 K, having only a marginal effect on the sea breeze patterns. Similarly, the value of CAPE before the occurrence of rainfall has low prognostic value. The results shows that limited area models with a grid spacing of few km appear as appropriate tools for the simulation for such relatively small scale phenomena.

  2. A sea breeze induced thunderstorm over an inland station over Indian South Peninsula - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, Jyoti; Kesarkar, Amit P.; Karipot, Anandakumar; Bala Subrahamanyam, D.; Rajasekhar, M.; Sathiyamoorthy, V.; Kishtawal, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The dynamic interaction of sea breeze with the prevailing synoptic flows can give rise to meteorological conditions conducive for the occurrence to the thunderstorms over coastal and adjoining regions. Here, we present a rare case study of the genesis of the thunderstorm that occurred on 4th May 2011 at 1500Z over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), one of the tropical inland stations (100 km) near to the east coast of the Indian peninsula. The objective of present work is to understand the underlying physical mechanism of initiation of such convection over this region. A set of meteorological observations obtained from microwave radiometer profiler, eddy covariance flux tower system, and Doppler weather radar, are used for investigating the convection genesis characteristics. In conjunction with observations, to bridge the gap of lack of high resolutional spatial observations, the high-resolution (2 km) model analysis is developed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and four-dimensional data assimilation technique. The analysis of thermodynamical and dynamical indices carried out from the model analysis as well as observations. Results obtained from this study indicated the presence of a wind discontinuity line and a warm air advection from the north Indian region towards Gadanki caused this area hot dry and convectively active. The sea breeze front propagated over hot and dry area few hours before the genesis of the thunderstorm. The moisture flux convergence increased with the inland propagation of sea breeze front. We found that the inland penetration of sea-breeze front caused advection of moist and cold air over warm and dry region; reduction in dew point depression causing bulging of dry line and lowering of lifting condensation level; development of shear in wind direction and speed; increase in low level convergence and vertical velocity, upward transport of moist air and finally increase in helicity of the environment. The wind shear instability

  3. A study of the Merritt Island, Florida sea breeze flow regimes and their effect on surface heat and moisture fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubes, M. T.; Cooper, H. J.; Smith, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Data collected during the Convective and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment were analyzed as part of an investigation of the sea breeze in the vicinity of Merritt Island, Florida. Analysis of near-surface divergence fields shows that the classical 24-hour oscillation in divergence over the island due to the direct sea breeze circulation is frequently disrupted and exhibits two distinct modes: the classical sea breeze pattern and deviations from that pattern. A comparison of clear day surface energy fluxes with fluxes on other days indicates that changes in magnitudes were dominated by the presence or absence of clouds. Non-classical sea breeze days tended to lose more available energy in the morning than classical sea breeze days due to earlier development of small cumulus over the island. A composite storm of surface winds, surface energy fluxes, rainfall, and satellite visible data was constructed. A spectral transmittance over the visible wavelengths for the cloud cover resulting from the composite storm was calculated. It is shown that pre-storm transmittances of 0.8 fall to values near 0.1 as the downdraft moves directly over the site. It is also found that under post-composite storm conditions of continuous clear sky days, 3.5 days are required to evaporate back into the atmosphere the latent heat energy lost to the surface by rainfall.

  4. Reducing Staphylococcus aureus bacterial counts in a dental clinic using an Ionic Breeze air purifier: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubar, J Sean; Pelon, William; Strother, Elizabeth A; Sicard, F Scott

    2009-01-01

    Aerosols and droplets generated by dental procedures are contaminated with blood and bacteria and represent a potential route for the transmission of disease. This study sought to determine if Ionic Breeze air purifiers are effective in collecting and destroying bacteria found in dental aerosols (such as Staphylococcus aureus). This study placed one Sharper Image Professional Series Ionic Breeze Quadra unit and one Ionic Breeze GP unit (with germicidal protection) in dental operatories within the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry. After six hours of operation, bacterial samples were collected and streaked over surfaces of petri dishes containing trypticase soy sucrose bacitracin agar that had been supplemented with 5% sheep blood. The samples were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 hours; at that point, the microbial colonies were counted. Additional testing was performed on suspect colonies to identify S. aureus strains and to determine if any of those isolates were pathogenic with or without antibiotic resistance. The Ionic Breeze GP unit killed more than 99% of all bacteria on the stainless steel collecting blades. The non-germicidal Ionic Breeze Quadra air purifier collected numerous bacteria that were found to include some pathogenic strains of S. aureus; however, none of these were resistant to antibiotics.

  5. Modelling tidal influence on sea breezes with models of different complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Fischereit

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tides influence both the formation and development of sea breezes. The aim of this study is to investigate the tidal influence to decide which model complexity is needed to reproduce the main influence of tides in a numerical model of coastal meteorology. Two processes are considered: (a the influence of tides on sea breezes through the effect of tidal currents on the surface wind and (b the thermal influence through the flooding and drying of mudflats in the intertidal area. The processes are considered separately by representing the ocean in the non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmosphere model METRAS with different complexity, ranging from a homogeneous stationary surface to a shallow-water model coupled to METRAS with a two-way exchange of momentum. The model system is applied in a case study to the German Bight, where large mudflats exist at low tide.The results show that the main influence of tides originates from a change in the mudflat heat budget through flooding and drying. The influence of tidal currents on the surface wind is small. Therefore, we conclude that no coupled atmosphere-ocean model is needed to reproduce the main influence of tides on sea breezes in a numerical model. Instead, we suggest to use an atmosphere model which simulates the change of surface cover in the intertidal area and includes a realistic spatial sea surface temperature distribution. For this it is essential to simulate the change in surface cover with the correct timing because the results show that the atmosphere reacts very sensitively to that change.

  6. Using Breeze for Communication and Assessment of Internships: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Wilkinson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An important component of internships is the connection between students, universities and employers. “High-quality internships . . . encourage contact between faculty and students as well as develop cooperation among students,” (Implementing and Assessing Internships, 2002, 67. This “good practice” must exist to ensure good performance assessment (Implementing and assessing internships 2002. Students in an internship program were given web cameras and access to the software Breeze to use for a video journal. Focus groups were conducted to determine the students’ opinions of using this type of assessment. Students overwhelmingly preferred this type of assessment and saw the benefits of using the technology beyond the internship.

  7. Theoretical calculations of interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds in the presence of basic-state wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaemyeong Mango; Ganbat, Gantuya; Han, Ji-Young; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2017-02-01

    Many big cities around the world are located near mountains. In city-mountain regions, thermally and topographically forced local winds are produced and they affect the transport of pollutants emitted into the urban atmosphere. A better understanding of the dynamics of thermally and topographically forced local winds is necessary to improve the prediction of local winds and to cope with environmental problems. In this study, we theoretically examine the interactions of urban breezes with mountain slope winds in the presence of basic-state wind within the context of the response of a stably stratified atmosphere to prescribed thermal and mechanical forcing. The interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds are viewed through the linear superposition of individual analytical solutions for urban thermal forcing, mountain thermal forcing, and mountain mechanical forcing. A setting is considered in which a city is located downwind of a mountain. In the nighttime, in the mountain-side urban area, surface/near-surface horizontal flows induced by mountain cooling and mountain mechanical forcing cooperatively interact with urban breezes, resulting in strengthened winds. In the daytime, in the urban area, surface/near-surface horizontal flows induced by mountain heating are opposed to urban breezes, giving rise to weakened winds. It is shown that the degree of interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds is sensitive to mountain height and basic-state wind speed. Particularly, a change in basic-state wind speed affects not only the strength of thermally and mechanically induced flows (internal gravity waves) but also their vertical wavelength and decaying rate. The examination of a case in a setting in which a city is located upwind of a mountain reveals that basic-state wind direction is an important factor that significantly affects the interactions of urban breezes with mountain slope winds.

  8. 76 FR 2447 - Gulf War and Health, Volume 6, Physiologic, Psychologic, and Psychosocial Effects of Deployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War and Health, Volume 6, Physiologic, Psychologic, and Psychosocial Effects of Deployment... authority granted by the Persian Gulf War Veterans Act of 1998, Public Law 105-277, title XVI, 112 Stat..., ``Gulf War and Health, Volume 6, Physiologic, Psychologic, and Psychosocial Effects of Deployment-Related...

  9. 75 FR 16577 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review... Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Draft Written Report is now complete. The VA is inviting public comments...

  10. Issues related to seismic surveys in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence : public inquiry report; Les enjeux lies aux leves sismiques dans l'estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent : rapport d'enquete et d'audience publique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    Quebec's Office of Public Inquiry on the Environment (Bureau d'audiences publiques sur l'environnement) conducted public hearings on the environmental issues associated with seismic surveys carried out in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and its estuaries for the purpose of petroleum and natural gas exploration. The inquiry focused on the effect of sound waves on aquatic ecosystems and marine organisms and the associated environmental, social and economic consequences of seismic surveys. Environmental groups, scientists, fishermen and the maritime tourist industry have been concerned with the impact of seismic surveys in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence since the autumn of 2002, when Hydro-Quebec publicized its 2002-2010 plan for oil and gas exploration and when Geophysical Service Inc. received a mandate from Hydro-Quebec to carry out seismic surveys in the area. This report presents 10 recommendations and 16 opinions resulting from 18 public hearings held in communities along the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Although the thousands of kilometres of seismic survey lines acquired in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence since 1960 do not seem to have had any visible impact on the marine environment, the Commission has taken a precautionary approach and recommends that some practices should be limited until a review of literature demonstrates that seismic surveys do not affect the ecological integrity of the St. Lawrence for fisheries or ecotourism. 16 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  11. Numerical simulation of sea breeze characteristics observed at tropical coastal site, Kalpakkam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Jamima; J Lakshminarasimhan

    2004-06-01

    Sea breeze characteristics around Kalpakkam tropical coastal site are studied using an Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) mesoscale model, which is non-hydrostatic, compressible atmospheric prediction model following the terrain coordinate system. Various options such as surface physics, atmospheric radiation physics, Coriolis force, microphysics, cumulus parameterization and 1.5 level TKE closure scheme for diffusion are included in the model. A joint meteorological field experiment was carried out by IITM-Pune and IGCAR at Kalpakkam by deploying state-of-the-art sensors and tether balloon systems for observing the height profiles of meteorological parameters. The data obtained from the field experiment are used here to compare the results from numerical simulations. From the simulated results, it is seen that duration of the sea breeze is 6 hours which agrees well with the observations. The height of the Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) is also simulated from the vertical profiles of potential temperature. Simulated wind speed and wind directions are compared with the 50m tower data and potential temperature profiles are compared with the kytoon data. Results are in good agreement with the observed values except during night time wherein a small difference is seen in the wind speed.

  12. 海风锋在渤海西岸局地暴雨过程中的作用%The Role of Sea Breeze Front in Local Storm of Bohai Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    东高红; 何群英; 刘一玮; 解以扬; 戴云伟

    2011-01-01

    利用常规观测资料、地面加密自动站资料、多普勒雷达观测资料及中尺度TJ-WRF模式输出资料,对2009年7月6日天津宁河地区出现的暴雨天气过程进行了分析,重点分析了渤海湾海风锋对沿岸局地暴雨的触发机理。结果表明:此次局地暴雨过程是在有利天气背景条件下发生的,暴雨发生地存在局地层结不稳定和较好的水汽条件。海风锋本身有一辐合抬升区,区域内有弱对流存在;当海风锋移到局地存在层结不稳定且水汽充足的区域,其抬升区的辐合上升运动迅速加强,从而触发该地区雷暴的新生发展;海风锋与迎面移来的雷暴相遇,会对雷暴的加速发展起到加强作用。利用中尺度WRF模式输出资料进行分析看到,两条辐合线相交处易激发出强雷暴,雷暴出现在近地层大气暖干区的北端、湿空气的交汇处;海风锋对雷暴的新生发展有明显的触发抬升作用。%Using the data obtained by conventional observations,ground densified automatic weather stations, Doppler radar observations and mesoscale TJ-WRF model,we analyze the heavy rain occurring on 6 July 2009 at Ninghe District of Tianjin and highlight the trigger mechanism of coastal local storm caused by sea breeze front of the Bohai Gulf.The results show that the heavy rain occurred in the favorable weather conditions,and there were local instability and adequate vapor conditions.Sea breeze front itself has a convergent uplift area where weak convection exists;when sea breeze front moves to the unstable and adequate vapor areas,it will strengthen the convergence positive movement of convergent uplift area and lead to the new storm development.The meeting of the sea breeze front and thunderstorm will play a strengthened role in its development.By analyzing the data obtained by mesoscale WRF model,we can see that at the warm and dry ground in front area near the north end of the wet air interchange

  13. An Israeli haboob: Sea breeze activating local anthropogenic dust sources in the Negev loess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouvi, Onn; Dayan, Uri; Amit, Rivka; Enzel, Yehouda

    2017-02-01

    Meso-scale weather systems, such as convective haboobs, are considered to be an important dust generation mechanism. In Israel, however, rather than of meso-scale weather systems, most dust storms are generated by synoptic-scale systems, originating from Sahara and Arabia. Consequently, only distal sources of suspended and deposited dust in Israel are currently reported. Here we report the first detailed study on the merging of synoptic- and meso-scale weather systems leading to a prominent dust outbreak over the Negev, Israel. During the afternoon of May 2nd, 2007, a massive dust storm covered the northern Negev, forming a one kilometer high wall of dust. The haboob was associated with PM10 concentrations of 1000-1500 μg m-3 that advanced at a speed of 10-15 m s-1 and caused temporary closure of local airports. In contrast to most reported haboobs, this one was generated by a sea breeze front acting as a weak cold front enhanced by a cold core cyclone positioned over Libya and Egypt. The sea breeze that brought cold and moist marine air acted as a gravity current with strong surface winds. The sources for the haboob were the loessial soils of the northwestern Negev, especially agricultural fields that were highly disturbed in late spring to early summer. Such surface disturbance is caused by agricultural and/or intensive grazing practices. Our study emphasizes the importance of local dust sources in the Negev and stresses loess recycling as an important process in contemporary dust storms over Israel.

  14. Observed and simulated sea breeze characteristics over Rayong coastal area, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung Thanh; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the detailed characterization of sea breeze (SB) over the Rayong coastal area, one of the most rapidly developed and highly industrialized areas during the last decade in Thailand, using observation data analysis and fine-resolution (2 km) mesoscale meteorological modeling with incorporation of new land cover and satellite-derived vegetation fraction data sets. The key characteristics considered include frequency of SB occurrence, sea-breeze day (SBD) identification, degree of inland penetration, and boundary layer development. It was found that SBs occur frequently in the winter due mainly to relatively large land-sea temperature contrasts and minimally in the wet season. Monthly mean SB onset and cessation times are at around 12-15 local time (LT) and 18-21 LT, respectively, and its strength peaks during the early- to mid-afternoon. Monthly SB hodographs generally exhibit clockwise rotations, and SB inland penetration (at PCD-T tower) ranges widely with the monthly means of 25-55 km from the coast. Mesoscale MM5 modeling was performed on two selected SBDs (13 January and 16 March 2006), on which the SBs are under weak and onshore strong influences from background winds, respectively. Simulated near-surface winds and temperature were found to be in fair-to-acceptable agreement with the observations. The SB circulation along the Rayong coast is clearly defined with a return flow aloft and a front on 13 January, while it is enhanced by the onshore background winds on 16 March. Another SB along the Chonburi coast also develops separately, but their fronts merge into one in the mid-afternoon, resulting in large area coverage by the SB. Simulated planetary boundary layer height over the land area is significantly affected by a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) induced by an SB, which is found to be low near the coast and increases toward the front (up to 800-1,000 m along the Rayong coast).

  15. Rings dominate western Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  16. Impacts of the land-lake breeze of the Volta reservoir on the diurnal cycle of cloudiness and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Marcel; Fink, Andreas H.; Knippertz, Peter; Yorke, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Lake Volta in Ghana is the artificial lake on Earth with the largest surface area (8502 km2). It has been constructed in the early 1960s, with the lake being filled around 1966. Land-lake breezes and their effects on the diurnal cycle of local wind systems, cloudiness, and precipitation have been studied for several tropical lakes, among which studies on the effects of Lake Victoria in East Africa are one of the most perceived ones. To date, no studies on the strengths and effects of the land-lake breeze of the Volta reservoir are known to the authors. Using surface station data, a variety of satellite data on clouds and precipitation, and a convection-resolving regional model, the land-lake breeze and its impacts were studied for Lake Volta between 1998 and 2015. The observational data sets confirm a significant land-lake circulation. The only manned weather station operated by the Ghana Meteorological Service that is situated at the lake is Kete Krachi. Hourly observations for 2006 and 2014 show on several days a clearing of skies in the afternoon associated with a shift in the surface winds from southwest to southeast, the latter potentially indicating a lake breeze effect. Cloud occurrence frequency derived from the CLARA-A2, MODIS, and CLAAS2 cloud masks and the cloud physical properties from CLAAS2 clearly show the development of clouds at the lake breeze front in the course of the morning and around mid-day. This effect is most pronounced in March when also the difference between the surface temperatures of the lake and the desiccated land surface is strongest. During the peak of the wet season in July, the lake breeze cloudiness is masked by a high background cloudiness and likely also weaker due to the strong southwesterly monsoon flow that tends to weaken the land-lake circulation. However, the precipitation signal was found to be strongest in July, most probably due to the fact that in boreal fall, winter and spring, the lake breeze cloudiness often

  17. Statistical analysis of wave parameters in the north coast of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parvaresh

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have analysed wind and wave time series data resulting from hourly measurements on the sea surface in Bushehr, the northern part of the Persian Gulf, from 15 July to 4 August 2000. Wind speed (U10 ranged from 0.34 to 10.38 m/s as alternating sea and land breezes. The lowest wind speed occurs at about midnight and the highest at around noon. The calculated autocorrelation of wind speed data shows that when the sea-land breeze is strong, the land-sea breeze is weak and vice versa. The significant wave height (Hs varies between 0.10 to 1.02 m. The data of the present study reflects mostly the local waves or the sea waves. The calculated correlation between wind and wave parameters is rather weak, due to the continuous change in the wind direction. Wave height distribution follows the well-known Rayleigh distribution law. The cross correlation analyses between U10 and Hs reveal a time lag of 4h. Finally, we have shown that the time series of U10, Hs, and wave period are stationary. We have modeled these parameters by an auto regressive moving average (ARMA and auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models.

    Keywords. Oceanography: physical (Air-sea interactions; Surface waves and tides; Upper ocean processes

  18. Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment. Part 1: Two-dimensional simulations of sea-breeze and mountain effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated

  19. The influence of the summer sea breeze on thermal comfort in Funchal (Madeira). A contribution to tourism and urban planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Antonio; Lopes, Sergio; Joao Alcoforado, Maria [Univ. de Lisboa (Portugal). Centro der Estudos Geograficos; Matzarakis, Andreas [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.

    2011-10-15

    Tourism plays a crucial role for the development of coastal areas. Despite the mildness of Madeira's climate, very hot days can occur during summer, a situation to which most tourists from northern Europe (the majority of foreign tourists) are poorly adapted. As sea breezes strongly contribute to moderate heat stress in urban environments, their influence on the thermal comfort on the island has been studied. Sea breezes occurred on 84 % of the days during the period under study (May to October 2006). They usually start around 09:30 h and end after 22:00 h, with an average duration of about 12:50 hours and a mean velocity of 2.9 m/s. Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) was used to evaluate the thermal comfort of a sample of days during the summer of 2006. It was concluded that most of the sites in the city are ''slightly comfortable'' during normal days with sea breeze, but only shore sites and the highest green areas offer some comfort during hot days. Inside the city, the thermal perception is generally ''hot'' and strong heat stress can occur. As sea breezes are important to mitigate heat stress, some basic guidelines were presented: urban planners should take advantage of this wind system avoiding dense construction near the shoreline that would act as a barrier to the renewal of the air inside the city. In terms of tourism, planners and local authorities should provide solutions to mitigate the negative effects during hot periods, creating a system to warn and relocate more vulnerable tourists to places near the shore line, to the mountains, to gardens and air-conditioned buildings. In combination with other components (beauty of the island, gastronomy, cultural values and safety), climate information can be a factor of attractiveness to tourists. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of weather research and forecasting model parameterizations under sea-breeze conditions in a North Sea coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Nadir; Reis, Neyval Costa; Santos, Jane Meri; Albuquerque, Taciana Toledo de Almeida; Loriato, Ayres Geraldo; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Sokolov, Anton; Moreira, Davidson Martins

    2016-12-01

    Three atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) schemes and two land surface models that are used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, version 3.4.1, were evaluated with numerical simulations by using data from the north coast of France (Dunkerque). The ABL schemes YSU (Yonsei University), ACM2 (Asymmetric Convective Model version 2), and MYJ (Mellor-Yamada-Janjic) were combined with two land surface models, Noah and RUC (Rapid Update Cycle), in order to determine the performances under sea-breeze conditions. Particular attention is given in the determination of the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL), which is very important in air pollution scenarios. The other physics parameterizations used in the model were consistent for all simulations. The predictions of the sea-breeze dynamics output from the WRF model were compared with observations taken from sonic detection and ranging, light detection and ranging systems and a meteorological surface station to verify that the model had reasonable accuracy in predicting the behavior of local circulations. The temporal comparisons of the vertical and horizontal wind speeds and wind directions predicted by the WRF model showed that all runs detected the passage of the sea-breeze front. However, except for the combination of MYJ and Noah, all runs had a time delay compared with the frontal passage measured by the instruments. The proposed study shows that the synoptic wind attenuated the intensity and penetration of the sea breeze. This provided changes in the vertical mixing in a short period of time and on soil temperature that could not be detected by the WRF model simulations with the computational grid used. Additionally, among the tested schemes, the combination of the localclosure MYJ scheme with the land surface Noah scheme was able to produce the most accurate ABL height compared with observations, and it was also able to capture the TIBL.

  1. Atmospheric electrical field measurements near a fresh water reservoir and the formation of the lake breeze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lopes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to access the effect of the lakes in the atmospheric electrical field, measurements have been carried out near a large man-made lake in southern Portugal, the Alqueva reservoir, during the ALqueva hydro-meteorological EXperiment 2014. The purpose of these conjoint experiments was to study the impact of the Alqueva reservoir on the atmosphere, in particular on the local atmospheric electric environment by comparing measurements taken in the proximity of the lake. Two stations 10 km apart were used, as they were located up- and down-wind of the lake (Amieira and Parque Solar, respectively, in reference to the dominant northwestern wind direction. The up-wind station shows lower atmospheric electric potential gradient (PG values than the ones observed in the down-wind station between 12 and 20 UTC. The difference in the atmospheric electric PG between the up-wind and the down-wind station is ~30 V/m during the day. This differential occurs mainly during the development of a lake breeze, between 10 and 18 UTC, as a consequence of the surface temperature gradient between the surrounding land and the lake water. In the analysis presented, a correlation is found between the atmospheric electric PG differences and both wind speed and temperature gradients over the lake, thus supporting the influence of the lake breeze over the observed PG variation in the two stations. Two hypotheses are provided to explain this observation: (1 The air that flows from the lake into the land station is likely to increase the local electric conductivity through the removal of ground dust and the transport of cleaner air from higher altitudes with significant light ion concentrations. With such an increase in conductivity, it is expected to see a reduction of the atmospheric electric PG; (2 the resulting air flow over the land station carries negative ions formed by wave splashing in the lake's water surface, as a result of the so-called balloelectric effect

  2. Interstellar neutral helium in the heliosphere from IBEX observations. IV. Flow vector, Mach number, and abundance of the Warm Breeze

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiak, M A; Bzowski, M; Sokol, J M; Fuselier, S A; Galli, A; Heirtzler, D; Kucharek, H; Leonard, T W; Moebius, D J McComas E; Park, J; Schwadron, N A; Wurz, P

    2016-01-01

    With the velocity vector and temperature of the pristine interstellar neutral (ISN) He recently obtained with high precision from a coordinated analysis summarized by McComas et al.2015b, we analyzed the IBEX observations of neutral He left out from this analysis. These observations were collected during the ISN observation seasons 2010---2014 and cover the region in the Earth's orbit where the Warm Breeze persists. We used the same simulation model and a very similar parameter fitting method to that used for the analysis of ISN He. We approximated the parent population of the Warm Breeze in front of the heliosphere with a homogeneous Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function and found a temperature of $\\sim 9\\,500$ K, an inflow speed of 11.3 km s$^{-1}$, and an inflow longitude and latitude in the J2000 ecliptic coordinates $251.6^\\circ$, $12.0^\\circ$. The abundance of the Warm Breeze relative to the interstellar neutral He is 5.7\\% and the Mach number is 1.97. The newly found inflow direction of the Warm Bree...

  3. Identifying a Sea Breeze Circulation Pattern Over the Los Angeles Basin Using Airborne In Situ Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, A. L.; Schill, S.; Trousdell, J.; Heath, N.; Lefer, B. L.; Yang, M. M.; Bertram, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Los Angeles Basin in Southern California is an optimal location for a circulation study, due to its location between the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Santa Monica and San Gabriel mountain ranges to the east, as well as its booming metropolitan population. Sea breeze circulation carries air at low altitudes from coastal to inland regions, where the air rises and expands before returning back towards the coast at higher altitudes. As a result, relatively clean air is expected at low altitudes over coastal regions, but following the path of sea breeze circulation should increase the amount of anthropogenic influence. During the 2014 NASA Student Airborne Research Program, a highly modified DC-8 aircraft completed flights from June 23 to 25 in and around the LA Basin, including missed approaches at four local airports—Los Alamitos and Long Beach (coastal), Ontario and Riverside (inland). Because carbon dioxide (CO2) is chemically inert and well-suited as a conserved atmospheric tracer, the NASA Langley Atmospheric Vertical Observations of CO2 in the Earth's Troposphere (AVOCET) instrument was used to make airborne in situ carbon dioxide measurements. Combining measured wind speed and direction data from the aircraft with CO2 data shows that carbon dioxide can be used to trace the sea breeze circulation pattern of the Los Angeles basin.

  4. Improved recovery from Gulf of Mexico reservoirs. Volume II (of 4): Task 5, modify publicly available simulators. Final report, February 14, 1995--October 13, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrell, W.C.; Bassiouni, Z.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1997-01-13

    The objective for this portion of the research involved the continuation of the modifications of the public domain simulators BOAST and MASTER. The modifications continued during this project are generic relative to both BOAST and MASTER. BOAST was the primary concern during the research however, because MASTER as well.

  5. Effect of the catalyzing combustion of coke breeze on the energy saving in sinter process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of additive ZC-1 for catalyzing combustion of coke breeze in sintering of iron one fines was studied by using X-ray Diffraction, TGA and GC (Gas Chromatographer), by which energy saving was achieved on sinter pot test. The results show that the distance between cleavage planes is enlarged and the π-electrons are re-distibuted because of the insertion of cations/molecules of ZC-1 into the cleavage planes of carbon , resulting in the weakening of C-C bond, improving the adsorption of oxygen and lowering the activation energy of gasification of carbon from 25.8 kJ/mol to 18.9 kJ/mol , and the burning rate being increased and combustion residual reduced, all of which can lead to lower solid fuel consumption . Compared with the sintering test without addition of additives , the solid fuel consumption is reduced by 16.0%, meanwhile, the rate of finished sinter, the output of finished sinter and the tumbling index are increased by 2.03%, 7.0% and 3.71%, respectively, with incorporating 0.2% of additive ZC-1 in the sintering mixture, which is in agreement with the catalyzing mechanism of ZC-1.

  6. Fire Whirl Evolution Observed during a Valley Wind-Sea Breeze Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Seto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This observational study documented the atmospheric environment of a prescribed fire conducted in a narrow valley when a small fire whirl developed during a mesoscale wind reversal. Based on analysis of in situ meteorological measurements, it is hypothesized that the fire whirl formed due to the presence of strong vertical wind shear caused by the interaction of a sea breeze front with a weaker up-valley wind. Vorticity generated by the interaction of the wind shear and the fire front was estimated to be ~0.2 s−1. Peak turbulence kinetic energy was caused by the wind shear rather than the buoyancy generated by the fire front. It was also found that the convective Froude number itself may not be sufficient for fire whirl prediction since it is less relevant to the near-surface boundary-layer turbulence generated by environmental wind shear. Observations from this case study indicate that even low-intensity prescribed fires can result in the formation of fire whirls due to mesoscale changes in the ambient atmospheric environment.

  7. Gulf Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Landings - This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by the larger vessels that fish near and offshore for...

  8. Gulf Sturgeon Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Sturgeon: An ancient type of fish, with 5 rows of armor scutes, a cartilaginous skeleton, long snout, suction mouth, no teeth, and 4 barbels. Photograph of a Gulf sturgeon. The total length of a 5-month old is 313 mm.

