WorldWideScience

Sample records for publications external funding

  1. Financial frictions and substitution between internal and external funds in publicly traded Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Telles Portal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to document the effects of financial constraints on the negative relationship between cash flow and external funds, a phenomenon associated with the Pecking Order Theory. This theory suggests that companies subject to more expensive external funds (financially constrained firms should demonstrate a stronger negative relationship with cash flow than companies subject to minor financial frictions (financially unconstrained firms. The results indicate that the external funds of constrained firms consistently present less negative sensitivity to cash flow compared with those of unconstrained companies. Additionally, the internal funds of constrained companies demonstrate a positive sensitivity to cash flow, whereas those of unconstrained companies do not show any such significant behavior. These results are in accordance with the findings of Almeida and Campello (2010, who suggest the following: first, because of the endogenous nature of investment decisions in constrained companies, the complementary relationship between internal and external funds prevails over the substitutive effects suggested by the Pecking Order Theory; and second, the negative relationship between cash flow and external funds cannot be interpreted as evidence of costly external funds and therefore does not corroborate the Pecking Order Theory.

  2. References on the Study and Research of Public External Operational Audit of Structural Non-reimbursable Funds an Epistemological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin AFANASE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC is the international organism of standardization in the auditing field [1]. In our opinion, the theories, the methodologies and the standards issued by the mentioned organism, are still the paradigms with the most significant impact on audit rules and practices. Since some theorists define accounting as a social applied science, we can also affirm that the audit activity has a social role [2]. We intend to treat the mentioned subject not only from gnoseological point of view, in other words, we won’t just broaden the current theories and practices. In research, beside the theoretical analysis work, we intend to have a critical attitude both regarding previous research and defining and spreading innovative ideas relating to the suggested topic, as well. We may say that studying theorists work who are linked to the field news, in order to formulate the rules of good practice is an epistemological matter. From the epistemological point of view, in auditing, we operate with valuable judgments, namely evaluations or practical assessments of the phenomenon which our work can influence by adopting an approval or disapproval attitude. Improving the audit of operations financed from external grants can and should be a leverage of the utmost importance for their strategic absorption, implementation according to the agreements signed with the European Commission under the full protection of EU financial interests. The present project is focused on increasing the optimization of audit procedures and techniques as regards grants audit operations so that their implementation to be transparent, effective, efficient and economic for the national economy, and complying with the financial interests of the European Union. The challenge of this approach is caused by the fact that the external public audit of the external funded grants should fully

  3. XD Metrics on Demand Value Analytics: Visualizing the Impact of Internal Information Technology Investments on External Funding, Publications, and Collaboration Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Scrivner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many universities invest substantial resources in the design, deployment, and maintenance of campus-based cyberinfrastructure (CI. To justify the expense, it is important that university administrators and others understand and communicate the value of these internal investments in terms of scholarly impact. This paper introduces two visualizations and their usage in the Value Analytics (VA module for Open XD metrics on demand (XDMoD, which enable analysis of external grant funding income, scholarly publications, and collaboration networks. The VA module was developed by Indiana University’s (IU Research Technologies division, Pervasive Technology Institute, and the CI for Network Science Center (CNS, in conjunction with the University at Buffalo’s Center for Computational Research. It provides diverse visualizations of measures of information technology (IT usage, external funding, and publications in support of IT strategic decision-making. This paper details the data, analysis workflows, and visual mappings used in two VA visualizations that aim to communicate the value of different IT usage in terms of NSF and NIH funding, resulting publications, and associated research collaborations. To illustrate the feasibility of measuring IT values on research, we measured its financial and academic impact from the period between 2012 and 2017 for IU. The financial return on investment (ROI is measured in terms of IU funding, totaling $339,013,365 for 885 NIH and NSF projects associated with IT usage, and the academic ROI constitutes 968 publications associated with 83 of these NSF and NIH awards. In addition, the results show that Medical Specialties, Brain Research, and Infectious Diseases are the top three scientific disciplines ranked by the number of publications during the given time period.

  4. Manager, External Funds Management | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary The Manager, External Funds Management is responsible for ... in consultation with project staff, the annual project-based operational budgets and is ... and liaises with the Treasury Accountant on treasury management issues.

  5. Decommissioning nuclear power plants: a case for external funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendren, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    In deciding how to finance the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, there are five basic criteria for choosing between internal and external funding methods: (1) the desire for financial assurance, (2) the cost of the assurance, (3) the degree of equity in the recovery program, (4) the program's ability to respond to changes, and (5) the program's adaptability to different utilities. To fulfill its obligations to protect long-term public interests, the Missouri Public Service Commission decided it had to assure, to the maximum extent possible, that sufficient decommissioning funds were available when needed. For this reason, it chose the external funding method. In an external fund, the money currently collected from ratepayers to cover decommissioning costs is placed in an independent trust fund comprised of low-risk investments. The funds and the interest they accrue are available to the utility only at the time of decommissioning (and only for that purpose), thus assuring a certain amount of money will be on-hand to cover decommissioning costs as they arise. Such a fund may prove critical to the financial well-being of the utility, particularly if one considers that the utility would need additional generating facilities to replace the capacity lost through the retirement of its nuclear plant. 3 references

  6. Public Funding of Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortuno-Ortin, Ignacio; Schultz, Christian

    This paper concerns public funding of parties. Parteis receive public funds depending on their vote share. Funds finance electoral campaigns. Two cases are investigated. In the first, some voters are policy motivated and some are ?impressionable? ? their vote depends directly on campaign...... expenditures. In the second, campaigning is informative and all voters are policy motivated. Public funds increase policy convergence in both cases. The effect is larger, the more funding depends on vote shares. When campaigns are informative, there may be multiple euqilibria. Intuitively, a large party can...

  7. Communicating with external publics: managing public opinion and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristino, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    In health care organizational settings public relations plays an important role in managing relationships with a variety of external publics as well as with society in general. Managing these relationships involves both reactive and proactive communication activities. Reactively, public relations responds to public issues, crises and concerns, as well as inquiries from the media and other social institutions. Proactively, public relations engages in deliberately planned campaigns and programs to inform, influence or change behaviors of targeted publics for a wide range of strategic purposes. These purposes include managing the organization's image and identity; influencing public policies; supporting health promotion and education; promoting fund raising and volunteerism; and managing organizational change and crises.

  8. FINANCING PUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICES FROM PUBLIC FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš POLIAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of efficiency of public passenger transport through financial support from public funds from the perspective of improving road safety. The aim is to verify the hypothesis that financing public passenger transport from public funds is a significant tool to influence the number of passengers carried by individual automobile transport, and thus it can be used a tool for influencing road safety in a particular territory. The first part of the paper analyses the sources for financial support of public passenger transport. The next part describes the assumptions for improving road safety through increasing the support of public passenger transport. The last part analyses possible impacts of financing public passenger transport on the road safety in relation to the specified hypothesis.

  9. External Monitoring and Dynamic Behavior in Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of external monitoring on the behavior in mutual funds. Specifically, we investigate how and why external monitoring can alleviate contracting inefficiency caused by information asymmetry between investors and the manager. It is shown that efficiency loss emerges when investors contract with the manager just relying on her investment return history. The establishment of external monitoring that provides investors more information about the manager’s ability can improve contracting efficiency, which converges to first-best as external monitoring strengthens. These results provide strong support for tightening supervision in mutual fund industry.

  10. Senior Financial Analyst – External Funds Management | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary The Senior Financial Analyst, External Funds Management is responsible ... in accordance with the donor agreements and accounting principles. ... Assist the Manager in the development of the financial accounting structure for ...

  11. Impact of externally funded projects on development of research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of externally funded projects on development of research capability of national agricultural research system. S K Sharma. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  12. Genomics Research: World Survey of Public Funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook-Deegan Robert M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past two decades, genomics has evolved as a scientific research discipline. Genomics research was fueled initially by government and nonprofit funding sources, later augmented by private research and development (R&D funding. Citizens and taxpayers of many countries have funded much of the research, and have expectations about access to the resulting information and knowledge. While access to knowledge gained from all publicly funded research is desired, access is especially important for fields that have broad social impact and stimulate public dialogue. Genomics is one such field, where public concerns are raised for reasons such as health care and insurance implications, as well as personal and ancestral identification. Thus, genomics has grown rapidly as a field, and attracts considerable interest. Results One way to study the growth of a field of research is to examine its funding. This study focuses on public funding of genomics research, identifying and collecting data from major government and nonprofit organizations around the world, and updating previous estimates of world genomics research funding, including information about geographical origins. We initially identified 89 publicly funded organizations; we requested information about each organization's funding of genomics research. Of these organizations, 48 responded and 34 reported genomics research expenditures (of those that responded but did not supply information, some did not fund such research, others could not quantify it. The figures reported here include all the largest funders and we estimate that we have accounted for most of the genomics research funding from government and nonprofit sources. Conclusion Aggregate spending on genomics research from 34 funding sources averaged around $2.9 billion in 2003 – 2006. The United States spent more than any other country on genomics research, corresponding to 35% of the overall worldwide public

  13. The dynamic model of choosing an external funding instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena HONKOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Making a decision about using a specific funding source is one of the most important tasks of financial management. The utilization of external sources features numerous advantages yet staying aware of diverse funding options is not easy for financial managers. Today it is crucial to quickly identify an optimum possibility and to make sure that all relevant criteria have been considered and no variant has been omitted. Over the long term it is also necessary to consider the category of time as changes made today do not affect only the current variables but they also have a significant impact on the future. This article aims to identify the most suitable model of choosing external funding sources that would describe the dynamics involved. The first part of the paper considers the theoretical background of external funding instrument and of decision criteria. The making of financial decisions is a process consisted of weighing the most suitable variants, selecting the best variant, and controlling the implementation of accepted proposals. The second part analyses results of the research - decisive weights of the criteria. Then it is created the model of the principal criteria Weighted Average Cost of Capital (Dynamic model WACC. Finally it is created the Dynamic Model of Choosing an External Funding Instrument. The created decision-making model facilitates the modeling of changes in time because it is crucial to know what future consequences lies in decisions made the contemporary turbulent world. Each variant features possible negative and positive changes of varying extent. The possibility to simulate these changes can illustrate an optimal variant to a decision-maker.

  14. Unconventional funding of urban public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubbels, B.J.; Nijkamp, P.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade public authorities have developed a wealth of creative funding mechanisms to support transit systems. This paper offers a taxonomy of various unconventional funding mechanisms (i.e. outside the domain of charges for transit passengers or general taxation schemes), based on a

  15. Gas tax fund and public transit fund outcomes report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Federal gas tax and public transit agreements were signed in 2005 by the Government of Canada, the Province of Ontario, the Association of Municipalities of Ontario (AMO) and the City of Toronto in order to address long-term community sustainability and invest in municipal infrastructure. The agreement committed to providing $1.9 billion to Ontario municipalities over a 5-year period. An additional $2.4 billion has been provided for a further 4-year period from 2010 to 2014. The funds are used by communities to invest in capacity building or environmentally sustainable municipal infrastructure projects. This report identified the intermediate and ultimate outcomes of the federal gas tax fund and public transit fund as of December 2008. Outcomes were presented in the categories of community energy systems, public transit, water and wastewater, solid waste, and roads and bridges. Funding highlights and economic spin-offs for the projects were also presented, as well as summaries of ancillary social outcomes. 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. FUNDING PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Constantin, DIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of this article started from the fact that in the field of public institutions accounting there have been many changes and it aims to capture the essential aspects of their financing. Thus the article covers a series of issues related to the credit officers, to employment, to settlement and payment of public institutions expenditure, to the budgeting and budgetary credits accounting. It also presents a brief classification of the public institutions according to several criteria, as well as their financing sources. The paper also practically presents the accounting of the budgetary credits and their sharing mechanism between the principal, secondary and tertiary budgetary credits officers.

  17. The Impact of External Public Audit on the Budget Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vasile

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Public imbalances can cause extensive problems both on public finances and economy. Regardless of the constitution and destination of funds it is absolutely necessary to verify their correct accounting, collection type and expense in accordance with applicable regulations, and if due attention is paid to obtain an optimal balance between resources and results. Therefore it is useful to study the role of public audit in the formation and use of public funds to indicate its impact on the budget balance. Prior Work: This paper presents the evolution of synthetic budgetary indicators during 2010 - 2013 and the impact that the external public audit had on the budget deficit. Approach: In order to highlight the importance and necessity of public audit activity it has been analyzed its influence in the formation and use of public funds and the extent of implementation of the recommendations made in the audit reports. Results: In the study conducted we have set out several conclusions regarding definite reality according to which financial resources materialize a large part of GDP, so that advocates for public performance of the audit. Implications: The need for public audit can be viewed through the prism of the three classes of economic and financial interests, namely: the interests of public entities, third party interests of consumers of public goods and services and state interests. Value: This paper highlights the importance and the impact of public external audit activity on public financial funds and invites the interested readers on the topic to get involved by providing feedback in order to improve this activity in Romania.

  18. Public Funding and Corporate Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Mathias; Junge, Martin; Kaiser, Ulrich

    We review and condense the body of literature on the economic returns of public R&D on private R&D and find that: (i) private returns to R&D appear to be large and larger than the returns to alternative investments; (ii) private R&D and R&D subsidies are positively correlated and there is no evid...

  19. Should uterus transplants be publicly funded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen; Williams, Nicola Jane

    2016-01-01

    Since 2000, 11 human uterine transplantation procedures (UTx) have been performed across Europe and Asia. Five of these have, to date, resulted in pregnancy and four live births have now been recorded. The most significant obstacles to the availability of UTx are presently scientific and technical, relating to the safety and efficacy of the procedure itself. However, if and when such obstacles are overcome, the most likely barriers to its availability will be social and financial in nature, relating in particular to the ability and willingness of patients, insurers or the state to pay. Thus, publicly funded healthcare systems such as the UK's National Health Service (NHS) will eventually have to decide whether UTx should be funded. With this in mind, we seek to provide an answer to the question of whether there exist any compelling reasons for the state not to fund UTx. The paper proceeds as follows. It assumes, at least for the sake of argument, that UTx will become sufficiently safe and cost-effective to be a candidate for funding and then asks, given that, what objections to funding there might be. Three main arguments are considered and ultimately rejected as providing insufficient reason to withhold funding for UTx. The first two are broad in their scope and offer an opportunity to reflect on wider issues about funding for infertility treatment in general. The third is narrower in scope and could, in certain forms, apply to UTx but not other assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). The first argument suggests that UTx should not be publicly funded because doing so would be inconsistent with governments’ obligations to prevent climate change and environmental pollution. The second claims that UTx does not treat a disorder and is not medically necessary. Finally, the third asserts that funding for UTx should be denied because of the availability of alternatives such as adoption and surrogacy. PMID:26670671

  20. External radiation exposure of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehl, J.

    1977-01-01

    Results of several ten thousand measurements on external radiation (outside buildings, in living rooms) are used for illustrating by isodose charts covering the total area of the Federal Republic of Germany the exposure of the public from external radiation originating from natural radiation of the environment. Results of calculations on external radiation exposure of the public due to releases of radioactivity in air from nuclear installations are used for illustrating by coloured isodose charts the exposure of the public in the plant site vicinity. From comparison of the exposure levels it becomes obvious that if exposure levels of several 10 mrem per year are considered to be of real concern to public health, control of natural radoactivity in the environment of man would require more attention than present and foreseeable releases of radioactivity in air from nuclear inst

  1. Utility financial stability and the availability of funds for decommissioning: An analysis of internal and external funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    The NRC is currently developing final rules in the area of decommissioning nuclear facilities. A part of that rulemaking effort is assuring that funds will be available at the time of decommissioning of power reactors. This report provides an update by considering public comments received on the NRC's proposed rule on decommissioning (published February, 1985) and by analyzing the relative level of assurance of internal and external reserves. In its analysis, the report makes use of specific case utility financial situations. The report concludes that from a financial standpoint, with the exception of PSNH, internal reserves currently provide sufficient assurance of funds for decommissioning. The report also concludes that the NRC should recommend changes in bankruptcy laws, including decommissioning obligations in utility prospectuses, and conduct periodic financial reviews of nuclear utilities due to changing economic conditions

  2. The External Networking Behaviour of Public Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on managerial external networking behaviour within public administration. While most previous quantitative research has analysed such behaviour one-dimensionally, we suggest a two-dimensional conceptualization based on the concepts of weak and strong ties....... Utilizing measures resembling previous research, we explore the utility of the approach in an exploratory study of Danish local government. Our findings suggest that the two dimensions of external networking behaviour are distinct. We discuss our approach compared to previous approaches and argue...

  3. The marginal cost of public funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends the theory and measurement of the marginal cost of public funds (MCF) to account for labor force participation responses. Our work is motivated by the emerging consensus in the empirical literature that extensive (participation) responses are more important than intensive (hours...... of work) responses. In the modelling of extensive responses, we argue that it is crucial to account for the presence of non-convexities created by fixed work costs. In a non-convex framework, tax and transfer reforms give rise to discrete participation responses generating first-order effects...

  4. The marginal cost of public funds: theory and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dahlby, Bev

    2008-01-01

    ... with Externalities 3.4.1 Environmental Externalities 3.4.2 Public Expenditure Externalities 3.5 The MCF with Imperfect Competition in Commodity Markets 3.5.1 The MCF under Monopoly 51 54 55 58 63 63 ...

  5. Should Glaucoma be Publicly Funded in Arguments for Funding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... 2018 Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 59. [Downloaded free ... vision.[6] Further, Malaysia has an efficient, widespread ... universal healthcare program, mainly tax-funded (80%).

  6. [Targeted public funding for health research in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viergever, Roderik F; Hendriks, Thom C C

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch government funds health research in several ways. One component of public funding consists of funding programmes issued by the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw). The majority of ZonMw's programmes provide funding for research in specific health research areas. Such targeted funding plays an important role in addressing knowledge gaps and in generating products for which there is a need. Good governance of the allocation of targeted funding for health research requires three elements: a research agenda, an overview of the health research currently being conducted, and a transparent decision-making process regarding the distribution of funds. In this article, we describe how public funding for health research is organized in the Netherlands and how the allocation of targeted funds is governed. By describing the questions that the current model of governance raises, we take a first step towards a debate about the governance of targeted public funding for health research in the Netherlands.

  7. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1997-01-01

    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women.

  8. The balancing role of evaluation mechanisms: cases of publicly funded research institutions: MPG, HGF, and CAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Junwen

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation has been designed and used as an instrument of organisational governance for publicly funded research institutions (PRIs). Such an instrument can justify external public support and provide internal evidence for decision-making and organisational learning. Under given national and

  9. Synthetic biology in the view of European public funding organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lei; Gaisser, Sibylle; Schmidt, Markus

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the decisions of major European public funding organisations to fund or not to fund synthetic biology (SB) and related ethical, legal and social implication (ELSI) studies. We investigated the reaction of public organisations in six countries (Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK) towards SB that may influence SB’s further development in Europe. We examined R&D and ELSI communities and their particular funding situation. Our results show that the funding situation for SB varies considerably among the analysed countries, with the UK as the only country with an established funding scheme for R&D and ELSI that successfully integrates these research communities. Elsewhere, we determined a general lack of funding (France), difficulties in funding ELSI work (Switzerland), lack of an R&D community (Austria), too small ELSI communities (France, Switzerland, Netherlands), or difficulties in linking existing communities with available funding sources (Germany), partly due to an unclear SB definition. PMID:22586841

  10. Public funding - a solution for technological SMEs and entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilia, Calefariu; Traian Alexandru, Buda

    2016-11-01

    Technological SMEs are in a constant struggle for growth or sometimes maintaining the production capacity, increase market share, supporting tax burden, ensuring employees' salaries, profit growth. They constantly consider short-term survival of the company, with trying to maintain a long-term uptrend for the business. Entrepreneurs are again in a position to access public financing under quite favorable conditions. The paper aims to analyze the opportunity of accessing these external financing options, which have both advantages and a series of long-term constraints which should not be excluded before the final decision to access this funding. New research is required, thus sustainable development can be maintained for the business environment in order to increase efficiency, competitiveness, sustainable development strategies that generate job security, regional growth and rewarding the risk-taking of the entrepreneur.

  11. Funding and provision of resources in public and private school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work discussed funding for libraries in selected public and private schools in Imo State as well as provision of resources in their libraries. The major aim of the work was that there is a corollary between funding and provision of resources such that the funding directly affects the resources of the library. The survey ...

  12. Survey of state funding for public transportation 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The AASHTO Standing Committee on Public Transportation is pleased to release the Survey of State : Funding for Public Transportation. The survey results reflect Fiscal Year 2008 data. This annual report : provides a snapshot of state-by-state investm...

  13. Does External Funding Help Adaptation? Evidence from Community-Based Water Management in the Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtinho, Felipe; Eakin, Hallie; López-Carr, David; Hayes, Tanya M.

    2013-11-01

    Despite debate regarding whether, and in what form, communities need external support for adaptation to environmental change, few studies have examined how external funding impacts adaptation decisions in rural resource-dependent communities. In this article, we use quantitative and qualitative methods to assess how different funding sources influence the initiative to adapt to water scarcity in the Colombian Andes. We compare efforts to adapt to water scarcity in 111 rural Andean communities with varied dependence on external funding for water management activities. Findings suggest that despite efforts to use their own internal resources, communities often need external support to finance adaptation strategies. However, not all external financial support positively impacts a community’s abilities to adapt. Results show the importance of community-driven requests for external support. In cases where external support was unsolicited, the results show a decline, or “crowding-out,” in community efforts to adapt. In contrast, in cases where communities initiated the request for external support to fund their own projects, findings show that external intervention is more likely to enhance or “crowds-in” community-driven adaptation.

  14. Teachers' Organisational Behaviour in Public and Private Funded Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honingh, M. E.; Oort, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare teachers' organisational behaviour in publicly- and privately-funded schools in the Dutch Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Design/methodology/approach: A percentage of all middle managers in publicly and privately funded schools (72 per cent and 43 per cent respectively) distributed…

  15. Teachers’ organisational behaviour in public and private funded schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honingh, M.E.; Oort, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare teachers' organisational behaviour in publicly- and privately-funded schools in the Dutch Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Design/methodology/approach - A percentage of all middle managers in publicly and privately funded schools (72

  16. Are Sunshine Private Funds More Beneficial than Publicly Offered Funds to the Fund Managers in Their Investment Performance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Wu; XIONG Hang

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of the comparison between the investment performances of the fund managers before and after investment transfer from publicly offered funds to sunshine private funds,we can better explore the influences of the two institutional environments on the investment performances of the fund managers.This paper conducts a comparative analysis of the fund managers,investment performances before and after their investment transfer with the help of a number of fund performance evaluation models.The results show that the overall investment ability of the fund managers have been improved significantly when they transfer from publicly offered funds to sunshine private funds.If decomposing the overall investment ability into time-choosing and stock-picking abilities,the improvement of the fund managers' overall investment ability is mainly reflected in the significant improvement of their time-choosing ability after the transfer,while their stock-picking ability would then decrease a little.At the same time,by studying the personal characteristics of the fund managers,it is found that those who had investment research experience can obtain better investment performances.

  17. Shadow Cost of Public Funds and Privatization Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Susumu; Matsumura, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the optimal privatization policy in mixed oligopolies with shadow cost of public funds (excess burden of taxation). The government is concerned with both the total social surplus and the revenue obtained by the privatization of a public firm. We find that the relationship between the shadow cost of public funds and the optimal privatization policy is non-monotone. When the cost is moderate, then higher the cost is, the lower is the optimal degree of privatization. ...

  18. Recommendations from the External Auditors to the CERN Pension Fund Management on the Financial Statements of the CERN Pension Fund for the Financial Year 2013 and comments from the CERN Pension Fund Management

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Recommendations from the External Auditors to the CERN Pension Fund Management on the Financial Statements of the CERN Pension Fund for the Financial Year 2013 and comments from the CERN Pension Fund Management

  19. Recommendations from the External Auditors to the CERN Pension Fund Management on the Financial Statements of the Pension Fund for the Financial Year 2014 and Comments from the CERN Pension Fund Management Supreme Audit Office of Poland

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recommendations from the External Auditors to the CERN Pension Fund Management on the Financial Statements of the Pension Fund for the Financial Year 2014 and Comments from the CERN Pension Fund Management Supreme Audit Office of Poland

  20. Funding ATLAS 2012 key indicators for publicly funded research in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)

    2013-01-01

    The Funding ATLAS is a reporting system (previously referred to as the Funding Ranking) employed by the German Research Foundation (DFG) to provide information in the form of indicators of key developments in publicly funded research in Germany every three years. This English version of the Funding ATLAS 2012 presents selected findings from the more comprehensive German edition. At the core of the report are indicators that provide information on which subject areas have received funding at higher education and other research institutions in the period 2008-2010. This report also includes, as a supplement not found in the German edition, the decisions on the Excellence Initiative, which were taken shortly after the German edition of the Funding ATLAS 2012 was published. The report also addresses the subject of internationality by presenting selected indicators that show how attractive Germany's research institutions are for visiting scientists. In summary, the DFG Funding ATLAS furnishes reliable indicators o...

  1. Public Audit of Local Area Development Fund in Meghalaya | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Public Audit of Local Area Development Fund in Meghalaya. It is often alleged that many people contest the state assembly elections in Meghalaya (India) not with the intention of serving the people but rather of having access to the financial packages that come with it. These include funds from the Special Rural Works ...

  2. Sovereign wealth fundspublic investment vehicles, foreign policy element. Comparative evolution in the international context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Drăniceanu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign funds are an important actor occurring on international financial markets in the last decade, being, in fact, state controlled international investments. Generally, they are financed from foreign currency reserves of the emergent countries they are constituted in, being managed apart of the official reserves and used for external expansion; they are likely to be detrimental to certain strategic interests. As public financial vehicles, they own, endorse or manage public funds of some emergent countries, freely invested by them in a great number of assets, being seen as a foreign policy element.

  3. Public Audit of Local Area Development Fund in Meghalaya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Public Audit of Local Area Development Fund in Meghalaya ... The team proposes to use the 2005 Right to Information Act as a tool to gather relevant information. ... adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  4. Compensation for the victims of violence from the public funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Serbia there is still neither a public fund for the compensation of the victims of the violent crime, nor do the until now undertaken reform of the penal law respect in the necessary measure the interests of the victims. The documents of the UN, the European Council and the EU contain guidelines for the foundation of funds for the public compensation of the victims of violence, and the comparative European experiences indicate by their action the existing system of social protection is completed. The authors analyses the reasons for the introduction of these funds and they plead for the compensation of the victims from public funds to be enabled for the reason of justice and humanity, according to the idea of prosperity within a state of prosperity. That reason should have priority in relation to other, pragmatic, criminal-political reasons and the obligation of the domestic legislation to (formally adjust itself to the European standards.

  5. The Funding of Public Service Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowe, Gregory F.; Berg, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the financial situation for public service broadcasting in European Union member countries, situating concerns about the sector's economic value-for-money in a broader discourse about contention over socio-political values. The authors argue that debate about...

  6. 75 FR 70015 - External Defibrillators; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... different environments (hospital, community, home)? 4. What features of next generation devices can be... present written material or to make oral presentations at the public workshop, please call the contact...

  7. Private Placements as Sources of Long Term Funds for publicly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thereafter, an overview of the concept of private placement is given to enable a better appreciation of its unique role in raising funds for organizations that are not publicly quoted in a registered stock exchange. It concludes with an exposition of the problems of allowing private placements for publicly quoted firms.

  8. Raising the Bar on External Research Funding: Infrastructure and Strategies for Enhancing Faculty Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chval, Kathryn B.; Nossaman, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    Administrators seek faculty who have the expertise to secure external funding to support their research agenda. Administrators also seek strategies to support and enhance faculty productivity across different ranks. In this manuscript, we describe the infrastructure we established and strategies we implemented to enhance the research enterprise at…

  9. Public funding of political parties when campaigns are informative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortín, Ignacio Ortuño; Schultz, Christian

    dependence on vote shares induces fur- ther moderation and improves welfare. If parties are asymmetric, vote share dependent public funding bene…ts the large party and makes it moderate its candidate, while the smaller party reacts by choosing a more extremist candidate. On balance, however, if the parties......The paper considers public funding of political parties when some voters are poorly informed about parties’ candidates and campaigns are informative. For symmetric equilibria, it is shown that more pub- lic funding leads parties to chose more moderate candidates, and that an increase in the funding’s...... are not too asymmetric, an increase in vote share dependent funding improves welfare and increases the likelihood that a moderate candidate wins the election...

  10. Attitudes to publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Danish public’s support for publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention. It was also examined whether levels of support could be explained by dislike of obese people and / or the belief that those who are obese are personally responsible......, the perceived controllability of obesity, self-reported BMI, and additional attitudinal and sociodemographic characteristics. Public funding of some obesity treatments, such as weight-loss surgery, attracted only limited public support. A majority of the Danish public did support ‘softer’ treatment...... interventions and preventive initiatives. Attitudes to the treatment of obesity were clearly best predicted by the belief that individuals are personally responsible for their own obesity. Dislike of obese persons had no direct effect on the preference for collective treatment initiatives and only a small...

  11. Survey of state funding for public transportation 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This report is the 25th compilation of information on State funding of public transportation. The transportation departments in all 50 States and the District of Columbia responded to the survey, which was distributed and compiled by the U.S. Departm...

  12. The Politics of Teaching, Funding and Publication in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper takes a critical look at the politics of teaching, funding and publication that seemingly dominate the academic context of anthropology in South Africa. The views that will be expressed are of an inherently personal nature as they will reflect the experiences that we have had as young academics in our institution ...

  13. Challenges of public procurement in EU funded projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Šostar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Membership in the European Union implies adjustment of EU projects to the rules of Structural Funds, but also adoption of legal regulations, thus influencing the process of implementation of the public procurement in EU funded projects. Each successful applicant who expressed the need for procurement of goods, services and works of a certain value, must respect the principles of public procurement. Irregularities in the procurement process can lead to the failure of returning the EU funds even several years after the end of the project. Therefore, the knowledge and proper implementation of public procurement is the main precondition for the correct implementation of each project. In order to obtain information about the current absorption capacity of the public procurement liable parties, and to identify key obstacles that stakeholders face in procurement procedures, the research was conducted by surveying 30 entities that are subject of public procurement in Croatia. Research results imply the poor quality of public procurement in the implemented projects, which often results in financial corrections, disapproving project reports, etc.

  14. 77 FR 13619 - Notice of Proposed Information for Public Comment for: Public Housing Capital Fund Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... that are not subject to Independent Public Accountant (IPA) audit requirements. Agency form numbers, if... Information for Public Comment for: Public Housing Capital Fund Program AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian Housing, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The proposed information collection...

  15. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  16. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gruber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities.

    From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets.

    In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles, and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions.

    This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  17. LANDMARKS REGARDING THE EXTERNAL PUBLIC AUDIT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRINCU-DRĂGUŞIN CRISTINA-PETRINA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper falls within the category of those about the external public audit in Romania and is intended to be an investigative approach through which we propose to bring in the light of the scientific reflectors certain significant landmarks in the field, starting from the premise that it is a subject of considerable interest from multiple directions. In the described context, the coordinates of the article focus on the topical elements of the approached field and include conceptual delimitations regarding the external public audit, normative approaches in our country, aspects regarding the organization, functioning and management of the supreme audit institution, the presentation of competencies, the field of application for the activities of the Romanian Court of Accounts, as well as its specific attributions related to the external public audit. At the end of the paper, the conclusions on the debated topic are outlined.

  18. Theory of constraints for publicly funded health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Somayeh; Carter, Michael W; Golden, Brian

    2013-03-01

    Originally developed in the context of publicly traded for-profit companies, theory of constraints (TOC) improves system performance through leveraging the constraint(s). While the theory seems to be a natural fit for resource-constrained publicly funded health systems, there is a lack of literature addressing the modifications required to adopt TOC and define the goal and performance measures. This paper develops a system dynamics representation of the classical TOC's system-wide goal and performance measures for publicly traded for-profit companies, which forms the basis for developing a similar model for publicly funded health systems. The model is then expanded to include some of the factors that affect system performance, providing a framework to apply TOC's process of ongoing improvement in publicly funded health systems. Future research is required to more accurately define the factors affecting system performance and populate the model with evidence-based estimates for various parameters in order to use the model to guide TOC's process of ongoing improvement.

  19. Understanding artistic performance in its context: A case study of the practice of evaluation in a publicly funded opera company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiaravalloti, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows how the different groups of managers (administrative, artistic, and technical) of a publicly funded opera company evaluate the artistic performance of their organization. Performance information of varied nature is exchanged between the internal and external stakeholders of the

  20. Challenging 'girls only' publicly funded human papillomavirus vaccination programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Victoria G; Gustafson, Diana L

    2017-01-01

    This analysis examines the 'girls only' policy for publicly funded human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes. Current funding policy in most Canadian provinces covers 'girls only' with the goal of reducing mortality and morbidity rates of HPV-related cervical cancer. Recent studies indicate increasing rates of other HPV-related cancers among cisgender men and women. The HPV vaccine is proving effective against some of these cancers. Statistics on HPV vaccine uptake among individuals with different gender expressions are scarce. Critics argue that a 'girls only' HPV vaccine policy is inequitable. We add to this critique by reflecting on the gender binary embedded in such policies and produced through epidemiological studies that attend differentially to females, reinforcing exclusionary practices that leave out those who form their gender identities across the spectrum. We then draw on deontological (duties-based) and utilitarian (utility-based) frameworks to show that these gendered policies are also unethical. These challenges to the assumptions underlying 'girls only' immunization programmes have implications for nurses and the healthcare system. If we are to advance equitable and ethical health outcomes, we entreat nurses as a collective to mobilize the public to lobby federal, provincial and territorial governments to fund more inclusive HPV vaccination policies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A unique funding opportunity for public health in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Thomas; Huber, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the Affordable Care Act, states are more frequently turning to Medicaid waivers to achieve the "Triple Aim" goals of improving the experience of care, improving population health, and reducing per capita costs. These demonstration waivers provide opportunities to test innovative ways to finance and deliver care. Texas is currently implementing a waiver known as the Transformation and Quality Improvement Program. Its inclusion of public health agencies is a unique approach to a system typically limited to traditional providers. San Antonio Metropolitan Health District is one public health agency taking advantage of this new funding opportunity to implement 6 new or expanded programs targeting health issues of highest priority in this south Texas region. This article discusses the use of Medicaid waivers and the advantages and challenges of public health agency participation.

  2. Autonomy and Authority in Public Research Organisations: Structure and Funding Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Castro, Laura; Sanz-Menéndez, Luis

    2018-01-01

    This paper establishes a structural typology of the organisational configurations of public research organisations which vary in their relative internal sharing of authority between researchers and managers; we distinguish between autonomous, heteronomous and managed research organisations. We assume that there are at least two sources of legitimate authority within research organisations, one derived from formal hierarchy (organisational leadership) and another derived from the research community (professional); the balance of authority between researchers and managers is essentially structural but is empirically mediated by the funding portfolio of organisations and the corresponding endowment of resources at the disposal of leaders or researchers. Changes in the level, sources and strings of organisational and individual research funding are expected to affect the balance of internal authority in different ways depending on the organisational configuration, and to open the door to the influence of external actors in the development of research agendas.

  3. Utah Public Education Funding: The Fiscal Impact of School Choice. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study examines Utah's funding system for public education and provides an analysis of the fiscal impact of allowing parents to use a portion of their child's state education funding to attend a school of their choice, public or private. Like many states, Utah is facing pressure to improve its system of public education funding. The state's…

  4. AMPLIFICAREA RELAłIEI AUDITULUI PUBLIC INTERN CU AUDITUL PUBLIC EXTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Alexandru Szabo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of functional relations between the structure of theinternal audit and external audit in the public domain. The introduction isaddressed to international standards and regulatory framework that stipulates theneed for consolidation of the cooperation relations between the two categories ofprofessionals, namely, internal auditors and external public auditors. The authoremphasizes the importance of developing and of signing the Protocol ofcooperation and collaboration between the two audit authorities that are the Courtof Accounts and The Public Finance that support the professional partnership. Thearticle also presents the terms of the Protocol signed between external audit andinternal audit in the public sector. Finally, it is concluded that the increasing therole of internal audit in the implementation and development of management andinternal control system within public entities, is conditioned by the functionality ofthe collaboration and cooperation relationships between the two audits.

  5. 12 CFR 619.9270 - Qualified Public Accountant or External Auditor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified Public Accountant or External Auditor... § 619.9270 Qualified Public Accountant or External Auditor. A qualified public accountant or external... constituted State authority, identifying such person as a certified public accountant; (b) Is licensed to...

  6. Municipal Bonds. A Viable Funding Option For Oradea Local Public Administration (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Bunescu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In a market economy government resources are often insufficient to cover all the public budget needs. Public capital collecting process presents a particular interest considering the need of getting them with lower costs. The options for collecting public resources are characterized by diversity and complexity. One of them is based on municipal bonds funds. This paper explores the potential of public bonds issued at a local level in raising capital for infrastructure investments in Romanian public administration. This paper is not meant to be an empirical study at national level because sub-sovereign bonds market in Romania is not very developed. This paper is limited to a case study of public financing methods for a Romanian local public administration. Local authorities from Oradea have no other possibility without one of borrowing to achieve the objectives proposed. Thus, it resorted to a set of internal and external loans. Our study contents a comparative cost analysis of public financing by loans. The analysis lead to the result that the cheapest source of financing is the loan offered by the European Investment Bank, followed by municipal bonds issuing.

  7. Public Domain; Public Interest; Public Funding: Focussing on the ‘three Ps’ in Scientific Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mags McGinley

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ‘three Ps’ of scientific research: Public Domain; Public Interest; Public Funding. This is done by examining some of the difficulties faced by scientists engaged in scientific research who may have problems working within the constraints of current copyright and database legislation, where property claims can place obstacles in the way of research, in other words, the public domain. The article then looks at perceptions of the public interest and asks whether copyright and the database right reflect understandings of how this concept should operate. Thirdly, it considers the relevance of public funding for scientific research in the context of both the public domain and of the public interest. Finally, some recent initiatives seeking to change the contours of the legal framework are be examined.

  8. Mid-term evaluation of the Climate Change Action Fund : Public education and outreach (PEO) Block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    In February 1998, the Government of Canada established the Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) to assist Canada in meeting its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The CCAF managed a budget of 150 million dollars over three years, and the Public Education and Outreach (PEO) Block was allocated 30 million dollars of that total for its operations. Its mandate was to increase public awareness and understanding on the topic of climate change, as well as providing the required information to effect reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gases and adapt to climate change. An evaluation into this program was conducted, and it covered the period September 2000 to January 20, 2001. To date, 152 projects have been approved, which represents an investment of approximately 17.5 million dollars. Approximately 6 million dollars have been spent on the awareness component, while government communication activities used approximately 3.1 million dollars. Staff and project management fees in support of the program account for the remaining funds. This report addressed the performance to date in meeting the objectives, and also included recommendations for improved effectiveness. PEO files and records, a report entitled Interim review of the Climate Change Action Fund PEO Program, interviews with Departmental representatives, and interviews with external stakeholder groups formed the basis for the findings and recommendations. It was determined that future direction represents the most critical issue facing the PEO block. 1 tab

  9. Public Budgeting: The Compromises Among the Sound Budgeting Principles in Contingency Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    funding for major aircraft using supplemental appropriations in place of incremental funding as intended for normal budgeting practices. This was a prime... incrementally funded on an annual basis. This change in budgeting practices lacked predictability because it allowed last-minute budget requests with low...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. PUBLIC BUDGETING

  10. Funding Victoria's public hospitals: the casemix policy of 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Peter; Duckett, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    On 1 July 1993 Victoria became the first Australian state to use casemix information to set budgets for its public hospitals commencing with casemix funding for inpatient services. Victoria's casemix funding approach now embraces inpatient, outpatient and rehabilitation services.

  11. Recommendations from the External Auditors to the CERN Pension Fund Management on the Annual Report and Financial Statements for the Year Ended 31 December 2016 and Comments from the CERN Pension Fund Management

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations from the External Auditors to the CERN Pension Fund Management on the Annual Report and Financial Statements for the Year Ended 31 December 2016 and Comments from the CERN Pension Fund Management

  12. Recommendations from the External Auditors to the CERN Pension Fund Management on the Annual Report and Financial Statements for the year ended 31 December 2015 and comments from the CERN Pension Fund Management

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations from the External Auditors to the CERN Pension Fund Management on the Annual Report and Financial Statements for the year ended 31 December 2015 and comments from the CERN Pension Fund Management

  13. Financing higher education in South Africa: Public funding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    controversy. The article discusses these funding challenges. It argues that the current higher education funding conundrum will hamstring the achievement of the important higher education policy goals articulated in the National Plan on Higher Education. The article finally argues for a shift towards a redistributive funding ...

  14. Promoting public health research in BRICS through a multinational public health prize fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes the establishment of a prize fund to incentivise public health research within the BRICS association, which comprises the five major emerging world economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. This would stimulate cooperative healthcare research within the group and, on the proviso that the benefits of the research are made freely available within the association, would be rewarding for researchers. The results of the research stimulated by the prize would provide beneficial new healthcare technologies, targeting the most vulnerable and needy groups. The proposed fund is consistent with current international patent law and would not only avoid some of the problems associated with the "Health Impact Fund", but also create a new model for healthcare research.

  15. Funding Public Higher Education in Colorado: How Has the College Opportunity Funding Model Impacted Educational Funding and Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemist, George Edward

    2017-01-01

    During the 2004 legislative session, the Colorado General Assembly enacted Senate Bill 189 (SB189), which established the first system of college vouchers in the United States. The supporters of SB189 hoped that the voucher system, called the College Opportunity Fund (COF), would: 1) stabilize the flow of state funding to higher education; 2)…

  16. [Publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Dezetter, Anne

    Quebec's HealthCommissioner on the performance of the health system clearly highlighted gaps in the collaboration between primary care physicians and mental health specialists, decreased accessibility and inequity in access to effective mental health services such as psychotherapy.Objectives The aim of this article was to describe the implementation of two publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England with similar gatekeeper systems to the one in Quebec.Findings Following the Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS) program introduced in Australia in 2003, one of the most important initiatives from the Council of Australian Governments' National Action Plan on Mental Health 2006-2011 was the Better Access Initiative which commenced in 2006. The plan included AUD1.2 billion in funding for integrating and improving the mental health care system. The purpose of Better Access was to improve the treatment and management of mental illnesses and increasing community access to mental health professionals and providing more affordable mental health care. GPs were encouraged to work more closely with mental health professionals. Under this program, these professionals are able to provide mental health services on a fee-for-service basis subsidized through Medicare. Access to psychological therapies is provided through private providers, rather than through fund holding arrangements. As of 2009 in Australia, 2 million people (1 in 11) had received over 11.2 million subsidized mental health services. A recent study showed clinical improvements in patients with depression associated with Better Access, concluding that the program is meeting previously unmet mental health needs.In the case of England, the IAPT - Improving Access to psychological Therapies-program enabled primary care trusts (PCTs) to implement evidence-based psychological therapies as recommended by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence for people suffering from

  17. Pricing Externalities to Balance Public Risks and Benefits of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Sebastian; Cotton-Barratt, Owen; Snyder-Beattie, Andrew

    How should scientific funders evaluate research with public health risks? Some risky work is valuable, but accepting too much risk may be ethically neglectful. Recent controversy over H5N1 influenza experiments has highlighted the difficulty of this problem. Advocates of the research claim the work is needed to understand pandemics, while opponents claim that accidents or misuse could release the very pandemic the work is meant to prevent. In an attempt to resolve the debate, the US government sponsored an independent evaluation that successfully produced a quantitative estimate of the risks involved, but only a qualitative estimate of the benefits. Given the difficulties of this "apples-to-oranges" risk-benefit analysis, what is the best way forward? Here we outline a general approach for balancing risks and benefits of research with public risks. Instead of directly comparing risks and benefits, our approach requires only an estimate of risk, which is then translated into a financial price. This estimate can be obtained either through a centrally commissioned risk assessment or by mandating liability insurance, which allows private markets to estimate the financial burden of risky research. The resulting price can then be included in the cost of the research, enabling funders to evaluate grants as usual-comparing the scientific merits of a project against its full cost to society. This approach has the advantage of aligning incentives by assigning costs to those responsible for risks. It also keeps scientific funding decisions in the hands of scientists, while involving the public on questions of values and risk experts on risk evaluation.

  18. Availability of Automated External Defibrillators in Public High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michelle J; Loccoh, Emefah C; Goble, Monica M; Yu, Sunkyung; Duquette, Deb; Davis, Matthew M; Odetola, Folafoluwa O; Russell, Mark W

    2016-05-01

    To assess automated external defibrillator (AED) distribution and cardiac emergency preparedness in Michigan secondary schools and investigate for association with school sociodemographic characteristics. Surveys were sent via electronic mail to representatives from all public high schools in 30 randomly selected Michigan counties, stratified by population. Association of AED-related factors with school sociodemographic characteristics were evaluated using Wilcoxon rank sum test and χ(2) test, as appropriate. Of 188 schools, 133 (71%) responded to the survey and all had AEDs. Larger student population was associated with fewer AEDs per 100 students (P schools. Schools with >20% students from racial minority groups had significantly fewer AEDs available per 100 students than schools with less racial diversity (P = .03). Schools with more students eligible for free and reduced lunch were less likely to have a cardiac emergency response plan (P = .02) and demonstrated less frequent AED maintenance (P = .03). Although AEDs are available at public high schools across Michigan, the number of AEDs per student varies inversely with minority student population and school size. Unequal distribution of AEDs and lack of cardiac emergency preparedness may contribute to outcomes of sudden cardiac arrest among youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 76 FR 39474 - Monthly Median Cost of Funds Reporting, and Publication of Cost of Funds Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Semiannual Cost of Funds Index (SCOF), and other related cost of funds ratios currently published monthly in... discussed in this notice, please contact Jim Caton, Managing Director--Economic and Industry Analysis, at... Thrift Financial Report (TFR): \\2\\ \\2\\ Copies of the reporting forms and instructions for the TFR (OMB No...

  20. Analysis of National Public Research Funding (PREF) - Handbook for Data Collection and indicators production

    OpenAIRE

    LEPORI BENEDETTO

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the basic definition and methodology for the PREF data collection. It covers basic definitions of funding streams and funding instruments, the thematic classifications, characterization of research funding organizations and umbrella public research organizations. It also provides guidelines concerning the data structure, data collection process, data flagging and collection and management of metadata.

