WorldWideScience

Sample records for publication types review

  1. Quality of life research: types of publication output over time for cancer patients, a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, L J; Sanson-Fisher, R; Aranda, S; D'Este, C; Sharkey, K; Schofield, P

    2010-09-01

    To examine the type of published research regarding quality of life for cancer patients over two 24-month periods: 1995-1996 and 2005-2006. A computer-based literature search was conducted using Medline. Two random samples of 120 publications identified in 1995-1996 and in 2005-2006 were coded as data-based research, reviews or programme descriptions. Data-based publications were further coded as measurement, descriptive or intervention research. Intervention publications were coded as psychosocial- or biomedical-based. Psychosocial intervention papers were coded using Cochrane Review criteria. In 1995-1996, 419 publications were identified and 1271 publications in 2005-2006. The majority of publications were data-based. The proportion of types of publications (data-based, reviews or programme description/case report categories) did not change significantly over time. Descriptive research dominated data-based publication outputs in 1995-1996 and 2005-2006. The current approach to quality of life research for cancer patients may be less than optimal for providing successful development of knowledge, improving healthcare delivery and lessening the burden of suffering.

  2. Ethics of reviewing scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitani, Federica; Petrini, Carlo; Garattini, Silvio

    2017-05-01

    The approval or rejection of scientific publications can have important consequences for scientific knowledge, so considerable responsibility lies on those who have to assess or review them. Today it seems that the peer review process, far from being considered an outdated system to be abandoned, is experiencing a new upturn. This article proposes criteria for the conduct of reviewers and of those who select them. While commenting on new emerging models, it provides practical recommendations for improving the peer-review system, like strengthening the role of guidelines and training and supporting reviewers. The process of peer review is changing, it is getting more open and collaborative, but those same ethical principles which guided it from its very origin should remain untouched and be firmly consolidated. The paper highlights how the ethics of reviewing scientific publications is needed now more than ever, in particular with regard to competence, conflict of interest, willingness to discuss decisions, complete transparency and integrity. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 77 FR 1946 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... Review; Comment Request, Public Assistance Customer Satisfaction Survey AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Title: Public Assistance Customer Satisfaction Survey. Type of information collection: Revision of a... T, Public Assistance Customer Satisfaction Survey (Telephone); FEMA Form 519-0-1 INT, Public...

  4. Review of Research on Environmental Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, James E.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews existing knowledge on the behavior of public relations practitioners in environmental problems, public concern and media coverage of pollution and deterioation of the natural environment. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  5. Retraction of Neurosurgical Publications: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Justin; Ku, Jerry C; Alotaibi, Naif M; Rutka, James T

    2017-07-01

    Despite the increasing awareness of scientific fraud, no attempt has been made to assess its prevalence in neurosurgery. The aim of our review was to assess the chronologic trend, reasons, research type/design, and country of origin of retracted neurosurgical publications. Three independent reviewers searched the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases using neurosurgical keywords for retracted articles from 1995 to 2016. Archives of retracted articles (retractionwatch.com) and the independent Web sites of neurosurgical journals were also searched. Data including the journal, impact factor, reason for retraction, country of origin, and citations were extracted. A total of 97 studies were included for data extraction. Journal impact factor ranged from 0.57 to 35.03. Most studies (61) were retracted within the last 5 years. The most common reason for retraction was because of a duplicated publication found elsewhere (26), followed closely by plagiarism (22), or presenting fraudulent data (14). Other reasons included scientific errors/mistakes, author misattribution, and compromised peer review. Articles originated from several countries and some were widely cited. Retractions of neurosurgical publications are increasing significantly, mostly because of issues of academic integrity, including duplicate publishing and plagiarism. Implementation of more transparent data-sharing repositories and thorough screening of data before manuscript submission, as well as additional educational programs for new researchers, may help mitigate these issues in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors impacting time to acceptance and publication for peer-reviewed publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toroser, Dikran; Carlson, Janice; Robinson, Micah; Gegner, Julie; Girard, Victoria; Smette, Lori; Nilsen, Jon; O'Kelly, James

    2017-07-01

    Timely publication of data is important for the medical community and provides a valuable contribution to data disclosure. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate times to acceptance and publication for peer-reviewed manuscripts, reviews, and letters to the editor. Key publication metrics for published manuscripts, reviews, and letters to the editor were identified by eight Amgen publications professionals. Data for publications submitted between 1 January 2013 and 1 November 2015 were extracted from a proprietary internal publication-tracking database. Variables included department initiating the study, publication type, number of submissions per publication, and the total number of weeks from first submission to acceptance, online publication, and final publication. A total of 337 publications were identified, of which 300 (89%) were manuscripts. Time from submission to acceptance and publication was generally similar between clinical and real-world evidence (e.g. observational and health economics studies) publications. Median (range) time from first submission to acceptance was 23.4 (0.2-226.2) weeks. Median (range) time from first submission to online (early-release) publication was 29.7 (2.4-162.6) weeks. Median (range) time from first submission to final (print) publication was 36.2 (2.8-230.8) weeks. Time from first submission to acceptance, online publication, and final publication increased accordingly with number of submissions required for acceptance, with similar times noted between each subsequent submission. Analysis of a single-company publication database showed that the median time for manuscripts to be fully published after initial submission was 36.2 weeks, and time to publication increased accordingly with the number of submissions. Causes for multiple submissions and time from clinical trial completion to first submission were not assessed; these were limitations of the study. Nonetheless, publication planners should consider

  7. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Schuppli, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cult...

  8. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Schuppli, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. Abstract The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine), and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science). As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature. PMID:26480314

  9. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. Ormandy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine, and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science. As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature.

  10. Cardiorenal syndrome type 4: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Anna; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Goh, Ching Yan; Cruz, Dinna N; Granata, Antonio; Vescovo, Girogio; Ronco, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    There is a bidirectional and complex relationship between the heart and kidneys. This interaction is physical, chemical as well as biological and is also reflected in a strong connection between renal and cardiovascular diseases. Cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (CRS type 4) is characterized by primary chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to an impairment of cardiac function, with ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and/or increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. The incidence of CKD is increasing, and CRS type 4 is becoming a major public health problem associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this study, we briefly review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CRS type 4, the role of biomarkers in its early identification, and its management.

  11. Public dialogues on flood risk communication: Literature review : Literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orr, Paula; Forrest, Steven; Brooks, Katya; Twigger-Ross, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This literature review summarises the state of knowledge on communicating the risk of flooding to the public as of January 2014. The review considers how different audiences respond to risk communication and the factors which influence that response. The current systems and techniques for flood risk

  12. Content and Citation Analyses of "Public Relations Review."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Linda P.; Lin, Li-Yun

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes 161 cited and 177 uncited articles published in "Public Relations Review" (1975-93) to determine if 3 independent variables--research methods, type of statistics, and topics--influenced whether or not articles were cited in other research articles. Finds significant differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods but not…

  13. Systematic review of public health branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  14. Publications and the peer review system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peer review process as it relates to scientific publications in entomological journals is facing a number of serious issues that must be addressed. Among those issues are the increasing submissions from international authors writing in English as a second or third language, manuscripts lacking s...

  15. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  16. RAMESES publication standards: meta-narrative reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-narrative review is one of an emerging menu of new approaches to qualitative and mixed-method systematic review. A meta-narrative review seeks to illuminate a heterogeneous topic area by highlighting the contrasting and complementary ways in which researchers have studied the same or a similar topic. No previous publication standards exist for the reporting of meta-narrative reviews. This publication standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for meta-narrative reviews. Methods We (a collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in meta-narrative reviews; (b considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published reviews, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, meta-narrative reviews, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d provided real-time support to ongoing meta-narrative reviews and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e synthesized expert input, evidence review and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified nine published meta-narrative reviews, provided real-time support to four ongoing reviews and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature, and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 33 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 20 key publication standards, with an

  17. Report of the Cape Breton Public Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNeil, T.

    2002-04-02

    The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board (CNSOPB) conducted a public review to determine the effects of potential offshore oil and gas exploration and drilling activities in Sydney Bight and the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence regions where Corridor Resources Inc. and Hunt Oil Company of Canada are proposing to conduct seismic surveys. In particular, activities within exploration licences 2364, 2365, and 2368 were reviewed to determine their socio-economic impact, the effects on the ecosystem, and the mitigation of impacts. The Commissioner of this public review was not mandated to advise on whether the exploratory programs should proceed or whether a moratorium should be placed on exploration of the license areas. Recommendations, however, were proposed in several areas. The first phase of the inquiry included a series of public meetings to allow groups and individuals to identify concerns and exchange views about the process. The second phase involved a series of public hearings where interested parties presented submissions. In particular, 130 formal submissions were received from the petroleum industry, commercial fisheries, environmental groups, tourism industry, aboriginal leaders, and other organizations. The report describes in some detail, the companies' proposals regarding seismic surveys and exploratory drilling. The effects that these activities will have on marine mammals and birds as well as their habitat was examined. Both Hunt and Corridor provided their assessment of the potential environmental and socio-economic effects of their seismic activities and both concluded that the seismic activity would have no significant effect on the marine environment and its uses. They also concluded that the socio-economic benefits to Cape Breton would be small. The issues that dominated the proceedings were the protection of the marine environment and the coexistence between the fishing and petroleum industry. The Commissioner suggests there is need for

  18. 76 FR 80418 - Request for Information: Public Access to Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Publications Resulting From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... archiving publications and making them publically accessible be used to grow the economy and improve the... cons of centralized and decentralized approaches to managing public access to peer reviewed scholarly...

  19. Prevention of type 2 diabetes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, A; Claussen, B; Ramachandran, A; Williams, R

    2007-06-01

    One of the major public health challenges of the 21st century is type 2 diabetes. WHO estimates that by 2025 as many as 200-300 million people worldwide will have developed the disease. A distressing increase in children is perhaps the most alarming sign of something going wrong. Roughly half of the risk of type 2 diabetes can be attributed to environmental exposure and the other half to genetics. Central themes for prevention are the risk factors overweight, sedentary lifestyle, certain dietary components and perinatal factors. Overweight is the most critical risk factor, and should be targeted for prevention of type 2 diabetes especially among children and youths. Ethnicity and perinatal factors are also worth considering. Today we know that prevention helps. In the US Diabetes Prevention Programme for high risk individuals, there was a 58% relative reduction in the progression to diabetes in the lifestyle group compared with the controls. Within the lifestyle group, 50% achieved the goal of more than 7% weight reduction, and 74% maintained at least 150 min of moderately intense activity each week. This review discusses different forms of prevention, and proposes first of all to target people with Impaired Glucose Tolerance with increasing activity and altering dietary factors. And secondly, population-based measures to encourage increased physical activity and decreased consumption of energy-dense foods are important, and may target school children and young people, certain ethnic groups and women with gestational diabetes.

  20. Public opinion about energy: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.; Weis, P.; Unseld, C.T.; Burns, B.A.

    1979-06-01

    A review and analysis of 115 surveys of the general population between 1973 and 1978 (before the Three Mile Island accident, sudden gasoline price increases, and spot gasoline shortages) are presented. The survey data are organized and analyzed according to a set of categories described in Chapter 2. The public's definition of the energy situation is the focus of Chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes public opinion concerning energy conservation pertaining to transportation and domestic energy use -- whether it is efficacious, how knowledgeable people are about conservation, whether they favor it, and whether they engage in it. Findings on the solar energy alternative are described in Chapter 5. Public opinion concerning more conventional sources of energy -- oil and natural gas, coal, and nuclear energy -- are discussed in Chapter 6. In Chapter 7, a summary of analytical findings by 10 major sociodemographic characteristics is presented. Chapter 8 describes analytical findings using various social-psychological variables. A summary is presented in Chapter 9.

  1. Peer review to ensure quality in forensic mental health publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felthous, Alan R; Wettstein, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Peer reviewers have been called the gatekeepers of science. For journal publications in forensic psychiatry, as well as other disciplines, the purposes of peer review are to assist in the selection of manuscripts to publish, improve the quality of manuscripts before their publication, and promote the fairness of the process. In this article, we examine, in particular, characteristics of high-quality peer reviewers, selection of peer reviewers, recruitment and retention of peer reviewers, desired quality of peer-reviewer ratings, and the value of peer review. We conclude with specific, albeit largely untested, recommendations for improvements in peer review of forensic mental health publications.

  2. Which public and why deliberate?--A scoping review of public deliberation in public health and health policy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, Chris; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Deliberative methods are of increasing interest to public health researchers and policymakers. We systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature to identify public health and health policy research involving deliberative methods and report how deliberative methods have been used. We applied a taxonomy developed with reference to health policy and science and technology studies literatures to distinguish how deliberative methods engage different publics: citizens (ordinary people who are unfamiliar with the issues), consumers (those with relevant personal experience e.g. of illness) and advocates (those with technical expertise or partisan interests). We searched four databases for empirical studies in English published 1996-2013. This identified 78 articles reporting on 62 distinct events from the UK, USA, Canada, Australasia, Europe, Israel, Asia and Africa. Ten different types of deliberative techniques were used to represent and capture the interests and preferences of different types of public. Citizens were typically directed to consider community interests and were treated as a resource to increase democratic legitimacy. Citizens were preferred in methodological studies (those focused on understanding the techniques). Consumers were directed to focus on personal preferences; thus convened not as a source of policy decisions, but of knowledge about what those affected by the issue would accept. Advocates-who are most commonly used as expert witnesses in juries-were sometimes engaged to deliberate with consumers or citizens. This almost always occurred in projects directly linked to policy processes. This suggests health policymakers may value deliberative methods as a way of understanding disagreement between perspectives. Overall however, the 'type' of public sought was often not explicit, and their role not specified. This review provides new insight into the heterogeneity and rising popularity of deliberative methods, and indicates a need for greater

  3. Great Expectations of Public Service Delegation: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overman, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Politicians use a variety of expectations to justify the delegation of public services to public, semi-public or private organizations. This article reveals expectations of delegation, as well as its correlates. Empirical evidence is drawn from a systematic review of 250 peer-reviewed articles publi

  4. Great Expectations of Public Service Delegation: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overman, Sjors

    2016-01-01

    Politicians use a variety of expectations to justify the delegation of public services to public, semi-public or private organizations. This article reveals expectations of delegation, as well as its correlates. Empirical evidence is drawn from a systematic review of 250 peer-reviewed articles publi

  5. Submission to the Public Review Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, E. [Sierra Club of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-01-11

    The Sierra Club of Canada is concerned about the impacts from oil and gas exploration within license areas 2364, 2365, and 2368. These concerns apply to each of the four programmes of the Sierra Club of Canada, namely: health and the environment, energy and atmosphere, protection of biological diversity, and the transition to a sustainable economy. The Sierra Club of Canada finds it unacceptable that the above-mentioned licenses were issued, despite full review with regard to environmental impacts. The author mentioned the significant risks resulting from seismic testing and exploratory drilling in Sydney Bight and off the coast of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. The economic sustainability of the local communities dependent on fishery and tourism is in jeopardy. Both commercial and non-commercial species of fish, reptiles, invertebrates and marine mammals are at risk from the impacts on the marine ecosystem. In addition, there is a risk to public health in the coastal communities. The author reviewed both the economic, ecological and health impacts associated with exploration activities in the region. Although the Sierra Club of Canada recognizes te need for Cape Breton to benefit from an economic stimulus and new investment, it is of the opinion that the oil and gas activity at Sable Island could bring economic activity to Cape Breton by using either Sydney Harbour or Port Hawkesbury as supply centres. The Sierra Club recommended that the commission reject exploration and development activities in the inshore, coastal areas of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Sydney Bight. A fundamental review of the current licensing and approval process is required. 8 refs.

  6. Tension type headaches: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    23. Epidemiology. A wide variation in the prevalence of tension-type headaches .... intensity tending to be less in the morning, building up after noon, and reducing ... with a change in position or the start of Valsalva-like sneezing. • Associated ...

  7. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara; Adeli, Khosrow

    2014-10-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current article

  8. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author’s scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current

  9. Aggregating post-publication peer reviews and ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Răzvan V

    2012-01-01

    Allocating funding for research often entails the review of the publications authored by a scientist or a group of scientists. For practical reasons, in many cases this review cannot be performed by a sufficient number of specialists in the core domain of the reviewed publications. In the meanwhile, each scientist reads thoroughly, on average, about 88 scientific articles per year, and the evaluative information that scientists can provide about these articles is currently lost. I suggest that aggregating in an online database reviews or ratings on the publications that scientists read anyhow can provide important information that can revolutionize the evaluation processes that support funding decisions. I also suggest that such aggregation of reviews can be encouraged by a system that would provide a publicly available review portfolio for each scientist, without prejudicing the anonymity of reviews. I provide some quantitative estimates on the number and distribution of reviews and ratings that can be obtained.

  10. Public Financial Management in Indonesia: Review of Islamic Public Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Jaelani, Aan

    2017-01-01

    Public financial management by the government is very important in view of the level of welfare in Indonesia is still low, as there are still much poverty with the level of fulfillment of the needs of low, corruption that occurs in every area of government, income distribution is uneven, low economic growth, and various irregularities other budget. With a qualitative approach that emphasises the phenomenon of the social reality and the country's financial management practices in Indonesia, th...

  11. From abstract to peer-reviewed publication: country matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbol, E.; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Eapen, Z. J.

    2013-01-01

    within 2 years of the conference. Less is known about the relative difference between countries in regards to likelihood of publication. Methods: Using a validated automated computer algorithm, we searched the ISI Web of Science to identify peer-reviewed publications of abstracts presented at the AHA...... observed a significant variation among countries in terms of odds of subsequent publication (Figure). Conclusions: Our results show that conversion of science from an abstract into a peer-reviewed publication varies significantly by country. Local national initiatives should be deployed in order to break...

  12. Collaborative Chat Reference Service Effectiveness Varies by Question Type for Public Library Patrons. A review of: Kwon, Nahyun. ʺPublic Library Patronsʹ Use of Collaborative Chat Reference Service: The Effectiveness of Question Answering by Question Type.ʺ Library & Information Science Research 29.1 (Mar. 2007: 70‐91.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hall

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess the effectiveness of a collaborative chat reference service in answering different types of question. Specifically, the study compares the degree of answer completion and the level of user satisfaction for simple factual questions vs. more in‐depth subject‐based reference questions, and for ‘local’ (pertaining to a particular library and non‐local questions.Design – Content analysis of 415 transcripts of reference transactions, which were also compared to corresponding user satisfaction survey results.Setting – An online collaborative reference service offered by a large public library system (33 branch and regional locations. This service is part of the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System: a virtual reference consortium of U.S. libraries (public, academic, special, and corporate that provides 24/7 service.Subjects – Reference librarians from around the U.S. (49 different libraries, and users logging into the service via the public library system’s portal (primarily patrons of the 49 libraries. Method – Content analysis was used to evaluate virtual reference transcripts recorded between January and June, 2004. Reliability was enhanced through triangulation, with researchers comparing the content analysis of each transcript against the results of a voluntary exit survey. Of 1,387 transactions that occurred during the period of study, 420 users completed the survey and these formed the basis of the study, apart from 5 transactions that were omitted because the questions were incomprehensible. Questions were examined and assigned to five categories: “simple, factual questions; subject‐based research questions; resource access questions; circulation‐related questions; and local library information inquiries” (80‐81. Answers were classed as either “completely answered, partially answered or unanswered, referred, and problematic endings” (82. Lastly, user satisfaction was surveyed on three

  13. Summary of External Peer Review and Public Comments and Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the public and external peer review comments that the EPA’s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) received for the draft work plan risk assessment for n-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP).

  14. Hillside National Wildlife Refuge public use review: July 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document addresses the ten Public Use Requirements for Hillside National Wildlife Refuge, as well as General Impressions of the review team.

  15. Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge public use review: July 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document addresses the ten Public Use Requirements for Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge, as well as General Impressions of the review team.

  16. Virtual slides in peer reviewed, open access medical publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayser Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of virtual slides (VS, the digitalization of complete glass slides, is in its infancy to be implemented in routine diagnostic surgical pathology and to issues that are related to tissue-based diagnosis, such as education and scientific publication. Approach Electronic publication in Pathology offers new features of scientific communication in pathology that cannot be obtained by conventional paper based journals. Most of these features are based upon completely open or partly directed interaction between the reader and the system that distributes the article. One of these interactions can be applied to microscopic images allowing the reader to navigate and magnify the presented images. VS and interactive Virtual Microscopy (VM are a tool to increase the scientific value of microscopic images. Technology and Performance The open access journal Diagnostic Pathology http://www.diagnosticpathology.org has existed for about five years. It is a peer reviewed journal that publishes all types of scientific contributions, including original scientific work, case reports and review articles. In addition to digitized still images the authors of appropriate articles are requested to submit the underlying glass slides to an institution (DiagnomX.eu, and Leica.com for digitalization and documentation. The images are stored in a separate image data bank which is adequately linked to the article. The normal review process is not involved. Both processes (peer review and VS acquisition are performed contemporaneously in order to minimize a potential publication delay. VS are not provided with a DOI index (digital object identifier. The first articles that include VS were published in March 2011. Results and Perspectives Several logistic constraints had to be overcome until the first articles including VS could be published. Step by step an automated acquisition and distribution system had to be implemented to the corresponding

  17. Peer review for biomedical publications: we can improve the system

    OpenAIRE

    Stahel, Philip F; Moore, Ernest E

    2014-01-01

    The lack of formal training programs for peer reviewers places the scientific quality of biomedical publications at risk, as the introduction of ‘hidden’ bias may not be easily recognized by the reader. The exponential increase in the number of manuscripts submitted for publication worldwide, estimated in the millions annually, overburdens the capability of available qualified referees. Indeed, the workload imposed on individual reviewers appears to be reaching a ‘breaking point’ that may no ...

  18. A review of public opinion towards alcohol controls in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livingstone Charles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing concern about the negative impact of alcohol on the Australian community has renewed calls for tighter regulatory controls. This paper reviews levels of and trends in public support for liquor control regulations, regulation of alcohol promotions, and alcohol pricing and taxation reforms in Australia between 1998 and 2009. Methods Six electronic databases and twenty public health and alcohol organisation websites were searched for research literature, reports and media releases describing levels of public support for alcohol controls. Only studies which randomly selected participants were included. Results Twenty-one studies were included in the review. The majority of the Australian public support most proposed alcohol controls. Levels of support are divided between targeted and universal controls. Conclusions Implementation of targeted alcohol policies is likely to be strongly supported by the Australian public, but universal controls are liable to be unpopular. Policy makers are provided with insights into factors likely to be associated with higher public support.

  19. Typing of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A technical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P L Mehndiratta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA worldwide is a growing public health concern. MRSA typing is an essential component of an effective surveillance system to describe epidemiological trends and infection control strategies. Current challenges for MRSA typing are focused on selecting the most appropriate technique in terms of efficiency, reliability, ease of performance and cost involved. This review summarises the available information on application, potential and problems of various typing techniques in discriminating the strains and understanding the epidemiology of MRSA strains. The phenotypic methods in general are easier to perform, easier to interpret, cost effective and are widely available, however less discriminatory. The genotypic methods are expensive and technically demanding, however more discriminatory. Newer technologies involving sequencing of various genes are coming up as broadly applicable and high throughput typing systems. Still there is no consensus regarding the single best method for typing of MRSA strains. Phage typing is recommended as first line approach in epidemiological investigation of MRSA strains. PFGE remains the gold standard for characterisation of outbreak strains. DNA sequencing methods including MLST, spa typing, SCCmec typing and toxin gene profile typing are more practical methods for detecting evolutionary changes and transmission events. The choice of typing technique further depends on the purpose of the study, the facilities available and the utility of data generated to answer a desirable research question. A need for harmonisation of typing techniques by following standard protocols is emphasised to establish surveillance networks and facilitate global MRSA control.

  20. Publication bias in dermatology systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakpo, Paul; Vassar, Matt

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in dermatology provide high-level evidence for clinicians and policy makers that influence clinical decision making and treatment guidelines. One methodological problem with systematic reviews is the under representation of unpublished studies. This problem is due in part to publication bias. Omission of statistically non-significant data from meta-analyses may result in overestimation of treatment effect sizes which may lead to clinical consequences. Our goal was to assess whether systematic reviewers in dermatology evaluate and report publication bias. Further, we wanted to conduct our own evaluation of publication bias on meta-analyses that failed to do so. Our study considered systematic reviews and meta-analyses from ten dermatology journals from 2006 to 2016. A PubMed search was conducted, and all full-text articles that met our inclusion criteria were retrieved and coded by the primary author. 293 articles were included in our analysis. Additionally, we formally evaluated publication bias in meta-analyses that failed to do so using trim and fill and cumulative meta-analysis by precision methods. Publication bias was mentioned in 107 articles (36.5%) and was formally evaluated in 64 articles (21.8%). Visual inspection of a funnel plot was the most common method of evaluating publication bias. Publication bias was present in 45 articles (15.3%), not present in 57 articles (19.5%) and not determined in 191 articles (65.2%). Using the trim and fill method, 7 meta-analyses (33.33%) showed evidence of publication bias. Although the trim and fill method only found evidence of publication bias in 7 meta-analyses, the cumulative meta-analysis by precision method found evidence of publication bias in 15 meta-analyses (71.4%). Many of the reviews in our study did not mention or evaluate publication bias. Further, of the 42 articles that stated following PRISMA reporting guidelines, 19 (45.2%) evaluated for publication bias. In

  1. Transformational Leadership Type in Public and Private Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Rus

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue concerning leadership is a very complex one, that is why taking into the account theplurity of styles already existent many times it was asked the questions: „What type of leadership isnecessary?”. By asking this question, we are thinking of a person responsible with organizing or coordinatingwork or the ones hired to do this, to think of what people want, to solve the management problems in group.This study is intended as a comparison of the two types of leadership (transformational vs. transactional interms of employee performance in public and private organizations. To measure performance and chose twoindicators: satisfaction and productivity. This study falls into the category of research studies the type ofdriving through subordinates with both theoretical and practical implications. The efficiency of this type ofleadership has been demonstrated by studies especially in the political and military and very few studies havebeen made in industrial .Type of transformational leadership is better than transactional perceived astransformational leaders are closer to the needs of employees and continuously investigate these necessities.This paper presents a practical validity as advising managers to develop a transformational type of leadership,both public and private organizations, leads to better performance. Also open new avenues of research,among which we can mention: study the impact of organizational culture on the adoption of transformationaltype vs transactional type; decision-making mechanisms in the type of transformational leadership; initiatetraining programs to develop a transformational type of leadership.

  2. The Issue of Binding Arbitration in the Public Schools. Public Review of Educational Policy (PREP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania School Boards Association, Inc., Harrisburg.

    Intended primarily for educators, legislators, and the general public in the state of Pennsylvania, this public affairs brochure addresses the question of whether binding arbitration should be legislated in that state as a means of resolving labor disputes between a local school district and its employees. The brochure reviews the history of…

  3. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in myotonic dystrophy type 1: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Walmari; Baijens, Laura W J; Kremer, Bernd

    2014-06-01

    A systematic review was conducted to investigate the pathophysiology of and diagnostic procedures for oropharyngeal dysphagia in myotonic dystrophy (MD). The electronic databases Embase, PubMed, and The Cochrane Library were used. The search was limited to English, Dutch, French, German, Spanish, and Portuguese publications. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of the included articles. Swallowing assessment tools, the corresponding protocols, the studies' outcome measurements, and main findings are summarized and presented. The body of literature on pathophysiology of swallowing in dysphagic patients with MD type 1 remains scant. The included studies are heterogeneous with respect to design and outcome measures and hence are not directly comparable. More importantly, most studies had methodological problems. These are discussed in detail and recommendations for further research on diagnostic examinations for swallowing disorders in patients with MD type 1 are provided.

  4. Mathematical review on source-type diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Naofumi; Ohta, Kazuaki; Ide, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    A source-type diagram is a visualization tool used to display earthquake sources, including double-couples, compensated linear vector dipoles, and isotropic deformation. Together with recent observations of non-double-couple events in a variety of tectonic settings, it is important to be able to recognize the source type intuitively from a representative diagram. Since previous works have proposed diagrams created using a range of projections, we review these diagrams in the framework of the moment tensor eigenvalue space. For further applications, we also provide complete formulas for conversion between moment tensor representation and the coordinate system of each diagram style. Using both a global catalog and synthetic data, we discuss differences between types of diagrams and the relative effectiveness of each.

  5. Urban revitalization and displacement: types, causes, and public policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feagin, J.R.

    1981-05-01

    The policy research report reviews the scholarly and print media literatures on urban revitalization. The extent of revitalization; the incumbent or occupant upgrading; gentrification (displacement of low- and moderate-income households by better-off households); gentrification and displacement from all causes; and the role of powerful actors in revitalization are discussed. Public policy dealing with land use and development in urban areas is discussed. Future research needs are indicated.

  6. Broadening Public Participation in Systematic Reviews: A Case Example Involving Young People in Two Configurative Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kathryn; Rees, Rebecca; Brady, Louca-Mai; Kavanagh, Josephine; Oliver, Sandy; Thomas, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arguments supporting the involvement of users in research have even more weight when involving the public in systematic reviews of research. We aimed to explore the potential for public involvement in systematic reviews of observational and qualitative studies. Methods: Two consultative workshops were carried out with a group of young…

  7. Researcher perspectives on publication and peer review of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, John Ernest; Strasser, Carly

    2015-01-01

    Data "publication" seeks to appropriate the prestige of authorship in the peer-reviewed literature to reward researchers who create useful and well-documented datasets. The scholarly communication community has embraced data publication as an incentive to document and share data. But, numerous new and ongoing experiments in implementation have not yet resolved what a data publication should be, when data should be peer-reviewed, or how data peer review should work. While researchers have been surveyed extensively regarding data management and sharing, their perceptions and expectations of data publication are largely unknown. To bring this important yet neglected perspective into the conversation, we surveyed ∼ 250 researchers across the sciences and social sciences- asking what expectations"data publication" raises and what features would be useful to evaluate the trustworthiness, evaluate the impact, and enhance the prestige of a data publication. We found that researcher expectations of data publication center on availability, generally through an open database or repository. Few respondents expected published data to be peer-reviewed, but peer-reviewed data enjoyed much greater trust and prestige. The importance of adequate metadata was acknowledged, in that almost all respondents expected data peer review to include evaluation of the data's documentation. Formal citation in the reference list was affirmed by most respondents as the proper way to credit dataset creators. Citation count was viewed as the most useful measure of impact, but download count was seen as nearly as valuable. These results offer practical guidance for data publishers seeking to meet researcher expectations and enhance the value of published data.