  9. Gulf stream separation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Joseph

    Climate models currently struggle with the more traditional, coarse ( O(100 km) ) representation of the ocean. In these coarse ocean simulations, western boundary currents are notoriously difficult to model accurately. The modeled Gulf Stream is typically seen exhibiting a mean pathway that is north of observations, and is linked to a warm sea-surface temperature bias in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Although increased resolution ( O(10 km) ) improves the modeled Gulf Stream position, there is no clean recipe for obtaining the proper pathway. The 70 year history of literature on the Gulf Stream separation suggests that we have not reached a resolution on the dynamics that control the current's pathway just south of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Without a concrete knowledge on the separation dynamics, we cannot provide a clean recipe for accurately modeling the Gulf Stream at increased resolutions. Further, any reliable parameterization that yields a realistic Gulf Stream path must express the proper physics of separation. The goal of this dissertation is to determine what controls the Gulf Stream separation. To do so, we examine the results of a model intercomparison study and a set of numerical regional terraforming experiments. It is argued that the separation is governed by local dynamics that are most sensitive to the steepening of the continental shelf, consistent with the topographic wave arrest hypothesis of Stern (1998). A linear extension of Stern's theory is provided, which illustrates that wave arrest is possible for a continuously stratified fluid.

  10. Uma teoria termodinâmica para brisas: teste utilizando simulações numéricas A thermodynamic theory for breezes: test using numeric simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clênia Rodrigues Alcântara

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar uma teoria termodinâmica em brisas marítimas-terrestres acopladas com brisas de vale-montanha através de simulações numéricas tridimensionais em uma região da costa leste do Nordeste Brasileiro, considerando a presença e a ausência da topografia. Embora o contraste de temperatura entre as superfícies seja importante na formação da brisa, a eficiência termodinâmica é fundamental na determinação da sua intensidade. Tem-se que a inclinação faz com que a diferença de pressão entre dois pontos fique maior durante o dia e menor durante a noite contribuindo para a formação de brisas marítimas mais intensas e de brisas terrestres menos intensas, respectivamente. A máxima queda de pressão ocorre por volta de três horas antes da máxima intensidade da brisa. Isso porque grande parte da energia disponibilizada para as circulações é gasta para vencer dissipação, principalmente, no período diurno, quando esses processos são realmente efetivos. Do ponto de vista puramente termodinâmico a inclinação da montanha atua para intensificar a brisa durante o dia e para enfraquecê-la durante a noite.In this work we test a thermodynamic theory for sea-land breeze coupled with valley-mountain breeze through tri-dimensional numeric simulations. We verify the presence of such a breeze in Northeast Brazil's east coast and perform experiments with and without the topography of the region. Although the temperature contrast between two surfaces is important in forming the breezes, the thermodynamic efficiency is a key parameter for the breeze intensity. The presence of the slope causes the pressure difference between two points to increase during the day and to decrease during the night. This contributes for more intense daytime breeze and less intense nighttime ones. The maximum pressure drop occurs about three hours prior the maximum intensity of the sea breeze. This is because most of the available

  11. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  12. Exploring convective and sea-breeze dynamics using ensembles of idealised CRM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, F.; Sherwood, S.; Patterson, M.

    2012-04-01

    We report on continuing work using large ensembles of simulations by the WRF model in a CRM configuration with different idealised boundary and initial conditions, to work toward a better understanding of the role of mesoscale and boundary-layer dynamics in unorganised deep convection. Runs employ an idealised domain that is homogeneous except for a heated "island" in the middle, and are mostly 2-D. The WRF model with fully parameterised physics can successfully reproduce the greater intensity of land-based convection in general relative to that over oceans, a key benchmark. Heterogeneity of the surface appears to be the primary reason for the greater intensity, but is not accounted for in standard parameterisations of deep convection although some are beginning to account for cold-pool dynamics and gust front effects. Sea breeze and gust fronts created by this heterogeneity are crucial in determining the location of subsequent convective onset, and the timing of collisions strongly affects convective intensity. To better understand the propagation of these currents we use further simplified, dry runs of WRF with varying degrees of complexity in the boundary and initial conditions. These range from the most idealised, "lock-release" case common in laboratory studies, to more meteorological cases with realistic diurnal solar heating of a land surface. We find that the well-known Benjamin formula typically used to predict frontal propagation works for idealised currents studied previously, but fails badly for those with more realistic surface heating, due to the introduction of internal structure within the cold current as it evolves. We argue that this is the main reason that observed fronts often propagate much more slowly than predicted.

  13. Surface current dynamics under sea breeze conditions observed by simultaneous HF radar, ADCP and drifter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Fraunié, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Ocean surface boundary layer dynamics off the southern coast of France in the NW Mediterranean is investigated by using velocity observations by high-frequency (HF) radars, surface drifting buoys and a downward-looking drifting acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The analysis confirms that velocities measured by HF radars correspond to those observed by an ADCP at the effective depth z f = k -1, where k is wavenumber of the radio wave emitted by the radar. The radials provided by the radars were in a very good agreement with in situ measurements, with the relative errors of 1 and 9 % and root mean square (RMS) differences of 0.02 and 0.04 m/s for monostatic and bistatic radar, respectively. The total radar-based velocities appeared to be slightly underestimated in magnitude and somewhat biased in direction. At the end of the survey period, the difference in the surface current direction, based on HF radar and ADCP data, attained 10°. It was demonstrated that the surface boundary layer dynamics cannot be reconstructed successfully without taking into the account velocity variation with depth. A significant misalignment of ˜30° caused by the sea breeze was documented between the HF radar (HFR-derived) surface current and the background current. It was also found that the ocean response to a moderate wind forcing was confined to the 4-m-thick upper layer. The respective Ekman current attained the maximum value of 0.15 m/s, and the current rotation was found to be lagging the wind by approximately 40 min, with the current vector direction being 15-20° to the left of the wind. The range of velocity variability due to wind forcing was found comparable with the magnitude of the background current variability.

  14. How does the Warm Breeze affect the heliospheric backscatter glow of interstellar neutral helium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzowski, Maciej; Kubiak, Marzena; Sokół, Justyna

    2017-04-01

    Based on direct sampling observations of interstellar neutral helium (ISN He) by IBEX, we have discovered a new population of ISN He, dubbed the Warm Breeze (WB), and identified it as the secondary population of ISN He, created in the outer heliosheath. The WB flow is twice slower and hotter by half than the primary ISN He, and it flows from a direction different by 5° in longitude and 6° in latitude. Its density is 5% of that of ISN He. ISN He had been extensively studied in the past by analysis of the backscatter glow, but the WB was not considered in these analyses because its existence had been unknown. However, the ISN He speed and temperature derived from analyses of the heliospheric helium glow tended to be systematically biased towards slower speeds or higher temperatures with respect to those obtained from direct-sampling experiments. We calculate the expected intensity of the backscatter glow due to the ISN He and WB using the best-fit parameters recently obtained from IBEX direct-sampling observations and compare its distribution in the sky with that expected only from the primary ISN gas. In the modeling, we use a time-dependent hot model of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of ISN gas and carefully account for the bulk velocities and temperatures of the direct and indirect beams of the two populations, as well as for details of the ionization rates. We discuss differences between intensities of the backscatter glow expected from different regions in the sky, obtained for the models including and excluding the WB and point out that the absence of the WB component in the modeling may have biased the parameters of the primary population of ISN He derived from the helium backscatter glow and lead to underestimating the Mach number of the flow, due to a slower bulk speed or higher temperature.

  15. 36 CFR 7.12 - Gulf Islands National Seashore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf Islands National Seashore. 7.12 Section 7.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... laws regarding licensing, registration, inspection, insurance, and required equipment. (C) Contain the...

  16. Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P.; Jaidah, Mohammed Y.; Bach, Steffen; Lee, Katie; Jabado, Rima W.; Rohner, Christoph A.; March, Abi; Caprodossi, Simone; Henderson, Aaron C.; Mair, James M.; Ormond, Rupert; Pierce, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17.52, P 9 m individuals were visually assessed as pregnant. Connectivity among sharks sighted in Qatari, Omani and UAE waters was confirmed by individual spot pattern matches. A total of 13 identified sharks were re-sighted at locations other than that at which they were first sighted, including movements into and out of the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to model an estimated combined population for the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman of 2837 sharks ± 1243.91 S.E. (95% C.I. 1720–6295). The Al Shaheen aggregation is thus the first site described as being dominated by mature males while the free-swimming pregnant females are the first reported from the Indian Ocean. PMID:27362839

  17. 75 FR 58335 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... red snapper season after September 30, and requested public comment (75 FR 49883). The rationale for... tourism industries of Gulf coastal communities. The timing and duration of a re-opening will not affect... in nature, and does not impose any new compliance requirements or reporting burdens on the public...

  18. Changes in nearshore waves during the active sea/land breeze period off Vengurla, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.; Singh, J.

    characteristics in the nearshore zone of Karwar, eastern AS was studied by Dora and Sanil Kumar (2015) and observed equal proportion of swells and wind-seas during February–May. When waves travel towards the coast, the wave characteristics change due to refraction...-dominated spectrum changed to a wind-sea-dominated spectrum at the peak of the sea breeze and hence the average wave spectrum has predom- inant wind-sea peak at 15:00 UTC. The energy in the wind- sea part dissipates when the waves travel from 15 m water depth to 5 m...

  19. Gulf ring algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although they rank among the tiniest of the microspcopic phytoplankton, coccolithophore algae aid oceanographers studying the Gulf Stream rings and the ring boundaries. The algal group could help to identify more precisely the boundary of the warm rings of water that spin off from the Gulf Stream and become independent pools of warm water in the colder waters along the northeastern U.S. coast.Coccolithophore populations in the Gulf Stream rings intrigue oceanographers for two reasons: The phytoplankton are subjected to an environment that changes every few days, and population explosions within one coccolithophore species seem to be associated with changes in the characteristics of ocean water, said Pat Blackwelder, an associate professor at the Nova Oceanographic Center in Dania, Fla. She is one of many studying the physics, chemistry, and biology of warm core rings. A special oceanography session on these rings was held at the recent AGU Fall Meeting/ASLO Winter Meeting.

  20. The growth of coral reef science in the Gulf: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, John A

    2013-07-30

    Coral reef science has grown exponentially in recent decades in the Gulf. Analysis of literature from 1950 to 2012 identified 270 publications on coral reefs in the Gulf, half of which were published in just the past decade. This paper summarizes the growth and evolution of coral reef science in the Gulf by examining when, where and how research has been conducted on Gulf reefs, who conducted that research, and what themes and taxa have dominated scientific interest. The results demonstrate that there has been significant growth in our understanding of the valuable coral reefs of the Gulf, but also highlight the fact that we are documenting an increasingly degraded ecosystem. Reef scientists must make a concerted effort to improve dialogue with regional reef management and decision-makers if we are to stem the tide of decline in coral reefs in the Gulf. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Review of: Maddie Breeze: Seriousness and Women’s Roller Derby. Gender, Organization and Ambivalence. London u.a.: Palgrave Macmillan 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Dierkes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In her autoethnographic study in the field of sports sociology Maddie Breeze presents a captivating analysis of the roller derby scene. Starting from empirical material she develops a new sociological concept of 'seriousness' and '(wanting-to-be-taken-seriously' which contrasts with established, linear and normative models – both are re-conceived as a contradictory and ambivalent practice. Thus, Breeze is able to show how new forms of identity and of organization can be successfully established in processes of transformation, without having to negate or dismiss previous ones. A highly recommendable book, not only for sports sociologists.

  2. Mapping the Intricacies of the Gulf of Mexico's Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Fernández, Alexis; Green, Rebecca E.

    2011-01-01

    From hosting key shipping lines, drilling platforms, and commercial fisheries, to sustaining mangrove swamps that shelter the coastline from the hurricanes that churn its waters, the Gulf of Mexico is important to the nations surrounding it for socio-economic, ecological, military, political, and scientific reasons. Critical to all of these sectors is the Gulf's circulation—it controls hurricane tracks and intensity, biological productivity, and larvae dispersal. Since 1982, the Environmental Studies Program (ESP) of the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) has invested more than $67 million in field and numerical modeling studies to improve our understanding of the Gulf's circulation (see Figure 1). ESP-funded research has covered a broad array of topics, some applied and some basic. Studies carried out on behalf of the bureau reflect the bureau's information needs, stakeholder input, and offshore energy exploration and development trends. All ESP studies culminate in a technical report—127 technical reports on physical oceanography are publicly available (see http://www.gomr.boemre.gov/homepg/regulate/environ/techsumm/rec_pubs.html). Additionally, more than 100 peer-reviewed publications have been issued on the Gulf's physical oceanography and circulation. The AGU Geophysical Monograph Circulation in the Gulf of Mexico: Observations and Models, the very first circulation overview since 1972, was funded by ESP. Additionally, data collected during fieldwork are deposited in national archives for public dissemination.

  3. Environmental impacts of tourism in the Gulf and the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, William; Curley, Belinda; Shokri, Mohammad Reza

    2013-07-30

    The Gulf and Red Sea possess diverse coastal and marine environments that support rapidly expanding mass tourism. Despite the associated environmental risks, there is no analysis of the tourism-related literature or recent analysis of impacts. Environmental issues reported in 101 publications (25 from the Gulf, 76 from the Red Sea) include 61 purported impacts (27 from the Gulf, 45 from the Red Sea). Gulf literature includes quantitative studies (68% publications) and reviews (32%), and addresses mostly land reclamation and artificial habitats. Most Gulf studies come from Iran and UAE (64%). Red Sea literature includes quantitative studies (81%) and reviews (11%), with most studies occurring in Egypt (70%). The most published topics relate to coral breakage and its management. A full account of tourism's environmental impacts is constrained by limited tourism data, confounding of impacts with other coastal developments, lack of baseline information, shifting baselines, and fragmentation of research across disciplines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 76 FR 17627 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeastern Data, Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeastern Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National... the SEDAR assessment schedule, budget, and the SEDAR process. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. DATES... South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils; in conjunction with NOAA...

  5. 75 FR 59226 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeastern Data, Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeastern Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National... the SEDAR assessment schedule, budget, and the SEDAR process. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. DATES...) 769-4520. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Fishery...

  6. Beyond the Gulf Metropolises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    The extended studies on urbanisation in the Gulf region that came up in the early 2000s concentrated on the main centres with their worldwide-admired mega-projects and branding strategies. Only rather recently did a more general interest arise in the second-tier range of Gulf cities, which also......, which started in the late 1990s. After a short review of the city‘s development until the 1980s, this paper will also present its current urban and economic evolution. Then it will turn to the globalisation of Salalah in the context of national post-oil strategies, and study the physical fragmentation...... of the urban landscape. Finally, it will point to the shift from overall structural planning to individual master plans, and discuss the marketing of the new Salalah versus the selective conservation of the old....

  7. Measurements of reactive halogen species as oxidants of mercury over the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkamer, R.; Coburn, S.; Dix, B. K.; Sinreich, R.; Terschure, A. F.; Edgerton, E. S.; Wu, Y.; Nair, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    The gas-phase reaction of bromine and chlorine radicals with gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is a source for gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM). It has been established that oxidation by bromine is relevant at high latitudes, and can also occur in mid-latitude regions (Peleg et al. 2007), or in the free troposphere. A subject of ongoing debate concerns the role of free tropospheric bromine vs boundary layer bromine in oxidizing mercury. Here we present measurements of reactive halogen species bromine oxide (BrO) and iodine oxide (IO) along with gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), and particulate mercury (Hgp) at a coastal location in Gulf Breeze, Fl. The University of Colorado has deployed a research grade Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument to measure BrO, IO, as well as formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxygen dimers (O4). Here we present the compilation of the data collected by this instrument over the time period from May 2009 to January 2011, which include the first measurements of BrO, IO, and CHOCHO over the Gulf of Mexico. We also present several case studies for days where significant amounts of reactive halogens were measured, explore the sources and back trajectories of the air masses carrying these compounds, and relate our observations to mercury data collected at a nearby SEARCH network site.

  8. 78 FR 24435 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Notice of Sale (NOS) for Western Gulf of Mexico Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 233 (WPA Sale... rates, and rental rates. DATES: Affected States may comment on the size, timing, and location of... from the Public Information Unit, Gulf of Mexico Region, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, 1201...

  9. 77 FR 11065 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...: The SEDAR 28 assessments of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic stocks of Spanish mackerel and cobia... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB022 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  10. 78 FR 68817 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine... 38 stock assessment of South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico King Mackerel: A Data Workshop; an... stock assessment and input data. Participants for SEDAR Workshops are appointed by the Gulf of Mexico...

  11. 75 FR 20985 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeastern Data, Assessment, and Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Mexico; Southeastern Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... of SEDAR 22 Gulf of Mexico yellowedge grouper and tilefish assessment webinar 1. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 22 assessments of the Gulf of Mexico stocks of yellowedge grouper and tilefish will consist of a...

  12. 76 FR 77491 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    .... SUMMARY: The SEDAR 28 assessments of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic stocks of Spanish mackerel and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA863 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  13. 76 FR 2889 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National... Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive 201, North Charleston, SC 29405; Gulf of Mexico.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils; in...

  14. 75 FR 12506 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Workshop for South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico goliath grouper. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessments of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stocks of goliath grouper will consist of a series of three workshops: a Data...

  15. 77 FR 43049 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Webinar. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 28 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish mackerel and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  16. 77 FR 70429 - Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... operation of facilities by Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP (Gulf South) in Jasper, Forrest, Perry, Greene... its decision-making process to determine whether the project is in the public convenience and... an easement to construct, operate, and maintain the planned facilities. The company would seek...

  17. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    panel to evaluate the state-of-the-science regarding hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and potential nutrient mitigation and control options in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin (MARB). The Task Force was particularly interested in scientific advances since the Integrated Assessment and posed questions in three areas: characterization of hypoxia; nutrient fate, transport and sources; and the scientific basis for goals and management options. The Hypoxia Study Group began its deliberations in September of 2006 and completed its report in August of 2007 while operating under the 'sunshine' requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, which include providing public access to advisory meetings and opportunities for public comment. This Executive Summary summarizes the Hypoxia Study Group's major findings and recommendations.

  18. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans...... and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk...

  19. A numerical study of sea breeze circulation observed at a tropical site Kalpakkam on the east coast of India, under different synoptic flow situations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C V Srinivas; R Venkatesan; K M Somayaji; A Bagavath Singh

    2006-10-01

    A simulation study of the sea breeze circulation and thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) characteristics has been carried out at the tropical site Kalpakkam on the east coast of India, for operational atmospheric dispersion prediction. The community based PSU/NCAR MM5 Mesoscale meteorological model is used for the study. Three cases on typical days in summer (24 May 2003), southwest (SW) monsoon (1 July 2001) winter season (2 February 2003) with different largescale flow pattern are studied. The MM5 model is used with 3 nested domains with horizontal grid resolutions 18 km, 6 km and 2 km and 26 vertical levels. The model is integrated for 24 hours in the above cases with initial and boundary conditions taken from NCEP-FNL analyses data. Observations of 10 meteorological stations and coastal boundary layer experiments conducted at Kalpakkam are used for comparison and validation of the simulation. The characteristics of simulated sea breeze and TIBL at Kalpakkam are seen to vary in the above cases according to the prevailing large-scale winds and surface fluxes. The sea breeze circulation is seen to develop early with larger strength and inland propagation in the summer case under the influence of moderate synoptic wind and strong heating conditions than in the SW monsoon and winter cases. The horizontal and vertical extents of TIBL are found to be larger in the summer case than in other cases. Although model parameters agree in general with observations, all the fine features are not clearly captured and some slowness in model sea breeze development is also seen. The results indicate the need to improve i) the initial conditions by assimilation of available surface/upper air observations to reduce model bias and ii) surface net radiation parameterisation. The model could predict the essential features of the local circulation and further improvement is expected with better initial condition data and incorporation of more realistic surface data.

  20. The role of refinery flaring events and bay breezes on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Fried, A.; Pickering, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area with maximum 8-hour average ozone peaking along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv. The NASA P-3B aircraft observed plumes from refinery flares west and northwest of Galveston Bay that were transported over the water. Continental air pollution from the north was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and a CMAQ model simulation with integrated source apportionment, which tracks the contribution of emissions source groups and regions on ozone concentrations.

  1. The role of bay breezes and regional transport on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K. E.; Estes, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area. Maximum 8-hour average ozone peaked along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv, at La Porte Sylvan Beach. Continental air pollution from the north and northeast was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front at La Porte Sylvan Beach. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and WRF and CMAQ model simulations.

  2. NASA DEVELOP Students Rev Up Response to Gulf Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    After the April 20th explosion aboard the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico, the world witnessed one of the worst oil spill catastrophes in global history. In an effort to mitigate the disaster, the U.S. government moved quickly to establish a unified command for responding to the spill. Some of the command's most immediate needs were to track the movement of the surface oil slick, establish a baseline measurement of pre-oil coastal ecosystem conditions, and assess potential air quality and water hazards related to the spill. To help address these needs and assist the Federal response to the disaster, NASA deployed several of its airborne and satellite research sensors to collect an unprecedented amount of remotely-sensed data over the Gulf of Mexico region. Although some of these data were shared with the public via the media, much of the NASA data on the disaster was not well known to the Gulf Coast community. The need existed to inform the general public about these datasets and help improve understanding about how NASA's science research was contributing to oil spill response and recovery. With its extensive experience conducting community-oriented remote sensing projects and close ties to organizations around Gulf of Mexico, the NASA DEVELOP National Program stood in a unique position to meet this need.

  3. Gulf Coast Geology (GCG) Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A large percentage of the present and future energy resources of the United States reside in the Gulf of Mexico Basin, one of the major hydrocarbon producing areas...

  4. Theater Missile Defense Extended Test Range Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement - Eglin Gulf Test Range. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Gulf of Mexico .............................3-297 3.2.3-3 Locations of Cetaceans (Whales and Dolphins) .....................................3-299... Cetaceans on the Upper Continental Slope in the North-Central Gulf of Mexico,” Fishery Bulletin, No. 92: 773-786. Myers, R. and J. Ewel, 1992. Ecosystems...on Levels of Environmental Noise Requisite to Protect Public Health and Welfare with an Adequate Margin of Safety, March. U.S. Environmental

  5. Severe Weather Caused by Heat Island and Sea Breeze Effects in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vemado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP is one of the most populated regions of the planet with one of the largest impervious regions as well. This research work aims to characterize MASP heat island (HI effect and its interaction with the local sea breeze (SB inflow in rainfall amounts and deep convection. The combined SB-HI produces direct circulation over the MASP and produces severe weather and socioeconomic impacts. All SB-HI episodes between 2005 and 2008 are identified and analyzed with surface and upper air measurements, weather radar, and satellite data. The current work indicates that intense SB-HI episodes are related to air and dew point temperatures above 30°C and 20°C, respectively, right after the passage of the SB front over MASP. Results indicate that the precipitation related to SB-HI episodes is up to 600 mm or about four times higher than that in rural or less urbanized areas in its surroundings. Measurements indicate that 74% of SB-HI episodes are related to NW winds in earlier afternoon hours. Moving cold fronts in southern Brazil tend to intensify the SB-HI circulation in MASP. A conceptual model of these patterns is presented in this paper.

  6. Withdrawal of Public Lands for Wildlife Purposes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A recent BLM survey has determined that the 45.33-acre Pig Island, located in St. Joseph Bay, Gulf County, Florida, is public domain. The island has an unusual...

  7. 77 FR 40587 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... the SEDAR assessment schedule. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. DATES: The SEDAR Steering Committee will...

  8. 77 FR 23661 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National... SEDAR process and assessment schedule. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. DATES: The SEDAR Steering... Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils; in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries...

  9. 77 FR 56813 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National... SEDAR process and assessment schedule. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. DATES: The SEDAR Steering....net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Fishery Management...

  10. 78 FR 15707 - Fisheries of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ...; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR): Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine...; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including...

  11. 78 FR 62586 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency...

  12. 78 FR 36525 - Fisheries of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions, have implemented the Southeast Data...: data collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists; biologists, and researchers...

  13. 75 FR 61705 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data... database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives...

  14. A Call for More Research from the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMarri, Fatemah; Al Sabah, Salman; Al Haddad, Eliana; Vaz, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Obesity has become an epidemic in the Arabian Gulf, with the prevalence of obesity according to the latest report from the World Health Organization (WHO) showing the gulf region to be countries with the highest incidence of obesity in the 30% plus group. This study aims to examine publications on bariatric surgery and compare them with the other countries with a high incidence of obesity in the world. A literature review on bariatric surgery published from the earliest detected year of publication up until March 2016 using SCOPUS, PubMed, Ovid, and Google Scholar was conducted. Individual papers were assessed for types of surgery, preoperative measures, names of journals, authors, and outcomes. The data was analyzed using Endnote library and SPSS. Key words used in the search included "Bariatric Surgery," "Arabian Gulf," "Kuwait," "Qatar," "Saudi Arabia," "United Arab Emirates," "Oman," "USA," "Australia," "weight loss surgery," "sleeve gastrectomy," "gastric bypass," "gastric band," "mini-gastric bypass," "biliropancreatic diversion," "duodenal switch," and "intragastric balloon." Original papers, systematic reviews and case reports were included. From our review, the gastric sleeve proved to be the most popular published on procedure in the Arabian Gulf, whereas the USA had the highest percentage of gastric bypass surgeries and Australia had equivalent numbers when it came to gastric bypass and band. The numbers of studies from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar, and Oman were 70, 44, 20, 7, 6, and 0, respectively. The mean impact factor of the published articles was 2.53 +/- 1.76 SD. Most of the publications were published in Obesity Surgery (29%), Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases (5%), and Surgical Endoscopy (5%). The Arabian Gulf has both the highest percentage of bariatric procedures performed as well as the highest prevalence of obesity. However, they have the lowest number of publications and research when compared to their western

  15. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Gulf War Veterans Gulf War ... and be at least 10 percent disabling. About Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CFS is an unexplained, severe and ...

  16. Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Bathymetry with Hillshade

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Gulf of Mexico Depth Grid Cells derived from BOEM's seismic grid compilation. BOEM's deepwater Gulf of Mexico bathymetry grid. Created by mosaicing over 100 3D...

  17. Gulf Coast Basins and Uplifts [gcstructsg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide generalized outlines of major basins and uplifts in the Gulf Coast region modified after Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico...

  18. Temperature of the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Gulf Stream is one of the strong ocean currents that carries warm water from the sunny tropics to higher latitudes. The current stretches from the Gulf of Mexico up the East Coast of the United States, departs from North America south of the Chesapeake Bay, and heads across the Atlantic to the British Isles. The water within the Gulf Stream moves at the stately pace of 4 miles per hour. Even though the current cools as the water travels thousands of miles, it remains strong enough to moderate the Northern European climate. The image above was derived from the infrared measurements of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on a nearly cloud-free day over the east coast of the United States. The coldest waters are shown as purple, with blue, green, yellow, and red representing progressively warmer water. Temperatures range from about 7 to 22 degrees Celsius. The core of the Gulf Stream is very apparent as the warmest water, dark red. It departs from the coast at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The cool, shelf water from the north entrains the warmer outflows from the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. The north wall of the Gulf Stream reveals very complex structure associated with frontal instabilities that lead to exchanges between the Gulf Stream and inshore waters. Several clockwise-rotating warm core eddies are evident north of the core of the Gulf Stream, which enhance the exchange of heat and water between the coastal and deep ocean. Cold core eddies, which rotate counter clockwise, are seen south of the Gulf Stream. The one closest to Cape Hatteras is entraining very warm Gulf Stream waters on its northwest circumference. Near the coast, shallower waters have warmed due to solar heating, while the deeper waters offshore are markedly cooler (dark blue). MODIS made this observation on May 8, 2000, at 11:45 a.m. EDT. For more information, see the MODIS-Ocean web page. The sea surface temperature image was created at the University of Miami using

  19. Gulf Petro Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi Boukadi

    2011-02-05

    In this report, technologies for petroleum production and exploration enhancement in deepwater and mature fields are developed through basic and applied research by: (1) Designing new fluids to efficiently drill deepwater wells that can not be cost-effectively drilled with current technologies. The new fluids will be heavy liquid foams that have low-density at shallow dept to avoid formation breakdown and high density at drilling depth to control formation pressure. The goal of this project is to provide industry with formulations of new fluids for reducing casing programs and thus well construction cost in deepwater development. (2) Studying the effects of flue gas/CO{sub 2} huff n puff on incremental oil recovery in Louisiana oilfields bearing light oil. An artificial neural network (ANN) model will be developed and used to map recovery efficiencies for candidate reservoirs in Louisiana. (3) Arriving at a quantitative understanding for the three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) geophysical response of typical Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon reservoirs. We will seek to make available tools for the qualitative, rapid interpretation of marine CSEM signatures, and tools for efficient, three-dimensional subsurface conductivity modeling.