  1. 78 FR 33467 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency; Correction... allocation of $3.7 billion under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program to the four FTA...

  2. Awareness of evidence-based practices by organizations in a publicly funded smoking cessation network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provan, K.; Beagles, J.; Mercken, L.; Leischow, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the awareness of evidence-based practices by the public organizations that fund services in the North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). NAQC is a large, publicly funded, goal-directed “whole network,” spanning both Canada and the United States, working to get people to quit

  3. Funding issues and the delivery of public library services in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the impact of government public expenditure on education and the effect of special funding in enhancing the delivery of public library services in Nigeria. secondary data were collected from the websites of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Education Trust Fund (ETF.). Results from the regression ...

  4. The 10 largest public and philanthropic funders of health research in the world: what they fund and how they distribute their funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viergever, R.F.; Hendriks, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about who the main public and philanthropic funders of health research are globally, what they fund and how they decide what gets funded. This study aims to identify the 10 largest public and philanthropic health research funding organizations in the world, to report on

  5. Value of Public Health Funding in Preventing Hospital Bloodstream Infections in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; Bradley, Cathy J; Atherly, Adam J; Campbell, Jonathan D; Lindrooth, Richard C

    2017-11-01

    To estimate the association of 1 activity of the Prevention and Public Health Fund with hospital bloodstream infections and calculate the return on investment (ROI). The activity was funded for 1 year (2013). A difference-in-differences specification evaluated hospital standardized infection ratios (SIRs) before funding allocation (years 2011 and 2012) and after funding allocation (years 2013 and 2014) in the 15 US states that received the funding compared with hospital SIRs in states that did not receive the funding. We estimated the association of the funded public health activity with SIRs for bloodstream infections. We calculated the ROI by dividing cost offsets from infections averted by the amount invested. The funding was associated with a 33% (P < .05) reduction in SIRs and an ROI of $1.10 to $11.20 per $1 invested in the year of funding allocation (2013). In 2014, after the funding stopped, significant reductions were no longer evident. This activity was associated with a reduction in bloodstream infections large enough to recoup the investment. Public health funding of carefully targeted areas may improve health and reduce health care costs.

  6. Distribution of regional public funds: the Nuble case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrés Candia Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this study is to propose general guideless to build a model to improve equity on (Regional Development National Fund FNRD’s intraregional distribution, which may be tested by taking advantage of the creation of new region of Nuble. The model could yield indicators to lead investment, set up criteria to complement project evaluation and operational considerations. The analysis of FNDR´s resource allocation data per commune showed a greater concentration in large cities, which neither contributes to addressing the territorial inequalities that already exist, nor to fulfilling the objectives of this fund.

  7. 78 FR 44982 - Public Inquiry on Competitive Products Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... administrative steps. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen L. Sharfman, General Counsel, at 202-789-6820... Commission found that beginning in October 2012, the National Trial Balance showed a zero balance for Account... zero balance likely resulted from a transfer of the balance in the Competitive Products Fund to the...

  8. Public funding and private investment for R&D: a survey in China's pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lan; Chen, Zi-Ya; Lu, Deng-Yu; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2014-06-13

    In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002-2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002-2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources.

  9. CORRELATION BETWEEN PUBLIC FUNDING AND NON-FERROUS INDUSTRY. EVIDENCE FROM CEE AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brîndusa COVACI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting important approaches of the influence of the public funding to industry, especially non-ferrous, in the Countries from Eastern Europe (CEE and Romania. Studies presented in the paper show that the industry funding had been sustained by the European Commission in the community area, but particularly in CEE area. The impact of industry funding will never be exactly measured, but important data can be presented in order to foresee the future development of the European industry. Specific for non-ferrous industry, in the article there are presented important items, as turnover, value added cost, exports, production, which are correlated to EU funds absorption in order to measure the efficiency of the public funding for 2007-2013 period (national and EU funds and the welfare of the CEE and Romanian non-ferrous sector.

  10. [Food industry funding and epidemiologic research in public health nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Tardón, Adonina; Romaguera, Dora; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Vioque, Jesús

    The interests of the food industry to fund nutrition and health research are not limited to promoting scientific advances. Recently, several systematic reviews conducted about the effect of sugar-sweetened beverages and health outcomes have shown some biased conclusions in studies that acknowledge industry sponsorship. In this context, the Nutrition Working Group of the Spanish Epidemiology Society presented a scientific session entitled Food industry and epidemiologic research at its annual meeting. In a round table, four experts in nutrition research presented their points of view about whether the food industry should fund nutrition-related research and the related potential conflicts of interest of the food industry. All the experts agreed not only on defending independence in nutritional epidemiology regarding the design, interpretation and conclusion of their studies but also on the crucial need for guaranteed scientific rigor, scientific quality of the results and measures to protect studies against potential biases related to the conflicts of interest of funding by the food industry. Drs Pérez-Farinós and Romaguera believe that the most effective way to prevent conflicts of interest would be not to allow the food industry to fund nutrition research; Drs Marcos and Martínez-González suggested the need to establish mechanisms and strategies to prevent the potential influences of the food industry in selecting researchers or institutional sponsorship and in the analysis and results of the studies, to ensure maximum independence for researchers, as well as their professional ethics. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Implications of Project-Based Funding of Research on Budgeting and Financial Management in Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudla, Ringa; Karo, Erkki; Valdmaa, Kaija; Kattel, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the paper is to explore--both theoretically and empirically--the implications of project-based research funding for budgeting and financial management at public universities. The theoretical contribution of the paper is to provide a synthesized discussion of the possible impacts of project-based funding on university financial…

  12. Public Health Preparedness Funding: Key Programs and Trends From 2001 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Crystal R; Watson, Matthew; Sell, Tara Kirk

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate trends in funding over the past 16 years for key federal public health preparedness and response programs at the US Department of Health and Human Services, to improve understanding of federal funding history in this area, and to provide context for future resource allocation decisions for public health preparedness. In this 2017 analysis, we examined the funding history of key federal programs critical to public health preparedness by reviewing program budget data collected for our annual examination of federal funding for biodefense and health security programs since fiscal year (FY) 2001. State and local preparedness at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initially received $940 million in FY2002 and resulted in significant preparedness gains, but funding levels have since decreased by 31%. Similarly, the Hospital Preparedness Program within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response was funded at a high of $515 million in FY2003, but funding was reduced by 50%. Investments in medical countermeasure development and stockpiling remained relatively stable. The United States has made significant progress in preparing for disasters and advancing public health infrastructure. To enable continued advancement, federal funding commitments must be sustained.

  13. Funding Sources for Public Higher Education in South Africa: Institutional Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntshoe, Isaac; de Villiers, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Tuition fees and the use of student loans to complement government's allocations have become unavoidable because of increasing competing new priorities for funding. This article addresses the funding sources of public higher education through tuition and loans. We explore the effects of shifts from first-stream income (government appropriations)…

  14. Funding New Zealand's public healthcare system: time for an honest appraisal and public debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Lyndon; Bagshaw, Philip; Nicholls, M Gary; Rosenberg, Bill; Frampton, Christopher M; Powell, Ian

    2016-05-27

    Successive New Zealand governments have claimed that the cost of funding the country's public healthcare services is excessive and unsustainable. We contest that these claims are based on a misrepresentation of healthcare spending. Using data from the New Zealand Treasury and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), we show how government spending as a whole is low compared with most other OECD countries and is falling as a proportion of GDP. New Zealand has a modest level of health spending overall, but government health spending is also falling as a proportion of GDP. Together, the data indicate the New Zealand Government can afford to spend more on healthcare. We identify compelling reasons why it should do so, including forecast growing health need, signs of increasing unmet need, and the fact that if health needs are not met the costs still have to be borne by the economy. The evidence further suggests it is economically and socially beneficial to meet health needs through a public health system. An honest appraisal and public debate is needed to determine more appropriate levels of healthcare spending.

  15. 75 FR 1755 - Public Telecommunications Facilities Program: Notice of Availability of Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration [Docket No. 0911201414-0010-02] Public Telecommunications Facilities Program: Notice of Availability of Funds AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of...

  16. Public Health System in Brazil nowadays: challenges for its operation and funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alethele de Oliveira Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper has the aim to revisit the theme of the brazilian public health system from the perspective of its operation and funding of its actions and services, analyzing some of the main obstacles to its effectiveness. Endowed with its own logic of organization, planning and funding of its actions and services, the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS finds barriers to its sustainability when it comes to funding and the judicialization of health. Historical under-funding worsened by the economic and political crisis the country currently faces plus the increase in casuistic judicial decisions that prioritize the individual logic over the collective right have produced serious shocks in the system. These are just some of the challenges to an effective public health system. This is why the work of public bodies must be responsible and always take into consideration the collective dimension of the right to health under penalty of causing the collapse of the public health system altogether.

  17. Does Independent Schools Funding Make a Mockery of the Public Schools Funding Formula? BCTF Research Report. RR2015-01 rev2

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Margaret; Kuehn, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by the Ministry of Education to calculate per Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) student funding for independent schools and discusses the underlying inequities when the public school funding formula is applied to funding for private schools. Vancouver school district is provided as a case example to work through…

  18. The potential economic and environmental impact of a Public Benefit Fund in Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.; Pulsipher, A.G.; Baumann, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Public Benefit Fund programs are one approach to provide energy assistance to low-income households placed at risk in a competitive electric industry. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential economic and environmental impact of a proposed Public Benefit Fund for the state of Louisiana. The 'best available' model to estimate the relationship between the cost of Public Benefit Fund programs and the benefits delivered by its implementation would be based on an evaluation of existent energy conservation and weatherization programs in the state, but unfortunately, such an evaluation has not been previously performed and so the 'next best' analytic model was employed. The impact of a Public Benefit Fund on energy savings and environmental consequences is assessed through a simulation model and input-output analysis. The model developed is based on publicly available data and infer results under a reasonable assumption set. The model structure and system assumptions of the Public Benefit Fund program are described, realistic policy alternatives are examined--including cost-ceiling, variable funding, and target group strategies--and the limitations of the analysis are outlined

  19. The potential economic and environmental impact of a Public Benefit Fund in Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.; Baumann, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    Public Benefit Fund programs are one approach to provide energy assistance to low-income households placed at risk in a competitive electric industry. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential economic and environmental impact of a proposed Public Benefit Fund for the state of Louisiana. The 'best available' model to estimate the relationship between the cost of Public Benefit Fund programs and the benefits delivered by its implementation would be based on an evaluation of existent energy conservation and weatherization programs in the state, but unfortunately, such an evaluation has not been previously performed and so the 'next best' analytic model was employed. The impact of a Public Benefit Fund on energy savings and environmental consequences is assessed through a simulation model and input-output analysis. The model developed is based on publicly available data and infer results under a reasonable assumption set. The model structure and system assumptions of the Public Benefit Fund program are described, realistic policy alternatives are examined, including cost-ceiling, variable funding, and target group strategies, and the limitations of the analysis are outlined. (Author)

  20. State funding for local public health: observations from six case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Margaret A; Fitzpatrick, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe state funding of local public health within the context of state public health system types. These types are based on administrative relationships, legal structures, and relative proportion of state funding in local public health budgets. We selected six states representing various types and geographic regions. A case study for each state summarized available information and was validated by state public health officials. An analysis of the case studies reveals that the variability of state public health systems--even within a given type--is matched by variability in approaches to funding local public health. Nevertheless, some meaningful associations appear. For example, higher proportions of state funding occur along with higher levels of state oversight and the existence of local service mandates in state law. These associations suggest topics for future research on public health financing in relation to local accountability, local input to state priority-setting, mandated local services, and the absence of state funds for public health services in some local jurisdictions.

  1. Trends in Technology Planning and Funding in Florida K-12 Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERT DIETER RITZHAUPT

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research investigates trends in technology planning and funding in Florida’s K–12 public schools between the 2003–04 and 2005–06 academic years. Survey items that focused on funding and planning issues on Florida’s statewide school technology integration survey were analyzed using logistic models. Results indicate a significant increase in the number of schools revising their technology plans on a regular basis; a significant increase in the frequency with which Florida’s K–12 public schools are seeking funding for technology-related initiatives; a significant increase in parent, administrator, teacher, and student involvement in the technology planning process; and a significant decline in adequate funding for software and hardware needs. In addition, schools with low proportions of economically disadvantaged students sought and were awarded significantly more funds from donations and federal and state grants. Implications for educational leadership and policy are provided.

  2. The Philosophical Underpinnings of Public School Funding Jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, James R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Uses the theories of John Rawls (democratic/egalitarian) and Robert Nozick (libertarian) as prisms through which to analyze judicial opinions underlying court decisions regarding public education financing. (302 footnotes) (MLF)

  3. The Politics of Teaching, Funding and Publication in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    2010-05-14

    May 14, 2010 ... within the university context as well as the politics associated with publication .... anthropology graduate students who left NMMU at the end of his third ... would, for practical and financial reasons, not be willing to travel be-.

  4. Japan seeks targeted science funding and to use external scrutiny to increase competitiveness at universities

    CERN Multimedia

    Saegusa, A

    1999-01-01

    Japan's science policy committee is planning to prioritise research fields in an attempt to better support high-priority research areas such as information sciences and genome research. The Science and Technology Council has also asked for the formation of an independent body to externally evaluate the quality of university research (1 page).

  5. The 10 largest public and philanthropic funders of health research in the world: what they fund and how they distribute their funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viergever, Roderik F; Hendriks, Thom C C

    2016-02-18

    Little is known about who the main public and philanthropic funders of health research are globally, what they fund and how they decide what gets funded. This study aims to identify the 10 largest public and philanthropic health research funding organizations in the world, to report on what they fund, and on how they distribute their funds. The world's key health research funding organizations were identified through a search strategy aimed at identifying different types of funding organizations. Organizations were ranked by their reported total annual health research expenditures. For the 10 largest funding organizations, data were collected on (1) funding amounts allocated towards 20 health areas, and (2) schemes employed for distributing funding (intramural/extramural, project/'people'/organizational and targeted/untargeted funding). Data collection consisted of a review of reports and websites and interviews with representatives of funding organizations. Data collection was challenging; data were often not reported or reported using different classification systems. Overall, 55 key health research funding organizations were identified. The 10 largest funding organizations together funded research for $37.1 billion, constituting 40% of all public and philanthropic health research spending globally. The largest funder was the United States National Institutes of Health ($26.1 billion), followed by the European Commission ($3.7 billion), and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council ($1.3 billion). The largest philanthropic funder was the Wellcome Trust ($909.1 million), the largest funder of health research through official development assistance was USAID ($186.4 million), and the largest multilateral funder was the World Health Organization ($135.0 million). Funding distribution mechanisms and funding patterns varied substantially between the 10 largest funders. There is a need for increased transparency about who the main funders of health research are

  6. Differential effects of public and private funding in the medical device industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunsung D; Ku, David N

    2018-02-01

    Funding for scientific advancement comes from two dominant sources: public funds used to generate knowledge, and private sector funds in the pursuit of commercial products. It is unclear how to compare the outputs of these two financial mechanisms because both sectors are motivated by common goods but are also governed by divergent forces. Employment within a geographic region may be a metric of mutual value that can be applied equally to assess the societal impacts of two financing sources. Areas covered: The authors focused on the medical device industry, which is a robust sector of growth for the U.S. economy. The U.S. NIH and venture capital community are representatives of public and private capital, respectively. Using a longitudinal employment dataset of 247 distinct locations, the authors found that NIH funding tends to create more jobs directly compared to venture capital funding. Moreover, the indirect effect of governmental funding is initially smaller than that of venture capital funding for the first two years, but eventually surpasses that of venture capital funding. Expert commentary: These findings imply that policy decisions regarding financial allocations in the medical device industry should consider the appropriate typology of financial capital and its consequences.

  7. [Disclosure of sources of funding in biomedical journals. Descriptive study of four Spanish publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, F; Borrego, A

    2015-01-01

    The source of research funding can result in bias, and its disclosure is essential in the publication of results. The aim of the study is to identify the frequency and type of sources of funding in the articles published by four Spanish biomedical journals published in Spanish. The frequency and type of financial disclosures in the articles published during 2012 in the ordinary numbers of Atención Primaria, Medicina Clínica, Revista Clínica Española and Revista Española de Cardiología were analyzed. Articles described as "Editorial", "Original article", "Consensus Document", "Review" and "Special Article" were considered. It was decided in each case whether or not the article included any funding disclosure and the type of the declared funding (public or private). Four hundred and twelve publications were analyzed. In 32.5% there was disclosure of funding: 38% in Atención Primaria, 27% in Medicina Clínica, 15% in Revista Clínica Española and 45% in Revista Española de Cardiología. By type of articles, 47% of original articles, 44% of consensus documents, 21% of reviews, 14% of special articles and 8% of editorials had a funding source. In 51.5% of the cases, funding was exclusively public, in 36.5% exclusively private and in 10% mixed. There is considerable variability in the disclosure of funding sources in articles appearing in these four Spanish biomedical journals. It would be necessary to improve the disclosure requirements of sources of funding, making them uniform, clear and transparent.

  8. Publically Funded Recreation Facilities: Obesogenic Environments for Children and Families?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti-Jean Naylor

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing healthy food options in public venues, including recreational facilities, is a health priority. The purpose of this study was to describe the public recreation food environment in British Columbia, Canada using a sequential explanatory mixed methods design. Facility audits assessed policy, programs, vending, concessions, fundraising, staff meetings and events. Focus groups addressed context and issues related to action. Eighty-eighty percent of facilities had no policy governing food sold or provided for children/youth programs. Sixty-eight percent of vending snacks were chocolate bars and chips while 57% of beverages were sugar sweetened. User group fundraisers held at the recreation facilities also sold ‘unhealthy’ foods. Forty-two percent of recreation facilities reported providing user-pay programs that educated the public about healthy eating. Contracts, economics, lack of resources and knowledge and motivation of staff and patrons were barriers to change. Recreation food environments were obesogenic but stakeholders were interested in change. Technical support, resources and education are needed.

  9. The marginal cost of public funds is one at the optimal tax system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs (Bas)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis paper develops a Mirrlees framework with skill and preference heterogeneity to analyze optimal linear and nonlinear redistributive taxes, optimal provision of public goods, and the marginal cost of public funds (MCF). It is shown that the MCF equals one at the optimal tax system,

  10. 76 FR 52997 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Board Funding Final Rules for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Board Funding Final Rules for Allocation of the Board's... August 18, 2011. I. Introduction On June 21, 2011, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the... public accounting firm, in amounts that are sufficient to cover the costs of processing and reviewing...

  11. Religious Schooling and Prejudice in Canada: Implications for Public Funding of Christian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, John L.

    1994-01-01

    Using data from the Canadian National Election Study, the paper examines whether religious schooling will lead to increased prejudice and intolerance, noting relationships with public funding. In general, Christians and Jews with religious schooling had similar or better scores on tolerance of Jews and non-whites than did public school students.…

  12. Proposed plan for public benefit programs funded by System Benefits Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    As the electric industry in New York State moves through deregulation toward retail competition, it will be important to ensure the vital public benefit programs of energy efficiency, research and development, low income services, and environmental protection. The Public Service Commission's (PSC) Opinion No. 98-3, effective January 30, 1998, established a system for funding such programs with a non-passable System Benefits Charge (SBC) and designated the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) as the administrator of the statewide SBC-funded public benefit programs

  13. Antimony Trioxide (ATO) - Summary of External Peer Review and Public Comments and Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the public and external peer review comments that the EPA’s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) received for the draft work plan risk assessment for Antimony Trioxide (ATO).

  14. Externally Funded Research and ‎Development ‎‎Projects in Perspective of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauno Ilmari Pirinen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is on stunted-centered learning activity ‎which ‎collaborates ‎learning ‎and research in an interoperative ‎way ‎and shares the regional-national ‎research ‎and development ‎‎(R&D capabilities, interests and agenda.‎ The study is addressed ‎to ‎the cooperation model and factors of learning within R&D ‎projects that develop ‎academic knowledge, competences and ‎regional—national capabilities for all ‎participants by ‎contributing ‎authentic R&D scopes or problems in real-life ‎situations. The study includes analysis of the ‎research data regarding ‎the R&D project, namely SATERISK (SATEllite ‎positioning ‎‎RISKs, which was initiated by two security ‎management students at Laurea University of ‎Applied ‎Sciences ‎and that has evolved into a substantial three-year R&D ‎project ‎between 2008 and 2011 and is funded by the ‎Finnish ‎Funding Agency for ‎Technology and Innovations (TEKES.‎

  15. Research in the fields of medicine in Slovenia – research potential, funding, and publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojan Pečlin

    2012-09-01

    Conclusions: The size of the human research potential in the fields of medicine in Slovenia is modest. The majority of researchers are also engaged in medical practice and education. Consequently, funds from public sources for research per researcher are low. Research fields of medicine primarly require an increase in human research resources, which can then provide a basis for a rise in funding and the impact of its research results becoming comparable to the EU and world averages.

  16. No publication bias in industry funded clinical trials of degenerative diseases of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Colin; Tavakoli, Samon; Bartanusz, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    Industry sponsorship of clinical research of degenerative diseases of the spine has been associated with excessive positive published results as compared to research carried out without industry funding. We sought the rates of publication of clinical trials of degenerative diseases of the spine based on funding source as a possible explanation for this phenomenon. We reviewed all clinical trials registered at clinicaltrials.gov relating to degenerative diseases of the spine as categorized under six medical subject heading terms (spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, spondylolysis, spondylosis, failed back surgery syndrome, intervertebral disc degeneration) and with statuses of completed or terminated. These collected studies were categorized as having, or not having, industry funding. Published results for these studies were then sought within the clinicaltrials.gov database itself, PubMed and Google Scholar. One hundred sixty-one clinical trials met these criteria. One hundred nineteen of these trials had industry funding and 42 did not. Of those with industry funding, 45 (37.8%) had identifiable results. Of those without industry funding, 17 (40.5%) had identifiable results. There was no difference in the rates of publication of results from clinical trials of degenerative diseases of the spine no matter the funding source. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance measurement of the gas tax and public transit funds : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Federal funding for the gas tax fund and public transit fund are provided through Infrastructure Canada for municipal infrastructure across Canada in a broad range of municipal service projects. In order to identify appropriate outcomes that would meet reporting requirements for the gas tax fund and public transit fund, this report outlined a performance measurement approach that would allow for the reporting of projects under both funds and provide a structured methodology for multiple year analysis of benefits. The report discussed the performance measures process review and outcomes approach logic model. It also provided an outline of information sourcing strategies including an overview of the project types and expenditures; information sourcing strategy; typical municipal information sources by project type; performance measurement framework assumptions and limitations; and modeling of outcomes from outputs. Conclusions and recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that based on a comprehensive review of ancillary benefits and outcomes of various historic funding programs, there are 3 foundational outcomes that should be considered to assess all initial program outcomes. These include cleaner air, cleaner water and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. tabs., figs

  18. Are pilot trials useful for predicting randomisation and attrition rates in definitive studies: A review of publicly funded trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Amy; Pottrill, Edward; Julious, Steven A; Walters, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    Background/aims: External pilot trials are recommended for testing the feasibility of main or confirmatory trials. However, there is little evidence that progress in external pilot trials actually predicts randomisation and attrition rates in the main trial. To assess the use of external pilot trials in trial design, we compared randomisation and attrition rates in publicly funded randomised controlled trials with rates in their pilots. Methods: Randomised controlled trials for which there was an external pilot trial were identified from reports published between 2004 and 2013 in the Health Technology Assessment Journal. Data were extracted from published papers, protocols and reports. Bland–Altman plots and descriptive statistics were used to investigate the agreement of randomisation and attrition rates between the full and external pilot trials. Results: Of 561 reports, 41 were randomised controlled trials with pilot trials and 16 met criteria for a pilot trial with sufficient data. Mean attrition and randomisation rates were 21.1% and 50.4%, respectively, in the pilot trials and 16.8% and 65.2% in the main. There was minimal bias in the pilot trial when predicting the main trial attrition and randomisation rate. However, the variation was large: the mean difference in the attrition rate between the pilot and main trial was −4.4% with limits of agreement of −37.1% to 28.2%. Limits of agreement for randomisation rates were −47.8% to 77.5%. Conclusion: Results from external pilot trials to estimate randomisation and attrition rates should be used with caution as comparison of the difference in the rates between pilots and their associated full trial demonstrates high variability. We suggest using internal pilot trials wherever appropriate. PMID:29361833

  19. Public lending to private hedge funds is inefficient, unstable, unconstitutional and unanimously disagreeable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankarshan Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public funds include federally insured deposits held under the custody of private banks, central bank loans and taxpayer funds. The principal finding of this paper is that lending such public funds through a private banking system to private hedge funds allied with the banks is inefficient, unstable, fundamentally unfair (unconstitutional and unanimously disagreeable. This finding is akin to the unanimously agreeable safe central banking policy (Acharya, 1991-2016 which, in dynamic general equilibrium, (a eliminates federal guarantee of bank deposits, (b offers every business enterprise and household an option to keep in the central bank any part of its deposits it wants to be held absolutely safely, (c completely deregulates all private banks without any privilege to rob public or private wealth like too-big-to-fail or too-big-to-be-jailed status or the power of market making and clearing. Safe central banking is the only way to make private banks responsible to hold sufficient capital to attract uninsured private deposits like the trading houses currently do. The private banks will then have complete freedom to lend their uninsured deposits to private hedge funds. The Volker Rule (NYT, January 30, 2010, incorporated in the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010, is an infeasible and unworkable band-aid for the moral-hazard driven systemic robbery of wealth creators wrought by the government-ordained private banking custody of public funds. The established systemic moral-hazard problem can be efficiently and constitutionally resolved only through unanimously agreeable safe central banking. Current proposals on overhauling of Fannie and Freddie made by various pundits of systemic robbery amount to a gargantuan amount of public lending to private hedge funds and, hence, inefficient, unstable, unconstitutional and unanimously disagreeable.

  20. Sources of funding for Nobel Prize-winning work: public or private?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsioni, Athina; Vavva, Effie; Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-05-01

    Funding is important for scientists' work and may contribute to exceptional research outcomes. We analyzed the funding sources reported in the landmark scientific papers of Nobel Prize winners. Between 2000 and 2008, 70 Nobel laureates won recognition in medicine, physics, and chemistry. Sixty five (70%) of the 93 selected papers related to the Nobel-awarded work reported some funding source including U.S. government sources in 53 (82%), non-U.S. government sources in 19 (29%), and nongovernment sources in 33 (51%). A substantial portion of this exceptional work was unfunded. We contacted Nobel laureates whose landmark papers reported no funding. Thirteen Nobel laureates responded and offered their insights about the funding process and difficulties inherent in funding. Overall, very diverse sources amounting to a total of 64 different listed sponsors supported Nobel-related work. A few public institutions, in particular the U.S. National Institutes of Health (with n=26 funded papers) and the National Science Foundation (with n=17 papers), stood out for their successful record for funding exceptional research. However, Nobel-level work arose even from completely unfunded research, especially when institutions offered a protected environment for dedicated scientists.

  1. Public notice concerning the public funding of research and development work in the field of NMR tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Brief survey of the projects financed from public funds for the promotion of technical developments, of specific contrast media for NMR tomography and related biomedical research work. The financial means and relevant contracts are distributed and concluded under the authority of the DFVLR, Department for Medical Research. (HP) [de

  2. Internal and external use of performance information in public organisations: Results from an international executive survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Hammerschmid (Gerhard); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); V. Štimac (Vid)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. This paper analyses determinants of public managers´ internal and external use of performance information. Using a sample of over 3100 top public sector executives in six European countries, we find evidence for significant country variations, with a more limited use of

  3. Evaluating health inequity interventions: applying a contextual (external) validity framework to programs funded by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kaye; Müller-Clemm, Werner; Ysselstein, Margaretha; Sachs, Jonathan

    2013-02-01

    Including context in the measurement and evaluation of health in equity interventions is critical to understanding how events that occur in an intervention's environment might contribute to or impede its success. This study adapted and piloted a contextual validity assessment framework on a selection of health inequity-related programs funded by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF) between 1998 and 2006. The two overarching objectives of this study were (1) to determine the relative amount and quality of attention given to conceptualizing, measuring and validating context within CHSRF funded research final reports related to health-inequity; and (2) to contribute evaluative evidence towards the incorporation of context into the assessment and measurement of health inequity interventions. The study found that of the 42/146 CHSRF programs and projects, judged to be related to health inequity 20 adequately reported on the conceptualization, measurement and validation of context. Amongst these health-inequity related project reports, greatest emphasis was placed on describing the socio-political and economical context over actually measuring and validating contextual evidence. Applying a contextual validity assessment framework was useful for distinguishing between the descriptive (conceptual) versus empirical (measurement and validation) inclusion of documented contextual evidence. Although contextual validity measurement frameworks needs further development, this study contributes insight into identifying funded research related to health inequities and preliminary criteria for assessing interventions targeted at specific populations and jurisdictions. This study also feeds a larger critical dialogue (albeit beyond the scope of this study) regarding the relevance and utility of using evaluative techniques for understanding how specific external conditions support or impede the successful implementation of health inequity interventions. Copyright

  4. Report by the External Auditors on the Accounts of the CERN Pension Fund for the Financial Year 2005 Comments by the Administration of the Fund

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The report on the audit of the accounts of the Pension Fund for the 2005 financial year is given in document CERN/FC/5046 CERN/2671. This document contains the comments of the Administration of the Fund.

  5. Report by the external auditors on the accounts of the CERN Pension Fund for the financial year 2003 - Comments by the Administration of the Fund

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The report on the audit of the accounts of the Pension Fund for the 2003 financial year is given in document CERN/FC/4813 CERN/2562. This document contains the comments of the Administration of the Fund.

  6. Report by the External Auditors on the Accounts of the CERN Pension Fund for the Financial Year 2004 - Comments by the Administration of the Fund

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The report on the audit of the accounts of the Pension Fund for the 2004 financial year is given in document CERN/FC/4926-CERN/2612. This document contains the comments of the Administration of the Fund.

  7. Utilization of European Funds in the Public Administration. Study case - Galati County Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Panaitescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper are to reveal some aspects regarding European funds‟ utilization, starting with the comprehension of EU philosophy regarding cohesion policy and emphasizing the important role played by Structural and Cohesion Funds for public administration, especially in times of economic downturn when the financial resources are difficult to access. Prior Work: this work continues prior research carried out for the “European Programs and Projects Management” MA thesis. Approach: The main methods employed for capturing the research evidence consists in management strategies analysis in the public administration, especially in studying the capacity of absorption of European funds in the case Galati County Council. The main results of this paper show that the risks of absorption capacity decrease of EU funds are linked to a number of factors, such as financial problems, poor information, lack of managerial experience, etc.

  8. Analysis of Sustainable Performance in Romania’s Local Public Administrations: An External Stakeholders Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana MIHAIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Building a sustainable performance system at the level of the local public administrations must have as starting point the local public administration’s (LPA mission and must go down to the level of the individual. This system must follow the external performance that it delivers to the citizens, the outcomes generated, but also the internal performance which suggests how to achieve the external performance. We propose in this regard the simultaneous use of the Balanced Scorecard tool for managing the internal performance and the Public Service Value Model for measuring the external performance measurement which derives from the organization's mission. In the second part of the work we analyzed comparatively the external performance created by the county capitals of Romania in the year 2013 using the Public Service Value Model (PSVM. Based on this analysis, the county capitals of Romania can be divided in the following categories: high performance organizations (value driven, budget conscious organizations, low performance organizations (sleeping giants and quality conscious organizations. This classification is useful both for the external and internal stakeholders because it shows the efficiency of public money spending and the areas in which the LPA is performing well, and also the ones that need to be improved.

  9. 11 CFR 201.3 - Public funding, audits and litigation: Ex parte contacts prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... soon after the communication as is reasonably possible but no later than three business days after the... communication as is reasonably possible but no later than three business days after the communication, unless... REGULATIONS EX PARTE COMMUNICATIONS § 201.3 Public funding, audits and litigation: Ex parte contacts...

  10. Sense of place, organizational context and the strategic management of publicly funded hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, N T

    2001-11-01

    An era of managerialism in health care delivery systems is now well ensconced throughout the nations of the OECD. This development has occurred, in large part, as a response to funding pressures in institutionally based health care delivery imposed by principal third party insurers. In the case of publicly funded hospitals, the more traditional concerns for stewardship and appeasement of professional groups is being replaced by a greater emphasis on cost consciousness and corporate-style leadership as these organizations seek to reposition themselves in new funding and regulatory environments. While institutional theory and strategic management perspectives help illuminate these issues, this paper argues that a place-based perspective is also needed to understand the changes currently underway in health care delivery and publicly funded human services more generally. This is illustrated with reference to developments in the strategic management of public hospitals in the province of Ontario. Evidence from a survey of senior administrators of public hospitals, distributed at the height of these policy reform initiatives, is examined to shed light on local level management responses to changing policy and fiscal pressures. The data suggest that the latest policy directions in the province of Ontario will 'encourage' hospital executives in particular community settings to steer their organizations in very unfamiliar directions. The findings suggest a need for greater attention to context and setting in health services research and policy.

  11. 76 FR 30368 - Announcement of the Publication of Funding Opportunity Announcements under the Runaway and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Announcement of the Publication of Funding Opportunity Announcements under the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act AGENCY... (SOP) are now available for application. CFDA Number: 93.623, 93.557. Statutory Authority: Runaway and...

  12. 77 FR 33223 - Announcement of the Publication of Funding Opportunity Announcements Under the Runaway and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... the Publication of Funding Opportunity Announcements Under the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act AGENCY... Statutory Authority: Runaway and Homeless Youth Act, 42 U.S.C. sections 5701-5752, as amended by the.... Porter, Director, Runaway and Homeless Youth Program, Family and Youth Services Bureau, 1250 Maryland Ave...

  13. Funding public services through religious and charitable foundations in the late-medieval Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.

    2012-01-01

    Religious and charitable foundations are often held to have been a sub¬stantial presence in pre-industrial societies. One of their key tasks was the funding of public services, specifically social and religious services. This dissertation has tried to explain the regional variation in the extent to

  14. The long-term fiscal impact of funding cuts to Danish public fertility clinics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Postma, Maarten J.; Crespi, Simone; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Ziebe, Soren

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted

  15. 76 FR 18225 - Request for Public Comment on Proposed Funding Opportunity Announcement for Special Initiative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Request for Public Comment on Proposed Funding Opportunity Announcement for Special Initiative Concerning the Assets... of the AFI program and Individual Development Accounts (IDAs). SUMMARY: In FY 2011, the Office of...

  16. Schoolhouses, Courthouses, and Statehouses: Solving the Funding-Achievement Puzzle in America's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Lindseth, Alfred A.

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by court rulings requiring states to increase public-school funding, the United States now spends more per student on K-12 education than almost any other country. Yet American students still achieve less than their foreign counterparts, their performance has been flat for decades, millions of them are failing, and poor and minority…

  17. Implications of Public External Debt for Social Spending: A Case Study of Selected Asian Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sadia Shabbir; Hafiz M. Yasin

    2015-01-01

    For developing countries with budgetary and balance-of-payments gaps to meet, maintaining large stakes of external debt is not free of cost. Highly indebted countries have to set aside a sizeable fraction of their scarce resources to service their debt, which naturally affects their development spending in general and allocations for the social sector in particular. This study examines the behavior of seven developing Asian countries and analyzes the impact of public external debt on social s...

  18. The influences on women who choose publicly-funded home birth in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, Christine; Dahlen, Hannah; Homer, Caroline S E

    2014-07-01

    to explore the influences on women who chose a publicly-funded home birth in one Australian state. a constructivist grounded theory methodology was used. a publicly-funded home birth service located within a tertiary referral hospital in the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. data were collected though semi-structured interviews of 17 women who chose to have a publicly-funded home birth. six main categories emerged from the data. These were feeling independent, strong and confident, doing it my way, protection from hospital related activities, having a safety net, selective listening and telling, and engaging support. The core category was having faith in normal. This linked all the categories and was an overriding attitude towards themselves as women and the process of childbirth. The basic social process was validating the decision to have a home birth. women reported similar influences to other studies when choosing home birth. However, the women in this study were reassured by the publicly-funded system׳s 'safety net' and apparent seamless links with the hospital system. The flexibility of the service to permit women to change their minds to give birth in hospital, and essentially choose their birthplace at any time during pregnancy or labour was also appreciated. women that choose a publicly-funded home birth service describe strong influences that led them to home birth within this model of care. Service managers and health professionals need to acknowledge the importance of place of birth choice for women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Perceptions of Stakeholders of the Implementation of a State Funding Model in South African Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestry, Raj; Berry, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The government has made great strides in redressing past imbalances in education through the National Norms and Standards for School Funding (NNSSF) policy that focuses on equity in school funding. This NNSSF model compels the state to fund public schools according to a poverty quintile system, where poor schools are allocated much more funding…

  20. Barriers to Offering Vasectomy at Publicly Funded Family Planning Organizations in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kari; Campbell, Anthony; Hopkins, Kristine; Grossman, Daniel; Potter, Joseph E

    2017-05-01

    Few publicly funded family planning clinics in the United States offer vasectomy, but little is known about the reasons this method is not more widely available at these sources of care. Between February 2012 and February 2015, three waves of in-depth interviews were conducted with program administrators at 54 family planning organizations in Texas. Participants described their organization's vasectomy service model and factors that influenced how frequently vasectomy was provided. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed using a theme-based approach. Service models and barriers to providing vasectomy were compared by organization type (e.g., women's health center, public health clinic) and receipt of Title X funding. Two thirds of organizations did not offer vasectomy on-site or pay for referrals with family planning funding; nine organizations frequently provided vasectomy. Organizations did not widely offer vasectomy because they could not find providers that would accept the low reimbursement for the procedure or because they lacked funding for men's reproductive health care. Respondents often did not perceive men's reproductive health care as a service priority and commented that men, especially Latinos, had limited interest in vasectomy. Although organizations of all types reported barriers, women's health centers and Title X-funded organizations more frequently offered vasectomy by conducting tailored outreach to men and vasectomy providers. A combination of factors operating at the health systems and provider level influence the availability of vasectomy at publicly funded family planning organizations in Texas. Multilevel approaches that address key barriers to vasectomy provision would help organizations offer comprehensive contraceptive services.

  1. Vertical funding, non-governmental organizations, and health system strengthening: perspectives of public sector health workers in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Abdul H; Pfeiffer, James; Gloyd, Stephen S; Sherr, Kenneth

    2013-06-14

    In the rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment, many donors have chosen to channel their funds to non-governmental organizations and other private partners rather than public sector systems. This approach has reinforced a private sector, vertical approach to addressing the HIV epidemic. As progress on stemming the epidemic has stalled in some areas, there is a growing recognition that overall health system strengthening, including health workforce development, will be essential to meet AIDS treatment goals. Mozambique has experienced an especially dramatic increase in disease-specific support over the last eight years. We explored the perspectives and experiences of key Mozambican public sector health managers who coordinate, implement, and manage the myriad donor-driven projects and agencies. Over a four-month period, we conducted 41 individual qualitative interviews with key Ministry workers at three levels in the Mozambique national health system, using open-ended semi-structured interview guides. We also reviewed planning documents. All respondents emphasized the value and importance of international aid and vertical funding to the health sector and each highlighted program successes that were made possible by recent increased aid flows. However, three serious concerns emerged: 1) difficulties coordinating external resources and challenges to local control over the use of resources channeled to international private organizations; 2) inequalities created within the health system produced by vertical funds channeled to specific services while other sectors remain under-resourced; and 3) the exodus of health workers from the public sector health system provoked by large disparities in salaries and work. The Ministry of Health attempted to coordinate aid by implementing a "sector-wide approach" to bring the partners together in setting priorities, harmonizing planning, and coordinating

  2. Experiments to Enhance Public Real Estate in Italy: the Case of the FIP Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ciaramella

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Italian State’s real estate is involved in a boundary definition process which is still in progress. The experiments in process and the comparison between Public Administration and private operators often focus the debate on issues which relate to the financial instruments or the company vehicles which may be adopted. However, no enhancement is possible in the absence of an approach aimed at a precise knowledge of the characteristics of every individual building. The article summarizes the experiment of the most important public contribution investment fund achieved in Italy (Public Real Estate Investment Fund and demonstrates the complex technical and managerial activity necessary to regularise the real estate and which is indispensable for making the management company’s objectives feasible.

  3. Corporate Funding for Schools of Public Health: Confronting the Ethical and Economic Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Sampat, Bhaven N

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the public and private sponsoring of university research and the issues it raises in a context of diminished federal funding. We consider research funding at schools of public health and why these schools have historically had weaker links to industry than have other academic units. We argue that the possibility of enhanced links with industry at schools of public health may raise specific concerns beyond those facing universities generally. Six issues should be considered before entering into these relationships: (1) the effects on research orientation, (2) unacceptability of some funders, (3) potential threats to objectivity and academic freedom, (4) effects on academic standards, (5) the effects on dissemination of knowledge, and (6) reputational risks.

  4. Public support in England for raising the price of cigarettes to fund tobacco control activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; West, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces consumption, with a global price elasticity of approximately -0.4. In the UK where the cost of cigarettes is already relatively high, there is an issue surrounding public acceptance of further price rises ahead of the inflation rate. Previous research suggests that price increases may be supported where funds are dedicated to tobacco control. This study assessed public support in England for such a policy. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in England between August 2008 and January 2009. A representative sample of 8736 respondents aged 16+, of whom 1900 (22%) were cigarette smokers at the time of the survey, was recruited. The primary outcome measure was support for a 20p (4%) price increase on a pack of cigarettes with proceeds going to fund tobacco control activities. 6216 participants (71%), including half (47%) of current cigarette smokers, indicated that they would support a 20p price increase if funds were dedicated to tobacco control activities. Levels of support among smokers were similar across the social gradient and gender. Younger smokers were more likely to support the increase. Smokers who smoked 0-10 cigarettes per day were more supportive of the increase than heavier smokers. There is broad public support for raising the cost of cigarettes with funds being used for tobacco control activities. The absence of a social gradient among smokers concurs with other research showing that more disadvantaged smokers are as engaged with tobacco control objectives as more affluent smokers.

  5. The health impact of restricting public funds for abortion. October 10, 1977--June 10, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, W; Kimball, A M; Gold, J; Rubin, G L; Smith, J C; Rochat, R W; Tyler, C W

    1979-09-01

    The Center for Disease Control (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia implemented an eight-month prospective surveillance system in 24 hospitals distributed among states with and without public funding for abortion. Out of 3,157 visits for abortion-related complications, only 10 women gave a history of non-physician or self-induced abortion and none were Medicaid recipients. The small number of hospitals located in non-funded states and the smaller numbers of women served in these hospitals than in the funded states limited the power of out study. Women living along the Texas-Mexico border appeared more likely to have complications after illegal abortions than women from other areas of the country.

  6. Bibliometric analyses of publications from Centres of Excellence funded by the Danish National Research Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Costas, Rodrigo; Henriksen, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    research. The main focus of the evaluation is on the Centre of Excellence (CoE) scheme and the impact it has had on the Danish research system. The key topics addressed are the role of the DNRF in the Danish research funding system, research quality, research training and recruitment, internationalisation......, the interaction with host institutions, and the governance and management of the DNRF. The evaluation concludes that the DNRF has had a very positive impact on the quality of research in Denmark and recommends that the foundation is re-funded. The evaluation is based on a bibliometric study, self......-assessment report by DNRF, numerous interviews and desk studies. Appendix 5: Bibliometric analyses of publications from Centres of Excellence funded by the Danish National Research Foundation...

  7. An Examination of State Funding Models Regarding Virtual Schools for Public Elementary and Secondary Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedrak, Luke J.

    2012-01-01

    This study contains an analysis of virtual schools, public policy, and funding in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine what public policies and legislation were in place regarding the funding models of virtual education on a state by state basis. Furthermore, this study addressed how allocations were being made by state…

  8. External dose-rate conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This report presents a tabulation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides in the environment. This report was prepared in conjunction with criteria for limiting dose equivalents to members of the public from operations of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The dose-rate conversion factors are provided for use by the DOE and its contractors in performing calculations of external dose equivalents to members of the public. The dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons presented in this report are based on a methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, some adjustments of the previously documented methodology have been made in obtaining the dose-rate conversion factors in this report. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. TOURISM, TRADE, EXTERNALITIES, AND PUBLIC GOODS IN A THREE-SECTOR GROWTH MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to introduce tourism, externalities, and public goods to a small-open growth with endogenous wealth and public goods supply. We develop the model on the basis of the Solow-Uzawa growth model, the neoclassical neoclassical growth theory with externalities, and ideas from tourism economics. The economy consists of three – service, industrial, and public - sectors. The production side is based on the traditional growth theories, while the household behavior is described by an alternative utility function proposed by Zhang. We introduce endogenous land distribution between housing and supply of services. The industrial and service sectors are perfectly competitive subject to the government’s taxation. The public sector is financially supported by the government. We introduce taxes not only on producers, but also on consumers’ incomes from wage, land, and interest of wealth, consumption of goods and services, and housing. We simulate the motion of the national economy and show the existence of a unique stable equilibrium. We carry out comparative dynamic analysis with regard to the rate of interest in the global market, the total productivity of the service sector, tax rate on the service sector, tax rate on consumption of services, human capital, the propensity to consume services, and the impact of public services on the productivity of the industrial sector. The comparative dynamic analysis provides some important insights into the complexity of open economies with endogenous wealth, public goods, and externalities.

  10. ISSUES IN ACHIEVING TARGETED FUNDING FOR LEADING SCIENTISTS AND SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITIES USING INDEXES OF PUBLICATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kurakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the competitiveness of the Russian scientific-technological complex in the global environment, it is planned to increase competition through State funding, spent on research and development. This will allow the focus of investment resources on the most perspective ideas and projects of the most efficient scientists, communities and organisations. The article suggests that we will witness the widening of competitive forms of funding against the simultaneous and gradual cuts in the share of financing through State contracts.One of the key criteria for evaluating the competency of team leaders and research applicants for State funding are measuring those who have «achieved high scientific results in concrete field of science», as a scientometric indicator, characterising their publication activity and citation rating.The article provides evidence showing that evaluation of individual scientists and whole scientific communities based on their publication activity indicators and impact is limited and challenges the ability for targeted funding and transparency in the selection process for executive projects.