  8. Nanotheranostics – a review of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang LS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Li-Sheng Wang, Min-Chieh Chuang, Ja-an Annie HoDepartment of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Theranostics is referred to as a treatment strategy that combines therapeutics with diagnostics, aiming to monitor the response to treatment and increase drug efficacy and safety, which would be a key part of personalized medicine and require considerable advances in predictive medicine. Theranostics associates with both a diagnosis that tests patients for possible reactions to taking new medication and targeted drug delivery based on the test results. Emerging nanotechnology provides a great deal of opportunity to design and develop such combination agents, permitting the delivery of therapeutics and concurrently allowing the detection modality to be used not only before or after but also throughout the entire treatment regimen. The introduction of nanotheranostics into routine health care has still a long way to go, since evaluations on cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and immunotoxicity of prospective nanotheranostics, demonstration of cost-effectiveness, and availability of appropriate accessible testing systems are still required. An extensive review, from a chemistry point of view, of the recent development of nanotheranostics and its in vitro and in vivo applications are herein presented.Keywords: theranostics, therapeutics, diagnostics, nanomaterial

  9. Publication Rates of Public Health Theses in International and National Peer-Review Journals in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AO Karababa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thesis is an important part of specialisation and doctorate education and requires intense work. The aim of this study was to investigate the publication rates of Turkish Public Health Doctorate Theses (PHDT and Public Health Specialization (PHST theses in international and Turkish national peer-review journals and to analyze the distribution of research areas. Methods: List of all theses upto 30 September 2009 were retrieved from theses database of the Council of Higher Education of the Republic of Turkey. The publication rates of these theses were found by searching PubMed, Science Citation Index-Expanded, Turkish Academic Network and Information Center (ULAKBIM Turkish Medical Database, and Turkish Medline databases for the names of thesis author and mentor. The theses which were published in journals indexed either in PubMed or SCI-E were considered as international publications. Results: Our search yielded a total of 538 theses (243 PHDT, 295 PHST. It was found that the overall publication rate in Turkish national journals was 18%. The overall publication rate in international journals was 11.9%. Overall the most common research area was occupational health. Conclusion: Publication rates of Turkish PHDT and PHST are low. A better understanding of factors affecting this publication rate is important for public health issues where national data is vital for better intervention programs and develop better public health policies.

  10. 75 FR 57790 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology, and (e) ways to... Safety Homeland Security Bureau. Form No.: FCC Form 601. Type of Review: Revision of a currently approved... authorization to operate a license wireless radio service. This include Public Mobile Services,...

  11. How to Write a Scholarly Book Review for Publication in a Peer-Reviewed Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexander D.; Green, Bart N.; Johnson, Claire D.; Nyquist, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and discuss the processes used to write scholarly book reviews for publication in peer-reviewed journals and to provide a recommended strategy and book appraisal worksheet to use when conducting book reviews. Methods: A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Index to Chiropractic Literature was conducted in June 2009 using a combination of controlled vocabulary and truncated text words to capture articles relevant to writing scholarly book reviews for publication in peer-reviewed journals. Results: The initial search identified 839 citations. Following the removal of duplicates and the application of selection criteria, a total of 78 articles were included in this review including narrative commentaries (n = 26), editorials or journal announcements (n = 25), original research (n = 18), and journal correspondence pieces (n = 9). Discussion: Recommendations for planning and writing an objective and quality book review are presented based on the evidence gleaned from the articles reviewed and from the authors' experiences. A worksheet for conducting a book review is provided. Conclusions: The scholarly book review serves many purposes and has the potential to be an influential literary form. The process of publishing a successful scholarly book review requires the reviewer to appreciate the book review publication process and to be aware of the skills and strategies involved in writing a successful review. PMID:20480015

  12. The public library, exclusion and empathy: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the literature within the fields of public librarianship, social exclusion and empathy. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – The cross-disciplinary review involved the consultation of material from disciplines including library and information management, politics, social policy and social sciences, cultural studies, psychology, management and organizational theory. It was structured according to the following themes: exclusion, i...

  13. Public health ethics theory: review and path to convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Public health ethics is a nascent field, emerging over the past decade as an applied field merging concepts of clinical and research ethics. Because the "patient" in public health is the population rather than the individual, existing principles might be weighted differently, or there might be different ethical principles to consider. This paper reviewed the evolution of public health ethics, the use of bioethics as its model, and the proposed frameworks for public health ethics through 2010. Review of 13 major public health ethics frameworks published over the past 15 years yields a wide variety of theoretical approaches, some similar foundational values, and a few similar operating principles. Coming to a consensus on the reach, purpose, and ends of public health is necessary if we are to agree on what ethical underpinnings drive us, what foundational values bring us to these underpinnings, and what operating principles practitioners must implement to make ethical decisions. If public health is distinct enough from clinical medicine to warrant its own set of ethical and philosophical underpinnings, then a decision must be made as to whether a single approach is warranted or we can tolerate a variety of equal but different perspectives. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  14. 49 CFR 105.25 - Reviewing public documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) by contacting the Hazardous Materials Information Center at 1-800-467-4922 or through the Internet at... information available to you: (i) Appeals under 49 CFR part 107 and PHMSA's decisions issued in response to... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reviewing public documents. 105.25 Section...

  15. From abstract to peer-reviewed publication: country matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lauge; Fosbøl, Philip L.; Harrington, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Medical conferences are key in the sharing of new scientific findings. However, results reported as conference-abstracts are generally not considered final before publication in a peer-reviewed journal. It is known that approximately 1/3 of the scientific results presented as abstracts at large...

  16. Public health interventions in midwifery: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Jenny

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternity care providers, particularly midwives, have a window of opportunity to influence pregnant women about positive health choices. This aim of this paper is to identify evidence of effective public health interventions from good quality systematic reviews that could be conducted by midwives. Methods Relevant databases including MEDLINE, Pubmed, EBSCO, CRD, MIDIRS, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Econlit were searched to identify systematic reviews in October 2010. Quality assessment of all reviews was conducted. Results Thirty-six good quality systematic reviews were identified which reported on effective interventions. The reviews were conducted on a diverse range of interventions across the reproductive continuum and were categorised under: screening; supplementation; support; education; mental health; birthing environment; clinical care in labour and breast feeding. The scope and strength of the review findings are discussed in relation to current practice. A logic model was developed to provide an overarching framework of midwifery public health roles to inform research policy and practice. Conclusions This review provides a broad scope of high quality systematic review evidence and definitively highlights the challenge of knowledge transfer from research into practice. The review also identified gaps in knowledge around the impact of core midwifery practice on public health outcomes and the value of this contribution. This review provides evidence for researchers and funders as to the gaps in current knowledge and should be used to inform the strategic direction of the role of midwifery in public health in policy and practice.

  17. A bibliographic review of public health dissemination and implementation research output and citation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Milat, Andrew J; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Skelton, Eliza; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Williams, Christopher; Wiggers, John; Chai, Li Kheng; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the research output and citation rates (academic impact) of public health dissemination and implementation research according to research design and study type. A cross sectional bibliographic study was undertaken in 2013. All original data-based studies and review articles focusing on dissemination and implementation research that had been published in 10 randomly selected public health journals in 2008 were audited. The electronic database 'Scopus' was used to calculate 5-year citation rates for all included publications. Of the 1648 publications examined, 216 were original data-based research or literature reviews focusing on dissemination and implementation research. Of these 72% were classified as descriptive/epidemiological, 26% were intervention and just 1.9% were measurement research. Cross-sectional studies were the most common study design (47%). Reviews, randomized trials, non-randomized trials and decision/cost-effectiveness studies each represented between 6 and 10% of all output. Systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and cohort studies were the most frequently cited study designs. The study suggests that publications that had the greatest academic impact (highest citation rates) made up only a small proportion of overall public health dissemination and implementation research output.

  18. How to write a scholarly book review for publication in a peer-reviewed journal: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexander D; Green, Bart N; Johnson, Claire D; Nyquist, Julie

    2010-01-01

    To describe and discuss the processes used to write scholarly book reviews for publication in peer-reviewed journals and to provide a recommended strategy and book appraisal worksheet to use when conducting book reviews. A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Index to Chiropractic Literature was conducted in June 2009 using a combination of controlled vocabulary and truncated text words to capture articles relevant to writing scholarly book reviews for publication in peer-reviewed journals. The initial search identified 839 citations. Following the removal of duplicates and the application of selection criteria, a total of 78 articles were included in this review including narrative commentaries (n = 26), editorials or journal announcements (n = 25), original research (n = 18), and journal correspondence pieces (n = 9). Recommendations for planning and writing an objective and quality book review are presented based on the evidence gleaned from the articles reviewed and from the authors' experiences. A worksheet for conducting a book review is provided. The scholarly book review serves many purposes and has the potential to be an influential literary form. The process of publishing a successful scholarly book review requires the reviewer to appreciate the book review publication process and to be aware of the skills and strategies involved in writing a successful review.

  19. Public health spending and population health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simone R

    2014-11-01

    This systematic review synthesizes what is known about the relationship between public health spending and population health outcomes, as well as the pathways that may explain how outcomes vary with spending. It also discusses the limitations of the existing literature and identifies areas in need of future research. Studies included in this review were retrieved through an iterative process, primarily through key word searches in two literature databases (PubMed and JSTOR) conducted in 2013. All retrieved studies underwent initial and secondary screening. Articles were included if they (1) examined the link between spending and outcomes or (2) explored pathways that mediate the relationship between spending and outcomes. Seventeen empirical studies and five literature reviews published between 1985 and 2012 were included in this review. Existing evidence suggests that increases in public health spending are associated with improved population health, at least for some outcomes. However, there is little evidence to suggest that increased spending contributes to meaningful reductions in health disparities. Moreover, the pathways through which greater spending translates into better outcomes are not well understood. Although the complexity of the public health delivery system makes it difficult to demonstrate definitive associations between spending and outcomes, financial investments in public health have the potential to improve community health. Additional research is needed to explore the pathways that mediate this relationship. This research would benefit public health practitioners who need evidence on how to best spend financial resources to achieve better health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Review of pramlintide as adjunctive therapy in treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim A Briscoe, Lynette Jobe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Gina Ryan, Tim A Briscoe, Lynette JobeCollege of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Mercer University, Atlanta, Georgia, USAAbstract: Pramlintide (Symlin®, a synthetic analog of a neurohormone amylin, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use along with premeal insulin in patients with type 1. In patients with type 2 diabetes, pramlintide is approved for addition to premeal insulin in those patients who are either only on premeal insulin or those receiving the combination of insulin and metformin and/or a sulfonylurea. This article reviews the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, dosing, clinical trials, safety, contraindications, and drug interactions of pramlintide therapy. A search for published clinical trials and therapeutic reviews in the English language was done in the following databases: Iowa Drug Information Service (1966 to July 2008, MEDLINE (1966 to July 2008, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to July 2008. Pramlintide and amylin were used as keywords and title words. References of key articles were also reviewed to identify additional publications. Amylin is a 37 amino acid peptide neurohormone cosecreted from the beta cells of the pancreas, along with insulin, in response to meals. Amylin lowers serum glucose by decreasing glucagon release, slowing gastric emptying and decreasing food intake. Pramlintide, a synthetic analog of amylin, reduces 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between 3.4 and 5 mmol/L, reduces A1C by 0.2% to 0.7% and has no effect on fasting glucose levels. The use of pramlintide was associated with up to a 1.6 kg weight loss. Nausea was the most commonly reported adverse event. Pramlintide is an amylin analog that was FDA approved for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Its use results in modest reduction of A1C and the most frequent side effects are hypoglycemia and nausea.Keywords: pramlintide, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, amylin

  1. Planning and the Public Interest. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÚLIA A. NAGY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From an ethical perspective, the biggest difficulty for planners is to take the best approach in responding to the decision makers and in acting in the public interest because it always becomes subject of pressures arising with the governmental change, on the one hand, and the societal change on the other hand. Even though many debates arise regarding its existence, for planners, as well as for the planning profession, the public interest has always been legitimizing principles as a norm of practice (Alexander, 2002. The paper critically analyses the planning activity in relation to the public interest and highlights the importance of reciprocity between the two. In order to analyse this issue, the article starts with the presentation of different perspectives regarding the public interest, touching upon its conceptual meaning which is followed by a historical review of its origins and transformation. The third section presents its contextual meaning, its representatives, and the change of its content starting from the 19th century until nowadays and discusses the planners’ ability to represent it. The final part comprises the conclusions that indicate that the planning activity should serve the public interest and, by that, it would serve also the interest of planning as a profession. It emphasises two important issues of the present days: the definition of the public interest and the rational decision making within the planning process.

  2. Health Sector:Public Expenditure Review 2010/11

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuli, Regina; Ally, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of Health Sector Public Expenditure Review for fiscal year (FY) 2011 (PER FY11) was to assess the budgetary allocations and expenditures to inform stakeholders about progress made in key health financing milestones over the 2006/07–2011/12 period. Specifically, the Health Sector PER sets out to provide: A review of PER FY10 findings and actions taken by the sector in response to those findings, indicating unaccomplished/pending actions, and identifying follow-up actions fo...

  3. Product development public-private partnerships for public health: a systematic review using qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pinho Campos, Katia; Norman, Cameron D; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2011-10-01

    Almost a decade ago, public health initiated a number of innovative ventures to attract investments from multinational drug companies for the development of new drugs and vaccines to tackle neglected diseases (NDs). These ventures - known as product development public-private partnerships (PD PPPs) - represent the participation of the public and private actors toward the discovery and development of essential medicines to reduce the suffering of over one billion people worldwide living with NDs. This systematic review aimed to identify empirical-based descriptive articles to understand critical elements in the partnership process, and propose a framework to shed light on future guidelines to support better planning, design and management of existing and new forms of PPPs for public health. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed and synthesized using qualitative content analysis. The findings show that the development stage of PD PPPs requires a careful initiation and planning process including discussion on values and shared goals, agreement on mutual interests & equality of power relation, exchange of expertise & resources, stakeholder engagement, and assessment of the local health capacity. The management stage of PD PPPs entails transparency, extensive communication and participatory decision-making among partner organizations. This review illustrates the difficulties, challenges and effective responses during the partnering process. This model of collaboration may offer a way to advance population health at present, while creating streams of innovation that can yield future social and financial dividends in enhancing the public's health more widely.

  4. Review of Lattice-based Public key Cryptography(Russian)

    OpenAIRE

    Usatyuk, V. S.

    2010-01-01

    This article presets a review of the achievements rapidly developing field of cryptography - public-key cryptography based on the lattice theory. Paper contains the necessary basic concepts and the major problems of the lattice theory, as well as together with the description on the benefits of this cryptography class - the properties of the reliability to quantum computers and full homomorphism, the shortcomings of specific implementations.

  5. Quality Control and Peer Review of Data Sets: Mapping Data Archiving Processes to Data Publication Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayernik, M. S.; Daniels, M.; Eaker, C.; Strand, G.; Williams, S. F.; Worley, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Data sets exist within scientific research and knowledge networks as both technical and non-technical entities. Establishing the quality of data sets is a multi-faceted task that encompasses many automated and manual processes. Data sets have always been essential for science research, but now need to be more visible as first-class scholarly objects at national, international, and local levels. Many initiatives are establishing procedures to publish and curate data sets, as well as to promote professional rewards for researchers that collect, create, manage, and preserve data sets. Traditionally, research quality has been assessed by peer review of textual publications, e.g. journal articles, conference proceedings, and books. Citation indices then provide standard measures of productivity used to reward individuals for their peer-reviewed work. Whether a similar peer review process is appropriate for assessing and ensuring the quality of data sets remains as an open question. How does the traditional process of peer review apply to data sets? This presentation will describe current work being done at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in the context of the Peer REview for Publication & Accreditation of Research Data in the Earth sciences (PREPARDE) project. PREPARDE is assessing practices and processes for data peer review, with the goal of developing recommendations. NCAR data management teams perform various kinds of quality assessment and review of data sets prior to making them publicly available. The poster will investigate how notions of peer review relate to the types of data review already in place at NCAR. We highlight the data set characteristics and management/archiving processes that challenge the traditional peer review processes by using a number of questions as probes, including: Who is qualified to review data sets? What formal and informal documentation is necessary to allow someone outside of a research team to review a data set

  6. Characteristics and trends in peer-reviewed publications in the field of psychosomatic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Sean P; Stern, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    The field of psychosomatic medicine/consultation-liaison psychiatry, now a subspecialty in psychiatry, has focused its efforts on clinical care, education, and research at the interface of psychiatry, medicine, and neurology. We sought to categorize characteristics and trends (over the past decade) in several journals intended primarily for practitioners of psychosomatic medicine. We reviewed all articles published in 3 peer-reviewed journals (i.e., Psychosomatics, General Hospital Psychiatry, and the Journal of Psychosomatic Research) in 2002 and 2012. Each of the 3 journals has a different approach to publication of original research, clinical reviews, and case reports. The 3 journals demonstrate differing levels of international involvement, publish a different number of articles of different types (e.g., case reports, reviews, and original research), and focus on different types of medical-psychiatric problems. Copyright © 2014 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear renaissance, public perception and design criteria: An exploratory review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodfellow, Martin J., E-mail: Martin.Goodfellow@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The Mill, Sackville Street, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Rolls-Royce, SINA-CNB-1, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, Hugo R. [Space Research Centre, University of Leicester, University Rd., Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Azapagic, Adisa [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The Mill, Sackville Street, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    There is currently an international drive to build new nuclear power plants, bringing about what is being termed a 'nuclear renaissance'. However, the public perception of nuclear energy has historically been, and continues to be, a key issue, particularly in light of the Fukushima nuclear incident. This paper discusses the disparity between perceived and calculated risks based on the last four decades of research into risk perception. The leading psychological and sociological theories, Psychometric Paradigm and Cultural Theory, respectively, are critically reviewed. The authors then argue that a new nuclear-build policy that promotes a broader approach to design incorporating a wider range of stakeholder inputs, including that of the lay public, may provide a means for reducing the perceived risk of a nuclear plant. Further research towards such a new approach to design is proposed, based on integrating expert and lay stakeholder inputs and taking into account broader socio-cultural factors whilst maintaining the necessary emphasis on safety, technological development, economics and environmental sustainability. - Highlights: > Globally, a number of countries are investing in or considering building new nuclear plants. > Public acceptance of nuclear safety is important to continuing new nuclear build efforts. > Theories are discussed attempting to explain the public perception of nuclear safety. > A socially informed design process is proposed which could assist in ensuring public support. > Further research to understand how this design process might be performed is proposed.

  8. Prevalence and types of misrepresentation of publication record by pathology residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaley, Jennifer Raible; Bornhorst, Joshua; Wiggins, Michael; Yared, Marwan

    2013-07-01

    Publication misrepresentation among residency applicants has been demonstrated in various specialties. This study examines the prevalence of publication misrepresentation among US-trained and non-US-trained pathology residency applicants. To determine the prevalence of publication misrepresentation in the pathology applicant pool at our institution, to compare the rates of misrepresentation among US-trained and non-US-trained applicants, and to compare results to published results from other medical specialties. All peer-reviewed journal articles reported on applications to our program in 2010 and 2011 were examined for veracity. Applications from current or past trainees and applications with unverifiable manuscripts were excluded. The type of misrepresentation and the country in which the applicant trained were recorded. Seven hundred applications were reviewed. Of 319 (46%) reported publications, 25 were from US graduates (8%) and 294 (92%) were from non-US graduates. Eighty-six applications were excluded owing to unverifiable manuscripts. Publication misrepresentations were found in 42 (18%) of the remaining 233 applications. The most common misrepresentations were omission of authors (69%), nonauthorship (14%), and self-promotion on the author list (12%). A significantly higher percentage of foreign medical graduates listed publications (P misrepresentation rate by foreign graduates (19%) did not differ significantly from that of US-trained graduates (13%) (P = .45). Publication misrepresentation was present among pathology residency applicants. Similar rates were seen among US and non-US applicants. Percentages of misrepresentation among applicants to our pathology program and applicants to other medical specialties (18% and 17%, respectively) were comparable.

  9. Systematic review of the empirical evidence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Dwan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increased use of meta-analysis in systematic reviews of healthcare interventions has highlighted several types of bias that can arise during the completion of a randomised controlled trial. Study publication bias has been recognised as a potential threat to the validity of meta-analysis and can make the readily available evidence unreliable for decision making. Until recently, outcome reporting bias has received less attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We review and summarise the evidence from a series of cohort studies that have assessed study publication bias and outcome reporting bias in randomised controlled trials. Sixteen studies were eligible of which only two followed the cohort all the way through from protocol approval to information regarding publication of outcomes. Eleven of the studies investigated study publication bias and five investigated outcome reporting bias. Three studies have found that statistically significant outcomes had a higher odds of being fully reported compared to non-significant outcomes (range of odds ratios: 2.2 to 4.7. In comparing trial publications to protocols, we found that 40-62% of studies had at least one primary outcome that was changed, introduced, or omitted. We decided not to undertake meta-analysis due to the differences between studies. CONCLUSIONS: Recent work provides direct empirical evidence for the existence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias. There is strong evidence of an association between significant results and publication; studies that report positive or significant results are more likely to be published and outcomes that are statistically significant have higher odds of being fully reported. Publications have been found to be inconsistent with their protocols. Researchers need to be aware of the problems of both types of bias and efforts should be concentrated on improving the reporting of trials.

  10. Public titles of clinical trials should have ethics review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Carla; Reveiz, Ludovic; Tisdale, John F

    2015-09-01

    A key aspect to guarantee that research with human subjects is ethical is being overlooked. Ethics review committees invest great effort examining the informed consent documents of research protocols to ensure that potential participants can provide consent validly and are not deluded into thinking that the experimental intervention they may sign up for is already known to be therapeutic. However, these efforts to avoid what is called the "therapeutic misconception" might be in vain if the title with which the studies are being introduced to the potential participants escapes ethics review. Research participants might be deceived by clinical trials entitled "novel therapy" when the point of the trial is precisely to find out whether the intervention at stake is therapeutic or not. Providing potential research participants with such misleading information hampers their ability to make informed decisions. The well-established scrutiny that ethics review committees exercise with regard to consent forms is limited if the registration of clinical trials, for which a public title is chosen, constitutes a process that is independent from the ethics review. In this article, we examine this problem, assess recent measures to integrate clinical trial registration with ethics review processes, and provide specific recommendations to solve the problem and ultimately enhance the accountability, transparency, and ethics of research with human subjects.

  11. Judges as Fiscal Activists: Can Constitutional Review Shape Public Finance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantorowicz Jarosław

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The judicialization of politics, or alternatively, politization of the judiciary has been much discussed over the last twenty years. Despite this, the way judges influence fiscal policy outcomes remains, to a large extent, unexplored. This paper attempts, at least partially, to fill this research gap. A judicial (constitutional review constitutes the central element of the current analysis since it is considered as a key institutional device through which Constitutional (Supreme Courts intervene in politics, including public finance. Specifically, this paper seeks to investigate empirically whether there is any systematic pattern according to which judges executing judicial review shape fiscal outcomes. The conceptual framework is based on the strategic interaction model and the assumption that the Constitutional Courts reflect public opinion (i.e. the Court as a majoritarian institution. Some preliminary results for a panel of 24 EU countries in the period 1995–2005 suggest that a strong judicial review correlates with a smaller size of government, measured as government income to GDP.

  12. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatai B. Olokoba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder in which prevalence has been increasing steadily all over the world. As a result of this trend, it is fast becoming an epidemic in some countries of the world with the number of people affected expected to double in the next decade due to increase in ageing population, thereby adding to the already existing burden for healthcare providers, especially in poorly developed countries. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include type 2 diabetes mellitus, prevalence, current diagnosis, and current treatment. Only articles in English were included. Screening and diagnosis is still based on World Health Organization (WHO and American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria which include both clinical and laboratory parameters. No cure has yet been found for the disease; however, treatment modalities include lifestyle modifications, treatment of obesity, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin sensitizers like metformin, a biguanide that reduces insulin resistance, is still the recommended first line medication especially for obese patients. Other effective medications include non-sulfonylurea secretagogues, thiazolidinediones, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, and insulin. Recent research into the pathophysiology of type 2 DM has led to the introduction of new medications like glucagon-like peptide 1 analogoues: dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, insulin-releasing glucokinase activators and pancreatic-G-protein-coupled fatty-acid-receptor agonists, glucagon-receptor antagonists, metabolic inhibitors of hepatic glucose output and quick-release bromocriptine. Inhaled insulin was licensed for use in 2006 but has been withdrawn from the market because of low patronage.

  13. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI, were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter and NO2 were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined

  14. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhong, Buqing; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-12-02

    Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter) and NO₂ were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined, but no

  15. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe—A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhong, Buqing; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter) and NO2 were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined, but no consistent

  16. 75 FR 30859 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... meeting via conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to vote on the... . ] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory...

  17. 76 FR 56226 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... meeting via conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to vote of the... Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U...

  18. Current Developments in Public Relations and a Review of their Implications on Public Relations Curriculum in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Sandra Judith Abiola

    Intended to review the recent professional developments in public relations as they are documented in the literature and to explore the implications of these developments for public relations education in Canada at the university level, this thesis is in six chapters, as follows: (1) Introduction; (2) Defining Public Relations; (3) Current Public…

  19. Ethics Review of Survey Research: A Mandatory Requirement for Publication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicher, Danielle; Wu, Albert W

    2015-12-01

    National regulations governing human subjects research differ with regard to whether they require survey research to be overseen by institutional ethics boards or committees. In cases where ethical review has been waived, or was provided by an individual or group other than an institutional ethics board, journals may question the appropriateness of the waiver or alternative review when making determinations about whether to accept the manuscript for publication. The purpose of this article is to provide guidance for journals to consider when making determinations about the necessity of ethical review for survey research projects. We review the functions of ethics oversight and consider the importance of those functions within the context of survey research. In survey research, no intervention is delivered to research participants. As a result, there is no risk of physical harm to individuals who participate. However, there can be a risk of informational or psychological harms. In situations where there is greater than minimal risk of informational or psychological harms, the survey research should have received institutional ethics oversight. Additionally, survey research projects that enroll vulnerable individuals with diminished autonomy should receive institutional ethics oversight. We hope that this article leads to further guidance on this subject by authoritative group such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

  20. How do we define the policy impact of public health research? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alla, Kristel; Hall, Wayne D; Whiteford, Harvey A; Head, Brian W; Meurk, Carla S

    2017-10-02

    In order to understand and measure the policy impact of research we need a definition of research impact that is suited to the task. This article systematically reviewed both peer-reviewed and grey literature for definitions of research impact to develop a definition of research impact that can be used to investigate how public health research influences policy. Keyword searches of the electronic databases Web of Science, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Informit, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar were conducted between August 2015 and April 2016. Keywords included 'definition' and 'policy' and 'research impact' or 'research evidence'. The search terms 'health', public health' or 'mental health' and 'knowledge transfer' or 'research translation' were used to focus the search on relevant health discipline approaches. Studies included in the review described processes, theories or frameworks associated with public health, health services or mental health policy. We identified 108 definitions in 83 publications. The key findings were that literature on research impact is growing, but only 23% of peer-reviewed publications on the topic explicitly defined the term and that the majority (76%) of definitions were derived from research organisations and funding institutions. We identified four main types of definition, namely (1) definitions that conceptualise research impacts in terms of positive changes or effects that evidence can bring about when transferred into policies (example Research Excellence Framework definition), (2) definitions that interpret research impacts as measurable outcomes (Research Councils UK), and (3) bibliometric and (4) use-based definitions. We identified four constructs underpinning these definitions that related to concepts of contribution, change, avenues and levels of impact. The dominance of bureaucratic definitions, the tendency to discuss but not define the concept of research impact, and the

  1. Procedures for the ethical review of public health surveillance protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present commentary is based on the following considerations: 1 for the purposes of authorisation, a distinction is drawn between "research" and "intervention". The procedures for authorising the former are more complex, the relevant controls are stricter and approval has to be granted by a Research Ethics Committee (REC; 2 although the debate is still open, it is barely credible to claim that public health surveillance is not a form of research. It should, therefore, be subject to rigorous ethical assessment; 3 when addressing specifically the issue of surveillance, it would be appropriate to shift the focus of attention from the type of procedure (research/intervention to the risk implied in that procedure; 4 much emphasis has hitherto been placed on the risks that public health surveillance may imply for the protection of personal data; 5 the emphasis on the protection of personal data is frequently excessive and the risks should be examined in a broader context.

  2. Broadening public participation in systematic reviews: a case example involving young people in two configurative reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kathryn; Rees, Rebecca; Brady, Louca-Mai; Kavanagh, Josephine; Oliver, Sandy; Thomas, James

    2015-06-01

    Arguments supporting the involvement of users in research have even more weight when involving the public in systematic reviews of research. We aimed to explore the potential for public involvement in systematic reviews of observational and qualitative studies. Two consultative workshops were carried out with a group of young people (YP) aged 12-17 years to examine two ongoing reviews about obesity: one about children's views and one on the link between obesity and educational attainment. YP were invited to comment on the credibility of themes, to propose elements of interventions, to suggest links between educational attainment and obesity and to comment on their plausibility. Researchers had more confidence in review findings, after checking that themes identified as important by YP were emphasised appropriately. Researchers were able to use factors linking obesity and attainment identified as important by YP to identify limitations in the scope of extant research. Consultative workshops helped researchers draw on the perspectives of YP when interpreting and reflecting upon two systematic reviews. Involving users in judging synthesis credibility and identifying concepts was easier than involving them in interpreting findings. Involvement activities for reviews should be designed with review stage, purpose and group in mind. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. 75 FR 54915 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... meeting/conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to vote on recommendations for the 2009-2010 Medal of Valor nominations, review issues relevant to the nomination review...