  20. Binational collaboration to study Gulf of Mexico's harmful algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Inia; Hu, Chuanmin; Steidinger, Karen; Muller-Karger, Frank; Cannizzaro, Jennifer; Wolny, Jennifer; Cerdeira-Estrada, Sergio; Santamaria-del-Angel, Eduardo; Tafoya-del-Angel, Fausto; Alvarez-Torres, Porfirio; Herrera Silveira, Jorge; Allen, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis cause massive fish kills and other public health and economic problems in coastal waters throughout the Gulf of Mexico [Steidinger, 2009]. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a gulf-wide problem that require a synoptic observing system for better serving decision-making needs. The major nutrient sources that initiate and maintain these HABs and the possible connectivity of blooms in different locations are important questions being addressed through new collaborations between Mexican and U.S. researchers and government institutions. These efforts were originally organized under the U.S./Mexico binational partnership for the HABs Observing System (HABSOS), led by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Gulf of Mexico Program (EPAGMP) and several agencies in Veracruz, Mexico, since 2006. In 2010 these efforts were expanded to include other Mexican states and institutions with the integrated assessment and management of the Gulf of Mexico Large Marine Ecosystem (GoMLME) program sponsored by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

  1. Water pollution and habitat degradation in the Gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheevaporn, Voravit; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2003-01-01

    The Gulf of Thailand has been a major marine resource for Thai people for a long time. However, recent industrialization and community development have exerted considerable stress on the marine environments and provoked habitat degradation. The following pollution problems in the Gulf have been prioritized and are discussed in details: (1) Untreated municipal and industrial waste water are considered to be the most serious problems of the country due to limited waste water treatment facilities in the area. (2) Eutrophication is an emerging problem in the gulf of Thailand. Fortunately, the major species of phytoplankton that have been reported as the cause of red tide phenomena were non-toxic species such as Noctiluca sp. and Trichodesmium sp. (3) Few problems have been documented from trace metals contamination in the Gulf of Thailand and public health threat from seafood contamination does not appear to be significant yet. (4) Petroleum hydrocarbon residue contamination is not a problem, although a few spills from small oil tankers have been recorded. A rapid decrease in mangrove forest, coral reefs, and fisheries resources due to mismanagement is also discussed.

  2. Impact of land surface heterogeneity on urban heat island circulation and sea-land breeze circulation in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Di Sabatino, S.; Martilli, A.; Li, Y.; Wong, M. S.; Gutiérrez, E.; Chan, P. W.

    2017-04-01

    Hong Kong is one of the most high-rise and highly compact cities in the world. The urban land surface is highly heterogeneous, which creates low-level convergence zones in urban areas, particularly the Kowloon Peninsula. The low-level convergence zone is due to the combined effect of urban heat island circulation (UHIC) and sea-land breeze circulation (SLBC) under weak northeasterly synoptic flow. To study the impacts of anthropogenic fluxes and built-up areas on the local circulation, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model is combined with the multilayer urban canopy building effect parameterization/building energy model (BEP/BEM) parameterization to produce a 3 day simulation of an air pollution episode in Hong Kong in September 2012. To better represent the city land surface features, building information is assimilated in the central part of the Kowloon Peninsula. The WRF-BEP-BEM model captures the 2 m temperature distribution and local wind rotation reasonably well but overestimates the 10 m wind speed with a mean bias error of 0.70 m/s. A dome-shaped feature with a high level of moisture is captured in the convergence zones due to intensified UHIC and inflowing SLBC. The anthropogenic heat increases the air temperature by around 0.3°C up to 250 m, which in turn modifies the SLBC. A new drag coefficient based on λP, plan area per unit ground area, is tested. Besides the basic physical characteristics captured by the WRF-BEP-BEM model, the stagnation of wind in the lower level convergence zone is better captured by this approach than by the traditional constant value coefficient.

  3. A modeling study of convection initiation prior to the merger of a sea-breeze front and a gust front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulikemu, Abuduwaili; Xu, Xin; Wang, Yuan; Ding, Jinfeng; Zhang, Shushi; Shen, Wenqiang

    2016-12-01

    Convection initiation (CI) prior to the merger of a sea-breeze front (SBF) with a gust front (GF) in North China is investigated using a real-data Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulation with a high resolution of 444.4 m. The overall evolution of the GF and SBF is well reproduced by the simulation. The GF was produced by the decaying convective storm over northern Beijing, while the SBF came from the Bohai Sea. Several convective cells were generated between the two fronts even though they were still about 25-30 km far away from each other. During the development of these cells, the low-level convergence and conditional instability averaged within the intermediate area between the two fronts were enhanced significantly, both of which favored the initiation of convection. Vertical momentum budgets were conducted in the intermediate area as well as along the backward trajectories of parcels within a selected convective cell. The vertical acceleration was decomposed into dynamic and buoyant components, respectively. The diagnostic results showed that the dynamic acceleration dominated in the low level, while buoyant acceleration became evident only when the parcel reached a high altitude above 2 km. Therefore the dynamic forcing appeared to be more relevant to CI. The dynamic acceleration was further decomposed into four terms based on anelastic approximation. The positive dynamic acceleration was mainly caused by fluid extension associated with the low-level convergence, while fluid twisting in the vertical contributed negatively to the dynamic acceleration. The other two terms related to horizontal curvature and height variation of density were negligibly small.

  4. Selected Elite Newspapers and Coverage of the Persian Gulf War: A content Analysis and Study of the Influence of the New York Times and Los Angeles Times on Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-18

    American Institute For Political Communication . Media and Non-media Effects on the Formation of Public Opinion. (Washington: AIPC, 1969) 1. 8 AIPC 2. Gallup...of events and of poll results, would therefore be critical players in the process. MEDIA IMPACT ON PUBLIC OPINION The American Institute for Political ... Communication released a report in 1969 that attempted to quantify to some degree the dynamics of public opinion. The study concluded that about two

  5. Identification and interpretation of representative ozone distributions in association with the sea breeze from different synoptic winds over the coastal urban area in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Oh, In-Bo; Lee, Hwa Woon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2007-12-01

    To aid the studies of long-term impact assessment of cumulative ozone (O3) exposures, the representative 8-hr O3 pollution patterns have been identified over the Greater Seoul Area (GSA) in Korea. Principal component analysis and two-stage clustering techniques were used to identify the representative O3 patterns, and numerical and observational analyses were also used to interpret the identified horizontal distribution patterns. The results yielded three major O3 distribution patterns, and each of the three patterns was found to have strong correlations with local and synoptic meteorological conditions over the GSA. For example, pattern 1, accounting for 46% of O3 concentration distributions, mostly occurred under relatively weak westerly synoptic winds. The predominant features of this pattern were infrequent high O3 levels but a distinct gradient of O3 concentration from the western coastal area to the eastern inland area that was mainly induced by the local sea breeze. Pattern 2, accounting for 31% of O3 concentration distributions, was found with higher O3 levels in the western coastal area but lower in the eastern inland area. This is due to the modified sea breeze under the relatively stronger easterly opposing synoptic wind, affecting the high O3 occurrence in the western coastal area only. However, pattern 3, accounting for 21% of O3 concentration distributions, showed significantly higher O3 concentrations over the whole GSA mainly due to the retarded and slow-moving sea-breeze front under the weak opposing synoptic flow. Modeling study also indicated that local and synoptic meteorological processes play a major role in determining the high O3 concentration distribution patterns over the GSA.

  6. A scale model wind tunnel study of dispersion in the Cleveland area. Laboratory simulation of lake breeze effects on diffusion from ground level emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoydysh, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel simulation of the diffusion patterns in a sea breeze was attempted. The results indicate that the low level onshore flow was well simulated for neutral, stable, unstable, and elevated inversion conditions. Velocity, turbulence, shear stress, and temperature data were taken, and the spread of emissions from ground level sources was investigated. Comparison is made with theoretical predictions by E. Inoue and with the open, homogeneous plane field results of Pasquill. Agreement with the predictions by Inoue is good, and the comparison with Pasquill's results shows that the wind tunnel flows are shifted two categories towards more stable. The discrepancy may be explained as a matter of averaging time.

  7. An overview of UAE2 flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamic and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Piketh, Stuart J.; Walker, Annette L.; Burger, Roelof P.; Ross, Kristy E.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Bruintjes, Roelof T.; Holben, Brent N.; Hsu, Christina; Jensen, Tara L.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Kuciauskas, Arunas P.; Al Mandoos, Abdulla; Al Mangoosh, Abdulla; Miller, Steven D.; Porter, John N.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2008-07-01

    In August through September 2004 the United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2) was conducted in the southern Arabian Gulf region. We present atmospheric thermodynamic and aerosol data collected on 18 flights by the South African Aerocommander aircraft. In the first few kilometers, we observed high concentrations of both regional dust (from 100 to 300 μg m-3 in background, to over 1.5 mg m-3 in events) and ubiquitous sulfate based pollution from the Gulf's prevalent petroleum industry (10-100 μg m-3). Smoke and pollution from Europe and possibly Africa were found at levels between 1.5 and 5 km. Inland, classic deep over desert boundary layer characteristics were found. Over the Arabian Gulf, dust and pollution were most often either trapped below or sequestered above a strong stable boundary. However, there were cases where a well-distributed aerosol layer crossed the inversion uniformly. Data suggest that the observed vertical profiles can be explained by the rapid formation of stable marine boundary layers as air moves offshore. This can decouple aerosol layers from within the boundary layer to those aloft in regions of vertical wind shear. In the case of pollution, the ability of flaring plumes to penetrate the inversion may also in part determine layering. In coastal regions without vertical wind shear, uniform concentrations with height across the inversion are a result of internal boundary layer development. We conclude that the bulk of the observed variability in particle vertical distribution appear to be controlled by mesoscale and microscale processes, such as the sea/land breeze.

  8. Psychiatric Consequences of WTC Collapse and The Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2004-01-01

    Along with political, economic, ethical, rehabilitative and military dimensions, psychopathological sequelae of war and terrorism also deserve our attention. The terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre ( W.T.C.) in 2001 and the Gulf War of 1990-91 gave rise to a number of psychiatric disturbances in the population, both adult and children, mainly in the form of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD). Nearly 75,000 people suffered psychological problems in South Manhattan alone due to that one terrorist attack on the WTC in New York and the Pentagon in Washington. In Gulf War I, morethat 1,00,000 US veterans reported a number of health problems on returning from war, whose claims the concerned government has denied in more than 90% cases. Extensive and comprehensive neurological damage to the brain of Gulf War I veterans has been reported by one study, as has damage to the basal ganglia in another, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) in a third,possibly due to genetic mutations induced by exposure to biological and chemical agents, fumes from burning oil wells, landfills,mustard or other nerve gases. The recent Gulf War will no doubt give rise its own crop of PTSD and related disorders. In a cost-benefitanalysis of the post Gulf War II scenario, the psychopathological effects of war and terrorism should become part of the social audit any civilized society engages in. Enlightened public opinion must become aware of the wider ramifications of war and terrorism so that appropriate action plans can be worked out.

  9. Psychiatric consequences of WTC collapse and the Gulf War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with political, economic, ethical, rehabilitative and military dimensions, psychopathological sequelae of war and terrorism also deserve our attention. The terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre ( W.T.C. in 2001 and the Gulf War of 1990-91 gave rise to a number of psychiatric disturbances in the population, both adult and children, mainly in the form of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD. Nearly 75,000 people suffered psychological problems in South Manhattan alone due to that one terrorist attack on the WTC in New York and the Pentagon in Washington. In Gulf War I, morethat 1,00,000 US veterans reported a number of health problems on returning from war, whose claims the concerned government has denied in more than 90% cases. Extensive and comprehensive neurological damage to the brain of Gulf War I veterans has been reported by one study, as has damage to the basal ganglia in another, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS in a third,possibly due to genetic mutations induced by exposure to biological and chemical agents, fumes from burning oil wells, landfills,mustard or other nerve gases. The recent Gulf War will no doubt give rise its own crop of PTSD and related disorders. In a cost-benefitanalysis of the post Gulf War II scenario, the psychopathological effects of war and terrorism should become part of the social audit any civilized society engages in. Enlightened public opinion must become aware of the wider ramifications of war and terrorism so that appropriate action plans can be worked out.

  10. Gulf and Dilmun Type seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    these Gulf Type‘ seals drew heavily on Indus Valley iconography and Indus script was occasionally employed in a pidgin-like manner. While the earliest circular seals incorporate features from Mesopotamian glyptic only to a lesser extent, this becomes a more important source of inspiration for later Dilmun...

  11. Gulf War Illness Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    neurofibromato- sis; autism ; and other areas with military health interests including psychological health, traumatic brain injury, and Gulf War Illness (GWI...the national news headlines, it has not dimmed our hope that treatments and cures for GWI are waiting to be discovered and brought to bear against

  12. Modelling the chemistry and transport of bromoform within a sea breeze driven convective system during the SHIVA Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Hamer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We carry out a case study of the transport and chemistry of bromoform and its product gases (PGs in a sea breeze driven convective episode on 19 November 2011 along the North West coast of Borneo during the "Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere" (SHIVA campaign. We use ground based, ship, aircraft and balloon sonde observations made during the campaign, and a 3-D regional online transport and chemistry model capable of resolving clouds and convection explicitly that includes detailed bromine chemistry. The model simulates the temperature, wind speed, wind direction fairly well for the most part, and adequately captures the convection location, timing, and intensity. The simulated transport of bromoform from the boundary layer up to 12 km compares well to aircraft observations to support our conclusions. The model makes several predictions regarding bromine transport from the boundary layer to the level of convective detrainment (11 to 12 km. First, the majority of bromine undergoes this transport as bromoform. Second, insoluble organic bromine carbonyl species are transported to between 11 and 12 km, but only form a small proportion of the transported bromine. Third, soluble bromine species, which include bromine organic peroxides, hydrobromic acid (HBr, and hypobromous acid (HOBr, are washed out efficiently within the core of the convective column. Fourth, insoluble inorganic bromine species (principally Br2 are not washed out of the convective column, but are also not transported to the altitude of detrainment in large quantities. We expect that Br2 will make a larger relative contribution to the total vertical transport of bromine atoms in scenarios with higher CHBr3 mixing ratios in the boundary layer, which have been observed in other regions. Finally, given the highly detailed description of the chemistry, transport and washout of bromine compounds within our simulations, we make a series of recommendations about

  13. Modelling the chemistry and transport of bromoform within a sea breeze driven convective system during the SHIVA Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Hossaini, R.; Pirre, M.; Warwick, N.; Chipperfield, M.; Samah, A. A.; Harris, N.; Robinson, A.; Quack, B.; Engel, A.; Krüger, K.; Atlas, E.; Subramaniam, K.; Oram, D.; Leedham, E.; Mills, G.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Sala, S.; Keber, T.; Bönisch, H.; Peng, L. K.; Nadzir, M. S. M.; Lim, P. T.; Mujahid, A.; Anton, A.; Schlager, H.; Catoire, V.; Krysztofiak, G.; Fühlbrügge, S.; Dorf, M.; Sturges, W. T.

    2013-08-01

    We carry out a case study of the transport and chemistry of bromoform and its product gases (PGs) in a sea breeze driven convective episode on 19 November 2011 along the North West coast of Borneo during the "Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere" (SHIVA) campaign. We use ground based, ship, aircraft and balloon sonde observations made during the campaign, and a 3-D regional online transport and chemistry model capable of resolving clouds and convection explicitly that includes detailed bromine chemistry. The model simulates the temperature, wind speed, wind direction fairly well for the most part, and adequately captures the convection location, timing, and intensity. The simulated transport of bromoform from the boundary layer up to 12 km compares well to aircraft observations to support our conclusions. The model makes several predictions regarding bromine transport from the boundary layer to the level of convective detrainment (11 to 12 km). First, the majority of bromine undergoes this transport as bromoform. Second, insoluble organic bromine carbonyl species are transported to between 11 and 12 km, but only form a small proportion of the transported bromine. Third, soluble bromine species, which include bromine organic peroxides, hydrobromic acid (HBr), and hypobromous acid (HOBr), are washed out efficiently within the core of the convective column. Fourth, insoluble inorganic bromine species (principally Br2) are not washed out of the convective column, but are also not transported to the altitude of detrainment in large quantities. We expect that Br2 will make a larger relative contribution to the total vertical transport of bromine atoms in scenarios with higher CHBr3 mixing ratios in the boundary layer, which have been observed in other regions. Finally, given the highly detailed description of the chemistry, transport and washout of bromine compounds within our simulations, we make a series of recommendations about the physical and

  14. INTERSTELLAR NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE FROM IBEX OBSERVATIONS. IV. FLOW VECTOR, MACH NUMBER, AND ABUNDANCE OF THE WARM BREEZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, Marzena A.; Swaczyna, P.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences (CBK PAN), 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Galli, A.; Wurz, P. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Leonard, T. W.; Möbius, E.; Park, J.; Schwadron, N. A., E-mail: mkubiak@cbk.waw.pl [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Following the high-precision determination of the velocity vector and temperature of the pristine interstellar neutral (ISN) He via a coordinated analysis summarized by McComas et al., we analyzed the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observations of neutral He left out from this analysis. These observations were collected during the ISN observation seasons 2010–2014 and cover the region in the Earth's orbit where the Warm Breeze (WB) persists. We used the same simulation model and a parameter fitting method very similar to that used for the analysis of ISN He. We approximated the parent population of the WB in front of the heliosphere with a homogeneous Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution function and found a temperature of ∼9500 K, an inflow speed of 11.3 km s{sup −1}, and an inflow longitude and latitude in the J2000 ecliptic coordinates 251.°6, 12.°0. The abundance of the WB relative to ISN He is 5.7% and the Mach number is 1.97. The newly determined inflow direction of the WB, the inflow directions of ISN H and ISN He, and the direction to the center of the IBEX Ribbon are almost perfectly co-planar, and this plane coincides within relatively narrow statistical uncertainties with the plane fitted only to the inflow directions of ISN He, ISN H, and the WB. This co-planarity lends support to the hypothesis that the WB is the secondary population of ISN He and that the center of the Ribbon coincides with the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). The common plane for the direction of the inflow of ISN gas, ISN H, the WB, and the local ISMF is given by the normal direction: ecliptic longitude 349.°7 ± 0.°6 and latitude 35.°7 ± 0.6 in the J2000 coordinates, with a correlation coefficient of 0.85.

  15. Atmospheric boundary layer in a mountain valley during katabatic wind and valley breeze. Atmosphaerische Grenzschicht in einem Gebirgstal bei Berg- und Talwind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freytag, C.

    1988-06-01

    This work is an attempt to investigate physical relationships during katabatic wind and valley breeze in a large Alpine valley. Being experimental in character, the work is oriented to measuring results. From measurements along the axis of the valley and in the adjacent medium-range mountains, as they were carried out during the MERKUR experiment, the budgets of mass, energy, and impulse for individual areas of the valley atmosphere could be calculated. These budgets serve as basic data for investigating the circulation, energetics, and dynamics of the mountain wind system. The introductory paragraphs give a brief overview on the state of research and open questions. The description of the experiment and of the courses of katabatic wind and valley breeze during the case study make up the second part of the work. The main part comprises the setting down of budget equations and the demonstration of the time curve and spatial structure of the individual terms. The questions raised are then discussed in the light of the author's measurements and other authors' results. Conclusions from the budget analyses are completed by simple model calculations. (orig.).

  16. Wind: backing the breeze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Elisa

    2005-11-15

    Wind development in the US rises when the 1.9 cents/kWh production tax credit (PTC) is in force and drops when it languishes. In 2005 Congress renewed the subsidy before it expired, giving the industry more than two years of assurance that the credit will be in force. The American Wind Energy Association predicts that the United States will have seen 2500 MW of new wind capacity installed during 2005, a record-breaker with almost 50% more development than the previous record year, 2001. Beyond that, the trade group expects strong and steady growth of 2000 MW during 2006 and 2007, the year the credit once again ends. Emerging Energy Research, an independent firm that analyses wind markets, technologies and strategies, forecasts that wind development could reach 3000 MW in 2006, and rise even higher in 2007. 2004 saw a meagre 389 MW of new wind projects caused by the expiry of PTC. The author reviews the demand for wind energy in the US, offshore wind potential - estimated at 900,000 MW, and emerging companies. (UK)

  17. The Persian Gulf Region. A Climatological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    classic Miller TYPICAL WEATHER. The following weather conditions AWSTR-200 wet bulb zero heights above terrain are typical of the Persian Gulf proper...Oman; it dominates during expected. Hail should be assumed when the the early part of the transition season. It is classic Miller AWSTR-200 wet bulb ...southern gulf shore. rapidly to 70NM just east of Dubai . Gulf waters are relatively shallow--average depth varies THE STRAIT OF HORMUZ. At Dubai , the

  18. Physical Oceanography of the Gulf of Aden

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al Saafani, M.A.

    maps of Seriy and Khimitsa [1963] indicated two eddies in the Gulf of Aden during the winter monsoon, one cyclonic in the gulf, east of 50 ◦ E, and the other anticyclonic to the east of the gulf off Ras Fartak. Mohammed and Kolli [1992] used... the hydrographic data from three cruises to de- scribe the circulation in the northern Gulf of Aden. During January, one cyclonic eddy developed between 46 ◦ E and 50 ◦ E. West of the cyclonic eddy, the flow was towards Bab el Mandab. During May, the flow...

  19. The outer Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henery, D. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij BV, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with the offshore activity in the Gulf of Mexico. Up to the end of 1995 there have been close to 300 exploratory wells drilled in water depths beyond 450 metres, and over 50 development wells. In addition approximately 1.500 leases have been awarded in the deep water. Themes discussed are deep water discoveries, average well rates, and key learnings points

  20. 75 FR 17900 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeastern Data, Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeastern Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National... the SEDAR assessment schedule and the SEDAR process. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. DATES: The SEDAR.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils; in...

  1. 76 FR 50719 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeastern Data, Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeastern Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National... the SEDAR assessment schedule, budget, and the SEDAR process. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. DATES... (866) SAFMC-10; fax: (843) 769-4520. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and...

  2. Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Changes in Fecal Microbiota of Gulf War Veterans with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. I was invited to write an editorial in the journal of Digestive...8 Appendices Abstract (Presented at the Digestive Disease Week Changes in Fecal Microbiota of Gulf...diarrhea-predominant IBS had fewer detectable bacterial groups (average of 270 subfamilies) than mixed IBS (average of 360 subfamilies) and healthy

  3. Israel : Gulf of Aqaba Environmental Action Plan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; European Union

    2000-01-01

    The Gulf of Aqaba Environmental Action Plan (GAEAP) represents for the Government of Israel a step towards achieving the national environmental objectives outlined in its legislation. The proposed actions, both curative and preventive, will protect the Gulf's land and water interface and ensure conservation of natural resources within a framework in which economic development can take plac...

  4. Fishery potential of the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    Fishery potential of the interior Gulf of Kachchh and adjacent creek regions was reported for the first time as baseline data for future ecological assessment. The experimental trawling and gill netting indicated that the inner Gulf (av. 7.8 kg...

  5. Sandwaves of the Gulf of Khambhat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Gujar, A.R.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    In the Gulf of Khambhat (Gujarat, India) the best formed sandwaves are seen in the west close to the Eastern Sand Bank. With increasing clay content and clay cover of the sea bed, the sandwaves become poorly formed. In the southern part of the Gulf...

  6. CEOs: Gulf crisis hits hospitals' bottom line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, J

    1990-12-01

    Hospital CEOs say the Persian Gulf crisis could hit them hard where it counts. In fact, hospitals are already seeing some adverse impact from events in the Middle East. From fundraising to plant management to strategic planning, the confrontations in the Gulf are having an impact on the hospital's bottom line.

  7. OCEANOGRAPHY IN THE GULF OF MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives a summary of oceanographic research in the Gulf of Mexico supported by the Office of Naval Research during the period 1 May 1961...15 December 1969. This research involved theoretical studies in ocean dynamics; currents in the Gulf of Mexico , Cayman Sea, western tropical Atlantic

  8. Climatic Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    ASIAN COASTAL MARINE AREAS Areas 1-4 Akyab, Calcutta, Vishakhapatnam, Masulipatam 1 AD 747 638 5-8 Madras, NE-SE-W Ceylon 2 AD 736 449 Set No.(2) 9-12...Gulf of Oman 5 AD 733 693 21-24 S Gulf of Oman, SE-NE-NW Persian Gulf 6 AD 737 909 SOUTHEAST ASIAN COASTAL MARINE AREAS Areas 1-4 Tonkin Gulf, Da...COASTAL MARINE AREAS Areas 1-8 Princess Charlotte Bay, Cairns, Cumberland 1 AD-A044518 Islands, Rockhampton, Brisbane, Coffs Harbour, Sydney, Cape Howe

  9. Iran’s scientific dominance and the emergence of South-East Asian countries in the Arab Gulf Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, H.

    2016-07-01

    A longitudinal bibliometric analysis of publications indexed in Thomson Reuters' Incites and Elsevier's Scopus, and published from the Arab Gulf States and neighbouring countries, shows clear effects of major political events during the past 35 years. Predictions made in 2006 by the US diplomat Richard N. Haass on political changes in the Middle East have come true in the Gulf States’ national scientific research systems, to the extent that Iran has become in 2015 by far the leading country in the Arab Gulf, and South-East Asian countries including China, Malaysia and South Korea have become major scientific collaborators, displacing the USA and other large Western countries. But collaborations patterns among Gulf States show no apparent relationship with differences in Islam denominations. (Author)

  10. Statistical properties of the surface velocity field in the northern Gulf of Mexico sampled by GLAD drifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, A. J.; Ryan, E. H.; Huntley, H. S.; Laurindo, L. C.; Coelho, E.; Griffa, A.; Özgökmen, T. M.; Berta, M.; Bogucki, D.; Chen, S. S.; Curcic, M.; Drouin, K. L.; Gough, M.; Haus, B. K.; Haza, A. C.; Hogan, P.; Iskandarani, M.; Jacobs, G.; Kirwan, A. D.; Laxague, N.; Lipphardt, B.; Magaldi, M. G.; Novelli, G.; Reniers, A.; Restrepo, J. M.; Smith, C.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Wei, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD) used multiscale sampling and GPS technology to observe time series of drifter positions with initial drifter separation of O(100 m) to O(10 km), and nominal 5 min sampling, during the summer and fall of 2012 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Histograms of the velocity field and its statistical parameters are non-Gaussian; most are multimodal. The dominant periods for the surface velocity field are 1-2 days due to inertial oscillations, tides, and the sea breeze; 5-6 days due to wind forcing and submesoscale eddies; 9-10 days and two weeks or longer periods due to wind forcing and mesoscale variability, including the period of eddy rotation. The temporal e-folding scales of a fitted drifter velocity autocorrelation function are bimodal with time scales, 0.25-0.50 days and 0.9-1.4 days, and are the same order as the temporal e-folding scales of observed winds from nearby moored National Data Buoy Center stations. The Lagrangian integral time scales increase from coastal values of 8 h to offshore values of approximately 2 days with peak values of 3-4 days. The velocity variance is large, O>(1>) m2/s2, the surface velocity statistics are more anisotropic, and increased dispersion is observed at flow bifurcations. Horizontal diffusivity estimates are O>(103>) m2/s in coastal regions with weaker flow to O>(105>) m2/s in flow bifurcations, a strong jet, and during the passage of Hurricane Isaac. The Gulf of Mexico surface velocity statistics sampled by the GLAD drifters are a strong function of the feature sampled, topography, and wind forcing.

  11. Analyses on characteristics of sea-land breeze over Donghai island of Zhanjiang in February of 2011%湛江东海岛二月海陆风环流特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 王晶; 张羽; 张书文; 黄克鑫

    2012-01-01

    The average wind characteristics and sea-land breeze characteristics are analyzed by using the data of wind profiler during February 2011 on Donghai island of Zhanjiang. The results show that: the prevailing wind direction is northeasterly on Donghai island during February 2011 at an altitude of 150 m and the total frequency of occurrences of three directions E, ENE, NE is 66. 6% , in contrast, the total frequency of occurrences of westerly is only 1 % . There is an obvious difference of occurrence frequency between westerly winds and easterly winds. The hourly changes of average monthly wind speed is restricted to small range about 1 m/s from 1:00 to 15:00; and fluctuation becomes larger during 15:00 to 20:00, the maximal speed of 2. 1 m/s appears at 16:00. In February, only two days meet the conditions of sea-land hreeze. In sea-!and breeze day, the common duration of sea breeze is from 13:00 to 20:00, lasting 7 h, and land breeze's common duration is from 2:00 to 7:00, lasting 5 h. The mean speed of land breeze is 0. 8 m/s, which are smaller than 2. 1 m/s of sea breeze. The vertical height of land breezeis about 1200 m during the sea-land breeze day, which differs slightly from sea breeze. The wind speeds of both sea breeze ami land breeze have the similar (rends of increasing first and then decreasing with increasing altitude. The maximal wind speed of sea breeze appears at 750 m, and that of land breeze appears at 500 m. The sea breeze circulation is much stronger than land breeze in the region of 500 to 750 m height. The wind direction basically remains unchanged above 2 km and that is the large-scale uniform systematic west wind circulation.%利用2011年2月湛江东海岛风廓线雷达资料,系统分析了湛江东海岛2月平均风场特征及海陆风特征,结果表明:2月湛江东海岛150 m高度处以东偏北出现频率最大,在E、ENE和NE三个方位的风向出现频率之和为66.6%,偏西七个方位的风向出现频率之和仅为1

  12. 78 FR 28146 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Texas estuaries to the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) so the shrimp may reach a larger, more valuable size and to..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Texas Closure AGENCY... size. DATES: Effective 30 minutes after sunset, May 23, 2013, to 30 minutes after sunset, July 15, 2013...