  11. Radial measures of public services deficit for regional allocation of public funds

    OpenAIRE

    Puig, Jaume

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present an optimal resource allocation model for the regional allocation of public service inputs. The proposed solution leads to maximise the relative public service availability in regions located below the best availability frontier, subject to exogenous budget restrictions and equality of access for equal need criteria (equity-based notion of regional needs). The construction of non-parametric deficit indicators is proposed for public service availability by a...

  12. Public funding of innovation R and D y cooperation and membership in printing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guisado Tato, M.; Vila, M.; Guisado Gonzalez, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper contrasts how business cooperation at the level of R and D, the size and the membership in printing industry determine the participation of innovative manufacturing companies in the systems of public support for innovation. Material and methods. From the microdata of the survey on technological innovation 1998-2000, of the National Institute of Statistics (INE), a database is created by the manufacturing Spanish companies involved in innovation. Afterwards, by univariate and multivariate statistical methods, we contrast whether cooperation, size and membership in printing industry determine the participation of the manufacturing innovative companies in the systems of public support for innovation, as well as the direction of that conditioning. Results. The tests carried out indicate that more cooperation between companies at the level of a larger size have a positive influence on the degree of business involvement in the systems of public support for innovation.Discussion. Public administrations seek to foster the development of innovation among manufacturing companies facilitating by providing funds to the companies that cooperate in the area of I and D. Likewise, public support for innovation are targeting in larger firms, while the companies, belonging to the printing industry have less likely to obtain public funding for their innovative projects that the remaining companies of the Spanish manufacturing sector. (Author).

  13. Does dissemination extend beyond publication: a survey of a cross section of public funded research in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calnan Michael W

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the UK, most funding bodies now expect a commitment or effort on the part of grant holders to disseminate the findings of their research. The emphasis is on ensuring that publicly funded research is made available, can be used to support decision making, and ultimately improve the quality and delivery of healthcare provided. In this study, we aimed to describe the dissemination practices and impacts of applied and public health researchers working across the UK. Methods We conducted a survey of 485 UK-based principal investigators of publicly funded applied and public health research. Participants were contacted by email and invited to complete an online questionnaire via an embedded URL. Gift vouchers were given to all participants who completed the questionnaire. Four reminder emails were sent out to non-respondents at one, two, three, and four weeks; a fifth postal reminder was also undertaken. Results A total of 243/485 (50% questionnaires were returned (232 completed, 11 declining to participate. Most researchers recognise the importance of and appear committed to research dissemination. However, most dissemination activity beyond the publishing of academic papers appears to be undertaken an ad hoc fashion. There is some evidence that access to dissemination advice and support may facilitate more policy interactions; though access to such resources is lacking at an institutional level, and advice from funders can be variable. Although a minority of respondents routinely record details about the impact of their research, when asked about impact in relation to specific research projects most were able to provide simple narrative descriptions. Conclusions Researchers recognise the importance of and appear committed to disseminating the findings of their work. Although researchers are focussed on academic publication, a range of dissemination activities are being applied albeit in an ad hoc fashion. However, what

  14. The nutritional status of 1081 elderly people residing in publicly funded shelter homes in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvanathan, R; Zaiton, A; Sherina, M S; Muhamad, Y A

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the: (1) prevalence of undernutrition as determined by the 'DETERMINE Your Nutritional Health Checklist' (NHC) and (2) factors independently associated with undernutrition among the older residents of these publicly funded shelter homes in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 1081 elderly people (59%M) over the age of 60 y were surveyed using questionnaires determining baseline demographics, nutritional and cognitive status, physical function and psychological well-being. Shelter homes, Peninsular Malaysia. In all, 41.4% (n = 447) were nourished (score 5) according to the NHC. A large proportion of subjects were underweight with 14.3% of subjects recording a low body mass index (BMI) or = 3). Using a BMI people residing in publicly funded shelter homes in Malaysia may be at-risk of undernutrition, and were underweight. The NHC is better used as an awareness tool rather than as a screening tool.

  15. PROJECT ABANDONMENT, CORRUPTION AND RECOVERY OF UNSPENT BUDGETED PUBLIC FUNDS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard INGWE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of unspent funds budgeted for implementing development projects have been recovered from Nigeria’s public officials since President Yar Adua directed in 2007 that responsible Nigerian Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs must refund such funds at the end of every fiscal year. While unspent funds recovery represents some progress in the “war on corruption” entrenched by previous governments in the 1980s, the current policy limited by concentrating narrowly on recovery of financial resources thereby excluding accounting for other project resources (human skills application, time management or optimization among others that are usually applied to project implementation but lost through public officers’ failure and/or delays to implement planned projects. This article examines the magnitude of unspent funds recently recovered by the government from its various ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs. The general objective of this article is to contribute towards improving the development project management culture in Nigeria. The specific objectives are: To highlight the magnitude of unspent funds in Nigeria’s MDAs; and to show some adverse consequences of failing (or delaying to spend funds allocated in the budget forimplementing projects in economic sectors and on the pursuit of development objectives. Survey and description methods were used. Data on the refund of unspent funds was obtained from secondary sources (records of MDAs and analysed using qualitative and simple quantitative techniques. Results show that a high rate of projects delay and /or abandonment was discovered shortly after the inauguration of President Yar’ Adua and his administration in May 2007. Although some project funds have been recovered, other project resources (time wasted, human skills/hours and development benefits that would have accrued from completion of the planned and financed projects have not been recovered but lost. The fact

  16. Identifying a Statistical Model for North Dakota K-12 Public School Transportation Funding by Comparing Fifteen State Transportation Funding Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the history of North Dakota K-12 transportation funding system, identify how school districts are reimbursed for transportation expenses, and compare this information with fourteen other state transportation funding systems. North Dakota utilizes a block grant structure that has been in place since 1972 and…

  17. External Cost Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Accident considering Public Risk Aversion Behavior: the Korean Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for monetary valuation of NPP accident consequence consists of calculating the expected value of various accident scenarios. However, the main criticism of the conventional approach is that there is a discrepancy between the social acceptability of the risk and the estimated expected value of NPP accident. Therefore, an integrated framework for the estimation of the external cost associated with an NPP accident considering the public risk aversion behavior was proposed in this study based on the constructed theoretical framework for estimating both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the risk aversion coefficient associated with an NPP accident to take account of the accident cost into the unit electricity generation cost of NPP. To estimate both parameters, an individual-level survey was conducted on a sample of 1,364 participants in Korea. Based on the collected survey responses, both parameters were estimated based on the proposed framework and the external cost of NPP accident was estimated based on the consequence analysis and considering the direct cost factors for NPP accident. Internalization of external costs into the comprehensive energy production cost has been considered as a potentially efficient policy instrument for a more sustainable energy supply and use. However, the internalization of externalities, such as public health damage, have raised a number of generic policy issues in a nuclear energy sector, with specific challenges resulting from the distinct characteristics of external cost estimation. Especially, the major challenge remained to address the public safety concerns regarding a nuclear accident, which can be specified as low-probability high-consequence accident, driven by the aspects of public risk aversion.

  18. External Cost Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Accident considering Public Risk Aversion Behavior: the Korean Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    The conventional approach for monetary valuation of NPP accident consequence consists of calculating the expected value of various accident scenarios. However, the main criticism of the conventional approach is that there is a discrepancy between the social acceptability of the risk and the estimated expected value of NPP accident. Therefore, an integrated framework for the estimation of the external cost associated with an NPP accident considering the public risk aversion behavior was proposed in this study based on the constructed theoretical framework for estimating both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the risk aversion coefficient associated with an NPP accident to take account of the accident cost into the unit electricity generation cost of NPP. To estimate both parameters, an individual-level survey was conducted on a sample of 1,364 participants in Korea. Based on the collected survey responses, both parameters were estimated based on the proposed framework and the external cost of NPP accident was estimated based on the consequence analysis and considering the direct cost factors for NPP accident. Internalization of external costs into the comprehensive energy production cost has been considered as a potentially efficient policy instrument for a more sustainable energy supply and use. However, the internalization of externalities, such as public health damage, have raised a number of generic policy issues in a nuclear energy sector, with specific challenges resulting from the distinct characteristics of external cost estimation. Especially, the major challenge remained to address the public safety concerns regarding a nuclear accident, which can be specified as low-probability high-consequence accident, driven by the aspects of public risk aversion

  19. Global Fund financing of public-private mix approaches for delivery of tuberculosis care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S S; Uplekar, Mukund; Katz, Itamar; Lonnroth, Knut; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Yesudian Dias, Hannah Monica; Atun, Rifat

    2011-06-01

    To map the extent and scope of public-private mix (PPM) interventions in tuberculosis (TB) control programmes supported by the Global Fund. We reviewed the Global Fund's official documents and data to analyse the distribution, characteristics and budgets of PPM approaches within Global Fund supported TB grants in recipient countries between 2003 and 2008. We supplemented this analysis with data on contribution of PPM to TB case notifications in 14 countries reported to World Health Organization in 2009, for the preparation of the global TB control report. Fifty-eight of 93 countries and multi-country recipients of Global Fund-supported TB grants had PPM activities in 2008. Engagement with 'for-profit' private sector was more prevalent in South Asia while involvement of prison health services has been common in Eastern Europe and central Asia. In the Middle East and North Africa, involving non-governmental organizations seemed to be the focus. Average and median spending on PPM within grants was 10% and 5% respectively, ranging from 0.03% to 69% of the total grant budget. In China, India, Nigeria and the Philippines, PPM contributed to detecting more than 25% TB cases while maintaining high treatment success rates. In spite of evidence of cost-effectiveness, PPM constitutes only a modest part of overall TB control activities. Scaling up PPM across countries could contribute to expanding access to TB care, increasing case detection, improving treatment outcomes and help achieve the global TB control targets. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Understanding the performance and impact of public knowledge translation funding interventions: protocol for an evaluation of Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation funding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Robert K D; Graham, Ian D; Bosompra, Kwadwo; Choudhry, Yumna; Coen, Stephanie E; Macleod, Martha; Manuel, Christopher; McCarthy, Ryan; Mota, Adrian; Peckham, David; Tetroe, Jacqueline M; Tucker, Joanne

    2012-06-22

    The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) has defined knowledge translation (KT) as a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically-sound application of knowledge to improve the health of Canadians, provide more effective health services and products, and strengthen the healthcare system. CIHR, the national health research funding agency in Canada, has undertaken to advance this concept through direct research funding opportunities in KT. Because CIHR is recognized within Canada and internationally for leading and funding the advancement of KT science and practice, it is essential and timely to evaluate this intervention, and specifically, these funding opportunities. The study will employ a novel method of participatory, utilization-focused evaluation inspired by the principles of integrated KT. It will use a mixed methods approach, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, and will elicit participation from CIHR funded researchers, knowledge users, KT experts, as well as other health research funding agencies. Lines of inquiry will include an international environmental scan, document/data reviews, in-depth interviews, targeted surveys, case studies, and an expert review panel. The study will investigate how efficiently and effectively the CIHR model of KT funding programs operates, what immediate outcomes these funding mechanisms have produced, and what impact these programs have had on the broader state of health research, health research uptake, and health improvement. The protocol and results of this evaluation will be of interest to those engaged in the theory, practice, and evaluation of KT. The dissemination of the study protocol and results to both practitioners and theorists will help to fill a gap in knowledge in three areas: the role of a public research funding agency in facilitating KT, the outcomes and impacts KT funding interventions, and how KT can best be evaluated.

  1. Public funding and private investment for R&D: a survey in China’s pharmaceutical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. Methods The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002–2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002–2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. Results The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Conclusions Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources. PMID:24925505

  2. Estimation of effective dose to public from external exposure to natural background radiation in saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    The effective dose values in sixteen cities in Saudi Arabia due to external exposure to natural radiation were evaluated. These doses are based on natural background components including external exposure to terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays. The importance of evaluating the effective dose to the public due to external exposure to natural background radiation lies in its epidemiological and dosimetric importance and in forming a basis for the assessment of the level of radioactive contamination or pollution in the environment in the future. The exposure to terrestrial radiation was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The exposure from cosmic radiation was determined using empirical correlation. The values evaluated for the total annual effective dose in all cities were within the world average values. The highest total annual effective dose measured in Al-Khamis city was 802 μSv/y, as compared to 305 μSv/y in Dammam city, which was considered the lowest value

  3. Sticker Shock: How Information Affects Citizen Support for Public School Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Beth E; West, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of information in shaping public opinion in the context of support for education spending. While there is broad public support for increasing government funding for public schools, Americans tend to underestimate what is currently spent. We embed a series of experiments in a nationally representative survey administered in 2012 ( n = 2,993) to examine whether informing citizens about current levels of education spending alters public opinion about whether funding should increase. Providing information on per-pupil spending in a respondent's local school district reduces the probability that he or she will express support for increasing spending by 22 percentage points on average. Informing respondents about state-average teacher salaries similarly depresses support for salary increases. These effects are larger among respondents who underestimate per-pupil spending and teacher salaries by a greater amount, consistent with the idea that the observed changes in opinion are driven, at least in part, by informational effects, as opposed to priming alone.

  4. Public funds in theory of financial structure a company in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Kalouda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutually beneficial co-existence of the private and state sectors can be seen as proven in theory. The proof is the concept of a two-sector economy of A. Wagner (1835–1917, while, in Wagner’s view, the importance of the state sector should grow (Wagner’s law. State finance is understood in this context as a tool used to achieve social justice, and in general as a socially stabilizing element.In conditions of real Czech economy, the relationship between the state and private sectors is shown in the form of subsidies for businesses enterprises; although at first sight the available data do not demonstrate the key role of public finance. Another form of limited understanding of the importance of public funds is the concept of financial structure of a company understood by contemporary theory of finance of firm (in Czech context as a set of sources for financing entrepreneurial activities – public funds are virtually not mentioned here.The aim of the paper is to contribute to correct this shift in understanding of the importance of public finance and to bring it nearer both to the original theoretical concept (A. Wagner and to reality, both in quantitative and qualitative terms.Main focus of this paper is to the Czech Republic circumstances. For the comparison are here presented available data from other countries and global data as well.

  5. Restricting access to publications from funded research: ethical issues and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, S; Vani, N Isai

    2010-01-01

    India is becoming one of the hubs of clinical research. Commensurate with these advances, the government funding for biomedical research in thrust areas is also increasing. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Department of Science and Technology (DST) are some of the government organizations which provide financial support for various research projects. The results of the funded research projects are published in various international journals. Most of these journals have an access to paid subscribers only. Hence it is unethical to use the research grants from government (people's money) and not allow the scientific community free access to the results of the study. To tackle such issues, these agencies should sign the Berlin declaration and create open access repositories. A public access policy should be formulated and listed in JULIET. The funding bodies in India should also join Pubmed Central (PMC) to form PMC India so that every investigator who has received grants would submit the full text of the paper published from his study and these can be made freely accessible to everyone. Universities and research institutions should also develop institutional open access repositories. The public access policy has definitive advantages and should be implemented.

  6. Restricting access to publications from funded research: Ethical issues and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandan S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available India is becoming one of the hubs of clinical research. Commensurate with these advances, the government funding for biomedical research in thrust areas is also increasing. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, Department of Biotechnology (DBT, Department of Science and Technology (DST are some of the government organizations which provide financial support for various research projects. The results of the funded research projects are published in various international journals. Most of these journals have an access to paid subscribers only. Hence it is unethical to use the research grants from government (people′s money and not allow the scientific community free access to the results of the study. To tackle such issues, these agencies should sign the Berlin declaration and create open access repositories. A public access policy should be formulated and listed in JULIET. The funding bodies in India should also join Pubmed Central (PMC to form PMC India so that every investigator who has received grants would submit the full text of the paper published from his study and these can be made freely accessible to everyone. Universities and research institutions should also develop institutional open access repositories. The public access policy has definitive advantages and should be implemented.

  7. An evaluation of the International Monetary Fund's claims about public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; Gilmore, Anna; Batniji, Rajaie; Ooms, Gorik; Marphatia, Akanksha A; Hammonds, Rachel; McKee, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The International Monetary Fund's recent claims concerning its impact on public health are evaluated against available data. First, the IMF claims that health spending either does not change or increases with IMF-supported programs, but there is substantial evidence to the contrary. Second, the IMF claims to have relaxed strict spending requirements in response to the 2008-9 financial crisis, but there is no evidence supporting this claim, and some limited evidence from the Center for Economic Policy Research contradicting it. Third, the IMF states that wage ceilings on public health are no longer part of its explicit conditionalities to poor countries, as governments can choose how to achieve public spending targets; but in practice, ministers are left with few viable alternatives than to reduce health budgets to achieve specific IMF-mandated targets, so the result effectively preserves former policy. Fourth, the IMF's claim that it has increased aid to poor countries also seems to be contradicted by its policies of diverting aid to reserves, as well as evidence that a very small fraction of the Fund's new lending in response to the financial crisis has reached poor countries. Finally, the IMF's claim that it follows public health standards in tobacco control contrasts with its existing policies, which fail to follow the guidelines recommended by the World Bank and World Health Organization. The authors recommend that the IMF (1) become more transparent in its policies, practices, and data to allow improved independent evaluations of its impact on public health (including Health Impact Assessment) and (2) review considerable public health evidence indicating a negative association between its current policies and public health outcomes.

  8. Evolution of public and non-profit funding for mental health research in France between 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandré, Coralie; Prigent, Amélie; Kemel, Marie-Louise; Leboyer, Marion; Chevreul, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, actions have been undertaken in France to foster mental health research. Our objective was to assess their utility by estimating the evolution of public and non-profit funding for mental health research between 2007 and 2011, both in terms of total funding and the share of health research budgets. Public and non-profit funding was considered. Core funding from public research institutions was determined through a top-down approach by multiplying their total budget by the ratio of the number of psychiatry-related publications to the total number of publications focusing on health issues. A bottom-up method was used to estimate the amount of project-based grants and funding by non-profit organizations, which were directly contacted to obtain this information. Public and non-profit funding for mental health research increased by a factor of 3.4 between 2007 and 2011 reaching €84.8 million, while the share of health research funding allocated to mental health research nearly doubled from 2.2% to 4.1%. Public sources were the main contributors representing 94% of the total funding. Our results have important implications for policy makers, as they suggest that actions specifically aimed at prioritizing mental health research are effective in increasing research funding. There is therefore an urgent need to further undertake such actions as funding in France remains particularly low compared to the United Kingdom and the United States, despite the fact that the epidemiological and economic burden represented by mental disorders is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  9. Raising energy efficiency and cutting greenhouse gas emissions : an analysis of publicly funded petroleum research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)

  10. Successful private-public funding of paediatric medicines research: lessons from the EU programme to fund research into off-patent medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, L; Giannuzzi, V; Baiardi, P; Bonifazi, F; Davies, E H; Giaquinto, C; Bonifazi, D; Felisi, M; Chiron, C; Pressler, R; Rabe, H; Whitaker, M J; Neubert, A; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Eichler, I; Turner, M A; Ceci, A

    2015-04-01

    The European Paediatric Regulation mandated the European Commission to fund research on off-patent medicines with demonstrated therapeutic interest for children. Responding to this mandate, five FP7 project calls were launched and 20 projects were granted. This paper aims to detail the funded projects and their preliminary results. Publicly available sources have been consulted and a descriptive analysis has been performed. Twenty Research Consortia including 246 partners in 29 European and non-European countries were created (involving 129 universities or public-funded research organisations, 51 private companies with 40 SMEs, 7 patient associations). The funded projects investigate 24 medicines, covering 10 therapeutic areas in all paediatric age groups. In response to the Paediatric Regulation and to apply for a Paediatric Use Marketing Authorisation, 15 Paediatric Investigation Plans have been granted by the EMA-Paediatric Committee, including 71 studies of whom 29 paediatric clinical trials, leading to a total of 7,300 children to be recruited in more than 380 investigational centres. Notwithstanding the EU contribution for each study is lower than similar publicly funded projects, and also considering the complexity of paediatric research, these projects are performing high-quality research and are progressing towards the increase of new paediatric medicines on the market. Private-public partnerships have been effectively implemented, providing a good example for future collaborative actions. Since these projects cover a limited number of off-patent drugs and many unmet therapeutic needs in paediatrics remain, it is crucial foreseeing new similar initiatives in forthcoming European funding programmes.

  11. 75 FR 66773 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; FY 2010 Capital Fund Community and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Information Collection for Public Comment; FY 2010 Capital Fund Community and Education Training Facilities... 2010 Capital Fund Community and Education Training Facilities NOFA. OMB Control Number: 2577-0268...) enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) minimize the burden...

  12. 77 FR 33760 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Public Housing Capital Fund Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... that are not subject to Independent Public Accountant (IPA) audit requirements. DATES: Comments Due... numerous PHAs that are not subject to Independent Public Accountant (IPA) audit requirements. Number of... Proposed Information Collection to OMB Public Housing Capital Fund Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief...

  13. Global nanotechnology development from 1991 to 2012: patents, scientific publications, and effect of NSF funding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsinchun [The University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems (United States); Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (United States); Son, Jaebong; Jiang, Shan, E-mail: jiangs@email.arizona.edu; Larson, Catherine A.; Gao, Qiang [The University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems (United States)

    2013-09-15

    In a relatively short interval for an emerging technology, nanotechnology has made a significant economic impact in numerous sectors including semiconductor manufacturing, catalysts, medicine, agriculture, and energy production. A part of the United States (US) government investment in basic research has been realized in the last two decades through the National Science Foundation (NSF), beginning with the nanoparticle research initiative in 1991 and continuing with support from the National Nanotechnology Initiative after fiscal year 2001. This paper has two main goals: (a) present a longitudinal analysis of the global nanotechnology development as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patents and Web of Science (WoS) publications in nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) for the interval 1991-2012; and (b) identify the effect of basic research funded by NSF on both indicators. The interval has been separated into three parts for comparison purposes: 1991-2000, 2001-2010, and 2011-2012. The global trends of patents and scientific publications are presented. Bibliometric analysis, topic analysis, and citation network analysis methods are used to rank countries, institutions, technology subfields, and inventors contributing to nanotechnology development. We then, examined how these entities were affected by NSF funding and how they evolved over the past two decades. Results show that dedicated NSF funding used to support nanotechnology R and D was followed by an increased number of relevant patents and scientific publications, a greater diversity of technology topics, and a significant increase of citations. The NSF played important roles in the inventor community and served as a major contributor to numerous nanotechnology subfields.

  14. Global nanotechnology development from 1991 to 2012: patents, scientific publications, and effect of NSF funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Son, Jaebong; Jiang, Shan; Larson, Catherine A.; Gao, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    In a relatively short interval for an emerging technology, nanotechnology has made a significant economic impact in numerous sectors including semiconductor manufacturing, catalysts, medicine, agriculture, and energy production. A part of the United States (US) government investment in basic research has been realized in the last two decades through the National Science Foundation (NSF), beginning with the nanoparticle research initiative in 1991 and continuing with support from the National Nanotechnology Initiative after fiscal year 2001. This paper has two main goals: (a) present a longitudinal analysis of the global nanotechnology development as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patents and Web of Science (WoS) publications in nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) for the interval 1991–2012; and (b) identify the effect of basic research funded by NSF on both indicators. The interval has been separated into three parts for comparison purposes: 1991–2000, 2001–2010, and 2011–2012. The global trends of patents and scientific publications are presented. Bibliometric analysis, topic analysis, and citation network analysis methods are used to rank countries, institutions, technology subfields, and inventors contributing to nanotechnology development. We then, examined how these entities were affected by NSF funding and how they evolved over the past two decades. Results show that dedicated NSF funding used to support nanotechnology R and D was followed by an increased number of relevant patents and scientific publications, a greater diversity of technology topics, and a significant increase of citations. The NSF played important roles in the inventor community and served as a major contributor to numerous nanotechnology subfields

  15. Evaluation of the Role of Public Outreach and Stakeholder Engagement in Stormwater Funding Decisions in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed report examining the role of public outreach and stakeholder engagement in stormwater funding decisions based on the experiences of eleven small and medium-sized communities in New England.

  16. Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Marginal Cost of Public Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Lundholm, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The marginal cost of public funds defined as the ratio between the shadow price of tax revenues and the population average of the social marginal utility of income, is analysed within an explicit cost–benefit context. It is shown that for an optimal tax system the measure is always equal to one. Benefit and cost measures congruent with this definition are derived. Under optimal taxes a positive net social benefit is a necessary and sufficient condition for a project that passes the cost–benef...

  17. The long-term fiscal impact of funding cuts to Danish public fertility clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Mark P; Postma, Maarten J; Crespi, Simone

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted...... reproductive technology will be affected. To reflect the government perspective, the model assessed the average life course of a cohort of assisted-conception singletons taking into consideration age-specific, per-capita government transfers (e.g. education, health care, family allowances, education, pensions...

  18. Governance of Public Benefit Funds to Promote Innovation in Energy by Addressing Early Adopter Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Andrew; Oppenheim, Jerrold; Dubravka Pineda, Maria

    2010-09-15

    Building a better energy future will be expensive, in part, because it will require modernizing energy infrastructure and bringing more innovative technologies to deliver energy more efficiently to consumers with less environmental impact. With the extended recession and turmoil in credit markets in 2008, some states have turned to public benefit funds to address critical risks in adopting innovative energy technologies and systems. This paper updates valuable observations for governing PBFs to promote wider adoption of innovative energy technologies enabling a better balance of risk and return in concert with other policy tools by negotiating mitigation of early adopter risks.

  19. Resource allocation decision modeling for a Louisiana Public Benefit Fund program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2003-01-01

    A simulation model is developed to value energy efficiency improvement programs in Louisiana proposed to be delivered through a Public Benefits Fund. A uniform 1 mill/kW h non-bypassable surcharge on the electric rates of all electricity users is proposed to be distributed for low-income bill assistance, low-income weatherization, and energy efficiency programs across the residential and commercial sector of Louisiana. The economic and environmental impact of the energy improvement programs is coupled to a stochastic linear program to specify the resource allocation subject to policy and system constraints. The model is illustrated through a realistic policy scenario. (Author)

  20. The long-term fiscal impact of funding cuts to Danish public fertility clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Mark P; Postma, Maarten J; Crespi, Simone

    2011-01-01

    reproductive technology will be affected. To reflect the government perspective, the model assessed the average life course of a cohort of assisted-conception singletons taking into consideration age-specific, per-capita government transfers (e.g. education, health care, family allowances, education, pensions......This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted...

  1. Drug, sex and age differentials in the use of Australian publicly funded treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jane Anne; Clavarino, Alexandra Marie; Najman, Jackob Moses

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the proportion of the Australian population using alcohol or other drugs who may seek treatment. There is a need to have some additional estimates of population morbidity which reflect harms associated with use. To determine Australian population rates of publicly funded community based specialised alcohol and other drug treatment and in-patient hospital care by those 'at risk', by drug type, sex and age. The design is secondary data analysis of publicly available datasets. We use the latest available complete data on Australian general population incidence of alcohol, cannabis amphetamines and ecstasy use (2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey) and nationally collected administrative data on publicly funded specialised alcohol and other drug treatment services (2006-2007 Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Dataset) and public hospitals (2006-2007 National Hospital Morbidity Minimum Dataset) to calculate rates of drug treatment and in-patient hospital care per 1000 Australians. 'At risk' for alcohol is defined as being at risk of short term harm, as defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council (2001). 'At risk' for illicit drugs is defined as those exposed to potential harm through at least weekly use of cannabis, amphetamines and ecstasy use. Risky alcohol consumption followed by recent cannabis use appears to lead to most harm. Greater harm seems to be experienced by males rather than females. Younger adults (15-19 years) and older adults (40+ years) seem also to experience the highest rates of harm. It is possible to derive population estimates of harms associated with licit and illicit drugs use. Treatment rates vary across drug type, gender and age. Alcohol and cannabis are the substances whose use leads to the greatest demand for services. Ecstasy appears to generate few presentations for treatment. Publicly available data can be used to estimate harms associated with the use of particular

  2. Responsibilities of the active participation of geoscientists in public funded projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Victor; Fernandez, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    The European Federation of Geologists (EFG) is based in 24 European countries and represents over 50,000 geoscientists in Europe, working in organisations dealing with many of the critical societal challenges that came with fast population growing: soils fertility; fresh water; energy; and raw materials supply. This calls for the concerted contribution of networks of geoscientists to frame and answer the global challenges we are facing. In Europe, the Research and Innovation funding program Horizon 2020 provided a unique opportunity for EFG to play an active role in this context, and this justifies the direct involvement of EFG in several funded projects, ranging from international cooperation on raw materials supply to groundwater research or combined heat, power and metal extraction from ultra-deep ore bodies. But an active participation of a not for profit organization of geoscientists in such public funded projects brings responsibilities and reputational risks. The authors will describe how EFG is taking these responsibilities and facing the correspondent risks, through the involvement of certified professionals. The authors will highlight why EFG is keen in promoting the EurGeol professional title, ensuring title holders are skilled and competent to deliver high quality services within the practice of geology, framed by a Code of Ethics and a commitment towards continuing professional development.

  3. A systematic evaluation of payback of publicly funded health and health services research in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Doris SY

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health and Health Services Research Fund (HHSRF is dedicated to support research related to all aspects of health and health services in Hong Kong. We evaluated the fund's outcomes and explored factors associated with the translation of research findings to changes in health policy and provider behaviour. Methods A locally suitable questionnaire was developed based on the "payback" evaluation framework and was sent to principal investigators of the completed research projects supported by the fund since 1993. Research "payback" in six outcome areas was surveyed, namely knowledge production, use of research in the research system, use of research project findings in health system policy/decision making, application of the research findings through changed behaviour, factors influencing the utilization of research, and health/health service/economic benefits. Results Principal investigators of 178 of 205 (87% completed research projects returned the questionnaire. Investigators reported research publications in 86.5% (mean = 5.4 publications per project, career advancement 34.3%, acquisition of higher qualifications 38.2%, use of results in policy making 35.4%, changed behaviour in light of findings 49.4%, evidence of health service benefit 42.1% and generated subsequent research in 44.9% of the projects. Payback outcomes were positively associated with the amount of funding awarded. Multivariate analysis found participation of investigators in policy committees and liaison with potential users were significantly associated with reported health service benefit (odds ratio [OR]participation = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28–6.40; ORliaison = 2.03, 95% CI 1.05–3.91, policy and decision-making (ORparticipation = 10.53, 95% CI 4.13–26.81; ORliaison = 2.52, 95% CI 1.20–5.28, and change in behavior (ORparticipation = 3.67, 95% CI 1.53–8.81. Conclusion The HHSRF has produced substantial outcomes and compared

  4. Determination of the optimal proportions of public and private funds in project budget management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pykhtin, Kirill; Simankina, Tatyana; Karmokova, Kristina; Zonova, Alevtina

    2017-10-01

    Although the historical period of public-private partnership in the Russian federation is rather short, yet this type of cooperation of private entrepreneurs and authorities became the major driver of growth in such areas as construction, utilities, infrastructure and energetics. However, even though the experience of foreign countries is much larger than of Russia, great number of human resources are still consumed within disputes and disquisitions in order to assess the ratio of private and public funds. The present paper is based on the idea that this ratio can be determined for each of the industries with the use of statistical data. The authors offered the change in project cost range within the project classification regarding to the “project scale” characteristic.

  5. Referral Practices Among U.S. Publicly Funded Health Centers That Offer Family Planning Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Marion W; Robbins, Cheryl L; Gavin, Loretta; Moskosky, Susan

    2018-01-29

    Referrals to other medical services are central to healthcare, including family planning service providers; however, little information exists on the nature of referral practices among health centers that offer family planning. We used a nationally representative survey of administrators from 1,615 publicly funded health centers that offered family planning in 2013-14 to describe the use of six referral practices. We focused on associations between various health center characteristics and frequent use of three active referral practices. In the prior 3 months, a majority of health centers (73%) frequently asked clients about referrals at clients' next visit. Under half (43%) reported frequently following up with referral sources to find out if their clients had been seen. A third (32%) of all health centers reported frequently using three active referral practices. In adjusted analysis, Planned Parenthood clinics (adjusted odds ratio 0.55) and hospital-based clinics (AOR 0.39) had lower odds of using the three active referral practices compared with health departments, and Title X funding status was not associated with the outcome. The outcome was positively associated with serving rural areas (AOR 1.39), having a larger client volume (AOR 3.16), being a part of an insurance network (AOR 1.42), and using electronic health records (AOR 1.62). Publicly funded family planning providers were heavily engaged in referrals. Specific referral practices varied widely and by type of care. More assessment of these and other aspects of referral systems and practices is needed to better characterize the quality of care.

  6. Institutional Metamorphoses regarding the Exercise of External Public Audit in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work attempts a synthetic approach of the evolution of institutional organization and the exercise of public financial audit in Romania, emphasizing on historical, as well as on modern elements. Recent changes, based, obviously, on legal regulations, aim at implementing the types of audit specific to the audit supreme institutions and founded on the basis of their own external public audit standards, adopted according to the INTOSAI audit standards, the European guidelines for their application and other standards relevant to the public sector, elaborated by IFAC and accepted by the European Union. The finding of the accounts in order is followed by issuing of a conformity certificate for the audited entity.

  7. Characterizing psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorder receiving publicly funded mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Stadnick, Nicole; Chlebowski, Colby; Baker-Ericzén, Mary; Ganger, William

    2017-09-01

    Publicly funded mental health programs play a significant role in serving children with autism spectrum disorder. Understanding patterns of psychiatric comorbidity for this population within mental health settings is important to implement appropriately tailored interventions. This study (1) describes patterns of psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorder who present to mental health services with challenging behaviors and (2) identifies child characteristics associated with comorbid conditions. Data are drawn from baseline assessments from 201 children with autism spectrum disorder who participated in a community effectiveness trial across 29 publicly funded mental health programs. Non-autism spectrum disorder diagnoses were assessed using an adapted Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, parent version. Approximately 92% of children met criteria for at least one non-autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (78% attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 58% oppositional defiant disorder, 56% anxiety, 30% mood). Logistic regression indicated that child gender and clinical characteristics were differentially associated with meeting criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, an anxiety, or a mood disorder. Exploratory analyses supported a link between challenging behaviors and mood disorder symptoms and revealed high prevalence of these symptoms in this autism spectrum disorder population. Findings provide direction for tailoring intervention to address a broad range of clinical issues for youth with autism spectrum disorder served in mental health settings.

  8. A survey of publicly funded aged psychiatry services in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daniel; Melding, Pamela

    2006-04-01

    To map the size and distribution of publicly funded aged psychiatry (psychogeriatric) services in Australia and New Zealand in 2003. Services were tracked exhaustively through personal, professional and academic contacts, electronic searches and word-of-mouth. Directors or managers of services were asked to complete a brief questionnaire concerning their locality, services, staff profile and patient contacts. Services varied widely with respect to their numbers, size and community outreach. Victoria was the only Australian state to provide specialist, multidisciplinary aged psychiatry teams with community, acute inpatient and residential arms in all its major cities. New South Wales, the state with the largest aged population, performed relatively poorly on most indicators. New Zealand performed relatively well despite its small size and widely dispersed population. Publicly funded aged mental health services are effective and reach frail, multiply disabled old people who cannot access private psychiatrists and are often overlooked by services for younger adults. At the time of our survey, such services were distributed in Australia in a highly inequitable fashion.

  9. Variations in demand and provision for publicly funded outpatient musculoskeletal physiotherapy services across Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Simon; Raymond, Marie-Hélène; Laliberté, Maude; Lavoie, Amélie; Desmeules, François; Feldman, Debbie E; Perreault, Kadija

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders is high and expected to increase in the next decade. Persons suffering from musculoskeletal disorders benefit from early physiotherapy services. However, access to publicly funded physiotherapy services has been shown to be compromised by long waiting times and limited availability of resources in many countries around the world. Decisions on resource allocation may create geographic disparities in provision and access to services, which may result in inequity in access. This study aimed to assess variations in demand and provision of publicly funded outpatient physiotherapy services across the province of Quebec, Canada, as well as to assess the demand to provision relationship. We conducted a secondary analysis of data retrieved from the 2008 Quebec Health Survey and data obtained from a survey of hospitals in the province of Quebec in 2015. We used geographic information systems analyses and descriptive analyses to assess geographic variations and the relationship between demand and provision. Our results indicate substantial variations in the provision and demand for physiotherapy services in the province of Quebec. The variations in service provision did not follow the variations in demand. Long waiting times and insufficient provision of services were found in many regions. The variations in provision of physiotherapy services between regions reported in our study did not correspond to the variations in demand. Such geographic variations and demand to provision mismatches may create inequity in access to services, especially for those unable to afford private services. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The support needs of patients waiting for publicly funded bariatric surgery - implications for health service planners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, M J; Venn, A J; Jose, K A; Williams, D; Hensher, M; Palmer, A J; Wilkinson, S; Ezzy, D

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the experience of waiting for publicly funded bariatric surgery in an Australian tertiary healthcare setting. Focus groups and individual interviews involving people waiting for or who had undergone publicly funded bariatric surgery were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. A total of 11 women and 6 men engaged in one of six focus groups in 2014, and an additional 10 women and 9 men were interviewed in 2015. Mean age was 53 years (range 23-66); mean waiting time was 6 years (range 0-12), and mean time since surgery was 4 years (range 0-11). Waiting was commonly reported as emotionally challenging (e.g. frustrating, depressing, stressful) and often associated with weight gain (despite weight-loss attempts) and deteriorating physical health (e.g. development of new or worsening obesity-related comorbidity or decline in mobility) or psychological health (e.g. development of or worsening depression). Peer support, health and mental health counselling, integrated care and better communication about waitlist position and management (e.g. patient prioritization) were identified support needs. Even if wait times cannot be reduced, better peer and health professional supports, together with better communication from health departments, may improve the experience or outcomes of waiting and confer quality-of-life gains irrespective of weight loss. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  11. The appeal to nature implicit in certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART) are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein (sometimes) a source of moral guidance. We draw on the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein in arguing for the plausibility of an appeal to nature in opposition to the charge that it must contain a logical fallacy. We also invite consideration of the moral plausibility of some appeal to nature. Finally, we examine what follows in the case of ART. Should medicine respect as natural limits that should not be overcome: the need for a man and a woman in reproduction; menopause; and even declining fertility with age? We must first ask ourselves to what degree we should defer to nature in the conduct of medicine, at least in the particular if not the general case. This will involve also asking ourselves what we think is natural and in what instances and spirit might we defy nature. Divergent opinions and policies concerning who should receive ART treatment and public funding are more easily understood in view of the centrality, complexity and fundamental nature of these questions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Fiscal versus social responsibility: how Philip Morris shaped the public funds divestment debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wander, N; Malone, R E

    2006-01-01

    Calls for institutional investors to divest (sell off) tobacco stocks threaten the industry's share values, publicise its bad behaviour, and label it as a politically unacceptable ally. US tobacco control advocates began urging government investment and pension funds to divest as a matter of responsible social policy in 1990. Following the initiation of Medicaid recovery lawsuits in 1994, advocates highlighted the contradictions between state justice departments suing the industry, and state health departments expanding tobacco control programmes, while state treasurers invested in tobacco companies. Philip Morris (PM), the most exposed US company, led the divestment opposition, consistently framing the issue as one of responsible fiscal policy. It insisted that funds had to be managed for the exclusive interest of beneficiaries, not the public at large, and for high share returns above all. This paper uses tobacco industry documents to show how PM sought to frame both the rhetorical contents and the legal contexts of the divestment debate. While tobacco stock divestment was eventually limited to only seven (but highly visible) states, US advocates focused public attention on the issue in at least 18 others plus various local jurisdictions. This added to ongoing, effective campaigns to denormalise and delegitimise the tobacco industry, dividing it from key allies. Divestment as a delegitimisation tool could have both advantages and disadvantages as a tobacco control strategy in other countries. PMID:16728755

  13. Public health journals' requirements for authors to disclose funding and conflicts of interest: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Karim N; Hakoum, Maram B; Khamis, Assem M; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Ali, Ahmed; Habib, Joseph R; Semaan, Aline T; Guyatt, Gordon; Akl, Elie A

    2018-04-23

    Public health journals need to have clear policies for reporting the funding of studies and authors' personal financial and non-financial conflicts of interest (COI) disclosures. This study aims to assess the policies of public health journals on reporting of study funding and the disclosure of authors' COIs. This is a cross-sectional study of "Public, Environmental & Occupational Health" journals. Teams of two researchers abstracted data in duplicate and independently using REDCap software. Of 173 public health journals, 155 (90%) had a policy for reporting study funding information. Out of these, a majority did not require reporting of the phase of the study for which funding was received (88%), nor the types of funding sources (87%). Of the 173 journals, 163 (94%) had a policy requiring disclosure of authors' COI. However, the majority of these journals did not require financial conflicts of interest disclosures relating to institutions (75%) nor to the author's family members (90%) while 56% required the disclosure of at least one form of non-financial COI. The policies of the majority of public health journals do not require the reporting of important details such as the role of the funder, and non-financial COI. Journals and publishers should consider revising their editorial policies to ensure complete and transparent reporting of funding and COI.

  14. 42 CFR 413.149 - Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets financed with Federal or public funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets... SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Capital-Related Costs § 413.149 Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets financed with Federal or public funds. (a) Principle. Depreciation is allowed on assets financed...

  15. Public Funding of Catholic Schools in Venezuela: Effects on the Qualifications and Salaries of Catholic School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas, Emiliana

    This paper discusses the impact on teacher qualifications and earnings of public financing of private education. As societies become more frustrated with government-run schools, policies to provide public funds for private schools--for example, tuition subsidies, vouchers, or tuition tax credits--become more attractive. However, it is important to…

  16. Funding of public libraries in Nigeria: a case study of Imo state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, the paper made recommendations on how to alleviate the problems of funding namely, good management of fund; strengthening alternative sources of funding like bookshop, printing, publishing, information brokerage and collaboration with the private sector. The paper also emphasized that with adequate funding ...

  17. Economics and the evaluation of publicly funded energy R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.; Paik, I.K.

    1998-10-19

    There are three major areas in which economics can contribute to the evaluation of federal R and D: assessment of net benefits, ex ante expected as well as ex post realized; tailoring of R and D portfolios to policy goals; and guiding the contractual organization of R and D production. Additionally, evaluation of R and D and scientific activity tend to be distinctly retrospective, principally because of the long lags between the initial production activity and the observability of consequences. Extending the purview of economic evaluation of R and D, they find ample opportunity for evaluation that can inform current R and D management practice. The conduct of R and D is organized through a series of explicit and implicit contracts designed to elicit long-term commitments by some agents while attempting to limit the commitment by others. It is natural to consider the efficiency with which R and D is conducted as a subject for economic inquiry, although in practice such inquiries generally are restricted to accounting exercises. In evaluating the efficiency with which R and D is done, the current ordinary practice is to look at labor rates and equipment and materials prices while considering quantities of those items as the principal instrument variables in an optimization problem (the authors conceptualization, not that of the typical review of an R and D project). The authors recommend the contractual structure and other elements of the incentive structure (pay and promotion) of R and D production as prime focal points for managerially useful economic evaluation. Non-economic motivations for funding public R and D, including energy R and D, are well known. The US will consider spending several billion dollars on an international space station, partly if not largely, to fund the peaceful employment of scientists from the Former Soviet Union. Nonetheless, it will be useful to understand the economics of the R and D programs even if other considerations play important

  18. Characterization of hospitalizations due to external causes in the public health system, Brazil, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the characteristics of hospital admissions owing to external causes in the public health system in Brazil in 2011. Data from the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System (SIH/SUS) were analyzed to obtain the frequency, coefficient of hospitalization, and hospital morbidity indicators. Of the 973,015 admissions, falls (38.4%) predominated, followed by traffic accidents (15.8%). The estimated coefficient of hospitalization owing to external causes increased with the age, and it was higher in male patients and in the midwest region of the country. The average stay was higher in hospitalizations for traffic accidents (6.1 days) and assaults (6.0 days), while the hospital mortality rate reached higher values in hospitalizations for assaults (4.7%) and self-harms (4.0%). It is evident from the knowledge of the characteristics described the usefulness of hospital morbidity data for planning care actions and prevention of the external causes.

  19. Drug, Sex and Age Differentials in the Use of Australian Publicly Funded Treatment Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Anne Fischer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Little is known about the proportion of the Australian population using alcohol or other drugs who may seek treatment. There is a need to have some additional estimates of population morbidity which reflect harms associated with use. Objective To determine Australian population rates of publicly funded community based specialised alcohol and other drug treatment and in-patient hospital care by those ‘at risk’, by drug type, sex and age. Design and setting The design is secondary data analysis of publicly available datasets. We use the latest available complete data on Australian general population incidence of alcohol, cannabis amphetamines and ecstasy use (2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey and nationally collected administrative data on publicly funded specialised alcohol and other drug treatment services (2006–2007 Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Dataset and public hospitals (2006–2007 National Hospital Morbidity Minimum Dataset to calculate rates of drug treatment and in-patient hospital care per 1000 Australians. ‘At risk’ for alcohol is defined as being at risk of short term harm, as defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council (2001. ‘At risk’ for illicit drugs is defined as those exposed to potential harm through at least weekly use of cannabis, amphetamines and ecstasy use. Results Risky alcohol consumption followed by recent cannabis use appears to lead to most harm. Greater harm seems to be experienced by males rather than females. Younger adults (15–19 years and older adults (40+ years seem also to experience the highest rates of harm. Conclusions It is possible to derive population estimates of harms associated with licit and illicit drugs use. Treatment rates vary across drug type, gender and age. Alcohol and cannabis are the substances whose use leads to the greatest demand for services. Ecstasy appears to generate few presentations for treatment

  20. Lessons learned: Infrastructure development and financial management for large, publicly funded, international trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Gregg S; Carey, Cate; Grarup, Jesper; Hudson, Fleur; Sachi, Karen; Vjecha, Michael J; Gordin, Fred

    2016-04-01

    Randomized clinical trials are widely recognized as essential to address worldwide clinical and public health research questions. However, their size and duration can overwhelm available public and private resources. To remain competitive in international research settings, advocates and practitioners of clinical trials must implement practices that reduce their cost. We identify approaches and practices for large, publicly funded, international trials that reduce cost without compromising data integrity and recommend an approach to cost reporting that permits comparison of clinical trials. We describe the organizational and financial characteristics of The International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials, an infectious disease research network that conducts multiple, large, long-term, international trials, and examine challenges associated with simple and streamlined governance and an infrastructure and financial management model that is based on performance, transparency, and accountability. It is possible to reduce costs of participants' follow-up and not compromise clinical trial quality or integrity. The International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials network has successfully completed three large HIV trials using cost-efficient practices that have not adversely affected investigator enthusiasm, accrual rates, loss-to-follow-up, adherence to the protocol, and completion of data collection. This experience is relevant to the conduct of large, publicly funded trials in other disease areas, particularly trials dependent on international collaborations. New approaches, or creative adaption of traditional clinical trial infrastructure and financial management tools, can render large, international clinical trials more cost-efficient by emphasizing structural simplicity, minimal up-front costs, payments for performance, and uniform algorithms and fees-for-service, irrespective of location. However, challenges remain. They

  1. Competition for public project funding in a small research system: the case of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Jaan Masso; Kadri Ukrainski

    2009-01-01

    The extensive literature that deals with competition for research funding has focused on the mechanisms and outcomes of funding, but has not systematically studied the allocation of funding among research performers across different financing instruments. The analysis of a small research system on the basis of funding volumes disaggregated according to beneficiaries and funding instruments showed a very high and growing degree of market concentration strengthening existing dominant research i...