  4. A review of type Ia supernova spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Parrent, J; Parthasarathy, M

    2014-01-01

    SN 2011fe was the nearest and best-observed type Ia supernova in a generation, and brought previous incomplete datasets into sharp contrast with the detailed new data. In retrospect, documenting spectroscopic behaviors of type Ia supernovae has been more often limited by sparse and incomplete temporal sampling than by consequences of signal-to-noise ratios, telluric features, or small sample sizes. As a result, type Ia supernovae have been primarily studied insofar as parameters discretized by relative epochs and incomplete temporal snapshots near maximum light. Here we discuss a necessary next step toward consistently modeling and directly measuring spectroscopic observables of type Ia supernova spectra. In addition, we analyze current spectroscopic data in the parameter space defined by empirical metrics, which will be relevant even after progenitors are observed and detailed models are refined.

  5. Systematic reviews in bioethics: types, challenges, and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2014-02-01

    There has recently been interest in applying the techniques of systematic review to bioethics literature. In this paper, I identify the three models of systematic review proposed to date in bioethics: systematic reviews of empirical bioethics research, systematic reviews of normative bioethics literature, and systematic reviews of reasons. I argue that all three types yield information useful to scholarship in bioethics, yet they also face significant challenges particularly in relation to terminology and time. Drawing on my recent experience conducting a systematic review, I suggest that complete comprehensiveness may not always be an appropriate goal of a literature review in bioethics, depending on the research question. In some cases, all the relevant ideas may be captured without capturing all the relevant literature. I conclude that systematic reviews in bioethics have an important role to play alongside the traditional broadbrush approach to reviewing literature in bioethics.

  6. A Review of Typing Manuscripts and Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: No mention. SUBJECT MATTER: Typing. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into four sections, each of which consists of a worksheet and its accompanying materials. It is mimeographed and staple-bound. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: The guide begins with a list of three specific skill objectives. It is intended for…

  7. Cochrane systematic reviews and co-publication: dissemination of evidence on interventions for ophthalmic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Hawkins, Barbara S; Dickersin, Kay

    2015-09-22

    Systematic reviews of interventions provide a summary of the evidence available on intervention effectiveness and harm. Cochrane systematic reviews (CSRs) have been published electronically in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) since 1994, and co-publication (publication of a Cochrane review in another journal) has been allowed since that time, as long as the co-publishing journal has agreed to the arrangement. Although standards for co-publication were established in 2008, the frequency of co-publication and adherence to the standards have remained largely unexamined. Our objective was to examine the frequency of co-publication of Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group (CEVG) reviews, adherence to the co-publication policy, the relative numbers of citations of the two modes of publishing, and differences in times cited in CSRs with and without a co-publication. We identified all CEVG reviews published by May 30, 2014 in The Cochrane Library. Using keywords from the title, author names, and "Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group", we searched Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases to identify possible co-publications. We also emailed contact authors of all identified CEVG reviews to ask them whether they had published their CSR elsewhere. We compared each co-publication to the corresponding CEVG review for adherence to the Cochrane Policy Manual (dated June 10, 2014). We recorded the number of times each CEVG review and each co-publication had been cited by others according to Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus, as of June 11, 2014. We identified 117 CEVG reviews;19 had been co-published in 22 articles. Adherence to Cochrane policy on co-publication was moderate, with all authors complying with at least one of four requirements we addressed. Co-publications were cited more often than the corresponding CEVG reviews; CEVG reviews with at least one co-publication were cited approximately twice as often as CEVG reviews without a co-publication

  8. The Role of the Anonymous Voice in Post-Publication Peer Review Versus Traditional Peer Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional peer review (TPR has several limitations and weaknesses. Post-publication peer review is one practical way to repair the ills of TPR and reinforce it. A literature that is marked by errors is unhealthy and should, if given the opportunity, be corrected or further improved. The anonymous voice is one source of critique and differs from the blind peer review in TPR in which the reviewer remains anonymous to the authors and/or vice versa, but the identity is known to the editor. If unregulated, the anonymous voice can pose a threat to established editorial norms in TPR, to one of the most important criteria of science publishing, i.e., transparency, and to worthwhile discussion. Yet, if the anonymous voice is not heard, then a vast and potentially valuable pool of untapped opinions may be lost, opinions that may provide valuable solutions to improving TPR.

  9. 76 FR 64429 - Senior Executive Service; Public Debt Performance Review Board (PRB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Bureau of the Public Debt Senior Executive Service; Public Debt Performance Review Board (PRB) AGENCY... (PRB) for the Bureau of the Public Debt (BPD). The PRB reviews the performance appraisals of career... assigned to the Office of the Commissioner in BPD. The PRB makes recommendations regarding...

  10. 75 FR 59800 - Senior Executive Service; Public Debt Performance Review Board (PRB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Bureau of the Public Debt Senior Executive Service; Public Debt Performance Review Board (PRB) AGENCY... (PRB) for the Bureau of the Public Debt (BPD). The PRB reviews the performance appraisals of career... assigned to the Office of the Commissioner in BPD. The PRB makes recommendations regarding...

  11. Inulin-type prebiotics--a review: part 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This article is part 1 of a two-part review of inulin-type prebiotics. Prebiotics are a category of nutritional compounds grouped together by the ability to promote the growth of specific beneficial (probiotic) gut bacteria...

  12. A scoping review of qualitative research in peer-reviewed dental publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussy, M; Dickson-Swift, V; Adams, J

    2013-08-01

    Qualitative research designs are being used increasingly in dental research. This paper describes the extent and range of dental research in which qualitative methods have been employed as well as the techniques of data collection and analysis preferred by dental researchers. A scoping review was conducted to locate studies published in dental journals, which reported the use of qualitative methods. Data concerning the focus of the research and the reported qualitative techniques were extracted. Studies included in the review totalled 197. The majority of qualitative research captured in this scoping study focussed on three main areas: dental education, professional dental and dental educators' activities and experiences and the patient/public perceptions. Interviews and focus group discussions were the most commonly selected techniques for data collection. The majority of the studies included in the scoping review had a focus on education of dental professionals the activities of dental professionals or the reported perceptions of or experiences with dental services by patients or members of the public. Little research was located, which explored peoples' personal experience of dental conditions. Research reported in dental publications has a heavy bias towards the use of focus groups and interview data collection techniques. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Managing Type 1 Diabetes at School: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This integrative literature review examines research studies that describe the care of the student with type 1 diabetes at school and interventions to improve care. Participants of the studies include school nurses, counselors, staff, administrators, parents, and students with diabetes. The studies reviewed use a descriptive approach in examining…

  14. 77 FR 51826 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Bureau.... SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to review and vote on recommendations for the 2011-2012 Medal of Valor nominations, consider issues relevant...

  15. 78 FR 43227 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office.... SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to review and vote on recommendations for the 2012-2013 Medal of Valor nominations, consider issues relevant...

  16. 78 FR 25476 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Bureau... announcement of a meeting (via conference call-in) of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to... Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U.S.C. 15202. Pursuant...

  17. The Gap between Professional and Research Agenda: A Content Analysis of "Public Relations Journal" and "Public Relations Review."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Glen M.; And Others

    A content analysis compared the professional and research agendas of "Public Relations Journal" and "Public Relations Review" for the years 1975-81. A sample of 121 articles from the former and 111 articles from the latter were analyzed, and the content of each was assigned to one of 10 categories related to the context,…

  18. Review : Public service motivation—practical problems, scientific evidence and the role of a research community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenabeele, Wouter; Skelcher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This review article introduces Public Money & Management's theme papers and articles on public service motivation (PSM). PSM has proven to be a promising road in creating public performance and public value and this theme brings it to an even wider audience, ensuring that policy-makers and those res

  19. Including non-public data and studies in systematic reviews and systematic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Collins, Alexandra M; Coughlin, Deborah; Kohl, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Systematic reviews and maps should be based on the best available evidence, and reviewers should make all reasonable efforts to source and include potentially relevant studies. However, reviewers may not be able to consider all existing evidence, since some data and studies may not be publicly available. Including non-public studies in reviews provides a valuable opportunity to increase systematic review/map comprehensiveness, potentially mitigating negative impacts of publication bias. Studies may be non-public for many reasons: some may still be in the process of being published (publication can take a long time); some may not be published due to author/publisher restrictions; publication bias may make it difficult to publish non-significant or negative results. Here, we consider what forms these non-public studies may take and the implications of including them in systematic reviews and maps. Reviewers should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of including non-public studies, weighing risks of bias against benefits of increased comprehensiveness. As with all systematic reviews and maps, reviewers must be transparent about methods used to obtain data and avoid risks of bias in their synthesis. We make tentative suggestions for reviewers in situations where non-public data may be present in an evidence base.

  20. Public vs Private vs Hybrid vs Community - Cloud Computing: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available These days cloud computing is booming like no other technology. Every organization whether it's small, mid-sized or big, wants to adapt this cutting edge technology for its business. As cloud technology becomes immensely popular among these businesses, the question arises: Which cloud model to consider for your business? There are four types of cloud models available in the market: Public, Private, Hybrid and Community. This review paper answers the question, which model would be most beneficial for your business. All the four models are defined, discussed and compared with the benefits and pitfalls, thus giving you a clear idea, which model to adopt for your organization.

  1. 77 FR 57566 - Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review and Request for Public Comment on Potential Approaches to Electronic Delivery of the CCR;...

  2. Inulin-type prebiotics: a review. (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Greg

    2009-03-01

    This is part 2 of a two-part review of inulin-type prebiotics. This article discusses the clinical research on inulin-type prebiotics, including effects on infant nutrition, gastrointestinal health, colon cancer prevention, blood sugar and lipid metabolism, bone mineralization, fatty liver disease, obesity, and immunity. Gastrointestinal side effects and dosage recommendations are also considered.

  3. Decision Theory and Risk Management in Public Organizations: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Cienfuegos Spikin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public risk management is becoming accepted and promoted by practitioners, scholars and governments in the public sector. Decision Theory is implicitly contained by the risk management process, since risk management depends on rules derived from general knowledge and precepts of Decision Theory (Vaughan 1997. Once a risk has been past the assessment phase, a decision must be made regarding what –if anything– should be done, thus different approaches to risk management decisions are possible. This article discuss the most classic normative methods for decision making in the context of public entities, elements that could be used to support these types of organizations in the assessment of risk strategies. After studying the difficulties of the rational methodology of decision making and in particular the methods of Cost Benefit Analysis and Multi CriteriaAnalysis, we review the descriptive approaches used to explain decisions in the field of public policy, such as Bounded Rationality, Rules of Thumb, Incrementalism and Mixed Scanning, frameworks which might provide us with further explanations in terms of how local public decision makers formulate choices about risk options.

  4. 36 CFR 1206.22 - What type of proposal is eligible for a publications grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What type of proposal is eligible for a publications grant? 1206.22 Section 1206.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... outstanding events, topics, themes, or movements of national significance in United States history....

  5. Dominant Personality Types in Public Accounting: Selection Bias or Indoctrinated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Hughlene; Daugherty, Brian; Dickins, Denise; Schisler, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies concerning the personality type and preferences of accountants generally draw conclusions based upon the reports of either practicing accountants, or accounting students, at a single point in time. So while much is known about the personality type of accountants in general, left unexplored is the question of whether public…

  6. Environmental Escherichia coli: Ecology and public health implications - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jeonghwan; Hur, Hor-Gil; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Yan, Tao; Ishii, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli is classified as a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. The bacterium mainly inhabits the lower intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals, including humans, and is often discharged into the environment through feces or wastewater effluent. The presence of E. coli in environmental waters has long been considered as an indicator of recent fecal pollution. However, numerous recent studies have reported that some specific strains of E. coli can survive for long periods of time, and potentially reproduce, in extra-intestinal environments. This indicates that E. coli can be integrated into indigenous microbial communities in the environment. This naturalization phenomenon calls into question the reliability of E. coli as a fecal indicator bacterium (FIB). Recently, many studies reported that E. coli populations in the environment are affected by ambient environmental conditions affecting their long-term survival. Large-scale studies of population genetics provide the diversity and complexity of E. coli strains in various environments, affected by multiple environmental factors. This review examines the current knowledge on the ecology of E. coli strains in various environments in regards to its role as a FIB and as a naturalized member of indigenous microbial communities. Special emphasis is given on the growth of pathogenic E. coli in the environment, and the population genetics of environmental members of the genus Escherichia. The impact of environmental E. coli on water quality and public health is also discussed.

  7. Augmented Articles: The Future of Peer-Reviewed Publications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, Thomas Ignatius; Clementel, Nicola; Gull, Theodore R.

    2015-08-01

    The predominance of 2D figures and animations in the literature is clearly driven by the need to display data in a classic paper-journal format. However, there is no real reason that researchers should be limited to 2D graphics when presenting their results in peer-reviewed publications. This is especially true since all major astrophysical journals are now published online. So-called ‘augmented articles’ are possible, in which 3D interactive models, images, sound, and video can be included directly within an Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) article. The inclusion of 3D interactive models in the astrophysics literature is slowly becoming popular, and several journals now fully support the inclusion of 3D interactive figures and movies. I present examples of recently published augmented articles in astronomy (e.g. Madura et al. 2015, arXiv:1503.00716) and discuss their perceived benefits and limitations. Such articles may become the norm in astronomy as data and numerical simulations increasingly become multidimensional (see http://www.technologyreview.com/view/535796/astronomers-create-3-d-printed-model-of-colliding-stellar-winds/).

  8. Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Chandy; P Abraham; G Sridharan

    2008-11-01

    The emerging viral diseases haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are a cause of global concern as they are increasingly reported from newer regions of the world. The hantavirus species causing HFRS include Hantaan virus, Seoul virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus while Sin Nombre virus was responsible for the 1993 outbreak of HCPS in the Four Corners Region of the US. Humans are accidental hosts and get infected by aerosols generated from contaminated urine, feces and saliva of infected rodents. Rodents are the natural hosts of these viruses and develop persistent infection. Human to human infections are rare and the evolution of the virus depends largely on that of the rodent host. The first hantavirus isolate to be cultured, Thottapalayam virus, is the only indigenous isolate from India, isolated from an insectivore in 1964 in Vellore, South India. Research on hantaviruses in India has been slow but steady since 2005. Serological investigation of patients with pyrexic illness revealed presence of anti-hantavirus IgM antibodies in 14.7% of them. The seropositivity of hantavirus infections in the general population is about 4% and people who live and work in close proximity with rodents have a greater risk of acquiring hantavirus infections. Molecular and serological evidence of hantavirus infections in rodents and man has also been documented in this country. The present review on hantaviruses is to increase awareness of these emerging pathogens and the threats they pose to the public health system.

  9. Non-Public Schools in Durham County by Type

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — A list and the locations along with contact phone numbers of private schools within Durham County. The School Type field is either "religious" or independant....

  10. Review : Public service motivation—practical problems, scientific evidence and the role of a research community

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenabeele, Wouter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323038816; Skelcher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This review article introduces Public Money & Management's theme papers and articles on public service motivation (PSM). PSM has proven to be a promising road in creating public performance and public value and this theme brings it to an even wider audience, ensuring that policy-makers and those responsible for delivering public services worldwide are aware of the value of PSM research. The article also presents new findings about how best to further PSM research.

  11. 22 CFR 214.51 - Administrative review of denial for public access to records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative review of denial for public access to records. 214.51 Section 214.51 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Administrative Remedies § 214.51 Administrative review of denial for public access to...

  12. 76 FR 37375 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office...: This is an announcement of a meeting via conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor... Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U.S.C. 15202. Pursuant...

  13. 76 FR 59697 - Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... through the skin, and on whether there is adequate information to determine that the study was conducted... AGENCY Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental... the Science Advisor (OSA) announces a public meeting of the Human Studies Review Board (HSRB)...

  14. 32 CFR 310.52 - Computer matching publication and review requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computer matching publication and review... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Computer Matching Program Procedures § 310.52 Computer matching publication and review requirements. (a) DoD Components shall identify...

  15. A decade review of publications in Families, Systems, & Health: 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Tai J; Li, Yiting; Schulz, Catherine L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to review recent publication content and trends in Families, Systems, & Health (FSH). How do the journal’s articles reflect current and emerging challenges in health care? We hope that our findings can guide special issues and content foci. All work published in FSH between 2005 and 2015 was included (n = 452); each piece was coded for article type, general foci, and specific foci. The most common type of article published over the 10-year time frame was research reports (43%; n = 195), followed by other types (e.g., tribute pieces, poems), commentaries, conceptual/theory papers, literature reviews, and case studies. The most common general focus included family health and/or functioning (28%; n = 128). The most common specific foci centered on children (15%; n = 55). Common themes found in FSH’s most frequently cited publications included family relationships in care, chronic physical illnesses, and mental health. Marked trends in journal content included increases in articles targeting family health and/or functioning and primary care and decreased attention to theory. FSH’s emphasis on research reports to inform current and evolving interventions that target contemporary health challenges suggests that the journal is keeping stride with the most pressing issues in health care today. Future special issues can continue to serve and meet these needs. FSH’s robust inclusion of other article types sustains the journal’s mission to advance multiple ways of understanding health-care phenomena. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Examining Marketing Journals' Publication Process and Reviewer Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Vicky L.; Reisenwitz, Timothy H.; Schibrowsky, John A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines reviewer practices at 11 marketing journals. The results for the top three journals are compared to eight comparable journals that are typically considered to be non-top-tier journals. The results suggest that the reviewers and the review processes at the top journals differ significantly from those of the non-top-tier…

  17. Examining Marketing Journals' Publication Process and Reviewer Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Vicky L.; Reisenwitz, Timothy H.; Schibrowsky, John A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines reviewer practices at 11 marketing journals. The results for the top three journals are compared to eight comparable journals that are typically considered to be non-top-tier journals. The results suggest that the reviewers and the review processes at the top journals differ significantly from those of the non-top-tier…

  18. Effective Nurse Communication With Type 2 Diabetes Patients : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Bob C.; Lokhorst, Anne Marike; Rutten, Guy E H M; van Woerkum, Cees M J

    Many type 2 diabetes mellitus patients have difficulties reaching optimal blood glucose control. With patients treated in primary care by nurses, nurse communication plays a pivotal role in supporting patient health. The twofold aim of the present review is to categorize common barriers to

  19. Effective Nurse Communication With Type 2 Diabetes Patients : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Bob C.; Lokhorst, Anne Marike; Rutten, Guy E H M; van Woerkum, Cees M J

    2015-01-01

    Many type 2 diabetes mellitus patients have difficulties reaching optimal blood glucose control. With patients treated in primary care by nurses, nurse communication plays a pivotal role in supporting patient health. The twofold aim of the present review is to categorize common barriers to nurse-pat

  20. Information Technology Workforce Development: Public Policy Review and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Robert

    Keeping the existing information technology (IT) workforce viable and rapidly increasing the number of these workers presents a United States public policy workforce development (WD) challenge at all government levels. Public policy human capital investments have been undertaken to address the IT workforce supply and demand mismatch. States seem…

  1. The RAE and Publications: A Review of Journal Editors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Ameen Ali

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed editors of academic journals about publication issues related to Britain's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), a process of grading and funding universities based on published research output. Editors were asked about research quality and output, publication practices, academics' willingness to referee manuscripts, and proliferation of…

  2. Is expert peer review obsolete? A model suggests that post-publication reader review may exceed the accuracy of traditional peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Daniel M

    2012-08-01

    The peer review process is the gold standard by which academic manuscripts are vetted for publication. However, some investigators have raised concerns regarding its unopposed supremacy, including lack of expediency, susceptibility to editorial bias and statistical limitation due to the small number of reviewers used. Post-publication review-in which the article is assessed by the general readership of the journal instead of a small group of appointed reviewers-could potentially supplement or replace the peer-review process. In this study, we created a computer model to compare the traditional peer-review process to that of post-publication reader review. We created a mathematical model of the manuscript review process. A hypothetical manuscript was randomly assigned a "true value" representing its intrinsic quality. We modeled a group of three expert peer reviewers and compared it to modeled groups of 10, 20, 50, or 100 reader-reviewers. Reader-reviewers were assumed to be less skillful at reviewing and were thus modeled to be only ¼ as accurate as expert reviewers. Percentage of correct assessments was calculated for each group. 400,000 hypothetical manuscripts were modeled. The accuracy of the reader-reviewer group was inferior to the expert reviewer group in the 10-reviewer trial (93.24% correct vs. 97.67%, p reader-reviewer group surpassed the expert reviewer group in accuracy when 50 or 100 reader-reviewers were used (97.92 and 99.20% respectively, p reader-reviewers can surpass that of a small group of expert reviewers if the group of public reviewers is of sufficient size. Further study will be required to determine whether the mathematical assumptions of this model are valid in actual use.

  3. Molecular methods for strain typing of Candida albicans: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghrouni, F; Ben Abdeljelil, J; Boukadida, J; Ben Said, M

    2013-06-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most medically important fungi because of its high frequency as a commensal and pathogenic microorganism causing superficial as well as invasive infections. Strain typing and delineation of the species are essential for understanding its biology, epidemiology and population structure. A wide range of molecular techniques have been used for this purpose including non-DNA-based methods (multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis), conventional DNA-based methods (electrophoretic karyotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism, restriction enzyme analysis with and without hybridization, rep-PCR) and DNA-based methods called exact typing methods because they generate unambiguous and highly reproducible typing data (including microsatellite length polymorphism and multi-locus sequence typing). In this review, the main molecular methods used for C. albicans strain typing are summarized, and their advantages and limitations are discussed with regard to their discriminatory power, reproducibility, cost and ease of performance.

  4. A review of Technologies on Tracking Tibetan Public Opinion Topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bi-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The target of technologies on tracking Tibetan-based network public opinion topics is to track the development of some known topics. By tracking these topics could help people to grasp the trend of public opinion. This research area becomes more and more important on Natural Language Processing domain and how to apply these state-of-the-art computer science technologies on the study of national language has drawn lots of awareness to related researchers. This article will introduce some features about Tibetan language and its grammar. Some technologies about categorizing Tibetan text and tracking Tibetan-based network public opinion will also be talked about.

  5. 77 FR 26790 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board (``Board'') to vote on the position of Board Chairperson... Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U.S.C...

  6. 78 FR 38713 - Additional Documents Available for Public Review Related to Willingness To Pay Survey for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... revised Supporting Statement, the Peer Review Report, the Focus Group and Cognitive Interview Report and... Review Report, the Focus Group and Cognitive Interview Report and the Description of Hydrological... AGENCY Additional Documents Available for Public Review Related to Willingness To Pay Survey...

  7. Public Use Review Report : St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides an overview of public use at St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge. Suggestions for monitoring visitor use are provided. In January 2001, a...

  8. Applying for, reviewing and funding public health research in Germany and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardus, Ansgar; Becher, Heiko; Groenewegen, Peter; Mansmann, Ulrich; Meyer, Thorsten; Pfaff, Holger; Puhan, Milo; Razum, Oliver; Rehfuess, Eva; Sauerborn, Rainer; Strech, Daniel; Wissing, Frank; Zeeb, Hajo; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2016-06-13

    Public health research is complex, involves various disciplines, epistemological perspectives and methods, and is rarely conducted in a controlled setting. Often, the added value of a research project lies in its inter- or trans-disciplinary interaction, reflecting the complexity of the research questions at hand. This creates specific challenges when writing and reviewing public health research grant applications. Therefore, the German Research Foundation (DFG), the largest independent research funding organization in Germany, organized a round table to discuss the process of writing, reviewing and funding public health research. The aim was to analyse the challenges of writing, reviewing and granting scientific public health projects and to improve the situation by offering guidance to applicants, reviewers and funding organizations. The DFG round table discussion brought together national and international public health researchers and representatives of funding organizations. Based on their presentations and discussions, a core group of the participants (the authors) wrote a first draft on the challenges of writing and reviewing public health research proposals and on possible solutions. Comments were discussed in the group of authors until consensus was reached. Public health research demands an epistemological openness and the integration of a broad range of specific skills and expertise. Applicants need to explicitly refer to theories as well as to methodological and ethical standards and elaborate on why certain combinations of theories and methods are required. Simultaneously, they must acknowledge and meet the practical and ethical challenges of conducting research in complex real life settings. Reviewers need to make the rationale for their judgments transparent, refer to the corresponding standards and be explicit about any limitations in their expertise towards the review boards. Grant review boards, funding organizations and research ethics committees

  9. A brief review of revocable ID-based public key cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yang Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of ID-based cryptography has received much attention from researchers. However, how to revoke the misbehaviour/compromised user in ID-based public key cryptosystem becomes an important research issue. Recently, Tseng and Tsai proposed a novel public key cryptosystem called revocable ID-based public key cryptosystem (RIBE to solve the revocation problem. Later on, numerous research papers based on the Tseng-Tsai key RIBE were proposed. In this paper, we brief review Tseng and Tsai's RIBE. We hope this review can help the readers to understand the Tseng and Tsai's revocable ID-based public key cryptosystem.

  10. Experimental public administration from 1992 to 2014: A systematic literature review and ways forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, R.B.; Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE – Based on previous inventories, the purpose of this paper is to extend the knowledge on public administration experiments by focusing on their experimental type, design, sample type and realism levels and external validity. The aim is to provide an overview of experimental public administra

  11. Experimental public administration from 1992 to 2014 : A systematic literature review and ways forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Robin; Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Based on previous inventories, the purpose of this paper is to extend the knowledge on public administration experiments by focusing on their experimental type, design, sample type and realism levels and external validity. The aim is to provide an overview of experimental public administra

  12. Review of Recent Type-2 Fuzzy Controller Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Tai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Type-2 fuzzy logic controllers (T2 FLC can be viewed as an emerging class of intelligent controllers because of their abilities in handling uncertainties; in many cases, they have been shown to outperform their Type-1 counterparts. This paper presents a literature review on recent applications of T2 FLCs. To follow the developments in this field, we first review general T2 FLCs and the most well-known interval T2 FLS algorithms that have been used for control design. Certain applications of these controllers include robotic control, bandwidth control, industrial systems control, electrical control and aircraft control. The most promising applications are found in the robotics and automotive areas, where T2 FLCs have been demonstrated and proven to perform better than traditional controllers. With the development of enhanced algorithms, along with the advancement in both hardware and software, we shall witness increasing applications of these frontier controllers.

  13. Types of fraud in meat and meat products: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Affects the food control. The globalization, increased imports and exports and free trade agreements have led to greater sharing and access to food worldwide; along with it, the problems associated with fraud such as adulteration, substitution, intentionality, and counterfeiting have been increased. Therefore, there are various tasks associated with food fraud, which in most reviews published only new identification techniques have been discussed. However, a discussion about the types of fraud and its impact on society, bioterrorism and religion, has been little commented. This review focuses primarily on describing the types of fraud that has as objective to obtain economic benefit or cause terrorism. Also, latest techniques available for detecting meat adulteration are mentioned.

  14. Molecular mechanisms in autoimmune type 1 diabetes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhiguo; Chang, Christopher; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2014-10-01

    Autoimmune type 1 diabetes is characterized by selective destruction of insulin-secreting beta cells in the pancreas of genetically susceptible individuals. The mechanisms underlying the development of type 1 diabetes are not fully understood. However, a widely accepted point is that type 1 diabetes is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Although most type 1 diabetes patients do not have a family history, genetic susceptibility does play a vital role in beta cell autoimmunity and destruction. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) regions are the strongest genetic determinants, which can contribute 40-50 % of the genetic risk to type 1 diabetes. Other genes, including INS also contribute to disease risk. The mechanisms of the susceptible genes in type 1 diabetes may relate to their respective roles in antigen presentation, beta cell autoimmunity, immune tolerance, and autoreactive T cell response. Environmental susceptibility factors also contribute to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. From an epigenetic standpoint, the pathologic mechanisms involved in the development of type 1 diabetes may include DNA methylation, histone modification, microRNA, and molecular mimicry. These mechanisms may act through regulating of gene expression, thereby affecting the immune system response toward islet beta cells. One of the characteristics of type 1 diabetes is the recognition of islet autoantigens by autoreactive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and autoantibodies. Autoantibodies against islet autoantigens are involved in autoantigen processing and presentation by HLA molecules. This review will mainly focus on the molecular mechanism by which genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors contribute to the risk of type 1 diabetes.

  15. A Critical Review of Strategic Planning: Panacea for Public Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Robert H.; Lindahl, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Many states, accrediting agencies, and the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium have policies and standards mandating strategic planning for public schools. Planning in schools has become synonymous with strategic planning. However, alternative approaches to change exist that offer more effective solutions to school improvement. School…

  16. A systematic review of retracted publications in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Anthony; De Villelongue, Cedric; Pateron, Dominique; Yordanov, Youri

    2017-08-18

    The objective of this study was to characterize retracted publications in emergency medicine. We searched MEDLINE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify all retracted publications in the field of emergency medicine. We also searched an independent website that reports and archives retracted scientific publications. Two researchers independently screened titles, abstracts and full text of search results. Data from all included studies were then independently extracted. We identified 28 retraction notes. Eleven (39%) articles were published by authors from Europe. The oldest retracted article was published in 2001. The 28 retracted papers were published by 22 different journals. Two authors were named on multiples retractions. The median impact factor of journals was 1.03 (0.6-1.9). Almost all studies were available online [26/28 (93%)], but only 40% had watermarking on the article. The retraction notification was available for all articles. Three (11%) retraction notices did not clearly report the retraction reasons, and most retraction notices were issued by the editors [14 (56%)]. The most frequent retraction reasons were plagiarism [eight (29%)], duplicate publication [three (11%)] and overlap [two (2%)]. Retracted articles were cited on average 14 times. In most cases, the retraction cause did not invalidate the study's results [17 (60%)]. The most common reason for retraction was related to a misconduct by the authors. These results can question the necessity to normalize retraction procedures among the large number of biomedical editors and to educate future researchers on research integrity.