  13. Shallow Water Dynamics in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Shallow Water Dynamics in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman Dr. Cheryl Ann Blain Naval Research Laboratory, Ocean Dynamics and Prediction Branch...of a circulation model for the Arabian Gulf and connecting waters that realistically predicts the complex, 3-D circulation and mixing patterns in the...forcings in the region, a strong evaporative flux, seasonal wind forcing, and freshwater river discharge. Not only are realistic current fields sought but

  14. Leviathan moving to expand Gulf gas system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-15

    This paper reports that Leviathan Gas Pipeline Co., Houston, has advanced plans for a large deepwater pipeline gathering system in the Gulf of Mexico. Under an agreement between Deep-Tech International Inc. and Transco Energy Co., Leviathan will pay $65 million for Transco interests in several gulf gas gathering pipelines and related facilities. Leviathan is a Deep Tech subsidiary. Gulf pipeline assets Leviathan acquired from Transco include Louisiana Offshore Pipeline Systems (LOPS), Green Canyon Pipeline Co., and companies owning at 40% interest in High Island Offshore System (HIOS) and a 33 1/1% interest in United Texas Offshore System (UTOS).

  15. Influence of sea breeze circulation and road traffic emissions on the relationship between particle number, black carbon, PM1, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 concentrations in a coastal city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sergio; Cuevas, Emilio; González, Yenny; Ramos, Ramón; Romero, Pedro Miguel; Pérez, Noemí; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés

    The physical characterisation of metrics representative of ambient air particle concentration is becoming a topic of great interest for urban air quality monitoring and human exposure assessment. In this article, the influence of sea breeze circulation and primary road traffic emissions on the relationship between the urban aerosol number (N3, particles >3 nm), black carbon cycles of sea and mountain breezes (inland during daylight and seaward at night) and road traffic emissions exerted a great, and well differentiated, influence on the BC, N3 and PM x concentrations. In this scenario, the following major aerosol features were observed: (1) fresh vehicle exhaust emissions resulted in high BC and N3 concentrations, in such a way that these two metrics increased when the "road traffic intensity (vehicles h -1)/wind speed" ratio increased, (2) PM1 and PM2.5 levels were lower during daylight (due to inland entry of relatively clean marine air masses) than at night (due to the seaward drainage airflow resulting in the transport of aged particulate pollutants from the city), (3) although N3 and BC concentrations exhibited a significant correlation during the whole study period, the N3/BC ratio experienced a daily evolution with a maximum during daylight. Thus, high N3 concentrations associated with high N3/BC ratios and high solar irradiance conditions were recorded during the daylight inland breeze period due to an enhancement of processes favouring new particle formation. Data analysis points out that this enhancement in the new particle formation processes is strongly related to the nucleation of photo-oxidized vapours under the relatively low PM x (and consequently low aerosol surface area) concentrations prompted by the inland entry of clean marine air due to the daylight breeze blowing. The results obtained show that, in addition to the vehicle exhaust emissions, new particle formation in coastal urban areas due to photo-oxidation processes may significantly

  16. Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment and Conservation Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed partnership to support a Gulf Coast Landscape Conservation Liaison will provide much needed coordination across multiple programs and partnerships to...

  17. Cretaceous Onlap, Gulf of Mexico Basin [cretonlapg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The maximum extent of Cretaceous onlap is generalized from Plate 3, Structure at the base and subcrop below Mesozoic marine section, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled...

  18. Anticlines in the US Gulf Coast [anticlineg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset of anticlines is intended primarily for reference; it includes major structures such as those shown on Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of...

  19. Northern Gulf Coast Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  20. Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific Fishery Management Council adopted the Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program (Rockfish Program) on June 14, 2010, to replace the expiring Pilot...

  1. 2013 Gulf of Mexico SPCE angler survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey provides economic data related to marine recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico. The data collected include preference and opinion information...

  2. Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Bathymetry Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Gulf of Mexico Depth Contours derived from NOAA's NGDC bathymetric grids and from BOEM's seismic grid compilation. Both NOAA and BOEM contours are shown in meters or...

  3. Southeast Gulf of Mexico Sperm Whale Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during the summers of 2012 and 2014 in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico north of the Dry Tortugas. Data were collected on the...

  4. ROE Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Sample Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset describes dissolved oxygen levels in the Gulf of Mexico. Individual sampling sites are represented by point data. The background polygon shows areas...

  5. Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most ecologically and economically valuable marine ecosystems in the world and is affected by a variety of natural and anthropogenic...

  6. Volcanics in the Gulf Coast [volcanicg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The volcanic provinces are modified after Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled by T.E. Ewing and R.F. Lopez) in Volume J, The...

  7. Observations of Urban Heat Island Mitigation in California Coastal Cities due to a Sea Breeze Induced Coastal-Cooling ``REVERSE-REACTION'' to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, R. D.; Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.

    2010-12-01

    The study evaluated long-term (1948-2005) air temperatures at over 300 urban and rural sites in California (CA) during summer (June-August, JJA). The aggregate CA results showed asymmetric warming, as daily min temperatures increased faster than daily max temperatures. The spatial distributions of daily max temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins, however, exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation (mainly urban) coastal-areas and warming at (mainly rural) inland areas. Previous studies have suggested that cooling summer max temperatures in CA were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover. The current hypothesis, however, is that this temperature pattern arises from a “reverse-reaction” to greenhouse gas (GHG) induced global-warming. In this hypothesis, the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in coastal areas. That daytime summer coastal cooling was seen in coastal urban areas implies that urban heat island (UHI) warming was weaker than the reverse-reaction sea breeze cooling; if there was no UHI effect, then the cooling would have been even stronger. Analysis of daytime summer max temperatures at four adjacent pairs of urban and rural sites near the inland cooling-warming boundary, however, showed that the rural sites experienced cooling, while the urban sites showed warming due to UHI development. The rate of heat island growth was estimated as the sum of each urban warming rate and the absolute magnitude of the concurrent adjacent rural cooling rate. Values ranged from 0.12 to 0.55 K decade-1, and were proportional to changes in urban population and urban extent. As Sacramento, Modesto, Stockton, and San José have grown in aerial extent (21 to 59%) and population (40 to 118%), part of the observed increased JJA max values could be due to increased daytime UHI-intensity. Without UHI effects, the currently observed JJA SFBA

  8. Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0477 TITLE: Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ronald R. Bach, Ph.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0477 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...GWI). Elevated biomarkers of inflammation were observed in our pilot observational study of GWI. Thus, chronic inflammation appears to be part of

  9. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  10. Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    efforts are ongoing to recruit more Gulf War veterans. The first set of stool samples have been sent to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory microbiota analysis...There is scientific evidence that probiotics by restoring normal gut flora improve symptoms of IBS. Probiotics have also been shown to improve...the Lawrence Berkeley laboratory for microbiota analysis.  We have received the list of Gulf War Veterans in the Salt Lake City are from the Defense

  11. Ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce embayments, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Ureña, H

    1996-12-01

    Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in December (rainy season), 1993 and February (dry season), 1994, during the RV Victor Hensen German-Costa Rican Expedition to the Gulf of Nicoya and Gulfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Samples from the inner, central, and outer areas of each gulf were collected in oblique tows with a bongo net of 0.6 m mouth diameter, 2.5 m long and 1000-micron mesh. A total of 416 fish larvae of 22 families were sorted out of 14 samples. Stations of both the maximum (11) and the minimum (1) family richness were located in Golfo Dulce. Mean total larval abundances were 124.9 and 197.2 individuals 10 m-2 for the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce, respectively, while mean larval densities ranged from 95.3 larvae 10 m-2 in December to 236.7 larvae 10 m-2 in February. However, no statistical differences between gulfs or seasons were detected, due to the high within-group variability. Cluster Analysis, Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), and non-parametric tests showed two well-defined major groups: (1) the Gulf of Nicoya neritic assemblage, represented by Engraulids, Sciaenids, and Gobiids (inner and central stations), and (2) the oceanic assemblage, dominated by Myctophids, Bregmacerotids, Ophiidids, and Trichiurids (outer stations off the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce). A third, although less defined group, was an Ophichthid-dominated assemblage (typical in areas nearby coral or rocky reefs). These assemblages closely resemble the clusters based upon adult fish data of the beamtrawl catches of the same cruise. This publication is the first to report on the ichthyoplankton community of Golfo Dulce.

  12. Major reproductive health characteristics in male Gulf War Veterans. The Danish Gulf War Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, T; Andersson, A M; Suadicani, Poul Vilhelm

    2001-01-01

    The male reproductive system could have been affected by various hazardous agents and exposures during and in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War scenario. We tested the hypothesis that, compared to controls, male Danish Gulf War Veterans would have adverse sex hormone levels, decreased fertility...

  13. Study on Issues Concerning Regional Intergovernmental Cooperative Governance in Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone has taken the initiative to explore how to promote public administration of interregional local governments and achieved some success in recent years. However, there are still many problems as follows: the cooperation never goes deep;the cooperative governance is devoid of necessary system guarantee and information exchange and share platform. We analyse the status quo of cooperation in regional intergovernmental public administration as follows: it integrates the hierarchy power of government; it sponsors the forum for strengthening public administration and deepening cooperation in Beibu Gulf Economic Zone; it accelerates regional transportation system building; it sets up public administration institution; it quickens the pace of innovation of management and system in Beibu Gulf Economic Zone. Finally we put forward the path to construction of regional government cooperative governance so as to promote sustainable regional development as follows: construct the composite regional administrative cooperative governance model; construct the regional administrative network organization governance model; construct regional administrative special-project-based intergovernmental cooperative governance model; construct long-term flexible regional administrative cooperative mechanism.

  14. Defining the Role of Public Health in Disaster Recovery: An Evaluation of State Public Health Planning Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Brahmbhatt , Jennifer L. Chan, Edbert B. Hsu,Hani Mowafi, Thomas D. Kirsch, Asma Quereshi P. Gregg Greenough, “Public Health Preparedness of Post-Katrina...are not covered by Medicaid or private insurance.73 Recently, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico highlighted gaps in...reference to specific states was to name those states (Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic states from Texas through Virginia) that were included in the

  15. 78 FR 49183 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... 15 and requested public comments (78 FR 31511). The proposed rule and the regulatory amendment... small business size standards for several industries effective July 22, 2013 (78 FR 37398). The rule..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic...

  16. 75 FR 2489 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Mexico, and Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR) Steering Committee; Public Meeting... addition of a Goliath Grouper benchmark assessment, and additional Gulf of Mexico tilefish stocks to be... meet via conference call to discuss timing of assessment projects for 2010, progress on procedural...

  17. 76 FR 10887 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA246 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... 21 Highly Migratory Species (HMS) of sandbar, dusky, and blacknose sharks assessment webinar. SUMMARY...

  18. 76 FR 13985 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA287 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... SEDAR assessments of the HMS stocks of sandbar, dusky, and blacknose sharks consists of a series of...

  19. 75 FR 23676 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN: 0648-XW25 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Data Workshop for HMS sandbar, dusky, and blacknose sharks. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessments of the HMS...

  20. MEASURED AND PREFORMED PHOSPHATE IN THE GULF OF MEXICO REGION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measured and preformed phosphate-phosphorous versus depth are presented for three recent cruises to the Gulf of Mexico region. Phosphate...are discussed for a hypothetical idealized station in the Gulf of Mexico . (Author)

  1. Gulf of Mexico Hydrocarbon Seeps (SEEPS.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This GIS overlay is a component of the U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole Science Center's, Gulf of Mexico GIS database. The Gulf of Mexico GIS database is intended...

  2. Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for the Arab Gulf Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG has been promoted by several international organizations. However, there are no FBDG for the countries in the Arab region. As the Arab Gulf countries share similar a socioeconomic and nutrition situation, an attempt was made to develop FBDG for these countries. This paper summarizes the steps taken to develope such guidelines by the Arab Center for Nutrition. The FBDG were developed through 6 steps: (1 determination of the purpose and goals for establishing FBDG, (2 characteristics of FBDG, (3 determination of the food consumption patterns, (4 review the current nutrition situation, (5 determination of the lifestyle patterns that are associated with diet-related diseases and (6 formulating the FBDG. The FBDG consist of 14 simple and practical pieces of advice taking into consideration the sociocultural status and nutritional problems in the Arab Gulf countries. The FBDG can be a useful tool in educating the public in healthy eating and prevention of diet-related chronic diseases.

  3. Pathogenic micro-organisms and helminths in sewage products, Arabian Gulf, country of Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, O M

    1988-03-01

    Fecal and sludge samples from the Arabian Gulf country of Bahrain contained poliomyelitis and coxackie viruses, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella sonni, fecal streptococci, Balantidium coli, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana eggs, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Sludge produced in the central sewage treatment plant is used for agricultural purposes and poses a threat to public health. Recommendations to reduce the potential health hazards are made.

  4. No Substitute for Experience: Chinese Antipiracy Operations in the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    trafficking and forcing women into prostitution,” according to the Ministry of Public Security.86 This episode, combined with similar Chinese law...piracy. In September 2012 Australia decided to reroute the heavy-lift ship Blue Marlin, carrying HMAS Canberra from its builder in Spain to Geelong...that a survey showed that 86 percent of Chinese “netizens” (active Internet users) supported a Gulf of Aden mission.110 Another survey was reported

  5. Effectiveness of Acupressure Treatment for Pain Management and Fatigue Relief in Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    National Gulf War Resource Center’s facebook page (thanks to Mr. James Bunker, Executive Director) and placement of online advertisements through Google... advertisement process was initiated and we expect to enroll 2-3 subjects each month going forward. Study Advertisements IRB had previously...approved the text for placing study advertisements in Plain Dealer and other publications. Since these are very expensive, CCF Marketing recommended

  6. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  7. 78 FR 48654 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ..., Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine... managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including...

  8. 77 FR 26746 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data... database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives...

  9. 77 FR 67341 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... include: Data collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers...

  10. 76 FR 22385 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ..., Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and... database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives...

  11. 78 FR 27957 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine... database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives...

  12. 78 FR 16657 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine... collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency...

  13. Research on the Interaction of Tianjin Urban Heat Island Circulation and Sea Breeze Circulation%天津地区城市热岛环流与海风环流相互作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    东高红; 尉英华; 解以扬; 刘一玮; 李英华

    2015-01-01

    Using the mesoscale TJ-WRF model data and encryption automatic weather station (AWS)data, etc.,we analyze the distribution characteristics of Tianjin urban heat island circulation and sea breeze cir-culation as well as the interaction of them.Through several typical weather cases (Local strong thunder-storms seen in urban areas and the weather without any processes affected by the sea breeze),the trigger mechanism of the interaction between urban heat island circulation and sea breeze circulation for local thun-derstorms is analyzed.The results show that the extended height of urban heat island circulation is near 800 hPa,spatial extention is about 20 km,and the upward motion is obvious.The extended height of sea breeze circulation is near 800-750 hPa and spatial extention is about 40-60 km.The stretch height of the sea breeze front is about 950-900 hPa in the forefront of the sea breeze circulation,and the upward speed is 0.2 m·s-1 on average,slightly stronger than the heat island circulation.The sea breeze can weaken the urban heat island effect while the urban heat island can block the sea breeze circulation.With the sea breeze circulation pushed near to the urban,the sea breeze circulation and the urban heat island circulation encounter,then the two circulations get superimposed and the upward motion is significantly strength-ened,causing the maximum upward speed to go up to 0.6 m·s-1 .Under the favorable weather conditions the local severe thunderstorms can be triggered.%利用中尺度数值模式(TJ-WRF)模拟资料及天津加密自动气象站资料等,选取几个典型天气过程(城区附近局地强雷暴天气过程、受海风影响明显的无天气过程)个例,分析研究天津城市热岛环流与海风环流的空间结构特征及相互作用;重点对城市热岛环流与海风环流相互作用触发局地强雷暴的机制进行分析。结果表明:城市热岛环流的伸展高度基本在800 hPa

  14. 75 FR 64171 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... reached by October 28, 2010. This closure is necessary to prevent overfishing of Gulf greater amberjack... legal requirements to prevent and end overfishing and rebuild greater amberjack in the Gulf. On August 4... prevent overfishing of Gulf greater amberjack and increase the likelihood that the 2010 quota will not...

  15. 76 FR 54727 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South... Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP) for review, approval, and implementation by NMFS. Amendment 10 proposes actions to revise the lobster...

  16. Symptom Patterns Among Gulf War Registry Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, William K.; Kipen, Howard M.; Diefenbach, Michael; Boyd, Kendal; Kang, Han; Leventhal, Howard; Wartenberg, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. We identify symptom patterns among veterans who believe they suffer from Gulf War–related illnesses and characterize groups of individuals with similar patterns. Methods. A mail survey was completed by 1161 veterans drawn from the Gulf War Health Registry. Results. An exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 symptom factors. A K-means cluster analysis revealed 2 groups: (1) veterans reporting good health and few moderate/severe symptoms, and (2) veterans reporting fair/poor health and endorsing an average of 37 symptoms, 75% as moderate/severe. Those in Cluster 2 were more likely to report having 1 or more of 24 medical conditions. Conclusions. These findings are consistent with previous investigations of symptom patterns in Gulf War veterans. This multisymptom illness may be more fully characterized by the extent, breadth, and severity of symptoms reported. PMID:12660208

  17. Probiotic (VSL 3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0593 TITLE: Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok Tuteja, M.D...2015 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0593 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6 . AUTHOR(S) 5d...ABSTRACT The overall objective of the study is to determine whether probiotic VSL#3® will improve 1) intestinal symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

  18. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  19. Shelf Circulation in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Gulf of Mexico between 1990 and 1993, are used to describe the seasonal fluctuations in patterns of atmospheric variables from a contemporary set of measurements. Seasonal maps of wind stress based on these measurements resemble wind stress maps based on ship observations, as published by Elliot (1979), rather than maps based on analyses of numerical weather forecasts, as published by Rhodes et a. (1989), particularly near the western boundary of the Gulf. Seasonal maps of wind stress curl are characterized by positive curls over the western and southwestern

  20. Star Formation in the Gulf of Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Armond, Tina; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We present an optical/infrared study of the dense molecular cloud, L935, dubbed "The Gulf of Mexico", which separates the North America and the Pelican nebulae, and we demonstrate that this area is a very active star forming region. A wide-field imaging study with interference filters has revealed 35 new Herbig-Haro objects in the Gulf of Mexico. A grism survey has identified 41 Halpha emission-line stars, 30 of them new. A small cluster of partly embedded pre-main sequence stars is located around the known LkHalpha 185-189 group of stars, which includes the recently erupting FUor HBC 722.

  1. Star Formation in the Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Armond, Tina; Reipurth, Bo; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We present an optical/infrared study of the dense molecular cloud, L935, dubbed "The Gulf of Mexico", which separates the North America and the Pelican nebulae, and we demonstrate that this area is a very active star forming region. A wide-field imaging study with interference filters has revealed 35 new Herbig-Haro objects in the Gulf of Mexico. A grism survey has identified 41 Halpha emission-line stars, 30 of them new. A small cluster of partly embedded pre-main sequence stars is located a...

  2. Gulf International Conference on Applied Mathematics 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Advances in Applied Mathematics

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains contributions from the Gulf International Conference in Applied Mathematics, held at the Gulf University for Science & Technology. The proceedings reflects the three major themes of the conference. The first of these was mathematical biology, including a keynote address by Professor Philip Maini. The second theme was computational science/numerical analysis, including a keynote address by Professor Grigorii Shishkin. The conference also addressed more general applications topics, with papers in business applications, fluid mechanics, optimization, scheduling problems, and engineering applications, as well as a keynote by Professor Ali Nayfeh.

  3. Gulf of Maine intermediate water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, T.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Garfield, N. III

    1979-01-01

    The thermohaline dynamics of the Gulf of Maine are analyzed from the two year, eight cruise, data set of Colton, Marak, Nickerson, and Stoddard (1968). Six water masses are described: the Maine Surface Water, Maine Intermediate Water, and the Maine Bottom Water as interior water masses; and the Scotian Shelf Water, the Slope Water, and the Georges Bank Water as exterior water masses. Particular attention is given to the formation and disposition of the Maine Intermediate Water. Salt balance, T-S volume, and T-S drift analyses are used to provide transport and mixing estimates for the year 1966. The Slope Water entered at depth through the Northeast Channel at a rate of 2600 km/sup 3//yr; while the Scotian Shelf Water entered the surface and intermediate layers, mostly during winter intrusions, at a rate of 5200 km/sup 3//yr. The surface and intermediate layers exported a total of 7900 km/sup 3//yr in a 3:5 ratio, respectively. The Maine Intermediate Water tends to collect over the Wilkinson Basin during the stratified season, to exit via the Great South Channel during early spring, and to exit via the Northeast Channel during spring and summer. Comparisons are made between the estimated winter heat loss of 280 Ly/d and the observed heat losses of 230 Ly/d (surface layers) and 360 Ly/d (surface and intermediate layers). A limit for the Scotian Shelf Water contribution is about -70 Ly/d. It is concluded that the Maine Intermediate Water is produced locally and that it is exported in significant quantities.

  4. Gulf Islands Wilderness study area : Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges : Wilderness study report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  5. Major depression and depressive symptoms in Australian Gulf War veterans 20 years after the Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikin, J F; McKenzie, D P; Gwini, S M; Kelsall, H L; Creamer, M; McFarlane, A C; Clarke, D M; Wright, B; Sim, M

    2016-01-01

    Risk of major depression (depression) was elevated in Australia's Gulf War veterans in a 2000-2002 (baseline) study. A follow up study has measured the Gulf War-related risk factors for depression, also the current prevalence and severity of depression, use of anti-depressant medication, and persistence, remittance or incidence of depression since baseline in Gulf War veterans and a military comparison group. Participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview v.2.1, the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the Military Service Experience Questionnaire, and consented to Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (RPBS) and PBS linkage. Prevalence of depression (9.7% Gulf War veterans and 7.7% comparison group; adj RR=1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.7), and pattern of persistence, remittance and incidence of depression since baseline, were similar in the two groups, however veterans reported slightly more severe symptoms (adj median difference 1, 95% CI 0.26-1.74) and were more likely to have been dispensed anti-depressant medication (adj RR=1.56, 95% CI 1.05-2.32). Depression amongst veterans was associated with self-reported Gulf War-related stressors in a dose-response relationship (adj RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.09). Lower participation rates at follow up resulted in reduced statistical power compared with baseline, Gulf War related stressor data collected at baseline was at risk of recall bias, and RPBS and PBS databases do not capture all dispensed Nervous System medications. More than 20 years after the Gulf War, veterans are experiencing slightly more severe depressive symptoms than a military comparison group, and depression continues to be associated with Gulf War-related stressors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Harvesting wind energy from the sea breeze in peri-urban coastal areas by means of small scale wind turbines - Case study: Viladecans, Llobregat Delta, northeast of Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jose I.; Cabrera, Barbara; Mazon, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Wind speed data recorded during 18 years (1993-2010) in the Llobregat Delta (15 km south of Barcelona city; northeast of the Iberian Peninsula) were used to assess the wind energy generated by off-grid small scale wind turbines (the IT-PE-100 and the HP-600W) for the whole year and for the sea breeze period. The computations were made using QBlade, FAST and AeroDyn simulation tools and manufacturer power curves. Using manufacturer data, the HP-600W with hub-height 8 m would deliver 157 kWh during the whole year (78 kWh during the sea breeze period), with an average power of 18 W (37 W). In this work, the results of the simulations are compared with power and energy production data measured in an HP-600W turbine installed in situ from December 2014 to April 2016. Also, the measured power is compared to the power obtained by applying the measured wind in the period 2014-2016 to the manufacturer power curve and the power curve obtained with the simulations. The results of the computations agree with the experimental data, thus validating the proposed approach for wind resource estimation. The feasibility of using a vertical axis wind turbine for obtaining wind energy from the local, thermal wind regimes is also studied. This research confirms that the sea-breeze is an interesting wind energy resource for micro-generation in peri-urban coastal areas where large-scale wind farms cannot be implemented.

  7. Atmospheric forcing of the upper ocean transport in the Gulf of Mexico: From seasonal to diurnal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judt, Falko; Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan

    2016-06-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) was an environmental disaster, which highlighted the urgent need to predict the transport and dispersion of hydrocarbon. Although the variability of the atmospheric forcing plays a major role in the upper ocean circulation and transport of the pollutants, the air-sea interaction on various time scales is not well understood. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the atmospheric forcing and upper ocean response in the GoM from seasonal to diurnal time scales, using climatologies derived from long-term observations, in situ observations from two field campaigns, and a coupled model. The atmospheric forcing in the GoM is characterized by striking seasonality. In the summer, the time-average large-scale forcing is weak, despite occasional extreme winds associated with hurricanes. In the winter, the atmospheric forcing is much stronger, and dominated by synoptic variability on time scales of 3-7 days associated with winter storms and cold air outbreaks. The diurnal cycle is more pronounced during the summer, when sea breeze circulations affect the coastal regions and nighttime wind maxima occur over the offshore waters. Realtime predictions from a high-resolution atmosphere-wave-ocean coupled model were evaluated for both summer and winter conditions during the Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD) in July-August 2012 and the Surfzone Coastal Oil Pathways Experiment (SCOPE) in November-December 2013. The model generally captured the variability of atmospheric forcing on all scales, but suffered from some systematic errors.

  8. 78 FR 42021 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Aggregated Large Coastal Shark and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Aggregated Large Coastal Shark and Gulf of Mexico Hammerhead Shark... management groups for aggregated large coastal sharks (LCS) and hammerhead sharks in the Gulf of Mexico...: The commercial Gulf of Mexico aggregated LCS and Gulf of Mexico hammerhead shark management groups...

  9. Faults in the Gulf Coast [gcfaultsg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These mapped faults are modified from Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled by T.E. Ewing and R.F. Lopez) in Volume J, The Geology...

  10. The Gulf Stream and Density of Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstrom, Erich

    2006-01-01

    A few kilometers from the shores of Palm Beach County, Florida, is the Gulf Stream current--a remarkable "river" within an ocean. The current's journey across the Atlantic Ocean connects southeast Florida and southwest Great Britain as it streams steadily north at speeds of 97 km a day; moving 100 times as much water as all the rivers on Earth.…

  11. Multiple Currents in the Gulf Stream System

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglister, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    A new interpretation of the accumulated temperature and salinity data from the Gulf Stream Area indicates that the System is made up of a series of overlapping currents. These currents are separated by relatively weak countercurrents. Data from a recent survey are presented as supporting this hypothesis.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1951.tb00804.x

  12. The Gulf Stream: Inertia and friction

    OpenAIRE

    ASSAF, GAD

    2011-01-01

    The inertial theory of the Gulf Stream (Charney, 1955) is extended to include vertical friction in the cyclonic shear zone (the western side) of the stream. The vertical friction is assumed to be controlled by local Froude conditions.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1977.tb00717.x

  13. Fishery potential of the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    /h) was three times more productive than the creek (av. 2.3 kg/h). The number of species found in the Gulf and creek were respectively 34 and 20 suggesting good biodiversity of the living resources of the area....

  14. Prospects for Gulf Region with closed greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    In countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, water is scarce as rainfall is minimal. Growers in the Gulf Region rely on groundwater for evaporative cooling and irrigation. This source of water is running out and growers are deciding to end production. The governments of the Kingdo

  15. Arab-Americans and the Gulf Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Al-Deen, Hana S.

    A study examined the sentiment and impact of different types, channels, and forms of aggression against the Arab-American community during the Gulf Crisis. Data were selected from entries in the 1990 Anti-Arab Discrimination and Hate Crimes Log of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination (ADC) National Office. Results show that there were 129 acts of…

  16. Fish larvae from the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Aceves-Medina

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic composition of fish larvae was analysed from 464 plankton samples obtained during 10 oceanographic surveys in the Gulf of California between 1984 and 1988. We identified 283 taxa: 173 species, 57 genera, and 53 families. Tropical and subtropical species predominated except during the winter, when temperate-subarctic species were dominant. The most abundant species were the mesopelagic Benthosema panamense, Triphoturus mexicanus and Vinciguerria lucetia, but the coastal pelagic species Engraulis mordax, Opisthonema spp., Sardinops caeruleus and Scomber japonicus were also prominent. The taxonomic composition of the ichthyoplankton shows the seasonality of the Gulf as well as environmental changes that occurred between the 1984-1987 warm period and the 1956-1957 cool period previously reported. The presence of E. mordax larvae as one of the most abundant species in the Gulf provides evidence of the reproduction of this species two years before the development of the northern anchovy fishery and the decline of the sardine fishery in the Gulf of California.