  2. Cost Savings From the Provision of Specific Methods of Contraception in a Publicly Funded Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostovtseva, Daria P.; Brindis, Claire D.; Biggs, M. Antonia; Hulett, Denis; Darney, Philip D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the cost-effectiveness of contraceptive methods dispensed in 2003 to 955 000 women in Family PACT (Planning, Access, Care and Treatment), California's publicly funded family planning program. Methods. We estimated the number of pregnancies averted by each contraceptive method and compared the cost of providing each method with the savings from averted pregnancies. Results. More than half of the 178 000 averted pregnancies were attributable to oral contraceptives, one fifth to injectable methods, and one tenth each to the patch and barrier methods. The implant and intrauterine contraceptives were the most cost-effective, with cost savings of more than $7.00 for every $1.00 spent in services and supplies. Per $1.00 spent, injectable contraceptives yielded savings of $5.60; oral contraceptives, $4.07; the patch, $2.99; the vaginal ring, $2.55; barrier methods, $1.34; and emergency contraceptives, $1.43. Conclusions. All contraceptive methods were cost-effective—they saved more in public expenditures for unintended pregnancies than they cost to provide. Because no single method is clinically recommended to every woman, it is medically and fiscally advisable for public health programs to offer all contraceptive methods. PMID:18703437

  3. Revenue sources for essential services in Florida: findings and implications for organizing and funding public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingood, William C; Morris, Michael; Sorensen, Bonita; Chapman, Karen; Rivera, Lillian; Beitsch, Les; Street, Phil; Coughlin, Susan; Smotherman, Carmen; Wood, David

    2013-01-01

    The Florida Public Health Practice-Based Research Network conducted the study of Florida county health departments (CHDs) to assess relationships between self-assessed performance on essential services (ESs) and sources of funding. Primary data were collected using an online survey based on Public Health Accreditation Board standards for ES. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationship of sources and amounts of revenue obtained from the Florida Department of Health financial system to responses to the survey of CHD capacity for ESs. Self-assessed CHD performance for each ES varied extensively among the CHDs and across the 10 ESs, ranging from a high of 98% CHDs completely or almost completely meeting the standards for ES 2 (Investigating Problems and Hazards) to a low of 32% completely or almost completely meeting standards for ES 10 (Research/Evidence). Medicaid revenue and fees were positively correlated with some ESs. Per capita revenue support varied extensively among the CHDs. Revenue for ES is decreasing and is heavily reliant on noncategorical (discretionary) revenue. This study has important implications for continued reliance on ES as an organizing construct for public health.

  4. Public and Opinion Leader Willingness to Fund Obesity-Focused Policies in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Curry, Laurel E; Homsi, Ghada; Williams, Pamela A; Glasgow, LaShawn M; Van Hersh, Deanna; Willett, Jeffrey; Rogers, Todd

    2017-08-01

    Obesity increases the risk for leading causes of death, including cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Midwestern and southern states have the highest obesity rates-in Kansas, one in every three adults is obese. We compared the willingness of Kansas adults and opinion leaders to pay more in taxes to fund obesity prevention policies. In 2014, we asked a representative sample of 2,203 Kansas adults (response rate 15.7%) and 912 opinion leaders (response rate 55%) drawn from elected office and other sectors, including business and health, whether they would pay an additional $50 in annual taxes to support five policies that improve access to healthy foods and opportunities for physical activity. We used adjusted Wald tests to compare public and opinion leaders' responses, and regression analysis to assess whether differences in respondents' gender, age, location (urban/rural), race/ethnicity, and political stance affected results. Adjusting for demographic differences, Kansas adults were more willing than opinion leaders to pay $50 in taxes for each of the five policy interventions. This study demonstrates a willingness among residents of a fiscally conservative state to pay increased taxes for policies that could reduce population obesity rates. Health professionals, including nurses, can use these findings to educate policy makers in Kansas and geopolitically similar states about widespread public support for obesity prevention policies. Public health and other nurses could also apply our methods to assess support for obesity prevention policies in their jurisdictions.

  5. Participation of the public in funding of the cultural offer: ethical arguments for debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cejudo Córdoba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews arguments for and against voluntary and direct participation of the public in the funding of cultural activities. The starting point is that financing schemes implemented by cultural policies bear ethical implications aside from their instrumental aims. Using A. Sen’s comparative approach, it is discussed whether crowdfunding and other investment instruments for cultural consumers are forms of citizen patronage worthwhile from an ethical point of view. In spite of accusations of paternalism and commoditization of the cultural life, citizen patronage is argued to be a social innovation that encourages social responsibility of cultural consumers. Accordingly, cultural policies should take into account that private behaviors concerning consumption and investment are also ways of getting involved in social life.

  6. Conflicts between religious or spiritual beliefs and pediatric care: informed refusal, exemptions, and public funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Although respect for parents' decision-making authority is an important principle, pediatricians should report suspected cases of medical neglect, and the state should, at times, intervene to require medical treatment of children. Some parents' reasons for refusing medical treatment are based on their religious or spiritual beliefs. In cases in which treatment is likely to prevent death or serious disability or relieve severe pain, children's health and future autonomy should be protected. Because religious exemptions to child abuse and neglect laws do not equally protect all children and may harm some children by causing confusion about the duty to provide medical treatment, these exemptions should be repealed. Furthermore, public health care funds should not cover alternative unproven religious or spiritual healing practices. Such payments may inappropriately legitimize these practices as appropriate medical treatment.

  7. Presence of automated external defibrillators in North Carolina public middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Karl B; Bright, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) have been used in the school setting to successfully resuscitate students, staff, and visitors. All public high schools in North Carolina have an AED. However, the number of North Carolina public middle schools with an AED is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of AEDs at public middle schools in North Carolina and to estimate the cost associated with providing an AED to all public middle schools currently without one. All 547 middle schools in North Carolina's 117 public school systems were surveyed in 2009 via e-mail, fax, and, when necessary, telephone about whether an AED was present on site. For middle schools without AEDs, we estimated the cost of purchase and for 1 year of maintenance. A total 66.6% of public middle schools responded to 1 of 3 survey mailings. The remaining schools were contacted by telephone, so that 100% were included in data collection. At the time of the survey, at least 1 AED was present in 334 schools (61.1%). Of the 213 schools without AEDs, 57 (26.8%) were in school systems in which some middle schools had AEDs, and 156 (73.2%) were in systems in which no middle school had an AED. On the basis of a start-up cost of $1,200 per AED, the cost of providing an AED to each school without one is approximately $255,600. These data are based on self-report, and we could not verify whether AEDs were functional. Cost estimates do not include charges for ongoing maintenance and staff training. Two hundred and thirteen North Carolina public middle schools (38.9%) do not have an AED on site.

  8. Recruitment to publicly funded trials--are surgical trials really different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jonathan A; Ramsay, Craig R; Norrie, John

    2008-09-01

    Good recruitment is integral to the conduct of a high-quality randomised controlled trial. It has been suggested that recruitment is particularly difficult for evaluations of surgical interventions, a field in which there is a dearth of evidence from randomised comparisons. While there is anecdotal speculation to support the inference that recruitment to surgical trials is more challenging than for medical trials we are unaware of any formal assessment of this. In this paper, we compare recruitment to surgical and medical trials using a cohort of publicly funded trials. Overall recruitment to trials was assessed using of a cohort of publicly funded trials (n=114). Comparisons were made by using the Recruitment Index, a simple measure of recruitment activity for multicentre randomised controlled trials. Recruitment at the centre level was also investigated through three example surgical trials. The Recruitment Index was found to be higher, though not statistically significantly, in the surgical group (n=18, median=38.0 IQR (10.7, 77.4)) versus (n=81, median=34.8 IQR (11.7, 98.0)) days per recruit for the medical group (median difference 1.7 (-19.2, 25.1); p=0.828). For the trials where the comparison was between a surgical and a medical intervention, the Recruitment Index was substantially higher (n=6, 68.3 (23.5, 294.8)) versus (n=93, 34.6 (11.7, 90.0); median difference 25.9 (-35.5, 221.8); p=0.291) for the other trials. There was no clear evidence that surgical trials differ from medical trials in terms of recruitment activity. There was, however, support for the inference that medical versus surgical trials are more difficult to recruit to. Formal exploration of the recruitment data through a modelling approach may go some way to tease out where important differences exist.

  9. Assessment of Costs for a Global Climate Fund Against Public Sector Disaster Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg; Williges, Keith

    2013-04-01

    National governments are key actors in managing climate variability and change, yet, many countries, faced with exhausted tax bases, high levels of indebtedness and limited donor assistance, have been unable to raise sufficient and timely capital to replace or repair damaged assets and restore livelihoods following major disasters exacerbating the impacts of disaster shocks on poverty and development. For weather extremes, which form a subset of the adaptation challenge and are supposed to increase in intensity and frequency with a changing climate, we conduct an assessment of the costs of managing and financing today's public sector risks on a global scale for more than 180 countries. A countries financial vulnerability is defined as a function of its financial resilience and its exposure to disaster risk. While disaster risk is estimated in terms of asset loss distributions based on catastrophe modeling approaches, financial resilience is operationalized as the public sector's ability to pay for relief to the affected population and support the reconstruction of affected assets and infrastructure for a given event. We consider governments financially vulnerable to disasters if they cannot access sufficient funding after a disaster to cover their liabilities. We operationalize this concept by the term resource gap, which we define the net loss associated with a disaster event after exhausting all possible ex-post and ex ante financing sources. Extending this approach for all possible disaster events, the risk that a resource gap will occur over a given time-span can be calculated for each country individually and dependent on the risk level different risk instruments may have to be applied. Furthermore, our estimates may inform decisions pertaining to a "climate insurance fund" absorbing "high level" country risks exceeding the ability of any given country to pay in the case of an extreme event. Our estimates relate to today's climate, yet we suggest that

  10. Public and nonprofit funding for research on mental disorders in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreul, Karine; McDaid, David; Farmer, Carrie M; Prigent, Amélie; Park, A-La; Leboyer, Marion; Kupfer, David J; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2012-07-01

    To document the investments made in research on mental disorders by both government and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. An exhaustive survey was conducted of primary sources of public and nonprofit organization funding for mental health research for the year 2007 in France and the United Kingdom and for fiscal year 2007-2008 in the United States, augmented with an examination of relevant Web sites and publications. In France, all universities and research institutions were identified using the Public Finance Act. In the United Kingdom, we scrutinized Web sites and hand searched annual reports and grant lists for the public sector and nonprofit charitable medical research awarding bodies. In the United States, we included the following sources: the National Institutes of Health, other administrative entities within the Department of Health and Human Services (eg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the Department of Education, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and the National Science Foundation and, for nonprofit funding, The Foundation Center. We included research on all mental disorders and substance-related disorders using the same keywords. We excluded research on mental retardation and dementia and on the promotion of mental well-being. We used the same algorithm in each country to obtain data for only mental health funding in situations in which funding had a broader scope. France spent $27.6 million (2%) of its health research budget on mental disorders, the United Kingdom spent $172.6 million (7%), and the United States spent $5.2 billion (16%). Nongovernmental funding ranged from 1% of total funding for mental health research in France and the United States to 14% in the United Kingdom. Funding for research on mental disorders accounts for low proportions of research budgets compared with funding levels for research on other major health problems, whereas

  11. Externalities and article citations: experience of a national public health journal (Gaceta Sanitaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Fernández, Esteve; García, Ana M; Borrell, Carme

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the determinants of citations such as publication year, article type, article topic, article selected for a press release, number of articles previously published by the corresponding author, and publication language in a Spanish journal of public health. Observational study including all articles published in Gaceta Sanitaria during 2007-2011. We retrieved the number of citations from the ISI Web of Knowledge database in June 2013 and also information on other variables such as number of articles published by the corresponding author in the previous 5 years (searched through PubMed), selection for a press release, publication language, article type and topic, and others. We included 542 articles. Of these, 62.5% were cited in the period considered. We observed an increased odds ratio of citations for articles selected for a press release and also with the number of articles published previously by the corresponding author. Articles published in English do not seem to increase their citations. Certain externalities such as number of articles published by the corresponding author and being selected for a press release seem to influence the number of citations in national journals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Outlines of ICRP publication 74 and new dose conversion coefficients for external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    Combined task group of ICRP and ICRU reported the ICRP Publication 74 (1996) which is a summary report of their collection, analysis and evaluation of many data and dose conversion coefficients. Concerning the new coefficients, the author described this review as follows: History until Publication 74. Doses recommended at present: for protection quantity, the mean absorption dose of organ and tissue, equivalent dose and effective dose and for operational quantity, the ambient dose equivalent, directional dose equivalent and individual dose equivalent. Changes which can have an influence on the dose evaluation; introduction of radiation weighting factor (WR), changing of tissue weighting factor (WR), changing of the equation for Q-L relation and updating of physical data. New dose conversion coefficients; for photon, neutron and electron. Comparison of new and present coefficients; concerning the quality factor Q, particularly for neutron Q. New relations of protection and operational quantities; for field and individual monitoring. General conclusion of Publication 74. The Publication gives a certain direction for problems in evaluation of external exposure dose which have been discussed since the ICRP Fundamental Recommendation 1990 was issued. However, there still remain many problems especially in validity of the WR and of equation for Q-L relation. (K.H.)

  13. US Public Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinical Services in an Era of Declining Public Health Funding: 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Heyer, Kate; Peterman, Thomas A; Habel, Melissa A; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Arnold Pang, Stephanie S; Stenger, Mark R; Weiss, Gretchen; Gift, Thomas L

    2017-08-01

    We examined the infrastructure for US public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinical services. In 2013 to 2014, we surveyed 331 of 1225 local health departments (LHDs) who either reported providing STD testing/treatment in the 2010 National Profile of Local Health Departments survey or were the 50 local areas with the highest STD cases or rates. The sample was stratified by jurisdiction population size. We examined the primary referral clinics for STDs, the services offered and the impact of budget cuts (limited to government funding only). Data were analyzed using SAS, and analyses were weighted for nonresponse. Twenty-two percent of LHDs cited a specialty STD clinic as their primary referral for STD services; this increased to 53.5% of LHDs when combination STD-family planning clinics were included. The majority of LHDs (62.8%) referred to clinics providing same-day services. Sexually transmitted disease clinics more frequently offered extragenital testing for chlamydia and/or gonorrhea (74.7%) and gonorrhea culture (68.5%) than other clinics (52.9%, 46.2%, respectively; P < 0.05). The majority of LHDs (61.5%) reported recent budget cuts. Of those with decreased budgets, the most common impacts were fewer clinic hours (42.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 24.4-61.2), reduced routine screening (40.2%; 95% CI, 21.7-58.8) and reductions in partner services (42.1%; 95% CI, 23.6-60.7). One quarter of those with reduced STD budgets increased fees or copays for clients. Findings demonstrate gaps and reductions in US public STD services including clinical services that play an important role in reducing disease transmission. Furthermore, STD clinics tended to offer more specialized STD services than other public clinics.

  14. Equity and adequacy of international donor assistance for global malaria control: an analysis of populations at risk and external funding commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Robert W; Okiro, Emelda A; Gething, Peter W; Atun, Rifat; Hay, Simon I

    2010-10-23

    Financing for malaria control has increased as part of international commitments to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We aimed to identify the unmet financial needs that would be biologically and economically equitable and would increase the chances of reaching worldwide malaria-control ambitions. Populations at risk of stable Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax transmission were calculated for 2007 and 2009 for 93 malaria-endemic countries to measure biological need. National per-person gross domestic product (GDP) was used to define economic need. An analysis of external donor assistance for malaria control was done for the period 2002-09 to compute overall and annualised per-person at-risk-funding commitments. Annualised malaria donor assistance was compared with independent predictions of funding needed to reach international targets of 80% coverage of best practices in case-management and effective disease prevention. Countries were ranked in relation to biological, economic, and unmet needs to examine equity and adequacy of support by 2010. International financing for malaria control has increased by 166% (from $0·73 billion to $1·94 billion) since 2007 and is broadly consistent with biological needs. African countries have become major recipients of external assistance; however, countries where P vivax continues to pose threats to control ambitions are not as well funded. 21 countries have reached adequate assistance to provide a comprehensive suite of interventions by 2009, including 12 countries in Africa. However, this assistance was inadequate for 50 countries representing 61% of the worldwide population at risk of malaria-including ten countries in Africa and five in Asia that coincidentally are some of the poorest countries. Approval of donor funding for malaria control does not correlate with GDP. Funding for malaria control worldwide is 60% lower than the US$4·9 billion needed for comprehensive control in 2010; this includes

  15. Explaining public support for space exploration funding in America: A multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, François

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies have identified the need to understand what shapes public attitudes toward space policy. I address this gap in the literature by developing a multivariate regression model explaining why many Americans support government spending on space exploration. Using pooled data from the 2006 and 2008 General Social Surveys, the study reveals that spending preferences on space exploration are largely apolitical and associated instead with knowledge and opinions about science. In particular, the odds of wanting to increase funding for space exploration are significantly higher for white, male Babyboomers with a higher socio-economic status, a fondness for organized science, and a post-secondary science education. As such, I argue that public support for NASA's spending epitomizes what Launius termed "Apollo Nostalgia" in American culture. That is, Americans benefitting most from the old social order of the 1960s developed a greater fondness for science that makes them more likely to lament the glory days of space exploration. The article concludes with suggestions for how to elaborate on these findings in future studies.

  16. Social inequalities in the organization of pregnancy care in a universally funded public health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Georgina; Yelland, Jane; Brown, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    To examine the social organization of pregnancy care and the extent to which socioeconomic factors affect women's experience of care. We consider these data in the global discussion on taking action to reduce health inequalities. This study draws on cross-sectional data from a large population-based survey of Australian women 6 months after giving birth. Only those women reporting to attend publically-funded models of antenatal care (i.e., public clinic, midwife clinic, shared care, primary medical care, primary midwife care) were included in analyses. Results showed a social patterning in the organization and experience of care with clear links between model of care attended in pregnancy and a number of individual-level indicators of social disadvantage. Our findings show model of care is a salient feature in how women view their care. How women from socially disadvantaged backgrounds navigate available care options are important considerations. Pregnancy care is recognized as an opportunity to intervene to give children 'the best start in life.' Our data show the current system of universally accessible pregnancy care in Australia is failing to support the most vulnerable women and families. This information can inform actions to reduce social disparities during this critical period.

  17. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM OF PUBLIC OFF-BUDGET FUNDS AS AN INFORMATIONAL BASIS FOR PUBLIC INSURANCE MECHANISMS FORMATION (CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL COMPULSORY MEDICAL INSURANCE FUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly A. Kozlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies the introduced proposals for a management accounting of theFederal Compulsory Medical InsuranceFund formation and the characteristics and principles of management accounting forms for the analysis of the territorialcompulsory medical insurance programs.

  18. Formula-Based Public School Funding System in Victoria: An Empirical Analysis of Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Bandara

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the formula-based school funding system in the state of Victoria, Australia, where state funds are directly allocated to schools based on a range of equity measures. The impact of Victoria' funding system for education in terms of alleviating inequality and disadvantage is contentious, to say the least. It is difficult to…

  19. Patient organizations' funding from pharmaceutical companies: is disclosure clear, complete and accessible to the public? An Italian survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Colombo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many patients' and consumers' organizations accept drug industry funding to support their activities. As drug companies and patient groups move closer, disclosure become essential for transparency, and the internet could be a useful means of making sponsorship information accessible to the public. This survey aims to assess the transparency of a large group of Italian patient and consumer groups and a group of pharmaceutical companies, focusing on their websites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patient and consumer groups were selected from those stated to be sponsored by a group of pharmaceutical companies on their websites. The websites were examined using two forms with principal (name of drug companies providing funds, amount of funding and secondary indicators of transparency (section where sponsors are disclosed, update of sponsorship. Principal indicators were applied independently by two reviewers to the patient and consumer groups' websites. Discordances were solved by discussion. One hundred fifty-seven Italian patient and consumer groups and 17 drug companies were considered. Thirteen drug companies (76% named at least one group funded, on their Italian websites. Of these, four (31% indicated the activities sponsored and two (15% the amount of funding. Of the 157 patient and consumer groups, 46 (29% named at least one pharmaceutical company as providing funds. Three (6% reported the amount of funding, 25 (54% the activities funded, none the proportion of income derived from drug companies. Among the groups naming pharmaceutical company sponsors, 15 (33% declared them in a dedicated section, five (11% on the home page, the others in the financial report or other sections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Disclosure of funds is scarce on Italian patient and consumer groups' websites. The levels of transparency need to be improved. Disclosure of patient and consumer groups provided with funds is frequent on Italian pharmaceutical

  20. DEBTS (PUBLIC AND EXTERNAL AND GROWTH – LINK OR NO LINK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Šimić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history the world has been faced by high debts, with the recent global financial crisis intensifying the issue of increasing indebtedness (with respect to both public and external debts, especially in the light of sovereign debt crisis that some countries have been subject to recently. This paper explores the debt levels in Central, East and Southeast Europe and investigates their relation with growth. We use annual data on debts and growth from the WIIW database (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies and World Development Indicators (World Bank on 18 countries. By employing econometric analysis in the form of dynamic panel data analysis our investigation contributes to the literature by covering the recently very hot issue of the dangers of high indebtedness in the region of Central, East and Southeast Europe. Our findings send a strong warning about the need to keep the debts under control.

  1. Public funding for medical research in relation to the burden of disease caused by cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Manuel; Dufner, Vera; Wagner, Martin; Gelbrich, Götz; Ertl, Georg; Heuschmann, Peter U

    2018-04-13

    Public funding for medical research in Germany is primarily provided by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The aim of this study was to analyze the amount of national public funding for medical research on predominant causes of death in Germany, cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in relation to the burden of these diseases in Germany. Three evaluators categorized medical research projects funded by the DFG or BMBF between 2010 and 2012 into the categories "Diseases of the circulatory system" (with subgroups "Ischemic heart diseases", "Heart failure" and "Cerebrovascular diseases") and "Neoplasms". The total amount of public funding by the national agencies was analyzed in relation to the burden of disease for the respective disease condition. Information on national public funding for medical research of 2091 million euros was available; of those, 246.8 million euros (11.8%) were categorized being spent for research on "Neoplasms", 118.4 million euros (5.7%) for research on "Diseases of the circulatory system". This results in 362.08 euros per case of death, 16.58 euros per year of life lost (YLL) and 16.04 euros per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) for "Neoplasms" and in 113.44 euros per case of death, 8.05 euros per YLL and 7.17 euros per DALY for "Diseases of the circulatory system". In Germany, research on cardiovascular diseases receives a lower share of national public funding for medical research compared to oncological research. These results are comparable to other European countries.

  2. The transition to medication adoption in publicly funded substance use disorder treatment programs: organizational structure, culture, and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M

    2014-05-01

    Medications for the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs) are not widely available in publicly funded SUD treatment programs. Few studies have drawn on longitudinal data to examine the organizational characteristics associated with programs transitioning from not delivering any pharmacotherapy to adopting at least one SUD medication. Using two waves of panel longitudinal data collected over a 5-year period, we measured the transition to medication adoption in a cohort of 190 publicly funded treatment organizations that offered no SUD medications at baseline. Independent variables included organizational characteristics, medical resources, funding, treatment culture, and detailing activities by pharmaceutical companies. Of 190 programs not offering SUD pharmacotherapy at baseline, 22.6% transitioned to offering at least one SUD medication at follow-up approximately 5 years later. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that the employment of at least one physician at baseline, having a greater proportion of Medicaid clients, and pharmaceutical detailing were positively associated with medication adoption. Adoption of pharmacotherapy was more likely in programs that had greater medical resources, Medicaid funding, and contact with pharmaceutical companies. Given the potential expansion of Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act, patients served by publicly funded programs may gain greater access to such treatments, but research is needed to document health reform's impact on this sector of the treatment system.

  3. PUBLIC CONTROL UNDER SUSPECTED: A REFLECTION ON THE STRUCTURE OF COURTS OF ACCOUNT AND THE EFFICIENCY OF EXTERNAL CONTROL ON THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristella Barros Ferreira de Freitas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The external control in Brazil is constitutional attribution of the legislative power, with the assistance of the Courts of Accounts and aims to oversee the public administration regarding legality, impersonality, morality, efficiency and others. This type of control presupposes a public management, in all areas, proba and efficient, that attends to the yearnings of the society. However, the current news about corruption investigations in the Brazilian public administration indicates that there are flaws in the external control carried out by the Audit Courts. For the relevance of the question, this article intends to investigate the causes of this inefficiency and the alternatives that present to correct it.

  4. Reforms are needed to increase public funding and curb demand for private care in Israel's health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, Dov

    2013-04-01

    Historically, the Israeli health care system has been considered a high-performance system, providing universal, affordable, high-quality care to all residents. However, a decline in the ratio of physicians to population that reached a modern low in 2006, an approximate ten-percentage-point decline in the share of publicly financed health care between 1995 and 2009, and legislative mandates that favored private insurance have altered Israel's health care system for the worse. Many Israelis now purchase private health insurance to supplement the state-sponsored universal care coverage, and they end up spending more out of pocket even for services covered by the entitlement. Additionally, many publicly paid physicians moonlight at private facilities to earn more money. In this article I recommend that Israel increase public funding for health care and adopt reforms to address the rising demand for privately funded care and the problem of publicly paid physicians who moonlight at private facilities.

  5. Public Funding and Budgetary Challenges to Providing Universal Access to Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwami, Edith Mukudi; Keller, Edmond J.

    2010-01-01

    Budgetary capacity that would allow for the public funding of the provision of universal access to primary education is lacking in many sub-Saharan economies. National revenues significantly lag behind the overall economic productivity measure of GDP. Analysis of data derived from UNESCO and UNDP for 2004 shows that governments in the region spend…

  6. Perceived external prestige as a mediator between quality of work life and organisational commitment of public sector employees in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ojedokun, Oluyinka; Idemudia, Erhabor S.; Desouza, Mercy

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: Research efforts have been directed at understanding the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment, but these studies have not elucidated the mediating role of perceived external prestige in this relationship. Research purpose: This research seeks to close a research gap by determining the role of perceived external prestige in the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment amongst public sector employees in Ghana. ...

  7. League of Women Voters Education Fund providing a forum for public information and participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, E.

    1993-01-01

    In March of 1992, the League of Women Voters Education Fund (LWVEF) signed a five-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide American citizens with information and training on the management and clean up of nuclear waste from both civilian and defense sources. During Year 1 of the agreement the LWVEF updated The Nuclear Waste Primer: A Citizens Handbook. Activities in Year 2 of the agreement will include: (1) Oversight of the project by an Advisory Committee; (2) A national Train-the-Trainers Conference; (3) Grants to state and local Leagues for model community education projects; (4) Publication of Taking Nuclear Waste Issues to the Village Square, a discussion leader's guide on organizing community education programs on nuclear wastes issues and a magazine article on defense waste issues in the the National Voter, the membership magazine of the League of Women Voters of the United States; and (5) Technical assistance to Leagues and other organizations via a Citizen's Nuclear Waste Clearinghouse

  8. Perceived external prestige as a mediator between quality of work life and organisational commitment of public sector employees in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyinka Ojedokun

    2015-04-01

    Research purpose: This research seeks to close a research gap by determining the role of perceived external prestige in the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment amongst public sector employees in Ghana. Research approach, design and method: Theoretically guided hypotheses and models were formulated and tested with hierarchical multiple regression statistics using data from a sample of 137 employees from two public sector organisations in Ghana. Main findings: The results support the hypothesis that quality of work life is positively related to both perceived external prestige and organisational commitment. Also, perceived external prestige was found to predict organisational commitment and partially mediate the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment. Practical/managerial implications: The findings imply that one sure way to enhance organisational commitment of employees is by improving their quality of work life and boosting their perceptions of external prestige of the organisation. These results will be of particular interest to policymakers, public organisations and stakeholders interested in increasing organisational commitment of their employees. Contribution/value-add: The findings extend previous research by establishing the mediating role of perceived external prestige in the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment. If managers of organisations wish to improve organisational commitment, it is wise to institutionalise an organisational culture that promotes good quality of work life and boost the external prestige of the organisation in the employees’ mind.

  9. Objectives and actions of Public Health Authorities in external radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera V, L.; Aguilar P, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Here are discussed actions and objectives that the public health authorities could think about uncontrolled liberation of radioactive materials. The approaches on the more convenient actions to continue are established upon assimilating the Chernobyl experience. We will enumerate problems that, they could arise with the foregone actions in order to diminish the population detriment. In the face of the uncontrolled liberation of radioactive material in the Nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, Veracruz, classified like external radiological emergency, the objective of these serious authorities reduce the deleterious effect to the health of the inhabitants around the CNLV, due to the radioactive material liberated to the atmosphere. In consequence, it is necessary carry out actions of protection for the population affected directly by the external irradiation, for the contamination deposited on inhabited areas, cultivation zones, shepherding, manufacturing and farms. The early actions or immediate are in order to limit deterministic damages to the population and give attendance to people with radio lesions. And the intermediate or they of recuperation are in order to maintain for under an acceptable value the risk to the population due to radiation stochastic effects. In the recuperation phase the plan of water and foods control should consider: foods destined to the self consume in the affected region for the liberation and foods processed for the sale or exportation. We will discuss the stage in a mediate phase after the evacuation of the population. The general tasks could be: 1. Actions in order to impede the contamination propagation. 2. Sampling of waters and foods, contamination situation and its quantification. And acceptance quality in elaborated foods. 3. Safeguard of the material and polluted areas. 4. Election of the actions to continue in function of the reference levels and the comparison of the risk of several alternatives. (Author)

  10. Effectiveness of a publicly-funded demonstration program to promote management of dryland salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, M J; Measham, T G; Batchelor, G; George, R; Kingwell, R; Hosking, K

    2009-07-01

    Community and catchment-based approaches to salinity management continue to attract interest in Australia. In one such approach, Catchment Demonstration Initiative (CDI) projects were established by the Western Australian (WA) Government in 2000 for targeted investment in large-scale catchment-based demonstrations of integrated salinity management practices. The aim was to promote a process for technically-informed salinity management by landholders. This paper offers an evaluation of the effectiveness of one CDI project in the central wheatbelt of WA, covering issues including: its role in fostering adoption of salinity management options, the role of research and the technical requirements for design and implementation of on-ground works, the role of monitoring and evaluation, the identification and measurement of public and private benefits, comparison and identification of the place and value of plant-based and engineering-based options, reliance on social processes and impacts of constraints on capacity, management of governance and administration requirements and an appreciation of the value of group-based approaches. A number of factors may reduce the effectiveness of CDI-type approaches in facilitating landholder action to address salinity, many of these are socially-based. Such approaches can create considerable demands on landholders, can be expensive (because of the planning and accountability required) on the basis of dollars per hectare impacted, and can be difficult to garner ownership from all involved. An additional problem could be that few community groups would have the capacity to run such programs and disseminate the new knowledge so that the CDI-type projects can impact outside the focus catchment. In common with many publicly-funded approaches to salinity, we found that direct benefits on public assets are smaller than planned and that results from science-based requirements of monitoring and evaluation have long lead times, causing farmers

  11. Public funding of health at the district level in Indonesia after decentralization-sources, flows and contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Peter; Harahap, Nida P

    2009-04-16

    During the Suharto era public funding of health in Indonesia was low and the health services were tightly controlled by the central government; district health staff had practically no discretion over expenditure. Following the downfall of President Suharto there was a radical political, administrative and fiscal decentralization with delivery of services becoming the responsibility of district governments. In addition, public funding for health services more than doubled between 2001 and 2006. It was widely expected that services would improve as district governments now had both more adequate funds and the responsibility for services. To date there has been little improvement in services. Understanding why services have not improved requires careful study of what is happening at the district level. We collected information on public expenditure on health services for the fiscal year 2006 in 15 districts in Java, Indonesia from the district health offices and district hospitals. Data obtained in the districts were collected by three teams, one for each province. Information on district government revenues were obtained from district public expenditure databases maintained by the World Bank using data from the Ministry of Finance. The public expenditure information collected in 15 districts as part of this study indicates district governments are reliant on the central government for as much as 90% of their revenue; that approximately half public expenditure on health is at the district level; that at least 40% of district level public expenditure on health is for personnel, almost all of them permanent civil servants; and that districts may have discretion over less than one-third of district public expenditure on health; the extent of discretion over spending is much higher in district hospitals than in the district health office and health centers. There is considerable variation between districts. In contrast to the promise of decentralization there has been

  12. 78 FR 76160 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS) Capital Fund Interim Scoring Notice: Reinstitution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... System (PHAS) Capital Fund Interim Scoring Notice: Reinstitution of Five Points for Occupancy Sub... intended to help lessen the impact of decreases in funding in recent appropriations acts. Adding automatic... to adjust their systems and procedures to the new scoring regime. As a result of automatic across-the...

  13. Costs of and public funds for Natura 2000 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leneman, H.; Bogaardt, M.J.; Roza, P.

    2009-01-01

    This report offers an estimate of the costs of maintaining or restoring the Natura-2000 network to a favourable status in the Netherlands. Also, an assessment is made of how many financial resources are potentially available to cover these costs from European funds, Dutch State funds and Dutch

  14. Is there a relationship between research sponsorship and publication impact? An analysis of funding acknowledgments in nanotechnology papers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    Full Text Available This study analyzes funding acknowledgments in scientific papers to investigate relationships between research sponsorship and publication impacts. We identify acknowledgments to research sponsors for nanotechnology papers published in the Web of Science during a one-year sample period. We examine the citations accrued by these papers and the journal impact factors of their publication titles. The results show that publications from grant sponsored research exhibit higher impacts in terms of both journal ranking and citation counts than research that is not grant sponsored. We discuss the method and models used, and the insights provided by this approach as well as it limitations.

  15. FINANCING PRO-ECOLOGICAL INVESTMENTS BY PUBLIC FUNDS IN THE LUBUSKIE PROVINCE IN THE YEARS 2009-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin SIKORA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of financing pro-ecological investments by the public funds, basing on the example of Voivodeship Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management in Zielona Góra in the years 2009-2013. It also defines the essence of the implementation of these investments by the regional business sector in terms of the regional development process. Furthermore, apart from providing the compilation of the basic information concerning ecological funds, focusing on the origin, division, and the rules of their functioning, the analysis of the volume of expenditure in the years 2009-2013 has also been performed in the form of individual instruments supporting pro-ecological investments of the business entities in the region of Lubuskie Province. The summary contains the conclusions and forecasts for the coming years.

  16. Education within public management in South Africa: A focus on external Whole-School Evaluation process’ contribution in Mpumalanga province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Siphamandla Ryan Mathaba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the role played by public sector management in South Africa towards the country’s total development and improvement. This article also analyses how through the Whole School Evaluation (WSE process, the education system in South Africa seeks to ensure that the schooling is effective. This paper examines public management, public administration as well as new public management (NPM. The aim is to illustrate a view of how education fits in the broader public management and how the WSE process assists schooling in South Africa and Mpumalanga in particular. This is to ensure that the schooling is effective and contribute towards service delivery and the country’s overall development and improvement. Furthermore, WSE as a process, is viewed through five of NPM undisputable and debatable characteristics of accountability for performance; performance measurement; performance auditing; policy analysis and evaluation; and strategic planning and management. Public management functions and public management principles are discussed from a point of how the WSE process strives to ensure that it complies with these function and principles, and how this compliance benefit school improvement. This paper came to a number of conclusions regarding education within public management from a WSE perspective. Firstly, education through the external WSE process conforms to this principle of New Public Management in that evaluation is aimed at improving the quality of education. Also, the external WSE, as a process, and education in general, through the NPM principles can be performed within public management. Furthermore, external WSE conforms to public management principles as well as Batho Pele principles.

  17. Guided by Principles. Shaping the State of California's Role in K-12 Public School Facility Funding. Full Policy Research Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jeffrey M.; Gross, Liz S.

    2015-01-01

    K-12 public school facilities need regular investment to ensure student health and safety and support educational programming. Yet, the future of K-12 school facility funding in California is uncertain. A strong state-local partnership has existed that funded new construction, modernization, and other investments in public school facilities across…

  18. Effects of Funding Sources on Access to Quality Higher Education in Public Universities in Kenya: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mutinda Mutiso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, Kenya has witnessed an exponential growth of students’ enrolment in its public universities and an oscillatory government funding in these institutions precipitating quality concerns by employers on the skills of the graduates to meet industry needs. In education finance, the sources of funds and the size of the resources are key determinants of quality education. The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between various funding sources and access to quality education in Kenya public universities using a case approach. The data collection instruments used were an interview guide, a focus group discussion guide, a student’s survey questionnaire and secondary document analysis. Data was collected from October to December 2014 in the case university from a sample population of 10 top university management staff, 36 heads of department (HoDs and 400 undergraduate students. The study employed the education production function as a basic model of the study. The validity of the data collection instruments was established through scrutiny by thesis supervisors and the reliability test of the students’ questionnaire returned a cronbach alpha of 0.88. F-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA methods were used with aid of the statistical package for social science (SPSS version 2.0.The conclusion of the study was that, the sources of funds had a positive effect on quality though the results were not significant, while government capitation, tuition and other sources of funds were significantly important for the access of quality of education in the institution (P =0.30, P = 0.018, P = 0.000. The study recommended the adoption of performance based funding to enhance quality in higher education.

  19. Gene by Environment Research to Prevent Externalizing Problem Behavior : Ethical Questions Raised from a Public Healthcare Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chhangur, Rabia R.; Weeland, Joyce; Matthys, Walter; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2015-01-01

    The main public health advantages of examining gene by environment interactions (i.e., G x E) in externalizing behavior lie in the realm of personalized interventions. Nevertheless, the incorporation of genetic data in randomized controlled trials is fraught with difficulties and raises ethical

  20. Gene by environment research to prevent externalizing problem behavior: Ethical questions raised from a public healthcare perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chhangur, R.R.; Weeland, J.; Matthys, W.; Overbeek, G.

    2015-01-01

    The main public health advantages of examining gene by environment interactions (i.e., G × E) in externalizing behavior lie in the realm of personalized interventions. Nevertheless, the incorporation of genetic data in randomized controlled trials is fraught with difficulties and raises ethical

  1. Plan to increase public access to the results of Federally-funded scientific research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-16

    This plan is issued in response to the February 22, 2013 Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies entitled Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Researc...

  2. Principles for Private and Public Internalisation of Externalities. A Synoptic View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Externalities represent a market failure situation and they appear when one person´s activities influence other person´s welfare in a way that is outside the market mechanism. In contrast to the effects transmitted by market prices, externalities negatively affect the economic efficiency. They arise in everyday life and are noticed only if the effects are obvious. Ronald Coase´s approach started from the premises that externalities can be internalized. His model provides private sector means to defend against market failure. Coase´s solution to internalize externalities based on negotiation between the involved parties, given the property rights, has influenced the free market approach of market failures and today many economists consider that governments should work with the market and not against it using taxes and regulations. In the mainstream literature it is said that if for small local externalities the private sector can find solutions to solve problems, big scale externalities, such as global warming, need government intervention. As far as the last ones are concerned, we can talk about: a the Pigouvian tax, which is a tax levied on polluting activities; b the Pigouvian subsidy, given to those who suffer from negative externalities; c the subsidy paid to individuals or firms to conduct activities with positive externalities; d legal regulations, such as limits for emitting polluters and restrictions regarding the time of day or year when negative externalities can be legally produced.

  3. 78 FR 32296 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Second Allocation of Public... disaster that affects public transportation systems. The Disaster Relief Appropriations Act provides $10.9... projected total recovery costs for the four most severely affected public transportation systems, not...

  4. 78 FR 19357 - Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Allocation of Public Transportation...) announces the allocation of $2,000,000,000 under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program... after an emergency or major disaster that affects public transportation systems. The Appropriations Act...

  5. Public Claims about Automatic External Defibrillators: An Online Consumer Opinions Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Julie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients are no longer passive recipients of health care, and increasingly engage in health communications outside of the traditional patient and health care professional relationship. As a result, patient opinions and health related judgements are now being informed by a wide range of social, media, and online information sources. Government initiatives recognise self-delivery of health care as a valuable means of responding to the anticipated increased global demand for health resources. Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs, designed for the treatment of Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA, have recently become available for 'over the counter' purchase with no need for a prescription. This paper explores the claims and argumentation of lay persons and health care practitioners and professionals relating to these, and how these may impact on the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home context. Methods We carry out a thematic content analysis of a novel form of Internet-based data: online consumer opinions of AED devices posted on Amazon.com, the world's largest online retailer. A total of #83 online consumer reviews of home AEDs are analysed. The analysis is both inductive, identifying themes that emerged from the data, exploring the parameters of public debate relating to these devices, and also driven by theory, centring around the parameters that may impact upon the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home as indicated by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. Results Five high-level themes around which arguments for and against the adoption of home AEDs are identified and considered in the context of TAM. These include opinions relating to device usability, usefulness, cost, emotional implications of device ownership, and individual patient risk status. Emotional implications associated with AED acceptance, adoption and use emerged as a notable factor that is not currently reflected

  6. Public claims about automatic external defibrillators: an online consumer opinions study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Arthur G; Barnett, Julie; Kuljis, Jasna

    2011-05-18

    Patients are no longer passive recipients of health care, and increasingly engage in health communications outside of the traditional patient and health care professional relationship. As a result, patient opinions and health related judgements are now being informed by a wide range of social, media, and online information sources. Government initiatives recognise self-delivery of health care as a valuable means of responding to the anticipated increased global demand for health resources. Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs), designed for the treatment of Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA), have recently become available for 'over the counter' purchase with no need for a prescription. This paper explores the claims and argumentation of lay persons and health care practitioners and professionals relating to these, and how these may impact on the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home context. We carry out a thematic content analysis of a novel form of Internet-based data: online consumer opinions of AED devices posted on Amazon.com, the world's largest online retailer. A total of #83 online consumer reviews of home AEDs are analysed. The analysis is both inductive, identifying themes that emerged from the data, exploring the parameters of public debate relating to these devices, and also driven by theory, centring around the parameters that may impact upon the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home as indicated by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Five high-level themes around which arguments for and against the adoption of home AEDs are identified and considered in the context of TAM. These include opinions relating to device usability, usefulness, cost, emotional implications of device ownership, and individual patient risk status. Emotional implications associated with AED acceptance, adoption and use emerged as a notable factor that is not currently reflected within the existing TAM. The value, credibility and

  7. About DNA databasing and investigative genetic analysis of externally visible characteristics: A public survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Martin; Utz, Silvia

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade, DNA profiling and the use of DNA databases have become two of the most employed instruments of police investigations. This very rapid establishment of forensic genetics is yet far from being complete. In the last few years novel types of analyses have been presented to describe phenotypically a possible perpetrator. We conducted the present study among German speaking Swiss residents for two main reasons: firstly, we aimed at getting an impression of the public awareness and acceptance of the Swiss DNA database and the perception of a hypothetical DNA database containing all Swiss residents. Secondly, we wanted to get a broader picture of how people that are not working in the field of forensic genetics think about legal permission to establish phenotypic descriptions of alleged criminals by genetic means. Even though a significant number of study participants did not even know about the existence of the Swiss DNA database, its acceptance appears to be very high. Generally our results suggest that the current forensic use of DNA profiling is considered highly trustworthy. However, the acceptance of a hypothetical universal database would be only as low as about 30% among the 284 respondents to our study, mostly because people are concerned about the security of their genetic data, their privacy or a possible risk of abuse of such a database. Concerning the genetic analysis of externally visible characteristics and biogeographical ancestry, we discover a high degree of acceptance. The acceptance decreases slightly when precise characteristics are presented to the participants in detail. About half of the respondents would be in favor of the moderate use of physical traits analyses only for serious crimes threatening life, health or sexual integrity. The possible risk of discrimination and reinforcement of racism, as discussed by scholars from anthropology, bioethics, law, philosophy and sociology, is mentioned less frequently by the study

  8. THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND BUDGETARY FUNDING OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. CASE STUDY: INSTITUTIONS FINANCED BY THE LOCAL COUNCIL OF GALATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Riana Iren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Full of reforms, accounting science always tried to approach the concerned user requirements as return on capital employed and the complete picture of the operations that occurred during the financial year. For public sector entities, international financial reporting practices are referring to International Accounting Standards for the Public Sector (IPSAS. In this paper we intend to present a parallel between International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and IPSAS conjunction with the main aspects of budgetary lending highlighted through a case study aimed at the budget-funded institutions Galati Local Council in 2011-2013.

  9. Preferences, power and policy outcomes in public policy in Iceland: The Icelandic Housing Fund fiasco 2003-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurbjörg Sigurgeirsdóttir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the interplay of politics, bureaucracies and markets in Iceland. It aims to explain theoretically how politics and bureaucracies operate when a coalition government makes and implements decisions in a policy environment in which decisions and their effects intersect public bureaucracies’ and markets’ boundaries. The decision to raise the limits of Housing Fund mortgages in 2003 is a case examined by agenda-setting theories in public policy. The research is based on the data from parliamentary Special Investigation reports on the collapse of the Icelandic banks and the Housing Fund as well as the author’s interviews home and abroad. The research shows that, when made, the decision ignited competition between the Housing Fund and the recently privatized banks and that between the banks themselves. The Independence Party’s attempts to delay implementation of the decision involved system change backed by an instrument designed to stem a run on the Fund. The impact of this instrument (a tax on pre-payments was incompatible with the Progressive Party’s political interests. In a hasty attempt to implement its election promises, the Progressive Party ignored the fact that the Fund was operating within a transformed financial system. The conclusions indicate that those who think long-term in politics make policies by changing system dynamics, those who think short-term change programmes. System dynamics, however, change the balance of power and influence between actors, leaving legacies which curb the government’s attempt at change, unless consolidated and sustained political authority and will are established to see changes through.