  17. Public stigma of mental illness in the United States: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela M; Cabassa, Leopoldo J

    2013-09-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public's stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public's stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public's stigma of mental illness.

  18. 78 FR 77673 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Environmental Justice Technical Guidance Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... National Center for Environmental Economics along with the Office of Environmental Justice has requested... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notification of a Public Meeting of the Environmental Justice Technical Guidance Review...

  19. Geographic information systems (GIS) for Health Promotion and Public Health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Flaman, Laura M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to identify how geographic information system (GIS) applications have been used in health-related research and to critically examine the issues, strengths, and challenges inherent to those approaches from the lenses of health promotion and public health. Through the review process, conducted in 2007, it is evident that health promotion and public health applications of GIS can be generally categorized into four predominant themes: disease surveillance (n = 227), risk analysis (n = 189), health access and planning (n = 138), and community health profiling (n = 115). This review explores how GIS approaches have been used to inform decision making and discusses the extent to which GIS can be applied to address health promotion and public health questions. The contribution of this literature review will be to generate a broader understanding of how GIS-related methodological techniques and tools developed in other disciplines can be meaningfully applied to applications in public health policy, promotion, and practice.

  20. 78 FR 65980 - Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... AGENCY Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation... have produced draft Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plans (``Implementation Plans'') that... health and the environment. As EPA articulated in its draft Agency Climate Change Adaptation Plan,...

  1. Book Review: Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marimuthu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia By Mark Bray and Ora Kwo (2014, 93pp. ISBN: 978-988-17852-9-9, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre.

  2. A literature review of teledermatology programs in the South African public health sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, LEM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of Teledermatology Programs in the South African Public Health Sector Laticha E. M. Walters, Maurice Mars, Richard E. Scott Abstract: This is presentation on teledermatology programs in South Africa that indicate the inequitable access...

  3. St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge : Public Use Review/Plan : Update August, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Public Use Review/Plan for St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge was updated August 19th, 1988. It outlines goals for interpretation, outdoor classrooms,...

  4. St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge : Public Use Review/Plan : Update January, 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Public Use Review/Plan for St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge was updated in January of 1993. It outlines goals for interpretation, outdoor classrooms,...

  5. 75 FR 30024 - Notice of Public Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Public Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission... technology, and (e) ways to further reduce the information collection burden for small business concerns with... for confidentiality with this collection of information. Privacy Impact Assessment: No...

  6. St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge : Public Use Review/Plan : Update August, 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Public Use Review/Plan for St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge was updated August 19th, 1987. It outlines goals for interpretation, outdoor classrooms,...

  7. 78 FR 48654 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ..., Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine... managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including...

  8. 77 FR 26746 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data... database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives...

  9. 77 FR 67341 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... include: Data collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers...

  10. 76 FR 22385 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ..., Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and... database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives...

  11. 78 FR 27957 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine... database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives...

  12. 78 FR 16657 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine... collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency...

  13. Review of Worcestershire On-line Fabric Type Series website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Nenk

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of archaeological ceramics is advanced through the creation and development of regional and national pottery type-series, which contain samples of each type of pottery identified from a particular area or region. Pottery researchers working in any period, from prehistoric to post-medieval, require access to such type-series, and to their associated data, in order to be able to advance the identification of all types of pottery, not only those types produced in the local area, but those produced in surrounding regions, as well as those imported from abroad. The publication of such type-series, as well as their accessibility to researchers, is essential if the information they contain is to be disseminated. The development of the Worcestershire On-Line Fabric Type Series is the first stage in a remarkable project designed to make the complete fabric and form type series for Worcestershire ceramics accessible on the internet. As part of the Historic Environment Record for Worcestershire, formerly the Sites and Monuments Record, it is designed to improve access to finds and environmental data, with the aim of encouraging and facilitating research. Funded by Worcestershire County Council as part of its commitment to e-government, it is being developed by Worcestershire County Council Archaeology Service with OxfordArchDigital. It is one of a proposed series of on-line specialist resources (to include, for example, clay pipes, environmental archaeology, flint tools, historic buildings, which are also designed to stand alone as research tools. The ceramics website is the first part of Pottery in Perspective, a web-based project to provide information on the pottery used and made in Worcestershire from prehistory to c. 1900AD.

  14. The effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the health impact of climate change: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Maha; Hooper, Lee; Hunter, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to be one of the most important threats to public health in the coming years. Yet despite the large number of papers considering the health impact of climate change, few have considered what public health interventions may be of most value in reducing the disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the disease burden of high priority climate sensitive diseases. For each disease, we performed a systematic search with no restriction on date or language of publication on Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane CENTRAL and SCOPUS up to December 2010 to identify systematic reviews of public health interventions. We retrieved some 3176 records of which 85 full papers were assessed and 33 included in the review. The included papers investigated the effect of public health interventions on various outcome measures. All interventions were GRADE assessed to determine the strength of evidence. In addition we developed a systematic review quality score. The interventions included environmental interventions to control vectors, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, household and community water treatment, greening cities and community advice. For most reviews, GRADE showed low quality of evidence because of poor study design and high heterogeneity. Also for some key areas such as floods, droughts and other weather extremes, there are no adequate systematic reviews of potential public health interventions. In conclusion, we found the evidence base to be mostly weak for environmental interventions that could have the most value in a warmer world. Nevertheless, such interventions should not be dismissed. Future research on public health interventions for climate change adaptation needs to be concerned about quality in study design and should address the gap for floods, droughts and other extreme weather events that pose a risk to health.

  15. Bariatric Surgery in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Kamal K; De Alwis, Nimantha; Carr, William R J; Jennings, Neil; Schroeder, Norbert; Small, Peter K

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is recognised as an effective treatment strategy for obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An increasing number of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus also suffer with obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities but the role of bariatric and metabolic surgery in this group of patients is unclear. This systematic review investigates published English language scientific literature to understand the results of bariatric surgery in obese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We found that these patients can experience significant weight loss and comorbidity resolution with bariatric surgery. Though most patients also see a decline in total insulin requirement, glycaemic control remains difficult. Most of the patients reported in literature have undergone gastric bypass but data is insufficient to recommend any particular procedure.

  16. Situation Concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector. Public Opinion Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, A.; Sala, R.; Lopez, M.

    2006-07-01

    This report summarizes the CIEMAT's contribution to the study {sup S}ituation concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector{sup ,} contract number TREN/ 04/NUC/ S07.39556 between the European Commission and Mutadis Consultants. The research was composed by Mutadis Consultants and CEPN (Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre) (France), University of Aberdeen (UK) and CIEMAT (Spain). The objective of the project was to build a detailed overview of the EU situation regarding information and participation practices in the nuclear domain, provide an elaborated assessment, and to produce reporting and recommendations in the field. CIEMAT contribution' focused on the review of public opinion polis. Thus, Eurobarometers Standard Surveys (EBs) were analysed to report about the European citizens' public opinion regarding public Information and participation in the nuclear field. Additionally, the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), and some additional national polis were analysed. In terms of the EU public opinion, the follow up of the public information and participation domains receiving as much attention as necessary. Extremely few questions dealing with the subject were identified in the Eurobarometers, the national polis and the ISSP (International Social Survey Program) surveys reviewed in this study. An unambiguous illustration of this lack of attention is the fact that no questions dealing with public participation issues emerged in the {sup n}uclear EBs{sup u}ntil 1998. Even though, Eurobarometers (EBs) still provide an invaluable source of information on the topics we are interested on at the EU allowing longitudinal descriptions (trend analysis) of some key issues in our area of interest. (Author) 11 refs.

  17. Research Agendas and Pedagogical Applications: What "Public Relations Review" Tells Us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Steven R.

    A study explored the research agenda of "Public Relations Review," the oldest scholarly journal in the public relations field. To provide a descriptive and inferential analysis of the content of the journal from 1985 to 1994, four volumes were selected at random (1985, 1987, 1991, and 1993) and all the articles in them were analyzed.…

  18. 75 FR 71694 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of Two Public Quality Review Teleconferences of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of Two Public Quality Review Teleconferences of.... SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces two public teleconferences of the... ] (FACA), 5 U.S.C., App. 2, notice is hereby given that the EPA Science Advisory Board will hold two...

  19. 78 FR 76100 - Newspapers Used for Publication of Legal Notices for Pre-Decisional Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Forest Service Newspapers Used for Publication of Legal Notices for Pre- Decisional Administrative Review.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice provides the list of newspapers that Responsible Officials in the... newspapers will be used to publish legal notices, thereby allowing the public to receive constructive notice...

  20. 76 FR 3887 - Notice of Public Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Public Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission... general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on the following information...: Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals with Hearing and Speech Disabilities...

  1. 76 FR 14662 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission... effort to reduce paperwork burden invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this... Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals with Hearing and Speech Disabilities, Report and...

  2. 76 FR 3892 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission... continuing effort to reduce paperwork burden invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take... comply with the Commission's rules regarding RF safety, antenna marking and lighting, equipment...

  3. 78 FR 72883 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission... information technology; and further ways to reduce the information burden for small business concerns with... public to assess the impact of the universal service support mechanisms. This information...

  4. Self-Interest and Scholarly Publication: The Dilemma of Researchers, Reviewers, and Editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Raymond L.; Roberts, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Academic misconduct in research is of growing concern to funding agencies, scholars, and academic journal editors. Scholarly publication has ethical implications researchers, reviewers, and journal editors. The theoretical background of the ethics of scholarly publication is explored as well as the use of a case study of an untenured researcher…

  5. Innovation in the Public Sector: A Systematic Review and Future Research Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H.A.; Bekkers, V.J.J.M.; Tummers, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    This article brings together empirical academic research on public sector innovation. Via a systematic literature review we investigate 181 articles and books on public sector innovation, published between 1990 and 2014. These studies are analysed based on the following themes: (1) the definitions

  6. Public litigation and the concept of "deference" in judicial review

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham Klaasen

    2015-01-01

    The Constitutional Court is the highest court in all constitutional matters and thus decides appeals from other courts in disputes involving natural and juristic persons and the state, including criminal matters, if the matter is a constitutional matter or an issue connected with a decision on a constitutional matter. The Court may hear any matter, if the Constitutional Court grants leave to appeal because the matter raises an arguable point of law of general public importance that ought to b...

  7. Army War College Review: Student Publications. Volume 2, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Session of the Congress on the State of the Union," January 29, 1991; George H. W. Bush, "Remarks at the Richard Nixon Library Dinner ," March 11, 1992...code names and radio frequencies .11 Al-Qa’ida, likewise, has long-recognized the importance of publicly-available information, now made easier and...residences, past job titles, information about family members, and other personal details.83 Though no evidence exists that Cryptocomb actively

  8. Analog insulin detemir for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E Peterson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Gregory E PetersonDepartment of Internal Medicine, Des Moines University, USAObjective: To review insulin detemir for clinical use to better manage patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Methods: A MEDLINE search, in English, from June 30, 2006 to December 1, 2008, using the terms “insulin analogs,” “insulin detemir” and “long-acting insulin analog.”Results: Insulin detemir improves glycemic control, based on HbA1C reduction and fasting glucose levels, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain. Insulin detemir has lower glycemic variability, with less intra-subject variability in blood glucose levels in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia. When added to oral anti-diabetes agents (OADs in type 2 diabetes, insulin detemir demonstrates superiority to other basal insulin options.Conclusion: Insulin detemir appears to provide better glycemic control with a lower risk of hypoglycemia and less weight gain in the treatment of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Keywords: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, insulin analogs, insulin detemir

  9. Social Justice in Practitioner Publications: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Samantha M.; Zimmer, Wendi Kamman; Wright, Katherine Landau

    2017-01-01

    A review of the current research literature demonstrates that teaching for social justice has been accepted by the research community as best practice for students, especially diverse students from traditionally marginalized populations and communities. However, best practices do no practical good if they are not implemented into real classroom…

  10. Community-onset sepsis and its public health burden: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Royle, Pam; Seedat, Farah; Cooper, Jennifer; Crosby, Rebecca; McCarthy, Noel

    2016-05-18

    Sepsis is a life-threatening condition and major contributor to public health and economic burden in the industrialised world. The difficulties in accurate diagnosis lead to great variability in estimates of sepsis incidence. There has been even greater uncertainty regarding the incidence of and risk factors for community-onset sepsis (COS). We systematically reviewed the recent evidence on the incidence and risk factors of COS in high income countries (North America, Australasia, and North/Western Europe). Cohort and case-control studies were eligible for inclusion. Medline and Embase databases were searched from 2002 onwards. References of relevant publications were hand-searched. Two reviewers screened titles/abstracts and full-texts independently. One reviewer extracted data and appraised studies which were cross-checked by independent reviewers. Disagreements were resolved via consensus. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were ascertained by type of sepsis (non-severe, severe, and septic shock). Ten cohort and 4 case-control studies were included. There was a wide variation in the incidence (# cases per 100,000 per year) of non-severe sepsis (range: 64-514), severe sepsis (range: 40-455), and septic shock (range: 9-31). Heterogeneity precluded statistical pooling. Two cohort and 4 case-control studies reported risk factors for sepsis. In one case-control and one cohort study, older age and diabetes were associated with increased risk of sepsis. The same case-control study showed an excess risk for sepsis in participants with clinical conditions (e.g., immunosuppression, lung disease, and peripheral artery disease). In one cohort study, higher risk of sepsis was associated with being a nursing home resident (OR = 2.60, 95 % CI: 1.20, 5.60) and in the other cohort study with being physically inactive (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI: 1.13, 1.56) and smoking tobacco (OR = 1.85, 95 % CI: 1.54, 2.22). The evidence on sex, ethnicity, statin use, and

  11. 76 FR 68518 - Request for Information: Public Access to Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Publications Resulting From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Technology Policy (OSTP) on behalf of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). SUPPLEMENTARY... science maximize the benefit of public access policies to U.S. taxpayers, and their investment in the peer... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND...

  12. 76 FR 28222 - Extension of the Public Review and Comment Period and Announcement of an Additional Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ...On April 29, 2011, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a semi-autonomous agency within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), published a notice of availability for the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Nuclear Facility Portion of the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building Replacement Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (CMRR-NF DSEIS; DOE/EIS-0350-S1). That notice stated that the public review and comment period would continue until June 13, 2011. NNSA has decided to extend the public comment period by 15 days through June 28, 2011 and to hold an additional public hearing on Monday, May 23, 2011 in Albuquerque, NM.

  13. Cost effectiveness of type 2 diabetes screening: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Behzad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Ghaderi, Hossein; Hadian, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Although studies reported diabetes mellitus screening cost effective, the mass screening for type2 diabetes remains controversial. In this study we reviewed the recently evidence about the cost effectiveness of mass screening systematically. We reviewed the MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science (WOS), and Cochrane library databases by MeSH terms to identify relevant studies from 2000 to 2013. We had 4 inclusion and 6 exclusion criteria and used the Drummond's checklist for appraising the quality of studies. The initial search yielded 358 potentially related studies from selected databases. 6 studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria and included in final review. 3 and 2 of them were conducted in Europe and America and only one of them in Asia. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was the main outcome to appraise the effectiveness in the studies. Incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was computed in range from $516.33 to $126,238 per QALY in the studies. A review of previous diabetes screening cost effectiveness analysis showed that the studies varied in some aspects but reached similar conclusions. They concluded that the screening may be cost effective, however further studies is required to support the diabetes mass screening.

  14. 75 FR 57779 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Dioxin Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Dioxin Review... SAB Dioxin Review Panel to continue its review of EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin... U.S.C., App. 2, notice is hereby given that the SAB Dioxin Review Panel will hold a public meeting...

  15. 76 FR 29746 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Mercury Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Mercury Review... SAB Mercury Review Panel. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 15, 2011 and June 16, 2011 from 9 a... Mercury Review Panel will hold a public meeting to review EPA's Technical Support Document: National-Scale...

  16. Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazrai, Y M; Defeudis, G; Pozzilli, P

    2014-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the fastest growing diseases; the number of people affected by diabetes will soon reach 552 million worldwide, with associated increases in complications and healthcare expenditure. Lifestyle and medical nutrition therapy are considered the keystones of type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment, but there is no definite consensus on how to treat this disease with these therapies. The American Diabetes Association has made several recommendations regarding the medical nutrition therapy of diabetes; these emphasize the importance of minimizing macrovascular and microvascular complications in people with diabetes. Four types of diets were reviewed for their effects on diabetes: the Mediterranean diet, a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet, a vegan diet and a vegetarian diet. Each of the four types of diet has been shown to improve metabolic conditions, but the degree of improvement varies from patient to patient. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate a patient's pathophysiological characteristics in order to determine the diet that will achieve metabolic improvement in each individual. Many dietary regimens are available for patients with type 2 diabetes to choose from, according to personal taste and cultural tradition. It is important to provide a tailor-made diet wherever possible in order to maximize the efficacy of the diet on reducing diabetes symptoms and to encourage patient adherence. Additional randomized studies, both short term (to analyse physiological responses) and long term, could help reduce the multitude of diets currently recommended and focus on a shorter list of useful regimens.

  17. Public perceptions of agrifood applications of Genetic modification – A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.; Menozzi, D.; Zhang, X.Y.; Berg, van den I.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    An extensive literature relating to public perceptions of genetically modified foods applied to agri-food production has been identified through the process of systematic review. Application of systematic review criteria indicated that 335 papers were of appropriate quality or relevance to be consid

  18. Public perceptions of agrifood applications of Genetic modification – A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.; Menozzi, D.; Zhang, X.Y.; Berg, van den I.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    An extensive literature relating to public perceptions of genetically modified foods applied to agri-food production has been identified through the process of systematic review. Application of systematic review criteria indicated that 335 papers were of appropriate quality or relevance to be

  19. From SSWR to Peer-Reviewed Publication: How Many Live and How Many Die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian E.; Taylor, Harry Owen; Vaughn, Michael G.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Ruffolo, Mary C.; Spencer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate how many presentations at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR) are subsequently published in peer-reviewed journals. A 30% random sample of abstracts presented at the 2006 Annual Meeting of SSWR was reviewed. To determine publication status of the presentations, the authors…

  20. Public perceptions of agrifood applications of Genetic modification – A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.; Menozzi, D.; Zhang, X.Y.; Berg, van den I.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    An extensive literature relating to public perceptions of genetically modified foods applied to agri-food production has been identified through the process of systematic review. Application of systematic review criteria indicated that 335 papers were of appropriate quality or relevance to be consid

  1. Program Planning and Review to Promote Responsiveness to Public Needs. Report 09-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    State law directs the California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC) to review and comment on the need for new degree and certificate programs proposed by the public higher education systems. The California Legislature, the Administration, and the Legislative Analyst's Office consider the review of proposals for new degree and certificate…

  2. From SSWR to Peer-Reviewed Publication: How Many Live and How Many Die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian E.; Taylor, Harry Owen; Vaughn, Michael G.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Ruffolo, Mary C.; Spencer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate how many presentations at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR) are subsequently published in peer-reviewed journals. A 30% random sample of abstracts presented at the 2006 Annual Meeting of SSWR was reviewed. To determine publication status of the presentations, the authors…

  3. The relation between public speaking anxiety and social anxiety: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöte, Anke W; Kint, Marcia J W; Miers, Anne C; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2009-04-01

    This article reviewed the literature on public speaking anxiety in the context of social phobia subtyping. In total, 18 empirical studies on subtype issues related to public speaking anxiety were analyzed. Results of the reviewed studies are discussed in relation to their research method, that is, whether it focused on qualitative or quantitative aspects of subtype differences and whether it used a clinical or community sample. Evidence supported the premise that public speaking anxiety is a distinct subtype, qualitatively and quantitatively different from other subtypes of social phobia. The significance of this finding for social phobia studies using speech tasks to assess participants' state anxiety and behavioral performance is discussed.

  4. A systematic review of publications studies on medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Ferdosi; Alireza, Jabbari; Mahmoud, Keyvanara; Zahra, Agharahimi

    2013-01-01

    Medical tourism for any study area is complex. Using full articles from other databases, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Science Direct, Emerald, Oxford, Magiran, and Scientific Information Database (SID), to examine systematically published articles about medical tourism in the interval 2000-2011 paid. Articles were obtained using descriptive statistics and content analysis categories were analyzed. Among the 28 articles reviewed, 11 cases were a kind of research articles, three cases were case studies in Mexico, India, Hungary, Germany, and Iran, and 14 were case studies, review documents and data were passed. The main topics of study included the definition of medical tourism, medical tourists' motivation and development of medical tourism, ethical issues in medical tourism, and impact on health and medical tourism marketing. The findings indicate the definition of medical tourism in various articles, and medical tourists are motivated. However, most studies indicate the benefits of medical tourism in developing countries and more developed countries reflect the consequences of medical tourism.

  5. Microcephalic Osteodysplastic Primordial Dwarfism, Type II: a Clinical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Michael B; Jackson, Andrew P

    2017-04-01

    This review will provide an overview of the microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD) class of disorders and provide the reader comprehensive clinical review with suggested care guidelines for patients with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type II (MOPDII). Over the last 15 years, significant strides have been made in the diagnosis, natural history, and management of MOPDII. MOPDII is the most common and well described form of MPD. The classic features of the MPD group are severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, with marked microcephaly. In addition to these features, individuals with MOPDII have characteristic facies, skeletal dysplasia, abnormal dentition, and an increased risk for cerebrovascular disease and insulin resistance. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the pericentrin gene cause MOPDII, which is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.

  6. Analytical Review on Transportation Public Private Partnerships Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Ali Soomro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Governments around the globe are embracing Public Private Partnerships (PPPs to overcome financial and technical deficit and to provide public infrastructure on faster pace. However, PPPs are complex institutional arrangements involving many players from diversified fields and thus bringing more risk to the project. Numerous researches had been conducted to investigate potential risks and success factors for establishing PPPs. But, as appetite for transportation PPPs is increasing around the globe, more problems and partnership failures are being witnessed. Existence of such failures and faults, despite of the availability of scientific protocols, motivate the authors to investigate transportation PPPs failures in past two decades. The investigation led to the identification of forty eight potential failure reasons, responsible for transportation PPPs. The identification of “potential failure reasons” was made possible through thirty five transportation PPPs case studies. The investigation through case studies reveals that the adoption of PPPs in different regions was motivated by specific reasons besides fundamental financial and technical concerns. These specific reasons had played important roles in the project success and failure. This paper discusses the global trend of transportation PPPs in different economies with evidence of potential failure reasons and their causal relationships

  7. Mobilising voluntary contributions in public urban regeneration – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Agger, Annika

    Research on volunteerism indicates that one third of all adults in Denmark regularly contribute with voluntary labour in social relief work, community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, or otherwise. In this paper we ask if and how urban regeneration might benefit from the appar...... of voluntary labour and voluntary associations in publicly subsidised urban regeneration. Empirical data will be collected through in-depth case studies in selected communities in both metropolitan neighbourhoods and smaller market towns....... to community development, urban policy, etc. In addition to this, the paper presents results from a survey exploring the extent and character of volunteerism in a number of integrated urban regeneration projects. The paper proposes a systematic overview of experiences with voluntary inputs and engagement...... in relation to public policy arenas and activities, particularly within urban policy and the community development fields. A categorization is proposed as regards different ways and models of civic engagement and major challenges are outlined. The paper is first step of a research project exploring potential...

  8. Assessing public forecasts to encourage accountability: The case of MIT's Technology Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Although high degrees of reliability have been found for many types of forecasts purportedly due to the existence of accountability, public forecasts of technology are rarely assessed and continue to have a poor reputation. This paper's analysis of forecasts made by MIT's Technology Review provides a rare assessment and thus a means to encourage accountability. It first shows that few of the predicted "breakthrough technologies" currently have large markets. Only four have sales greater than $10 billion while eight technologies not predicted by Technology Review have sales greater than $10 billion including three with greater than $100 billion and one other with greater than $50 billion. Second, possible reasons for these poor forecasts are then discussed including an over emphasis on the science-based process of technology change, sometimes called the linear model of innovation. Third, this paper describes a different model of technology change, one that is widely used by private companies and that explains the emergence of those technologies that have greater than $10 billion in sales. Fourth, technology change and forecasts are discussed in terms of cognitive biases and mental models.

  9. Are systematic reviews up-to-date at the time of publication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Elaine M; Chen, Joyce Kee-Hsin; Wang, Una Li-Hsiang; Glasziou, Paul P

    2013-05-28

    Systematic reviews provide a synthesis of evidence for practitioners, for clinical practice guideline developers, and for those designing and justifying primary research. Having an up-to-date and comprehensive review is therefore important. Our main objective was to determine the recency of systematic reviews at the time of their publication, as measured by the time from last search date to publication. We also wanted to study the time from search date to acceptance, and from acceptance to publication, and measure the proportion of systematic reviews with recorded information on search dates and information sources in the abstract and full text of the review. A descriptive analysis of published systematic reviews indexed in Medline in 2009, 2010 and 2011 by three reviewers, independently extracting data. Of the 300 systematic reviews included, 271 (90%) provided the date of search in the full-text article, but only 141 (47%) stated this in the abstract. The median (standard error; minimum to maximum) survival time from last search to acceptance was 5.1 (0.58; 0 to 43.8) months (95% confidence interval = 3.9 to 6.2) and from last search to first publication time was 8.0 (0.35; 0 to 46.7) months (95% confidence interval = 7.3 to 8.7), respectively. Of the 300 reviews, 295 (98%) stated which databases had been searched, but only 181 (60%) stated the databases in the abstract. Most researchers searched three (35%) or four (21%) databases. The top-three most used databases were MEDLINE (79%), Cochrane library (76%), and EMBASE (64%). Being able to identify comprehensive, up-to-date reviews is important to clinicians, guideline groups, and those designing clinical trials. This study demonstrates that some reviews have a considerable delay between search and publication, but only 47% of systematic review abstracts stated the last search date and 60% stated the databases that had been searched. Improvements in the quality of abstracts of systematic reviews and ways to

  10. Critical review of the United Kingdom's "gold standard" survey of public attitudes to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin K; Jensen, Eric A

    2016-02-01

    Since 2000, the UK government has funded surveys aimed at understanding the UK public's attitudes toward science, scientists, and science policy. Known as the Public Attitudes to Science series, these surveys and their predecessors have long been used in UK science communication policy, practice, and scholarship as a source of authoritative knowledge about science-related attitudes and behaviors. Given their importance and the significant public funding investment they represent, detailed academic scrutiny of the studies is needed. In this essay, we critically review the most recently published Public Attitudes to Science survey (2014), assessing the robustness of its methods and claims. The review casts doubt on the quality of key elements of the Public Attitudes to Science 2014 survey data and analysis while highlighting the importance of robust quantitative social research methodology. Our analysis comparing the main sample and booster sample for young people demonstrates that quota sampling cannot be assumed equivalent to probability-based sampling techniques.

  11. A systematic review of publications studies on medical tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Ferdosi; Alireza, Jabbari; Mahmoud, Keyvanara; Zahra, Agharahimi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Medical tourism for any study area is complex. Materials and Methods: Using full articles from other databases, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Science Direct, Emerald, Oxford, Magiran, and Scientific Information Database (SID), to examine systematically published articles about medical tourism in the interval 2000-2011 paid. Articles were obtained using descriptive statistics and content analysis categories were analyzed. Results: Among the 28 articles reviewed, 11 cases were a kind of research articles, three cases were case studies in Mexico, India, Hungary, Germany, and Iran, and 14 were case studies, review documents and data were passed. The main topics of study included the definition of medical tourism, medical tourists’ motivation and development of medical tourism, ethical issues in medical tourism, and impact on health and medical tourism marketing. Conclusion: The findings indicate the definition of medical tourism in various articles, and medical tourists are motivated. However, most studies indicate the benefits of medical tourism in developing countries and more developed countries reflect the consequences of medical tourism. PMID:24251287

  12. REDRAWING THE FRONTIERS IN THE AGE OF POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David William Galbraith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Publication forms the core structure supporting the development and transmission of scientific knowledge. For this reason, it is essential that the highest standards of quality control be maintained, in particular to ensure that the information being transmitted allows reproducible replication of the described experiments, and that the interpretation of the results is sound. Quality control has traditionally involved editorial decisions based on anonymous pre-publication peer review. Post-publication review of individual articles took the lesser role since it did not feed directly back to the original literature. Rapid advances in computer and communications technologies over the last thirty years have revolutionized scientific publication, and the role and scope of post-publication review has greatly expanded. This perspective examines the ways in which pre- and post-publication peer review influence the scientific literature, and in particular how they might best be redrawn to deal with the twin problems of scientific non-reproducibility and fraud increasingly encountered at the frontiers of science.

  13. Submission of scientifically sound and ethical manuscripts to peer-reviewed journals - a reviewer's personal perspective on bioanalytical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Naidong

    2012-11-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, bioanalysis is very dynamic and is probably one of the few fields of research covering the entire drug discovery, development and post-marketing process. Important decisions on drug safety can partially rely on bioanalytical data, which therefore can be subject to regulatory scrutiny. Bioanalytical scientists have historically contributed significant numbers of scientific manuscripts in many peer-reviewed analytical journals. All of these journals provide some high-level instructions, but they also leave sufficient flexibility for reviewers to perform independent critique and offer recommendations for each submitted manuscript. Reviewers play a pivotal role in the process of bioanalytical publication to ensure the publication of high-quality manuscripts in a timely fashion. Their efforts usually lead to improved manuscripts. However, it has to be a joint effort among authors, reviewers and editors to promote scientifically sound and ethically fair bioanalytical publications. Most of the submitted manuscripts were well written with only minor or moderate revisions required for further improvement. Nevertheless, there were small numbers of submitted manuscripts that did not meet the requirements for publications because of scientific or ethical deficiencies, which are discussed in this Letter to the Editor. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Yoga Practice for the Management of Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Adults: A systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Aljasir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of practicing yoga for the management of type II Diabetes was assessed in this systematic review through searching related electronic databases and the grey literature to the end of May 2007 using Ovid. All randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs comparing yoga practice with other type of intervention or with regular practice or both, were included regardless of language or type of publication. Each study was assessed for quality by two independent reviewers. Mean difference was used for summarizing the effect of each study outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. Pooling of the studies did not take place due to the wide clinical variation between the studies. Publication bias was assessed by statistical methods. Five trials with 363 participants met the inclusion criteria with medium to high risk of bias and different intervention characteristics. The studies’ results show improvement in outcomes among patients with diabetes type II. These improvements were mainly among short term or immediate diabetes outcomes and not all were statistically significant. The results were inconclusive and not significant for the long-term outcomes. No adverse effects were reported in any of the included studies. Short-term benefits for patients with diabetes may be achieved from practicing yoga. Further research is needed in this area. Factors like quality of the trials and other methodological issues should be improved by large randomized control trials with allocation concealment to assess the effectiveness of yoga on diabetes type II. A definitive recommendation for physicians to encourage their patients to practice yoga cannot be reached at present.