  17. New offshore platform in the Mexican Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beisel, T.

    1982-04-01

    After a construction period of only 10 months, the second steel Offshore platform was recently completed in the Mexican Gulf. The pattern for this structure was the Cognac platform. The erection of the new platform, called the 'Cerveza' platform, is described in the article.

  18. Fault Zones in the Gulf Coast [gcfltzoneg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent major fault zones as indicated on Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled by T.E. Ewing and R.F. Lopez) in volume...

  19. Salt Diapirs in the Gulf Coast [gcdiapirg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations and shapes of salt diapirs were modified after the New Orleans Geological Society map, Salt tectonism of the U.S. Gulf Coast Basin (compiled by J.A. Lopez,...

  20. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  1. Disaster preparation and the functioning of a hospital social work department during the Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shahar, I

    1993-01-01

    The nature of the Gulf War and its consequences for the public at the personal and community levels, called for considerable alterations in organization and management at the Chaim Sheba Medical Center, the largest government general hospital in Israel, with constant adaptation to the changing situation. The preparations and exercises preceding the state of emergency, combined with the knowledge and experience gained in similar situations in the past, equipped the staff of the Social Work Department to function adequately and to make appropriate decisions and changes in the face of moral and ethical dilemmas, as well as immediate physical threat. This article presents the rationale for the model of intervention that guided the hospital during the Gulf War in offering services to casualty victims and their families. Also discussed are the process of developing an organizational framework and its content that meets wartime demands, and the implications for social work practice in dealing with a war crisis.

  2. Rationale, design, methodology and hospital characteristics of the first gulf acute heart failure registry (gulf care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim J Sulaiman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of data on heart failure (HF in the Gulf Middle East. The present paper describes the rationale, design, methodology and hospital characteristics of the first Gulf acute heart failure registry (Gulf CARE. Materials and Methods: Gulf CARE is a prospective, multicenter, multinational registry of patients >18 year of age admitted with diagnosis of acute HF (AHF. The data collected included demographics, clinical characteristics, etiology, precipitating factors, management and outcomes of patients admitted with AHF. In addition, data about hospital readmission rates, procedures and mortality at 3 months and 1-year follow-up were recorded. Hospital characteristics and care provider details were collected. Data were entered in a dedicated website using an electronic case record form. Results: A total of 5005 consecutive patients were enrolled from February 14, 2012 to November 13, 2012. Forty-seven hospitals in 7 Gulf States (Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait, United Gulf Emirates, Qatar and Bahrain participated in the project. The majority of hospitals were community hospitals (46%; 22/47 followed by non-University teaching (32%; 15/47 and University hospitals (17%. Most of the hospitals had intensive or coronary care unit facilities (93%; 44/47 with 59% (28/47 having catheterization laboratory facilities. However, only 29% (14/47 had a dedicated HF clinic facility. Most patients (71% were cared for by a cardiologist. Conclusions: Gulf CARE is the first prospective registry of AHF in the Middle East, intending to provide a unique insight into the demographics, etiology, management and outcomes of AHF in the Middle East. HF management in the Middle East is predominantly provided by cardiologists. The data obtained from this registry will help the local clinicians to identify the deficiencies in HF management as well as provide a platform to implement evidence based preventive and treatment strategies to reduce the burden

  3. No evidence for altered cellular immune functions in personnel deployed in the Persian Gulf during and after the Gulf War--The Danish Gulf War study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Ishøy, T; Skovgaard, L T;

    2001-01-01

    Veterans who have participated in the Gulf War suffer from a number of symptoms, collectively referred to as the Gulf War Syndrome. It has been hypothesized that a change in the systemic cytokine balance or other changes in immunological parameters could be responsible for some of the symptoms. We...

  4. Modeling the Gulf Stream System: How Far from Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choa, Yi; Gangopadhyay, Avijit; Bryan, Frank O.; Holland, William R.

    1996-01-01

    Analyses of a primitive equation ocean model simulation of the Atlantic Ocean circulation at 1/6 deg horizontal resolution are presented with a focus on the Gulf Stream region. Among many successful features of this simulation, this letter describes the Gulf Stream separation from the coast of North America near Cape Hatteras, meandering of the Gulf Stream between Cape Hatteras and the Grand Banks, and the vertical structure of temperature and velocity associated with the Gulf Stream. These results demonstrate significant improvement in modeling the Gulf Stream system using basin- to global scale ocean general circulation models. Possible reasons responsible for the realistic Gulf Stream simulation are discussed, contrasting the major differences between the present model configuration and those of previous eddy resolving studies.

  5. Mercury in the Gulf of Mexico: sources to receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Reed; Pollman, Curtis; Landing, William; Evans, David; Axelrad, Donald; Hutchinson, David; Morey, Steven L; Rumbold, Darren; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Adams, Douglas H; Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Holmes, Christopher; Atkinson, R Dwight; Myers, Tom; Sunderland, Elsie

    2012-11-01

    Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) fisheries account for 41% of the U.S. marine recreational fish catch and 16% of the nation's marine commercial fish landings. Mercury (Hg) concentrations are elevated in some fish species in the Gulf, including king mackerel, sharks, and tilefish. All five Gulf states have fish consumption advisories based on Hg. Per-capita fish consumption in the Gulf region is elevated compared to the U.S. national average, and recreational fishers in the region have a potential for greater MeHg exposure due to higher levels of fish consumption. Atmospheric wet Hg deposition is estimated to be higher in the Gulf region compared to most other areas in the U.S., but the largest source of Hg to the Gulf as a whole is the Atlantic Ocean (>90%) via large flows associated with the Loop Current. Redistribution of atmospheric, Atlantic and terrestrial Hg inputs to the Gulf occurs via large scale water circulation patterns, and further work is needed to refine estimates of the relative importance of these Hg sources in terms of contributing to fish Hg levels in different regions of the Gulf. Measurements are needed to better quantify external loads, in-situ concentrations, and fluxes of total Hg and methylmercury in the water column, sediments, and food web.

  6. The influence of the Gulf Stream on wintertime European blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Christopher H.; Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Wintertime blocking is responsible for extended periods of anomalously cold and dry weather over Europe. In this study, the influence of the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature (SST) front on wintertime European blocking is investigated using a reanalysis dataset and a pair of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations. The AGCM is forced with realistic and smoothed Gulf Stream SST, and blocking frequency over Europe is found to depend crucially on the Gulf Stream SST front. In the absence of the sharp SST gradient European blocking is significantly reduced and occurs further downstream. The Gulf Stream is found to significantly influence the surface temperature anomalies during blocking periods and the occurrence of associated cold spells. In particular the cold spell peak, located in central Europe, disappears in the absence of the Gulf Stream SST front. The nature of the Gulf Stream influence on European blocking development is then investigated using composite analysis. The presence of the Gulf Stream SST front is important in capturing the observed quasi-stationary development of European blocking. The development is characterised by increased lower-tropospheric meridional eddy heat transport in the Gulf Stream region and increased eddy kinetic energy at upper-levels, which acts to reinforce the quasi-stationary jet. When the Gulf Stream SST is smoothed the storm track activity is weaker, the development is less consistent and European blocking occurs less frequently.

  7. Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Judd, Chaeli [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gulbransen, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodruff, Dana L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzy, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hardin, Danny [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Estes, Maury [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative (GoMRC), a year-long project funded by NASA. The GoMRC project was organized around end user outreach activities, a science applications team, and a team for information technology (IT) development. Key outcomes are summarized below for each of these areas. End User Outreach; Successfully engaged federal and state end users in project planning and feedback; With end user input, defined needs and system functional requirements; Conducted demonstration to End User Advisory Committee on July 9, 2007 and presented at Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) meeting of Habitat Identification committee; Conducted significant engagement of other end user groups, such as the National Estuary Programs (NEP), in the Fall of 2007; Established partnership with SERVIR and Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS) programs and initiated plan to extend HABs monitoring and prediction capabilities to the southern Gulf; Established a science and technology working group with Mexican institutions centered in the State of Veracruz. Key team members include the Federal Commission for the Protection Against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS), the Ecological Institute (INECOL) a unit of the National Council for science and technology (CONACYT), the Veracruz Aquarium (NOAA’s first international Coastal Ecology Learning Center) and the State of Veracruz. The Mexican Navy (critical to coastal studies in the Southern Gulf) and other national and regional entities have also been engaged; and Training on use of SERVIR portal planned for Fall 2007 in Veracruz, Mexico Science Applications; Worked with regional scientists to produce conceptual models of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) ecosystems; Built a logical framework and tool for ontological modeling of SAV and HABs; Created online guidance for SAV restoration planning; Created model runs which link potential future land use trends, runoff and SAV viability; Analyzed SAV

  8. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  9. Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    are relevant to GW Veterans. Altered gut flora may be the etiological factor for IBS and GW Illness. Probiotics are living organisms that improve... health by re-establishing a normal gut flora. The overall objective of the study was to determine whether Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (Align...W81XWH-10-1-0593 TITLE: Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok Tuteja, M.D. M.P.H

  10. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  11. Regional CMS Modeling: Southwest Florida Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    counties and over 70 miles of southwest Florida shoreline along the Gulf of Mexico . The study region is entirely within the USACE Jacksonville...2 Figure 1. Sediment budget extent and active USACE Jacksonville District (SAJ) projects in Pinellas, Manatee, and Sarasota Counties, FL. METHOD ...The CMS is a product of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (http://cirp.usace. army.mil), a USACE Navigation Research Development and Technology

  12. NASA Gulf of Mexico Initiative Hypoxia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    The Applied Science & Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center (SSC) manages NASA's Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI). Addressing short-term crises and long-term issues, GOMI participants seek to understand the environment using remote sensing, in-situ observations, laboratory analyses, field observations and computational models. New capabilities are transferred to end-users to help them make informed decisions. Some GOMI activities of interest to the hypoxia research community are highlighted.

  13. The Gulf: A young sea in decline

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, Charles (Charles R. C.); Al-Husiani, Mohsen; Al-Jamali, F.; Al-yamani, Faiza; Baldwin, Rob; Bishop, James; Benzoni, Francesca; Dutrieux, Eric; Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Durvasulah, Subba Rao V.; Jonesi, David A.; Loughland, Ron; Mediok, David; Nithyanandan, M.; Pilling, Graham M.

    2009-01-01

    This review examines the substantial changes that have taken place in marine habitats and resources of the Gulf over the past decade. The habitats are especially interesting because of the naturally high levels of temperature and salinity stress they experience, which is important in a changing world climate. However, the extent of all natural habitats is changing and their condition deteriorating because of the rapid development of the region and, in some cases from severe, episodic warming ...

  14. Q&A on Beibu Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2010-01-01

    China-ASEAN FTA, the world's largest free trade area in terms of population took effect on January 1, 2010, covering 13 million square kilometers and 1.9 billion people. Over 90 percent of the commodities traded between China and the six original ASEAN countries, including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, now enjoy no tariffs from 2010. As a window to ASEAN countries, Beibu Gulf Economic Zone is in more limelight since the new year.

  15. Probiotic (VSL 3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    ongoing to recruit more Gulf War veterans. The first set of stool samples have been sent to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for microbiota analysis. 15...scientific evidence that probiotics by restoring normal gut flora improve symptoms of IBS. Probiotics have also been shown to improve arthritis and...affecting the study assessment.  The first set of stool samples have been sent to the Lawrence Berkeley laboratory for microbiota analysis.  We have

  16. PROSPECTS FOR COKE BREEZE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Mihnovets

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches give grounds to believe in the possibility of receiving briquettes from coke waste mixed with peat dry coal and their use for smelting iron in the cupola or as a household fuel.

  17. 50 CFR 36.39 - Public use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lake Breeze Lake Cashka Lake Dabbler Lake Dolly Varden Lake Forest Lake Imeri Lake Lili Lake Mosquito..., Afonasi, Dolly Varden, and Rainbow Lakes. (vi) Notwithstanding any other provision of these...

  18. Sediment Sources in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoutian, Mehrab

    2014-05-01

    Sediment Constituent Analysis is an effective tool for identifying sediment sources. Based on several sediment samples taken from different sites all over the Iranian coastlines, we have been able to show that an important portion of sediment on the beaches in the Persian Gulf is bio-clastic; that is, biologically created from the coral environment as well as other marine habitats. Unlike mineral (clastic) sediments, carbonate sediments are born not made. Furthermore, carbonate sand constituents are generally less durable than their quartz and mineral counterparts, and break down relatively quickly. Therefore, destruction of reefs and degradation of marine habitat are certain to reduce the sand supply to the shoreline in the Persian Gulf that is necessary to maintain beaches. Carbonate sands are also found on the coastline of the Oman Sea. One of the striking things about the sediments along the coastline of Iran is the high percentage of carbonate material. Molluscan debris is common, even ubiquitous. This reflects the populations living in the offshore waters. Some molluscs thrive in high-energy sandy environments, others like finer sediments. Some live at the surface, while some burrow down as much as a half-metre. A great deal of information can be gained from the study of the species of mollusk and their distribution in the sediments. This paper introduces a few case studies done in different parts of the Persian Gulf by using this method as a general assessment toolbox.

  19. Status of hepatocellular carcinoma in Gulf region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Kakil Ibrahim; Al-Azawi, Safaa H; Chandra, Prem; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K; Knuth, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a unique geographic distribution that is likely to be determined by specific etiologic factors. There is a distinctive difference in sex and age related occurrence of disease. In the Gulf region, there are contradicting data on the prevalence and death rates due to HCC. In this review we highlight some aspects of HCC specific to the Gulf region. A retrospective analysis of 150 patient's data is presented, including demographic, epidemiological, aetiological disease status assessment with child Pugh criteria, modes of treatment and treatment related outcome. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was the most common (45%) documented etiology, similar to Western European countries, followed by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 27% of cases, alcoholic liver disease only in six patients (4%). Child-Pugh assessment was A in 33%, B in 37% and C in 30% of observed patients. Surgery (liver resection or transplantation) was performed in 12% and local ablation in 5% of cases. The others were treated by chemo-embolization in 17% and by systemic therapy with sorafenib in 13% of patients. Nearly half of the patients (53%) were in advanced stages and received palliative treatment. To improve the outcome of treatment in HCC patients in the Gulf region, an effective and strategic screening program must be implemented for early diagnosis and treatment to improve the outcome of this mostly fatal disease.

  20. Of Blind Men and Elephants: Some Thoughts on a Learning-Centered Approach for Bridging the Gulf between the Arts and Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Scott Louis

    2007-01-01

    More than forty-five years after the publication of C. P. Snow's essay on "The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution," the "gulf of understanding" he described between scholars in the sciences and humanities appears to have grown ever larger, with disciplinary knowledge becoming more specialized and incomprehensible to…

  1. Gulf of Bothnia receives high concentrations of potentially toxic metals from acid sulphate soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, M.; Aastroem, M. [Kalmar Univ., Kalmar (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    An estimated 460000 ha of acid sulphate soil (AS soil) occur within the river catchments bordering the Gulf of Bothnia in Finland and Sweden. This soil type exists because extensive areas of sulphide-bearing Holocene sediments have been drained for agricultural purposes, resulting in oxidation of metal sulphides to sulphuric acid and the concomitant formation of these acidic, environmentally-unfriendly soils. The aim of this study was to compare median values of metal concentrations in rivers discharging into the Gulf of Bothnia and obtain a uniform picture of to what extent these rivers are affected by AS-soil leaching. Dissolved element concentrations for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were determined in 47 rivers (catchment size > 500 km2) discharging into Gulf of Bothnia (a few into Gulf of Finland) along the coastline of Finland and Sweden. Water chemistry data was obtained from the Environmental Information System (HERTTA) database at the Finnish Environment Institute, the publicly available online database at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Environmental Assessment, and from a previous study of the authors. One area in central-western Finland proved to have highly elevated concentrations of Cd, Ni and Zn, and they all occurred with a similar spatial pattern and had the highest concentrations in rivers Teuvanjoki and Maalahdenjoki. This is caused by AS-soil leaching. The metalloid As and the metals Cr, Fe, Pb did not display this pattern and are, therefore, in line with previous studies, not leached abundantly from the AS soils, although they overall occur at somewhat higher concentrations in the Finnish as compared with those in the Swedish rivers. Thorough planning of land-use operations (e.g. land reclamation through ditching, dredging of rivers and estuaries, etc.) in AS-soil landscapes should be necessary, which is currently not the case, to reduce the high

  2. The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: A Decade of Data Aggregation and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.; Gayanilo, F.; Kobara, S.; Baum, S. K.; Currier, R. D.; Stoessel, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association (GCOOS-RA) celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015. GCOOS-RA is one of 11 RAs organized under the NOAA-led U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office to aggregate regional data and make these data publicly-available in preferred forms and formats via standards-based web services. Initial development of GCOOS focused on building elements of the IOOS Data Management and Communications Plan which is a framework for end-to-end interoperability. These elements included: data discovery, catalog, metadata, online-browse, data access and transport. Initial data types aggregated included near real-time physical oceanographic, marine meteorological and satellite data. Our focus in the middle of the past decade was on the production of basic products such as maps of current oceanographic conditions and quasi-static datasets such as bathymetry and climatologies. In the latter part of the decade we incorporated historical physical oceanographic datasets and historical coastal and offshore water quality data into our holdings and added our first biological dataset. We also developed web environments and products to support Citizen Scientists and stakeholder groups such as recreational boaters. Current efforts are directed towards applying data quality assurance (testing and flagging) to non-federal data, data archiving at national repositories, serving and visualizing numerical model output, providing data services for glider operators, and supporting marine biodiversity observing networks. GCOOS Data Management works closely with the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative and various groups involved with Gulf Restoration. GCOOS-RA has influenced attitudes and behaviors associated with good data stewardship and data management practices across the Gulf and will to continue to do so into the next decade.

  3. 架空输电线路微风振动防治措施介绍及瞻望%Measures of Introduction and Look Forward to Prevent Breeze Vibration of Overhead Power Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阔; 成印健; 成志

    2013-01-01

    随着输电线路大量兴建,输电线路微风振动问题也越来越引起线路工作人员的重视。为了防止线路因微风振动引起的破坏,在线路设计时要加强措施来防止振动破坏。采用自阻尼导线和防振线夹来防振是一种通过改变线路自身组成部分特性来防振的措施,采用护线条、阻尼线、防振锤、阻尼弹簧间隔棒这些消振装置来防振是另外一种有效的防振措施,两种方法可根据具体情况来选择采用。同时,在超高压乃至特高压迅速发展的今天,利用阻尼线与防振锤混合消振装置以及阻尼弹簧间隔棒来防止微风振动已经越来越受到电力工作者的青睐,成为了一种趋势。%Along with the power transmission lines of construction ,the problem to prevent breeze vibration has caused line workers' atten-tion more and more. To prevent lines for vibration caused by the breeze destruction,in the line design people must strengthen the measures to pre-vent the vibration damage. Adopting the damping wires and vibration- proof line clip to prevent vibration is an effective way by which changing the line itself component characteristics. Adopting Armor Rod, Damping Line, Vibration- proof Hammer,damping spring spacer these vibrating de-vices to prevent vibration is another kind of effective vibration control measures . The two methods can be adopted according to the specific condi-tions. At the same time when the extra high voltage system and even ultra high voltage system is on the development, Using damping line and vi-bration- proof hammer mixed vibrating device class and damping spring spacer to prevent breeze vibration has got the favour of power workers more and more.

  4. Behavior and trends for Zn in Saronikos Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalkiadakis O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of Zn in the water column of Saronikos Gulf in Greece during a two year period between 2008 and 2010 added data to the available time series of metal data for this marine area since 1985. The Saronikos Gulf, is directly influenced by the Athens metropolitan area. The operation of the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Athens situated on the small island of Psitalia, in 1995, was considered to be the turning point in the efforts of de-pollution of the gulf. Major sources of pollution for the gulf include also the port of Piraeus, with intensive navigation and shipping activities and the significant industrial activity occurring along the coast of Attica. This study of dissolved and particulate Zn gave results consistent with previous studies of the area such as the prevalence of the dissolved form of Zn and the most affected areas being the smaller most enclosed Gulf of Elefsina and Psitalia Island near the wastewater outfall. However, the concentrations of Zn were below toxic levels for marine aquatic organisms. Furthermore, a clear decrease in the Eastern part of the gulf was exhibited as well as a more subtle decrease in the gulf of Elefsina. The levels of Zn in Saronikos Gulf were found comparable to those of other Greek coastal areas.

  5. Sediment dispersal in the macro tidal Gulf of Kachchh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    of the inner gulf is marked with U and V shaped cuttings extending in the parallel clays, deposited in an earlier phase of deposition. In the outer gulf, there exists a palaeo-channel, buried under 18 m thick sediments (in the central region). Existence...

  6. Rapid evolution of a Gulf Stream warm-core ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, T.; Backus, R.; Cowles, T.; Baker, K.; Blackwelder, P.; Brown, O.; Evans, R.; Olson, D.; Fryxell, G.; Mountain, D.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite images are used to show that major alterations in the structure of Gulf Stream warm-core rings can occur during very short periods of two to five days when an interaction with the Gulf Stream is particularly intense. The role of these interactions in the evolution of a ring are discussed.

  7. 78 FR 28292 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review... War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Draft Written Report is now complete. VA is inviting...

  8. 76 FR 65321 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review... War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Draft Written Report is now complete. VA is inviting...

  9. An American Honors Program in the Arab Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yyelland, Byrad

    2012-01-01

    The first Western honors program to be established in the Arab Gulf is offered in Doha, Qatar, on a small satellite campus of an American university. Doha is the capital city of Qatar, a sovereign Arab state physically located on a small peninsula bordering Saudi Arabia in the south and jutting into the Persian Gulf. With a population of only 1.7…

  10. Geodynamics of the Gulf of California from surface wave tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Paulssen, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Gulf of California, which forms part of the Pacific-North American plate boundary, is an ideal place to investigate upper mantle dynamics in a continental rifting area. With 19 seismic stations located around the gulf, the NARS-Baja experiment (2002-2008) was designed to image its crustal and

  11. Geodynamics of the Gulf of California from surface wave tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Paulssen, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Gulf of California, which forms part of the Pacific–North American plate boundary, is an ideal place to investigate upper mantle dynamics in a continental rifting area. With 19 seismic stations located around the gulf, the NARS-Baja experiment (2002–2008) was designed to image its crustal and ma

  12. Geodynamics of the Gulf of California from surface wave tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Paulssen, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Gulf of California, which forms part of the Pacific-North American plate boundary, is an ideal place to investigate upper mantle dynamics in a continental rifting area. With 19 seismic stations located around the gulf, the NARS-Baja experiment (2002-2008) was designed to image its crustal and ma

  13. Marine organisms as heavy metal bioindicators in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozadeh, E; Malek, M; Rashidinejad, R; Nabavi, S; Karbassi, M; Ghayoumi, R; Ghorbanzadeh-Zafarani, G; Salehi, H; Sures, B

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, cadmium and lead concentrations were compared in barnacles, ghost shrimps, polychaetes, bivalves, and sediment from ten different locations along the intertidal zone of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. The results revealed significant differences in the heavy metal concentrations between the organisms with barnacles showing, by far, the highest metal concentrations. The bioaccumulation factor of Cd in different animals follows this pattern with barnacles>bivalves>polychaetes>ghost shrimps, while the pattern for Pb was barnacles>polychaetes>bivalves>ghost shrimps. In most of the stations, sediments showed the lowest lead and cadmium concentrations. Therefore, it is concluded that barnacles with Pb concentrations between 0.17 and 2,016.1 μg/g and Cd concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 147.1 μg/g are the best organisms to be employed in monitoring programs designed to assess pollution with bioavailable metals in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

  14. Gulf Stream Ring Coalescence with the Gulf Stream off Cape Hatteras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D R; Olson, D B

    1978-12-01

    A cyclonic ring, which had separated from the Gulf Stream 7 months earlier and traveled 500 kilometers westward, collided with the stream in September 1977. Within 3 days the ring and stream joined to form a sharp S-shaped meander. Shipboard expendable temperature probes and four bottom-moored inverted echo sounders were used to obtain synoptic descriptions of the rejoining process.

  15. NASA Earth Observations Track the Gulf Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program created the Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI) in 2007 "to enhance the region s ability to recover from the devastating hurricanes of 2005 and to address its coastal management issues going into the future." The GOMI utilizes NASA Earth science assets to address regional priorities defined by the Gulf of Mexico Alliance, a partnership formed by the states of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, along with 13 federal agencies and 4 regional organizations to promote regional collaboration and enhance the ecological and economic health of the Gulf of Mexico. NASA's GOMI is managed by the Applied Science and Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center and has awarded over $18 million in Gulf of Mexico research since 2008. After the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, GOMI personnel assisted members of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance with obtaining NASA remote sensing data for use in their oil spill response efforts.

  16. [The Gulf War Syndrome twenty years on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Y

    2013-10-01

    After Operation Desert Storm which took place in Iraq from August 1990 to July 1991 involving a coalition of 35 countries and a 700,000 strong contingent of mainly American men, some associations of war veterans, the media and researchers described a new diagnostic entity: the Gulf War Syndrome (GWS). GWS seems to be a new disorder which associates a litany of functional symptoms integrating the musculoskeletal, digestive, tegumentary and neurosensory systems. The symptoms presented do not allow a syndrome already known to be considered and the aetiology of the clinical picture remains unexplained, an increasing cause for concern resulting from the extent of the phenomenon and its media coverage. It quickly appears that there is no consensus amongst the scientific community concerning a nosographic description of GWS: where can all these functional complaints arise from? Different aetiopathogenic hypotheses have been studied by the American administration who is attempting to incriminate exposure to multiple risks such as vaccines and their adjuvants, organophosphorous compounds, pyridostigmine (given to the troops for the preventive treatment of the former), impoverished uranium, and the toxic emanations from oil well fires. But despite extremely in-depth scientific investigations, 10 years after the end of the war, no objective marker of physical suffering has been retained to account for the disorders presented. It would appear that the former soldiers are in even better objective health than the civil population whereas their subjective level of health remains low. Within this symptomatic population, some authors have begun to notice that the psychological disorders appear and persist associating: asthenia, fatigability, mood decline, sleep disorders, cognitive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Within the nosological framework, does GWS cause functional disorders or somatisation? Finally, 20 years after the end of the fighting, only PTSD has

  17. 75 FR 63786 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... proposed temporary rule that would implement interim measures to reduce overfishing of gag in the Gulf of... this proposed rule is to reduce overfishing of the gag resource in the Gulf. DATES: Written comments... prevent overfishing and achieve, on a continuing basis, the optimum yield (OY) from Federally managed...

  18. 76 FR 69136 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... rule to extend the effective date of interim measures to reduce overfishing of gag in the Gulf of... extends the interim measures implemented to reduce overfishing of gag in the Gulf by reducing the... Management Council (Council). The intended effect of this rule is to reduce overfishing of the gag...

  19. 76 FR 50979 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Resources of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP), as prepared and submitted by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management..., speculation, or environmental protection. As a result, prospective entities may be businesses, nonprofit..., all entities that possess a valid or renewable commercial reef fish permit are assumed to comprise the...

  20. 76 FR 78245 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... for the Gulf Council's Red Drum, Reef Fish, Shrimp, and Coral and Coral Reefs FMPs (Generic ACL..., and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery; South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Fishery AGENCY... (Secretary) under section 304(f) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act...

  1. 76 FR 64327 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA727 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery; South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Fishery...

  2. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  3. Migrant workers: victims of war in Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Persian Gulf War forced millions of migrant workers in the region to return home, causing hardship not only on the workers but also on their home countries. Prior to the war, the region's oil wealth had attracted migrants from around the world. By 1990, some 3 million resided in Iraq and Kuwait alone. Many more worked in other Gulf countries. But only 2 months after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, over 2 million workers had fled the region or had been returned home. Yemenis and Egyptians alone accounted for 750,000 and 1/2 million workers, respectively. There were also an estimated 600,000 Asians. Although many of the migrants were unskilled laborers, many also were skilled laborers and professionals. Jordanians and Palestinians made up much of the Kuwaiti civil service. As the war unfolded, it became clear that the migrant workers lacked any of the legal rights and protection granted to other citizens. Many workers were not allowed to return home because of their importance to the economy. Others, like some 35,000 Sri Lankan housemaids in Kuwait, were stranded in the war zone, lacking the money and means to return home. In most cases, the workers also suffered from frozen bank accounts, unpaid wages and benefits, and property loss. Their return home also created problems for their countries. Jordan's population increased by 10% in 1990 due to the returning population. Yemen's unemployment increased from 10% to 25%. As a result of the Gulf war experience, the UN General Assembly adopted the International Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families, which must now be ratified by 20 nations before implementation begins.