  10. [Funding, public spending and management of health resources: the current situation in a Brazilian state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Valéria Rodrigues; Lima, Kenio Costa; de Vasconcelos, Cipriano Maia

    2012-07-01

    This article investigates the issue of funding and the decentralization process in order to examine the composition, application and management of resources in the healthcare area. The sample surveyed involved 14 municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The research involved data gathering of financial transfers, the municipality's own resources and primary healthcare expenses. Management analysis included a survey of local managers and counselors. It was seen that the Unified Health System is funded mainly by federal transfers and municipal revenues and to a far lesser extent by state resources. Funds have been applied predominantly in primary healthcare. The management process saw centralization of actions in the city governments. Municipal secretarial offices and councils comply partially with legislation, though they have problems with autonomy and social control. The results show that planning and management instruments are limited, due to the contradictions inherent to the institutional, political and cultural context of the region.

  11. RESEARCH ON PROBLEMS WITH PROJECTS AND PARTNERSHIPS THAT PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE CENTRE REGION FACED IN ACCESSING EUROPEAN FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRASCU DANUT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available European project management is the main filed of the article. Assuming a connection between the degree of absorption of European funds and the degree of maturity of the Romanian society in terms of project management, the article seeks to identify the negative factors on accessing and carrying out European projects. The identified problem is a low degree of absorption of European funds in Romania, and the main objective of the research is to identify the problems faced by the public institutions in the Centre Region in accessing European funds and also the causes that led to the low absorption of European funds. This article’s research is based on a preliminary analysis performed by the authors on the rate of accessing of European funds published in the article called “The current state of European funds absorption through funding programmes – measure of the Romanian performances in the project management practice”. The conclusion of this article was a low rate of absorption of European funds in Romania, a fact that reveals a poor practice of the theory on project management. This article identifies part of the causes of this situation by identifying a part of the problems that stood in the way of beneficiaries of European funds The qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in combination in the research. The investigation has however a highly quantitative character, the purpose of the qualitative research being to provide the prerequisites for achieving the quantitative research. The interview-based qualitative research enabled the researcher to get acquainted with the subjects’ problems related to the theme of investigation, the causes that have generated these problems. This preliminary investigation to the questionnaire-based research aims to provide information that would help the researcher prepare the questionnaire, so that the questions allow getting the most comprehensive information to

  12. How You Pay Determines What You Get: Alternative Financing Options as a Determinant of Publicly Funded Health Care in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Kneebone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Canadian returning home from a visit to a physician has no idea of the cost of providing the service just received. This is true for two reasons. One is because he or she does not receive a bill to pay. The other reason has to do the myriad of ways provincial governments fund the provision of health care. Health care is financed by a wide variety of types of taxation, by intergovernmental transfers determined by opaque and changing rules, by borrowing against future taxes and by drawing down savings. Confusion over how health care is funded creates a fiscal illusion that it is cheaper than it really is; a fiscal illusion that grows larger the less provincial governments rely on taxing individuals. In this paper it is shown that when provincial health spending is financed in ways other than taxation, it grows two to three times more quickly than it would have otherwise. From 2001-2008 alone, these distortions amounted to $6.75 billion at the national level, draining funds from other government services many of which have been shown to keep Canadians healthier and so reduce their demand for health care. Simply put, when Canadians are clear about the true cost of health care they more effectively play the traditional role of consumers by guarding against waste and inefficiency and so contribute to a more efficient and effective publicly-funded health care system.

  13. Impact of Bystander Automated External Defibrillator Use on Survival and Functional Outcomes in Shockable Observed Public Cardiac Arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Ross A; Brown, Siobhan P; Rea, Thomas; Aufderheide, Tom; Barbic, David; Buick, Jason E; Christenson, James; Idris, Ahamed H; Jasti, Jamie; Kampp, Michael; Kudenchuk, Peter; May, Susanne; Muhr, Marc; Nichol, Graham; Ornato, Joseph P; Sopko, George; Vaillancourt, Christian; Morrison, Laurie; Weisfeldt, Myron

    2018-02-26

    Background - Survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with shockable rhythms can be improved with early defibrillation. Although shockable OHCA accounts for only ≈25% of overall arrests, ≈60% of public OHCAs are shockable, offering the possibility of restoring thousands of individuals to full recovery with early defibrillation by bystanders. We sought to determine the association of bystander automated external defibrillator use with survival and functional outcomes in shockable observed public OHCA. Methods - From 2011 to 2015, the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium prospectively collected detailed information on all cardiac arrests at 9 regional centers. The exposures were shock administration by a bystander-applied automated external defibrillator in comparison with initial defibrillation by emergency medical services. The primary outcome measure was discharge with normal or near-normal (favorable) functional status defined as a modified Rankin Score ≤2. Survival to hospital discharge was the secondary outcome measure. Results -Among 49 555 OHCAs, 4115 (8.3%) observed public OHCAs were analyzed, of which 2500 (60.8%) were shockable. A bystander shock was applied in 18.8% of the shockable arrests. Patients shocked by a bystander were significantly more likely to survive to discharge (66.5% versus 43.0%) and be discharged with favorable functional outcome (57.1% versus 32.7%) than patients initially shocked by emergency medical services. After adjusting for known predictors of outcome, the odds ratio associated with a bystander shock was 2.62 (95% confidence interval, 2.07-3.31) for survival to hospital discharge and 2.73 (95% confidence interval, 2.17-3.44) for discharge with favorable functional outcome. The benefit of bystander shock increased progressively as emergency medical services response time became longer. Conclusions - Bystander automated external defibrillator use before emergency medical services arrival in shockable observed

  14. What the World Bank's shift from public to private funding means for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Something new is afoot at the World Bank. But there's no reason for developing countries to be hopeful that development funding is about to get a much needed fillip after decades of dismal performance and inappropriate policy prescriptions. It's just that Santa Claus will only give gifts to the investor kids from now on.

  15. 75 FR 10561 - Request for Public Comment: Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... contribution to the reserve fund (not less than the premium charges paid by the borrower and the financial..., gross revenues, operating expenses, restricted assets, unrestricted cash and cash equivalents). Should... liabilities); (ii) Positive net income (gross revenues less total expenses) measured on a three-year rolling...

  16. 75 FR 65197 - Use of Public Housing Capital Funds for Financing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ..., lenders cannot view PHAs or their stand-alone projects as market-rate financing, but rather that private.... Response: This CFFP final rule permits PHAs to size their financing either on the project level, or on an... Funds for Financing Activities; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 203 / Thursday...

  17. private placements as sources of long term funds for publicly quoted

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Nigerian capital market by publicly quoted companies. ... their activities in the market. The market provides a ... hybrid securities typically, are marketed to the public by investment bankers on behalf of the ... as a bank or an insurance company.

  18. Public transit design for smart growth : using choice experiments to quantify tradeoffs, values and funding implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Studying public perception of public transportation and the environment in which it operates is crucial to understanding the symbiotic relationship : between transportation and the built environment. This report documents research completed to quanti...

  19. Economic estimation of the external effect on the security of energy and public acceptance for nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Noboru; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    Energy taxes in Japan, i. e., three laws of electric power source, crude oil customs duties and oil taxes, as well as the fuel stock of the power plants have been investigated, and the economical estimation for the nuclear power generation has been carried out from standpoints of the security of energy and public acceptance. For the security, it has been clear that the nuclear power is advanced in internalization of fuel stock by external economy and diversification of electric power source by external diseconomy, but oil and LNG thermal power generation is not sufficiently internalized. None of the power source has paid for the compensation for the risk in public acceptance. The fuel stock for the thermal power is estimated to be for about one week to a month, whereas nuclear power plants have a potential stock that lasts for 3 years. The external effect could go up to 35 billion yen if it is converted to fuel. The predominance, therefore, of the nuclear power for the security of energy is confirmed. Also, it is presumable that the external cost for the fuel stock, so called, is larger than the one for risk and CO 2 reduction. (author)

  20. Cost-effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy for mental disorders: implications for public health care funding policy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhr, Gail; Payne, Krista

    2006-09-01

    Publicly funded cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for mental disorders is scarce in Canada, despite proven efficacy and guidelines recommending its use. This paper reviews published data on the economic impact of CBT to inform recommendations for current Canadian mental health care funding policy. We searched the literature for economic analyses of CBT in the treatment of mental disorders. We identified 22 health economic studies involving CBT for mood, anxiety, psychotic, and somatoform disorders. Across health care settings and patient populations, CBT alone or in combination with pharmacotherapy represented acceptable value for health dollars spent, with CBT costs offset by reduced health care use. International evidence suggests CBT is cost-effective. Greater access to CBT would likely improve outcomes and result in cost savings. Future research is warranted to evaluate the economic impact of CBT in Canada.

  1. Return on investment: a fuller assessment of the benefits and cost savings of the US publicly funded family planning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jennifer J; Sonfield, Adam; Zolna, Mia R; Finer, Lawrence B

    2014-12-01

    Policy Points: The US publicly supported family planning effort serves millions of women and men each year, and this analysis provides new estimates of its positive impact on a wide range of health outcomes and its net savings to the government. The public investment in family planning programs and providers not only helps women and couples avoid unintended pregnancy and abortion, but also helps many thousands avoid cervical cancer, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, infertility, and preterm and low birth weight births. This investment resulted in net government savings of $13.6 billion in 2010, or $7.09 for every public dollar spent. Each year the United States' publicly supported family planning program serves millions of low-income women. Although the health impact and public-sector savings associated with this program's services extend well beyond preventing unintended pregnancy, they never have been fully quantified. Drawing on an array of survey data and published parameters, we estimated the direct national-level and state-level health benefits that accrued from providing contraceptives, tests for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), Pap tests and tests for human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccinations at publicly supported family planning settings in 2010. We estimated the public cost savings attributable to these services and compared those with the cost of publicly funded family planning services in 2010 to find the net public-sector savings. We adjusted our estimates of the cost savings for unplanned births to exclude some mistimed births that would remain publicly funded if they had occurred later and to include the medical costs for births through age 5 of the child. In 2010, care provided during publicly supported family planning visits averted an estimated 2.2 million unintended pregnancies, including 287,500 closely spaced and 164,190 preterm or low birth weight (LBW) births, 99

  2. External resources in Libraries: the practice of Fundraising in the State Public Library in Cáceres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Pérez Pulido

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundraising is presented as a technique of marketing and communication for managing external resources in libraries. The convergence of the fundraising plan and conceptual planning model can prove the importance of fundraising as a planning tool. From the analysis of a case study, Caceres Public Library, are made some improvements to consolidate this practice as an essential element of the planning libraries.

  3. Location of cardiac arrest in a city center: strategic placement of automated external defibrillators in public locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen; Nielsen, Søren Loumann

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Public-access defibrillation with automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is being implemented in many countries worldwide with considerable financial implications. The potential benefit and economic consequences of focused or unfocused AED deployment are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS......: All cardiac arrests in public in Copenhagen, Denmark, from 1994 through 2005 were geographically located, as were 104 public AEDs placed by local initiatives. In accordance with European Resuscitation Council and American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines, areas with a high incidence of cardiac...... arrests were defined as those with 1 cardiac arrest every 2 or 5 years, respectively. There were 1274 cardiac arrests in public locations. According to the European Resuscitation Council or AHA guidelines, AEDs needed to be deployed in 1.2% and 10.6% of the city area, providing coverage for 19.5% (n=249...

  4. Information Access in Rural Areas of the United States: The Public Library's Role in the Digital Divide and the Implications of Differing State Funding Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, individual states have different means of determining and distributing funding. This influences library service and access to information particularly as it pertains to critical Internet access. Funding and service trends have changed, especially as it relates to public libraries, with some modifications working to their…

  5. 25 CFR 26.22 - May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.22 May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan? Yes, Indian tribes...

  6. European External Trade Policy: The Role of Ideas in German Preference Formation - www-publication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the literature examining European Union external trade policy, the relative influence of the Commission, the member states and interest groups are an issue of ongoing debate. This article will argue that member states can still play an important role and that a focus on member state preferences

  7. External Debt and Public Investment in Education in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    1990-01-01

    Worsening economic conditions, reflected in mounting external debt, debt service, and structural adjustment processes have forced governments to reveal their expenditure priorities, which are largely against human capital investment activities like education. This paper examines this phenomenon, using cross-country data for Sub-Saharan Africa.…

  8. Practical implications of the ICRP - Publication 26 on the neutron external monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, G.-M.A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: radiation monitoring (monitoring of the work place, individual monitoring, application of models to the interpretation of the monitoring results, monitoring complementary functions); monitoring of the work place for the external neutronic radiation (a project for a monitoring program, interpretation of the results) and confidence quality. (M.A.) [pt

  9. Circulation Policies for External Users: A Comparative Study of Public Urban Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weare, William H., Jr.; Stevenson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This article is a study of the policies that govern the use of the university library by external users at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) and 12 peer institutions used by IUPUI for comparative purposes. A search of each institution's Web site was conducted as well as interviews with circulation librarians and managers.…

  10. The Management of Publicly Funded Regional Universities during Times of Fiscal Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Philip Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Strategic financial management is being redefined as a result of the ongoing fiscal challenges facing the nation's public colleges and universities. The Great Recession reached its peak in 2009 and the era of "business as usual" for public higher education quickly faded. A "new normal" has emerged that is causing leaders to…

  11. Using a public hospital funding model to strengthen a case for improved nutritional care in a cancer setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltong, Anna G; Loeliger, Jenelle M; Steer, Belinda L

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to measure the prevalence of malnutrition risk and assessed malnutrition in patients admitted to a cancer-specific public hospital, and to model the potential hospital funding opportunity associated with implementing routine malnutrition screening. A point-prevalence audit of malnutrition risk and diagnosable malnutrition was conducted. A retrospective audit of hospital funding associated with documented cases of malnutrition was conducted. Audit results were used to estimate annual malnutrition prevalence, associated casemix-based reimbursement potential and the clinical support resources required to adequately identify and treat malnutrition. Sixty-four percent of inpatients were at risk of malnutrition. Of these, 90% were assessed as malnourished. Twelve percent of malnourished patients produced a positive change in the diagnosis-related group (DRG) and increased allocated financial reimbursement. Identifying and diagnosing all cases of malnutrition could contribute an additional AU$413644 reimbursement funding annually. Early identification of malnutrition may expedite appropriate nutritional management and improve patient outcomes in addition to contributing to casemix-based reimbursement funding for health services. A successful business case for additional clinical resources to improve nutritional care was aided by demonstrating the link between malnutrition screening, hospital reimbursements and improved nutritional care. What is known about the topic? It is known that between 20 and 50% of hospital patients are malnourished and oncology patients are 1.7 times more likely to be malnourished than are other hospitalised patients. Despite the existence of practice guidelines for malnutrition screening of at-risk oncology patients, these are not routinely implemented. Identification of malnutrition in hospitalised patients is linked to casemix funding via DRG. Casemix reimbursement for malnutrition can be enhanced if: (1) malnutrition risk is

  12. Recommendations for a uniform assessment of publication bias related to funding source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lent, M. van; Overbeke, J.; Out, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies on publication bias in clinical drug research have been undertaken, particularly on the association between sponsorship and favourable outcomes. However, no standardized methodology for the classification of outcomes and sponsorship has been described. Dissimilarities

  13. Effects of performance-based research funding on publication patterns in the social sciences and humanities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guns, R.; Engels, T.C.E.

    2016-07-01

    Publishing in the social sciences and humanities (SSH) and research evaluation practices are co-evolving. In this paper we present an analysis on how in Flanders the PRFS has shaped and influenced publication practices in the SSH. Our analysis is based on the VABB-SHW, a comprehensive database of research output in the SSH in Flanders. We find that a strong emphasis on WoS publications since 2003 has caused a growth in WoS publications, that is greater than what can be observed in other countries and other fields of science in Flanders. Other mechanisms appear to exist for book publications, which are not indexed in the WoS databases used for the PRFS. (Author)

  14. Interstate Variation in the Use of Fees To Fund K-12 Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmer, Robert W.; Fisher, Ronald C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews state reliance of various user fees in public education; discusses conceptual issues regarding the use of school district user charges; analyzes statewide variations in school district user charges; suggests reasons for observed variations. (Contains 25 references.) (PKP)

  15. Estimation of integrated public risks for nonseismic external events affecting the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, W.S.; robinette, R.J.; Kirchner, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    In essence, this study was envisioned as the ''combination'' of existing accident dose and risk calculations from safety analyses of individual facilities. However, because of the extended time period over which the safety analyses were prepared, calculational assumptions and methodologies differed between the analyses. The scope of this study therefore included the standardization of assumptions and calculations as necessary to insure that the analytical logic was consistent for all the facilities. Each of the nonseismic external events considered in the analyses are addressed in individual sections in this report. In Section 2, extreme straight-line winds are examined. Section 3 addresses tornadoes, and Section 4 addresses other external events [floods, other extreme weather events (lightning, hail, and extremes in temperature or precipitation), vehicle impact, accidents involving adjacent facilities, aircraft impact, and meteorite impact]. Section 5 provides a summary of the general conclusions of the report

  16. Estimating the returns to United Kingdom publicly funded musculoskeletal disease research in terms of net value of improved health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Matthew; Montague, Erin; Pollitt, Alexandra; Guthrie, Susan; Hanney, Stephen; Buxton, Martin; Grant, Jonathan

    2018-01-10

    Building on an approach applied to cardiovascular and cancer research, we estimated the economic returns from United Kingdom public- and charitable-funded musculoskeletal disease (MSD) research that arise from the net value of the improved health outcomes in the United Kingdom. To calculate the economic returns from MSD-related research in the United Kingdom, we estimated (1) the public and charitable expenditure on MSD-related research in the United Kingdom between 1970 and 2013; (2) the net monetary benefit (NMB), derived from the health benefit in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) valued in monetary terms (using a base-case value of a QALY of £25,000) minus the cost of delivering that benefit, for a prioritised list of interventions from 1994 to 2013; (3) the proportion of NMB attributable to United Kingdom research; and (4) the elapsed time between research funding and health gain. The data collected from these four key elements were used to estimate the internal rate of return (IRR) from MSD-related research investments on health benefits. We analysed the uncertainties in the IRR estimate using a one-way sensitivity analysis. Expressed in 2013 prices, total expenditure on MSD-related research from 1970 to 2013 was £3.5 billion, and for the period used to estimate the rate of return, 1978-1997, was £1.4 billion. Over the period 1994-2013 the key interventions analysed produced 871,000 QALYs with a NMB of £16 billion, allowing for the net NHS costs resulting from them and valuing a QALY at £25,000. The proportion of benefit attributable to United Kingdom research was 30% and the elapsed time between funding and impact of MSD treatments was 16 years. Our best estimate of the IRR from MSD-related research was 7%, which is similar to the 9% for CVD and 10% for cancer research. Our estimate of the IRR from the net health gain to public and charitable funding of MSD-related research in the United Kingdom is substantial, and justifies the research investments

  17. Additional funding mechanisms for Public Hospitals in Greece: the case of Chania Mental Health Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentoumis, Anastasios; Mantzoufas, Nikolaos; Kouris, Gavriil; Golna, Christina; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2010-11-10

    To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental) health hospitals. We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania). We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental) hospitals.

  18. Additional funding mechanisms for Public Hospitals in Greece: the case of Chania Mental Health Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golna Christina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental health hospitals. Methods We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania. We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. Results The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Conclusions Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental hospitals.

  19. The paradox of non-evidence based, publicly funded complementary alternative medicine in the English National Health Service: An explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Maria K

    2015-10-01

    Despite the unproven effectiveness of many practices that are under the umbrella term 'complementary alternative medicine' (CAM), there is provision of CAM within the English National Health Service (NHS). Moreover, although the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence was established to promote scientifically validated medicine in the NHS, the paradox of publicly funded, non-evidence based CAM can be explained as linked with government policy of patient choice and specifically patient treatment choice. Patient choice is useful in the political and policy discourse as it is open to different interpretations and can be justified by policy-makers who rely on the traditional NHS values of equity and universality. Treatment choice finds expression in the policy of personalised healthcare linked with patient responsibilisation which finds resonance in the emphasis CAM places on self-care and self-management. More importantly, however, policy-makers also use patient choice and treatment choice as a policy initiative with the objective of encouraging destabilisation of the entrenched healthcare institutions and practices considered resistant to change. This political strategy of system reform has the unintended, paradoxical consequence of allowing for the emergence of non-evidence based, publicly funded CAM in the NHS. The political and policy discourse of patient choice thus trumps evidence based medicine, with patients that demand access to CAM becoming the unwitting beneficiaries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intersystem return on investment in public mental health: Positive externality of public mental health expenditure for the jail system in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Luck, Jeff

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the extent to which increased public mental health expenditures lead to a reduction in jail populations and computes the associated intersystem return on investment (ROI). We analyze unique panel data on 44 U.S. states and D.C. for years 2001-2009. To isolate the intersystem spillover effect, we exploit variations across states and over time within states in per capita public mental health expenditures and average daily jail inmates. Regression models control for a comprehensive set of determinants of jail incarcerations as well as unobserved determinants specific to state and year. Findings show a positive spillover benefit of increased public mental health spending on the jail system: a 10% increase in per capita public inpatient mental health expenditure on average leads to a 1.5% reduction in jail inmates. We also find that the positive intersystem externality of increased public inpatient mental health expenditure is greater when the level of community mental health spending is lower. Similarly, the intersystem spillover effect of community mental health expenditure is larger when inpatient mental health spending is lower. We compute that overall an extra dollar in public inpatient mental health expenditure by a state would yield an intersystem ROI of a quarter dollar for the jail system. There is significant cross-state variation in the intersystem ROI in both public inpatient and community mental health expenditures, and the ROI overall is greater for inpatient mental health spending than for community mental health spending. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Use of fees to fund local public health services in Western Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shila Waritu, A; Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Begay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Recent budget cuts have forced many local health departments (LHDs) to cut staff and services. Setting fees that cover the cost of service provision is one option for continuing to fund certain activities. To describe the use of fees by LHDs in Western Massachusetts and determine whether fees charged cover the cost of providing selected services. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis was used to identify the types of services for which fees are charged and the fee amounts charged. A comparative cost analysis was conducted to compare fees charged with estimated costs of service provision. Fifty-nine LHDs in Western Massachusetts. Number of towns charging fees for selected types of services; minimum, maximum, and mean fee amounts; estimated cost of service provision; number of towns experiencing a surplus or deficit for each service; and average size of deficits experienced. Enormous variation exists both in the types of services for which fees are charged and fee amounts charged. Fees set by most health departments did not cover the cost of service provision. Some fees were set as much as $600 below estimated costs. These results suggest that considerations other than costs of service provision factor into the setting of fees by LHDs in Western Massachusetts. Given their limited and often uncertain funding, LHDs could benefit from examining their fee schedules to ensure that the fee amounts charged cover the costs of providing the services. Cost estimates should include at least the health agent's wage and time spent performing inspections and completing paperwork, travel expenses, and cost of necessary materials.

  2. External control of the public water supply in 29 Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba Moimaz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The fluoridation of public water supplies is considered the most efficient public health measure for dental caries prevention. However, fluoride levels in the public water supply must be kept constant and adequate for the population to gain preventive benefit. The aim of this study was to analyze fluoride levels in the public water supply of 29 Brazilian municipalities during a 48-month period from November 2004 to October 2008. Three collection sites were defined for each source of municipal public water supply. Water samples were collected monthly and analyzed at the Research Laboratory of the Nucleus for Public Health (NEPESCO, Public Health Postgraduate Program, Araçatuba Dental School (UNESP. Of the 6862 samples analyzed, the fluoride levels of 53.5% (n = 3671 were within the recommended parameters, those of 30.4% (n = 2084 were below these parameters, and those of 16.1% (n = 1107 were above recommended values. Samples from the same collection site showed temporal variability in fluoride levels. Variation was also observed among samples from collection sites with different sources within the same municipality. Although 53.5% of the samples contained the recommended fluoride levels, these findings reinforce the importance of monitoring to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis and to achieve the maximum benefit in the prevention of dental caries.

  3. Stated and Revealed Preferences for Funding New High-Cost Cancer Drugs: A Critical Review of the Evidence from Patients, the Public and Payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Tatjana E; Harris, Anthony H; Mahal, Ajay

    2016-06-01

    The growing focus on patient-centred care has encouraged the inclusion of patient and public input into payer drug reimbursement decisions. Yet, little is known about patient/public priorities for funding high-cost medicines, and how they compare to payer priorities applied in public funding decisions for new cancer drugs. The aim was to identify and compare the funding preferences of cancer patients and the general public against the criteria used by payers making cancer drug funding decisions. A thorough review of the empirical, peer-reviewed English literature was conducted. Information sources were PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Business Source Complete, and EconLit. Eligible studies (1) assessed the cancer drug funding preferences of patients, the general public or payers, (2) had pre-defined measures of funding preference, and (3) had outcomes with attributes or measures of 'value'. The quality of included studies was evaluated using a health technology assessment-based assessment tool, followed by extraction of general study characteristics and funding preferences, which were categorized using an established WHO-based framework. Twenty-five preference studies were retrieved (11 quantitative, seven qualitative, seven mixed-methods). Most studies were published from 2005 onward, with the oldest dating back to 1997. Two studies evaluated both patient and public perspectives, giving 27 total funding perspectives (41 % payer, 33 % public, 26 % patients). Of 41 identified funding criteria, payers consider the most (35), the general public considers fewer (23), and patients consider the fewest (12). We identify four unique patient criteria: financial protection, access to medical information, autonomy in treatment decision making, and the 'value of hope'. Sixteen countries/jurisdictions were represented. Our results suggest that (1) payers prioritize efficiency (health gains per dollar), while citizens (patients and the general public) prioritize

  4. UK and European Union public and charitable funding from 2008 to 2013 for bacteriology and antibiotic research in the UK: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragginton, Eilis C; Piddock, Laura J V

    2014-09-01

    Since the 1990s, the number of new antibacterial drugs has plummeted and the number of antibiotic-resistant infections has risen, which has decreased the effective treatment of many disorders, including sepsis. We aimed to assess whether funding for bacteriology and antibiotic research to UK researchers had increased in response to this global crisis. We systematically searched websites and databases of agencies that fund research in the UK to identify publicly and charitably funded projects from financial years 2008 to 2013 within the specialties of bacteriology and antibiotic research. We created a database to identify the projects funded. Grants awarded in euros were converted to pounds sterling (€1=£0·86). We identified 609 projects within the specialty of bacteriology, 196 (32·2%) of which were on antibiotics. Of £13 846·1 million of available research funding, £269·2 million (1·9%) was awarded to bacteriology projects and £95·0 million (0·7%) was awarded for research on antibiotics. Additionally, £181·4 million in European Union (EU) funding was awarded to antibiotic research consortia including researchers based within the UK, including two EU Innovative Medicines Initiative awards, totalling £85·2 million. To increase awareness of who funds antibiotic research and to facilitate priority setting and funding decisions, funding organisations need to be aware of the breadth and depth of present funding as a baseline by which funding from 2014 onwards can be measured and so that informed decisions about the future level of funding can be made. To resolve the crisis of antibiotic resistance, present levels of funding are inadequate and should be increased substantially. British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Econometric models for distinguishing between market-driven and publicly-funded energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Marvin J.

    2005-01-01

    Central to the problem of estimating energy program benefits is the necessity to differentiate between changes in energy use that would have occurred in the absence of public programs versus declines in energy use that would not have occurred but for public programs. The former changes are often referred to as naturally-occurring or market-driven effects. They occur due to a combination of one or more independent variables, such as changes in prices, incomes, weather, and technology. For a rigorous, scientifically-valid program evaluation, it is essential to first control for these variables before making statistical inferences related to public program effects. This paper describes the economic and statistical issues surrounding quantitative studies of energy use, energy efficiency, and public programs. To illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of different impact evaluation approaches, this paper describes three new studies related to electricity use in the U. S. commercial buildings sector. Specification and estimation of time series and cross section econometric models are discussed, as are their capabilities for obtaining long-run estimates of the net impacts of energy efficiency programs

  6. 76 FR 4124 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Notice of Funding Availability for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... . Members of Affected Public: Nonprofit organizations, for profit organizations located in the U.S. (HUD will not pay fee or profit for the work conducted under this NOFA), foundations, think tanks, consortia... spends approximately 42 person- hours to complete an application. Almost all of this time is invested by...

  7. Economic Growth, Productivity, and Public Education Funding: Is South Carolina a Death Spiral State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Lisa G.; Knoeppel, Robert C.; Della Sala, Matthew R.; Watson, Jim R.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the Great Recession of 2007-2009, most states experienced declines in employment, consumer spending, and economic productivity (Alm, Buschman, and Sjoquist 2011). In turn, these events led to historic declines in state tax revenues (Mikesell and Mullins 2010; Boyd and Dadayan 2009), resulting in major cuts in public spending. Local…

  8. 75 FR 21018 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Notice of Funding Availability for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... and Universities Program AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public Development and Research... Liaison Officer, Office of Policy Development and Research, Department of Housing and Urban Development... the proposed extension of information collection to OMB for review, as required by the Paperwork...

  9. 78 FR 59974 - Publication Procedures for Federal Register Documents During a Funding Hiatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Public Law 101-508, 104 Stat. 1388 (31 U.S.C. 1341), the Office of the Federal Register (OFR) announces... hiatus affecting one or more Federal agencies, the OFR will remain open to accept and process documents... activities such as those related to the constitutional duties of the President, food and drug inspection, air...

  10. 76 FR 12135 - Publication Procedures for Federal Register Documents During a Funding Hiatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Public Law 101-508, 104 Stat. 1388 (31 U.S.C. 1341), the Office of the Federal Register (OFR) announces... more Federal agencies, the OFR will remain open to accept and process documents authorized to be... as those related to the constitutional duties of the President, food and drug inspection, air traffic...

  11. The Implementation of Enrollment Management at Two Public Universities Experiencing Demographic and Funding Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of enrollment management at two public universities. The theoretical framework was conceptual and centered on the effectiveness of the implementation process as a pivotal factor in the development of a comprehensive enrollment management operation. This multi-site case study included 14…

  12. 'Public enemy no. 1': Tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-29

    Mar 29, 2016 ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... how they have used various charitable causes to subvert tobacco control efforts and influence public health policy. This .... health goals while drawing on extensive resources and networks, ...... reputation as corporate citizens and to indirectly promote.

  13. Health care and ideology: a reconsideration of political determinants of public healthcare funding in the OECD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwartz, Helmut; Theilen, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we examined if partisan ideology and electoral motives influence public healthcare expenditure (HCE) in countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. We distinguished between the effects on the growth of the expenditures and its adjustment to violations of a long-run equilibrium linking HCE with macroeconomic and demographic trends. Regarding the influence of partisan ideology, we found that if governments are sufficiently long in power, right-wing governments spend less on public health than their left-wing counterparts. Furthermore, if a right-wing party governs without coalition partners, it responds more strongly to deviations from the long-run HCE equilibrium than left-wing governments. With regard to electoral motives, we found that health expenditure increases in years of elections. Independent of their partisan ideology, single-party (minority) governments induce higher (lower) growth of public HCE. Each of these political factors by its own may increase (decrease) HCE growth by approximately one percentage point. Given an average annual growth of HCE of approximately 4.1%, political factors turn out to be important determinants of trends in public HCE. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Study on Public Exposure and External Radiation Level at Gamma Green House and around MINT Dengkil Complex Boarder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim; Ismail Sulaiman; Khairuddin Mohamad Kontol; Ahmad Bazlie Abdul Kadir; Noor Fadilla Ismail; Hassan Sham; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discussing on the measurement of external radiation and the dose level which is acceptable to the public around the Gamma Green House and the border between Malaysian Nuclear Agency and housing project developed by Mah Sing Group. This research is made to verify the level of safety, especially for civilians residing in this area and to ensure compliance with the limit that has been set by the authorities, AELB (BSS/2010). Measurement method used in this research by using survey meter, TLD and OSL. (author)

  15. Adaptation to Externally Driven Change: The Impact of Political Change on Job Satisfaction in the Public Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabvuma, Vurain; Bui, Hong T M; Homberg, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a quasi-natural experiment to investigate the adaptation of job satisfaction to externally driven political change in the public sector. This is important because democratic government bureaucracies often experience changes in leadership after elections. The analyses are based on data drawn from a large longitudinal data set, the British Household Panel Survey. Findings indicate that the impact of political elections is largely weak and temporary and is only present for men. For women, the internal processes of the organization tend to be more important. These findings suggest that changes in political leadership may not be associated with fundamental changes in policy. PMID:25598554

  16. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with {sup 131}I thyroid treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewji, S., E-mail: dewjisa@ornl.gov; Bellamy, M.; Leggett, R.; Eckerman, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS-6335, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Hertel, N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS-6335, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 and Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0745 (United States); Sherbini, S.; Saba, M. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Estimated dose rates that may result from exposure to patients who had been administered iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) as part of medical therapy were calculated. These effective dose rate estimates were compared with simplified assumptions under United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 8.39, which does not consider body tissue attenuation nor time-dependent redistribution and excretion of the administered {sup 131}I. Methods: Dose rates were estimated for members of the public potentially exposed to external irradiation from patients recently treated with {sup 131}I. Tissue attenuation and iodine biokinetics were considered in the patient in a larger comprehensive effort to improve external dose rate estimates. The external dose rate estimates are based on Monte Carlo simulations using the Phantom with Movable Arms and Legs (PIMAL), previously developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. PIMAL was employed to model the relative positions of the {sup 131}I patient and members of the public in three exposure scenarios: (1) traveling on a bus in a total of six seated or standing permutations, (2) two nursing home cases where a caregiver is seated at 30 cm from the patient’s bedside and a nursing home resident seated 250 cm away from the patient in an adjacent bed, and (3) two hotel cases where the patient and a guest are in adjacent rooms with beds on opposite sides of the common wall, with the patient and guest both in bed and either seated back-to-back or lying head to head. The biokinetic model predictions of the retention and distribution of {sup 131}I in the patient assumed a single voiding of urinary bladder contents that occurred during the trip at 2, 4, or 8 h after {sup 131}I administration for the public transportation cases, continuous first-order voiding for the nursing home cases, and regular periodic voiding at 4, 8, or 12 h after administration for the hotel room cases. Organ

  17. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with 131I thyroid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewji, S.; Bellamy, M.; Leggett, R.; Eckerman, K.; Hertel, N.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Estimated dose rates that may result from exposure to patients who had been administered iodine-131 ( 131 I) as part of medical therapy were calculated. These effective dose rate estimates were compared with simplified assumptions under United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 8.39, which does not consider body tissue attenuation nor time-dependent redistribution and excretion of the administered 131 I. Methods: Dose rates were estimated for members of the public potentially exposed to external irradiation from patients recently treated with 131 I. Tissue attenuation and iodine biokinetics were considered in the patient in a larger comprehensive effort to improve external dose rate estimates. The external dose rate estimates are based on Monte Carlo simulations using the Phantom with Movable Arms and Legs (PIMAL), previously developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. PIMAL was employed to model the relative positions of the 131 I patient and members of the public in three exposure scenarios: (1) traveling on a bus in a total of six seated or standing permutations, (2) two nursing home cases where a caregiver is seated at 30 cm from the patient’s bedside and a nursing home resident seated 250 cm away from the patient in an adjacent bed, and (3) two hotel cases where the patient and a guest are in adjacent rooms with beds on opposite sides of the common wall, with the patient and guest both in bed and either seated back-to-back or lying head to head. The biokinetic model predictions of the retention and distribution of 131 I in the patient assumed a single voiding of urinary bladder contents that occurred during the trip at 2, 4, or 8 h after 131 I administration for the public transportation cases, continuous first-order voiding for the nursing home cases, and regular periodic voiding at 4, 8, or 12 h after administration for the hotel room cases. Organ specific activities of 131 I

  18. Invisible colleges, private patronage and commercial profits versus public goods, government funding and 'crowding-out': Terence Kealey on the motivations and incentives driving science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2009-02-01

    What kind of a thing is science and how does it work? [Kealey T. Sex, science and profits: In a recent book (Sex, science and profits: how people evolved to make money. London: William Heinemann; 2008) (p. 455)] Terence Kealey argues persuasively that the motivations driving science are widely misunderstood. Science is often assumed to be useful to the public but an economic loser for the scientist and his or her paymasters - in other words, science is supposed to be a 'public good'. The public good argument is used to support large-scale government funding of science, on the basis that if government does not fund science it will not be funded adequately. But Kealey argues that most science is profitable to commercial organizations, and other types of worthwhile science will be supported by private patronage. Yet excessive government funding tends to 'crowd-out' potential private sources of funding - both by replacing and by deterring private investment. And scientists are not primarily motivated by money, but instead by striving for status within the 'invisible college' of active researchers in their field. Kealey's take-home message is that overall and in the long-term, science neither requires nor benefits from government funding. Scientific research would be better-served by private funding from commercial organizations that are seeking profit, combined with patronage from charities and foundations that regard science as intrinsically valuable.

  19. DETERMINANTS OF INTERNAL VS. EXTERNAL CEO SUCCESSIONS IN MALAYSIAN PUBLIC LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokiah Ishak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a CEO turnover, a company may select an internal or external successor. The objective of this study is to determine if firm performance, board attributes, ownership structure and incumbent power influence the decision of whether to elect an internal or external candidate. Results from logistic regression analysis on 145 succession events over a four-year period (2002 to 2005 indicate that firms which are controlled by blockholders tend to select an outsider as the successor. Further, firms that are controlled by family members and position their former CEOs within the firms are more likely to select insiders as successors. However, firm performance, board composition, CEO duality and turnover type do not affect the selection choice. This study implies that poor firm performance does not necessarily lead to outside CEO selection choice. Further, boards of Malaysian PLCs are not effective in choosing outsiders as successors as both board composition and CEO duality do not necessarily select outsiders to become new CEOs. Another implication of this study is that former CEOs who continue their directorship in the same companies do have some power in naming new CEOs as the former tend to select insiders as successors.

  20. Extant primates and development of primatology in China: publications, student training, and funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peng-Fei; Ma, Chi

    2018-03-08

    China supports the richest non-human primate diversity in the northern hemisphere, providing an excellent opportunity for Chinese primatologists to take a leading role in advancing the study of primatology. Primatology in China began to flourish after 1979. To date, Chinese primatologists have published more than 1000 papers in journals indexed by the Chinese Science Citation Database and the Web of Science Core Collection, and universities and academic institutions have trained 107 PhD students and 370 Masters students between 1984 and 2016. In total, the National Science Foundation of China has funded 129 primate projects (71.7 million Yuan) supporting 59 researchers from 28 organizations. However, previous research has also shown obvious species bias. Rhinopithecus roxellana, Rhinopithecus bieti, and Macaca mulatta have received much greater research attention than other species. Researchers have also tended to continue to study the same species (55.2%) they studied during their PhD training. To promote the development of primatology in China, we suggest 1) the need for a comprehensive primatology textbook written in Chinese, 2) continued training of more PhD students, and 3) encouragement to study less well-known primate species.

  1. Climate Change Action Fund: public education and outreach. Change: think climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This illustrated booklet provides a glimpse of the many creative approaches being adopted by educators, community groups, industry associations and governments at all levels to inform Canadians about the causes and effects of climate change. It also provides suggestions about how each individual person can contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through residential energy efficiency, by participating in ride-share programs, by planting trees and a myriad of other community action projects and public awareness campaigns. The booklet describes educational resources and training available to teachers, science presentations, climate change workshops, public awareness initiatives, community action on climate change, and sector-specific actions underway in the field of transportation and in improving energy efficiency in residential and large buildings. Descriptive summaries of the activities of organizations involved in climate change advocacy and promotion, and a list of contacts for individual projects also form part of the volume

  2. A Global Biomedical R&D Fund and Mechanism for Innovations of Public Health Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Balasegaram, Manica; Brechot, Christian; Farrar, Jeremy; Heymann, David; Ganguly, Nirmal; Khor, Martin; Levy, Yves; Matsoso, Precious; Minghui, Ren; Pecoul, Bernard; Peilong, Liu; Tanner, Marcel; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Anti-microbial resistance, emerging infectious diseases, and neglected diseases are all important public health concerns and priorities with serious market failures, deficits, and identified needs in biomedical innovation. It is important to reconcile, rather than fragment, the needs of these three priority areas by considering an umbrella framework for specifically financing and coordinating research and development (R&D) that delivers innovation while securing patient access. A sizeab...

  3. Spending Reviews – a Tool to Support the Effcient Management of Public Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Postuła

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Respective European Union member states’ interest in using spending reviews varies as there are no international mandatory regulations. The EU legislation contains general indications as to maintaining a rational fscal policy, from the provisions of the TFUE, expanded in the Pact for Stability and Growth, and elaborated in 2011. Methodology: Adopting an interpretative research approach, this article elaborates a multiple explanatory case study design to discover how existing theories about public spending reviews are conceptualized by practitioners in their natural contexts. Findings: The deteriorated state of many countries’ public fnances, as a result of the global fnancial crisis, has increased the interest in advanced innovative consolidation and fscal stabilization methods. Spending reviews are among the most developed and advanced methods. Such reviews were conducted both by countries that had applied this instrument before (Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, Australia, and by those that introduced them for the frst time (Ireland, Canada, France. However, reviews are applied in countries characterized by signifcant economic advancement and mature public management systems. Originality: This article analyses and draws conclusions from several selected countries’ experience to date in using spending reviews. The budget functions are compared using information from the implementation of the spending reviews. This article contributes to flling two main gaps identifed in the literature review.

  4. Why Principal Investigators Funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health Publish in the Public Library of Science Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontika, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The National Institutes of Health public access policy requires the principal investigators of any Institutes-funded research to submit their manuscript to PubMed Central, and the open access publisher Public Library of Science submits all articles to PubMed Central, irrespective of funder. Whether the investigators, who made the…

  5. External factors affecting decision-making and use of evidence in an Australian public health policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined external factors affecting policy and program decision-making in a specific public health policy context: injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation in the Australian state of Victoria. The aim was twofold: identify external factors that affect policy and program decision-making in this specific context; use this evidence to inform targeting of interventions aimed at increasing research use in this context. Qualitative interviews were undertaken from June 2011 to January 2012 with 33 employees from two state government agencies. Key factors identified were stakeholder feedback and action, government and ministerial input, legal feedback and action, injured persons and the media. The identified external factors were able to significantly influence policy and program decision-making processes: acting as both barriers and facilitators, depending on the particular issue at hand. The factors with the most influence were the Minister and government, lawyers, and agency stakeholders, particularly health providers, trade unions and employer groups. This research revealed that interventions aimed at increasing use of research in this context must target and harness the influence of these groups. This research provides critical insights for researchers seeking to design interventions to increase use of research in policy environments and influence decision-making in Victorian injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Public access defibrillation: successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation due to automatic external defibrillator at traffic accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, S; Reuter, H; Pfister, R; Michels, G

    2014-03-01

    A 65-year-old man collapsed after he stepped out of his car after a traffic accident. Fortunately, two police officers on a routine patrol in the area were quickly on the scene and started cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A passerby noticed that the patient was in distress and that an automatic defibrillator was nearby. He attached the electrodes of the defibrillator to the chest of the patient in accordance with instructions on the defibrillator and terminated the ventricular fibrillation (200 joule, biphasic). Emergency cardiac catheterization revealed a subtotal stenosis proximally in the right coronary artery, which was successfully treated with a stent. Based on the ideal basic life support, the immediate care by emergency mobile system and coronary angioplasty with successful revascularisation the patient could be released without any neurological deficit. This case illustrates that laypersons can use automatic external defibrillator in case of cardiac resuscitation sufficiently and quickly. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. The Grand Convergence: Closing the Divide between Public Health Funding and Global Health Needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Moran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Global Health 2035 report notes that the "grand convergence"--closure of the infectious, maternal, and child mortality gap between rich and poor countries--is dependent on research and development (R&D of new drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and other health tools. However, this convergence (and the R&D underpinning it will first require an even more fundamental convergence of the different worlds of public health and innovation, where a largely historical gap between global health experts and innovation experts is hindering achievement of the grand convergence in health.

  8. Publication Trend of Clinical Trials with Negative Results Funded by Pharmaceutical Industries for the 2007-2012 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert A. Jiménez-Cotes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the results of clinical trials financed by the pharmaceutical industries during the period 2007-2012 in a general medical journal. Materials and methods: We performed an observational cross sectional study where originals clinical trials financed by the pharmaceutical industry published between 2007 and 2012 in the journal The New England Journal of Medicine (http://www.nejm.org were reviewed. Trend Chi2 test was used to evaluate the results of studies over the years. A database was created with different variables, identifying the number of publications and the period of greater publishing negatives studies, as well as the medical specialty and pharmaceutical industry funding. Results: 321 clinical trials were analyzed. The Odds Ratio was calculated for each year evaluated, finding a Chi2 of linear trend in negatives studies of 2.91 with value p 0.08 and positive studies of 1.16 with value p 0.28. It was found that in the period 2007-2009 123 studies were published, 40 % of which presented negative results; unlike the 2010-2012 period in which 198 clinical trials where published, 142 of them, showed positive results, OR 1.68, 95 % CI (1.02-2.78 value p 0.03. The highest figures of negative results were published in 2007: 44.7 %. Conclusions: A progressive decrease in the number of publications with annual general negative results has been observed. A statistically significant difference in the publication of negative studies per year was not found between the periods 2007-2012. The medical specialty that showed the largest number of total and negative publications in both periods was cardiology. The pharmaceutical industry that sponsored most total clinical trials with negative results in both periods did so through Merck, Glaxo SmithKline, and Sanofi-Aventis. 50% of neurology publications showed negative results.