  15. Spending Reviews – a Tool to Support the Effcient Management of Public Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Postuła

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Respective European Union member states’ interest in using spending reviews varies as there are no international mandatory regulations. The EU legislation contains general indications as to maintaining a rational fscal policy, from the provisions of the TFUE, expanded in the Pact for Stability and Growth, and elaborated in 2011. Methodology: Adopting an interpretative research approach, this article elaborates a multiple explanatory case study design to discover how existing theories about public spending reviews are conceptualized by practitioners in their natural contexts. Findings: The deteriorated state of many countries’ public fnances, as a result of the global fnancial crisis, has increased the interest in advanced innovative consolidation and fscal stabilization methods. Spending reviews are among the most developed and advanced methods. Such reviews were conducted both by countries that had applied this instrument before (Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, Australia, and by those that introduced them for the frst time (Ireland, Canada, France. However, reviews are applied in countries characterized by signifcant economic advancement and mature public management systems. Originality: This article analyses and draws conclusions from several selected countries’ experience to date in using spending reviews. The budget functions are compared using information from the implementation of the spending reviews. This article contributes to flling two main gaps identifed in the literature review.

  16. Type 1 diabetes and polyglandular autoimmune syndrome:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin P Hansen; Nina Matheis; George J Kahaly

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder causedby inflammatory destruction of the pancreatic tissue. Theetiopathogenesis and characteristics of the pathologicprocess of pancreatic destruction are well described. Inaddition, the putative susceptibility genes for T1D as amonoglandular disease and the relation to polyglandularautoimmune syndrome (PAS) have also been wellexplored. The incidence of T1D has steadily increasedin most parts of the world, especially in industrializednations. T1D is frequently associated with autoimmuneendocrine and non-endocrine diseases and patients withT1D are at a higher risk for developing several glandularautoimmune diseases. Familial clustering is observed,which suggests that there is a genetic predisposition.Various hypotheses pertaining to viral- and bacterialinducedpancreatic autoimmunity have been proposed,however a definitive delineation of the autoimmunepathomechanism is still lacking. In patients with PAS,pancreatic and endocrine autoantigens either colocalizeon one antigen-presenting cell or are expressed on two/various target cells sharing a common amino acid, whichfacilitates binding to and activation of T cells. The mostprevalent PAS phenotype is the adult type 3 variant orPAS type Ⅲ, which encompasses T1D and autoimmunethyroid disease. This review discusses the findings ofrecent studies showing noticeable differences in thegenetic background and clinical phenotype of T1D eitheras an isolated autoimmune endocrinopathy or within thescope of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome.

  17. Metabolomics - the complementary field in systems biology: a review on obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Mohamad Hafizi; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Cheng, Kian-Kai; Ali Khan, Abid; Suan, Chua Lee; Zaman Huri, Hasniza; Yaakob, Harisun

    2015-07-01

    Metabolomic studies on obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus have led to a number of mechanistic insights into biomarker discovery and comprehension of disease progression at metabolic levels. This article reviews a series of metabolomic studies carried out in previous and recent years on obesity and type 2 diabetes, which have shown potential metabolic biomarkers for further evaluation of the diseases. Literature including journals and books from Web of Science, Pubmed and related databases reporting on the metabolomics in these particular disorders are reviewed. We herein discuss the potential of reported metabolic biomarkers for a novel understanding of disease processes. These biomarkers include fatty acids, TCA cycle intermediates, carbohydrates, amino acids, choline and bile acids. The biological activities and aetiological pathways of metabolites of interest in driving these intricate processes are explained. The data from various publications supported metabolomics as an effective strategy in the identification of novel biomarkers for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Accelerating interest in the perspective of metabolomics to complement other fields in systems biology towards the in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the diseases is also well appreciated. In conclusion, metabolomics can be used as one of the alternative approaches in biomarker discovery and the novel understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in obesity and type 2 diabetes. It can be foreseen that there will be an increasing research interest to combine metabolomics with other omics platforms towards the establishment of detailed mechanistic evidence associated with the disease processes.

  18. Peer-reviewed public health journals from Arabic-speaking countries: An updated snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Enein, Basil H; Bernstein, Joshua; Bowser, Jacquelyn E

    2017-02-01

    There is a positive association between availability of regional peer-reviewed public health information systems and progressive change in community and population health. The objective of this brief report was to identify public health journals in Arabic-speaking countries actively publishing as of 2016. We conducted an electronic search in several electronic database records for public health journals using a combination of search terms. We excluded journals that focused on human medicine, veterinary medicine, nursing, and other discipline-specific or clinical health professions. We identified twenty-five public health journals for review. Five journals were interrupted or discontinued. Only three journals had a consistent, uninterrupted active publication history of greater than 20 years. Most journals were not in the regional native language. Introduction of regional public health-dedicated journals with in-print and electronic availability and also to be published in region-native languages may require interdisciplinary partnerships. Region-wide public health journals such as the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal could serve as an ideal model for the establishment of additional local and regional public health journals in Arabic-speaking countries.

  19. A Map-Based Service Supporting Different Types of Geographic Knowledge for the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengjie; Wang, Rui; Tian, Jing; Ye, Ning; Mai, Shumin

    2016-01-01

    The internet enables the rapid and easy creation, storage, and transfer of knowledge; however, services that transfer geographic knowledge and facilitate the public understanding of geographic knowledge are still underdeveloped to date. Existing online maps (or atlases) can support limited types of geographic knowledge. In this study, we propose a framework for map-based services to represent and transfer different types of geographic knowledge to the public. A map-based service provides tools to ensure the effective transfer of geographic knowledge. We discuss the types of geographic knowledge that should be represented and transferred to the public, and we propose guidelines and a method to represent various types of knowledge through a map-based service. To facilitate the effective transfer of geographic knowledge, tools such as auxiliary background knowledge and auxiliary map-reading tools are provided through interactions with maps. An experiment conducted to illustrate our idea and to evaluate the usefulness of the map-based service is described; the results demonstrate that the map-based service is useful for transferring different types of geographic knowledge.

  20. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Public Address System Review Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUMPHRYS, K.L.

    1999-11-03

    Public address system operation at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility was reviewed. The review was based on an Operational Readiness Review finding that public address performance was not adequate in parts of the WRAP facility. Several improvements were made to the WRAP Public Address (PA) system to correct the deficiencies noted. Speaker gain and position was optimized. A speech processor was installed to boost intelligibility in high noise areas. Additional speakers were added to improve coverage in the work areas. The results of this evaluation indicate that further PA system enhancements are not warranted. Additional speakers cannot compensate for the high background sound and high reverberation levels found in the work areas. Recommendations to improve PA system intelligibility include minor speaker adjustments, enhanced PA announcement techniques, and the use of sound reduction and abatement techniques where economically feasible.

  1. What Every Author and Reviewer Should Know about the Publication Process in the Journal of Nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, D W; Chitwood, D J; Bernard, E C

    1997-12-01

    The Journal of Nematology is a publication of the very highest quality for communicating the most recent discoveries in the science of nematology. The authors of this Viewpoint article desire to maintain the status of the journal while lessening the burden placed on the editorial staff. A few simple steps taken by authors during the manuscript preparation phase can greatly improve the quality of their papers. Authors should carefully review the "Author's Publication Handbook and Style Manual" before and during the preparation of a manuscript intended for publication in the Journal of Nematology. In addition, authors should submit a completed "Author's Checklist for Preparation of Papers" with each manuscript submitted to the journal. Reviewers should provide thorough reviews, return mantlscripts in a timely manner, and clearly define statements regarding revisions.

  2. The public health risks of media violence: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Kilburn, John

    2009-05-01

    To conduct a meta-analytic review of studies that examine the impact of violent media on aggressive behavior and to determine whether this effect could be explained through methodological problems inherent in this research field. A detailed literature search identified peer-reviewed articles addressing media violence effects. Effect sizes were calculated for all studies. Effect sizes were adjusted for observed publication bias. Publication bias was a problem for studies of aggressive behavior, and methodological problems such as the use of poor aggression measures inflated effect size. Once corrected for publication bias, studies of media violence effects provided little support for the hypothesis that media violence is associated with higher aggression. The corrected overall effect size for all studies was r = .08. Results from the current analysis do not support the conclusion that media violence leads to aggressive behavior. It cannot be concluded at this time that media violence presents a significant public health risk.

  3. Preparing raw clinical data for publication: guidance for journal editors, authors, and peer reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynaszkiewicz, Iain; Norton, Melissa L; Vickers, Andrew J; Altman, Douglas G

    2010-01-29

    In recognition of the benefits of transparent reporting, many peer-reviewed journals require that their authors be prepared to share their raw, unprocessed data with other scientists and/or state the availability of raw data in published articles. But little information on how data should be prepared for publication - or sharing - has emerged. In clinical research patient privacy and consent for use of personal health information are key considerations, but agreed-upon definitions of what constitutes anonymised patient information do not appear to have been established. We aim to address this issue by providing practical guidance for those involved in the publication process, by proposing a minimum standard for de-identifying datasets for the purposes of publication in a peer-reviewed biomedical journal, or sharing with other researchers. Basic advice on file preparation is provided along with procedural guidance on prospective and retrospective publication of raw data, with an emphasis on randomised controlled trials.

  4. [Evaluation of public drug provision policies for type 2 diabetes mellitus in Argentina: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elorza, María Eugenia; Moscoso, Nebel Silvana; Ripari, Nadia Vanina

    2012-01-01

    In Argentina, the provision of drugs for patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus who lack health insurance is carried out through public programs. In the Province of Buenos Aires, the national program Remediar and the provincial program PRODIABA (from the Spanish Programa de Prevención, Diagnóstico y Tratamiento del Paciente Diabético) coexist. This study estimates the percentage of adults in the municipality of Bahia Blanca (Province of Buenos Aires) who suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus and lack health insurance, thus satisfying their need for oral antidiabetic treatments within the public sector. It is a quantitative study that assesses the need and demand for public provision. The results indicate that: 1) the greatest percentage of demand is satisfied at the primary health care level; 2) the province of Buenos Aires funds the largest share of the pills, followed by the municipal and the national levels; 3) the local government intervenes to satisfy the demand and 4) the total public provision covers approximately 25% of the overall need in relation to the average consumption. This shows that despite the presence of these public programs, the provision is insufficient and thus requires the intervention of the local government even though economic theory does not recommend the decentralization of drug purchases.

  5. Risk Allocation in Public Private Partnership (PPP) Project: A Review on Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Alkaf Abd Karim

    2011-01-01

    It is important for the public and private sectors to establish effective risk allocation strategies for Public-Private Partnership (PPP) projects. According to Malaysia’s PPP Guideline, one of the key feature or characteristics is to optimal sharing of risk whereby risk is allocated to the party who is the best able to manage. This mean that in PPP itself, it emphasis risk allocation in construction project. This paper presents on reviewing the risk factors of PPP construction project by map...

  6. Public perception of climate risk and adaptation in the UK: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrea L.; Dessai, Suraje; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2014-01-01

    Like other countries, the United Kingdom faces the unavoidable challenge of adapting to a changing climate. However, public perceptions of the risk posed by climate change and support for adaptation policies vary between countries. This article provides a UK-specific review of climate change beliefs, risk perceptions regarding potential climate change impacts, and attitudes towards climate change adaptation. We report on differences between expert and public conceptualisations of climate chan...

  7. The structure and organization of local and state public health agencies in the U.S.: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Justeen K; Shortell, Stephen M

    2012-05-01

    This systematic review provides a synthesis of the growing field of public health systems research related to the structure and organization of state and local governmental public health agencies. It includes an overview of research examining the influence of organizational characteristics on public health performance and health status and a summary of the strengths and gaps of the literature to date. Data were retrieved through an iterative process, beginning with key word searches in three publication databases (PubMed, JSTOR, Web of Science). Gray literature was searched through the use of Google Scholar™. Targeted searches on websites and key authors were also performed. Documents underwent an initial and secondary screening; they were retained if they contained information about local or state public health structure, organization, governance, and financing. 77 articles met the study criteria. Public health services are delivered by a mix of local, state, and tribal governmental and nongovernmental agencies and delivered through centralized (28%); decentralized (37%); or combined authority (35%). The majority of studies focused on organizational characteristics that are associated with public health performance based on the 10 Essential Public Health Services framework. Population size of jurisdiction served (>50,000); structure of authority (decentralized and mixed); per capita spending at the local level; some partnerships (academic, health services); and leadership of agency directors have been found to be related to public health performance. Fewer studies examined the relationship between organizational characteristics and health outcomes. Improvements in health outcomes are associated with an increase in local health department expenditures, FTEs per capita, and location of health department within local networks. Public health systems in the U.S. face a number of critical challenges, including limited organizational capacity and financial resources

  8. Review on thermal insulation performance in various type of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahedan, Noor Fifinatasha; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Mahmed, Norsuria; Kusbiantoro, Andri; Binhussain, Mohammed; Zailan, Siti Norsaffirah

    2017-04-01

    Thermal insulation concrete building plays an important role in environment sustainability especially energy saving buildings. Buildings are one of the largest consumers of energy worldwide. Therefore, significant energy saving can be realized by buildings with proper materials, design and operation. Thermal insulation systems are nowadays mostly applied for such building envelopes where the materials of load bearing structure such as concrete do not have a substantial thermal insulation capability. Thermal insulation in concrete are materials or combinations of materials that are used to provide resistance to heat flow, should have low conductivity for building application in order to represence of a temperature gradient, has an important effect on the heat exchange between the building interior and the ambiance. The aim of this paper is to review the thermal properties include thermal conductivity and specific heat on various types of concrete.

  9. Inadequate use and regulation of interventions against publication bias decreases their effectiveness: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Kylie; Kien, Christina; Nussbaumer, Barbara; Van Noord, Megan G.; Griebler, Ursula; Klerings, Irma; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent or reduce publication and related biases. Study Design and Setting We searched multiple databases and performed manual searches using terms related to publication bias and known interventions against publication bias. We dually reviewed citations and assessed risk of bias. We synthesized results by intervention and outcomes measured and graded the quality of the evidence (QoE). Results We located 38 eligible studies. The use of prospective trial registries (PTR) has increased since 2005 (seven studies, moderate QoE); however, positive outcome-reporting bias is prevalent (14 studies, low QoE), and information in nonmandatory fields is vague (10 studies, low QoE). Disclosure of financial conflict of interest (CoI) is inadequate (five studies, low QoE). Blinding peer reviewers may reduce geographical bias (two studies, very low QoE), and open-access publishing does not discriminate against authors from low-income countries (two studies, very low QoE). Conclusion The use of PTR and CoI disclosures is increasing; however, the adequacy of their use requires improvement. The effect of open-access publication and blinding of peer reviewers on publication bias is unclear, as is the effect of other interventions such as electronic publication and authors' rights to publish their results. PMID:25835490

  10. Effective Nurse Communication With Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Bob C; Lokhorst, Anne Marike; Rutten, Guy E H M; van Woerkum, Cees M J

    2015-08-01

    Many type 2 diabetes mellitus patients have difficulties reaching optimal blood glucose control. With patients treated in primary care by nurses, nurse communication plays a pivotal role in supporting patient health. The twofold aim of the present review is to categorize common barriers to nurse-patient communication and to review potentially effective communication methods. Important communication barriers are lack of skills and self-efficacy, possibly because nurses work in a context where they have to perform biomedical examinations and then perform patient-centered counseling from a biopsychosocial approach. Training in patient-centered counseling does not seem helpful in overcoming this paradox. Rather, patient-centeredness should be regarded as a basic condition for counseling, whereby nurses and patients seek to cooperate and share responsibility based on trust. Nurses may be more successful when incorporating behavior change counseling based on psychological principles of self-regulation, for example, goal setting, incremental performance accomplishments, and action planning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Publication Bias and Nonreporting Found in Majority of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses in Anesthesiology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Riley J; Umberham, Blake A; Detweiler, Byron N; Kollmorgen, Lauren; Vassar, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are used by clinicians to derive treatment guidelines and make resource allocation decisions in anesthesiology. One cause for concern with such reviews is the possibility that results from unpublished trials are not represented in the review findings or data synthesis. This problem, known as publication bias, results when studies reporting statistically nonsignificant findings are left unpublished and, therefore, not included in meta-analyses when estimating a pooled treatment effect. In turn, publication bias may lead to skewed results with overestimated effect sizes. The primary objective of this study is to determine the extent to which evaluations for publication bias are conducted by systematic reviewers in highly ranked anesthesiology journals and which practices reviewers use to mitigate publication bias. The secondary objective of this study is to conduct publication bias analyses on the meta-analyses that did not perform these assessments and examine the adjusted pooled effect estimates after accounting for publication bias. This study considered meta-analyses and systematic reviews from 5 peer-reviewed anesthesia journals from 2007 through 2015. A PubMed search was conducted, and full-text systematic reviews that fit inclusion criteria were downloaded and coded independently by 2 authors. Coding was then validated, and disagreements were settled by consensus. In total, 207 systematic reviews were included for analysis. In addition, publication bias evaluation was performed for 25 systematic reviews that did not do so originally. We used Egger regression, Duval and Tweedie trim and fill, and funnel plots for these analyses. Fifty-five percent (n = 114) of the reviews discussed publication bias, and 43% (n = 89) of the reviews evaluated publication bias. Funnel plots and Egger regression were the most common methods for evaluating publication bias. Publication bias was reported in 34 reviews (16%). Thirty-six of the 45

  12. The gender gap in peer-reviewed publications by physical therapy faculty members: a productivity puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Regina R; Chevan, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Studies of peer-reviewed article publication by faculty in higher education show men publish more than women. Part of the difference in publishing appears to be attributable directly to gender. Gender differences in publishing productivity have not been explored in physical therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore effects of gender on peer-reviewed publication productivity in physical therapy. This was a cross-sectional study using survey methods. A survey was administered to a random sample of 881 physical therapy faculty members; 459 responses were used for analysis. Men were more likely than women to be married, have children, hold a PhD degree, be tenured or on a tenure track, and hold the position of department chair. There was a significant difference in peer-reviewed publication rates between male and female respondents. Negative binomial regression models revealed that female gender was a negative predictor of peer-reviewed publication, accounting for between 0.51 and 0.58 fewer articles per year for women than for men over the course of a career. Reasons for the gender differences are not clear. Factors such as grant funding, laboratory resources, nature of collaborative relationships, values for different elements of the teaching/research/service triad, and ability to negotiate the academic culture were not captured by our model. The gender gap in peer-reviewed publishing productivity may have implications for individuals and the profession of physical therapy and should be subject to further exploration.

  13. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor abuse: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Gregory; Costabile, Raymond

    2011-06-01

    Abuse of sildenafil has been reported since its introduction in 1999 and commonly documented in combination with illicit drugs among men and women of all ages. Increased risks of sexually transmissible diseases including HIV have been associated with sildenafil use in men who have sex with men. Recognizing the abuse potential of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5), we aim to summarize the current knowledge of this abuse. An investigation of EMBASE, PubMed, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website, MedWatch, and search engines was performed to evaluate information regarding sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil abuse. The EMBASE search provided 46 articles fitting the search criteria and evaluation led to 21 separate publications with specific information regarding PDE5 abuse. A PubMed search found 10 additional publications. MedWatch reported 44 separate warnings since 2000, most of which reported contamination of herbal products with active drug components. Few reports of abuse were among the 14,818 reports in the FDA AERS for sildenafil. A search for "internet drug store" revealed 6.4 million hits and of 7000 internet pharmacies identified by the Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites Program (VIPPS) only 4% were in proper compliance. The role internet pharmacies play in counterfeit PDE5 or abuse is not well documented; however based on easy access, direct patient marketing, and low advertised cost it is likely this role is underreported. Currently the best recommendation for providers is to recognize the possibility of abuse and to educate patients on risks of this behavior.

  14. Why media representations of corporations matter for public health policy: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, Heide; Dorfman, Lori; Freudenberg, Nicholas; Hawkins, Benjamin; Smith, Katherine; Razum, Oliver; Hilton, Shona

    2016-08-30

    Media representations play a crucial role in informing public and policy opinions about the causes of, and solutions to, ill-health. This paper reviews studies analysing media coverage of non-communicable disease (NCD) debates, focusing on how the industries marketing commodities that increase NCD risk are represented. A scoping review identified 61 studies providing information on media representations of NCD risks, NCD policies and tobacco, alcohol, processed food and soft drinks industries. The data were narratively synthesized to describe the sample, media depictions of industries, and corporate and public health attempts to frame the media debates. The findings indicate that: (i) the limited research that has been undertaken is dominated by a focus on tobacco; (ii) comparative research across industries/risk-factors is particularly lacking; and (iii) coverage tends to be dominated by two contrasting frames and focuses either on individual responsibilities ('market justice' frames, often promoted by commercial stakeholders) or on the need for population-level interventions ('social justice' frames, frequently advanced by public health advocates). Establishing the underlying frameworks is crucial for the analysis of media representation of corporations, as they reflect the strategies that respective actors use to influence public health debates and decision making. The potential utility of media research lies in the insights that it can provide for public health policy advocates about successful framing of public health messages and strategies to counter frames that undermine public health goals. A better understanding of current media debates is of paramount importance to improving global health.

  15. No difference found in time to publication by statistical significance of trial results: a methodological review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, L; Cooper, E; Hewitt, C; Torgerson, T; Cook, L; Tharmanathan, P; Cockayne, S; Torgerson, D

    2016-01-01

    Objective Time-lag from study completion to publication is a potential source of publication bias in randomised controlled trials. This study sought to update the evidence base by identifying the effect of the statistical significance of research findings on time to publication of trial results. Design Literature searches were carried out in four general medical journals from June 2013 to June 2014 inclusive (BMJ, JAMA, the Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine). Setting Methodological review of four general medical journals. Participants Original research articles presenting the primary analyses from phase 2, 3 and 4 parallel-group randomised controlled trials were included. Main outcome measures Time from trial completion to publication. Results The median time from trial completion to publication was 431 days (n = 208, interquartile range 278–618). A multivariable adjusted Cox model found no statistically significant difference in time to publication for trials reporting positive or negative results (hazard ratio: 0.86, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.16, p = 0.32). Conclusion In contrast to previous studies, this review did not demonstrate the presence of time-lag bias in time to publication. This may be a result of these articles being published in four high-impact general medical journals that may be more inclined to publish rapidly, whatever the findings. Further research is needed to explore the presence of time-lag bias in lower quality studies and lower impact journals. PMID:27757242

  16. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidetaka; Hamasaki[1

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework that type 2 diabetic patients should be able to perform without considerable physical burden. This review focuses on the association between daily physical activity and T2D. Walking was the most common form of daily physical activity, with numerous studies demonstrating its beneficial effects on reducing the risk of T2D, CVD,and mortality. Walking for at least 30 min per day was shown to reduce the risk of T2D by approximately 50%. Additionally, walking was associated with a reduction in mortality. In contrast, evidence was extremely limited regarding other daily physical activities such as gardening and housework in patients with T2D. Recent studies have suggested daily physical activity, including non-exerciseactivity thermogenesis, to be favorably associated with metabolic risks and mortality. However, well-designed longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate its effects on overall health.

  17. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidetaka; Hamasaki

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease(CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes(T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework that type 2 diabetic patients should be able to perform without considerable physical burden. This review focuses on the association between daily physical activity and T2D. Walking was the most common form of daily physical activity, with numerous studies demonstrating its beneficial effects on reducing the risk of T2D, CVD, and mortality. Walking for at least 30 min per day was shown to reduce the risk of T2D by approximately 50%. Additionally, walking was associated with a reduction in mortality. In contrast, evidence was extremely limited regarding other daily physical activities such as gardening and housework in patients with T2D. Recent studies have suggested daily physical activity, including non-exercise activity thermogenesis, to be favorably associated with metabolic risks and mortality. However, well-designed longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate its effects on overall health.

  18. Publication rates in peer-reviewed journals of abstracts presented at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Society of Turkey meetings 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolcu, Umit; Ozcan, Ayse

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the rate of peer-reviewed publication of full papers of abstracts presented at the annual meeting of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Society of Turkey, and to identify the time taken for publication, subspecialty, and study design. All abstracts accepted for presentation at the meetings in 2007-12 were identified from the books of abstracts, and evidence of publication was sought from PubMed and Google Scholar. The following variables were evaluated: publication rate, type of presentation (oral or poster), time to publication, subspecialty, study design, name of the journal in which the paper was published, impact factor of the journal, author affiliation, change in number of authors and origin of the study. A total of 1322 abstracts were presented between 2007 and 2012. Of these, 246 (19%) were subsequently published in peer-reviewed journals, including 110/390 oral presentations (28%) and 136/932 poster presentations (15%). Oral presentations were more likely to be published than poster presentations (p=0.000). The mean (SD) time from presentation to publication was 17 (15) months. Anatomical presentations had the highest publication rate (8/11), whereas orthognathic surgery had the lowest (5/67, 7%). Technical notes (5/9) and animal studies (32/70, 46%) were the most common types of publication. Only 246 of the 1322 abstracts (19%) were subsequently published as full papers, which is lower than previously reported in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  19. Economics methods in Cochrane systematic reviews of health promotion and public health related interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaid David

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Provision of evidence on costs alongside evidence on the effects of interventions can enhance the relevance of systematic reviews to decision-making. However, patterns of use of economics methods alongside systematic review remain unclear. Reviews of evidence on the effects of interventions are published by both the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. Although it is not a requirement that Cochrane or Campbell Reviews should consider economic aspects of interventions, many do. This study aims to explore and describe approaches to incorporating economics methods in a selection of Cochrane systematic reviews in the area of health promotion and public health, to help inform development of methodological guidance on economics for reviewers. Methods The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched using a search strategy for potential economic evaluation studies. We included current Cochrane reviews and review protocols retrieved using the search that are also identified as relevant to health promotion or public health topics. A reviewer extracted data which describe the economics components of included reviews. Extracted data were summarised in tables and analysed qualitatively. Results Twenty-one completed Cochrane reviews and seven review protocols met inclusion criteria. None incorporate formal economic evaluation methods. Ten completed reviews explicitly aim to incorporate economics studies and data. There is a lack of transparent reporting of methods underpinning the incorporation of economics studies and data. Some reviews are likely to exclude useful economics studies and data due to a failure to incorporate search strategies tailored to the retrieval of such data or use of key specialist databases, and application of inclusion criteria designed for effectiveness studies. Conclusion There is a need for consistency and transparency in the reporting and conduct of the economics components of Cochrane reviews, as

  20. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Aluttis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreed upon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising

  1. Understanding factors affecting patient and public engagement and recruitment to digital health interventions: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhan; Hanlon, Peter; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Garcia, Sonia; Glanville, Julie; Mair, Frances S

    2016-09-15

    Numerous types of digital health interventions (DHIs) are available to patients and the public but many factors affect their ability to engage and enrol in them. This systematic review aims to identify and synthesise the qualitative literature on barriers and facilitators to engagement and recruitment to DHIs to inform future implementation efforts. PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus and the ACM Digital Library were searched for English language qualitative studies from 2000 - 2015 that discussed factors affecting engagement and enrolment in a range of DHIs (e.g. 'telemedicine', 'mobile applications', 'personal health record', 'social networking'). Text mining and additional search strategies were used to identify 1,448 records. Two reviewers independently carried out paper screening, quality assessment, data extraction and analysis. Data was analysed using framework synthesis, informed by Normalization Process Theory, and Burden of Treatment Theory helped conceptualise the interpretation of results. Nineteen publications were included in the review. Four overarching themes that affect patient and public engagement and enrolment in DHIs emerged; 1) personal agency and motivation; 2) personal life and values; 3) the engagement and recruitment approach; and 4) the quality of the DHI. The review also summarises engagement and recruitment strategies used. A preliminary DIgital Health EnGagement MOdel (DIEGO) was developed to highlight the key processes involved. Existing knowledge gaps are identified and a number of recommendations made for future research. Study limitations include English language publications and exclusion of grey literature. This review summarises and highlights the complexity of digital health engagement and recruitment processes and outlines issues that need to be addressed before patients and the public commit to digital health and it can be implemented effectively. More work is needed to create successful engagement strategies and better

  2. How professionals perceive types of risk in public service innovation: Reports from Copenhagen municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timeus, Krista; Ricard, Lykke Margot

    The paper addresses two questions; what do professionals working in the public administration understand by ‘risk’ in relation to their work on innovation?; and how do these professionals understand their own role in managing risks of innovation? The paper takes an inductive approach and focuses...... on individuals, namely, professionals in Copenhagen municipality working on public services innovation. Such innovation includes new services or new methods of service delivery. Although all types of innovation include some risk, in public services, risks are exacerbated by the vulnerability of many users...... dependent on the state (such as children, elderly, people with disabilities), and intense media and political attention.Thus, most of the discussion in the paper focuses on innovations that somehow involve users. This is in contrast to, for example, an organizational innovation that mainly affects workers...