  4. Satellite views of the massive algal bloom in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman during 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shujie; Gong, Fang; He, Xianqiang; Bai, Yan; Zhu, Qiankun; Wang, Difeng; Chen, Peng

    2016-10-01

    The Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman locate at the northwest of the Arabian Sea, with the total area more than 50,0000 km2. The Persian Gulf is a semi-enclosed subtropical sea with high water temperature, extremely high salinity, and an average depth of 50 meters. By the Strait of Hormuz, the Persian Gulf is connected to the Gulf of Oman which is significantly affected by the monsoonal winds and by water exchange between the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. Algal blooms occurred frequently in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and some of them are harmful algal blooms which may lead to massive fish death and thereby serious economic loss. Due to the widely spatial coverage and temporal variation, it is difficult to monitoring the dynamic of the algal bloom based on in situ measurement. In this study, we used the remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite to investigate a massive algal bloom event in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman during 2008-2009. The time series of MODIS-derived chlorophyll concentration (Chl-a) indicated that the bloom event with high Chl-a concentration ( 60 percent higher than corresponding climatological data) appeared to lasting more than 8 months from autumn of 2008 to spring of 2009. In addition, the bloom was widespread from the Persian Gulf to the Gulf of Oman and neighboring open ocean. The MODIS-derived net primary production (NPP) collected from MODIS showed the same trend with Chl-a. Multiple forces including upwelling, dust deposition was taken into account to elucidate the mechanisms for the long-lasting algal bloom. The time series chlorophyll concentration of the Persian Gulf emerges a significant seasonal pattern with maximum concentrations seen during the winter time and lowest during the summer. It also indicated slight disturbances occurred in June (May/July) and December (November/ January) in some years. The sea surface temperature and water

  5. Individual and community-level determinants of mental and physical health after the deepwater horizon oil spill: findings from the gulf States population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Amy Z; Prescott, Marta R; Zhao, Guixiang; Gotway, Carol A; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill had enormous consequences on the environment. Prevalence of mental and physical health conditions among Gulf residents after the disaster, however, are still being assessed. The Gulf State Population Survey (GSPS) was a representative survey of 38,361 residents in four Gulf States and was conducted from December 2010 to December 2011. Analysis of the GSPS data showed that differences in individual characteristics and direct or indirect exposure to the disaster drove the individual-level variation in health outcomes (mental distress, physical distress, and depression). Direct exposure to the disaster itself was the most important determinant of health after this event. Selected county-level characteristics were not found to be significantly associated with any of our health indicators of interest. This study suggests that in the context of an overwhelming event, persons who are most directly affected through direct exposure should be the primary focus of any public health intervention effort.

  6. Steerable system adds precision to Gulf drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierschwale, H.; Ridley, R.

    1988-05-02

    A well bore intersection was achieved ahead of schedule with a steerable drilling system in the Gulf of Mexico. A computer-generated proximity survey comparing the directional surveys of the initial and replacement wells, confirmed that the wells were within 1 ft. of each other near the planned intersection depth of 8,890 ft. All objectives for the 9,050-ft. replacement well were accomplished 4 days ahead of schedule. This operation illustrates the effectiveness of the steerable drilling system for obtaining better directional control, increased drilling efficiently, and reduced overall drilling time. This article explains how the project was completed.

  7. The July 1990 Gulf Stream Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, G. R.; Mied, R. P.; Ochadlick, A. R.; Kobrick, M.; Smith, P. M.; Askari, F.; Lai, R. J.; Sheres, D.; Morrison, J. M.; Beal, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The specific scientific tasks addressed in the July 1990 Gulf Stream (GS) experiment were the following: (1) Kelvin wake behavior across fronts at various ship speeds, (2) the physics of temperature front/radar cross section (RCS) mismatch, (3) wave-current interactions in curvature fronts, and (4) the hydrodynamic structure and origin of synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) slick-like features. Overall, the GS Experiment was most successful, and about 60 percent of the planned data was collected. On-going efforts concentrate on the analysis and interpretation of the data. An overview of the experiment and preliminary results of the data analysis are given.

  8. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks use were entered in STATA for statistical analysis. Then, these data were used to conduct meta-analysis to estimate the rate of energy drink consumption. Overall, meta-analysis results showed that the estimated rates of energy drinks consumption is 46.9% (95% CIs, 33.2 -66.1; nine studies) with I-square 3.7%. Findings indicated that individuals start to consume energy drinks at approximately 16 years old, and males were found to consume energy drinks more frequently than females. Results from this review carry several recommendations for policy and enforcement, public education and research that can help policy and decision makers to achieve the goal of safer use of energy drinks.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of marine bacteria isolated from Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Matos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a need for new antibiotics with an alternative mode of action and new chemical structures. Bacterial pathogens are gradually becoming more resistant to conventional antibiotics, generating an emergence of infectious diseases and they are becoming a great problem in the field of public health. In this study, seven different isolated bacteria were obtained from offshore seawater and sediment of the Gulf of Mexico from Campeche, Mexico. They were substance producers which inhibit growth of human pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one of them was a polymer producer on peptone and glucose culture. They were characterized phenotipically by means of morphological techniques and physiologically by conventional tests. Four of them were Gram-positive bacteria and the Scanning Electron Microscope analysis revealed their size between 0.6 - 1.5 µm. One of seven marine strains, Gram negative, yellow pigmented, slightly curved rods, was identified as Pseudoalteromonas sp. on the analysis of the gen16S rRNA sequence.

  10. THE MAY 23TH 2007 GULF OF MEXICO EARTHQUAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, J.; Jimenez, Z.

    2009-12-01

    On the 23th of May 2007 at 14:09 local time (19:09 UT) an insolated earthquake of local magnitude 5.2 occurred offshore northern Veracruz in the Gulf of Mexico. The seismic focus was located using local and regional data at 20.11° N, 97.38° W and 7.8 km depth at 175 km distance from Tuxpan a city of 134,394 inhabitants. The earthquake was widely felt along the costal states of southern Tamaulipas and Veracruz in which several schools and public buildings were evacuated. Neither Laguna Verde nuclear plant, located approximately 245 km from the epicenter, nor PEMEX petroleum company reported damage. First-motion data indicates that the rupture occurred as strike slip faulting along two possible planes, one oriented roughly north-south and the other east-west. In the present paper a global analysis of the earthquake is made to elucidate its origin and possible correlation with known geotectonic features of the region.

  11. Gulf States and the Conflict between India and Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Shahab Ahmed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cultural and economic ties between the Indian subcontinent and the Gulf region have existed for several centuries now. Strengthened further, both India and Pakistan continue to have important economic and strategic ties with the countries of the Gulf. While the Gulf region offers substantial economic advantages to both, they also have the potential to make positive interventions in the bilateral conflict between India and Pakistan. The following chapter analyses the role and position of the Gulf Arab States - in particular the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, and their potential in acting as a buffer for the Indo-Pak conflict. It will evaluate the official positions of the Gulf region towards various aspects of the Indo-Pak conflict. The Gulfcountries have often voiced their positions at regional and internationalforums. An additional aspect of this relationship is that the Gulf States are also members of the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC, a pan- Islamic body which has often addressed issues of contention between India and Pakistan, particularly with respect to Kashmir. Through an academic understanding of the issues and incorporating viewpoints of experts in the area, the chapter seeks to provide fresh insights into an aspect which has the possibility of becoming a crucial incentive for peace between India and Pakistan.

  12. Phytoplankton and sediments in Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Affected both by terrestrial factors like agriculture, deforestation, and erosion, and by marine factors like salinity levels, ocean temperature and water pollution, coastal environments are the dynamic interface between land and sea. In this MODIS image from January 15, 2002, the Gulf of Mexico is awash in a mixture of phytoplankton and sediment. Tan-colored sediment is flowing out into the Gulf from the Mississippi River, whose floodplain cuts a pale, wide swath to the right of center in the image, and also from numerous smaller rivers along the Louisiana coast (center). Mixing with the sediment are the multi-colored blue and green swirls that reveal the presence of large populations of marine plants called phytoplankton. Phytoplankton populations bloom and then fade, and these cycles affect fish and mammals-including humans-higher up the food chain. Certain phytoplankton are toxic to both fish and humans, and coastal health departments must monitor ecosystems carefully, often restricting fishing or harvesting of shellfish until the blooms have subsided.

  13. Phytoplankton and sediments in Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Affected both by terrestrial factors like agriculture, deforestation, and erosion, and by marine factors like salinity levels, ocean temperature and water pollution, coastal environments are the dynamic interface between land and sea. In this MODIS image from January 15, 2002, the Gulf of Mexico is awash in a mixture of phytoplankton and sediment. Tan-colored sediment is flowing out into the Gulf from the Mississippi River, whose floodplain cuts a pale, wide swath to the right of center in the image, and also from numerous smaller rivers along the Louisiana coast (center). Mixing with the sediment are the multi-colored blue and green swirls that reveal the presence of large populations of marine plants called phytoplankton. Phytoplankton populations bloom and then fade, and these cycles affect fish and mammals-including humans-higher up the food chain. Certain phytoplankton are toxic to both fish and humans, and coastal health departments must monitor ecosystems carefully, often restricting fishing or harvesting of shellfish until the blooms have subsided.

  14. Pneumococcal disease in the Arabian Gulf: recognizing the challenge and moving toward a solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Charles; Abdulkarim, Emad; Alattar, Fatma; Al Lawati, Faryal; Al Khatib, Hisham; Al Maslamani, Muna; Al Obaidani, Idris; Al Salah, Mosaab; Farghaly, Mohamed; Husain, Entesar H; Mokadas, Eiman

    2013-12-01

    Pneumococcal disease has substantial incidence, morbidity and mortality in older adults. Decreased birth rates and longer lifespans indicate that the global population is aging, although rates of aging differ between countries [1]. In 2010, the proportion of the population aged >60 years in the general Arab Region was 7%, and this proportion is expected to rise to 19% by 2050 for the region as a whole [2]; the United Nations estimates for the individual countries of the Arabian Gulf by 2050 are 25.7%, 24.9%, 20.7%, 26.7% and 10.5% in the Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Oman, respectively, which are comparable to the 26.9% predicted for the USA and lower than that predicted in European countries, in which the 2050 estimates are 32.7%, 34.0% and 38.1% for France, the UK and Germany, respectively [1]. Globally and in the Gulf Region, pneumococcal disease is an increasingly important public health burden in the elderly. The burden of pneumococcal disease can be reduced by effective vaccination programs, but the recommendations on pneumococcal vaccination in adults vary widely. The major barriers to vaccine implementation among healthcare professionals are an incomplete awareness of pneumococcal disease and the vaccination options in adults. The Gulf Advocate Group calls for healthcare providers in the countries of the Arabian Gulf (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman) to support awareness and education programs about adult pneumococcal disease, particularly in high-risk groups such as those >65 years of age, those with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hematological malignancy, organ and bone marrow transplantation or chronic kidney or lung diseases and pilgrims undertaking the Hajj to improve pneumococcal disease surveillance and optimize and disseminate recommendations for adult vaccination. The Gulf Advocate Group recommends following the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for pneumococcal vaccination [3

  15. Report A, chemical oceanographic data from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman from 17 April 1972 to 17 March 1978 (NODC Accession 7900091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and chemical data were collected using bottle casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE and other platforms in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman from 17...

  16. Northern Gulf Littoral Initiative (NGLI), Geology and Physical Properties of Marine Sediments in the N.E. Gulf of Mexico: Data Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern Gulf Littoral Initiative (NGLI), Geology and Physical Properties of Marine Sediments in the N.E. gulf of Mexico: Data Report, was produced by the U.S....

  17. Ecologic Atlas of Benthic Foraminifera of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, John H.

    Because of their importance as indicators of petroleum deposits, the benthic foraminifera of the Gulf of Mexico are one of the most intensely studied groups of animals in the world. This is especially true of the foraminifera inhabiting the shallow shelf region of the northern and eastern Gulf; much less is known about the animals of the southern shelf, continental slope, and abyssal plains. The author spent 10 years examining collections from various not well-known areas of the Gulf; this atlas is a synthesis of distributional data from approximately 4500 previously known stations, plus new information from 400 additional stations.

  18. Evidence for atmospheric carbon dioxide variability over the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufton, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Two airborne surveys of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration have been conducted over the Gulf Stream off the east coast of Virginia and North Carolina on September 7-8, 1983. In situ CO2 data were acquired at an aircraft altitude of 300 m on trajectories that transcected the Gulf Stream near 36 deg N 73 deg W. Data show evidence of a CO2 concentration increase by 4 ppm to 15 ppm above the nominal atmospheric background value of 345 ppm. These enhanced values were associated with the physical location of the Gulf Stream prior to the passage of a weak cold front.

  19. SAR observations of the Gulf Stream during SWADE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Paris W.; Liu, Antony K.; Mollo-Christensen, Erik

    1992-01-01

    The Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) has gathered SAR observations of the Gulf Stream that show a change in ocean surface brightness; this may be due to the effects of a change in air-sea temperature difference across the observed edge, where the boundary is defined by warm, quickly flowing Gulf Stream water and cooler, relatively stationary shelf water. The two images discussed indicate the possibility of deepening understanding of Gulf Stream front dynamics by using the abundant spatial data of SAR imagery, in conjunction with more conventional (point-like) data on hydrography and currents.

  20. Gulf Stream density structure and transport during the past millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, David C.; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean; Curry, William B.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf Stream transports approximately 31 Sv (1 Sv = 10^6 m^3 s^(-1)) of water and 1.3 10^(15) W of heat into the North Atlantic ocean. The possibility of abrupt changes in Gulf Stream heat transport is one of the key uncertainties in predictions of climate change for the coming centuries. Given the limited length of the instrumental record, our knowledge of Gulf Stream behaviour on long timescales must rely heavily on information from geologic archives. Here we use foraminifera from a su...

  1. Imported Expertise in World-class Knowledge Infrastructures: The Problematic Development of Knowledge Cities in the Gulf Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosior, Adriana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the oil business, settlements in the Gulf Region developed into prosperous cities. But in the near future, oil is off. The plans of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC states bank on diversified and knowledge-intensive economies. Are those development plans realistic? What is the state of the art of knowledge institutions in the GCC countries? Applying the theoretical frameworks of Knowledge City and Science Indicators research, we empirically and theoretically studied the emerging Gulf cities Kuwait City (Kuwait, Manama (Bahrain, Doha (Qatar, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah (all UAE, and Muscat (Oman. Our methodological framework includes grounded theory, ethnographic field study, ServQual-like quantitative questionnaires and semi-standardized qualitative interviews conducted on-site with informed people, informetrics, and, finally, the use of official statistics. In particular, we describe and analyze the cities' knowledge infrastructures, their academics, and expenditure on R&D as input indicators; and publications as well as graduates as output indicators. A further crucial aspect of a knowledge society is the transition of graduates into knowledge-intensive public services and private companies.

  2. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative: Multidisciplinary data management from the ground up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, L. M.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    As more journals and funding organizations require data to be made available, more and more scientists are being exposed to the world of data science, metadata development, and data standards so they can ensure future funding and publishing success. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) is the vehicle by which the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GOMRI) is making all data collected in this program publically available. This varied group of researchers all have different levels of experience with data management standards and protocols, thus GRIIDC has evolved to embrace the cooperative nature of our work and develop a number of tools and training materials to help ensure data managers and researchers in the GoMRI program are submitting high quality data and metadata that will be useful for years to come. GRIIDC began with a group of 8 data managers many of which had only ever managed their own data, who were then expected to manage the data of a large group of geographically distant researchers. As the program continued to evolve these data managers worked with the GRIIDC team to help identify and develop much needed resources for training and communication for themselves and the scientists they represented. This essential cooperation has developed a team of highly motivated scientists, computer programmers and data scientists who are working to ensure a data and information legacy that promotes continual scientific discovery and public awareness of the Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem and beyond.

  3. Brain Immune Interactions as the Basis of Gulf War Illness: Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    neuroimaging assessment of brain antioxidant glutathione levels (Krengel, Initiating PI; Sullivan Partnering PI; GW140140)  PON1 study with GWIC...Investigator proposal with Boston University (BU) investigators  BChE + PON1 biomarker epidemiological New Investigator proposal with BU investigators...veterans of the 1991 Gulf War potentially exposed to sarin and cyclosarin. Neurotoxicology. 28(4):761-769. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed /17485118 5

  4. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  5. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: First surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the northern Gulf of Mexico barrier islands and Naval Live Oaks was produced from...

  6. 2012 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected economic data on inshore commercial shrimp fishermen who held licenses to commercially harvest shrimp in state waters of the U.S. Gulf of...

  7. Gulf of Maine Cooperative Bottom Longline Survey Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is for a bottom longline (fixed gear) survey executed in the western and central Gulf of Maine targeting complex rocky habitats. The survey is operated...

  8. Gulf of Mexico Kemps ridley sea turtle age and growth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in humerus bones of 340 Kemps ridley sea turtles stranded dead along the Gulf of Mexico US coast (hatchling to...

  9. EAARL Topography-Gulf Islands National Seashore-Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Gulf Islands National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced...

  10. [Variation of thermohaline properties in the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, C L; Léon, S; Chaves, J

    2001-12-01

    The time-space behavior of thermohaline properties of the water masses in the Gulf of Nicoya, a tropical estuary in the Costa Rican Pacific coast, was studied by sampling monthly from April 1992 to April 1993. The saline field has a seasonal maximum during April, a month before the maximum temperature is observed. Minimun values were observed during October and November, in the rainy season. A defined surface saline front is located towards the east of Negritos Islands; it is produced by the interaction of freshwater from the Tarcoles River and the oceanic waters that enter through the occidental coast of the gulf. The vertical distribution of temperature and salinity indicates a gulf whose internal area is highly stratified in the rainy season, and much less stratified, or even well mixed in the dry season. The outer area of the Gulf is stratified throughout the year.

  11. Gulf sturgeon Critical Habitat Units 8-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Gulf Sturgeon as designated by Federal Register Vol. 68, No. 53, Wednesday, March 19, 2003, Rules and Regulations.

  12. Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0123320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology is a set of objectively analyzed climatological fields of temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, and nitrate at...

  13. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1991 to the present. These are designed as...

  14. Tides in the Gulf of Khambhat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, R.K.; Shetye, S.R.

    Semi-diurnal tides in the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay), west coast of India, amplify about threefold from mouth to head. In contrast, the amplification of diurnal tides is much smaller. A one-dimensional barotropic model with channel geometry...

  15. 2009 Survey of Gulf of Mexico Dockside Seafood Processors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey gathered and analyze economic data from seafood processors throughout the states in the Gulf region. The survey sought to collect financial variables...

  16. EAARL Topography-Gulf Islands National Seashore-Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Gulf Islands National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced...

  17. EAARL Topography-Gulf Islands National Seashore-Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Abstract: Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Gulf Islands National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed,...

  18. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: Bare earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the northern Gulf of Mexico barrier islands and Naval Live Oaks was produced from...

  19. Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissues and samples collected from marine mammals during investigation of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event are tracked within this...

  20. Water Stratification Raster Images for the Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geodatabase contains seasonal water stratification raster images for the Gulf of Maine. They were created by interpolating water density (sigma t) values at 0...

  1. The role of the Gulf Stream in European climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palter, Jaime B

    2015-01-01

    The Gulf Stream carries the warm, poleward return flow of the wind-driven North Atlantic subtropical gyre and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. This northward flow drives a significant meridional heat transport. Various lines of evidence suggest that Gulf Stream heat transport profoundly influences the climate of the entire Northern Hemisphere and, thus, Europe's climate on timescales of decades and longer. The Gulf Stream's influence is mediated through feedback processes between the ocean, atmosphere, and cryosphere. This review synthesizes paleoclimate archives, model simulations, and the instrumental record, which collectively suggest that decadal and longer-scale variability of the Gulf Stream's heat transport manifests in changes in European temperature, precipitation, and storminess. Given that anthropogenic climate change is projected to weaken the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, associated changes in European climate are expected. However, large uncertainty in the magnitude of the anticipated weakening undermines the predictability of the future climate in Europe.

  2. Gulf of Maine Contaminated Sediments Database (GOMCSDB shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Contaminated Sediments Database for the Gulf of Maine provides a compilation and synthesis of existing data to help establish the environmental status of our...

  3. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Vessel Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during June-August and Oct-Nov, 2010 in the north central Gulf of Mexico to collect data on marine mammal spatial distribution...

  4. EAARL Topography-Gulf Islands National Seashore-Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Abstract: Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Gulf Islands National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed,...

  5. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: First surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the northern Gulf of Mexico barrier islands and Naval Live Oaks was produced from...

  6. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: Bare earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the northern Gulf of Mexico barrier islands and Naval Live Oaks was produced from...

  7. Shipping Fairways in the Gulf of Mexico, from BOEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Polygon data for all major shipping lanes associated with all ports in the Gulf of Mexico are presented. These layers were modified from GIS data acquired from the...

  8. A study on heavy metal concentration in Izmit gulf

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hasibe Cingilli

    2006-01-01

    Water samples taken from thirteen different stations and from three streams in İzmit Gulf where the pollution is very high have been investigated with Atomic Absorption Spectrometre for heavy metal...

  9. Water Density Raster Images for the Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geodatabase contains water density raster images for the Gulf of Maine that were interpolated from water density (sigma t or kilograms/ meters cubed) point data...

  10. Gulf sturgeon Critical Habitat Units 1-7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Gulf Sturgeon as designated by Federal Register Vol. 68, No. 53, Wednesday, March 19, 2003, Rules and Regulations.

  11. Continental Shelf Boundary - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Gulf of Mexico Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of...

  12. Gulf of Mexico killer whale photo-ID catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on killer whales occupying the northern Gulf of Mexico have been collected in association with large vessel surveys since 1991. Photographs...

  13. Gulf of Mexico Sperm Whale Acoustic Prey Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during the summer of 2009 and the winter of 2010 in the north-central Gulf of Mexico to examine the spatial distribution of sperm...

  14. Gulf of Mexico sperm whale photo-ID catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on sperm whales occupying the north central Gulf of Mexico have been collected during vessel surveys. Photographs of sperm whales are taken...

  15. Narrative report: Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges: 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges (Petit Bois National Wildlife Refuge, Horn Island National Wildlife Refuge, and Breton...

  16. Gulf of Mexico Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the Gulf of Mexico since 1992. The majority of these...

  17. Narrative report: Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges: 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges (Petit Bois National Wildlife Refuge, Horn Island National Wildlife Refuge, and Breton...

  18. Narrative report: Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges: 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges (Petit Bois National Wildlife Refuge, Horn Island National Wildlife Refuge, and Breton...

  19. Narrative report: Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges: 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges (Petit Bois National Wildlife Refuge, Horn Island National Wildlife Refuge, and Breton...

  20. Narrative report: Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges: 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges (Petit Bois National Wildlife Refuge, Horn Island National Wildlife Refuge, and Breton...

  1. Mercury levels in seabirds in the Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We conducted a pilot study to screen mercury (Hg) levels in Gulf of Maine seabirds in an effort to determine which species are most at risk, are the most appropriate...

  2. Limit of Salt in the Gulf Coast [saltlimitg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data provides the approximate limit of Middle Jurassic salt from Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled by T.E. Ewing and R.F....

  3. Orogenic Thrust Belt, Gulf of Mexico Basin [gcthrustbg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide the general location of the Ouachita and Appalachian structural fronts slightly modified from Plate 4, Natural resources, Gulf of Mexico Basin...

  4. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Michael J.; Rowe, Hunter G. [BP - Gulf Coast Restoration (United States)], email: michael.cortez@bp.com

    2011-07-01

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  5. Citizenship and migration in Arab Gulf monarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sater, J.

    2014-01-01

    In many industrialized countries, the issue of migration has traditionally raised the question of whether migrant groups fully enjoy citizenship rights. Political debates about models of migration emphasize either the values of cultural diversity or the value of integration into 'host' societies...... to migrants, but also with regard to local populations. In addition to the contested nature of citizenship, migrants' lack of citizenship rights fulfils distinctive functions in what Saskia Sassen calls 'global cities'. This concept links the Arab world with a new phenomenon of globalized migration in which...... the lack of both integration and citizenship is a defining principle. Using these two perspectives, this article examines the relationship between citizenship rights and migration in the Gulf region, drawing on data from the UAE along with Bahrain, Kuwait, and Qatar....

  6. Combating Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    AFRICA SECURITY BRIEF A P u b l i c At i o n o f t h e A f r i c A c e n t e r f o r S t r At e g i c S t u d i e S n o . 3 0 / f e b r u...traffic in West Af- rican ports has grown 14 percent an- nually since 1995, the fastest of any region in Sub-Saharan Africa .1 The wider Gulf of Guinea...22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply

  7. Environmental Assessment: Gulf Power Company Military Point Transmission Line Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-12

    medium-sized mammals , a variety of reptilian and amphibian species, and a large diversity of water and terrestrial bird species (Tyndall AFB 1999...John Dingwall Project Manager 325th Civil Engineer Squadron 119 Alabama Avenue People Serving Peopfeu Re: Gulf Power Company Military Point...Force 3251h Civil Engineer Squadron 119 Alabama Avenue Tyndall AFB, FL 32403-5014 Dear Mr. Dingwall: I have revieweKI the proposal for Gulf Power

  8. Wind Simulations for the Gulf of Suez with KAMM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Helmut Paul

    In order to get a better overview of the spatial distribution of the wind resource in the Gulf of Suez, numerical simulations to determine the wind climate have been carried out with the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model KAMM. The method and the results are described here. The simulations of ...... of the wind climate of the Gulf of Suez with KAMM capture the main features of the observed wind climate. The mean wind speed and energy flux density are somewhat underpredicted....

  9. Eglin Gulf Test and Training Range: Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Megaptera novangliae MMPA Common in North Atlantic, but not expected to occur within the ROI. Killer Whale Orcinus orca MMPA Killer whales are...from the Gulf of Maine to Florida and the Gulf of Mexico. It is a popular aquarium shark, surviving up to 10 years in captivity . Night shark...and would benefit from further research. No evidence of mutagenic risk as a result of exposure has been documented to date. Data indicate that JP

  10. Intranasal Insulin: A Novel Treatment for Gulf War Multisymptom Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    pump twice daily through the nose . The placebo group will administer saline through a nasal infusion pump twice daily as well. The primary outcome...level sarin and cyclosarin exposure and Gulf War Illness on Brain Structure and Function: A study at 4T. Neurotoxicology. Chao LL, Rothlind JC...Cardenas VA, Meyerhoff DJ, Weiner MW. (2010). Effects of low-level exposure to sarin and cyclosarin during the 1991 Gulf War on brain function and brain

  11. Hurricane Risk Variability along the Gulf of Mexico Coastline

    OpenAIRE

    Jill C Trepanier; Ellis, Kelsey N.; Clay S Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane risk characteristics are examined across the U. S. Gulf of Mexico coastline using a hexagonal tessellation. Using an extreme value model, parameters are collected representing the rate or λ (frequency), the scale or σ (range), and the shape or ξ (intensity) of the extreme wind distribution. These latent parameters and the 30-year return level are visualized across the grid. The greatest 30-year return levels are located toward the center of the Gulf of Mexico, and for inland locatio...

  12. Sperm whales (Physeter catodon) in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collum, L.A.; Fritts, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of the sperm whale, Physeter catodon, was documented in the Gulf of Mexico during 1979 to 1981 using regular aerial surveys and opportunistic sightings from ships. Most sightings were in the western Gulf of Mexico in deep waters near the edge of the continental shelf. A total of 47 adults and 12 young animals was sighted in groups containing from one to 14 animals.

  13. Vascular and Skeletal Muscle Function in Gulf War Veterans Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Page 1 of 14 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0216 TITLE: Vascular and Skeletal Muscle Function in Gulf War Veterans Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...30 Jun 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Vascular and Skeletal Muscle Function in Gulf War Veterans Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...cholinesterases and acetylcholine, which could affect activity at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscle, muscarinic receptors affecting vascular smooth

  14. The Neolithic origins of seafaring in the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Carter

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The inhabitants of the Arabian Gulf were among the world’s earliest maritime traders. Their ships sailed regularly between the Bronze Age civilizations of Mesopotamia, Bahrain and the Indus Valley, and they reached China by sea in the eighth century AD, thus bypassing the long and perilous overland Silk Road route across Central Asia. Now excavations at a coastal site in Kuwait by a team from the Institute have revealed even earlier evidence of maritime activity in the Gulf.