  9. Discontinuation and non-publication of randomised clinical trials supported by the main public funding body in Switzerland: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstutz, Alain; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Frei, Roy; Surina, Jakub; Agarwal, Arnav; Olu, Kelechi Kalu; Alturki, Reem; Von Niederhäusern, Belinda; Von Elm, Erik; Briel, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    The Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) promotes academic excellence through competitive selection of study proposals and rigorous evaluation of feasibility, but completion status and publication history of SNSF-supported randomised clinical trials (RCTs) remain unclear. The main objectives were to review all healthcare RCTs supported by the SNSF for trial discontinuation and non-publication, to investigate potential risk factors for trial discontinuation due to poor recruitment and non-publication, and to compare findings to other Swiss RCTs not supported by the SNSF. We established a retrospective cohort of all SNSF-supported RCTs for which recruitment and funding had ended in 2015 or earlier. For each RCT, two investigators independently searched corresponding publications in electronic databases. In addition, we approached all principal investigators to ask for additional publications and information about trial discontinuation. Teams of two investigators independently extracted details about study design, recruitment of participants, outcomes, analysis and sample size from the original proposal and, if available, from trial registries and publications. We used multivariable regression analysis to explore potential risk factors associated with discontinuation due to poor recruitment and with non-publication, and to compare our results with data from a previous cohort of Swiss RCTs not supported by the SNSF. We included 101 RCTs supported by the SNSF between 1986 and 2015. Eighty-seven (86%) principal investigators responded to our survey. Overall, 69 (68%) RCTs were completed, 26 (26%) RCTs were prematurely discontinued (all due to slow recruitment) and the completion status remained unclear for 6 (6%) RCTs. For analysing publication status, we excluded 4 RCTs for which follow-up was still ongoing and 9 for which manuscripts were still in preparation. Of the remaining 88 RCTs, 53 (60%) were published as full articles in peer-reviewed journals

  10. The Effects of Performance Budgeting and Funding Programs on Graduation Rate in Public Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-cheol Shinn

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine whether states with performance budgeting and funding (PBF programs had improved institutional performance of higher education over the five years (1997 through 2001 considered in this study. First Time in College (FTIC graduation rate was used as the measure of institutional performance. In this study, the unit of analysis is institution level and the study population is all public four-or-more-year institutions in the United States. To test PBF program effectiveness, Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM growth analysis was applied. According to the HLM analysis, the growth of graduation rates in states with PBF programs was not greater than in states without PBF programs. The lack of growth in institutional graduation rates, however, does not mean that PBF programs failed to achieve their goals. Policy-makers are advised to sustain PBF programs long enough until such programs bear their fruits or are proven ineffective.

  11. A Laboratory-Based System for Managing and Distributing Publically Funded Geochemical Data in a Collaborative Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, B.; Brown, A.; Liffers, M.

    2015-12-01

    Publically funded laboratories have a responsibility to generate, archive and disseminate analytical data to the research community. Laboratory managers know however, that a long tail of analytical effort never escapes researchers' thumb drives once they leave the lab. This work reports on a research data management project (Digital Mineralogy Library) where integrated hardware and software systems automatically archive and deliver analytical data and metadata to institutional and community data portals. The scientific objective of the DML project was to quantify the modal abundance of heavy minerals extracted from key lithological units in Western Australia. The selected analytical platform was a TESCAN Integrated Mineral Analyser (TIMA) that uses EDS-based mineral classification software to image and quantify mineral abundance and grain size at micron scale resolution. The analytical workflow used a bespoke laboratory information management system (LIMS) to orchestrate: (1) the preparation of grain mounts with embedded QR codes that serve as enduring links between physical samples and analytical data, (2) the assignment of an International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) and Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to each grain mount via the System for Earth Sample Registry (SESAR), (3) the assignment of a DOI to instrument metadata via Research Data Australia, (4) the delivery of TIMA analytical outputs, including spatially registered mineralogy images and mineral abundance data, to an institutionally-based data management server, and (5) the downstream delivery of a final data product via a Google Maps interface such as the AuScope Discovery Portal. The modular design of the system permits the networking of multiple instruments within a single site or multiple collaborating research institutions. Although sharing analytical data does provide new opportunities for the geochemistry community, the creation of an open data network requires: (1) adopting open data reporting

  12. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Katherine; Hiller, Janet E; Street, Jackie M; Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Watt, Amber M; Moss, John R; Elshaug, Adam G

    2014-05-05

    Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Each forum demonstrated stakeholders' capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around 'equity' and 'patient responsibility', culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical, accountable policy decisions in the specific

  13. The ATLAS Public Web Pages: Online Management of HEP External Communication Content

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, Steven; Phoboo, Abha Eli; Shaw, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Education and Outreach Group is in the process of migrating its public online content to a professionally designed set of web pages built on the Drupal content management system. Development of the front-end design passed through several key stages, including audience surveys, stakeholder interviews, usage analytics, and a series of fast design iterations, called sprints. Implementation of the web site involves application of the html design using Drupal templates, refined development iterations, and the overall population of the site with content. We present the design and development processes and share the lessons learned along the way, including the results of the data-driven discovery studies. We also demonstrate the advantages of selecting a back-end supported by content management, with a focus on workflow. Finally, we discuss usage of the new public web pages to implement outreach strategy through implementation of clearly presented themes, consistent audience targeting and messaging, and th...

  14. Audit in public administration’s information systems - External or internal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drljača, D.; Latinović, B.

    2017-05-01

    Audit of the information system, thanks to the increased use of ICT and related cyber-crime, becomes a very important process in modern companies and institutions. It is usual to engage or outsource a third party for independent financial audit. But what about auditing of the information system of public administration institutions? This paper gives an introduction to possible aspects of information system’s audit with the aim to discuss possible answer on the question in the title.

  15. Funding Science with Science: Cryptocurrency and Independent Academic Research Funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Lehner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific funding within the academy is an often complicated affair involving disparate and competing interests. Private universities, for instance, are vastly outpacing public institutions in garnering large, prestigious, science-related grants and external research investment. Inequities also extend to the types of research funded, with government, corporate, and even military interests privileging certain types of inquiry. This article proposes an innovative type of science research fund using cryptocurrencies, a fast-growing asset class. Although not a total funding solution, staking coins, specifically, can be strategically invested in to yield compound interest. These coins use masternode technologies to collateralize the network and speed transaction pace and may pay dividends to masternode holders, allowing institutions that purchase these types of central hubs to potentially engage in a lucrative form of dividend reinvestment. Using cryptocurrencies as a new funding stream may garner large amounts of capital and creation of nonprofit institutes to support the future of funding scientific research within educational institutions.

  16. Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65

  17. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its hundred and seventeenth meeting on 3 June 2003. On that occasion, it examined the recommendations made by the External Auditors in their report on their audit of the 2002 annual accounts and the replies by the Pension Fund's Administration. The Governing Board was gratified by the small number of remarks by the External Auditors. It also confirmed its agreement to the procedure followed by the Administration of the Pension Fund in the handling of transfer values. Under other items on the agenda, the Board once again examined ESO's request relating to the terms and conditions of membership by its staff members. In this regard, the Board wishes to receive from ESO a definitive request (following the necessary consultation procedures with the representatives of the personnel and discussions within ESO's governing bodies) so that the working group can continue its work on a clear basis and so that the Governing Board is in a position to take up a position in the m...

  18. The Purposefulness and Effectiveness of Supporting Entrepreneurship with Public Funds – EU Funds for the Development of Self-Employment and Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Wojtowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper discusses issues associated with using funds that support the development of entrepreneurship – the purpose of the paper is to answer questions regarding the purposefulness and effectiveness of financial instruments from EU funds aimed at the development of emerging businesses (startups. Methodology: The paper analyzes previously conducted research studies in the fi eld of the discussed topic, it systematizes and describes the fi nancial instruments from EU funds supporting self- employment and startups in their early stages of activity. It also provides an overview of evaluation reports concerning these instruments. The paper also contains a case study: an analysis of the effectiveness of a selected project supporting the development of entrepreneurship (co-fi nanced from EU funds, in which the method of evaluating the net effect of the support in the short term has been used. Findings: An analysis of previously conducted research studies has shown that properly designed State aid targeted at those starting up their own business is sensible, as it provides them with seed capital and it helps them survive the most diffi cult period of the so-called “startup”. However, there is a lack of comprehensive studies to confirm the positive impact of business support interventions carried out using EU funds. The methodology of evaluating the net effect used by the Author in the conducted study has made it possible to identify the actual size of the – positive – impact of the selected project on the growth of self-employment. Limitations: The study revealed some limitations – the method and time of the study allow to capture the phenomenon on a micro-scale, in the short term. The institutions that are involved in the process of allocating funds should develop a comprehensive methodology that implements the idea of evaluating the net effect, allowing to assess the effectiveness of the support at regional and national level

  19. Fanconi Anemia Research Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Publications Fundraising News What is the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund? Fanconi anemia is an inherited disease that can lead to ... population. Lynn and Dave Frohnmayer started the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund, in 1989 to find effective treatments ...

  20. Vaccination and public trust: A model for the dissemination of vaccination behaviour with external intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorso, Claudio O.; Medus, Andrés; Balenzuela, Pablo

    2017-09-01

    Vaccination is widely recognized as the most effective way of immunization against many infectious diseases. However, unfounded claims about supposed side effects of some vaccines have contributed to spread concern and fear among people, thus inducing vaccination refusal. MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) vaccine coverage has undergone an important decrease in a large part of Europe and US as a consequence of erroneously alleged side effects, leading to recent measles outbreaks. There is evidence that clusterization of unvaccinated individuals may lead to epidemics way larger that the ones that might appear in the case that unvaccinated agents are distributed at random in the population. In this work we explore the emergence of those clusters as a consequence of the social interaction driven mainly by homophily, where vaccination behaviour is part of a process of cultural dissemination in the spirit of Axelrod's model. The ingredients of this calculation encompass: (i) interacting agents which are to decide if they vaccinate or not their children, (ii) their interaction with a small subset of stubborn agents who believe that the MMR vaccine is not safe and (iii) government sponsored propaganda trying to convince people of the benefits of vaccination. We find that these clusters, which emerge as a dynamical outcome of the model, are the responsible of the increasing probability of the occurrence of measles outbreaks, even in scenarios where the WHO (World Health Organization) recommendation of 95% vaccine coverage is fulfilled. However, we also illustrate that the mitigating effect of a public health campaign, could effectively reduce the impact and size of outbreaks.

  1. Transforming governance or reinforcing hierarchies and competition: examining the public and hidden transcripts of the Global Fund and HIV in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilashrami, Anuj; McPake, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Global health initiatives (GHIs) have gained prominence as innovative and effective policy mechanisms to tackle global health priorities. More recent literature reveals governance-related challenges and their unintended health system effects. Much less attention is received by the relationship between these mechanisms, the ideas that underpin them and the country-level practices they generate. The Global Fund has leveraged significant funding and taken a lead in harmonizing disparate efforts to control HIV/AIDS. Its growing influence in recipient countries makes it a useful case to examine this relationship and evaluate the extent to which the dominant public discourse on Global Fund departs from the hidden resistances and conflicts in its operation. Drawing on insights from ethnographic fieldwork and 70 interviews with multiple stakeholders, this article aims to better understand and reveal the public and the hidden transcript of the Global Fund and its activities in India. We argue that while its public transcript abdicates its role in country-level operations, a critical ethnographic examination of the organization and governance of the Fund in India reveals a contrasting scenario. Its organizing principles prompt diverse actors with conflicting agendas to come together in response to the availability of funds. Multiple and discrete projects emerge, each leveraging control and resources and acting as conduits of power. We examine how management of HIV is punctuated with conflicts of power and interests in a competitive environment set off by the Fund protocol and discuss its system-wide effects. The findings also underscore the need for similar ethnographic research on the financing and policy-making architecture of GHIs.

  2. Public-private partnership conceptual framework and models for the funding and financing of water services infrastructure in municipalities from selected provinces in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiters, Cornelius; Matji, Maselaganye P

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents public-private partnership (PPP) framework models for funding and financing of water services infrastructure at local government (municipalities) level (sphere) in South Africa. Data were assembled from various stakeholders, viz., private and public sector institutions in the Gauteng and Limpopo Provinces of South Africa. The framework for PPPs identified three models, viz. state, hybrid and private sector models. In the 'state model' the water services value chain is 100%...

  3. Job satisfaction, work environment and intention to leave among migrant nurses working in a publicly funded tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yong-Shian; Lopez, Violeta

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to explore the job satisfaction level of migrant nurses working in a multicultural society and, more specifically, the relationship between their job satisfaction levels, work environment, their intentions to leave and the predictors of their intentions to leave. Nursing shortages have led to the increasing trend of employing migrant nurses, which necessitated studies examining nurses' migration. A cross-sectional, correlational design using a stratified random sample was conducted on 495 migrant nurses working in a tertiary public-funded hospital in Singapore. The results showed that migrant nurses were satisfied with their jobs; with job satisfaction negatively correlated with work environment. Interestingly, pre-existing groups of Chinese migrant nurses did not help newly arrived Chinese migrant nurses to assimilate better. Predictors of migrant nurses' intentions to leave included having supportive nurse managers and nursing practice environment. The presence of a supportive work environment is essential to retain migrant nurses. Health administrators need to empower nursing managers with skills to implement career development plans as part of hospitals' retention strategies for migrant nurses. Information should also be provided during recruitment campaigns to enable migrant nurses to make informed choices. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Age-specific cost and public funding of a live birth following assisted reproductive treatment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eri; Ishihara, Osamu; Saito, Hidekazu; Kuwahara, Akira; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate and assess the cost of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment cycles and live-birth events in Japan in 2010. We performed a retrospective analysis of 238,185 ART cycles, registered with the national registry of assisted reproductive treatment during 2010. Costs were calculated, using a decision analysis model. The average cost per live birth was ¥1,974,000. This varied from ¥1,155,000 in women aged birth was ¥442,000. This was ¥6,118,000 in women aged ≥ 45, 15.4 times higher than that of the 35-39-year-old age group. The costs and public funding of a live birth after ART treatment rises with age due to the lower success rates in older women. It may provide economic background to improve the current subsidy system for ART and to provide practical knowledge about fertility for the general population. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Public health and research funding for childhood neurodevelopmental disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa: a time to balance priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muideen O. Bakare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan African (SSA population consists of about 45% children, while in Europe and North America children population is 10- 15%. Lately, attention has been directed at mitigating childhood infectious and communicable diseases to reduce under-five mortality. As the under-five mortality index in Sub-Saharan Africa has relatively improved over the last two decades, more Sub-Saharan African children are surviving beyond the age of five and, apparently, a sizeable percentage of this population would be living with one or more childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD. The distribution of child mental health service resources across the world is unequal. This manifests in the treatment gap of major childhood onset mental health problems in SSA, with the gap being more pronounced for childhood NDD. It is important to balance the public health focus and research funding priorities in Sub-Saharan Africa. We urgently need to define the burden of childhood NDD in the region for healthcare planning and policy formulation.

  6. Willingness to pay for National Health Insurance Fund among public servants in Juba City, South Sudan: a contingent evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaza, Robert; Alier, Paul Kon; Kirabira, Peter; Ogubi, David; Lako, Richard Lino Loro

    2017-08-30

    This study assessed willingness to pay for National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) among public servants in Juba City. NHIF is the proposed health insurance scheme for South Sudan and aims at achieving universal health coverage for the entire nation's population. One compounding issue is that over the years, governments' spending on healthcare has been decreasing from 8.4% of national budget in 2007 to only 2.2% in 2012. A cross-sectional study design using contingent evaluation was employed; data on willingness to pay was collected from 381 randomly selected respondents and 13 purposively selected key informants working for the national, state and Juba County in September 2015. Qualitative data were analysed using conceptual content analysis. T-tests and linear regressions were performed to determine association between WTP for NHIF and independent variables. Up to 381 public servants were interviewed, of which 68% indicated willingness to pay varying percentages of total monthly individual income for NHIF. Over two-thirds (67.8%) of those willing to pay could pay up to 5% of their total monthly income, 22.9% could pay up to 10% and the rest could pay 25%. Over 80% were willing to pay up to 50 SSP (1 USD = 10 SSP) premiums for medical consultation, laboratory services and drugs. The main factors influencing the respondents' decisions were awareness, alternative sources of income, household size, insurance cover and religion. Willingness to pay is mainly influenced by awareness, alternative sources of individual income, household size, insurance cover and religion. Most of the public servants were aware of and willing to pay for NHIF and prefer a premium of up to 5% of total monthly income. There is need to create awareness and reach out to those who do not know about the scheme in addition to a detailed analysis of other stakeholders. Consideration could be made by the Government of South Sudan to start the scheme at the earliest opportunity since the majority of

  7. Ten Years of External Quality Audit in Australia: Evaluating Its Effectiveness and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mahsood

    2012-01-01

    External quality audits are now being used in universities across the world to improve quality assurance, accountability for quality education and transparency of public funding of higher education. Some countries such as Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Sweden and Denmark have had external quality audits for more than a decade but there…

  8. Guided by Principles: Shaping the State of California's Role in K-12 Public School Facility Funding. Policy Research Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Cities & Schools, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Governor, members of the legislature and other key stakeholders have identified concerns about the State of California's approach to funding K-12 school facilities, but they have not yet formulated a consensus going forward on the state role and responsibilities for school district facilities. To inform the school facilities funding policy…

  9. The use of public funds for environmental preservation and environmental education activities in the light of the Polish Supreme Audit Office reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Serowaniec

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the assessment of the implementation of public funds provided under grant agreements for environmental preservation and environmental education activities in the light of the reports submitted by the Polish Supreme Audit Office (NIK. The areas covered by the audit were: the completeness and timeliness of the tasks defined in the agreements, the economy and legality of the use of the financial resources, the correctness of keeping financial and accounting records, and the preparation of reports and the settlement of funds.

  10. Neighborhood characteristics, bystander automated external defibrillator use, and patient outcomes in public out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars W; Holmberg, Mathias J; Granfeldt, Asger; Løfgren, Bo; Vellano, Kimberly; McNally, Bryan F; Siegerink, Bob; Kurth, Tobias; Donnino, Michael W

    2018-05-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be used by bystanders to provide rapid defibrillation for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Whether neighborhood characteristics are associated with AED use is unknown. Furthermore, the association between AED use and outcomes has not been well characterized for all (i.e. shockable and non-shockable) public OHCAs. We included public, non-911-responder witnessed OHCAs registered in the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) between 2013 and 2016. The primary patient outcome was survival to hospital discharge with a favorable functional outcome. We first assessed the association between neighborhood characteristics and bystander AED use using logistic regression and then assessed the association between bystander AED use and patient outcomes in a propensity score matched cohort. 25,182 OHCAs were included. Several neighborhood characteristics, including the proportion of people living alone, the proportion of white people, and the proportion with a high-school degree or higher, were associated with bystander AED use. 5132 OHCAs were included in the propensity score-matched cohort. Bystander AED use was associated with an increased risk of a favorable functional outcome (35% vs. 25%, risk difference: 9.7% [95% confidence interval: 7.2%, 12.2%], risk ratio: 1.38 [95% confidence interval: 1.27, 1.50]). This was driven by increased favorable functional outcomes with AED use in patients with shockable rhythms (58% vs. 39%) but not in patients with non-shockable rhythms (10% vs. 10%). Specific neighborhood characteristics were associated with bystander AED use in OHCA. Bystander AED use was associated with an increase in favorable functional outcome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the awareness and effectiveness of IT security programs in a large publicly funded health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Shelanne L; Tarraf, Rima C; Birney, Arden; Arain, Mubashir Aslam

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health records are becoming increasingly common in the health care industry. Although information technology (IT) poses many benefits to improving health care and ease of access to information, there are also security and privacy risks. Educating health care providers is necessary to ensure proper use of health information systems and IT and reduce undesirable outcomes. This study evaluated employees' awareness and perceptions of the effectiveness of two IT educational training modules within a large publicly funded health care system in Canada. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups included a variety of professional roles within the organisation. Participants also completed a brief demographic data sheet. With the consent of participants, all interviews and focus groups were audio recorded. Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the IT security training modules. Five main themes emerged: (i) awareness of the IT training modules, (ii) the content of modules, (iii) staff perceptions about differences between IT security and privacy issues, (iv) common breaches of IT security and privacy, and (v) challenges and barriers to completing the training program. Overall, nonclinical staff were more likely to be aware of the training modules than were clinical staff. We found e-learning was a feasible way to educate a large number of employees. However, health care providers required a module on IT security and privacy that was relatable and applicable to their specific roles. Strategies to improve staff education and mitigate against IT security and privacy risks are discussed. Future research should focus on integrating health IT competencies into the educational programs for health care professionals.

  12. "It Doesn't Make Sense for Us Not to Have One"-Understanding Reasons Why Community Sports Organizations Chose to Participate in a Funded Automated External Defibrillator Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; Bekker, Sheree; Morgan, Damian; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-10-10

    Implementation of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in community sports settings is an important component of emergency medical planning. This study aimed to understand motivations for why sports organizations participated in a government-funded program that provided AEDs and associated first-aid training. Face-to-face interviews. Community sports organizations in Victoria, Australia. Representatives from 14 organizations who participated in a government-funded AED program. Motivations to participate in the AED program were explored using a qualitative descriptive approach. Two overarching themes emerged: awareness of the program and decision to apply. Awareness was gained indirectly through grant advertising in newsletters/emails/web sites and directly through their sporting associations. For most organizations, there was no decision process per se, rather, the opportunity to apply was the key determinant for participating in the program. A duty of care also emerged as a key driving factor, with recognition of AEDs as a valuable asset to communities broadly, not just the participants' immediate sports setting. Reflecting on participation in the program, these participants identified that it was important to increase awareness about AED ownership and use. The program benefits were clearly summed up as being best prepared for a worst-case scenario. This study provides new understanding of why community sports organizations apply for an AED and training. The strongest reason was simply the opportunity to acquire this at no cost. Therefore, for wider implementation of AEDs, additional funding opportunities, targeted awareness of these opportunities, and continued promotion of AED importance are recommended.

  13. When public service drama travels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Nielsen, Jakob Isak; Waade, Anne Marit

    2016-01-01

    the last 15 years, our empirical data also show significant new patterns in production culture and international market orientation within DR. Interestingly, however, our study demonstrates the distinctive contribution that precisely DR’s public service remit has made to the quality of its drama......This article provides a detailed analysis of how the Danish public service broadcaster DR employs external funding for its drama productions. This investigation is carried out in order to discuss the schisms involved when a public service broadcaster – whose traditional obligations arguably pertain...... to the national sphere – becomes a player in the international market for television content and, as a consequence, becomes partly reliant on international funding. Our article examines five different forms of external funding (i.e. funding from sources other than DR’s licence fee income): (1) co...

  14. Notification: EPA Region 10 Management Controls Over Allowing Substantial Public Funds to Construct the Spokane County Wastewater Treatment Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    January 20, 2012. This EPA's OIG is initiating a review from an OIG hotline complaint regarding whether federal funds were properly used to construct the new Spokane County wastewater treatment facility in accordance with 40 CFR 35, Subpart K.

  15. Can a publicly funded home care system successfully allocate service based on perceived need rather than socioeconomic status? A Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Audrey; Croxford, Ruth; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-03-01

    The present quantitative study evaluates the degree to which socioeconomic status (SES), as opposed to perceived need, determines utilisation of publicly funded home care in Ontario, Canada. The Registered Persons Data Base of the Ontario Health Insurance Plan was used to identify the age, sex and place of residence for all Ontarians who had coverage for the complete calendar year 1998. Utilisation was characterised in two dimensions: (1) propensity - the probability that an individual received service, which was estimated using a multinomial logit equation; and (2) intensity - the amount of service received, conditional on receipt. Short- and long-term service intensity were modelled separately using ordinary least squares regression. Age, sex and co-morbidity were the best predictors (P funded home care as well as how much care was received, with sicker individuals having increased utilisation. The propensity and intensity of service receipt increased with lower SES (P funded home care service was primarily based on perceived need rather than ability to pay, barriers to utilisation for those from areas with a high proportion of recent immigrants were identified. Future research is needed to assess whether the current mix and level of publicly funded resources are indeed sufficient to offset the added costs associated with the provision of high-quality home care.

  16. Why do some countries publish more than others? An international comparison of research funding, English proficiency and publication output in highly ranked general medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jonathan P; Weinkauf, Justin G; Tsang, Monica; Sin, Don D

    2004-01-01

    National factor(s) influencing publication output in the highest ranked medical journals are largely unknown. We sought to examine the relationship between national research funding and English proficiency on publication output. We identified all original research articles appearing in the five highest ranked general medical journals between 1997 and 2001. Using the country of the corresponding author as the source nation for each article, we determined a standardized publication rate across developed nations. We used multiple regression techniques to determine the influence of national expenditures on research and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), a surrogate for English proficiency, on publication output. There was a significant relationship of national spending on research and TOEFL scores to publication output of developed countries (p = 0.04; p < 0.01, respectively). These two variables explained approximately 71.5% of the variation in publication rate across developed nations around the world (R = 0.85; p < 0.01). Normalized for population size, English-speaking nations and certain northern European countries such as Denmark, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and Sweden had the highest rate of publication in the five highest ranked general medical journals, while Asian countries had generally low rates of publication. Research spending and English proficiency were strongly associated with publication output in the highest ranked general medical journals. While these data cannot be considered definitive due to their observational nature, they do suggest that for English-language medical journals, research funding and English proficiency may be important determinants of publication.

  17. Individual responsibility for what? : A conceptual framework for exploring the suitability of private financing in a publicly funded health-care system

    OpenAIRE

    Tinghög, Gustav; Carlsson, Per; Lyttkens, Carl H.

    2010-01-01

    Policymakers in publicly funded health-care systems are frequently required to make intricate decisions on which health-care services to include or exclude from the basic health-care package. Although it seems likely that the concept of individual responsibility is an essential feature of such decisions, it is rarely explicitly articulated or evaluated in health policy. This paper presents a tentative conceptual framwork for exploring when health-care services contain characteristics that fac...

  18. Fundo público e políticas sociais na crise do capitalismo Public fund and social policies in the crisis of capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evilasio Salvador

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A característica comum a todas as crises financeiras dos últimos trinta anos é o comparecimento do fundo público para socorrer instituições financeiras falidas durante as crises bancárias, à custa dos impostos pagos pelos cidadãos. Com a financeirização da riqueza, os mercados financeiros passam a disputar cada vez mais recursos do fundo público, impedindo a expansão dos direitos sociais. Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir a crise do capital a partir do papel exercido pelo fundo público e seus rebatimentos no financiamento da seguridade social no Brasil.The characteristic that has been common to all financial crises in the last 30 years is the appearance of the public fund to bail out bankrupt financial institutions during the banking crises, at the expense of taxes paid by the citizens. Financing wealth, financial markets dispute resources from the public fund more and more, which impedes the expansion of social rights. This article aims to discuss the crisis of the capital from the role played by public funds and their impact on the financing of social security in Brazil.

  19. The Contribution of the Publicly Funded R&D Capital to Productivity Growth and an application to the Greek food and beverages industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mamatzakis, E

    2009-01-01

    This paper follows the dual cost function methodology and develops a theoretical specification that assesses the contribution of public R&D capital to the productivity growth. The empirical application focuses on Greek food and beverages industry. For this purpose it employs a micro-aggregated annual data set over the period 1976-2002. The regression analysis shows that publicly funded R&D capital is a productive input as 8.7 percent and 7.3 percent of the total factor productivity growth in...

  20. The usage of social media as a form of external public communication (Case study on Ridwan Kamil as the mayor of Bandung)

    OpenAIRE

    Hafizatullah, Medika Adel; Salamah, Ummi; Wangi, Dorien Kartika

    2017-01-01

    This research entitled “The usage of social media as a form of external public communication (case study on Ridwan Kamil as the Mayor of Bandung)” aims to perceive how Ridwan as a leader can utilize social media as a form of external communication to Bandung people, as well as to perceive what communication and leadership style he applies based on the communication messages through his social media. This research uses qualitative method by content analysis. The data is being collected through...

  1. Gas tax/public transit annual expenditure report pursuant to the agreement on the transfer of federal gas tax revenue and the agreement on the transfer of public transit funds for the period April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnie, B.; Taylor, R.; Gibson, B.

    2007-09-01

    Federal funding initiatives for local infrastructure and capacity building was discussed with particular reference to the unique partnerships between the Canada-British Columbia Agreement on the transfer of federal gas tax revenues and the Canada-British Columbia agreement on the transfer of funds for public transit. The agreements reflect the nature of intergovernmental relations in British Columbia where the Union of British Columbia Municipalities (UBCM) works together with both federal and provincial governments to promote sustainable communities. This report identified the initiatives that are underway in communities across British Columbia as they begin to implement Gas Tax and Public Transit funded projects. These projects span a broad range of eligible project categories. The leadership role taken by local governments in the province to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was highlighted. Some of the 141 projects reported in 2007 were highlighted in this report, including improvement to public transit in the District of Saanich; TransLink bus replacement and expansion; cycling and pedestrian infrastructure; improvements to local roads and bridges; alternative energy retrofits; collection of solid waste; improvement to water systems; stormwater and wastewater treatment; capacity building; watershed protection; and water acquisition strategies. Of the projects reported, 33 per cent anticipated gas tax spending in more than 1 year, indicating either payment of capital costs as they are incurred during a construction period that spans beyond a single year, or use of gas tax funding towards the debt servicing costs related to the eligible project. tabs., figs

  2. EUROPEAN FUNDING - IMPACT ON RESEARCH CAPACITY IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Kotarski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Limited national budgetary resources for R&D in period from 2007 to 2013 imposed a need for Croatian researchers to apply for European research grants. A challenge for effective absorption of European Structural and Investment Funds in the period 2014 to 2020, highlight a need to assess the impact of this external funding on research capacity in Croatia in 2007-2013 period. Qualitative interviews with grant recipients from Ruder Boskovic Institute revealed intangible achievements in terms of research career, enhanced interaction and knowledge transfer to business community, improved research management competences and possibilities for collaboration with internationally recognized research teams. Similar results from studies carried out in other countries indicates the importance of intangible achievements of research grants, which are becoming more and more relevant in the context of public policies (networking, cooperation, strategic planning, knowledge management. The use of EU funds is an extremely complex process which requires a change of approach to the use of public funds and the introduction of the principle of transparency of procedures for all stakeholders in the process, equal access to information and sound financial management. Weaknesses of the Croatian scientific system and absence of will to support excellent research through competitive funding present real threats to successful participation of Croatian researchers in the European framework programs and other external research funding programs. Findings of the study provide valuable insight for national authorities in terms of effective management of national research and innovation programs while maximizing the potential impact of EU funds allocated.

  3. Fund management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    This revision of the Fund Management Plan updates the original plan published in May 1983. It is derived from and supplements the Mission Plan of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. A major purpose in preparing this Plan is to inform the public about management of the Nuclear Waste Fund and the Interim Storage Fund. The purpose of the Interim Storage Fund is to finance the provision of the Federal interim storage capacity of up to 1900 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Waste Fund is a separate account for all revenues and expenditures related to the geological disposal and monitored retrieval storage of civilian radioactive waste

  4. Funding the digitisation and unlocking of analogue audiovisual public service content: a look into Flanders and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courtois, Cedric; Ongena, G.; Cannie, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, the debate regarding PSB funding consists of a division between culture and commerce. This discussion has been amplified by the recent trend of digitisation. Yet, this evolution’s reach stretches beyond the application of supplementary platforms and channels. In line with the

  5. Do EU funds crowd out other public expenditures? Evidence on the additionality principle from the detailed Czech municipalities’ data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janský, Petr; Křehlík, Tomáš; Skuhrovec, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 11 (2016), s. 2076-2095 ISSN 0965-4313 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TB02MPSV016 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : European Union * EU cohesion policy * EU funds Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.332, year: 2016

  6. 76 FR 40950 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Notice of Filing of Proposed Board Funding Final Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... available, the issuer's net asset value. (i)(v) Issuer Accounting Support Fee The term ``issuer accounting... Accounting Oversight Board; Notice of Filing of Proposed Board Funding Final Rules for Allocation of the Board's Accounting Support Fee Among Issuers, Brokers, and Dealers, and Other Amendments to the Board's...

  7. Changing Course: Thurgood Marshall College Fund President Johnny Taylor Seeks New Partnerships and Avenues of Support for Public HBCUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When veteran educator Dr. N. Joyce Payne handed the reins of the organization she founded, the Thurgood Marshall College Fund, to entertainment lawyer and board member Johnny Taylor, Taylor began pursuing a remake of the prestigious group that has turned it on its head in just a matter of months. Today, with just more than a year of leading the…

  8. Health and medical research funding agencies' promotion of public engagement within research: a qualitative interview study exploring the United Kingdom context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E; Fergie, Gillian M; Hilton, Shona

    2016-03-24

    Public engagement (PE) has become a common feature of many liberal governmental agendas worldwide. Since the turn of this century there has been a succession of United Kingdom policy initiatives to encourage research funding agencies, universities and researchers to reconsider how they engage with citizens and communities. Although most funding agencies now explicitly promote PE within research, little empirical work has been carried out in this area. In this study, we explored why and how health and medical research funding agencies in the United Kingdom have interpreted and implemented their role to promote PE within research. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 30 key informants from 10 agencies that fund health or medical research. Data were also gathered from agencies' websites and documentation. The analysis was based on the constant comparative method. Across agencies, we found that PE was being interpreted and operationalised in various different ways. The terminology used within funding agencies to describe PE seems to be flexibly applied. Disciplinary differences were evident both in the terminology used to describe PE and the drivers for PE highlighted by participants - with applied health science funders more aligned with participatory models of PE. Within the grant funding process PE was rarely systematically treated as a key component of research. In particular, PE was not routinely incorporated into the planning of funding calls. PE was more likely to be considered in the application and assessment phases, where it was largely appraised as a tool for enhancing science. Concerns were expressed regarding how to monitor and evaluate PE within research. This study suggests funding agencies working within specific areas of health and medicine can promote particular definitions of PE and aligned practices which determine the boundaries in which researchers working in these areas understand and practice PE. Our study also highlights how the

  9. Funding strategies for wilderness management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Alkire

    2000-01-01

    Funding wilderness protection will continue to be a challenge for public land managers. With continuing competition for federal funds and balanced budget goals, other sources of funds may be necessary to supplement annual federal appropriations. This paper identifies and evaluates five potential funding strategies and provides examples of each that are currently in use...

  10. The needs of having a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector on funding digitizing management work of historical buildings in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, M. K.; Yahya, Z.; Harun, R.; Jaapar, A.

    2014-02-01

    In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations.

  11. The needs of having a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector on funding digitizing management work of historical buildings in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin, M K; Yahya, Z; Jaapar, A; Harun, R

    2014-01-01

    In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations

  12. Funding oil and gas ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billingsley, L.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is addressed to geologists who must raise external funds for prospect acquisition, exploratory and development drilling, or to a limited extent, production acquisition. In the ranks of independent geologists, external funding is what separates a dreamer with a good idea from a successful oil and gas producer who gets ideas evaluated on a regular basis. The quantity of external funding usually dictates the level of drilling activity for independent geologists and small companies. Companies or individuals with high levels of internal cash flow set budgets to determine their drilling activity. The purpose of this paper is to provide an independent geologist with an overview of raising external funding. The scope is purposely general. The real motivation behind this paper is not to provide a cookbook for selling prospects. Instead, the author hopes to stimulate geologists to become students of salesmanship and thereby increase the effectiveness of their fund

  13. A Multi-Level Examination of Stakeholder Perspectives of Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices in a Large Urban Publicly-Funded Mental Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S; Stewart, Rebecca E; Adams, Danielle R; Fernandez, Tara; Lustbader, Susanna; Powell, Byron J; Aarons, Gregory A; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew O; Rubin, Ronnie; Hadley, Trevor; Mandell, David S; Barg, Frances K

    2016-11-01

    Our goal was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based practices from the perspectives of multiple stakeholders in a large publicly funded mental health system. We completed 56 interviews with three stakeholder groups: treatment developers (n = 7), agency administrators (n = 33), and system leadership (n = 16). The three stakeholder groups converged on the importance of inner (e.g., agency competing resources and demands, therapist educational background) and outer context (e.g., funding) factors as barriers to implementation. Potential threats to implementation and sustainability included the fiscal landscape of community mental health clinics and an evolving workforce. Intervention characteristics were rarely endorsed as barriers. Inner context, outer context, and intervention characteristics were all seen as important facilitators. All stakeholders endorsed the importance of coordinated collaboration across stakeholder groups within the system to successfully implement evidence-based practices.

  14. A dedicated fund supports technological innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Group is calling on CERN Departments to take their technology out of the confines of the laboratory and make it ready for dissemination. For the first time, projects can apply for financial support from the newly established KTT Fund.   Scientific inquiry can lead to unexpected developments for society when researchers apply their expertise for public use. CERN actively encourages this transfer of knowledge and technology and, for the first time, has created a dedicated fund to provide financial support to projects aiming at disseminating their technologies to external audiences. CERN’s technology transfer schemes were formalised in the recent Policy on the Management of Intellectual Property in Technology Transfer, approved in March. Revenues generated by commercial exploitation will be distributed between the members of the team that developed the technology, their Department, and the KTT Fund for reinvestment in further KTT projects. &qu...

  15. A prospective examination of clinician and supervisor turnover within the context of implementation of evidence-based practices in a publicly-funded mental health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Steven; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Powell, Byron; Aarons, Gregory A.; Evans, Arthur C.; Hurford, Matthew O.; Hadley, Trevor; Adams, Danielle R.; Walsh, Lucia M.; Babbar, Shaili; Barg, Frances; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Staff turnover rates in publicly-funded mental health settings are high. We investigated staff and organizational predictors of turnover in a sample of individuals working in an urban public mental health system that has engaged in a system-level effort to implement evidence-based practices. Additionally, we interviewed staff to understand reasons for turnover. Greater staff burnout predicted increased turnover, more openness toward new practices predicted retention, and more professional recognition predicted increased turnover. Staff reported leaving their organizations because of personal, organizational, and financial reasons; just over half of staff that left their organization stayed in the public mental health sector. Implications include an imperative to focus on turnover, with a particular emphasis on ameliorating staff burnout. PMID:26179469

  16. Evaluating the impact of public space investments with limited time and funds: (methodological) lessons from a Swiss case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barjak, F.

    2016-07-01

    The paper suggests a methodology for evaluating innovation support policies and funding in the space sector. Previous evaluations have suggested methodologies which require considerable time and resources. Our approach combines a data collection at organisational level through standardised interviews and at project level through an online survey which are relatively quick to implement and less costly. We demonstrate that valid results can be obtained with such an approach. (Author)

  17. The evolution of the federal funding policies for the public health surveillance component of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Junior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Health surveillance (HS is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS. This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years.

  18. The evolution of the federal funding policies for the public health surveillance component of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Vitor Laerte; Cerbino Neto, José; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Health surveillance (HS) is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years.

  19. Environmental externalities and renewables: A policy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghi, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    New York state electric utilities are required to incorporate the consideration of environmental externality costs in their bidding programs for new capacity. A natural extension of this policy would be to consider environmental externality costs in the state's implementation of federal regulations under the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). A more direct but more politically difficult approach would be the use of environmental taxes. These two approaches are discussed for more fully incorporating environmental externalities in New York's energy planning process. Under PURPA, utilities have a general obligation to purchase energy from interconnected qualifying facilities on the basis of long-run avoided cost (LRAC) estimates. The New York State Public Service Commission is currently updating the LRAC estimates, which do not account for the costs of complying with the 1990 amendments of the Clean Air Act (CAA) or for environmental externality costs associated with underlying generation sources. Environmental externality LRACs are estimated based on SO 2 , NO x , and CO 2 emissions; estimates of CAA compliance are relatively small in comparison. The use of taxes to reduce emissions by making pollution more expensive than abatement is analyzed, with reference to both general revenue and trust fund types of tax mechanisms. The ways the two mechanisms affect development of wind power resources is illustrated to provide further insight into the correct application of environmental externalities in energy planning. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  1. External validation of a publicly available computer assisted diagnostic tool for mammographic mass lesions with two high prevalence research datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benndorf, Matthias; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Herda, Christoph; Langer, Mathias; Kotter, Elmar

    2015-08-01

    Lesions detected at mammography are described with a highly standardized terminology: the breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon. Up to now, no validated semantic computer assisted classification algorithm exists to interactively link combinations of morphological descriptors from the lexicon to a probabilistic risk estimate of malignancy. The authors therefore aim at the external validation of the mammographic mass diagnosis (MMassDx) algorithm. A classification algorithm like MMassDx must perform well in a variety of clinical circumstances and in datasets that were not used to generate the algorithm in order to ultimately become accepted in clinical routine. The MMassDx algorithm uses a naïve Bayes network and calculates post-test probabilities of malignancy based on two distinct sets of variables, (a) BI-RADS descriptors and age ("descriptor model") and (b) BI-RADS descriptors, age, and BI-RADS assessment categories ("inclusive model"). The authors evaluate both the MMassDx (descriptor) and MMassDx (inclusive) models using two large publicly available datasets of mammographic mass lesions: the digital database for screening mammography (DDSM) dataset, which contains two subsets from the same examinations-a medio-lateral oblique (MLO) view and cranio-caudal (CC) view dataset-and the mammographic mass (MM) dataset. The DDSM contains 1220 mass lesions and the MM dataset contains 961 mass lesions. The authors evaluate discriminative performance using area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) and compare this to the BI-RADS assessment categories alone (i.e., the clinical performance) using the DeLong method. The authors also evaluate whether assigned probabilistic risk estimates reflect the lesions' true risk of malignancy using calibration curves. The authors demonstrate that the MMassDx algorithms show good discriminatory performance. AUC for the MMassDx (descriptor) model in the DDSM data is 0.876/0.895 (MLO/CC view) and AUC

  2. Public Education Finance Systems in the United States and Funding Policies for Populations with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates state finance policies for public education using survey methodology. The purpose is to update previous work and the existing knowledge base in the field as well as to provide a compendium of finance and policy options that are used across the states to finance public elementary and secondary schools. Chief state school…

  3. An exploratory study on equity in funding allocation for essential medicines and health supplies in Uganda's public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusemererwa, Donna; Alban, Anita; Obua, Ocwa Thomas; Trap, Birna

    2016-08-30

    To ascertain equity in financing for essential medicines and health supplies (EMHS) in Uganda, this paper explores the relationships among government funding allocations for EMHS, patient load, and medicines availability across facilities at different levels of care. We collected data on EMHS allocations and availability of selected vital medicines from 43 purposively sampled hospitals and the highest level health centers (HC IV), 44 randomly selected lower-level health facilities (HC II, III), and from over 400 facility health information system records and National Medical Stores records. The data were analyzed to determine allocations per patient within and across levels of care and the effects of allocations on product availability. EMHS funding allocations per patient varied widely within facilities at the same level, and allocations per patient between levels overlapped considerably. For example, HC IV allocations per patient ranged from US$0.25 to US$2.14 (1:9 ratio of lowest to highest allocation), and over 75 % of HC IV facilities had the same or lower average allocation per patient than HC III facilities. Overall, 43 % of all the facilities had optimal stock levels, 27 % were understocked, and 30 % were overstocked. Using simulations, we reduced the ratio between the highest and lowest allocations per patient within a level of care to less than two and eliminated the overlap in allocation per patient between levels. Inequity in EMHS allocation is demonstrated by the wide range of funding allocations per patient and the corresponding disparities in medicines availability. We show that using patient load to calculate EMHS allocations has the potential to improve equity significantly. However, more research in this area is urgently needed. The article does not report any results of human participants. It is implemented in collaboration with the Uganda's Ministry of Health, Pharmacy Division.

  4. Public funding of pharmaceuticals in The Netherlands: investigating the effect of evidence, process and context on CVZ decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Karin H; Knapp, Martin; Fernandez, Jose-Luis

    2014-09-01

    The College Voor Zorgverzekeringen (CVZ) provides guidance to the Dutch healthcare system on funding and use of new pharmaceutical technologies. This study examined the impact of evidence, process and context factors on CVZ decisions in 2004-2009. A data set of CVZ decisions pertaining to pharmaceutical technologies was created, including 29 variables extracted from published information. A three-category outcome variable was used, defined as the decision to 'recommend', 'restrict' or 'not recommend' a technology. Technologies included in list 1A/1B or on the expensive drug list were considered recommended; those included in list 2 or for which patient co-payment is required were considered restricted; technologies not included on any reimbursement list were classified as 'not recommended'. Using multinomial logistic regression, the relative contribution of explanatory variables on CVZ decisions was assessed. In all, 244 technology appraisals (256 technologies) were analysed, with 51%, of technologies recommended, 33% restricted and 16% not recommended by CVZ for funding. The multinomial model showed significant associations (p ≤ 0.10) between CVZ outcome and several variables, including: (1) use of an active comparator and demonstration of statistical superiority of the primary endpoint in clinical trials, (2) pharmaceutical budget impact associated with introduction of the technology, (3) therapeutic indication and (4) prevalence of the target population. Results confirm the value of a comprehensive and multivariate approach to understanding CVZ decision-making.

  5. Four aspects of the scope and quality of family planning services in US publicly funded health centers: Results from a survey of health center administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Marion W; Gavin, Loretta; Zapata, Lauren B; Bornstein, Marta; Mautone-Smith, Nancy; Moskosky, Susan B

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to describe aspects of the scope and quality of family planning services provided by US publicly funded health centers before the release of relevant federal recommendations. Using nationally representative survey data (N=1615), we describe four aspects of service delivery: family planning services provided, contraceptive methods provided onsite, written contraceptive counseling protocols and youth-friendly services. We created a count index for each issue and used multivariable ordered logistic regression to identify health center characteristics associated with scoring higher on each. Half of the sample received Title X funding and about a third each were a community health center or health department clinic. The vast majority reported frequently providing contraceptive services (89%) and STD services (87%) for women in the past 3 months. Service provision to males was substantially lower except for STD screening. A total of 63% and 48% of health centers provided hormonal IUDs and implants onsite in the past 3 months, respectively. Forty percent of health centers included all five recommended contraceptive counseling practices in written protocols. Of youth-friendly services, active promotion of confidential services was among the most commonly reported (83%); offering weekend/evening hours was among the least (42%). In multivariable analyses, receiving Title X funding, having larger volumes of family planning clients and being a Planned Parenthood clinic were associated with higher scores on most indices. Many services were consistent with the recommendations for providing quality family planning services, but there was room for improvement across domains and health centers types. As assessed in this paper, the scope and quality of these family planning services was relatively high, particularly among Planned Parenthood clinics and Title X-funded centers. However, results point to important areas for improvement. Future studies should assess

  6. Implementing non-invasive prenatal testing into publicly funded antenatal screening services for Down syndrome and other conditions in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filoche, Sara; Cram, Fiona; Lawton, Bev; Beard, Angela; Stone, Peter

    2017-10-04

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is a relatively new screen for congenital conditions - specifically, common fetal aneuploidies including Down Syndrome. The test is based on isolating freely circulating fragments of fetal-placental DNA that is present in the mother's blood. NIPT has a superior clinical performance compared to current screening, and has been available privately in Aotearoa New Zealand for the last 4 years. The proposed implementation of NIPT as a publicly funded service may widen the inequity in access to optional antenatal screening that already exists in this country. This paper discusses precautions that can be taken at the health system, organisation, and personnel levels to ensure that access to NIPT is equitable, that services are culturally responsive, and women's informed choice is promoted and protected. The adoption of NIPT into publicly funded services is an example of how genetic screening is becoming mainstreamed into health services; as such our approach may also have relevance around the introduction of other genetic and genomic screening initiatives.