  3. Detection, identification and typing of Acidithiobacillus species and strains: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Harold; Covarrubias, Paulo C; Moya-Beltrán, Ana; Issotta, Francisco; Atavales, Joaquín; Acuña, Lillian G; Johnson, D Barrie; Quatrini, Raquel

    2016-09-01

    The genus Acidithiobacillus comprises several species of Gram-negative acidophilic bacteria that thrive in natural and man-made low pH environments in a variety of geo-climatic contexts. Beyond their fundamental interest as model extreme acidophiles, these bacteria are involved in the processing of minerals and the desulfurization of coal and natural gas, and are also sources of environmental pollution due to their generation of acid mine drainage and corrosion of cement and concrete structures. Acidithiobacillus spp. are therefore considered a biotechnologically relevant group of bacteria, and their identification and screening in natural and industrial environments is of great concern. Several molecular typing methodologies have been instrumental in improving knowledge of the inherent diversity of acidithiobacilli by providing information on the genetic subtypes sampled in public and private culture collections; more recently, they have provided specific insight into the diversity of acidithiobacilli present in industrial and natural environments. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of techniques used in molecular detection, identification and typing of Acidithiobacillus spp. These methods will be discussed in the context of their contribution to the general and specific understanding of the role of the acidithiobacilli in microbial ecology and industrial biotechnology. Emerging opportunities for industrial and environmental surveillance of acidithiobacilli using next-generation molecular typing methodologies are also reviewed.

  4. The stigma of obesity in the general public and its implications for public health - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schomerus Georg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to this date, prevalence rates of obesity are still rising. Aside from co-morbid diseases, perceived discrimination and stigmatization leads to worsen outcomes in obese individuals. Higher stigmatizing attitudes towards obese individuals may also result in less support of preventive and interventive measures. In light of the immense burden of obesity on health care systems and also on the individuals' quality of life, accepted and subsidized preventive measures are needed. Policy support might be determined by views of the lay public on causes of obesity and resulting weight stigma. This study seeks to answer how representative samples of the lay public perceive people with obesity or overweight status (stigmatizing attitudes; what these samples attribute obesity to (causal attribution and what types of interventions are supported by the lay public and which factors determine that support (prevention support. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted. All studies of representative samples reporting results on (a stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obese individuals, (b causal beliefs and (c prevention support were included. Results Only 7 articles were found. One study reported prevalence rates of stigmatizing attitudes. About a quarter of the population in Germany displayed definite stigmatizing attitudes. Other studies reported causal attributions. While external influences on weight are considered as well, it seems that internal factors are rated to be of higher importance. Across the studies found, regulative prevention is supported by about half of the population, while childhood prevention has highest approval rates. Results on sociodemographic determinants differ substantially. Conclusions Further research on public attitudes toward and perception of overweight and obesity is urgently needed to depict the prevailing degree of stigmatization. Introducing a multidimensional concept of the etiology

  5. Phraseological units in the language of public service advertising: occasional configuration of the first type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soboleva Nina Pavlovna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers the implementation of phraseological units in the language of public service advertising, as well as theoretical and practical aspects of phraseological units and their contextual use. The research is aimed at the analysis, classification of the cases of implementation and identification of the main structural and semantic classes of phraseological units used in public service advertising slogans in the Russian, English and German languages. The choice of practical material is stipulated by a growing role of public service advertising and interest in this issue. As a result of our research we analysed three thousand slogans in three languages taken from posters and websites. The author dwells on occasional configuration of the first type, introduced by A.V. Kunin, and considers the following stylistic modifications: dual actualisation, substitution, ellipsis, extension, permutation and other. A relevant classification is introduced which covers the stylistic modifications implemented in public service advertising slogans in three languages. The most frequently used stylistic modifications are identified. The most commonly used structure types of phraseological units are revealed in the article. No matter what kind of modification is explored the reasons of transformation can be the following: the structure of PU, the inner form and pragmatics.

  6. WWC Review of the Report "Sustained Progress: New Findings about the Effectiveness and Operation of Small Public High Schools of Choice in New York City." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined whether winning an admissions lottery to attend a small school of choice (SSC) in New York City improved high school graduation rates, influenced the type of diploma students received, or increased the likelihood of college readiness. An SSC is a small, nonselective public high school emphasizing academic…

  7. Molecular Typing in Public Health Laboratories: From an Academic Indulgence to an Infection Control Imperative

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Using three Austrian case studies, the variegated applications of molecular typing in today's public health laboratories are discussed to help illustrate preventive management strategies relying on DNA subtyping. DNA macrorestriction analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis has become the gold standard for subtyping of food borne pathogens like listeria, salmonella, campylobacter and Bacillus cereus. Using a Salmonella Mbandaka outbreak from the year 2010 as example, it is shown how the c...

  8. Comparison of a full systematic review versus rapid review approaches to assess a newborn screening test for tyrosinemia type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Geppert, Julia; Stinton, Chris; Freeman, Karoline; Johnson, Samantha; Fraser, Hannah; Sutcliffe, Paul; Clarke, Aileen

    2017-07-13

    Rapid reviews are increasingly used to replace/complement systematic reviews to support evidence-based decision-making. Little is known about how this expedited process affects results. To assess differences between rapid and systematic review approaches for a case study of test accuracy of succinylacetone for detecting tyrosinemia type 1. Two reviewers conducted an "enhanced" rapid review then a systematic review. The enhanced rapid review involved narrower searches, a single reviewer checking 20% of titles/abstracts and data extraction, and quality assessment using an unadjusted QUADAS-2. Two reviewers performed the systematic review with a tailored QUADAS-2. Post hoc analysis examined rapid reviewing with a single reviewer (basic rapid review). Ten papers were included. Basic rapid reviews would have missed 1 or 4 of these (dependent on which reviewer). Enhanced rapid and systematic reviews identified all 10 papers; one paper was only identified in the rapid review through reference checking. Two thousand one hundred seventy-six fewer title/abstracts and 129 fewer full texts were screened during the enhanced rapid review than the systematic review. The unadjusted QUADAS-2 generated more "unclear" ratings than the adjusted QUADAS-2 [29/70 (41.4%) versus 16/70 (22.9%)], and fewer "high" ratings [22/70 (31.4%) versus 42/70 (60.0%)]. Basic rapid reviews contained important inaccuracies in data extraction, which were detected by a second reviewer in the enhanced rapid and systematic reviews. Enhanced rapid reviews with 20% checking by a second reviewer may be an appropriate tool for policymakers to expeditiously assess evidence. Basic rapid reviews (single reviewer) have higher risks of important inaccuracies and omissions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. 76 FR 13986 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Workshop will be held in the auditorium at the NOAA Center for Coastal Fisheries and Habitat Research, 101... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment...

  10. A Systematic Review of Public Health-Aligned Recommendations for Preparing Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin A.; Webster, Liana; Russ, Laura; Molina, Sergio; Lee, Heesu; Cribbs, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Since Sallis and McKenzie's seminal article in 1991 outlining physical education's role in public health, increased attention has been given to promoting youth physical activity in schools. The present study systematically reviewed the literature from 1991 to 2013 to identify recommendations for the preparation of physical…

  11. 75 FR 69439 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... creating an asymmetry of information. Section 1.2105(c)(1) of the Commission's rules attempts to address... COMMISSION Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission... and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on the following information...

  12. Higher Education in Nevada. Nevada Public Affairs Review, Number 1, 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, James T., Ed.; Ginsburg, Gerald P., Ed.

    The state of higher education in Nevada is addressed in 14 papers presented in the "Nevada Public Affairs Review." In addition to considering past, present, and future trends in higher education, comparisons are made to higher education in other states, and the university and community college segments are examined. Contents are as follows:…

  13. 75 FR 61748 - Human Studies Review Board; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Advisor (OSA) announces a public meeting of the Human Studies Review Board (HSRB) to advise the Agency on... information concerning the EPA HSRB can be found on the EPA Web site at...

  14. 75 FR 32461 - Human Studies Review Board; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Advisor (OSA) announces a public meeting of the Human Studies Review Board (HSRB) to advise the Agency on... . General information concerning the EPA HSRB can be found on the EPA Web site at...

  15. Public and Tribal Community College Institutional Review Boards: A National Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean, Mia; Hirschi, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    It is currently unknown how many Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) exist at community colleges. This study investigates the percentage of public and Tribal community colleges that have active IRBs. It also examines the potential relationships between states that allow community colleges to confer baccalaureate degrees, or that have articulation…

  16. 75 FR 69437 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ..., distributors, and rights holders for the transmission of network, syndicated, and sports programming in the... COMMISSION Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission... information collection(s). Comments are requested concerning (a) whether the proposed collection...

  17. Higher Education in Nevada. Nevada Public Affairs Review, Number 1, 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, James T., Ed.; Ginsburg, Gerald P., Ed.

    The state of higher education in Nevada is addressed in 14 papers presented in the "Nevada Public Affairs Review." In addition to considering past, present, and future trends in higher education, comparisons are made to higher education in other states, and the university and community college segments are examined. Contents are as…

  18. A Systematic Review of Public Health-Aligned Recommendations for Preparing Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin A.; Webster, Liana; Russ, Laura; Molina, Sergio; Lee, Heesu; Cribbs, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Since Sallis and McKenzie's seminal article in 1991 outlining physical education's role in public health, increased attention has been given to promoting youth physical activity in schools. The present study systematically reviewed the literature from 1991 to 2013 to identify recommendations for the preparation of physical…

  19. Innovation in the Public Sector: A Systematic Review and Future Research Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. de Vries (Hanna); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor); L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article consolidates the empirical state-of-the-art on academic research on public sector innovation. Done by the method of a systematic review of the literature (1990-2014), 158 articles and books are analysed, based on the themes of the 1) definition of innovatio

  20. Reviewing History and IR Journals : Academic Publication Practices and Dominance in World Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendak, Maarten; de Wilde, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    1 Reviewing History and IR Journals: Academic Publication Practices and dominance in World Society Maarten Duijvendak & Jaap de Wilde Groningen, 2016 This article reflects on analyses of academic History journals and International Relations (IR) journals conducted by students in our Research

  1. Public Awareness, Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The general public's responses to people with intellectual disabilities influence the likely success or failure of policies aimed at increasing their social inclusion. The present paper provides a review of general population based research into awareness, attitudes and beliefs regarding intellectual disability published in English between 1990…

  2. 75 FR 56531 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission... technology, and (e) ways to further reduce the information collection burden for small business concerns with... confidentiality with this collection of information. Privacy Impact Assessment(s): No impact(s). Needs and...

  3. 76 FR 22701 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Number: 3060-1087. Title: Section 15.615, General Administrative Requirements (Broadband Over Power Line... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

  4. The AIRInforma experiment: peer-reviewed public dissemination of science in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, Federico; Cassetta, Luca; Gravina, Teresita

    2015-04-01

    Public dissemination of science to the public is often negatively affected by biased, incorrect information distributed over the world wide web through social networks and weblogs. In Italy, the lack of correct scientific information has generated several important issues, raising concerns by the international scientific community in several occasions over the past five years. Our association AIRIcerca (International Association of Italian Researchers, http://www.airicerca.org) has recently started a novel scientific dissemination initiative to the general public in Italy. The project is based on 1) direct involvement of researchers (with accademic or industrial affiliation) in article preparation and publication and 2) introduction of a peer-reviewing system similar to that applied in conventional scientific publishing. Our initiative, named AIRInforma (http://informa.airicerca.org) has already published more than 10 original articles and 3 meeting reports, in Italian language, about various fields of scientific research, ranging from social sciences to evolutionary biology , mathematics and medicine . The editorial board is composed of approximately 20 Italian scientists working all over the world and voluntarily contributing to the AIRInforma initiative. Submitted manuscripts are initially evaluated by the editorial board and, if suitable, they are assigned to four non-anonymous reviewers selected by the editorial board for accurate evaluation. Two reviewers are selected based on their specific expertise on the topic presented in the manuscript (expert reviewers), and two are specifically selected as working on distant fields (naive reviewers). The purpose of naive reviewers is to provide feedback on the efficacy and clarity of the information for the general public. So far, AIRInforma has established a novel channel of scientific communication in Italy, receiving excellent feedback and reaching more than 8000 new unique visitors every month on our website and

  5. 77 FR 16812 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Marine Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process... collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency...

  6. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Jill S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2010. Titles and abstracts were screened by one researcher according to the inclusion criteria. Papers were included if they assessed pharmacy staff or consumer attitudes towards pharmaceutical public health. Full papers identified for inclusion were assessed by a second researcher and data were extracted by one researcher. Results From the 5628 papers identified, 63 studies in 67 papers were included. Pharmacy staff: Most pharmacists viewed public health services as important and part of their role but secondary to medicine related roles. Pharmacists' confidence in providing public health services was on the whole average to low. Time was consistently identified as a barrier to providing public health services. Lack of an adequate counselling space, lack of demand and expectation of a negative reaction from customers were also reported by some pharmacists as barriers. A need for further training was identified in relation to a number of public health services. Consumers: Most pharmacy users had never been offered public health services by their pharmacist and did not expect to be offered. Consumers viewed pharmacists as appropriate providers of public health advice but had mixed views on the pharmacists' ability to do this. Satisfaction was found to be high in those that had experienced pharmaceutical public health Conclusions There has been little change in customer and pharmacist attitudes since reviews

  7. The purpose of peer review in the case of an open-access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrov Georgii A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract First scientific journals were simply a way of informing colleagues about new research findings. In due course, they started filtering out unreasonable claims, and introduced a peer-review system. The purpose of peer reviewing changed with time. Since the middle of the past century, commercial publishers have owned a large number of scientific journals and as a result, the marketable value of a submitted manuscript has become an increasingly important factor in publishing decisions. Recently some publishers have developed business schemes which may stop this tendency. In the case of an open-access publication, the marketable value of a manuscript is not the primary consideration, since access to the research is not being sold. This innovation challenges scientists to re-consider the purpose of peer review. This editorial indicates some of the commonly used criteria for publication that consequently should receive less or little emphasis under the open-access model.

  8. 75 FR 73082 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ..., Connection of Terminal Equipment to the Telephone Network. Form No.: N/A. Type of Review: Extension of a.... The purpose of 47 CFR Part 68 is to protect the telephone network from certain types of harm and... equipment is causing telephone network harm. There are sixteen specific reporting, recordkeeping...

  9. Framework for Selecting Best Practices in Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Eileen; de Colombani, Pierpaolo

    2015-11-17

    Evidence-based public health has commonly relied on findings from empirical studies, or research-based evidence. However, this paper advocates that practice-based evidence derived from programmes implemented in real-life settings is likely to be a more suitable source of evidence for inspiring and guiding public health programmes. Selection of best practices from the array of implemented programmes is one way of generating such practice-based evidence. Yet the lack of consensus on the definition and criteria for practice-based evidence and best practices has limited their application in public health so far. To address the gap in literature on practice-based evidence, this paper hence proposes measures of success for public health interventions by developing an evaluation framework for selection of best practices. The proposed framework was synthesised from a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on existing evaluation frameworks for public health programmes as well as processes employed by health-related organisations when selecting best practices. A best practice is firstly defined as an intervention that has shown evidence of effectiveness in a particular setting and is likely to be replicable to other situations. Regardless of the area of public health, interventions should be evaluated by their context, process and outcomes. A best practice should hence meet most, if not all, of eight identified evaluation criteria: relevance, community participation, stakeholder collaboration, ethical soundness, replicability, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Ultimately, a standardised framework for selection of best practices will improve the usefulness and credibility of practice-based evidence in informing evidence-based public health interventions. Significance for public healthBest practices are a valuable source of practice-based evidence on effective public health interventions implemented in real-life settings. Yet, despite the

  10. Framework for Selecting Best Practices in Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Colombani, Pierpaolo

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based public health has commonly relied on findings from empirical studies, or research-based evidence. However, this paper advocates that practice-based evidence derived from programmes implemented in real-life settings is likely to be a more suitable source of evidence for inspiring and guiding public health programmes. Selection of best practices from the array of implemented programmes is one way of generating such practice-based evidence. Yet the lack of consensus on the definition and criteria for practice-based evidence and best practices has limited their application in public health so far. To address the gap in literature on practice-based evidence, this paper hence proposes measures of success for public health interventions by developing an evaluation framework for selection of best practices. The proposed framework was synthesised from a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on existing evaluation frameworks for public health programmes as well as processes employed by health-related organisations when selecting best practices. A best practice is firstly defined as an intervention that has shown evidence of effectiveness in a particular setting and is likely to be replicable to other situations. Regardless of the area of public health, interventions should be evaluated by their context, process and outcomes. A best practice should hence meet most, if not all, of eight identified evaluation criteria: relevance, community participation, stakeholder collaboration, ethical soundness, replicability, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Ultimately, a standardised framework for selection of best practices will improve the usefulness and credibility of practice-based evidence in informing evidence-based public health interventions. Significance for public health Best practices are a valuable source of practice-based evidence on effective public health interventions implemented in real-life settings. Yet, despite

  11. Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Communications with Health Care Providers: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchin Jeffrey

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care providers (HCPs play an important role in public health emergency preparedness and response (PHEPR so need to be aware of public health threats and emergencies. To inform HCPs, public health issues PHEPR messages that provide guidelines and updates, and facilitate surveillance so HCPs will recognize and control communicable diseases, prevent excess deaths and mitigate suffering. Public health agencies need to know that the PHEPR messages sent to HCPs reach their target audience and are effective and informative. Public health agencies need to know that the PHEPR messages sent to HCPs reach their target audience and are effective and informative. We conducted a literature review to investigate the systems and tools used by public health to generate PHEPR communications to HCPs, and to identify specific characteristics of message delivery mechanisms and formats that may be associated with effective PHEPR communications. Methods A systematic review of peer- and non-peer-reviewed literature focused on the following questions: 1 What public health systems exist for communicating PHEPR messages from public health agencies to HCPs? 2 Have these systems been evaluated and, if yes, what criteria were used to evaluate these systems? 3 What have these evaluations discovered about characterizations of the most effective ways for public health agencies to communicate PHEPR messages to HCPs? Results We identified 25 systems or tools for communicating PHEPR messages from public health agencies to HCPs. Few articles assessed PHEPR communication systems or messaging methods or outcomes. Only one study compared the effectiveness of the delivery format, device or message itself. We also discovered that the potential is high for HCPs to experience "message overload" given redundancy of PHEPR messaging in multiple formats and/or through different delivery systems. Conclusions We found that detailed descriptions of PHEPR messaging from

  12. Adsorption of dyes using different types of clay: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, Aderonke Ajibola; Adeoye, Idowu Olatunbosun; Bello, Olugbenga Solomon

    2015-09-01

    Increasing amount of dyes in the ecosystem particularly in wastewater has propelled the search for more efficient low-cost adsorbents. The effective use of the sorption properties (high surface area and surface chemistry, lack of toxicity and potential for ion exchange) of different clays as adsorbents for the removal of different type of dyes (basic, acidic, reactive) from water and wastewater as potential alternatives to activated carbons has recently received widespread attention because of the environmental-friendly nature of clay materials. Insights into the efficiencies of raw and modified/activated clay adsorbents and ways of improving their efficiencies to obtain better results are discussed. Acid-modified clay resulted in higher rate of dye adsorption and an increased surface area and porosity (49.05 mm2 and 53.4 %). Base-modified clay has lower adsorption capacities, while ZnCl2-modified clay had the least rate of adsorption with a surface area of 44.3 mm2 and porosity of 43.4 %. This review also explores the grey areas of the adsorption properties of the raw clays and the improved performance of activated/modified clay materials with particular reference to the effects of pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption capacities of the clays. Various challenges encountered in using clay materials are highlighted and a number of future prospects for the adsorbents are proposed.

  13. Adsorption of dyes using different types of clay: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, Aderonke Ajibola; Adeoye, Idowu Olatunbosun; Bello, Olugbenga Solomon

    2017-05-01

    Increasing amount of dyes in the ecosystem particularly in wastewater has propelled the search for more efficient low-cost adsorbents. The effective use of the sorption properties (high surface area and surface chemistry, lack of toxicity and potential for ion exchange) of different clays as adsorbents for the removal of different type of dyes (basic, acidic, reactive) from water and wastewater as potential alternatives to activated carbons has recently received widespread attention because of the environmental-friendly nature of clay materials. Insights into the efficiencies of raw and modified/activated clay adsorbents and ways of improving their efficiencies to obtain better results are discussed. Acid-modified clay resulted in higher rate of dye adsorption and an increased surface area and porosity (49.05 mm2 and 53.4 %). Base-modified clay has lower adsorption capacities, while ZnCl2-modified clay had the least rate of adsorption with a surface area of 44.3 mm2 and porosity of 43.4 %. This review also explores the grey areas of the adsorption properties of the raw clays and the improved performance of activated/modified clay materials with particular reference to the effects of pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption capacities of the clays. Various challenges encountered in using clay materials are highlighted and a number of future prospects for the adsorbents are proposed.

  14. Rate and predictors of the conversion of abstracts presented at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress scientific meetings to full peer-reviewed publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzeid, Wael; Fosbøl, Emil L; Fosbøl, Philip L; Fosbøl, Marie; Zarinehbaf, Sanaz; Ross, Heather; Ko, Dennis T; Bennell, Maria C; Wijeysundera, Harindra C

    2013-11-01

    The rate of conversion of abstracts presented at scientific meetings into peer-reviewed published manuscripts is an important metric for medical societies, because it facilitates translation of scientific knowledge into practice. We determined the rate and predictors of conversion of scientific abstracts presented at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress (CCC) from 2006 to 2010 into peer-reviewed article publications within 2 years of their initial presentation. Using a previously validated computer algorithm, we searched the International Statistical Institute Web of Science to identify peer-reviewed full manuscript publications of these abstracts. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent factors associated with successful publication. From 2006 to 2010, 3565 abstracts were presented at the CCC. Overall 24.1% of presented abstracts were published within 2 years of the conference. Mean impact factor for publications was 5.2 (range, 0.4-53.2). The type of presentation (for poster vs oral; odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.83; P publication. Late breaking abstracts and those related to cancer and clinical sciences were more likely to be published, compared with prevention, vascular biology, and pediatrics. In conclusion, the publication rate at the CCC is only marginally lower than that reported for large international North American and European cardiology conferences (30.6%). Efforts should focus on several identified barriers to improve conversion of abstracts to full report publication. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diabetes in Sub Saharan Africa 1999-2011: Epidemiology and public health implications. a systematic review

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    Henriksen Ole

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes prevalence is increasing globally, and Sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. With diverse health challenges, health authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa and international donors need robust data on the epidemiology and impact of diabetes in order to plan and prioritise their health programmes. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the epidemiological trends and public health implications of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of papers published on diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa 1999-March 2011, providing data on diabetes prevalence, outcomes (chronic complications, infections, and mortality, access to diagnosis and care and economic impact. Results Type 2 diabetes accounts for well over 90% of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa, and population prevalence proportions ranged from 1% in rural Uganda to 12% in urban Kenya. Reported type 1 diabetes prevalence was low and ranged from 4 per 100,000 in Mozambique to 12 per 100,000 in Zambia. Gestational diabetes prevalence varied from 0% in Tanzania to 9% in Ethiopia. Proportions of patients with diabetic complications ranged from 7-63% for retinopathy, 27-66% for neuropathy, and 10-83% for microalbuminuria. Diabetes is likely to increase the risk of several important infections in the region, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and sepsis. Meanwhile, antiviral treatment for HIV increases the risk of obesity and insulin resistance. Five-year mortality proportions of patients with diabetes varied from 4-57%. Screening studies identified high proportions (> 40% with previously undiagnosed diabetes, and low levels of adequate glucose control among previously diagnosed diabetics. Barriers to accessing diagnosis and treatment included a lack of diagnostic tools and glucose monitoring equipment and high cost of diabetes treatment. The total annual cost of diabetes in the region was estimated at US$67.03 billion

  16. Hospital admission patterns subsequent to diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children : a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Norman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 1 diabetes are known to have a higher hospital admission rate than the underlying population and may also be admitted for procedures that would normally be carried out on a day surgery basis for non-diabetics. Emergency admission rates have sometimes been used as indicators of quality of diabetes care. In preparation for a study of hospital admissions, a systematic review was carried out on hospital admissions for children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, whilst under the age of 15. The main thrust of this review was to ascertain where there were gaps in the literature for studies investigating post-diagnosis hospitalisations, rather than to try to draw conclusions from the disparate data sets. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane LibrarMEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted for the period 1986 to 2006, to identify publications relating to hospital admissions subsequent to the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes under the age of 15. Results Thirty-two publications met all inclusion criteria, 16 in Northern America, 11 in Europe and 5 in Australasia. Most of the studies selected were focussed on diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA or diabetes-related hospital admissions and only four studies included data on all admissions. Admission rates with DKA as primary diagnosis varied widely between 0.01 to 0.18 per patient-year as did those for other diabetes-related co-morbidity ranging from 0.05 to 0.38 per patient year, making it difficult to interpret data from different study designs. However, people with Type 1 diabetes are three times more likely to be hospitalised than the non-diabetic populations and stay in hospital twice as long. Conclusion Few studies report on all admissions to hospital in patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes whilst under the age of 15 years. Health care costs for type 1 patients are higher than those for the general population and information on associated patterns of

  17. Interventions to promote physical activity in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review

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    Sazlina eShariff-Ghazali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM among people aged 60 years and above is a growing public health problem. Regular physical activity is one of the key elements in the management of T2DM. Recommendations suggest that older people with T2DM will benefit from regular physical activity for better disease control and delaying complications. Despite the known benefits, many remain sedentary. Hence, this review assessed interventions for promoting physical activity in persons aged 65 years and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A literature search was conducted using OvidMEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases to retrieve articles published between January 2000 and December 2012. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs comparing different strategies to increase physical activity level in persons aged 65 years and older with T2DM were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed.Results: Twenty-one eligible studies were reviewed, only six studies were rated as good quality and only one study specifically targeted persons aged 65 years and older. Personalised coaching, goal setting, peer support groups, use of technology and physical activity monitors were proven to increase the level of physical activity. Incorporation of health behaviour theories and follow-up supports also were successful strategies. However, the methodological quality and type of interventions promoting physical activity of the included studies in this review varied widely across the eligible studies.Conclusion: Strategies that increased level of physical activity in persons with T2DM are evident but most studies focused on middle-aged persons and there was a lack of well-designed trials. Hence, more studies of satisfactory methodological quality with interventions promoting physical activity in older people are required.

  18. Public figure announcements about cancer and opportunities for cancer communication: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Brown, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Announcements by public figures and celebrities about cancer diagnosis or death represent significant events in public life. But what are the substantive effects of such events, if any? The purpose of this article is to systematically review studies that examined the impact of public figure cancer announcements on cancer-oriented outcomes. Using comprehensive search procedures, we identified k = 19 studies that examined 11 distinct public figures. The most commonly studied public figures were Jade Goody, Kylie Minogue, Nancy Reagan, and Steve Jobs, with the most common cancers studied being breast (53%), cervical (21%), and pancreatic (21%) cancer. Most studies assessed multiple outcome variables, including behavioral outcomes (k = 15), media coverage (k = 10), information seeking (k = 8), cancer incidence (k = 3), and interpersonal communication (k = 2). Results fairly consistently indicated that cancer announcements from public figures had meaningful effects on many, if not most, of these outcome variables. While such events essentially act as naturally occurring interventions, the effects tend to be relatively short term. Gaps in this literature include few contemporary studies of high-profile public figures in the United States and a general lack of theory-based research. Directions for future research as well as implications for cancer communication and prevention are discussed.

  19. Public Health and Health Promotion Capacity at National and Regional Level: A Review of Conceptual Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; den Broucke, Stephan Van; Chiotan, Cristina; Costongs, Caroline; Michelsen, Kai; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country- or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national- or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreedupon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising them into a new

  20. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; den Broucke, Stephan Van; Chiotan, Cristina; Costongs, Caroline; Michelsen, Kai; Brand, Helmut

    2014-03-26

    The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country- or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national- or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreedupon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising them into a new

  1. Use of Comparative Case Study Methodology for US Public Health Policy Analysis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinour, Lauren M; Kwan, Amy; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    There is growing recognition that policies influence population health, highlighting the need for evidence to inform future policy development and reform. This review describes how comparative case study methodology has been applied to public health policy research and discusses the methodology's potential to contribute to this evidence. English-language, peer-reviewed articles published between 1995 and 2012 were sought from 4 databases. Articles were included if they described comparative case studies addressing US public health policy. Two researchers independently assessed the 20 articles meeting review criteria. Case-related characteristics and research design tactics utilized to minimize threats to reliability and validity, such as the use of multiple sources of evidence and a case study protocol, were extracted from each article. Although comparative case study methodology has been used to analyze a range of public health policies at all stages and levels, articles reported an average use of only 3.65 (out of 10) research design tactics. By expanding the use of accepted research design tactics, public health policy researchers can contribute to expanding the evidence needed to advance health-promoting policies.

  2. Effectiveness of public health messaging and communication channels during smoke events: A rapid systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jennifer A; Peters, Micah D J; Ramsey, Imogen; Sharplin, Greg; Corsini, Nadia; Eckert, Marion

    2017-05-15

    Exposure to smoke emitted from wildfire and planned burns (i.e., smoke events) has been associated with numerous negative health outcomes, including respiratory symptoms and conditions. This rapid review investigates recent evidence (post-2009) regarding the effectiveness of public health messaging during smoke events. The objectives were to determine the effectiveness of various communication channels used and public health messages disseminated during smoke events, for general and at-risk populations. A search of 12 databases and grey literature yielded 1775 unique articles, of which 10 were included in this review. Principal results were: 1) Smoke-related public health messages are communicated via a variety of channels, but limited evidence is available regarding their effectiveness for the general public or at-risk groups. 2) Messages that use simple language are more commonly recalled, understood, and complied with. Compliance differs according to socio-demographic characteristics. 3) At-risk groups may be advised to stay indoors before the general population, in order to protect the most vulnerable people in a community. The research included in this review was observational and predominantly descriptive, and is therefore unable to sufficiently answer questions regarding effectiveness. Experimental research, as well as evaluations, are required to examine the effectiveness of modern communication channels, channels to reach at-risk groups, and the 'stay indoors' message. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Medical journals' conflicts of interest in the publication of book reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald M; Neale, Anne Victoria; Monsur, Joseph C

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess medical journals' conflicts of interest in the publication of book reviews. We examined book reviews published in 1999, 2000, and 2001 (N = 1,876) in five leading medical journals: Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal (BMJ), Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. The main outcome measure was journal publication of reviews of books that had been published by the journal's own publisher, that had been edited or authored by a lead editor of the journal, or that posed another conflict of interest. We also surveyed the editors-in-chief of the five journals about their policies on these conflicts of interests. During the study period, four of the five journals published 30 book reviews presenting a conflict of interest: nineteen by the BMJ, five by the Annals, four by JAMA, and two by the Lancet. These reviews represent 5.8%, 2.7%, 0.7%, and 0.7%, respectively, of all book reviews published by the journals. These four journals, respectively, published reviews of 11.9%, 25.0%, 0.9%, and 1.0% of all medical books published by the journals' publishers. Only one of the 30 book reviews included a disclosure statement addressing the conflict of interest. None of the journals had a written policy pertaining to the conflicts of interest assessed in this study, although four reported having unwritten policies. We recommend that scientific journals and associations representing journal editors develop policies on conflicts of interest pertaining to book reviews.