  15. The Gulf: a young sea in decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Charles; Al-Husiani, Mohsen; Al-Jamali, F; Al-Yamani, Faiza; Baldwin, Rob; Bishop, James; Benzoni, Francesca; Dutrieux, Eric; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Durvasula, Subba Rao V; Jones, David A; Loughland, Ron; Medio, David; Nithyanandan, M; Pilling, Graham M; Polikarpov, Igor; Price, Andrew R G; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Saburova, Maria; Namin, Kaveh Samimi; Taylor, Oliver; Wilson, Simon; Zainal, Khadija

    2010-01-01

    This review examines the substantial changes that have taken place in marine habitats and resources of the Gulf over the past decade. The habitats are especially interesting because of the naturally high levels of temperature and salinity stress they experience, which is important in a changing world climate. However, the extent of all natural habitats is changing and their condition deteriorating because of the rapid development of the region and, in some cases from severe, episodic warming episodes. Major impacts come from numerous industrial, infrastructure-based, and residential and tourism development activities, which together combine, synergistically in some cases, to cause the observed deterioration in most benthic habitats. Substantial sea bottom dredging for material and its deposition in shallow water to extend land or to form a basis for huge developments, directly removes large areas of shallow, productive habitat, though in some cases the most important effect is the accompanying sedimentation or changes to water flows and conditions. The large scale of the activities compared to the relatively shallow and small size of the water body is a particularly important issue. Important from the perspective of controlling damaging effects is the limited cross-border collaboration and even intra-country collaboration among government agencies and large projects. Along with the accumulative nature of impacts that occur, even where each project receives environmental assessment or attention, each is treated more or less alone, rarely in combination. However, their combination in such a small, biologically interacting sea exacerbates the overall deterioration. Very few similar areas exist which face such a high concentration of disturbance, and the prognosis for the Gulf continuing to provide abundant natural resources is poor. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Influence of the Gulf Stream on the troposphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira; Komori, Nobumasa; Xie, Shang-Ping; Small, Richard Justin

    2008-03-13

    The Gulf Stream transports large amounts of heat from the tropics to middle and high latitudes, and thereby affects weather phenomena such as cyclogenesis and low cloud formation. But its climatic influence, on monthly and longer timescales, remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how the warm current affects the free atmosphere above the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Here we consider the Gulf Stream's influence on the troposphere, using a combination of operational weather analyses, satellite observations and an atmospheric general circulation model. Our results reveal that the Gulf Stream affects the entire troposphere. In the marine boundary layer, atmospheric pressure adjustments to sharp sea surface temperature gradients lead to surface wind convergence, which anchors a narrow band of precipitation along the Gulf Stream. In this rain band, upward motion and cloud formation extend into the upper troposphere, as corroborated by the frequent occurrence of very low cloud-top temperatures. These mechanisms provide a pathway by which the Gulf Stream can affect the atmosphere locally, and possibly also in remote regions by forcing planetary waves. The identification of this pathway may have implications for our understanding of the processes involved in climate change, because the Gulf Stream is the upper limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which has varied in strength in the past and is predicted to weaken in response to human-induced global warming in the future.

  17. Oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and spiral vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Quanan; ZHAO Qing; Nan Walker; LI Chunyan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Drilling rig Decpwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico, leased by BP PLC from Transocean Ltd., ex-ploded and caught on fire on April 20, 2010. The drilling location is at some 50 miles (80 kilometers) off the coast of Louisiana, USA. The rig sank on April 22. Since then, oil has been pouring into the Gulf from the blown-out undersea well. As reported by US Today and Calgary Herald on July 3, an estimated 35 000 to 60 000 barrels of oil per day has been gush-ing out of the ruptured well into the Gulf. That means amounts to a total of 1.9 to 3.6 million barrels of oil so far have gushed into the Gulf. Using the high end of that estimate, the spill has now surpassed the 1979 Ixtoc blowout, which took nine months to cap and dumped estimated 3.3 million barrels (140 000 million gallons) into the Gulf of Mexico. It is topped only by the deliberate release of six to eight million barrels of crude oil by Iraqi troops who destroyed tankers and oil terminals and set wells ablaze in Kuwait during the 1991 Gulf War.

  18. Geology Arc Export Layer From Coal Bearing Geology of the Gulf Coast Coal Region (gulf_geol_dd.e00)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon vector coverage of coal bearing geologic units that occur in states which comprise the Gulf Coast Coal Assessment Region as defined by the...

  19. 76 FR 9735 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    .... In response to the rebuilding plan, the Council's Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC... opportunities due to the closure, plus the reduction in tourism throughout the Gulf coast, resulted in a much...

  20. Public Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshan, Harry M.; Arnheim, Louise

    This paper, the second in a series exploring future options for public policy in the communications and information arenas, examines some of the issues underlying public broadcasting, primarily public television. It advances two reasons why quality local public television programming is scarce: funds for the original production of programming have…

  1. The Evolving Medical and Veterinary Importance of the Gulf Coast tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Christopher D; Goddard, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    Amblyomma maculatum Koch (the Gulf Coast tick) is a three-host, ixodid tick that is distributed throughout much of the southeastern and south-central United States, as well as several countries throughout Central and South America. A considerable amount of scientific literature followed the original description of A. maculatum in 1844; nonetheless, the Gulf Coast tick was not recognized as a vector of any known pathogen of animals or humans for >150 years. It is now identified as the principal vector of Hepatozoon americanum, the agent responsible for American canine hepatozoonosis, and Rickettsia parkeri, the cause of an emerging, eschar-associated spotted fever group rickettsiosis identified throughout much of the Western Hemisphere. Coincident with these discoveries has been recognition that the geographical distribution of A. maculatum in the United States is far more extensive than described 70 yr ago, supporting the idea that range and abundance of certain tick species, particularly those with diverse host preferences, are not fixed in time or space, and may change over relatively short intervals. Renewed interest in the Gulf Coast tick reinforces the notion that the perceived importance of a particular tick species to human or animal health can be relatively fluid, and may shift dramatically with changes in the distribution and abundance of the arthropod, its vertebrate hosts, or the microbial agents that transit among these organisms. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Isotope chronostratigraphy of OCS well south Timbalier block 198, northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainor, D.M.; Williams, D.F.

    1989-03-01

    Isotope chronostratigraphy is a modern technique for deriving a high-resolution geochronology for sediments of the outer continental shelf (OCS)-slope of the western gulf of Mexico. The release of proprietary stable isotope data from OCS exploration well South Timbalier Block 198 enables the first public presentation of specific isotopic data compared to previously established global and regional composite isotope records. The oxygen isotope type records for the Pliocene-Pleistocene for both the global oceans and western Gulf of Mexico are based on deep-sea cores and numerous exploration wells. The type record shown for the western Gulf of Mexico is a revised composite record defining 133 oxygen isotope stages from 0 to 4 m.y. This regional type record is directly comparable to the global composite isotope record. The oxygen isotope record for the well was derived utilizing two different foraminiferal species. The isotopic composition of the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber was used in the upper 8000 ft of the well. The benthic foraminifera Uvigerina was examined in the lower 5000 ft where G. ruber was not present. This combined oxygen isotope record for the well, when integrated with the available biostratigraphy, enabled the recognition of 47 isotope stages of the Pliocene-Pleistocene section of the well and an additional series of glacial-interglacial cycles in the late Miocene. The isotope chronostratigraphy enabled the recognition of two hiatuses spanning the time interval from /delta//sup 18/O stage 93 at 2.76 Ma and from /delta//sup 18/O stage 131 at 3.9 Ma to the late Miocene at approximately 5 Ma. This high-resolution geochronology for OCS well South Timbalier Block 198 provides detailed information on sedimentation accumulation rates in this area.

  3. Petroleum pollution in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botello, A V; Villanueva, S; Díaz, G

    1997-01-01

    In 1976, IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region, noting that petroleum pollution was of regionwide concern and recommended initiating a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil-producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas in the U.S.; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad. All these are classified as high-risk production accident zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading and unloading operations, and accidental spills. About 5 million barrels of crude oil are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/yr. The results of the Caribbean Pollution Regional Program (CARIPOL) conducted between 1980 and 1987 pointed out that significant levels of petroleum pollution exist throughout the Wider Caribbean, including serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major current systems, and very high levels of dissolved and dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major adverse effects of this type of pollution include: high tar levels on many beaches that either prevent their recreational use or require very expensive cleanup operations, distress and death for marine life, and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tissues of important economic species has been reported, creating a risk for public health because of

  4. 中外突发公共危机应急处置比较研究——以山西王家岭矿难和英国石油公司墨西哥湾漏油事件为例%The Comparative Study in Handling Emergent Public Crises in China and Other Countries——Taking the Mining Accident of Wangjialing Coalmine in Shanxi Province and the Oil Leak Crisis of British Petroleum Company in the Gulf of Mexico as Examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    随付国; 陈炳; 赵磊磊

    2011-01-01

    The public crisis management system is the hard core of the government public organization system.For a society and a government facing crisis,the most important strategic choice should be establishing a set of excellent public crisis management and emergency mechanism so as to unceasingly enhancing the crisis management and the ability of emergency management of the government as well as the entire society.This article takes the mining accident crisis of Wangjialing coalmine in Shanxi Province and the oil leak crisis of British Petroleum Company in the Gulf of Mexico as examples.Through the contrastive analysis of these two cases and based on establishing emergency handling measure of public crisis management it is aimed to discover the differences and reasons between crisis managements of both countries in order to put forward the proposals in promoting the public crisis management ability for the government from four aspects,including establishing emergency early warning mechanism with quick reaction capability,emergency direction platform under unified command,specialized emergency processing troop and conducting authority emergency investigation and assessment.%公共危机管理体系是政府公共组织系统的核心部分。对于一个社会和政府而言,面对各种危机,最重要战略选择应该是建立一套比较完善的公共危机管理和应急机制,并在此基础上不断增强政府以及整个社会的危机管理和应急处理能力。本文以山西王家岭矿难和英国石油公司墨西哥湾漏油事件为例,通过对两个案例的对比分析,从公共危机管理中的建立应急处置措施的角度出发,寻找两国公共危机管理的差距及原因,并从建立具有快速反应能力的应急预警机制、建立统一指挥的应急指挥平台、组建专业的应急处理队伍、开展权威的应急调查和评估等方面,为政府提升公共危机管理和应对能力提出建议。

  5. Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Humood A

    2013-07-15

    The Arabian Gulf is considered among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the world. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. The present paper reviews heavy metal contamination in a variety of marine organisms, and sediments, and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms were generally within allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health. Likewise, studies suggested that levels of heavy metals in marine sediments are similar or lower compared to other regions. However, localized hotspots of chronic metal pollution in areas influenced by industrial facilities, desalination plants, and oil refineries have been reported. Holistic spatial and temporal monitoring and comprehensive national and regional strategies are critical to combat and manage heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf.

  6. Distribution of limnoterrestrial Tardigrada in Georgia and the Gulf Coast states of the United States of America with ecological remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry A. MEYER

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This report is an effort to improve understanding of the distribution of limnoterrestrial tardigrades in Georgia and the states along the Gulf Coast of the United States of America. We collected 14 species of tardigrades from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts and leaf litter in a statewide survey of Louisiana and reviewed all publications and theses reporting tardigrade distributions in the Gulf Coast states. Statewide surveys have been also conducted in Alabama, Florida, and Texas, while sampling in Mississippi and Georgia has been more localized. Currently 51 species have been identified in the region: 19 in Texas, 16 in Louisiana, 10 in Mississippi, 33 in Alabama, 3 in Georgia, and 15 in Florida. These tardigrades have been collected from cryptogams (mosses, lichens, and liverworts on trees and rocks, from soil and leaf litter, and from freshwater. Twenty species are widely distributed in the region (i.e., found in ≥ 2 non-contiguous states, while 27 have been found in only one state. Eighteen species are probably cosmopolitan. Seven species, widespread in the Gulf Coast states but unknown elsewhere in the Nearctic Region – Echiniscus kofordi, Echiniscus cavagnaroi, Parexapodibius pilatoi, Hexapodibius christenberryae, Biserovus bindae, Minibiotus fallax and a new Macrobiotus cf. hufelandi – may represent a distinctive regional fauna in cryptogams.

  7. Sources and Delivery of Nutrients to the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico from Streams in the South-Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebich, R.A.; Houston, N.A.; Mize, S.V.; Pearson, D.K.; Ging, P.B.; Evan, Hornig C.

    2011-01-01

    SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were developed to estimate nutrient inputs [total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP)] to the northwestern part of the Gulf of Mexico from streams in the South-Central United States (U.S.). This area included drainages of the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf hydrologic regions. The models were standardized to reflect nutrient sources and stream conditions during 2002. Model predictions of nutrient loads (mass per time) and yields (mass per area per time) generally were greatest in streams in the eastern part of the region and along reaches near the Texas and Louisiana shoreline. The Mississippi River and Atchafalaya River watersheds, which drain nearly two-thirds of the conterminous U.S., delivered the largest nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico, as expected. However, the three largest delivered TN yields were from the Trinity River/Galveston Bay, Calcasieu River, and Aransas River watersheds, while the three largest delivered TP yields were from the Calcasieu River, Mermentau River, and Trinity River/Galveston Bay watersheds. Model output indicated that the three largest sources of nitrogen from the region were atmospheric deposition (42%), commercial fertilizer (20%), and livestock manure (unconfined, 17%). The three largest sources of phosphorus were commercial fertilizer (28%), urban runoff (23%), and livestock manure (confined and unconfined, 23%). ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. GuLF Study: The Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Studies Study Publications Mexico Childhood Asthma Studies Mexico Childhood Asthma Study Publications MOBAND Study of Cerebral Palsy Studies MOBAND Study of Cerebral Palsy Publications North Carolina Infant Feeding Study Studies North Carolina Infant Feeding Study Study ...

  9. Water Level and Current Simulation for LOTS Operations - Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    equations are solved by a finite element approach. However the equations are reformulated mathematically to a form with much improved numerical solution...longer than the tidal cycle, since tidal ebb and flood currents tend to cancel each other. 23Chqpwr 3 Ceibraga wnd Vedication 30 25 (Z 20 M2 "W 15 0 10Q...circulation in the Arabian Gulf," Applied Mathematical Modeling, 14, 410-419. Bogdanov, K. T. (1987). "T’idal wave propagation and tidal level oscillations

  10. State of oil pollution in the northern Arabian Sea after the 1991 Gulf oil spill

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Alagarsamy, R.

    Following the enormous oil spills resulting from the 1990-91 military conflict in the Gulf, fears were expressed concerning dissipation of oil from the Gulf into the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean. To investigate contamination of the northern Arabian...

  11. Subtidal micro and meiobenthic community structure in the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Goltekar, R.

    Community structure of the micro- and meiobenthos of subtidal sediment from the Gulf of Kachchh were investigated during April 2002 (premonsoon season). Sediment samples were collected from 23 stations representing the entire Gulf area. A total...

  12. Gulf of Mexico dissolved oxygen model (GoMDOM) research and quality assurance project plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated high resolution mathematical modeling framework is being developed that will link hydrodynamic, atmospheric, and water quality models for the northern Gulf of Mexico. This Research and Quality Assurance Project Plan primarily focuses on the deterministic Gulf of Me...

  13. 77 FR 36261 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socioeconomic Assessment of Gulf of Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...; Socioeconomic Assessment of Gulf of Mexico Fisheries Under the Grouper-Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ... Gulf of Mexico fisheries managed under the Grouper-Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Program. The...

  14. Mass-wasting deposits within the GLORIA survey area, Gulf of Mexico (MASSWASTING.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This GIS overlay is a component of the U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole Science Center's, Gulf of Mexico GIS database. The Gulf of Mexico GIS database is intended...

  15. Patient and System-Related Delays of Emergency Medical Services Use in Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Results from the Third Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-3Ps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHabib, Khalid F.; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Almahmeed, Wael; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Amin, Haitham; Al Jarallah, Mohammed; Alfaleh, Hussam F.; Panduranga, Prashanth; Hersi, Ahmad; Kashour, Tarek; Al Aseri, Zohair; Ullah, Anhar; Altaradi, Hani B.; Nur Asfina, Kazi; Welsh, Robert C.; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about Emergency Medical Services (EMS) use and pre-hospital triage of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Arabian Gulf countries. Methods Clinical arrival and acute care within 24 h of STEMI symptom onset were compared between patients transferred by EMS (Red Crescent and Inter-Hospital) and those transferred by non-EMS means. Data were retrieved from a prospective registry of 36 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries, from January 2014 to January 2015. Results We enrolled 2,928 patients; mean age, 52.7 (SD ±11.8) years; 90% men; and 61.7% non-Arabian Gulf citizens. Only 753 patients (25.7%) used EMS; which was mostly via Inter-Hospital EMS (22%) rather than direct transfer from the scene to the hospital by the Red Crescent (3.7%). Compared to the non-EMS group, the EMS group was more likely to arrive initially at a primary or secondary health care facility; thus, they had longer median symptom-onset-to-emergency department arrival times (218 vs. 158 min; p˂.001); they were more likely to receive primary percutaneous coronary interventions (62% vs. 40.5%, p = 0.02); they had shorter door-to-needle times (38 vs. 42 min; p = .04); and shorter door-to-balloon times (47 vs. 83 min; p˂.001). High EMS use was independently predicted mostly by primary/secondary school educational levels and low or moderate socioeconomic status. Low EMS use was predicted by a history of angina and history of percutaneous coronary intervention. The groups had similar in-hospital deaths and outcomes. Conclusion Most acute STEMI patients in the Arabian Gulf region did not use EMS services. Improving Red Crescent infrastructure, establishing integrated STEMI networks, and launching educational public campaigns are top health care system priorities. PMID:26807577

  16. Gulf of Mexico Loop Current path variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, K. A.; Watts, D. R.; Hamilton, P.; Leben, R.; Kennelly, M.; Lugo-Fernández, A.

    2016-12-01

    Loop Current, LC, path variability exhibits a continuum of spatial and temporal scales, all are called meanders in this work. They arise from a variety of processes, including short and long waves, frontal eddies with or without closed cores and developing baroclinic instability. They have been extensively studied with satellite sea surface temperature SST, and height, SSH. Yet, these systems provide an incomplete view into LC meandering: SST measurements are hampered by cloud coverage and low thermal contrast in summer months and SSH measurements by altimeter temporal and spatial resolution. In an effort to resolve LC meander temporal and spatial scales, they are investigated using a mesoscale resolving in situ array deployed in the Gulf of Mexico. The array, which consisted of twenty-five inverted echo sounders with pressure gauges, PIES, and current meter moorings, was deployed April 2009 and recovered in October-November 2011. The broad extent of the array, nominally 89° W to 85° W, 25° N to 27° N, enabled quantitative mapping of the regional circulation. LC meander properties are characterized as a function of spatial distribution of energy, frequency, wavenumber, and phase speed. Dispersion characteristics and meander scales are comparable to those found in the Gulf Stream. Phase speeds increase with frequency and range from 8 to 50 km d-1. Wavelengths associated with each band are as follows: 460 km for the 100 to 40 d band, 350 km for the 40 to 20 d band, 270 km for the 20 to 10 d band and 230 km for the 10 to 3 d band. The strongest variability is in the 100 to 40 d band. Spatially the 100 to 40 d variability is concentrated to east of the Mississippi Fan, growing and propagating downstream along the eastern portion of the LC. Meanders between 40 and 20 d propagate along the full encompassed length of the LC. Their temporal amplitudes peak at the time of LC eddy detachment and separation. Meanders with shorter periods than 20 d do not always propagate

  17. Salinity Measurements During the Gulf Stream Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.

    2000-01-01

    The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made

  18. US Gulf-like toxigenic O1 Vibrio cholerae causing sporadic cholera outbreaks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun; Octavia, Sophie; Jin, Dazhi; Ye, Julian; Miao, Ziping; Jiang, Tao; Xia, Shichang; Lan, Ruiting

    2016-05-01

    Cholera is potentially a life threatening disease caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. Here we report the identification and characterisation of 76 non-7th pandemic clone O1 V. cholerae isolates including 65 clinical isolates from diarrhoeal patients from 2005 to 2014 in Zhejiang Province, China. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to characterise 65 V. cholerae isolates. Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on a subset of the isolates and whole-genome sequencing was done on 13 isolates. MLST separated 65 isolates into 19 sequence types (STs). Thirty three isolates belonged to ST75 which also contains the US Gulf Coast clone. PFGE separated the 33 isolates into 16 pulsotypes. Whole genome sequencing of 10 ST75 isolates showed that the US Gulf Coast clone and the Chinese ST75 isolates can be separated into two distinct lineages, ST75a and ST75b. All Zhejiang ST75 isolates were ST75b. PFGE and genome sequencing confirmed the linked cases and identified small outbreaks caused by ST75b. The emergence and potential spread of ST75b may pose significant threat to public health. Epidemiological surveillance is required to further understand its epidemic potential. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Gulf Coast Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerdice, Michelle E J; Hecht, Joy A; Karpathy, Sandor E; Paddock, Christopher D

    2017-03-01

    Amblyomma maculatum Koch (the Gulf Coast tick) is an aggressive, human-biting ixodid tick distributed throughout much of the southeastern United States and is the primary vector for Rickettsia parkeri, an emerging human pathogen. Amblyomma maculatum has diverse host preferences that include white-tailed deer, a known reservoir for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species, including the human pathogens E. ewingii and E. chaffeensis. To examine more closely the potential role of A. maculatum in the maintenance of various pathogenic Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species, we screened DNA samples from 493 questing adult A. maculatum collected from six U.S. states using broad-range Anaplasmataceae and Ehrlichia genus-specific PCR assays. Of the samples tested, four (0.8%) were positive for DNA of Ehrlichia ewingii, one (0.2%) was positive for Anaplasma platys, and one (0.2%) was positive for a previously unreported Ehrlichia species closely related to Ehrlichia muris and an uncultivated Ehrlichia species from Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in Japan. No ticks contained DNA of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia canis, the Panola Mountain Ehrlichia, or Anaplasma phagocytophilum. This is the first identification of E. ewingii, A. platys, and the novel Ehrlichia in questing Gulf Coast ticks; nonetheless the low prevalence of these agents suggests that A. maculatum is not likely an important vector of these zoonotic pathogens. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Teacher perceptions of the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence: Central Gulf of Mexico program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempier, Tracie Tingle

    The 12 Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) are funded by the National Science Foundation and are designed to promote creative ways of disseminating marine science research and its importance to the public. The focus of this study is the COSEE Central Gulf of Mexico program which encourages active partnerships between research scientists and teachers. In these collaborative partnerships, teachers and scientists work together to create educational products and disseminate best practices in ocean sciences education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the lesson plans and curricula created through the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence: Central Gulf of Mexico program (COSEE:CGOM), which are the products of this collaboration, were being used effectively in the classroom. The study addressed issues such as teacher perceptions of collaboration with scientists, effectiveness of COSEE:CGOM curriculum implementation in producing more ocean literate students, and teachers' varying views concerning how to successfully implement new COSEE:CGOM knowledge and concepts into their classrooms in order to improve student scientific understanding. In addition, the study examined frequency of use of COSEE:CGOM lesson plans and identified predictor variables that can produce a model for understanding factors hindering or enhancing lesson plan use. Further, participant perceptions of using peer-teaching as a method for disseminating COSEE:CGOM information in their districts were addressed.

  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected.

  2. [Pakistan: emigration in the Gulf and its effects on the home economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdad, N

    1985-01-01

    Pakistani emigration since the early 1970s has been primarily directed toward the oil-rich Gulf states. Over 2 million Pakistanis, 10% of the adult male workforce, now live outside their home country, 3/4 of them in the Gulf states. The emigration has shortterm advantages for Pakistan, which has a high unemployment rate and few other exports. 2 government bureaus and over 300 recruiting agencies encourage Pakistani emigration to the Gulf, and because of the foreign exchange earnings generated, such emigration has become an important concern of the government. Emigration has a long history in Pakistan as part of the migratory movements of the Indian subcontinent in general. Emigration in the 1960s was prompted by mechanization of agriculture and disturbances of traditional agrarian labor arrangements brought on by the Green Revolution. Concentrations of lands among the successful middle-sized producers led to a rural proletariat and exodus towards the cities, where possibilities of employment were scarce. Regions of declining income around the new capital of Islamabad were the 1st to take advantage of new employment opportunities in the Gulf states. Pakistani migration to the Gulf countries is temporary for individual workers, who stay an average of 3-6 years, but the effect is of chain migration as returning workers are replaced by other family members. Workers are not accompanied by family members and have almost no contact with the local Arab populations. They send most of their earnings to their families in Pakistan. 3/4 are under 30 years old, most are of rural origin, and the majority are from the northern provinces. Although 70% are married, only 4% of migrants, the most highly qualified, are accompanied by their families. About 41% are unskilled workers and 42.6% are semiskilled or skilled manual workers. In 1981, the average annual salary repatriated by a Pakistani working in the Gulf was $3000. The Pakistani government has not defined a migration policy

  3. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  4. Is Gulf War Syndrome actually chronic Lyme disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, David C

    2005-01-01

    Symptoms of Gulf War Syndrome and chronic Lyme disease are very similar. Lyme disease is a condition which can be difficult to diagnose since one of the main features of the condition, the erythema migrans rash, may be absent or overlooked and serological testing for Lyme disease may be falsely negative. Symptoms of Lyme disease may not became apparent until years after exposure to the causative organism. Military personnel during training in the field are at risk of tick bites and it may be that those who developed Gulf War Syndrome entered the conflict with latent Lyme disease. There has been no systematic examination of Gulf War Syndrome sufferers for chronic Lyme disease and it is hypothesized that chronic Lyme disease has been overlooked as a cause of Gulf War Syndrome. To address this it is suggested that sufferers of Gulf War Syndrome or similar illnesses should be examined by physicians who have experience diagnosing and treating large numbers of patients with Lyme disease.

  5. Gulf Stream density structure and transport during the past millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, David C; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean; Curry, William B

    2006-11-30

    The Gulf Stream transports approximately 31 Sv (1 Sv = 10(6) m(3) s(-1)) of water and 1.3 x 10(15) W of heat into the North Atlantic ocean. The possibility of abrupt changes in Gulf Stream heat transport is one of the key uncertainties in predictions of climate change for the coming centuries. Given the limited length of the instrumental record, our knowledge of Gulf Stream behaviour on long timescales must rely heavily on information from geologic archives. Here we use foraminifera from a suite of high-resolution sediment cores in the Florida Straits to show that the cross-current density gradient and vertical current shear of the Gulf Stream were systematically lower during the Little Ice Age (ad approximately 1200 to 1850). We also estimate that Little Ice Age volume transport was ten per cent weaker than today's. The timing of reduced flow is consistent with temperature minima in several palaeoclimate records, implying that diminished oceanic heat transport may have contributed to Little Ice Age cooling in the North Atlantic. The interval of low flow also coincides with anomalously high Gulf Stream surface salinity, suggesting a tight linkage between the Atlantic Ocean circulation and hydrologic cycle during the past millennium.

  6. 77 FR 59185 - Gulf of Mexico Citizen Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... Committee Act (FACA), 5 U.S.C. App.2, the Gulf of Mexico Citizen Advisory Committee (GMCAC) is a necessary... AGENCY Gulf of Mexico Citizen Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental... Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: LaKeshia Robertson, Designated Federal Officer, Gulf of Mexico...

  7. 75 FR 75173 - Gulf of Mexico Executive Council Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... (FACA), 5 U.S.C. App. 2, the Gulf of Mexico Executive Council (GMEC) is a necessary committee which is... AGENCY Gulf of Mexico Executive Council Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... associated with plans to improve and protect the water quality and living resources of the Gulf of Mexico...

  8. Observing environmental change in of the Gulf of Maine: ICUC smartphone app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Want to help collect data on environmental change in the Gulf of Maine with your smartphone? The Gulf of Maine Council’s EcoSystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) is growing the community of citizen scientists in the Gulf of Maine region through its new smartphone app: ICUC (...

  9. 76 FR 31326 - Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 18, 2011, Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC (GLNG Pipeline), Colonial Brookwood Center, 569... to Margaret G. Coffman, Counsel, Gulf LNG Pipeline Company, LLC, Colonial Brookwood Center,...

  10. 78 FR 5403 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf, and South Atlantic; Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ..., Gulf, and South Atlantic; Aquaculture AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... the Fishery Management Plan for Regulating Offshore Marine Aquaculture in the ] Gulf of Mexico (FMP; formerly the Draft Generic Amendment to Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Plans for Offshore...

  11. 78 FR 36309 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... diagnosing and treating Gulf War Veterans, and a drug treatment trial which is underway. On June 18, the... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on June 17 and 18, 2013, in room...

  12. The gulf implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry: Rationale, methodology, and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawi A Alsheikh-Ali

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Gulf ICD is the first prospective, observational, multi-center, and multinational study of the characteristics and, the outcomes of patients receiving ICDs in the Arab Gulf region. The study will provide valuable insights into the utilization of and outcomes related to ICD therapy in the Gulf region.

  13. Using Acoustic Tomography to Monitor Deep Ocean Currents in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Toward the improved prediction and monitoring of deep-water currents and eddies in the Gulf of Mexico , the Gulf Eddy Monitoring System group (GEMS...proposes that a network of acoustic transmitter receiver pairs be deployed in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico . Acoustic travel times are inverted to

  14. Observing environmental change in of the Gulf of Maine: ICUC smartphone app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Want to help collect data on environmental change in the Gulf of Maine with your smartphone? The Gulf of Maine Council’s EcoSystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) is growing the community of citizen scientists in the Gulf of Maine region through its new smartphone app: ICUC (...