  7. State-Level Farmers Market Activities: A Review of CDC-Funded State Public Health Actions That Support Farmers Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahin, Sahra A; Wright, Demia S; Pejavara, Anu; Kim, Sonia A

    Introducing farmers markets to underserved areas, or supporting existing farmers markets, can increase access and availability of fruits and vegetables and encourage healthy eating. Since 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) has provided guidance and funding to state health departments (SHDs) to support the implementation of interventions, including activities around farmers markets, to address healthy eating, and improve the access to and availability of fruits and vegetables at state and community levels. For this project, we identified state-level farmers market activities completed with CDC's DNPAO funding from 2003 to 2013. State-level was defined as actions taken by the state health department that influence or support farmers market work across the state. We completed an analysis of SHD farmers market activities of 3 DNPAO cooperative agreements from 2003 to 2013: State Nutrition and Physical Activity Programs to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases; Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Program; and Communities Putting Prevention to Work. To identify state farmers market activities, data sources for each cooperative agreement were searched using the key words "farm," "market," "produce market," and "produce stand." State data with at least one state-level farmers market action present were then coded for the presence of itemized activities. Across all cooperative agreements, the most common activities identified through analysis included the following: working on existing markets and nutrition assistance benefit programs, supporting community action, and providing training and technical assistance. Common partners were nutrition assistance benefit program offices and state or regional Department of Agriculture or agricultural extension offices. Common farmers market practices and evidence-based activities, such as nutrition assistance benefits programs and land

  8. Financial Analyst II - External Funds Management | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Financial Analyst position is essential for the administration and smooth ... Prepare monthly journal voucher to record the donor partnership revenue in ... of the business requirements for the development and enhancement of financial ...

  9. Creating an Image for Black Higher Education: A Visual Examination of the United Negro College Fund's Publicity, 1944-1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasman, Marybeth; Epstein, Edward

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors use visual communications as a way to illuminate race relations and higher education from 1944 to 1960. They analyze photographs, and also draw on the history of graphic design to discuss the style of the publications in which they are placed. The pieces that they analyze are historical-drawn from the papers of the…

  10. How to Allocate Public Funding to Nongovernmental Development Organizations: A Critical Assessment of the Dutch Co-Financing System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Schulpen, L.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch co-financing system for nongovernmental development organizations (NGDOs) is unique in Europe. Almost a quarter of public development aid is channeled through a selective group of NGDOs that have to satisfy a broad range of institutional and operational criteria. The procedures for

  11. Public support for river restoration funding in relation to local river ecomorphology, population density, and mean income

    Science.gov (United States)

    SchläPfer, Felix; Witzig, Pieter-Jan

    2006-12-01

    In 1997, about 140,000 citizens in 388 voting districts in the Swiss canton of Bern passed a ballot initiative to allocate about 3 million Swiss Francs annually to a canton-wide river restoration program. Using the municipal voting returns and a detailed georeferenced data set on the ecomorphological status of the rivers, we estimate models of voter support in relation to local river ecomorphology, population density, mean income, cultural background, and recent flood damage. Support of the initiative increased with increasing population density and tended to increase with increasing mean income, in spite of progressive taxation. Furthermore, we found evidence that public support increased with decreasing "naturalness" of local rivers. The model estimates may be cautiously used to predict the public acceptance of similar restoration programs in comparable regions. Moreover, the voting-based insights into the distribution of river restoration benefits provide a useful starting point for debates about appropriate financing schemes.

  12. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gina; Anderson, Maureen; Marra, Fawziah; McNeil, Shelly; Pielak, Karen; Dawar, Meena; McIvor, Marilyn; Ehlen, Thomas; Dobson, Simon; Money, Deborah; Patrick, David M; Naus, Monika

    2010-05-04

    Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s) against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1) of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7) consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9) consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%), advice from a physician (8.7%), and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%). The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%), preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%), and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%). In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine in a

  13. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ogilvie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1 of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7 consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9 consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%, advice from a physician (8.7%, and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%. The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%, preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%, and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%. In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having

  14. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K; Maelkki, H; Wihersaari, M; Pirilae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  15. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  16. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  17. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Law 109-282, the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 as amended (FFATA), requires disclosure of all entities and organizations receiving Federal funds through a single publicly accessible website.

  18. Publishing descriptions of non-public clinical datasets: proposed guidance for researchers, repositories, editors and funding organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynaszkiewicz, Iain; Khodiyar, Varsha; Hufton, Andrew L; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta

    2016-01-01

    Sharing of experimental clinical research data usually happens between individuals or research groups rather than via public repositories, in part due to the need to protect research participant privacy. This approach to data sharing makes it difficult to connect journal articles with their underlying datasets and is often insufficient for ensuring access to data in the long term. Voluntary data sharing services such as the Yale Open Data Access (YODA) and Clinical Study Data Request (CSDR) projects have increased accessibility to clinical datasets for secondary uses while protecting patient privacy and the legitimacy of secondary analyses but these resources are generally disconnected from journal articles-where researchers typically search for reliable information to inform future research. New scholarly journal and article types dedicated to increasing accessibility of research data have emerged in recent years and, in general, journals are developing stronger links with data repositories. There is a need for increased collaboration between journals, data repositories, researchers, funders, and voluntary data sharing services to increase the visibility and reliability of clinical research. Using the journal Scientific Data as a case study, we propose and show examples of changes to the format and peer-review process for journal articles to more robustly link them to data that are only available on request. We also propose additional features for data repositories to better accommodate non-public clinical datasets, including Data Use Agreements (DUAs).

  19. Trends and disparities in receipt of pharmacotherapy among pregnant women in publically funded treatment programs for opioid use disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Vanessa L; Hand, Dennis J; MacAfee, Lauren; Abatemarco, Diane J; Terplan, Mishka

    2018-06-01

    To describe differences in geographic, demographic, treatment, and substance use characteristics by pharmacotherapy receipt among pregnant women entering publically funded treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in the United States. 1996 to 2014 Treatment Episode Data Set-Admissions data from pregnant admissions with OUD, defined as reporting opioids as the primary substance of use leading to the treatment episode, were analyzed for this cross-sectional study. The proportion of all pregnant admissions with OUD who received pharmacotherapy was calculated by year and U.S. census region. Trends across time were assessed using the Cochrane-Armitage Trend test. Associations between demographic, substance use, and treatment characteristics and pharmacotherapy receipt were assessed using Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. The proportion of pregnant admissions where opioids were the primary substance of use increased from 16.9% to 41.6% during the study period, while the proportion of pregnant admissions with OUD who received pharmacotherapy remained relatively unchanged at around 50%. Overall, pharmacotherapy recipients were generally older and white, more likely to receive treatment in an outpatient setting, be self-referred, and report heroin as the primary substance, daily substance use, and intravenous drug use, and less likely to have a co-occurring psychiatric problem compared to those who did not receive pharmacotherapy. Regional differences in pharmacotherapy utilization exist; the South consistently had the fewest pregnant admissions with OUD receiving pharmacotherapy. Although the proportion of pregnant admissions to substance use treatment centers with OUD has increased since the mid-1990s, the proportion receiving pharmacotherapy has not changed. Significant variations in pharmacotherapy utilization exist by geography and demographic, substance use and treatment characteristics. Utilization of pharmacotherapy at publically funded

  20. How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility? A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Ai Theng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of pregnant women susceptible to rubella is important as vaccination can be given postpartum to prevent future risks of congenital rubella syndrome. However, in Malaysia, rubella antibody screening is not offered routinely to pregnant women in public funded health clinics due to cost constraint. Instead, a history of rubella vaccination is asked to be provided to establish the women’s risk for rubella infection. The usefulness of this history, however, is not established. Thus, this paper aimed to determine the usefulness of a history of rubella vaccination in determining rubella susceptibility in pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 pregnant women attending a public funded health clinic. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, and demographic data and history of rubella vaccination were obtained. Anti-rubella IgG test was performed. Results A majority of the women (66.6% had a positive vaccination history. Of these, 92.2% women were immune. A third (33.4% of the women had a negative or unknown vaccination history, but 81.4% of them were immune to rubella. The sensitivity and specificity of a history of rubella vaccination in identifying disease susceptibility was 54.4% (95% CI: 40.7, 67.4% and 69.3% (95% CI: 64.7, 73.5% respectively; the positive predictive value was 18.6% (95% CI: 13.1, 25.5% and the negative predictive value was 92.2% (95% CI: 88.6, 94.7%. Conclusions A vaccination history of rubella had a poor diagnostic value in predicting rubella susceptibility. However, obtaining a vaccination history is inexpensive compared with performing a serological test. A cost-utility analysis would be useful in determining which test (history versus serological test is more cost-effective in a country with resource constraint.

  1. How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility? A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ai Theng; Tong, Seng Fah; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2013-01-31

    Identification of pregnant women susceptible to rubella is important as vaccination can be given postpartum to prevent future risks of congenital rubella syndrome. However, in Malaysia, rubella antibody screening is not offered routinely to pregnant women in public funded health clinics due to cost constraint. Instead, a history of rubella vaccination is asked to be provided to establish the women's risk for rubella infection. The usefulness of this history, however, is not established. Thus, this paper aimed to determine the usefulness of a history of rubella vaccination in determining rubella susceptibility in pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 pregnant women attending a public funded health clinic. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, and demographic data and history of rubella vaccination were obtained. Anti-rubella IgG test was performed. A majority of the women (66.6%) had a positive vaccination history. Of these, 92.2% women were immune. A third (33.4%) of the women had a negative or unknown vaccination history, but 81.4% of them were immune to rubella. The sensitivity and specificity of a history of rubella vaccination in identifying disease susceptibility was 54.4% (95% CI: 40.7, 67.4%) and 69.3% (95% CI: 64.7, 73.5%) respectively; the positive predictive value was 18.6% (95% CI: 13.1, 25.5%) and the negative predictive value was 92.2% (95% CI: 88.6, 94.7%). A vaccination history of rubella had a poor diagnostic value in predicting rubella susceptibility. However, obtaining a vaccination history is inexpensive compared with performing a serological test. A cost-utility analysis would be useful in determining which test (history versus serological test) is more cost-effective in a country with resource constraint.

  2. The Concept of a Single-sex Optional Discussion Session in Introductory Astronomy at a Publicly Funded University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawl, S.

    1996-12-01

    The concept of single-sex education for science and mathematics has recently received renewed discussion in both the popular and professional literature. So important is the topic within higher education that the Duke Journal of Gender Law and Policy sponsored a symposium called "Gender & The Higher Education Classroom: Maximizing the Learning Environment" in February 1996 (http://www.duke.edu/ jrd4/djgcnf96.htm). The concept is especially controversial in publicly supported educational institutions. The idea of offering an optional discussion session limited to a single sex in a university-level introductory astronomy course at a State-supported school was considered through discussions with a number of faculty and administrators, and through a questionnaire aimed at determining student attitudes toward the concept. The results of the student questionnaire will be presented. (While the questionnaire results will be seen to be in favor of such an optional discussion session, such sessions have not been offered.)

  3. The "Buy One, Get One Free" Ethics of Investing Public and Philanthropic Funds in Health and Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Ali A

    2017-12-01

    This article applies various ethical frameworks to inform decision making about investment in two specific goods-strengthening public health and stabilizing the global climate. I begin by outlining how these goods traditionally competed for common and constrained resources. I then discuss how this view of competition has been rendered more problematic by emerging and compelling ethical justifications for investment in both goods based on utilitarian, Rawlsian, and communitarian analyses. I conclude by showing that these goods no longer compete head-to-head in a zero-sum way. Changes in science, technology, and society mean that investment in either good has the potential to advance both goods-that is, the goods have become synergistic. As a result, the case for investing in both is better. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Adapting and Bending the Portal to the Public: Evaluation of an NSF-Funded Science Communication Model for UNAVCO's Geoscience Summer Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutilly, E.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Bartel, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    UNAVCO is a National Science Foundation (NSF) facility specializing in geodesy. As part of its education and outreach work, it operates annual summer internships. In 2016, UNAVCO joined the Portal to the Public (PoP) network and the PoP model was adapted and bent to provide science communication professional development for summer interns. PoP is one way that UNAVCO invests in and trains future generations of geoscientists. The NSF-funded PoP initiative and its network, PoPNet, is a premier outreach framework connecting scientists and public audiences for over a decade. PoPNet is a network of sixty organizations committed to using the PoP method to engage the public in face-to-face interactions with practicing scientists. The PoP initiative provides professional development to scientists focused on best practices in science communication, helps them to develop an interactive exhibit consistent with their current research, and offers them a venue for interacting with the public. No other evaluation work to date has examined how summer internships can uptake the PoP model. This presentation focuses on evaluation findings from two cohorts of summer interns across two years. Three primary domains were assessed: how demographic composition across cohorts required changes to the original PoP framework, which of the PoP professional development trainings were valued (or not) by interns, and changes to intern knowledge, attitudes, and abilities to communicate science. Analyses via surveys and interviews revealed that level of intern geoscience knowledge was a major factor in deciding the focus of the work, specifically whether to create new hands-on exhibits or use existing ones. Regarding the use of PoP trainings, there was no obvious pattern in what interns preferred. Most growth and learning for interns occurred during and after the outreach activity. Results of this evaluation can be used to inform other applications of the PoP approach in summer internships.

  5. Introduction of Renal Key Performance Indicators Associated with Increased Uptake of Peritoneal Dialysis in a Publicly Funded Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Nigel D; McMahon, Lawrence P; Dowling, Gregory; Holt, Stephen G; Smith, Gillian; Safe, Maria; Knight, Richard; Fair, Kathleen; Linehan, Leanne; Walker, Rowan G; Power, David A

    2017-01-01

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Increased demand for treatment of end-stage kidney disease has largely been accommodated by a costly increase in satellite hemodialysis (SHD) in most jurisdictions. In the Australian State of Victoria, a marked regional variation in the uptake of home-based dialysis suggests that use of home therapies could be increased as an alternative to SHD. An earlier strategy based solely on increased remuneration had failed to increase uptake of home therapies. Therefore, the public dialysis funder adopted the incidence and prevalence of home-based dialysis therapies as a key performance indicator (KPI) for its health services to encourage greater uptake of home therapies. ♦ METHODS: A KPI data collection and bench-marking program was established in 2012 by the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services, with data provided monthly by all renal units in Victoria using a purpose-designed website portal. A KPI Working Group was responsible for analyzing data each quarter and ensuring indicators remained accurate and relevant and each KPI had clear definitions and targets. We present a prospective, observational study of all dialysis patients in Victoria over a 4-year period following the introduction of the renal KPI program, with descriptive analyses to evaluate the proportion of patients using home therapies as well as home dialysis modality survival. ♦ RESULTS: Following the introduction of the KPI program, the net growth of dialysis patient numbers in Victoria remained stable over 4 years, at 75 - 80 per year (approximately 4%). However, unlike the previous decade, about 40% of this growth was through an increase in home dialysis, which was almost exclusively peritoneal dialysis (PD). The increase was identified particularly in the young (20 - 49) and the elderly (> 80). Disappointingly, however, 67% of these incident patients ceased PD within 2 years of commencement, 46% of whom transferred to SHD. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of a KPI program

  6. Do firm characteristics influence mutual fund performance? An empirical study for European mutual funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; Wingens, L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of fund management firm characteristics on mutual fund performance. Using a sample of European domiciled open-end equity funds for the period 1998-2008, this study finds that the funds of private companies have performed better than the funds of public

  7. Translation of the Care of Persons with Dementia in their Environments (COPE) intervention in a publicly-funded home care context: Rationale and research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Richard H; Gitlin, Laura N; Pizzi, Laura T; Piersol, Catherine Verrier; Grady, James; Robison, Julie T; Molony, Sheila

    2016-07-01

    Dementia is the leading cause of loss of independence in older adults worldwide. In the U.S., approximately 15 million family members provide care to relatives with dementia. This paper presents the rationale and design for a translational study in which an evidence-based, non-pharmacologic intervention for older adults with dementia and family caregivers (CGs) is incorporated into a publicly-funded home care program for older adults at risk for nursing home admission. The 4-month Care of Persons with Dementia in their Environments (COPE) intervention is designed to optimize older adults' functional independence, and to improve CG dementia management skills and health-related outcomes. COPE features 10 in-home occupational therapy visits, and 1 in-home visit and 1 telephone contact by an advanced practice nurse. COPE was deemed efficacious in a published randomized clinical trial. In the present study, older adults with dementia enrolled in the Connecticut Home Care Program for Elders (CHCPE) and their CGs are randomly assigned to receive COPE plus their ongoing CHCPE services, or to continue receiving CHCPE services only. The primary outcome for older adults with dementia is functional independence; secondary outcomes are activity engagement, quality of life, and prevention or alleviation of neuropsychiatric symptoms. CG outcomes include perceived well-being and confidence in using activities to manage dementia symptoms. Translational outcomes include net financial benefit of COPE, and feasibility and acceptability of COPE implementation into the CHCPE. COPE has the potential to improve health-related outcomes while saving Medicaid waiver and state revenue-funded home care program costs nationwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Australian Public Preferences for the Funding of New Health Technologies: A Comparison of Discrete Choice and Profile Case Best-Worst Scaling Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Jennifer A; Ratcliffe, Julie; Chen, Gang; Scuffham, Paul A

    2014-07-01

    Ethical, economic, political, and legitimacy arguments support the consideration of public preferences in health technology decision making. The objective was to assess public preferences for funding new health technologies and to compare a profile case best-worst scaling (BWS) and traditional discrete choice experiment (DCE) method. An online survey consisting of a DCE and BWS task was completed by 930 adults recruited via an Internet panel. Respondents traded between 7 technology attributes. Participation quotas broadly reflected the population of Queensland, Australia, by gender and age. Choice data were analyzed using a generalized multinomial logit model. The findings from both the BWS and DCE were generally consistent in that respondents exhibited stronger preferences for technologies offering prevention or early diagnosis over other benefit types. Respondents also prioritized technologies that benefit younger people, larger numbers of people, those in rural areas, or indigenous Australians; that provide value for money; that have no available alternative; or that upgrade an existing technology. However, the relative preference weights and consequent preference orderings differed between the DCE and BWS models. Further, poor correlation between the DCE and BWS weights was observed. While only a minority of respondents reported difficulty completing either task (22.2% DCE, 31.9% BWS), the majority (72.6%) preferred the DCE over BWS task. This study provides reassurance that many criteria routinely used for technology decision making are considered to be relevant by the public. The findings clearly indicate the perceived importance of prevention and early diagnosis. The dissimilarity observed between DCE and profile case BWS weights is contrary to the findings of previous comparisons and raises uncertainty regarding the comparative merits of these stated preference methods in a priority-setting context. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    In line with the decisions concerning the new governance of the Pension Fund taken by the Council in June and September 2007, amendments to Section 2 "Structure and Functions" of the Rules of the Fund (Article I 2.08 – Composition of the Investment Committee and Article I 2.08b – Chairman of the Investment Committee) entered into force on 1st January 2009. These articles replace the provisions of the existing Regulations of the Investment Committee of the Pension Fund relating to the composition and chairman of the Investment Committee. Amendment No. 27 (PDF document) may be downloaded directly from the Pension Fund website: http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/statuts___rules.htm or obtained from the Administration of the Fund (Tel. 022 7672742, mailto:Barbara.Bordjah@cern.ch).

  10. ARGICULTURAL LAND PROTECTION FUND AND FOREST FUND AS ECOLOGICAL FUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Bartniczak

    2009-01-01

    Funds for environmental protection and water management, Agricultural Land Protection Fund and Forest Fund make up the Polish system of special fund in environment protection. The main aim of this article is to analyze the activity of two latest funds. The article tries to answer the question whether that funds could be considered as ecological funds. The author described incomes and outlays of that funds and showed which reform should be done in Polish special funds system.

  11. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Amendment No 21 to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund has just been published and can be obtained from Department/Unit secretariats or, in the case of pensioners, directly from the Administration of the Fund (tel. 767-91 94/27 38), bldg 5, 1-030. This Amendment, which entered into force on 17.03.2005, concerns Article I 2.05 (Composition of the Governing Board) and Article I 2.06 (Chairman and Vice-Chairmen of the Governing Board) of the Rules of the Pension Fund.

  12. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund have been updated, following Council's decision of December 2006 concerning the adjustment of pensions, fixed amounts and allowances by 1.16% with effect from 1.1.2007 (Annex B, page 31). The updated version can be downloaded directly from the Pension Fund's website (http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/statuts___rules.htm or obtained from the Fund Administration (Tel. 022 767 27 42, Building 5, 1-030, or by e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch).

  13. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund have been updated, following Council's decision of December 2006 concerning the adjustment of pensions, fixed amounts and allowances by 1.16% with effect from 1.1.2007 (Annex B, page 31). The updated version can be downloaded directly from the Pension Fund's website (http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/statuts___rules.htm) or obtained from the Fund Administration (Tel. 022 767 27 42, Building 5, 1-030), or by e-mail (Sophia.Revol@cern.ch).

  14. Children's Readiness Gains in Publically Funded, Community-Based Pre-Kindergarten Programs for 4 Year Olds and Preschool for 3 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Peggy; Warde, Beverly; Peluso, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many states provide public funding to facilitate school readiness for community-based pre-K and preschool programs for 4 year old children and "at risk" 3 year old children. Little research exists on the school readiness gains of children participating in these "garden variety" community-based programs. Objective:…

  15. International Monetary Fund sacrifices higher growth, employment, spending, and public investment in health systems in order to keep inflation unnecessarily low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowden, Rick

    2010-01-01

    The International Monetary Fund's response to evidence on the impact of its programs on public health fails to address the fundamental criticisms about its policies. The IMF's demand for borrowers to achieve extremely low inflation targets is founded on very little empirical evidence in the peer-reviewed literature. The low-inflation policies privilege international creditors over domestic debtors and short-term priorities over long-term development goals, and contain high social costs, referred to by economists as a "sacrifice ratio." For example, governments' raising of interest rates to bring down inflation undermines the ability of domestic firms to expand production and employment and thus "sacrifices" higher economic growth and higher tax revenues and unnecessarily constrains domestic health spending. During financial crisis, most countries seek to lower interest rates to stimulate the economy, the opposite of the IMF's general advice. Perversely, compliance with IMF policies has become a prerequisite for receiving donor aid. Critiques of the IMF express significant concerns that IMF fiscal and monetary policies are unduly restrictive. Health advocates must weigh in on such matters and pressure their finance ministries, particularly in the G7, to take steps at the level of the IMF Executive Board to revisit and modify its policy framework on deficits and inflation. Such reforms are crucial to enable countries to generate more domestic resources while the global health community searches for ways to support strengthening health system capacity.

  16. Dialectical behaviour therapy for treating adults and adolescents with emotional and behavioural dysregulation: study protocol of a coordinated implementation in a publicly funded health service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Daniel

    2018-02-26

    In the Republic of Ireland, borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a feature of approximately 11-20% of clinical presentations to outpatient clinics within mental health services. These estimates are similar to other countries including the UK and USA. Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is an intervention with a growing body of evidence that demonstrates its efficacy in treating individuals diagnosed with BPD. While a number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the efficacy of DBT, there is limited research which evaluates the effectiveness of this model when applied to real world settings. Funding was secured to co-ordinate DBT training in public community-based mental health services across Ireland. As no other study has evaluated a co-ordinated national implementation of DBT, the current study proposes to investigate the effectiveness of DBT in both adult and child\\/adolescent community mental health services across Ireland, evaluate the coordinated implementation of DBT at a national level, and complete a comprehensive economic evaluation comparing DBT versus treatment-as-usual.

  17. External Goal Setting in Reward-Based Crowdfunding - Inventor, Marathoner, Sprinter and Extreme Sprinter

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Jonas; Haslum, Mikkel Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In recent years, crowdfunding has emerged as a popular method to finance entrepreneurial ventures. Entrepreneurs appeal directly to the general public, e.g. the crowd, for help getting their innovative ideas off the ground. Within the world of reward-based crowdfunding, the authors of how to -literature (practitioners) and the authors of theoretical reward-based crowdfunding literature (theoreticians) disagree on strategies for setting the external (i.e. public) funding goal. ...

  18. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As announced in the Bulletin during the summer, the Pension Fund has published a complete new version of the Fund's Rules and Regulations incorporating all amendments up to 1 November 2006, following the decisions of the CERN Council. This new version of the Rules and Regulations can be downloaded in A4 format (pdf document) directly from the Pension Fund's website (http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/statuts___rules.htm for the Rules and http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/règlements___regulations.htm for the Regulations) or obtained from the Fund Administration (Tel. 022 767 27 42, Building 5, 1-030, or by e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch).

  19. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    In line with the decisions taken by the Council in June and September 2007 concerning the new governance of the Pension Fund, amendments to Section 2 «Structure and Functions» of the Rules of the Fund entered into force on 1st January 2009 (Article I 2.08 – Composition of the Investment Committee and Article I 2.08bis – Chairman of the Investment Committee). Amendment n°27 may be downloaded (PDF document) directly from the Pension Fund website: http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/statuts___rules.htm or obtained from the Administration of the Fund (Tel. 022 767 2742, mailto:Barbara.Bordjah@cern.ch).

  20. Funding innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    Marina Giampietro

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, six knowledge and technology transfer activities are set to benefit from a dedicated fund made available by the Knowledge Transfer group. This initiative cements CERN’s commitment to sharing its technological knowledge and expertise with society.   GEM detectors for flame detection and early earthquake prediction, radio-frequency absorbers for energy recovery, and exotic radioisotopes for medical applications are among the projects funded by the recently introduced KT Fund. “CERN’s scientific programme generates a considerable amount of intellectual property, a natural driver for innovation,” explains Giovanni Anelli, Head of the Knowledge Transfer Group. “Very often, though, financial support is needed to bring the newly-born technologies a step further and make them ready for transfer to other research institutes or to companies.” This is where the KT fund comes into play. It provides vital support in the early sta...

  1. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Amendment No 20 to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund has just been published and can be obtained from Department/Unit secretariats or, in the case of pensioners, directly from the Administration of the Fund (tel. 767-91 94/27 38), bldg 5, 1-030. This Amendment, which entered into force on 1.1.2004, concerns the fixed sums and allowances adjusted at same date (Annex B).

  2. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 Annual Report and Accounts of the Pension Fund which was approved by Council at its session of 20 June 2008, is now available from the Departmental secretariats. Pension beneficiaries who wish to obtain this document should contact Emilie Clerc (Tel. + 41 22 767 87 98), building 5-5/017. It is also available on the Pension fund site: http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/

  3. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) held two meetings over the summer, the first on 9 June and the second on 1st September. The agendas of the two meetings had several items in common, including progress reports on the work of the four working groups. Group 1, which is responsible for the revision of Chapter I, Section 2 of the Rules of the Fund, has made good progress but will need more time to complete its terms of reference in view of the number and complexity of the articles to be amended. In parallel, the Group has approved a code of conduct for the Pension Fund, which is based, in particular, on the new charter introduced for Swiss pension funds by the Swiss Association of Provident Institutions (ASIP) and the CFA (Chartered Financial Analyst) code of ethics applicable to members of pension fund bodies. The PFGB took note that the Group had also been working on the rules relating to the status of the personnel of the Fund and the composition of the Investment Committee. The work of Group 2, responsi...

  4. Pension fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    At its June 2006 meeting, the Finance Committee approved the following amendment to Article 6a of the Regulations for elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund, which will enter into force on 1.7.2006: Current text New text ... 6a. The Administrator of the Fund shall be responsible for holding the elections and for issuing all relevant information. ... ... 6a. The Administrator of the Fund shall be responsible for holding the elections by electronic voting or, if this method cannot be used, following the procedure outlined in Articles 6i., 6j. and 6k. below. He shall issue to the members of the Pension Fund all relevant information concerning the elections. The deadlines mentioned in paragraphs 6i. and 6j. below shall apply mutatis mutandis to electronic voting. ... The amendment will allow the Pension Fund to use an electronic voting procedure for the election of elected members to the Governing Board of the Fund. It will be included in a complete new edition of the Rules and Regulatio...

  5. From Avoidance to Activism: The Responsible Investment Frameworks of the Norwegian Government Pension Fund Global, the New Zealand Superannuation Fund and California Public Employees’ Retirement System 2000 – 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Maren Diesen

    2016-01-01

    Socially responsible investing (SRI) has since the late 1990s, grown to become an important concept in the global financial industry. This growth has mainly been led by institutional investors, such as pension funds and sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) who, in the early 2000s, became aware of the necessity of behaving as real owners of companies and of adopting a long-term view of investing. As these investors started to embrace SRI, they steered the understanding of SRI away from the original e...

  6. Management of Existing Funding Systems in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxeiner, H.

    2006-01-01

    1 - Funds for D and D and Waste disposal: Producers pay principle: Producers of radioactive waste are responsible for financing its safe disposal. Two independent funds supervised by the Confederation: Decommissioning fund for nuclear facilities (Secure financial resources for D and D and for disposal of the resulting waste (not SF), Established January 1, 1984 as a public law entity, Berne); Disposal fund for nuclear power plants (Cover costs for management of operational waste and SF after decommissioning, Established April 1, 2000, Repositories: 2020 - 2050). Decommissioning fund: Calculation of contributions based on Estimated D and D costs (taking account of cost development (first studies 1984, latest studies 2000/2001), Disposal of waste arising from D and D, Administration costs Latest decommissioning studies: Costs amount to 1.9 Billion CHF; Annual contributions based on 40 years operation time. Disposal fund: Calculation of contributions based on Management of operational waste and SF following the decommissioning, Transport/storage containers, transport, reprocessing and/or direct disposal of SF, conditioning and interim storage, deep geological disposal, Administration costs. Latest studies: Costs amount to 12 Billion CHF. Annual contributions based on 40 years operation time. 2 - Organisation and payments: Contributions to the decommissioning fund: Contributions required up to the assumed decommissioning date are converted into annual amounts; Assumed inflation rate 3%, capital projected on a basis of 5% (net return 2%); Annual contributions reviewed every 5 years (shorter periods possible in case of unforeseen events), if new operators enter or a facility is decommissioned. Fund organisation: Executive bodies: Management Committee and Secretariat, MC nominated by Federal Department of Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications, Sub committees set up by MC (Investment Committee, Cost Committee). Management committee: 9 members (4 operators

  7. PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its first three meetings of the year on 2 February, 2 March and 13 April.At the first of these meetings the Board first heard a presentation by Mrs H. Richmond of JP Morgan on the results of the currency overlay programme applied to the Fund's assets. Thanks to the policy pursued by this company, volatility, i.e. portfolio risk for assets denominated in currencies other than the Swiss franc, has been reduced. However, despite the fact that JP Morgan has considerable expertise in this field, no gain has been achieved over the past year. The Governing Board heard a report by the Investment Committee Chairman G. Maurin on the meetings of 21-22 and 28 January at which the Pension Fund's various fund managers had been interviewed on their results. Decisions were taken on benchmarks aimed at optimising management and on the terms of reference of the Internal Management Unit. It was also decided to place two fund managers on a watching list and to request them to make eve...

  8. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The PFGB held two meetings over the summer, the first on 9 June and the second on 1st September. The agendas of the two meetings had several items in common, including progress reports on the work of the four working groups. Group 1, which is responsible for the revision of Chapter I, Section 2 of the Rules of the Fund, has made good progress but will need more time to complete its terms of reference in view of the number and complexity of the articles to be amended. In parallel, the Group has approved a code of conduct for the Pension Fund, which is based, in particular, on the new charter introduced for Swiss pension funds by the Swiss Association of Provident Institutions (ASIP) and the CFA (Chartered Financial Analyst) code of ethics applicable to members of pension fund bodies. The PFGB took note that the Group had also been working on the rules relating to the status of the personnel of the Fund and the composition of the Investment Committee. The work of Group 2, resp...

  9. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Auditorium on Wednesday 8 October 2003 at 14.30 hrs The Agenda comprises: 1. Opening RemarksJ. Bezemer 2. Annual Report 2002: Presentation and results Copies of the Report are available from divisional secretariats. C. Cuénoud 3. Overview of the present situation with regard to pension funds C. Cuénoud 4. Performance of the Fund since the year 2000 and aspects of the ongoing asset/liability modelling exercise G. Maurin 5. Questions from members and beneficiariesPersons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. 6. Conclusions J. Bezemer As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2002 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  10. Estimating length of stay in publicly-funded residential and nursing care homes: a retrospective analysis using linked administrative data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steventon, Adam; Roberts, Adam

    2012-10-31

    Information about how long people stay in care homes is needed to plan services, as length of stay is a determinant of future demand for care. As length of stay is proportional to cost, estimates are also needed to inform analysis of the long-term cost effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing admissions to care homes. But estimates are rarely available due to the cost of repeatedly surveying individuals. We used administrative data from three local authorities in England to estimate the length of publicly-funded care homes stays beginning in 2005 and 2006. Stays were classified into nursing home, permanent residential and temporary residential. We aggregated successive placements in different care home providers and, by linking to health data, across periods in hospital. The largest group of stays (38.9%) were those intended to be temporary, such as for rehabilitation, and typically lasted 4 weeks. For people admitted to permanent residential care, median length of stay was 17.9 months. Women stayed longer than men, while stays were shorter if preceded by other forms of social care. There was significant variation in length of stay between the three local authorities. The typical person admitted to a permanent residential care home will cost a local authority over £38,000, less payments due from individuals under the means test. These figures are not apparent from existing data sets. The large cost of care home placements suggests significant scope for preventive approaches. The administrative data revealed complexity in patterns of service use, which should be further explored as it may challenge the assumptions that are often made.

  11. Estimating length of stay in publicly-funded residential and nursing care homes: a retrospective analysis using linked administrative data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steventon Adam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about how long people stay in care homes is needed to plan services, as length of stay is a determinant of future demand for care. As length of stay is proportional to cost, estimates are also needed to inform analysis of the long-term cost effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing admissions to care homes. But estimates are rarely available due to the cost of repeatedly surveying individuals. Methods We used administrative data from three local authorities in England to estimate the length of publicly-funded care homes stays beginning in 2005 and 2006. Stays were classified into nursing home, permanent residential and temporary residential. We aggregated successive placements in different care home providers and, by linking to health data, across periods in hospital. Results The largest group of stays (38.9% were those intended to be temporary, such as for rehabilitation, and typically lasted 4 weeks. For people admitted to permanent residential care, median length of stay was 17.9 months. Women stayed longer than men, while stays were shorter if preceded by other forms of social care. There was significant variation in length of stay between the three local authorities. The typical person admitted to a permanent residential care home will cost a local authority over £38,000, less payments due from individuals under the means test. Conclusions These figures are not apparent from existing data sets. The large cost of care home placements suggests significant scope for preventive approaches. The administrative data revealed complexity in patterns of service use, which should be further explored as it may challenge the assumptions that are often made.

  12. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Amendment No 19 to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund has just been published and can be obtained from Divisional secretariats or, in the case of pensioners, directly from the Administration of the Fund (tel. 767-91 94/27 38), bldg 5, 1-030. This Amendment, which entered into force on 1.1.2003, concerns 1) the fixed sums and allowances adjusted at same date (Annex B) and 2) the articles which have been amended, in accordance with the Finance Committee's decision, regarding voting rules of the Governing Board and the role and composition of the Investment Committee.

  13. Strong tobacco control program requirements and secure funding are not enough: lessons from Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Allison; Sullivan, Sarah; Hendlin, Yogi; Barnes, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2012-05-01

    Florida's Tobacco Pilot Program (TPP; 1998-2003), with its edgy Truth media campaign, achieved unprecedented youth smoking reductions and became a model for tobacco control programming. In 2006, 3 years after the TPP was defunded, public health groups restored funding for tobacco control programming by convincing Florida voters to amend their constitution. Despite the new program's strong legal structure, Governor Charlie Crist's Department of Health implemented a low-impact program. Although they secured the program's strong structure and funding, Florida's nongovernmental public health organizations did not mobilize to demand a high-impact program. Implementation of Florida's Amendment 4 demonstrates that a strong programmatic structure and secure funding are insufficient to ensure a successful public health program, without external pressure from nongovernmental groups.

  14. PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its 104th and 105th meetings on 8th November and 4th December 2001, respectively. The agenda of the 8th November meeting was devoted to a single item, namely the outcome of the Finance Committee's meeting the previous day. The Governing Board noted with satisfaction that both its proposed amendments to the Rules and Regulations of the Fund - allowing, in particular, the award of a deferred retirement pension after five years of service - and its proposal for the adjustment of pensions on 1.1.2002 had been approved for recommendation to the Council in December. At its meeting on 4th December, the Governing Board dealt mainly with the items examined at the latest meeting of the Investment Committee. The Committee's chairman, G. Maurin, stated that the 2001 return on the Fund's overall investments was likely to be between -2% and -3%. He also noted that a new study of the Fund's cash flows (incomings and outgoings) had been performed. He underlined that, while the flo...

  15. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Following the approval by the CERN Council, at its Session in March 2006, of the amendments to Administrative Circular No. 14 (Protection of the members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability) and the resulting amendments to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, the Administration of the Fund has decided to publish a complete new edition of the Rules and Regulations incorporating all amendments up to 1st July 2006. Members of the Fund will be informed once the new edition of the Rules and Regulations is available from Departmental secretariats.In the meantime, the amendments to the text of the Pension Fund Rules and Regulations, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, are presented below (Previous text/Amended text): Chapter II - Section 1: Contributions and benefits Article II 1.04 - Reference Salary - Part-time Work OLD TEXT: The reference salary of a member with a contract for part-time work shall b...

  16. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Following the approval by the CERN Council, at its Session in March 2006, of the amendments to Administrative Circular No. 14 (Protection of the members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability) and the resulting amendments to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, the Administration of the Fund has decided to publish a complete new edition of the Rules and Regulations incorporating all amendments up to 1st July 2006. Members of the Fund will be informed once the new edition of the Rules and Regulations is available from Departmental secretariats. In the meantime, the amendments to the text of the Pension Fund Rules and Regulations, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, are presented below (Previous text/Amended text) : Chapter II - Section 1: Contributions and benefits Article II 1.04 - Reference Salary - Part-time Work OLD TEXT: the reference salary of a member with a contract for part-time work shall be e...

  17. Death by suicide and other externally caused injuries after stroke in Japan (1990-2010): the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takashi; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Inoue, Manami; Akechi, Tatsuo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    No large population-based prospective study has investigated the risks of suicide and death by other externally caused injuries (ECIs) among stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to examine whether stroke increases the risks of suicide and ECI deaths. We analyzed data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study between 1990 and 2010. Poisson regression models were used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (RR) for suicide and ECI deaths. To adjust for unmeasured confounders, case-crossover analyses of all stroke patients who died by suicide and ECIs were also performed. A population-based cohort of 93,027 Japanese residents was established. During the follow-up period, 4793 residents had been diagnosed as having stroke. During this period, there were 22 suicides and 53 ECI deaths among stroke patients and 490 suicides and 675 ECI deaths among those who were stroke-free. Stroke patients were at increased risk for death by suicide and ECIs within the first 5 years after a stroke (suicide: RR = 10.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.3-16.6; ECI: RR = 12.8, 95% confidence interval = 9.0-18.2). Furthermore, case-crossover analyses confirmed the results of the Poisson regression models. The RRs of suicide and ECI deaths within the first 5 years after a stroke were noticeably high. These findings underscore the need for clinicians and health care professionals to be aware of causes of death after a stroke and closely monitor patients during the first few poststroke years.

  18. Death by suicide and other externally caused injuries following a cancer diagnosis: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takashi; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Inoue, Manami; Akechi, Tatsuo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-09-01

    There have been very few population-based prospective studies that have investigated the risks of deaths by suicide and other externally caused injuries (ECIs) among cancer patients in an Asian population. This study investigated whether the risk of death by both suicide and ECIs increases during the first year following the initial diagnosis of cancer. Data were analyzed from a population-based cohort of Japanese residents between 1990 and 2010, collected during the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. Poisson regression models were used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (RRs) for both suicide and ECI deaths. To adjust for unmeasured confounding factors, case-crossover analyses were conducted for all patients with cancer who died by suicide and ECIs. A population-based cohort of 102,843 Japanese residents was established. During the follow-up period, there were 34 suicides and 48 ECI deaths among patients with cancer, as compared with 527 suicides and 707 ECI deaths among those who did not have cancer. Analyses revealed that those who were newly diagnosed with cancer were at a greatly increased risk of death by suicide and ECIs within the first year after their diagnosis (suicide RR = 23.9, 95% CI: 13.8-41.6; ECI RR = 18.8, 95% CI: 11.4-31.0). Furthermore, the case-crossover analyses generally confirmed the results of the Poisson regressions. The risks of suicide and ECI deaths within the first year after a cancer diagnosis were higher than those among cancer-free populations. A diagnosis of cancer is a critical experience that may increase the risk of fatal outcomes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Amendment No 18 to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund has just been published and can be obtained from Divisional secretariats or, in the case of pensioners, directly from the Administration of the Fund (tel. 767-91 94/27 38), bldg 5, 1-030. This Amendment, which entered into force on 1.1.2002, concerns the articles which have been amended, in accordance with the Council's decision, to allow the award of a deferred retirement pension after five years of service (instead of ten previously) and the fixed sums and allowances adjusted at the same date (Annex B). It also contains a revised version of the table of contents of the Rules, as well as pages where the contents have not changed but where the page layout has had to be adjusted for technical reasons.

  20. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2006-01-01

    Amendment No. 22 to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund has just been published and can be obtained from Department/Unit secretariats or, in the case of pensioners, directly from the Administration of the Fund (tel. 767-91 94/27 38), bldg 5, 1-030. This Amendment, which entered into force following the CERN Council's decisions of 16 December 2005, includes the following new articles: Art. II 5.08 : Non-entitlement to Pension for Surviving Spouse Art. II 5.09 : Procurement of an entitlement to Pension for Surviving Spouse Art. II 6.09 : Non-entitlement to Pension for Orphans Art. II 7.01 c) : Entitlement to Allowances Art. III 1.07 : Extension of the contract beyond the age limit of 65 as well as the following amended articles : Article II 1.07 - Contributions Annex B - Fixed sums and allowances

  1. Securing decommissioning funds. Why organization matters?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchapga, F.

    2005-01-01

    customers. Because of electricity sector restructuring, businesses are no longer protected from market sanctions and stock market volatility. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the compatibility of the design of reserve fund models with the liberalised electricity context. The paper first considers the design of reserve funds and concludes that there is no single design. Based on the variety of design, section two assess their respective compatibility with the new electricity context. It appears that the monitoring and control of the management of the funds are the main determinant of compatibility. The paper concludes that, as secure funding is a dimension of safe decommissioning, there is a necessity for an optimal design of decommissioning funds model. The paper also suggests that external management solution improve the credibility of decommissioning commitment. This paper has completed two objectives. Firstly, it has highlighted the diversity of designs of the decommissioning reserve funds. We have seen that the reserve funds are organised differently, regarding the key features of their design, namely the collection of funds, the management of the funds collected, and the monitoring and control of that management. Secondly, and in respect of the objective to ensure the availability of the funds when needed, the paper has shown that current designs of decommissioning reserve funds are not equally compatible with the constraints of the electricity sector liberalisation. In fact, the new electricity context is characterised by electricity price volatility with, at some conditions, harmful effects on the financial viability of electric companies. The paper has shown that external fund designs offer a satisfactory compatibility with these constraints. This is because the design of external funds imposes clear limitations on the behaviour of the manager of the funds. Therefore, the paper suggests that in a context of liberalised electricity market, external funds

  2. PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    Administration of the Fund

    2001-01-01

    The Administration of the Fund has just signed a contract with the 'La Suisse' insurance company, making life insurance available to persons leaving CERN under very similar conditions to those offered to the members of the CERN personnel. From now on, persons retiring from the Organization will be able to take out this new insurance at the moment of retirement, provided that they have been members of CERN's collective life insurance scheme for the last five years of service. Exceptionally, until the end of 2001, 'La Suisse' has agreed to allow persons who are already retired to take out this insurance, subject to their state of health (health questionnaire to be completed) and with a maximum insured amount set at 150,000 CHF. We therefore invite any retired persons interested in this insurance to consult the detailed terms and conditions, either on the Pension Fund's Web site (http://pensions.web.cern.ch/pensions) or by writing to the Administration of the Fund. For those wishing to apply, the documents to be...

  3. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its one-hundred-and-twenty-second meeting on 3 February 2004. Opening the meeting, the Chairman, J. Bezemer, welcomed W. Zapf's alternate T. Lagrange, A. Naudi's alternate P. Geeraert, and M. Goossens' alternate M. Vitasse, who were attending the Governing Board for the first time. The Governing Board heard a report from its Chairman on the meeting of the CERN Council on 19 December 2003, at which, under Pension Fund matters, the Council had approved a pensions adjustment of 0.7%. The Governing Board then heard a report on the main elements of the Investment Committee's meeting on 3 December 2003. During a presentation, Expert Timing System (Madrid) and the Compagnie de Trésorerie Benjamin de Rothschild (Geneva) had proposed a bond portfolio investment following the same quantitative investment principles as the equities portfolio they already managed for the Fund. After some deliberation, the Investment Committee had decided, on that basis, to award t...

  4. Student Projects as a Funding Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Kerry L.

    2010-01-01

    Prompted by restricted funding for a lab which supported student software development work on real-world projects, a contribution program was established to facilitate monetary support from the external clients. The paper explores the relationships between instructor, students and client and how a funding component can affect these ties.…

  5. Continuous Improvement in State Funded Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    State funded preschool programs were constantly faced with the need to change in order to address internal and external demands. As programs engaged in efforts towards change, minimal research was available on how to support continuous improvement efforts within the context unique to state funded preschool programs. Guidance available had…

  6. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  7. For a public management of funds dedicated to nuclear dismantling: the TESEN (fund for the Energy transition and a fair phasing out nuclear), and its assignment to the financing of energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autissier, Isabelle; Germa, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The report outlines that the cost of nuclear energy in France is largely under-assessed because of the under-evaluation of the future dismantling of nuclear installations and of the management of radioactive wastes. It outlines that provisions made for this dismantling are insufficient, opaque and very risky. This report proposes the creation of a fund independent from nuclear operators to make pay the actual cost of nuclear energy and reduce the French electrical dependence on this energy, to secure long-term financing to finance the dismantling, to bring the financing for the decades to come to finance energy transition, to finance energy transition at reasonable rates, and to clarify the governance for phasing out nuclear

  8. 36 CFR 330.7 - Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 330.7 Funding. (a) Section 330.3(c) sets forth the maximum authorized funds for law enforcement contracting in FY 1978 and FY 1979. The Division funding levels for FY 1978 are based on information as... Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATION OF LAW...