  4. The use of research evidence in public health decision making processes: systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Orton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of research evidence to underpin public health policy is strongly promoted. However, its implementation has not been straightforward. The objectives of this systematic review were to synthesise empirical evidence on the use of research evidence by public health decision makers in settings with universal health care systems. METHODS: To locate eligible studies, 13 bibliographic databases were screened, organisational websites were scanned, key informants were contacted and bibliographies of included studies were scrutinised. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. FINDINGS: 18 studies were included: 15 qualitative studies, and three surveys. Their methodological quality was mixed. They were set in a range of country and decision making settings. Study participants included 1063 public health decision makers, 72 researchers, and 174 with overlapping roles. Decision making processes varied widely between settings, and were viewed differently by key players. A range of research evidence was accessed. However, there was no reliable evidence on the extent of its use. Its impact was often indirect, competing with other influences. Barriers to the use of research evidence included: decision makers' perceptions of research evidence; the gulf between researchers and decision makers; the culture of decision making; competing influences on decision making; and practical constraints. Suggested (but largely untested ways of overcoming these barriers included: research targeted at the needs of decision makers; research clearly highlighting key messages; and capacity building. There was little evidence on the role of research evidence in decision making to reduce inequalities. CONCLUSIONS: To more effectively implement research informed public health policy, action is required by decision makers and researchers to address the

  5. Systematic review of public-targeted communication interventions to improve antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Elizabeth Louise Anne; Tolfree, Robert; Kipping, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    Excessive use of antibiotics accelerates the acquisition/spread of antimicrobial resistance. A systematic review was conducted to identify the components of successful communication interventions targeted at the general public to improve antibiotic use. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched. Search terms were related to the population (public, community), intervention (campaign, mass media) and outcomes (antibiotic, antimicrobial resistance). References were screened for inclusion by one author with a random subset of 10% screened by a second author. No date restrictions were applied and only articles in the English language were considered. Studies had to have a control group or be an interrupted time-series. Outcomes had to measure change in antibiotic-related prescribing/consumption and/or the public's knowledge, attitudes or behaviour. Two reviewers assessed the quality of studies. Narrative synthesis was performed. Fourteen studies were included with an estimated 74-75 million participants. Most studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and targeted both the general public and clinicians. Twelve of the studies measured changes in antibiotic prescribing. There was quite strong ( P  antibiotic prescribing; the majority of these studies reported reductions of greater than -14% with the largest effect size reaching -30%. Multi-faceted communication interventions that target both the general public and clinicians can reduce antibiotic prescribing in high-income countries but the sustainability of reductions in antibiotic prescribing is unclear.

  6. Dementia care in public health in Brazil and the world: A systematic review

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    Bianca Bolzan Cieto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify in the recent scientific literature, information on health care provided to people with dementia, dementia costs and its resource implications for public health. METHODS: This was a systematic review of the literature in which the articles were consulted from the databases PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO. The review sample consisted of 45 articles. RESULTS: Examination of the studies identified the current scenario of dementia in relation to public health and public policy in Brazil and the world. The analyzed studies revealed key information on aspects of dementia in the world. There was consensus on the high prevalence of the syndrome and on the significant cost of health care and public policy for assisting the elderly with dementia. CONCLUSION: The importance of planning and implementing new public policies was recognized, since these are essential for the organization and management of health services and directly influence the country's ability to provide health care for people with dementia.

  7. A Review of Data Quality Assessment Methods for Public Health Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Hailey, David; Wang, Ning; Yu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    High quality data and effective data quality assessment are required for accurately evaluating the impact of public health interventions and measuring public health outcomes. Data, data use, and data collection process, as the three dimensions of data quality, all need to be assessed for overall data quality assessment. We reviewed current data quality assessment methods. The relevant study was identified in major databases and well-known institutional websites. We found the dimension of data was most frequently assessed. Completeness, accuracy, and timeliness were the three most-used attributes among a total of 49 attributes of data quality. The major quantitative assessment methods were descriptive surveys and data audits, whereas the common qualitative assessment methods were interview and documentation review. The limitations of the reviewed studies included inattentiveness to data use and data collection process, inconsistency in the definition of attributes of data quality, failure to address data users’ concerns and a lack of systematic procedures in data quality assessment. This review study is limited by the coverage of the databases and the breadth of public health information systems. Further research could develop consistent data quality definitions and attributes. More research efforts should be given to assess the quality of data use and the quality of data collection process. PMID:24830450

  8. A review of data quality assessment methods for public health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Hailey, David; Wang, Ning; Yu, Ping

    2014-05-14

    High quality data and effective data quality assessment are required for accurately evaluating the impact of public health interventions and measuring public health outcomes. Data, data use, and data collection process, as the three dimensions of data quality, all need to be assessed for overall data quality assessment. We reviewed current data quality assessment methods. The relevant study was identified in major databases and well-known institutional websites. We found the dimension of data was most frequently assessed. Completeness, accuracy, and timeliness were the three most-used attributes among a total of 49 attributes of data quality. The major quantitative assessment methods were descriptive surveys and data audits, whereas the common qualitative assessment methods were interview and documentation review. The limitations of the reviewed studies included inattentiveness to data use and data collection process, inconsistency in the definition of attributes of data quality, failure to address data users' concerns and a lack of systematic procedures in data quality assessment. This review study is limited by the coverage of the databases and the breadth of public health information systems. Further research could develop consistent data quality definitions and attributes. More research efforts should be given to assess the quality of data use and the quality of data collection process.

  9. Looking for landmarks: the role of expert review and bibliometric analysis in evaluating scientific publication outputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Allen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare expert assessment with bibliometric indicators as tools to assess the quality and importance of scientific research papers. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Shortly after their publication in 2005, the quality and importance of a cohort of nearly 700 Wellcome Trust (WT associated research papers were assessed by expert reviewers; each paper was reviewed by two WT expert reviewers. After 3 years, we compared this initial assessment with other measures of paper impact. RESULTS: Shortly after publication, 62 (9% of the 687 research papers were determined to describe at least a 'major addition to knowledge' -6 were thought to be 'landmark' papers. At an aggregate level, after 3 years, there was a strong positive association between expert assessment and impact as measured by number of citations and F1000 rating. However, there were some important exceptions indicating that bibliometric measures may not be sufficient in isolation as measures of research quality and importance, and especially not for assessing single papers or small groups of research publications. CONCLUSION: When attempting to assess the quality and importance of research papers, we found that sole reliance on bibliometric indicators would have led us to miss papers containing important results as judged by expert review. In particular, some papers that were highly rated by experts were not highly cited during the first three years after publication. Tools that link expert peer reviews of research paper quality and importance to more quantitative indicators, such as citation analysis would be valuable additions to the field of research assessment and evaluation.

  10. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  11. Facilitators and Barriers of Smokers’ Compliance with Smoking Bans in Public Places: A Systematic Review of Quantitative and Qualitative Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure is associated with an increased risk of many diseases. Many countries have ratified a national smoking ban in public places, but studies on factors related to smoking issues in public places post-ban are lacking. Aim: To identify facilitators and barriers that influenced smokers’ compliance with smoking bans in public places. Methods: Using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Web of Science database, we conducted a systematic search of English articles published before June 2015 on factors of smokers’ compliance with the smoking bans in public places. Results: A total of 390 references were identified, among which seventeen articles (twelve quantitative studies, two qualitative studies, three mixed-method studies were included in this review. These studies focused on four types of public places including recreational venues (n = 7, hospital (n = 5, school (n = 4, and workplace (n = 1. Factors at the  individual-, interpersonal-, and organizational-level were identified: at the individual level, nicotine dependence, insufficiency of tobacco-related knowledge, and the negative attitudes towards smoking bans were the most commonly identified barriers; at the interpersonal level, the smoking behaviors of people around, close relatives, and friends’ approval were the main barriers; and at the organizational level, the main barriers were inefficient implementation of the bans and the inconvenience of the designative smoking areas. Conclusions: This synthesis of the literature provided evidence of the identified barriers and facilitators of smokers’ compliance with the smoking bans. It will be beneficial for the policy-maker to consider interventions on multiple levels of factors to overcome the barriers and enhance smokers’ compliance with the smoking bans in public places.

  12. A Review of Global Health Competencies for Postgraduate Public Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawleshwarkar, Shailendra; Negin, Joel

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade, the literature about global health has grown exponentially. Academic institutions are also exploring the scope of their public health educational programs to meet the demand for a global health professional. This has become more relevant in the context of the sustainable development goals. There have been attempts to describe global health competencies for specific professional groups. The focus of these competencies has been variable with a variety of different themes being described ranging from globalization and health care, analysis and program management, as well as equity and capacity strengthening. This review aims to describe global health competencies and attempts to distill common competency domains to assist in curriculum development and integration in postgraduate public health education programs. A literature search was conducted using relevant keywords with a focus on public health education. This resulted in identification of 13 articles that described global health competencies. All these articles were published between 2005 and 2015 with six from the USA, two each from Canada and Australia, and one each from UK, Europe, and Americas. A range of methods used to describe competency domains included literature review, interviews with experts and employers, surveys of staff and students, and description or review of an academic program. Eleven competency domains were distilled from the selected articles. These competency domains primarily referred to three main aspects, one that focuses on burden of disease and the determinants of health. A second set focuses on core public health skills including policy development, analysis, and program management. Another set of competency domains could be classified as “soft skills” and includes collaboration, partnering, communication, professionalism, capacity building, and political awareness. This review presents the landscape of defined global health competencies for postgraduate

  13. Immunogenetics of type 1 diabetes: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Janelle A

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Prevention of T1D will require the ability to detect and modulate the autoimmune process before the clinical onset of disease. Genetic screening is a logical first step in identification of future patients to test prevention strategies. Susceptibility to T1D includes a strong genetic component, with the strongest risk attributable to genes that encode the classical Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA). Other genetic loci, both immune and non-immune genes, contribute to T1D risk; however, the results of decades of small and large genetic linkage and association studies show clearly that the HLA genes confer the most disease risk and protection and can be used as part of a prediction strategy for T1D. Current predictive genetic models, based on HLA and other susceptibility loci, are effective in identifying the highest-risk individuals in populations of European descent. These models generally include screening for the HLA haplotypes "DR3" and "DR4." However, genetic variation among racial and ethnic groups reduces the predictive value of current models that are based on low resolution HLA genotyping. Not all DR3 and DR4 haplotypes are high T1D risk; some versions, rare in Europeans but high frequency in other populations, are even T1D protective. More information is needed to create predictive models for non-European populations. Comparative studies among different populations are needed to complete the knowledge base for the genetics of T1D risk to enable the eventual development of screening and intervention strategies applicable to all individuals, tailored to their individual genetic background. This review summarizes the current understanding of the genetic basis of T1D susceptibility, focusing on genes of the immune system, with particular emphasis on the HLA genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence-based information needs of public health workers: a systematized review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Walker, Jill

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study assessed public health workers’ evidence-based information needs, based on a review of the literature using a systematic search strategy. This study is based on a thesis project conducted as part of the author’s master’s in public health coursework and is considered a systematized review. Methods Four databases were searched for English-language articles published between 2005 and 2015: PubMed, Web of Science, Library Literature & Information Science Index, and Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA). Studies were excluded if there was no primary data collection, the population in the study was not identified as public health workers, “information” was not defined according to specific criteria, or evidence-based information and public health workers were not the major focus. Studies included in the final analysis underwent data extraction, critical appraisal using CASP and STROBE checklists, and thematic analysis. Results Thirty-three research studies were identified in the search, including twenty-one using quantitative methods and twelve using qualitative methods. Critical appraisal revealed many potential biases, particularly in the validity of research. Thematic analysis revealed five common themes: (1) definition of information needs, (2) current information-seeking behavior and use, (3) definition of evidence-based information, (4) barriers to information needs, and (5) public health–specific issues. Conclusions Recommendations are given for how librarians can increase the use of evidence-based information in public health research, practice, and policy making. Further research using rigorous methodologies and transparent reporting practices in a wider variety of settings is needed to further evaluate public health workers’ information needs. PMID:28096749

  15. Comparing Teaching Styles and Personality Types of EFL Instructors in the Public and Private Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Larenas Claudio H.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This is an exploratory non-experimental research study whose main objective is to compare the teaching styles of a group of thirty teachers of English working in either public or private secondary education in Chile. In order to collect the required data, two instruments were administered to the participants: a teaching style inventory and a personality type index proposed by Grasha. Results indicate that public sector participants show a facilitator teaching style and an extrovert personality type, whereas private sector participants reveal a more authoritative teaching style and an introverted type of personality.

    Este estudio exploratorio de naturaleza no-experimental tiene como objetivo principal comparar los estilos de enseñanza de un grupo de treinta profesores de inglés que trabajan en el nivel de enseñanza secundario del sistema educativo estatal o privado, en Chile. Para la recolección de datos se utilizaron el inventario de estilos de enseñanza y el índice de tipo de personalidad de Grasha. Los resultados indican que los participantes del nivel de enseñanza estatal presentan un estilo de enseñanza de naturaleza facilitadora y un tipo de personalidad extrovertido, mientras que los participantes del nivel de enseñanza privado revelan un estilo de enseñanza más autoritario y una personalidad más introvertida.

  16. Search Wide, Dig Deep: Literature Searching for Qualitative Research. An Analysis of the Publication Formats and Information Sources Used for Four Systematic Reviews in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Claire; Brunton, Ginny; Rees, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background: When literature searching for systematic reviews, it is good practice to search widely across different information sources. Little is known about the contributions of different publication formats (e.g. journal article and book chapter) and sources, especially for studies of people's views. Method: Studies from four reviews spanning…

  17. Search Wide, Dig Deep: Literature Searching for Qualitative Research. An Analysis of the Publication Formats and Information Sources Used for Four Systematic Reviews in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Claire; Brunton, Ginny; Rees, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background: When literature searching for systematic reviews, it is good practice to search widely across different information sources. Little is known about the contributions of different publication formats (e.g. journal article and book chapter) and sources, especially for studies of people's views. Method: Studies from four reviews spanning…

  18. A curated public database for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and analysis of Haemophilus parasuis based on an optimized typing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Michael A; Register, Karen B; Brunelle, Brian W; Aragon, Virginia; Galofré-Mila, Nuria; Bayles, Darrell O; Jolley, Keith A

    2013-03-23

    Haemophilus parasuis causes Glässer's disease and pneumonia in swine. Serotyping is often used to classify isolates but requires reagents that are costly to produce and not standardized or widely available. Sequence-based methods, such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), offer many advantages over serotyping. An MLST scheme was previously proposed for H. parasuis but genome sequence data only recently available reveals the primers recommended, based on sequences of related bacteria, are not optimal. Here we report modifications to enhance the original method, including primer redesign to eliminate mismatches with H. parasuis sequences and to avoid regions of high sequence heterogeneity, standardization of primer T(m)s and identification of universal PCR conditions that result in robust and reproducible amplification of all targets. The modified typing method was applied to a collection of 127 isolates from North and South America, Europe and Asia. An alignment of the concatenated sequences obtained from seven target housekeeping genes identified 278 variable nucleotide sites that define 116 unique sequence types. A comparison of the original and modified methods using a subset of 86 isolates indicates little difference in overall locus diversity, discriminatory power or in the clustering of strains within Neighbor-Joining trees. Data from the optimized MLST were used to populate a newly created and publicly available H. parasuis database. An accompanying database designed to capture provenance and epidemiological information for each isolate was also created. The modified MLST scheme is highly discriminatory but more robust, reproducible and user-friendly than the original. The MLST database provides a novel resource for investigation of H. parasuis outbreaks and for tracking strain evolution.

  19. Review: Game theory of public goods in one-shot social dilemmas without assortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2012-04-21

    We review the theory of public goods in biology. In the N-person prisoner's dilemma, where the public good is a linear function of the individual contributions, cooperation requires some form of assortment, for example due to kin discrimination, population viscosity or repeated interactions. In most social species ranging from bacteria to humans, however, public goods are usually a non-linear function of the contributions, which makes cooperation possible without assortment. More specifically, a polymorphic state can be stable in which cooperators and non-cooperators coexist. The existence of mixed equilibria in public goods games is a fundamental result in the study of cooperation that has been overlooked so far, because of the disproportionate attention given to the two- and N-person prisoner's dilemma. Methods and results from games with pairwise interactions or linear benefits cannot, in general, be extended to the analysis of public goods. Game theory helps explain the production of public goods in one-shot, N-person interactions without assortment, it leads to predictions that can be easily tested and allows a prescriptive approach to cooperation.

  20. Investigating the health care delivery system in Japan and reviewing the local public hospital reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Xing Zhang, Tatsuo Oyama National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Japan's health care system is considered one of the best health care systems in the world. Hospitals are one of the most important health care resources in Japan. As such, we investigate Japanese hospitals from various viewpoints, including their roles, ownership, regional distribution, and characteristics with respect to the number of beds, staff, doctors, and financial performance. Applying a multivariate analysis and regression model techniques, we show the functional differences between urban populated prefectures and remote ones; the equality gap among all prefectures with respect to the distribution of the number of beds, staff, and doctors; and managerial differences between private and public hospitals. We also review and evaluate the local public hospital reform executed in 2007 from various financial aspects related to the expenditure and revenue structure by comparing public and private hospitals. We show that the 2007 reform contributed to improving the financial situation of local public hospitals. Strategic differences between public and private hospitals with respect to their management and strategy to improve their financial situation are also quantitatively analyzed in detail. Finally, the remaining problems and the future strategy to further improve the Japanese health care system are described. Keywords: health care system, health care resource, public hospital, multivariate regression model, financial performance

  1. Public health safety and environment in inadequate hospital and healthcare settings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguma, D

    2017-03-01

    Public health safety and environmental management are concerns that pose challenges worldwide. This paper briefly assesses a selected impact of the environment on public health. The study used an assessment of environmental mechanism to analyse the underlying different pathways in which the health sector is affected in inadequate hospital and health care settings. We reviewed the limited available evidence of the association between the health sector and the environment, and the likely pathways through which the environment influences health. The paper also models the use of private health care as a function of costs and benefits relative to public care and no care. The need to enhancing policies to improve the administration of health services, strengthening interventions on environment using international agreements, like Rio Conventions, including measures to control hospital-related infection, planning for human resources and infrastructure construction development have linkage to improve environment care and public health. The present study findings partly also demonstrate the influence of demand for health on the environment. The list of possible interventions includes enhancing policies to improve the administration of health services, strengthening Rio Conventions implementation on environmental concerns, control of environmental hazards and public health. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Public perception of climate risk and adaptation in the UK: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Like other countries, the United Kingdom faces the unavoidable challenge of adapting to a changing climate. However, public perceptions of the risk posed by climate change and support for adaptation policies vary between countries. This article provides a UK-specific review of climate change beliefs, risk perceptions regarding potential climate change impacts, and attitudes towards climate change adaptation. We report on differences between expert and public conceptualisations of climate change risks. We also examine the effects of psychological distancing, climate change awareness, and hazard experience on both concerns about climate change and perceptions of the weather-related risks posed by climate change. Additionally, we review the effects of emotion, agency, perceived responsibility, place attachment, personal values and uncertainty on the willingness of UK residents to support and engage with climate change adaptation. We outline the implications of these factors for climate risk communication and highlight key areas for future research.

  3. Factors affecting peer-reviewed publication of abstracts presented at meetings of the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofri, Ron; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Yair, Nadav

    2017-03-01

    To review abstracts presented at five consecutive meetings of the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (ECVO), and identify abstract characteristics that affect the probability of their publication in peer-reviewed journals. An online search was conducted for peer-reviewed publications (PRPs) stemming from abstracts from five ECVO meetings (2008-2012). Time to publication and journal were noted. Effects of ocular tissue/discipline, species, type of presentation and study, funding acknowledgment and affiliation, professional qualifications, and nationality of the first and last authors on probability of publication were analyzed. Of presented abstracts, 29% (87/299) were published as PRPs in Veterinary Ophthalmology (n = 50), other veterinary journals (n = 22), and nonveterinary journals (n = 15). During the 5 years studied, there was no significant difference between the impact factor of Veterinary Ophthalmology and the 25 other journals in which PRPs were published (P = 0.369). Median time to PRP acceptance or publication was 468 days. Independent variables most significant in determining the probability of PRP were oral presentation (P = 0.002), resident authorship (P < 0.0001), and species (P = 0.002), with food animal abstracts having the highest odds ratio. Ocular tissue/discipline (P = 0.13) and type of study (P = 0.33) did not affect publication probability. Funding acknowledgment (P = 0.02), author nationality (P = 0.02), and academic affiliation (P = 0.04) were also significant factors. Publication rate of ECVO abstracts is lower, but time to publication is similar, compared with most biomedical meetings. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  4. Amylin Uncovered: A Review on the Polypeptide Responsible for Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pillay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylin is primarily responsible for classifying type II diabetes as an amyloid (protein misfolding disease as it has great potential to aggregate into toxic nanoparticles, thereby resulting in loss of pancreatic -cells. Although type II diabetes is on the increase each year, possibly due to bad eating habits of modern society, research on the culprit for this disease is still in its early days. In addition, unlike the culprit for Alzheimer’s disease, amyloid -peptide, amylin has failed to receive attention worthy of being featured in an abundance of review articles. Thus, the aim of this paper is to shine the spotlight on amylin in an attempt to put it onto the top of researchers’ to-do list since the secondary complications of type II diabetes have far-reaching and severe consequences on public health both in developing and fully developed countries alike. This paper will cover characteristics of the amylin aggregates, mechanisms of toxicity, and a particular focus on inhibitors of toxicity and techniques used to assess these inhibitors.

  5. Public Stigma of Mental Illness in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Parcesepe, Angela M.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2013-01-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental...

  6. A literature review of neck pain associated with computer use: public health implications

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Prolonged use of computers during daily work activities and recreation is often cited as a cause of neck pain. This review of the literature identifies public health aspects of neck pain as associated with computer use. While some retrospective studies support the hypothesis that frequent computer operation is associated with neck pain, few prospective studies reveal causal relationships. Many risk factors are identified in the literature. Primary prevention strategies have largely been confi...

  7. Students of Color and Public Montessori Schools: A Review of the Literature

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    Mira Debs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Students of color comprise a majority in public Montessori school enrollments around the United States, and practitioners are often asked for evidence of the Montessori Method’s benefits for these students. This article examines the relevant literature related to the experiences of students of color in public Montessori schools. Research finds Montessori education offers both opportunities and limitations for students of color in attending diverse schools, developing executive functions, achieving academically, accessing early childhood education and culturally responsive education, minimizing racially disproportionate discipline, and limiting overidentification for special education. Public Montessori education’s efficacy with students of color may be limited by several factors: the lack of diversity of the teaching staff and culturally responsive teacher education, schools that struggle to maintain racially diverse enrollments, and the challenge of communicating Montessori’s benefits to families with alternative views of education. The review concludes with directions for future research.

  8. Conflicts of interest in biomedical publications: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Akazhanov, Nurbek A.; Kitas, George D.

    2013-01-01

    This article overviews evidence on common instances of conflict of interest (COI) in research publications from general and specialized fields of biomedicine. Financial COIs are viewed as the most powerful source of bias, which may even distort citation outcomes of sponsored publications. The urge to boost journal citation indicators by stakeholders of science communication is viewed as a new secondary interest, which may compromize the interaction between authors, peer reviewers, and editors. Comprehensive policies on disclosure of financial and non-financial COIs in scholarly journals are presented as proxies of their indexing in evidence-based databases, and examples of successful medical journals are discussed in detail. Reports on clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical practice guidelines may be unduly influenced by author-pharmaceutical industry relations, but these publications do not always contain explicit disclosures to allow the readers to judge the reliability of the published conclusions and practice-changing recommendations. The article emphasizes the importance of adhering to the guidance on COI from learned associations such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). It also considers joint efforts of authors, peer reviewers, and editors as a foundation for appropriately defining and disclosing potential COIs. PMID:24382859

  9. Performance management of the public healthcare services in Ireland: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesabbah, Mohammed; Arisha, Amr

    2016-01-01

    Performance Management (PM) processes have become a potent part of strategic and service quality decisions in healthcare organisations. In 2005, the management of public healthcare in Ireland was amalgamated into a single integrated management body, named the Health Service Executive (HSE). Since then, the HSE has come up with a range of strategies for healthcare developments and reforms, and has developed a PM system as part of its strategic planning. The purpose of this paper is to review the application of PM in the Irish Healthcare system, with a particular focus on Irish Hospitals and Emergency Services. An extensive review of relevant HSE's publications from 2005 to 2013 is conducted. Studies of the relevant literature related to the application of PM and of international best practices in healthcare performance systems are also presented. PM and performance measurement systems used by the HSE include many performance reports designed to monitor performance trends and strategic goals. Issues in the current PM system include inconsistency of measures and performance reporting, unclear strategy alignment, and deficiencies in reporting (e.g. feedback and corrective actions). Furthermore, PM processes have not been linked adequately into Irish public hospitals' management systems. The HSE delivers several services such as mental health, social inclusion, etc. This study focuses on the HSE's PM framework, with a particular interest in acute hospitals and emergency services. This is the first comprehensive review of Irish healthcare PM since the introduction of the HSE. A critical analysis of the HSE reports identifies the shortcomings in its current PM system.

  10. Conflicts of interest in biomedical publications: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Akazhanov, Nurbek A; Kitas, George D

    2013-12-01

    This article overviews evidence on common instances of conflict of interest (COI) in research publications from general and specialized fields of biomedicine. Financial COIs are viewed as the most powerful source of bias, which may even distort citation outcomes of sponsored publications. The urge to boost journal citation indicators by stakeholders of science communication is viewed as a new secondary interest, which may compromize the interaction between authors, peer reviewers and editors. Comprehensive policies on disclosure of financial and non-financial COIs in scholarly journals are presented as proxies of their indexing in evidence-based databases, and examples of successful medical journals are discussed in detail. Reports on clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and clinical practice guidelines may be unduly influenced by author-pharmaceutical industry relations, but these publications do not always contain explicit disclosures to allow the readers to judge the reliability of the published conclusions and practice-changing recommendations. The article emphasizes the importance of adhering to the guidance on COI from learned associations such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). It also considers joint efforts of authors, peer reviewers and editors as a foundation for appropriately defining and disclosing potential COIs.

  11. Current practice of public involvement activities in biomedical research and innovation: a systematic qualitative review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Lander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A recent report from the British Nuffield Council on Bioethics associated 'emerging biotechnologies' with a threefold challenge: 1 uncertainty about outcomes, 2 diverse public views on the values and implications attached to biotechnologies and 3 the possibility of creating radical changes regarding societal relations and practices. To address these challenges, leading international institutions stress the need for public involvement activities (PIAs. The objective of this study was to assess the state of PIA reports in the field of biomedical research. METHODS: PIA reports were identified via a systematic literature search. Thematic text analysis was employed for data extraction. RESULTS: After filtering, 35 public consultation and 11 public participation studies were included in this review. Analysis and synthesis of all 46 PIA studies resulted in 6 distinguishable PIA objectives and 37 corresponding PIA methods. Reports of outcome translation and PIA evaluation were found in 9 and 10 studies respectively (20% and 22%. The paper presents qualitative details. DISCUSSION: The state of PIAs on biomedical research and innovation is characterized by a broad range of methods and awkward variation in the wording of objectives. Better comparability of PIAs might improve the translation of PIA findings into further policy development. PIA-specific reporting guidelines would help in this regard. The modest level of translation efforts is another pointer to the "deliberation to policy gap". The results of this review could inform the design of new PIAs and future efforts to improve PIA comparability and outcome translation.

  12. PORTFOLIO DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS: A REVIEW OF PUBLICATIONS IN NATIONAL JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Antunes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current context of changes leading organizations to improve the products launched in the market to meet the increasingly demanding consumers. In order to offer products successfully, organizations need to select development projects from a portfolio. The research portfolio management can be considered quite extensively abroad, because much of the theoretical framework used by researchers in Brazil comes from international publications. Thus, it is important to diagnose the publications on the subject in the country. Accordingly, this paper aims to carry out a literature review on portfolio management in a restricted scope to develop new products, main focus of this research project. This work is characterized as theoretical and conceptual, with a systematic review of literature, by searching for articles in databases of national periodicals, followed by registration, organization and verification of these publications. The results allowed a stratification on the subject according to the journals identified in the Scielo database, as well as in specific journals. Also analyzed were the industrial sectors linked to publications, being the predominant financial sector, which is not part of the scope of this research. The study identified a paucity of studies related to portfolio management for new products, principally in relation to the application and implementation in organizations in general.