  15. Gulf of Mexico Oceanography Atlas available

    Science.gov (United States)

    The second full-color volume of the Atlas Oceanogáfico del Golfo de México has recently been published by the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas of México (GEO-IIE) (see Eos, Feb. 20, 1990, for announcement of volume 1). This second of an eight-volume series describes the hydrography, baroclinic flows and transports, water masses distributions, and the kinematic properties of anticyclonic-cyclonic ring pairs (modons) of the central and western Gulf of Mexico (26°-20°40‧N, 97°40‧-93°W). The data presented and analyzed in this volume were collected during the Argos 86-1 oceanographic cruise conducted by the GEO-IIE aboard the R/V Justo Sierra during October and November 1986. Authors of the volume are Víctor M. V. Vidal, Francisco V. Vidal, and Abel Hernández. It has 16 chapters in 715 pages, including 248 full-page color plates and 35 tables.

  16. Manatees in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.; Lefebvre, Lynn W.

    2001-01-01

    The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabits rivers and estuaries along both coasts of Florida and, to a lesser extent, adjacent states (Figure 1). Since 1990, documented sightings of manatees outside of Florida have been increasing. This increase in sightings probably represents northward shifts in manatee distribution made possible by man-made sources of warm water (i.e., industrial effluents), as well as a decade of relatively warm winters. The most likely source of emigrants on the Gulf coast is the population of manatees that overwinter in the headwaters of the Crystal and Homosassa Rivers, Citrus County, FL. This group of manatees has undergone a steady increase in numbers, (approximately 7% per year from 1977-1991; Eberhardt and O’Shea 1995). Some emigrants may also come from the Tampa-Ft. Myers region, where human impacts on habitat are greater. Manatees are intelligent, long-lived mammals that appear to adapt readily to new environments and situations. However, manatees have relatively low metabolic rates, and cold winter temperatures restrict their northern distribution.

  17. Gulf of Mexico sea level curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, W.F.; Demirpolat, S. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA)); Stapor, F.W. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville (USA)); Alvarez, L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico))

    1989-09-01

    Beach ridge plains on four sides of the Gulf of Mexico produced a new, better sea level history for late Holocene time: St. Vincent Island, Florida panhandle; Sanibel Island, lower peninsula of Florida; Mesa del Gavilan, east of Brownsville, Texas; and Isla del Carmen, in the state of Campeche, Mexico. On St. Vincent Island there are more than 300 data points (elevation and relative age), each taken from a beach ridge or a swale. These ridges and swales can be grouped in sets; some sets stand high, and some are low. Their boundaries mark rises and drops of sea level. The St. Vincent Island data fall in a continuous time sequence. The types of data available on and adjacent to this island are topographic (plane-table work), sedimentological (high-precision grain size parameters), photographic (air photos), and pedologic. All of these data agree in meaning, as far as sea level history is concerned. They provide a record of changes, both up and down, in the range of about 1 m to perhaps as much as 3-4 m. Three rises and two drops in the last 6,000 years are obvious. Changes as small as 10-50 cm probably cannot be detected by the methods at hand, but it is highly unlikely, with hundreds of data points in one small study area, that major changes (1 m or more) have been overlooked. The latest change was a rise, about 800 years ago.

  18. Gulf team delivers on DP drillship promise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatern, R. von

    2001-06-01

    The technological achievements of the project by Amoco and BP to complete a deepwater subsea well in the Gulf of Mexico from a dynamically positioned (DP) vessel are described. In 2000, the dual activity drillship, Discoverer Enterprise (owned by Transocean Sedco Forex), completed the Nile well in the Viosca Knoll area and then the King Well in Mississippi Canyon Block 85. Stringent safety and environmental protection criteria imposed by Amoco and BP drove the design of the Dril-Quip subsea wellhead to ensure that the wellhead profile and connector coped with the worst case scenario. BP also specified a disconnect system that would secure the well in less than a minute. The SenTREE 7 and Commander telemetry systems developed by Schlumberger, the components of the work string and test work with the Nile well to ensure BP conditions were met and that the perforation and surge procedure proceeded successfully are explained. The time reduction achieved by using large DP drillships and future BP plans are outlined.

  19. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Visual perception is very important for road users and in the dark it can be facilitated by public lighting. Public lighting has a mostly positive road safety effect. Installing public lighting on roads that were previously unlit generally results in fewer and less serious crashes. This effect seems

  20. A review of deepwater pipeline construction in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico-Contracts, cost, and installation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    The offshore pipeline network in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico is the largest and most transparent system in the world. A review of deepwater projects in the region provides insight into construction cost and installation methods and the evolution of contract strategies. Pipeline projects are identified as export systems, infield flowline systems, and combined export and infield systems, and three dozen deepwater pipeline installations from 1980-2014 are described based on OTC/SPE industry publications and press release data. Export lines and infield flowlines are equally represented and many projects used a combination of J-lay, S-lay and reel methods with rigid steel, flexible line, and pipe-in-pipe systems. The average 2014 inflation-adjusted cost for pipeline projects based on OTC/SPE publications was 2.76 million/mi and ranged from 520 000/mi to 12.94 million/mi. High cost pipelines tend to be short segments or specialized pipeline. Excluding the two cost endpoints, the majority of projects ranged from 1 to 6 million/mi. The average inflation-adjusted cost to install deepwater pipelines in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico based on available public data is estimated at 3.1 million/mi.

  1. A Review of Deepwater Pipeline Construction in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico-Contracts, Cost, and Installation Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark J. Kaiser

    2016-01-01

    The offshore pipeline network in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico is the largest and most transparent system in the world. A review of deepwater projects in the region provides insight into construction cost and installation methods and the evolution of contract strategies. Pipeline projects are identified as export systems, infield flowline systems, and combined export and infield systems, and three dozen deepwater pipeline installations from 1980–2014 are described based on Offshore Technology Conference (OTC) and Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) industry publications and press release data. Export lines and infield flowlines are equally represented and many projects used a combination of J-lay, S-lay and reel methods with rigid steel, flexible line, and pipe-in-pipe systems. The average 2014 inflation-adjusted cost for pipeline projects based on OTC/SPE publications was$2.76 million/mi and ranged from$520 000/mi to$12.94 million/mi. High cost pipelines tend to be short segments or specialized pipeline. Excluding the two cost endpoints, the majority of projects ranged from $1 to $6 million/mi. The average inflation-adjusted cost to install deepwater pipelines in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico based on available public data is estimated at $3.1 million/mi.

  2. Zubarah, the Gulf and local and international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jørgen Bæk

    2014-01-01

    The deeply etched tracks of human achievement in the Gulf region since prehistory reflect a dynamic interplay between local, neighbouring and inter-regional agencies. Geography, resources, the exchange of commodities and the transfer of ideas elevated the status of the Gulf to that of a major...... regional player; a busy conduit in which peoples from diverse backgrounds lived fully and communally, and soon attracted the direct intervention of neighbouring empires. In the study of the vibrant historical events that marked the subsequent emergence of a post-colonial Gulf from the 18th century onwards......, archaeology is now making a significant contribution to documenting and explaining the principle social, political and economic factors that came to shape that period of fundamental change. Of the many social transformations that occurred between the later 18th and mid-20th centuries, none was more...

  3. Sea surface temperature and Ekman transport in the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available   The wind drift motion of the water which is produced by the stress of the wind exerted upon the surface of the ocean is described by Ekmans theory (1905. Using the mean monthly values for the wind stress and SST, seasonal Ekman transport for the Persian Gulf was computed and contoured. The geostrophic winds have combined with the SST to estimate the effect of cooling due to Ekman transport of colder northern waters and inflow from the Oman Sea. The monthly SST mainly obtained from the 10 10 grided data of Levitus atlas and Hormuz Cruis Experiment for 1997.   Analyses show a NW to SE Ekman transport due to wind stress and significant interannual variability of SST on sea surface in the Persian Gulf. The seasonal variation of SST shows a continental pattern due to severe interaction between the land and sea. But these variations somehow moderates because of Ekman transport in Persian Gulf.

  4. 75 FR 10867 - Determinations Concerning Illnesses Discussed in the Institute of Medicine Report on Gulf War and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... AFFAIRS Determinations Concerning Illnesses Discussed in the Institute of Medicine Report on Gulf War and... Secretary of Veterans Affairs, under the authority granted by the Persian Gulf War Veterans Act of 1998... uranium in the Persian Gulf during the Persian Gulf War, for any of the diseases, illnesses, or health...

  5. Reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes among French gulf war veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bégassat Marion

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1993, many studies on the health of Persian Gulf War veterans (PGWVs have been undertaken. Some authors have concluded that an association exists between Gulf War service and reported infertility or miscarriage, but that effects on PGWV's children were limited. The present study's objective was to describe the reproductive outcome and health of offspring of French Gulf War veterans. Methods The French Study on the Persian Gulf War (PGW and its Health Consequences is an exhaustive cross-sectional study on all French PGWVs conducted from 2002 to 2004. Data were collected by postal self-administered questionnaire. A case-control study nested in this cohort was conducted to evaluate the link between PGW-related exposures and fathering a child with a birth defect. Results In the present study, 9% of the 5,666 Gulf veterans who participated reported fertility disorders, and 12% of male veterans reported at least one miscarriage among their partners after the PGW. Overall, 4.2% of fathers reported at least one child with a birth defect conceived after the mission. No PGW-related exposure was associated with any birth defect in children fathered after the PGW mission. Concerning the reported health of children born after the PGW, 1.0% of children presented a pre-term delivery and 2.7% a birth defect. The main birth defects reported were musculoskeletal malformations (0.5% and urinary system malformations (0.3%. Birth defect incidence in PGWV children conceived after the mission was similar to birth defect incidence described by the Paris Registry of Congenital Malformations, except for Down syndrome (PGWV children incidence was lower than Registry incidence. Conclusion This study did not highlight a high frequency of fertility disorders or miscarriage among French PGW veterans. We found no evidence for a link between paternal exposure during the Gulf War and increased risk of birth defects among French PGWV children.

  6. Deglacial climatic oscillations in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigwin, L. D.; Jones, G. A.

    1990-12-01

    A high-resolution, accelerator radiocarbon dated climate record of the interval 8,000-18,000 years B.P. from Deep Sea Drilling Project site 480 (Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California) shows geochemical and lithological oscillations of oceanographic and climatic significance during deglaciation. Nonlaminated sediments are associated with cooler climatic conditions during the late glacial (up to 13,000 years B.P.), and from 10,300 to 10,800 years B.P., equivalent to the Younger Dryas event of the North Atlantic region. We propose that the changes from laminated (varved) to nonlaminated sediments resulted from increased oxygen content in Pacific intermediate waters during the glacial and the Younger Dryas episodes, and that the forcing for the latter event was global in scope. Prominent events of low δ18O are recorded in benthic foraminifera from 8,000 to 10,000 and at 12,000 years B.P.; evidence for an earlier event between 13,500 and 15,000 years B.P. is weaker. Maximum δ18O is found to have occurred 10,500, 13,500, and 15,000 years ago (and beyond). Oxygen isotopic variability most likely reflects changing temperature and salinity characteristics of Pacific waters of intermediate depth during deglaciation or environmental changes within the Gulf of California region. Several lines of evidence suggest that during deglaciation the climate of the American southwest was marked by increased precipitation that could have lowered salinity in the Gulf of California. Recent modelling studies show that cooling of the Gulf of Mexico due to glacial meltwater injection, which is believed to have occurred at least twice during deglaciation, would have resulted in increased precipitation with respect to evaporation in the American southwest during summertime. The timing of deglacial events in the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf of California supports such an atmospheric teleconnection.

  7. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in edible marine biota from Northern Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozar, Seyedeh Laili Mohebbi; Pauzi, Mohamad Zakaria; Salarpouri, Ali; Daghooghi, Behnam; Salimizadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    To provide a baseline information for consumer's health, distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in 18 edible marine biota species from northern Persian Gulf was evaluated. The samples were purchased from fish market of Hormozgan Province, South of Iran. Marine biota samples included different species with various feeding habits and were analyzed based on ultraviolet florescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variation, ranging from 0.67 to 3.36 μg/g dry weight. The maximum value was observed in silver pomfret. Anchovy and silver pomfret with the highest content of petroleum hydrocarbons were known as good indicator for oil pollution in the studied area. From public health point of view, the detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than hazardous guidelines. The results were recorded as background data and information in the studied area; the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended, according to the rapid extension of industrial and oily activities in Hormozgan Province.

  8. Integrated care: meeting mental health needs after the Gulf oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Howard J; Osofsky, Joy D; Wells, John H; Weems, Carl

    2014-03-01

    This column describes an integrated behavioral health initiative in primary care clinics in Louisiana parishes affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The Louisiana Mental and Behavioral Health Capacity Project is an integral part of the Gulf Region Health Outreach Program and is funded from the Deepwater Horizon Medical Benefits Class Action Settlement. Using a public health approach, the Department of Psychiatry of the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center developed an interprofessional collaboration model of care to provide culturally tailored and time-sensitive on-site and telemedicine services to adults and children affected by the disaster. Results indicate a high level of acceptance of the services and reductions in both mental health symptoms and general medical symptoms. Primary care clinic staff also report increased confidence and resilience to meet future disasters. The approach could be used by communities at risk of disasters and by rural communities with limited mental health resources.

  9. Sea snakes (Elapidae, Hydrophiinae) in their westernmost extent: an updated and illustrated checklist and key to the species in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie-Atagholipour, Mohsen; Ghezellou, Parviz; Hesni, Majid Askari; Dakhteh, Seyyed Mohammad Hashem; Ahmadian, Hooman; Vidal, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The Persian Gulf is known as the westernmost distribution limit for sea snakes, except for Hydrophis platurus (Linnaeus, 1766) that reaches southeastern Africa. Previous identification guides for sea snakes of the Persian Gulf and its adjacent waters in the Gulf of Oman were based on old data and confined mostly to written descriptions. Therefore, a series of field surveys were carried out in 2013 and 2014 through Iranian coastal waters of both gulfs to provide a comprehensive sampling of sea snakes in the area. This paper presents an illustrated and updated checklist and identification tool for sea snakes in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, which are based on new material and a review of the literature. This checklist includes ten species of marine hydrophiines, of which one, Microcephalophis cantoris (Günther, 1864), is a new record for the area. All specimens examined herein are deposited and available at the Zoological Museum of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman province, Iran.

  10. Regulatory aspects of pharmaceuticals' exports in gulf cooperation council countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateriya, S; Janodia, Md; Deshpande, Pb; Ligade, Vs; Talole, Kb; Kulshrestha, T; Kamariya, Y; Musmade, Pb; Udupa, N

    2011-04-01

    The Gulf cooperation council (GCC) region is considered as "Emerging market" for pharmaceutical export and bilateral trade. The understanding of the regulatory requirements of this region can be beneficial for pharmaceutical export. Some incidents of the year 2008-09, like recession or economic slowdown in highly well-off and regulated market of the EU and US, raised the demand for alternate destinations for business. The regulations of Gulf countries are encouraging the import of quality generic products, which can be good news to the Indian drug manufacturers.

  11. [Echinoderms (Echinodermata) from the Gulf of California, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Durán-González, Alicia; Ahearn, Cynthia Gust; Torres Vega, Juan

    2005-12-01

    A systematic list of the echinoderms of the Gulf of California, based on museum specimens of the Colección Nacional de Equinodermos, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. is presented. A total of 193 echinoderm species is recorded, distributed in 108 genera, 51 families and 19 orders. 12 new records for the Gulf of California are presented: Asteroidea (four), Ophiuroidea (three) and Holothuroidea (five).

  12. Sea level differences across the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnicki, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The sea level differences between the Sargasso Sea and the slope waters across the Gulf Stream region, averaged between 73 and 61 deg W, and the comparable areas across the Kuroshio extension region, averaged between 143 and 156 deg E, were estimated using the Geosat altimeter data obtained between November 1986 and December 1988. The sea-level differences between the two regions showed a strong correlation between the northwest Atlantic and Pacific, dominated by annual cycles that peak in late-September to mid-October, with about 9 cm (the Gulf Stream region) and about 6.9 cm (Kuroshio region) amplitudes.

  13. Oil and gas, strategic regional cooperation between Persian Gulf countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalloi, Mir Mahdi

    2010-09-15

    Almost two-thirds of proven oil and a third of world natural gas resources are in the Persian Gulf countries. Unfortunately strategic region of Persian Gulf in the past three decades faced with many security challenges due to wars and political conflicts. For security in this region, there are several methods such as military treaties between regional countries or Military presence of foreign countries, but historical evidence has shown, none of them could not guarantee the stable security in this region. The regional cooperation between countries can be replaced to mentioned methods. IPI Gas pipeline is an objective sample for this regional cooperation.

  14. Crustal Deformation in the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico: Underthrusting of the Gulf of Mexico beneath Tehuantepec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Gerardo; Aguilar, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    An array of 45 broad band sensors were installed along the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in southeastern. This experiment, called VEOX, was implemented on August 2007 to March 2009. Data were registered continuously during the whole period. In order to search in the seismic records of the data obtained for crustal events in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, To this purpose, an STA/LTA algorithm was designed to detect earthquakes with S-P times indicating they occurred close the seismic stations, at crustal or upper mantle depths. During the 18 months that the experiment lasted, about 40 crustal earthquakes were recorded in more than three stations, allowing us to determine a hypo central location. All earthquakes occurring at depths greater than 120 km, within the subjected slab, were discarded. The majority of this crustal or upper mantle activity occurred in the northern part of the Isthmus, along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico or just inland from it. No velocity model exists in the area. Therefore, we tested three different velocity models, including one obtained in an adjacent region and based on seismic refraction data. One of these three models rendered the more stable solutions and smaller errors in the hypocentral locations and was used as the local seismic velocity model. In order to improve the quality of the locations, we experimented using a double difference hypocentral algorithm (HYPODD). There was no noticeable improvement in the quality of the hypocenters using this technique. The best located events suggest a southwestern-dipping zone of seismic seismicity, deepening from the Gulf of Mexico towards the interior of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The focal mechanisms of the earthquakes indicate the maximum axis of compresion (P axis) is oriented nearly horizontally and in a southwest-northeast direction. These mechanisms are similar to those observed for earthquakes previously studied in the region on the basis of teleseismic data, such as the Mw 6.9, 29 August

  15. Lagrangian Coherent Structures in the Trieste Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besio, G.; Enrile, F.; Magaldi, M. G.; Mantovani, C.; Cosoli, S.; Gerin, R.; Poulain, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    One serious issue in Environmental Science and Engineering concerns the prediction of the fate of contaminants released in a water body. A possible way to tackle this problem consists in forecasting pollutant trajectories from velocity-field data sets obtained by measurements or numerical simulations. A shortcoming of such a traditional approach is the high sensitivity to initial conditions. Another way to understand transport in complex fluid flows comes from a new mathematical tool: Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS). The idea of using Lagrangian Structures rose as a meeting point between non-linear dynamics and fluid mechanics. It provides the means to identify material lines that shape trajectory patterns, dividing the flow field into regions with different dynamical behaviours. The objective of this study is the detection of Lagrangian Coherent Structures in the Gulf of Trieste. LCS are calculated from the 2D surface velocity field measured by the coastal radars of the TOSCA (Tracking Oil Spills & Coastal Awareness network) project. Blobs of simulated particles are subjected to chaotic stirring (transport and stretching) that is in agreement with the detected LCS. In the TOSCA project drifters were deployed, too. Therefore, a simple simulation of some of these drifters was carried out. The trajectory of the simulated drifters diverge from the real one: this result is due to the chaotic transport of passive tracers. However, the separation becomes more evident when velocity fields are less accurate because of lack of measurements, previously filled with nearest neighbourhood interpolation. In the light of such results, the use of LCS could be helpful in understanding the trajectory followed by drifters and passive tracers in general, because they can point out the directions along which transport is likely to develop.

  16. 76 FR 13986 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Workshop will be held in the auditorium at the NOAA Center for Coastal Fisheries and Habitat Research, 101... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment...

  17. Characterization of Gulf sturgeon diel and seasonal activity in the Pensacola Bay system, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrege, Beth Marie

    2009-12-01

    We assess temporal and spatial distribution and diel variability in activity of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Pensacola Bay system, Florida, using stationary ultrasonic telemetry. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon (n = 54) migrated through the bay system in fall to wintering areas in the Gulf of Mexico and Santa Rosa Sound. In spring, sturgeon migrated back through the bay system to summering habitats in rivers. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon use East Bay and Escambia Bay primarily as migration routes between riverine areas used in spring and summer and the Gulf of Mexico used in winter. North Central Pensacola Bay was not routinely frequented. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon used specific areas within the Pensacola Bay system in summer and winter not previously documented as essential sturgeon habitat. Areas in southeastern Pensacola were used heavily during winter by a portion of the population. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon also exhibited long-term winter residency in Santa Rosa Sound. Interestingly, an area in northeastern Escambia Bay supported Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in summer. This observation was unexpected; however, the identification of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in this area at this time has important ecological and management implications. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon exhibited a strong diel activity pattern. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon were more active at night than during day in all seasons but summer. The use of prepositioned arrays of acoustic receivers not only provides continuous data within a defined area, but provides insights into nocturnal behavior not previously examined.

  18. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome.

  19. Effects of the Gulf Oil Spill in Escambia County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Kelcey Ray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the British Petroleum Gulf Oil Spill on resource change, psychological stress, and resilience for business owners, residents, and workers in Escambia County, Florida. This study was based on Hobfoll's (1988, 1989) Conservation of Resources theory. All business owners, residents, and…

  20. Toxiological Considerations in the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Deep Water Horizon oil rig exploded on April 20, 2010, resulting in an ongoing release of light sweet petroleum crude oil and methane into Gulf of Mexico waters. The release from the deepwater wellhead 41 miles from Louisiana is at approximately 1 mile depth, and flow rates e...

  1. Friends from Benin on the Gulf of Guinea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>In late June, Beijing was very hot under the scorching sun, but it could not stop Severin Adjovi, mayor of Ouidah of Benin on the Gulf of Guinea, from leading a delegation to visit China. Under the Sahara-type heat wave, the

  2. Multiple sclerosis in the Arabian Gulf countries: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlega, Saeed; Inshasi, Jihad; Al Tahan, Abdel Rahman; Madani, Abu Bakr; Qahtani, Hussien; Rieckmann, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is rapidly changing in many parts of the world. Based on the Kurtzke classification, the Arabian Gulf Region is located in a low-risk zone for MS; however, recent studies suggest a moderate-to-high prevalence nearby (31-55 MS per 10,0000 individuals), with an increase in incidence in recent years. The relapsing-remitting disease course ratio is 2.5:1 versus the primary progressive type. In a geographic area that was previously associated with low prevalence; the recent high prevalence and fast rising incidence of MS in the gulf countries, encouraged the neurologists of this region to meet in a consensus panel, in order to share our latest findings in terms of MS epidemiology and consent on MS management in the Arabian Gulf. Therefore 20 key opinion leader neurologists and MS experts representing various countries of the Arabian Gulf have met in Dubai on the 2 and 3 February 2012, they shared their latest epidemiological findings, discussed recent MS aspects in the region, and consented on MS management relevantly to this geographic area.

  3. Piram island: Pirates Fort in the Gulf of Khambat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Bhatt, B.K.

    invaded this island. The navigation in the Gulf of Khambat has always been a great challenge to navigators because of the high tidal range (Indian Tide Table, 2008) and literary references suggest that the island was a marker point while navigating within...

  4. Liquefaction hazard analysis for infrastructure development in gulf of Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinata, Indra A.; Darlan, Yudi; Sadisun, Imam A.; Pindratno, Haris; Saryanto, Agus

    2016-05-01

    Gulf of Jakarta is an area of active sedimentation. There exist a wide sediment deposition area on the north coast of Jakarta. Generally, these sediments have not been consolidated, so that the conditions in these area is an important factor to determining liquefaction in these area. Liquefaction may occur because of earthquake that cause loss of strength and stiffness in soils. Analysis of liquefaction potential based from SPT data taken at gulf of Jakarta, include susceptibility rate and the factors that triggering. Liquefaction analysis methods compared with each other to get the factor of safety against liquefaction according to the characteristics of the soil. Liquefaction analysis at surface using susceptibility rating factor (SRF). SRF method controled by factors: history, geology, composition, and groundwater. Each factors have parameters that determine the value of SRF.From the analysis, Gulf of Jakarta has susceptibility rating from liquefaction with SRF value 12 - 35. The value shows that Gulf of Jakarta dominated by area that have susceptibility rating from medium to high. High susceptibility rating from liquefaction concentrated at coast area.

  5. Iran: Politics, Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and is obligated to cease the executions of minors. Human Trafficking Since 2005, State Department...including the security of the Persian Gulf region. U.S. officials also express a broad range of concerns about Iran’s human rights abuses. The...11 Human Rights Practices .......................................................................................................... 15 The

  6. The Sociocultural Context of English Language Teaching in the Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Zafar

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the challenges faced by English-as-a-Foreign-Language teachers in the Arabian Gulf. Seeks to identify structural and contextual issues that have contributed to the present state of language education there. Focuses on four central contributing aspects; contextual framework, human resource development, systems and standards, and research…

  7. Crisis Begets Change: Hurricane Recovery at Gulf Coast Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Mahauganee Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature on campus crisis management and the breadth of research on organizational change, little is known about organizational changes prompted by campus crisis. The purpose of this study is to examine the changes made to the operational profiles of Gulf Coast institutions during the process of recovering from major…

  8. Wind farm planning at the Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, N.E.; Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Clausager, I. [Hedeselskabet A/S, Viborg (Denmark); Pagh Jensen, F. [National Environmental Res., Copenhagen (Denmark); Georgy, L.; Said, U.S. [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Egypt, (Egypt)

    2004-11-01

    The Wind Atlas for Egypt project is an element in a national effort to provide the best possible basis for planning of future environmentally sustainable development and utilization of wind energy resources and technology in Egypt. The present report compiles the data, information and recommendations available for planning of wind farm projects in the Gulf of Suez. (au)

  9. Radar Backscatter Across the Gulf Stream Sea Surface Temperature Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Li, F. K.; Walsh, E. J.; Lou, S. H.

    1998-01-01

    Ocean backscatter signatures were measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne NUSCAT K(sub u)-band scatterometer across the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature front. The measurements were made during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) off the coast of Virginia and Maryland in the winter of 1991.

  10. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quattrocchi, G.; Pierini, S.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS) and GS extension (GSE) is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with schem

  11. Zika Virus Vector Competency of Mosquitoes, Gulf Coast, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Charles E; Roundy, Christopher M; Azar, Sasha R; Huang, Jing H; Yun, Ruimei; Reynolds, Erin; Leal, Grace; Nava, Martin R; Vela, Jeremy; Stark, Pamela M; Debboun, Mustapha; Rossi, Shannan; Vasilakis, Nikos; Thangamani, Saravanan; Weaver, Scott C

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus has recently spread throughout the Americas. Although Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are considered the primary vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and mosquitoes of other species may also be vectors. We tested Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. taeniorhynchus mosquitoes from the US Gulf Coast; both were refractory to infection and incapable of transmission.

  12. SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, G. B.

    1981-02-01

    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  13. Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-2-0064 TITLE: Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: New England School of Acupuncture , Inc. Newton, MA 02458-1005...December 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Gulf War Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH

  14. How Selected High School Newspapers Covered the Persian Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jane W.; Maronn, Michelle

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the many ways in which high school newspapers covered the Persian Gulf War, ranging from a serious analysis to satire in the form of a Cliff Notes summary. Compares two editorials from "The Little Hawk" (Iowa City, Iowa), one supporting the war and the other against. (PA)

  15. 77 FR 1405 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... Harvey Locks, at Grand Lake, Cameron Parish, Louisiana. The deviation is necessary to allow for the safe..., call or email David Frank, Bridge Administration Branch; telephone (504) 671-2128, email David.m.frank... Lake Pontoon Bridge across the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, mile 231.5 west of Harvey Lock (WHL),...

  16. 77 FR 75556 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Boulevard bascule span drawbridge across the Harvey Canal Route, Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW), mile 2.8... temporary deviation from the operating schedule for the Bascule Span Bridge across the Harvey Canal Route....35. Dated: December 5, 2012. David M. Frank, Bridge Administrator. BILLING CODE 9110-04-P...

  17. 77 FR 32393 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... the Lapalco Boulevard bascule span drawbridge across the Harvey Canal Route, Gulf Intracoastal... Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this rule, call or email David Frank, Bridge Branch Office, Coast Guard; telephone 504-671-2128, email David.M.Frank@uscg.mil . If...

  18. 78 FR 14185 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... drawbridge across the Harvey Canal Route, Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW), mile 2.8 at New Orleans... the operating schedule for the Bascule Span Bridge across the Harvey Canal Route, Intracoastal..., 2013. David M. Frank, Bridge Administrator. BILLING CODE 9110-04-P...

  19. 76 FR 70345 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... of the Lapalco Boulevard bascule span drawbridge across the Harvey Canal Route, Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW), mile 2.8 at Harvey, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana. The deviation is necessary to allow for... INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this rule, call or email David Frank, Bridge...

  20. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quattrocchi, G.; Pierini, S.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS) and GS extension (GSE) is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with