  9. Current Developments in Community College Performance Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Mark M.; Friedel, Janice N.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Thornton, Zoë M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the initiation of performance funding in Tennessee in the late 1970s, approximately 30 states have, at some point, attempted a funding model that includes performance on a set of indicators. The purpose of the present study was to capture the current status of performance funding in public statewide community college systems and to assess…

  10. Constitutional Law--State Action--Hiring and Promotion Practices of Private University Receiving Public Funds Held State Action--Braden v. University of Pittsburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York University Law Review, 1977

    1977-01-01

    In Braden vs University of Pittsburgh, a female professor filed suit against the University alleging sex discrimination in employment practices. The professor alleged that the school, which received state funds, was, in effect, a state actor and subject to constitutional restraints. This case and two relevant state action cases are discussed. (JMD)

  11. PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    Administration of the Fund

    2001-01-01

    The Administration of the Fund has just signed a contract with the 'La Suisse' insurance company, making life insurance available to persons leaving CERN under very similar conditions to those offered to the members of the CERN personnel. From now on, persons retiring from the Organization will be able to take out this new insurance at the moment of retirement, provided that they have been members of CERN's collective life insurance scheme for the last five years of service. Exceptionally, until the end of 2001, 'La Suisse' has agreed to allow persons who are already retired to take out this insurance, provided that they are less than 70 years old and subject to their state of health (health questionnaire to be completed) and with a maximum insured amount set at 150,000 CHF. We therefore invite any retired persons interested in this insurance to consult the detailed terms and conditions, either on the Pension Fund's Web site (http://pensions.web.cern.ch/pensions) or contacting to the Administration of the Fun...

  12. Fund Raising: An International Feast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Valorie; Marshall, Gene

    The procedure for planning an international dinner to raise funds and publicize foreign language study is described. The project, which netted several hundred dollars for a high school in North Dakota, involves careful planning over a period of months. Publicity and facilities are discussed, and the various culinary and other jobs to be…

  13. Hedge Funds as Investors of Last Resort?

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Brophy; Paige P. Ouimet; Clemens Sialm

    2009-01-01

    Hedge funds have become important investors in public companies raising equity privately. Hedge funds tend to finance companies that have poor fundamentals and pronounced information asymmetries. To compensate for these shortcomings, hedge funds protect themselves by requiring substantial discounts, negotiating repricing rights, and entering into short positions of the underlying stocks. We find that companies that obtain financing from hedge funds significantly underperform companies that ob...

  14. International labor migration and external debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, J A

    1987-01-01

    The prevailing Mexican and US definitions of undocumented migration are poles apart. The US views it as a criminal problem. Mexicans view the undocumented migrants as actors in an economic game in which the rules are extremely disadvantageous to these migrants. Migrants themselves and their communities view the undocumented as a positive element. It is necessary to move toward a bilateral focus and bilateral negotiation on the issue of migratory workers. This proposal derives from several assumptions: 1) the external debt is a bilateral or multilateral issue, 2) it is important to avoid forcing debtor countries to choose between stimulating economic growth or making payment on their foreign debt, 3) prevailing public opinion in the US favors halting undocumented migration, 4) the US views the migration of undocumented Mexicans as the result of forces endogenous to Mexico and exogenous to the US, 5) the US views both Mexico's ability to make payment on its external debt and to halt emigration as tied to the Mexican government's ability or inability to reconcile political stability with scarce monetary resources, and 6) political instability in Mexico could augment emigration to the US and undermine Mexico's ability to address its foreign debt. The following proposal suggests means to link negotiation on the external debt to that of undocumented migration: 1) The Mexican government could reach an accord with the US to channel a portion of the actual interest on the external debt as a fund to be invested in Mexico to construct a system of labor intensive agroindustrial productive units designed to attract former or potential migratory workers; 2) the total amount of these funds would be deducted from interest payments on the principal of the actual external debt and redefined as an ad hoc loan to Mexico to finance these production units; 3) part of the production from these units would be incorporated into ongoing US food relief and food assistance programs; 4) the

  15. Accessing International Funding for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars; Ray, Aaron D.; Smith, Joel B.

    of international public funding sources dedicated to adaptation investments (Chapter 3) • Seven fundamental eligibility criteria for accessing international public funding and guidance on how to apply these concepts to project ideas (Chapter 3) • A template (built on the abovementioned seven fundamental...

  16. Raising private investment funds for museums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Tsjalle; Dolfsma, W.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors propose the notion of an "arts fund", a publicly traded investment fund for the purpose of acquiring increasingly costly art works to be displayed in museums. Public as well as private museums stand to benefit greatly from such an approach to financially supporting the arts. A

  17. 45 CFR 2531.20 - Funding priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... priorities. The Corporation may choose to set priorities (and to periodically revise such priorities) that... given fiscal year. In setting these priorities, the Corporation will seek to concentrate funds on those... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Funding priorities. 2531.20 Section 2531.20 Public...

  18. Transdisciplinary EU science institute needs funds urgently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, T.P.; Vasbinder, Jan W.; Andersson, B.; Arthur, W. Brian; Boasson, Maarten; Boer, de Rob; Changeux, Jenb Pierre; Domingo, Esteban; Eigen, Manfred; Fersht, Alan; Frenkel, Daan; Rees, Martin; Huber, Robert; Hunt, Tim; Holland, John; May, Robert; Norby, Erling; Nijkamp, Peter; Lehn, Jean Marie; Rabbinge, Rudy; Scheffer, Maarten; Schuster, Peter; Serageldin, Ismail; Stuip, Jan; Vries, de Jan; Vierssen, van Wim; Willems, Rein

    2010-01-01

    Europe's future hinges on funding transdisciplinary scientific collaboration. But career paths, peer recognition, publication channels and the public funding of science are still mostly geared to maintain and reinforce disciplinarity. We do not properly understand the effects of technology on the

  19. Transdisciplinary EU Science Institute needs funds urgently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasbinder, J.W.; Andersson, B.; Arthur, W.B.; Boasson, M.; Scheffer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Europe's future hinges on funding transdisciplinary scientific collaboration. But career paths, peer recognition, publication channels and the public funding of science are still mostly geared to maintain and reinforce disciplinarity. We do not properly understand the effects of technology on the

  20. Pension Fund award

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund won the Investments & Pensions Europe (IPE) 2013 Gold Award in the Medium Real-Estate Investor category. IPE is the leading European publication on the subject of pensions. The awards were judged by a panel of 22 members, which included leading European investment consultants and pension fund executives.     Théodore Economou (left), the CERN Pension Fund’s Chief Executive Officer, receives the IPE 2013 Gold Award.   The award recognised the “fresh thinking” behind the CERN Pension Fund’s updated real-estate strategy, which has brought it “focus” on “high-quality assets and diversification.” The jury also noted the Fund’s “streamlined and cost-efficient” management, and noted that CERN is “running a tight ship”. While the awards are given by a European institution, they have a worldwide scope, and winners in ot...

  1. STUDY ON THE PROBLEMS IN THE STAGES OF FILLING OUT THE APPLICATION FORM AND TECHNICAL-FINANCIAL REPORTING ENCOUNTERED BY THE PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE CENTRE REGION IN ACCESSING EUROPEAN FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRASCU DANUT

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article has as main field the project management, specifically, identifying the negative factors on European projects. The article assumes that there is a connection between the absorption of European funds and the maturity of the Romanian society in terms of project management. The main objective of the research is to identify the problems faced by public institutions from Centre Region in accessing European funds. The purpose of the research is to identify the causes that led to the low absorption of European funds, with devastating effects on the current economic situation. The present research is based on a preliminary analysis performed by the author on the rate of accessing European funds published in an article entitled “The current state of European funds absorption through funding programmes – measure of the Romanian performances in the project management practice”. The small degree of absorption of European funds resulting from the analysis shows a poor practice of the theory on project management. To identify the causes of this problem, a research was carried out to recognise the issues that led to this situation. The investigation included two successive surveys, the first one qualitative, exploratory type, interview-based, meant to demonstrate the qualitative aspects of the investigated phenomena and the other one, quantitative, based on a questionnaire in the form of occasional surveys. The qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in combination; this approach has become necessary especially due to the very complex reality whose trueness cannot be captured through one method. The investigation has however a highly quantitative character, the purpose of the qualitative research being to provide the prerequisites for achieving the quantitative research. The qualitative research revealed the existence of some problems faced by institutions in relation to accessing and developing projects that focus

  2. Pension fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Letter sent on Monday 8 December 2014 to the delegates of the Member States to CERN Council An item on the agenda of the CERN Council of Thursday 11 December concerned the CERN Pension Fund, namely a discussion of a document that proposes how to respond to the many questions concerning pensions that had been submitted by thirteen Member State delegations. That document lists all these questions and proposes, as a first step, to consider the legal feasibility and the actuarial cost to transform our current defined-benefit pension scheme into a defined-contribution scheme. Once again, several delegates show their determination to worsen our pension conditions. The Staff Association’s Pension Commission, in a special meeting on Thursday, 4 December, has decided to send an open letter to the delegates of the CERN Council. In this letter (shown below) the Staff Association and CERN-ESO Pensions’ Association express their opposition to these intentions. We underline, once more, that the 2010...

  3. Use of net present value analysis to evaluate a publicly funded biomass-to-ethanol research, development, and demonstration program and valuate expected private sector participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, N D; Yancey, M A

    1998-01-01

    One of the functions of government is to invest tax dollars in programs, projects, and properties that will result in greater public benefit than would have resulted from leaving the tax dollars in the private sector or using them to pay off the public debt. This paper describes the use of Net Present Value (NPV) as an approach to analyze and select investment opportunities for government money in public research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) programs and to evaluate potential private sector participation in the programs. This approach is then applied to a specific biomass-to-ethanol opportunity in California.

  4. Showing results? An analysis of the perceptions of internal and external stakeholders of the public performance communication by the Belgian and Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Galetzka, Mirjam; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Seydel, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Information Quarterly, 15: 153–156). In Belgium and the Netherlands, one Performance measurement and communicating about it with the broader public is not self-evident if one looks at public services organizations (Hernon, 1998 P. Hernon, The government performance and results act. Government

  5. 42 CFR 93.209 - Funding component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Funding component. 93.209 Section 93.209 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  6. IMPACT OF ROMANIAN HIGHER EDUCATION FUNDING POLICY ON UNIVERSITY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRETAN Georgiana Camelia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of higher education funding policy and university operating efficiency are hot points on the actual public agenda worldwide as the pressures exercised upon the public resources increased, especially in the aftermath of the last economic crisis. Concerned with the improvement of the funding mechanism through which government allocates the public funds in order to meet the national core objectives within the area of higher education, the policy makers adjusted the funding policy by diversifying the criteria used in distributing the funds to public universities. Thus, the aim of this research is to underline both the impact and the consequences the public funding patterns of higher education have on the relative efficiency of public funded higher education institutions, across time. Moreover, the research conducted aims to determine whether the changes occurred within the Romanian public funding methodology of higher education institutions improved the relative efficiency scores of public funded universities, before and after the economic crisis of 2008. Thus, on one hand we have underlined the changes brought to the Romanian public funding mechanism of higher education during the years of 2007, 2009 and 2010 compared to the year of 2006, using the content analysis, and on the other hand we assessed and compared the relative efficiency scores of each selected public funded university using a multiple input - multiple output linear programming model, by employing the Data Envelopment Analysis technique. The findings of the research undertaken emphasized that a more performance oriented funding mechanism improves the efficiency scores of public universities. The results of the research undertaken could be used either by the policy makers within the area of higher education or by the administrative management of public universities in order to correlate the funding with the results obtained and/or the objectives assumed by both the

  7. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-01-01

    in the cases of electricity generation and transportation, where accidental situations are evaluated. The impacts of construction and decommissioning of a facility are included in the electricity generation stage. It is important to stress that this methodology does not employ a worst case scenario analysis, as is usually done for safety or regulatory compliance assessments, but intends to evaluate the impacts expected from the operations. In a few cases, however, when no reasonable alternative seemed possible, conservative values were used. The impact pathway approach requires an inventory and assessment of all potential impacts, however, within the context of the ExternE project it has not been possible to consider all of these. Therefore, only the most important impacts, called priority impacts, have been included. Releases of radioactive material to the environment, which potentially impact public health, were given the highest priority. Occupational health impacts, from both radiological and nonradiological causes, were the next priority, even though the extent to which occupational health impacts can be considered as externalities has not yet been addressed

  8. Pension Fund - ELECTIONS - Guillermo de la FUENTE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN - EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH PENSION FUND   This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate: Name: de la FUENTE First Name : Guillermo As CERN treasurer with 12 years experience in finance with a background in Economics coupled with a MBA, my main goal will be to enhance the Pension Fund yield. During 3 consecutive years, our Pension Fund has suffered negative real returns:-1.65% in 2000, -4.26% in 2001 and most probably a double-digit loss this year. In addition to that, we spend annually around CHF 6'000'000 in bank charges and external consultants fees. If we do not change this negative trend, the funding ratio of our Pension Fund might become weak. A more proactive internal fund management in conjunction with a performance-related remuneration to external participants would be some of the points I will propose in order to maximize Fund's y...

  9. 75 FR 81979 - Proposed Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) for Social Innovation Fund 2011 Awards; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Social Innovation Fund 2011 Awards; Request for Feedback AGENCY: Corporation for National and Community... of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) for Social Innovation Fund Awards. SUMMARY: The Corporation for... the 2011 Social Innovation Fund competition. This release will initiate a public input period that...

  10. Protecting Public Education: From Tax Giveaways to Corporations. Property Tax Abatements, Tax Increment Financing, and Funding for Schools. NEA Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report describes a study aimed to help education advocates protect public schools and services from the effects of certain types of economic development subsidies. These subsidies include cutting companies' property taxes and granting long-term diversions of certain districts' property taxes to corporations making investment in those…

  11. Pension Fund Asset Allocation and Liability Discount Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andonov, Aleksandar; Bauer, Rob; Cremers, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    The unique regulation of U.S. public pension funds links their liability discount rate to the expected return on assets, which gives them incentives to invest more in risky assets in order to report a better funding status. Comparing public and private pension funds in the United States, Canada, and

  12. Adequate Funding for Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Jason B.

    2010-01-01

    Public schools are currently operating in a pressure-cooker of accountability systems in which they must teach students to high standards and meet ever increasing targets for student proficiency, or face increasingly severe sanctions. Into this mix is thrown educational technology and the funding for that technology. The literature espouses the…

  13. Danish mutual fund performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article provides the first independent performance analysis of Danish mutual funds. We analyse selectivity and market timing abilities for 71 mutual funds that have been in operation from 2001 to 2010. The results show great fund performance diversity. Half the funds have performed neutrally......, whereas 42% of the funds have shown significantly negative performance and only 7% of the funds have over-performed their benchmark. Furthermore, 14% of the funds analysed possess market timing abilities, but for 8 out of 10 funds, their market timing ability has been unsuccessful....

  14. Regulating and Funding Midwifery in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Morrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Midwives have been working in Nova Scotia for many years, and midwifery became a government funded and regulated health profession in the province in 2009. Despite the will among many decision-makers in the province to regulate the profession since the mid 1980s, several elections and lack of a management model slowed the program’s development. Implicit goals of having midwifery services included improving the quality of maternal care and health outcomes, keeping up with other provinces, responding to public demand, and saving costs. Strong and persistent bureaucratic and public advocacy work, inter-party collaboration, and research demonstrating positive and safe maternal and newborn health outcomes under midwifery care all had a role in the decision-making process. The implementation responsibility was delegated to three health districts in the province, each being responsible for designing a program to integrate midwives into maternal health care teams. The program has thus far been evaluated in an ad hoc manner with external teams performing comprehensive assessments, though the need for a cost-benefit analysis as well as more systematic assessments has been identified. Though many opportunities exist with midwifery in the province, including a continued high demand for the service, and research demonstrating positive outcomes for mothers and babies, significant challenges and threats remain to be addressed to ensure long-term sustainability of the program.

  15. How the expanded crowd-funding mechanism of some southern rural areas in China affects cooperative behaviors in threshold public goods game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiao; Chen, Tong; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The influence of emotions on the public goods game can not be ignored. • Individuals’ emotions will be influenced by list and lobbyists’ words when making decisions. • Unless the synergy factor is larger than a certain value, it is necessary to encourage more people to act as lobbyists. • Whether and how to publish the list depend on the situation. - Abstract: The pursuit of high cooperation rates in public goods games has attracted many researchers. However, few researchers attach much weight to the influence of emotions on decision-making, especially on public goods games. From ancient to modern times, publishing the list of cooperators to stimulate cooperation has been a common phenomenon in some southern rural areas in China. Actually, the published list can influence individuals’ behaviors by affecting their emotions. Here we extend the method of publishing the list and optimize it by adding a lobbyist mechanism. Through numerical simulations, we find that the role of lobbyists can not be ignored unless the synergy factor is larger than a certain value. Additionally, we find that publishing the list certainly has a great effect on individual’s cooperative behavior. But whether to publish the list or not and how to publish the list depend on the situation.

  16. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...... the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  17. Health information technology interventions enhance care completion, engagement in HIV care and treatment, and viral suppression among HIV-infected patients in publicly funded settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Starley B; Steward, Wayne T; Koester, Kimberly A; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Myers, Janet J

    2015-04-01

    The National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) emphasizes the use of technology to facilitate coordination of comprehensive care for people with HIV. We examined the effect of six health information technology (HIT) interventions in a Ryan White-funded Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) on care completion services, engagement in HIV care, and viral suppression. Interventions included use of surveillance data to identify out-of-care individuals, extending access to electronic health records to support service providers, use of electronic laboratory ordering and prescribing, and development of a patient portal. Data from a sample of electronic patient records from each site were analyzed to assess changes in utilization of comprehensive care (prevention screening, support service utilization), engagement in primary HIV medical care (receipt of services and use of antiretroviral therapy), and viral suppression. We used weighted generalized estimating equations to estimate outcomes while accounting for the unequal contribution of data and differences in the distribution of patient characteristics across sites and over time. We observed statistically significant changes in the desired direction in comprehensive care utilization and engagement in primary care outcomes targeted by each site. Five of six sites experienced statistically significant increases in viral suppression. These results provide additional support for the use of HIT as a valuable tool for achieving the NHAS goal of providing comprehensive care for all people living with HIV. HIT has the potential to increase utilization of services, improve health outcomes for people with HIV, and reduce community viral load and subsequent transmission of HIV. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com For affiliation see end of article.

  18. Farms and funds: investment funds in the global land rush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buxton, Abbi; Campanale, Mark; Cotula, Lorenzo

    2012-01-15

    Investment funds show a growing interest in farmland and agriculture. They are buying up land and agribusinesses in developing countries with the expectation of high long-term returns linked to rising land prices, growing populations and increasing demand for food. While the media has reported extensively on the involvement of these funds in the global land rush, the mechanics remain little understood by the broader public. What is the interest and what is driving it? Who are the players and what processes do their investment decisions go through? What are the impacts in recipient countries? And what action can be taken to promote investments that genuinely support local people?.

  19. Researcher views about funding sources and conflicts of interest in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A

    2012-12-01

    Dependence in nanotechnology on external funding and academic-industry relationships has led to questions concerning its influence on research directions, as well as the potential for conflicts of interest to arise and impact scientific integrity and public trust. This study uses a survey of 193 nanotechnology industry and academic researchers to explore whether they share similar concerns. Although these concerns are not unique to nanotechnology, its emerging nature and the prominence of industry funding lend credence to understanding its researchers' views, as these researchers are shaping the norms and direction of the field. The results of the survey show general agreement that funding sources are influencing research directions in nanotechnology; many respondents saw this influence in their own work as well as other researchers' work. Respondents also agreed that funding considerations were likely to influence whether researchers shared their results. Irrespective of their institutional affiliation or funding status, twice as many researchers as not considered financial conflicts of interest a cause for concern, and three times as many respondents as not disagreed financial conflicts of interest in nanotechnology were uncommon. Only a third was satisfied with the way that conflicts of interest are currently managed and believed current procedures would protect the integrity of nanotechnology research. The results also found differences in views depending on researchers' institutional affiliation and funding status.

  20. Spring report of the Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    In this column, the Chairman of the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) will regularly present the latest main decisions, initiatives and accomplishments of the Governing Board to the members and beneficiaries of the Fund.   Since my last report in April, I am pleased to report the following progress.  On the recommendation of the Finance Committee, the CERN Council approved the updated Financial Regulations of the Fund at its June session, with immediate effect. The approval of the Financial Regulations completes a key part of the regulatory framework of the Fund’s operations. Also in June, the Council approved the Financial Statements of the CERN Pension Fund for 2011.  The Financial Statements had been certified by the Italian Court of Audit (CERN’s External Auditor), which gave its report to Council. 2011 was the first year during which the audit-related provisions of the updated Fund Rules were fully implemented. On the investments side, the F...

  1. Pension Fund - ELECTIONS - Guillermo de la FUENTE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN - EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH PENSION FUND   This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund.   Candidate: Name: de la FUENTE First Name : Guillermo  As CERN treasurer with 12 years experience in finance with a background in Economics coupled with a MBA, my main goal will be to enhance the Pension Fund yield. During 3 consecutive years, our Pension Fund has suffered negative real returns:-1.65% in 2000, -4.26% in 2001 and most probably a double-digit loss this year. In addition to that, we spend annually around CHF 6'000'000 in bank charges and external consultants fees. If we do not change this negative trend, the funding ratio of our Pension Fund might become weak. A more proactive internal fund management in conjunction with a performance-related remuneration to external participants would be some of the points I will propose in order...

  2. 24 CFR 965.403 - Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....403 Funding. The cost to change mastermeter systems to individual metering of resident consumption, including the costs of benefit/cost analysis and complete installation of checkmeters, shall be funded from... ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR...

  3. A New Funding Model for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul W.; Otto, Daniel M.; Ouart, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    The traditional funding model of the Cooperative Extension System has been stretched to its limits by increasing demand for information and programs without concurrent increases in funding by the public sector. As the social, economic, and political environments have evolved and become more complex, extension is often asked to apply the expertise…

  4. External man-induced events in relation to nuclear power plant design. A Safety Guide. A publication within the NUSS programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In order to take account of lessons learned since the first publication of the NUSS programme was issued, it was decided in 1986 to revise and reissue the Codes and Safety Guides. During the original development of these publications, as well as during the revision process, care was taken to ensure that all Member States, in particular those with active nuclear power programmes, could provide their input. Several independent reviews took place including a final one by the Nuclear Safety Standards Advisory Group (NUSSAG). The revised Codes were approved by the Board of Governors in June 1988. In the revision process new developments in technology and methods of analysis have been incorporated on the basis of international consensus. It is hoped that the revised Codes will be used, and that they will be accepted and respected by Member States as a basis for regulation of the safety of power reactors within the national legal and regulatory framework. 28 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  5. Public Relations Strategies for Scholastic Publication Staffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Bruce E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance to scholastic publications staffs of four public relations strategies: meticulous research, systematic planning, strengthening communication efforts, and evaluation. Notes internal and external factors crucial to good public relations. Lists activities to consider. (SR)

  6. Picking Funds with Confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Niels Strange; Lunde, Asger; Timmermann, Allan

    We present a new approach to selecting active mutual funds that uses both holdings and return information to eliminate funds with predicted inferior performance through a sequence of pair-wise comparisons. Our methodology determines both the number of skilled funds and their identity, funds...... identified ex-ante as being superior earn substantially higher risk-adjusted returns than top funds identified by conventional alpha ranking methods. Importantly, we find strong evidence of variation in the breadth of the set of funds identified as superior, as well as fluctuations in the style and industry...... exposures of such funds over time and across different volatility states....

  7. Rating Mutual Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund’s peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns......, whereas the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  8. Nuclear Waste Fund management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, L.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Fund involves a number of features which make it a unique federal program. Its primary purpose is to finance one of the largest and most controversial public works programs in the history of the United States. Despite the program's indicated size and advance publicity, no one knows exactly where the anticipated projects will be built, who will construct them, what they will look like when they are done or how they will be operated and by whom. Implimentation of this effort, if statutory targets are actually met, covers a 16-year period. To cover the costs of the program, the Federal Government will tax nuclear power at the rate of 1 mil per kilowatt hour generated. This makes it one of the biggest and longest-lived examples of advance collections for construction work in progress in the history of the United States. While the Department of Energy is authorized to collect funds for the program the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has the authority to cut off this revenue stream by the shutdown of particular reactors or particular reactor types. If all goes well, the Federal Government will begin receiving spent nuclear fuel by 1998, continuing to assess a fee which will cover operating and maintenance costs. If all does not go well, the Federal Government and/or utilities will have to take other steps to solve the problem of permanent disposal. Should the latter circumstance prevail, presumably not only used to date but the $7.5 billion would be spent. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, contains no clear provision for utility refunds in that case

  9. Scientific Advice, Traditional Practices and the Politics of Health-Care : The Australian Debate over Public Funding of Non-Therapeutic Circumcision, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Darby

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1985 the Australian Government sought to delete circumcision of infants from the benefits payable under its newly established universal health scheme, Medicare. Although the decision had been recommended by the government's health advisers and was welcomed by medical authorities, it was soon reversed after protests from Jewish community leaders. I present a detailed narrative of this affair and explain why a decision based on sound medical knowledge advice was rescinded after quite mild objections. The answer is found to lie partly in contingent factors, such as the details of the policy change, the personalities of the government figures involved, and problems with implementation and communication; and partly in the sensibilities of the ethnic/religious communities most directly affected. I dispel the misconception that the original decision aroused widespread opposition and show, on the contrary, that it was based on good advice, represented sound public policy, and was widely supported. I conclude that the episode may have useful lessons for other governments seeking to implement or resist policy changes that affect the sensitivities of cultural minorities.

  10. Providing Family Planning Services at Primary Care Organizations after the Exclusion of Planned Parenthood from Publicly Funded Programs in Texas: Early Qualitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kari; Hopkins, Kristine; Grossman, Daniel; Potter, Joseph E

    2017-10-20

    To explore organizations' experiences providing family planning during the first year of an expanded primary care program in Texas. Between November 2014 and February 2015, in-depth interviews were conducted with program administrators at 30 organizations: 7 women's health organizations, 13 established primary care contractors (e.g., community health centers, public health departments), and 10 new primary care contractors. Interviews addressed organizational capacities to expand family planning and integrate services with primary care. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a theme-based approach. Themes were compared across the three types of organizations. Established and new primary care contractors identified several challenges expanding family planning services, which were uncommon among women's health organizations. Clinicians often lacked training to provide intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants. Organizations often recruited existing clients into family planning services, rather than expanding their patient base, and new contractors found family planning difficult to integrate because of clients' other health needs. Primary care contractors frequently described contraceptive provision protocols that were not evidence-based. Many primary care organizations in Texas initially lacked the capacity to provide evidence-based family planning services that women's health organizations already provided. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. Expanding Science Teacher Preparation: the Role of External Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, John M.; Vokos, S.; Seeley, L.; Close, E.

    2006-12-01

    The Department of Physics and the School of Education at Seattle Pacific University are in the early stages of expanding the scope and reach of our science teacher preparation. We will describe how we are putting the puzzle together and our results to date. * Supported in part by NSF grant #ESI-0455796, NSF grant # DUE-0630460, NSF grant DUE-0310583, The Boeing Corporation, PhysTec and the SPU Science Initiative.

  12. Decisiones, externalidades y economía pública en un contexto localizado Decisions, externalitats i economia pública en un context de localització Decisions, Externalities and Public Economy in a Location Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Benito Ostolaza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Decisions, Externalities and Public Economy in a Location ContextIn this paper, we propose a learning application of the theory of market failure as part of a degree in Economics. They are new contexts in which adapt existing knowledge. Even a small contribution from our clasrrom experience, we can say that one side is extremely motivating for students and the other opens a new methodological framework in which student participation in learning becomes crucial.In this paper, we propose a learning application of the theory of market failure as part of a degree in Economics. They are new contexts in which adapt existing knowledge. Even a small contribution from our clasrrom experience, we can say that one side is extremely motivating for students and the other opens a new methodological framework in which student participation in learning becomes crucial.

  13. Extramural Research Grants and Scientists’ Funding Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Although competitive funding of public research has been characterised as providing output incentives that raise efficiency and productivity, we know very little about whether the quality of a scientist’s research is in fact the primary award criterion on which funding bodies base their grant...... decision. This paper provides insights into scientists’ strategies for obtaining project-based research funding in the presence of multiple funding opportunities. It draws a distinction between four types of grants, including the Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP6......), government, foundation, and industry grants. Based on a sample of more than 800 scientists at universities and public research institutes in Germany, the results indicate that scientist productivity measured in terms of publication and patent stock is a statistically significant determinant only...

  14. The funding black hole

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Two physics students at the University of Bristol have organised a petition against the recently-announced funding cut of 80 million by the body that funds physics research in the UK, the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC).

  15. The Little Data Book on External Debt 2009

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The little data book on external debt, a pocket edition of Global Development Finance (GDF) 2009, volume two, summary and country tables, contains statistical tables on the external debt of the 128 countries that report public and publicly guaranteed external debt under the debtor reporting system. It also includes tables of selected debt and resource flow statistics for individual reporting ...

  16. Pension funds' herding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, D.; Chen, D.; Minderhoud, P.; Schudel, W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses unique and detailed transaction data to analyse herding behavior among pension funds. We distinguish between weak, semi strong and strong herding behaviour. Weak herding occurs if pension funds have similar rebalancing strategies. Semi strong herding arises when pension funds react

  17. Location of external state financial control in national control system of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Vygovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article estimates the theoretical basis of the external state financial control in Ukraine in the context of defining its place in the formation of the functional areas of internal and external controls in order to eliminate duplication of a single national control system. The authors have investigated the scientific approaches to the interpretation of the concept of «external state financial control», «internal financial control», «public audit» in order to eliminate terminological confusion. It were found the differences between the external and internal financial control on the basis of comparative characteristics of such features as the entity controlling entities, controlled objects, object methods, and direction control. The concept of internal and external controls are considered to expedient to communicate with the system in which this control is identified. «Internal» in this case is identical intra-control, that is located within the executive branch, while an external control is not included in it and is external to the executive bodies of the controlled institution, and is not related to them and, as a consequence, independent. The authors suggest to form a unified system of state financial control, a clear distinction between internal and external powers of species. The authors consider that appropriate in this context will be the adoption of a single legislative act «About State Financial Control», the proposed structure is introduced in the article. Implementation of this law will contribute to the clear division of functional areas of the state control (internal and external, the elimination of departmental conflicts, and promote the formation of a single integrated control system in Ukraine, able to counteract abuses and prevent the possible loss of budgetary funds.

  18. 36 CFR 222.10 - Range betterment fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Range betterment fund. 222.10... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.10 Range betterment fund. In... also be accomplished through use of the range betterment fund as follows: (a) On National Forest land...

  19. 45 CFR 2553.72 - What are project funding requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... local funding sources during the first three years of operations; or (2) An economic downturn, the... sources of local funding support; or (3) The unexpected discontinuation of local support from one or more... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are project funding requirements? 2553.72...

  20. Are fund of hedge fund returns asymmetric?

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Margaret; Hutson, Elaine; Stevenson, Max

    2004-01-01

    We examine the return distributions of 332 funds of hedge funds and associated indices. Over half of the sample is significantly skewed according to the skewness statistic, and these are split 50/50 positive and negative. However, we argue that the skewness statistic can lead to erroneous inferences regarding the nature of the return distribution, because the test statistic is based on the normal distribution. Using a series of tests that make minimal assumptions about the shape of the ...

  1. 76 FR 578 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Fiscal Year 2010; Rural Innovation Fund Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    .... SUMMARY: On December 22, 2010, HUD posted on http://www.Grants.gov its Notice of Funding Availability... publication announces that HUD has posted on http://www.Grants.gov a technical correction that, most... Fund grant.'' The revised NOFA can be found and downloaded from http://www.Grants.gov , using the CFDA...

  2. Use of a geographic information system to identify differences in automated external defibrillator installation in urban areas with similar incidence of public out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a retrospective registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, David; Haas, Jan; Ban, Yifang; Jonsson, Martin; Svensson, Leif; Djarv, Therese; Hollenberg, Jacob; Nordberg, Per; Ringh, Mattias; Claesson, Andreas

    2017-06-02

    Early defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is of importance to improve survival. In many countries the number of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is increasing, but the use is low. Guidelines suggest that AEDs should be installed in densely populated areas and in locations with many visitors. Attempts have been made to identify optimal AED locations based on the incidence of OHCA using geographical information systems (GIS), but often on small datasets and the studies are seldom reproduced. The aim of this paper is to investigate if the distribution of public AEDs follows the incident locations of public OHCAs in urban areas of Stockholm County, Sweden. OHCA data were obtained from the Swedish Register for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and AED data were obtained from the Swedish AED Register. Urban areas in Stockholm County were objectively classified according to the pan-European digital mapping tool, Urban Atlas (UA). Furthermore, we reclassified and divided the UA land cover data into three classes (residential, non-residential and other areas). GIS software was used to spatially join and relate public AED and OHCA data and perform computations on relations and distance. Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014 a total of 804 OHCAs occurred in public locations in Stockholm County and by December 2013 there were 1828 AEDs available. The incidence of public OHCAs was similar in residential (47.3%) and non-residential areas (43.4%). Fewer AEDs were present in residential areas than in non-residential areas (29.4% vs 68.8%). In residential areas the median distance between OHCAs and AEDs was significantly greater than in non-residential areas (288 m vs 188 m, p<0.001). The majority of public OHCAs occurred in areas classified in UA as 'residential areas' with limited AED accessibility. These areas need to be targeted for AED installation and international guidelines need to take geographical location into account when suggesting

  3. Offshore Investment Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Jin Wei

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Offshore investment funds are alleged to have engaged in trading behavior that is different from their onshore counterparts because they may be subject to less supervision and regulation. In particular, they may trade more intensely. They could also pursue more aggressively certain trading strategies such as positive feedback trading or herding that could contribute to a greater volatility in the market. Using a unique data set, this chapter compares the trading behavior in the Korean stock market between offshore investment funds with their onshore counterparts registered in the US and UK. There are a number of interesting findings. First, there is indeed evidence suggesting that the offshore funds trade more intensely than their onshore counterparts. Second, however, there is no evidence that the offshore funds engage in positive feedback trading. In contrast, there is strong evidence that the funds from the U.S. and U.K. do. Third, while offshore funds do herd, they do so far less than onshore funds in the U.S. or UK. Fourth, offshore funds hold less glamour stocks (e.g. stocks with high P/E in their portfolio than funds in the U.S. or U.K. do. Moreover, flight to glamour stocks during the in-crisis period is less evident in the case of offshore funds. In sum, offshore funds are no especially worrisome monsters.

  4. Implicações do Programa Dinheiro Direto na Escola para a gestão da escola pública Implications of the school direct funding program on the public school management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Adrião

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta as conseqüências do Programa Dinheiro Direto na Escola para a esfera da gestão das escolas públicas, especialmente aquelas relativas às conexões entre a constituição e gestão da esfera pública e da esfera privada. De certa forma, acreditamos que o PDDE materializa mudanças ocorridas no papel do Estado. Os resultados encontrados, com destaque para aqueles que envolveram a indução à criação de unidades de direito privado para o recebimento e gestão dos recursos descentralizados, organizam-se a efeito deste artigo, tendo em vista três aspectos constitutivos da gestão educacional: a democratização da gestão da escola, a relação público e privado e a relação entre descentralização e centralização.This paper presents some implications of the alterations entailed by the implementation of the School Direct Funding Program on public school management. It is the result of an investigation into the consequences of this Program through case studies in five States São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso do Sul, Pará and Piauí. These were selected to show, albeit relatively, the different situations generated by the implementation of this Program in such diversified educational scenery. Although the induction to create private law entities to receive and manage these decentralized resources is being paid a special attention, these results are organized according to the three aspects that constitute the educational management: the democratization of school management, the relationship between public and private spheres, and the relationship between centralization and decentralization.

  5. Public Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note provides guidance on the type of information about agricultural investments that investors and governments can make publicly available. Transparency about certain aspects of investments can improve relations between investors and communities, enable external stakeholders to hold investors to commitments, and improve investors’ public image. Although some information should be kep...

  6. Decommissioning nuclear power plants: a case for internal funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Historically, utilities have exercised sole responsibility for reinvesting capital funds collected from ratepayers. Capital provided by ratepayers, whether for recovery of invested capital or for removal costs, reduces the magnitude of future borrowings - dollar for dollar. If regulatory commissions require utilities to place these collections in separate, inaccessible investment accounts (as in external funding methods), then utilities will be denied the use of these funds. Ratepayers, in turn, will be denied both their usual interest credit and the cost-saving benefits afforded by utilities having readily accessible cash to use instead of having to resort to borrowing. Such benefits can be attained only through internal-funding methods that keep rate payer contributions under unrestricted utility control. While state regulatory commissions currently favor external funding for financial assurance, the author feels the extra cost to ratepayers and the utilities is too high a price to pay

  7. Financiamiento y gestión de la educación pública chilena de los años 90 Chilean funding and management policy for public education in the nineties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Donoso Díaz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerando el escenario educativo chileno de los años 90, se analiza la política de financiamiento de la educación pública del sector de educación básica y media y su relación con los principales procesos de gestión implementados en ese período. Se sostiene que el enfoque neoliberal, que se implantó sin tregua desde el año 1981, se mantiene en su inspiración, sus principios operativos y en la aplicación de los instrumentos empleados para ello. Paralelamente, el neoliberalismo validó la idea de que los resultados educacionales no están directamente asociados con el capital social, económico y cultural de las familias, sino básicamente con los procesos de gestión de los establecimientos escolares, poniendo especial atención al tipo de propiedad de la institución escolar. Esta situación se conjuga, además, con la existencia en la macro gestión del sistema educacional chileno de un modelo matricial en que el Ministerio de Educación no ejecuta las políticas, sino son los municipios y los agentes privados quienes lo hacen, entes que no están obligados a rendir cuentas de su gestión al Ministerio en muchas áreas clave, lo que complejiza la gestión y por lo mismo, los resultados del sistema educativo público chileno.Considering the Chilean education scenario in the nineties, this paper assesses public education funding policy in elementary and secundary education and its relation to the major management processes implemented during that period. It argues that the neoliberal focus characteristic of these policies implementation since 1981 still prevails. Simultaneously, neoliberalism has validated the idea that educational results are not directly associated to the social, economic and cultural capital of the families. They relate basically to the management processes of the educational establishments, with special attention to private or public ownership of the school. Moreover, this situation is related to the existence

  8. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  9. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company's customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  10. A Fund of Wisdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Broome, André

    2006-01-01

    The International Monetary Fund spends most of its time monitoring its member states' economic performance and advising on institutional change. While much of the literature sees the Fund as a policy enforcer in "emerging market" and "frontier" economies, little attention has been paid to exploring...... for change on the basis of like-characteristics among economies. Many Western states, particularly small open economies, consider the Fund's advice as important not only for technical know-how, but because Fund assessments are significant to international and domestic political audiences. This article traces...... the Fund's advice on taxation and monetary reform to two coordinated market economies, Denmark and Sweden, and two liberal market economies, Australia and New Zealand from 1975 to 2004. It maps how the Fund advocated "policy revolutions" and "policy recombinations" during this period, advice that coincided...

  11. Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

    This dissertation consists of three essays which examine environmental policy, employer mandates and energy consumption. The essays explore how firms respond to government policies such as environmental regulation and employer mandates. Understanding how firms adjust to government policies is crucial to law makers attempting to design optimal policies that maximize net benefits to society. The first essay, titled Who Loses under Power Plant Cap-and-Trade Programs tests how a major cap-and-trade program, known as the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), affected labor markets in the region where it was implemented. The cap-and-trade program dramatically decreased levels of NOx emissions and added substantial costs to energy producers. Using a triple-differences approach that takes advantage of the geographic and time variation of the program as well as variation in industry energy-intensity levels, I examine how employment dynamics changed in manufacturing industries whose production process requires high levels of energy. After accounting for a variety of flexible state, county and industry trends, I find that employment in the manufacturing sector dropped by 1.7% as a result of the NBP. Young workers experienced the largest employment declines and earnings of newly hired workers fell after the regulation began. Employment declines are shown to have occurred primarily through decreased hiring rates rather than increased separation rates, thus mitigating the impact on incumbent workers. The second essay, titled Evaluating Workplace Mandates with Flows versus Stocks: An Application to California Paid Family Leave uses an underexploited data set to examine the impact of the California Paid Family Leave program on employment outcomes for young women. Most papers on mandated benefits examine labor outcomes by looking at earnings and employment levels of all workers. Examining these levels will be imprecise if the impacts of the program develop over time and firms are wary to immediately adjust employment and wages for existing workers. Using Quarterly Workforce Indicator data, we are able to measure the impact on hires, new hire earnings, separations and extended leaves among young women. Earnings for young female new hires fell in California relative to other workers, but changed little relative to country-wide comparison groups. We find strong evidence that separations (of at least three months) among young women and the number and shares of young female new hires increased. Many young women that separate (leave the payroll) eventually return to the same firm. Increased separation and hiring rates among young women in the labor market ("churning") may reflect both increased time spent with children and greater job mobility (i.e., reduced job lock) as the result of mandated paid family leave across the labor market. The third essay, Evidence of an Energy Management Gap in U.S. Manufacturing: Spillovers from Firm Management Practices to Energy Efficiency, merge a well-cited survey of firm management practices into confidential plant level U.S. Census manufacturing data to examine whether generic, i.e. non-energy specific, firm management practices, "spillover" to enhance energy efficiency in the United States. For U.S. manufacturing plants we find this relationship to be more nuanced than prior research on UK plants. Most management techniques are shown to have beneficial spillovers to energy efficiency, but an emphasis on generic targets, conditional on other management practices, results in spillovers that increase energy intensity. Our specification controls for industry specific effects at a detailed 6-digit NAICS level and finds the relationship between management and energy use to be strongest for firms in energy intensive industries. We interpret the empirical result that generic management practices do not necessarily spillover to improved energy performance as evidence of an "energy management gap."

  12. Dewitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund National Library Power Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Media Annual (SLMA), 1993

    1993-01-01

    Describes the National Library Power Program, a collaborative effort sponsored by the Dewitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund in cooperation with local education funds and public school districts that was designed to create public elementary and middle school library programs that are central to the education program of the school. (LRW)

  13. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices on the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund is now located in Offices 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the relocation.

  14. Regulating hedge funds.

    OpenAIRE

    Daníelsson, J.; Zigrand, JP.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the ever-increasing amounts under management and their unregulated and opaque nature, hedge funds have emerged as a key concern for policymakers. While until now, hedge funds have been left essentially unregulated, we are seeing increasing calls for regulation for both microprudential and macroprudential reasons. In our view, most calls for the regulation of hedge funds are based on a misperception of the effectiveness of financial regulations, perhaps coupled with a lack of understand...

  15. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  16. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... in the ear. Fungal external otitis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...

  17. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 2. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by the ExternE Project of the European Commission (DGXII) JOULE Programme for assessment of the external costs of energy. It is one of a series of reports describing analysis of nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel cycles for assessment of the externalities associated with electricity generation. Part I of the report deals with analysis of impacts, and Part II with the economic valuation of those impacts. Analysis is conducted on a marginal basis, to allow the effect of an incremental investment in a given technology to be quantified. Attention has been paid to the specificity of results with respect to the location of fuel cycle activities, the precise technologies used, and the type and source of fuel. The main advantages of this detailed approach are as follows: It takes full and proper account of the variability of impacts that might result from different power projects; It is more transparent than analysis based on hypothetically 'representative' cases for each of the different fuel cycles; It provides a framework for consistent comparison between fuel cycles. A wide variety of impacts have been considered. These include the effects of air pollution on the natural and human environment, consequences of accidents in the workplace, impacts of noise and visual intrusion on amenity, and the effects of climate change arising from the release of greenhouse gases. Wherever possible we have used the 'impact pathway' or 'damage function' approach to follow the analysis from identification of burdens (e.g. emissions) through to impact assessment and then valuation in monetary terms. This has required a detailed knowledge of the technologies involved, pollutant dispersion, analysis of effects on human and environmental health, and economics. In view of this the project brought together a multi-disciplinary team with experts from many European countries and the USA. The spatial and temporal ranges considered in the analysis are

  18. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  19. The Performance-based Funding Scheme of Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha KETTUNEN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of the performance-based funding scheme of the Finnish universities that was adopted at the beginning of 2013. The political decision-makers expect that the funding scheme will create incentives for the universities to improve performance, but these funding schemes have largely failed in many other countries, primarily because public funding is only a small share of the total funding of universities. This study is interesting because Finnish universities have no tuition fees, unlike in many other countries, and the state allocates funding based on the objectives achieved. The empirical evidence of the graduation rates indicates that graduation rates increased when a new scheme was adopted, especially among male students, who have more room for improvement than female students. The new performance-based funding scheme allocates the funding according to the output-based indicators and limits the scope of strategic planning and the autonomy of the university. The performance-based funding scheme is transformed to the strategy map of the balanced scorecard. The new funding scheme steers universities in many respects but leaves the research and teaching skills to the discretion of the universities. The new scheme has also diminished the importance of the performance agreements between the university and the Ministry. The scheme increases the incentives for universities to improve the processes and structures in order to attain as much public funding as possible. It is optimal for the central administration of the university to allocate resources to faculties and other organisational units following the criteria of the performance-based funding scheme. The new funding scheme has made the universities compete with each other, because the total funding to the universities is allocated to each university according to the funding scheme. There is a tendency that the funding schemes are occasionally

  20. NREL Funding Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Laboratory (NREL) announced today that it will further reduce its work force as a result of million. Recent indications, however, are that NREL's funding will be lowered by an additional $27 million employees. NREL Director Charles F. Gay said the additional funding cuts are a result of lower than expected