  13. Current practice of public involvement activities in biomedical research and innovation: a systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Jonas; Hainz, Tobias; Hirschberg, Irene; Strech, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A recent report from the British Nuffield Council on Bioethics associated 'emerging biotechnologies' with a threefold challenge: 1) uncertainty about outcomes, 2) diverse public views on the values and implications attached to biotechnologies and 3) the possibility of creating radical changes regarding societal relations and practices. To address these challenges, leading international institutions stress the need for public involvement activities (PIAs). The objective of this study was to assess the state of PIA reports in the field of biomedical research. PIA reports were identified via a systematic literature search. Thematic text analysis was employed for data extraction. After filtering, 35 public consultation and 11 public participation studies were included in this review. Analysis and synthesis of all 46 PIA studies resulted in 6 distinguishable PIA objectives and 37 corresponding PIA methods. Reports of outcome translation and PIA evaluation were found in 9 and 10 studies respectively (20% and 22%). The paper presents qualitative details. The state of PIAs on biomedical research and innovation is characterized by a broad range of methods and awkward variation in the wording of objectives. Better comparability of PIAs might improve the translation of PIA findings into further policy development. PIA-specific reporting guidelines would help in this regard. The modest level of translation efforts is another pointer to the "deliberation to policy gap". The results of this review could inform the design of new PIAs and future efforts to improve PIA comparability and outcome translation.

  14. A systematic scoping review of speech and language therapists' public health practice for early language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clare; Williams, Emma; Bryan, Karen

    2017-07-01

    There have been calls for speech and language therapists (SLTs) to work within a public-health framework to support language development. Innovative practice is reported, but the range of services remains unknown. Furthermore, the potential impact of public health practice in speech and language therapy on early child development is also currently unknown. A new method in SLT research, systematic scoping reviews enable greater breadth of focus than traditional systematic reviews when identifying innovative practice. To report scope and critically appraise evidence of family-focused health-promotion practice for early language development in this area. Using the Cochrane Public Health Group scoping review framework, data from reports of health-promotion practice with families of children aged 0-3 years were extracted and critically appraised on service delivery, information, reach and evaluation. Group-based service delivery was the most popular form of service delivery. There were limited reports on the information given in services and on their reach. Questionnaires were the most popular reported evaluation method. Quality of evaluations was poor due to lack of replicability and experimental control in the studies reported. This method of systematic review has highlighted the scope of health-promotion practice in speech and language therapy and also demonstrated the lack of evidence for its effectiveness on child language development. It is argued that systematic scoping reviews are valuable for scoping innovative practice in areas where either there is a lack of robust evidence or there is a high level of heterogeneity in practice or evaluation. To support clinician appraisal of available evidence, recommendations are given for development of questionnaire appraisal and for categorization of evidence levels on summary databases. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  15. Incretin mimetics: a novel therapeutic option for patients with type 2 diabetes – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine B Hansen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Katrine B Hansen1, Tina Vilsbøll2, Filip K Knop21Department of Clinical Physiology, Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Diabetes Research Division, Department of Internal Medicine F, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease associated with low quality of life and early death. The goal in diabetes treatment is to prevent these outcomes by tight glycemic control and minimizing vascular risk factors. So far, even intensified combination regimen with the traditional antidiabetes agents have failed to obtain these goals. Incretin mimetics are a new class of antidiabetes drugs which involve modulation of the incretin system. They bind to and activate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptors on pancreatic beta-cells following which insulin secretion and synthesis are initiated. Since the compounds have no insulinotropic activity at lower glucose concentrations the risk of hypoglycemia – a well-known shortcoming of existing antidiabetes treatments – is low. Additionally, incretin mimetics have been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors such as weight loss, decrease in blood pressure and changes in lipid profile. Current clinical data on the two available incretin mimetics, exenatide and liraglutide, are evaluated in this review, focusing on pharmacology, efficacy, safety and tolerability. The review is built on a systematic PubMed and Medline search for publications with the key words GLP-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, liraglutide and type 2 diabetes mellitus up to January 2009.Keywords: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, exenatide, liraglutide, type 2 diabetes

  16. Therapeutic inertia in the treatment of hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunti, Kamlesh; Gomes, Marilia B; Pocock, Stuart; Shestakova, Marina V; Pintat, Stéphane; Fenici, Peter; Hammar, Niklas; Medina, Jesús

    2017-08-22

    Therapeutic inertia, defined as the failure to initiate or intensify therapy in a timely manner according to evidence-based clinical guidelines, is a key reason for uncontrolled hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aims of this systematic review were to identify how therapeutic inertia in the management of hyperglycaemia was measured and to assess its extent over the past decade. Systematic searches for articles published from 1 January 2004 to 1 August 2016 were conducted in MEDLINE and Embase. Two researchers independently screened all of the titles and abstracts, and the full texts of publications deemed relevant. Data were extracted by a single researcher using a standardized data extraction form. The final selection for the review included 53 articles. Measurements used to assess therapeutic inertia varied across studies, making comparisons difficult. Data from low- to middle-income countries were scarce. In most studies, the median time to treatment intensification after a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ) measurement above target was more than 1 year (range 0.3 to >7.2 years). Therapeutic inertia increased as the number of antidiabetic drugs rose and decreased with increasing HbA1c levels. Data were mainly available from Western countries. Diversity of inertia measures precluded meta-analysis. Therapeutic inertia in the management of hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes is a major concern. This is well documented in Western countries, but corresponding data are urgently needed in low- and middle-income countries, in view of their high prevalence of type 2 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. [Pollutions of indoor fine particles in four types of public places and the influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Deng, Fu-rong; Guo, Xin-biao; Yang, Dong-mei; Teng, Xiu-quan; Zheng, Xu; Gao, Jing; Dong, Jing; Wu, Shao-wei

    2009-08-01

    To study the levels of pollutions caused by fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) in the public places and investigate the possible influencing factors. A total of 20 public places in four types such as rest room in bath center, restaurant, karaoke bars and cyber cafe in Tongzhou district in Beijing were chosen in this study; indoor and outdoor PM(2.5) was monitored by TSI sidepak AM510. Data under varying conditions were collected and analyzed, such as doors or windows or mechanical ventilation devices being opened, rooms cramped with people and smoking. The average concentration of indoor PM(2.5) in 20 public places was (334.6 +/- 386.3) microg/m(3), ranging from 6 microg/m(3) to 1956 microg/m(3); while in bath center, restaurant, karaoke bars and cyber cafe were (116.9 +/- 100.1)microg/m(3), (317.9 +/- 235.3) microg/m(3), (750.6 +/- 521.6)microg/m(3) and (157.5 +/- 98.5) microg/m(3) respectively. The concentrations of PM(2.5) in restaurant (compared with bath center: Z = -10.785, P 1.5) points; r = 0.667, F = 14.442, P 1.556, t = 3.760, P = 0.007] when ventilation (score > 2) was relatively good. The number of smokers per cube meters (14.7 x 10(-3)) became the major influence factor when the ventilation score public places. Outdoor PM(2.5) should be correlated with indoor PM(2.5) concentration under drafty situation.

  18. 78 FR 21703 - Extension of Public Review and Comment Period for the Pyramid Way and McCarran Boulevard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Federal Highway Administration Extension of Public Review and Comment Period for the Pyramid Way and Mc... Department of Transportation (NDOT), is extending the review and comment period of the DEIS for the Pyramid... available for review at the Spanish Springs Library, 7100A Pyramid Lake Highway, Sparks, NV; the...

  19. Timeliness of epidemiological outbreak investigations in peer-reviewed European publications, January 2003 to August 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Venter, Ec; Oliver, I; Stuart, J M

    2015-02-12

    Timely outbreak investigations are central in containing communicable disease outbreaks; despite this, no guidance currently exists on expectations of timeliness for investigations. A literature review was conducted to assess the length of epidemiological outbreak investigations in Europe in peer-reviewed publications. We determined time intervals between outbreak declaration to hypothesis generation, and hypothesis generation to availability of results from an analytical study. Outbreaks were classified into two groups: those with a public health impact across regions within a country and requiring national coordination (level 3) and those with a severe or catastrophic impact requiring direction at national level (levels 4 and 5). Investigations in Europe published between 2003 and 2013 were reviewed. We identified 86 papers for review: 63 level 3 and 23 level 4 and 5 investigations. Time intervals were ascertained from 55 papers. The median period for completion of an analytical study was 15 days (range: 4-32) for levels 4 and 5 and 31 days (range: 9-213) for level 3 investigations. Key factors influencing the speed of completing analytical studies were outbreak level, severity of infection and study design. Our findings suggest that guidance for completing analytical studies could usefully be provided, with different time intervals according to outbreak severity.

  20. Review of Prior Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit Evaluation: A Report to Snohomish Public Utilities District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2014-11-01

    Snohomish County Public Utilities District (the District or Snohomish PUD) provides electricity to about 325,000 customers in Snohomish County, Washington. The District has an incentive programs to encourage commercial customers to improve energy efficiency: the District partially reimburses the cost of approved retrofits if they provide a level of energy performance improvement that is specified by contract. In 2013 the District contracted with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to provide a third-party review of the Monitoring and Verification (M&V) practices the District uses to evaluate whether companies are meeting their contractual obligations. This work helps LBNL understand the challenges faced by real-world practitioners of M&V of energy savings, and builds on a body of related work such as Price et al. (2013). The District selected a typical project for which they had already performed an evaluation. The present report includes the District's original evaluation as well as LBNL's review of their approach. The review is based on the document itself; on investigation of the load data and outdoor air temperature data from the building evaluated in the document; and on phone discussions with Bill Harris of the Snohomish County Public Utilities District. We will call the building studied in the document the subject building, the original Snohomish PUD report will be referred to as the Evaluation, and this discussion by LBNL is called the Review.

  1. Problems with traditional science publishing and finding a wider niche for post-publication peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dobránszki, Judit

    2015-01-01

    Science affects multiple basic sectors of society. Therefore, the findings made in science impact what takes place at a commercial level. More specifically, errors in the literature, incorrect findings, fraudulent data, poorly written scientific reports, or studies that cannot be reproduced not only serve as a burden on tax-payers' money, but they also serve to diminish public trust in science and its findings. Therefore, there is every need to fortify the validity of data that exists in the science literature, not only to build trust among peers, and to sustain that trust, but to reestablish trust in the public and private academic sectors that are witnessing a veritable battle-ground in the world of science publishing, in some ways spurred by the rapid evolution of the open access (OA) movement. Even though many science journals, traditional and OA, claim to be peer reviewed, the truth is that different levels of peer review occur, and in some cases no, insufficient, or pseudo-peer review takes place. This ultimately leads to the erosion of quality and importance of science, allowing essentially anything to become published, provided that an outlet can be found. In some cases, predatory OA journals serve this purpose, allowing papers to be published, often without any peer review or quality control. In the light of an explosion of such cases in predatory OA publishing, and in severe inefficiencies and possible bias in the peer review of even respectable science journals, as evidenced by the increasing attention given to retractions, there is an urgent need to reform the way in which authors, editors, and publishers conduct the first line of quality control, the peer review. One way to address the problem is through post-publication peer review (PPPR), an efficient complement to traditional peer-review that allows for the continuous improvement and strengthening of the quality of science publishing. PPPR may also serve as a way to renew trust in scientific

  2. Ethics Review Committee approval and informed consent: an analysis of biomedical publications originating from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwardhana Chesmal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International guidelines on research have focused on protecting research participants. Ethical Research Committee (ERC approval and informed consent are the cornerstones. Externally sponsored research requires approval through ethical review in both the host and the sponsoring country. This study aimed to determine to what extent ERC approval and informed consent procedures are documented in locally and internationally published human subject research carried out in Sri Lanka. Methods We obtained ERC approval in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Theses from 1985 to 2005 available at the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM library affiliated to the University of Colombo were scrutinised using checklists agreed in consultation with senior research collaborators. A Medline search was carried out with MeSH major and minor heading 'Sri Lanka' as the search term for international publications originating in Sri Lanka during 1999 to 2004. All research publications from CMJ during 1999 to 2005 were also scrutinized. Results Of 291 theses, 34% documented ERC approvals and 61% documented obtaining consent. From the international journal survey, 250 publications originated from Sri Lanka of which only 79 full text original research publications could be accessed electronically. Of these 38% documented ERC approval and 39% documented obtaining consent. In the Ceylon Medical Journal 36% documented ERC approval and 37% documented obtaining consent. Conclusion Only one third of the publications scrutinized recorded ERC approval and procurement of informed consent. However, there is a positive trend in documenting these ethical requirements in local postgraduate research and in the local medical journal.

  3. A Review of the Social Research on Public Perception and Engagement Practices in Urban Air Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Sala, R.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the state of public information in the field of air pollution in Spain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with members of public agencies, technical experts, scientists, and members of non governmental associations together with a documentary analysis of air pollution documents (plans, reports, etc.). We tried to characterize the information actions on air quality carried out in Spanish cities during the last years. In the results section we first analyze the ideas, concerns and considerations that underlie the actions of public information on air pollution, as well as the main challenges of public communication on this subject, according to the documents and the different experts consulted. We analyze the various contents of information transmitted nowadays (on levels of pollution, health impacts and mitigation or protection actions), as well as the mechanisms by which it is communicated, both continuously and in the case of threshold overcoming episodes. We also review the different media used to communicate air pollution information (Internet, mobile applications and other forms) and other issues such as information audiences, or the perceived impacts of information provided. Finally, the implications for more diverse and effective public involvement strategies in air pollution are discussed. (Author)

  4. Sarcopenia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (review and own observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Goncharova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. A review of the literature on sarcopenia syndrome presents its definition, classifications and etiological factors. The main attention is paid to the correlation between sarcopenia and carbohydrate metabolism, in particular, between glycogen content and insulin sensitivity. The publications dealing with the mechanisms of influence of physical activity (short-term and long-term on carbohydrate metabolism are analyzed. It is emphasized that today there is an evidence base on the role of skeletal muscles in maintaining glucose homeostasis, which justifies the importance of physical activity for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and monitoring such patients. Our observations were carried out to compare the frequency of the increase in the percentage of fat tissue (FT and the reduction in muscle tissue in patients with different body mass index (BMI and the effects of type 2 DM on these indicators. Materials and methods. A bioimpedance study was performed in 114 patients with type 2 DM aged 52.3 ± 1.7 years and 110 persons of the same age without type 2 DM (control group. Results. In all those surveyed with overweight and obesity, the age norms of percentage of FT were increased, regardless of the presence or absence of type 2 DM. At normal body weight in the control group in almost half of the examinees (52.0 %, there was an increase in the specific weight of the FT, and in the presence of type 2 DM, this index was significantly higher (94.1 %. This suggests that exceeding the age norms for the percentage of FT in persons with normal body weight can be regarded as a risk factor for type 2 DM. Conclusions. The incidence of a decrease in the specific weight of FT in the control group was 8.0 % in normal body weight, 20.0 % — in overweight and 80.0 % — in obesity that indicates the significance of the problem of sarcopenia, primarily in persons with obesity. Against the background of type 2 DM, these rates were

  5. Public Disaster Communication and Child and Family Disaster Mental Health: a Review of Theoretical Frameworks and Empirical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, J Brian; First, Jennifer; Spialek, Matthew L; Sorenson, Mary E; Koch, Megan

    2016-06-01

    Children have been identified as particularly vulnerable to psychological and behavioral difficulties following disaster. Public child and family disaster communication is one public health tool that can be utilized to promote coping/resilience and ameliorate maladaptive child reactions following an event. We conducted a review of the public disaster communication literature and identified three main functions of child and family disaster communication: fostering preparedness, providing psychoeducation, and conducting outreach. Our review also indicates that schools are a promising system for child and family disaster communication. We complete our review with three conclusions. First, theoretically, there appears to be a great opportunity for public disaster communication focused on child disaster reactions. Second, empirical research assessing the effects of public child and family disaster communication is essentially nonexistent. Third, despite the lack of empirical evidence in this area, there is opportunity for public child and family disaster communication efforts that address new domains.

  6. Coherent measures of the impact of co-authors in peer review journals and in proceedings publications

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the coauthor effect in different types of publications, usually not equally respected in measuring research impact. {\\it A priori} unexpected relationships are found between the total coauthor core value, $m_a$, of a leading investigator (LI), and the related values for their publications in either peer review journals ($j$) or in proceedings ($p$). A surprisingly linear relationship is found: $ m_a^{(j)} + 0.4\\;m_a^{(p)} = m_a^{(jp)} $. Furthermore, another relationship is found concerning the measure of the total number of citations, $A_a$, i.e. the surface of the citation size-rank histogram up to $m_a$. Another linear relationship exists : $A_a^{(j)} + 1.36\\; A_a^{(p)} = A_a^{(jp)} $. These empirical findings coefficients (0.4 and 1.36) are supported by considerations based on an empirical power law found between the number of joint publications of an author and the rank of a coauthor. Moreover, a simple power law relationship is found between $m_a$ and the number ($r_M$) of coauthor...

  7. 76 FR 2381 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... 255, Interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol Services (VoIP). Form Number: N/A. Type of Review... ``interconnected voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services,'' as defined by the Commission, and to manufacturers... ] Order, IP-Enabled Services; Implementation of Sections 255 and 251(a)(2) of the Communications Act of...

  8. 75 FR 69443 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Telecommunications Companies. Form No.: N/A. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection... use; Account 6563, Amortization expense--tangible; Account 6564, Amortization expense--intangible; and ] Account 6565, Amortization expense--other. These accounting changes are mandatory only for Class...

  9. 76 FR 13184 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... opportunity to comment on the following information collection(s), as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act... information collection burden on small business concerns with fewer than 25 employees. The FCC may not conduct... Obligations; Section 76.1614, Identification of Must-Carry Signals. Type of Review: Extension of a...

  10. 76 FR 10030 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... or in exchange for financial consideration, that party must file with the Commission a request for... technology, and (e) ways to further reduce the information collection burden for small business concerns with... Informal Objections. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection. Respondents: Business or...

  11. Types and severity of medication errors in Iran; a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Ava; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Kargar, Mona; Javadi, Mohammadreza; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2013-06-20

    Medication error (ME) is the most common single preventable cause of adverse drug events which negatively affects patient safety. ME prevalence is a valuable safety indicator in healthcare system. Inadequate studies on ME, shortage of high-quality studies and wide variations in estimations from developing countries including Iran, decreases the reliability of ME evaluations. In order to clarify the status of MEs, we aimed to review current available literature on this subject from Iran. We searched Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOHOST and also Persian databases (IranMedex, and SID) up to October 2012 to find studies on adults and children about prescription, transcription, dispensing, and administration errors. Two authors independently selected and one of them reviewed and extracted data for types, definitions and severity of MEs. The results were classified based on different stages of drug delivery process. Eighteen articles (11 Persian and 7 English) were included in our review. All study designs were cross-sectional and conducted in hospital settings. Nursing staff and students were the most frequent populations under observation (12 studies; 66.7%). Most of studies did not report the overall frequency of MEs aside from ME types. Most of studies (15; 83.3%) reported prevalence of administration errors between 14.3%-70.0%. Prescribing error prevalence ranged from 29.8%-47.8%. The prevalence of dispensing and transcribing errors were from 11.3%-33.6% and 10.0%-51.8% respectively. We did not find any follow up or repeated studies. Only three studies reported findings on severity of MEs. The most reported types of and the highest percentages for any type of ME in Iran were administration errors. Studying ME in Iran is a new area considering the duration and number of publications. Wide ranges of estimations for MEs in different stages may be because of the poor quality of studies with diversity in definitions, methods, and populations. For gaining

  12. Types and Severity of Medication Errors in Iran; a Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Mansouri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is the most common single preventable cause of adverse drug events which negatively affects patient safety. ME prevalence is a valuable safety indicator in healthcare system. Inadequate studies on ME, shortage of high-quality studies and wide variations in estimations from developing countries including Iran, decreases the reliability of ME evaluations. In order to clarify the status of MEs, we aimed to review current available literature on this subject from Iran. We searched Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOHOST and also Persian databases (IranMedex, and SID up to October 2012 to find studies on adults and children about prescription, transcription, dispensing, and administration errors. Two authors independently selected and one of them reviewed and extracted data for types, definitions and severity of MEs. The results were classified based on different stages of drug delivery process. Eighteen articles (11 Persian and 7 English were included in our review. All study designs were cross-sectional and conducted in hospital settings. Nursing staff and students were the most frequent populations under observation (12 studies; 66.7%. Most of studies did not report the overall frequency of MEs aside from ME types. Most of studies (15; 83.3% reported prevalence of administration errors between 14.3%-70.0%. Prescribing error prevalence ranged from 29.8%-47.8%. The prevalence of dispensing and transcribing errors were from 11.3%-33.6% and 10.0%-51.8% respectively. We did not find any follow up or repeated studies. Only three studies reported findings on severity of MEs. The most reported types of and the highest percentages for any type of ME in Iran were administration errors. Studying ME in Iran is a new area considering the duration and number of publications. Wide ranges of estimations for MEs in different stages may be because of the poor quality of studies with diversity in definitions, methods, and populations

  13. IMPROVING CLIENT INTERNAL CAPABILITY TO MONITOR PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS PROJECTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Ahmed Umar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public-Private Partnerships (PPP or Private Finance Initiatives (PFI are increasingly becoming very popular with governments across the globe for the provision of public infrastructure and services. When contracted, the public sector client believing the private sector will act in accordance with ‘bounded rationality’, ignores the constant monitoring and review process which is an integral part of any project. However, the failures of some of these partnerships and the social and economic costs incurred due to laxity in monitoring reminds us of the need to develop the permanent bureaucratic machinery of government, who share the government’s unique objectives of end-users satisfaction rather than shareholders’, to perform the monitoring of these projects. Though the public sector has been delivering projcets for dacades, the complexities associated with the PFI strategy has opened up new challenges for its staff. Most failures and moral harzards are only discovered after scandals evoke investigations like the case of Enron or when public criticisms force the government to reverse their decision as in the case of the Skye toll bridge by which time a lot of damage would have be done. Literature has shown that when employees are trained and engaged in organisational decisions and policy planning they make policy executions easier. Therefore, considering the Theoretical ideology behind the PFI of the asset being returned to the Public sector at the end of the concession, it becomes pertinent for proper training of the public sector staff. Public sector officials, if adequately trained and motivated can perform the tasks being contracted out to private consultants thereby re-affirming government’s commitment to its Value for Money (VFM proposition. Though the public sector staff strength has been depleted due to the adoption of New Public Management (NPM, however the remaining qualified staff can be pooled to create an

  14. Risk perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge of chikungunya among the public and health professionals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrin, Tricia; Waddell, Lisa; Greig, Judy; Young, Ian; Hierlihy, Catherine; Mascarenhas, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Recently, attention to chikungunya has increased due to its spread into previously non-endemic areas. Since there is no available treatment or vaccine, most intervention strategies focus on mosquito bite prevention and mosquito control, which require community involvement to be successful. Thus, our objective was to systematically review the global primary literature on the risk perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge of chikungunya among the public and health professionals to inform future research and improve our understanding on which intervention strategies are likely to be successful. Potentially relevant articles were identified through a standardized systematic review (SR) process consisting of the following steps: comprehensive search strategy in seven databases (Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, CAB, LILACS, Agricola, and Cochrane) and a grey literature search of public health organizations, relevance screening, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction. Two independent reviewers performed each step. Reporting of this SR follows PRISMA reporting guidelines. Thirty-seven relevant articles were identified. The majority of the articles were published since 2011 (83.8%) and reported on studies conducted in Asia (48.7%) and the Indian Ocean Islands (24.3%). The results were separated into four categories: general knowledge and perceptions on chikungunya; perceptions on the risk and severity of chikungunya; knowledge of chikungunya-harboring vectors and transmission; and knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes on mitigation practices. Overall, the systematic review found that risk perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge of chikungunya among the public and health professionals vary across populations and countries and knowledge is higher in areas that have experienced an outbreak. The results suggest that most of the affected populations in this study do not understand mosquito borne diseases or chikungunya and are therefore less likely to protect themselves from mosquito

  15. Clinical research during a public health emergency: a systematic review of severe pandemic influenza management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R; Rudd, Kristina E; Clark, Danielle V; Jacob, Shevin T; West, T Eoin

    2013-05-01

    Rigorous evaluation of clinical interventions in the setting of a public health emergency is necessary to identify best practices, to develop clinical management guidelines, and to inform resource allocation. The 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic necessitated care of critically ill patients around the world. To inform the World Health Organization Public Health Research Agenda for Influenza, we conducted a systematic review to identify clinical interventions other than antiviral therapies that would benefit severely ill 2009 H1N1 influenza patients (adults and children) in both high- and low-resource settings. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; hand search of abstracts from six professional society annual conferences and bibliographies of clinical review articles; and personal communication with leaders in the field. English language; human studies; citations added to databases from January 1, 2009 (Cochrane databases) or March 15, 2009 (PubMed and EMBASE) through January 31, 2012; randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, or systematic reviews/meta-analyses of non-antiviral clinical interventions in hospitalized 2009 influenza A (H1N1) patients. The search identified 2,452 articles. Thirty-six potentially relevant articles were read. Seven articles met criteria. All were observational studies. One study found benefit of convalescent plasma infusion, three studies found no benefit of corticosteroids, and three studies had mixed results on the benefit of extracorporeal lung support. No study was applicable to health care delivery in low-resource settings. There is a paucity of high quality clinical research to inform clinical care of severe H1N1 influenza, and we found no beneficial interventions appropriate for low-resource settings. This may be due to the logistical difficulties of conducting clinical research in response to a public health emergency. Our investigation

  16. [Scoliosis: review of types, aetiology, diagnostics, and treatment 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, P. de; Biezen, E.C. van; Baat, C. de

    2012-01-01

    A scoliosis is a flexible or rigid deformity of the spine in the frontal plane. There are several types of scoliosis, each with specific characteristics. The most prevalent types are idiopathic, congenital, and neuromuscular scoliosis and scoliosis in adults. The aetiology is varied and largely unde

  17. The effectiveness of knowledge translation strategies used in public health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaRocca Rebecca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Literature related to the effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT strategies used in public health is lacking. The capacity to seek, analyze, and synthesize evidence-based information in public health is linked to greater success in making policy choices that have the best potential to yield positive outcomes for populations. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of KT strategies used to promote evidence-informed decision making (EIDM among public health decision makers. Methods A search strategy was developed to identify primary studies published between 2000–2010. Studies were obtained from multiple electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Searches were supplemented by hand searching and checking the reference lists of included articles. Two independent review authors screened studies for relevance, assessed methodological quality of relevant studies, and extracted data from studies using standardized tools. Results After removal of duplicates, the search identified 64, 391 titles related to KT strategies. Following title and abstract review, 346 publications were deemed potentially relevant, of which 5 met all relevance criteria on full text screen. The included publications were of moderate quality and consisted of five primary studies (four randomized controlled trials and one interrupted time series analysis. Results were synthesized narratively. Simple or single KT strategies were shown in some circumstances to be as effective as complex, multifaceted ones when changing practice including tailored and targeted messaging. Multifaceted KT strategies led to changes in knowledge but not practice. Knowledge translation strategies shown to be less effective were passive and included access to registries of pre-processed research evidence or print materials. While knowledge brokering did not have a significant effect generally

  18. Public health program planning logic model for community engaged type 2 diabetes management and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joseph F

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes remains a growing epidemic with widening health inequity gaps in disease management, self-management knowledge, access to care and outcomes. Yet there is a paucity of evaluation tools for community engaged interventions aimed at closing the gaps and improving health. The Guide to Community Preventive Services (the Community Guide) developed by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services (the Task Force) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends two healthcare system level interventions, case management interventions and disease management programs, to improve glycemic control. However, as a public health resource guide for diabetes interventions a model for community engagement is a glaringly absent component of the Community Guide recommendations. In large part there are few evidence-based interventions featuring community engagement as a practice and system-level focus of chronic disease and Type 2 diabetes management. The central argument presented in this paper is that the absence of these types of interventions is due to the lack of tools for modeling and evaluating such interventions, especially among disparate and poor populations. A conceptual model emphasizing action-oriented micro-level community engagement is needed to complement the Community Guide and serve as the basis for testing and evaluation of these kinds of interventions. A unique logic model advancing the Community Guide diabetes recommendations toward measureable and sustainable community engagement for improved Type 2 diabetes outcomes is presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Organizational level indicators to address health equity work in local public health agencies: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Katherine; Salvaterra, Rosana; Antonello, Deborah; Cohen, Benita E; Kothari, Anita; LeBer, Marlene Janzen; LeMieux, Suzanne; Moran, Kathy; Rizzi, Katherine; Robson, Jordan; Wai, Caroline

    2017-09-14

    To determine what organizational level indicators exist that could be used by local Ontario public health agencies to monitor and guide their progress in addressing health equity. This scoping review employed Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) six-stage framework. Multiple online databases and grey literature sources were searched using a comprehensive strategy. Studies were included if they described or used indicators to assess an organization's health equity activity. Abstracted indicator descriptions were classified using the roles for public health action identified by the Canadian National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health (NCCDH). Health equity experts participated in a consultation phase to examine items extracted from the literature. Eighteen peer-reviewed studies and 30 grey literature reports were included. Abstracted indicators were considered for 1) relevance for organizational assessment, 2) ability to highlight equity-seeking populations, and 3) potential feasibility for application. Twenty-eight items formed the basis for consultation with 13 selected health equity experts. Items considered for retention were all noted to require significant clarification, definition and development. Those eliminated were often redundant or not an organizational level indicator. Few evidence-based, validated indicators to monitor and guide progress to address health inequities at the level of the local public health organization were identified. There is a need for continued development of identified indicator items, including careful operationalization of concepts and establishing clear definitions for key terms.

  20. The public health nursing work environment: review of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingley, Jacquelyn; Yoder, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Public health nurses (PHNs) work to address critical health issues at the individual, family, and population levels. In recent years, a global nursing shortage has posed a significant challenge to the recruitment and retention of PHNs. Hospital-based research has shown that a healthy and productive work environment is vital to successful nursing recruitment and retention. Specific organizational characteristics have been linked to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job vacancies, and turnover rates. Although it is presumed that similarities exist between the public health and acute care nursing work environments, further evaluation is required. This literature review was conducted to identify studies that characterize the PHN work environment. An online database search was conducted to identify prospective PHN studies published between 2000 and 2010. Definitions were established for screening purposes. Twenty-nine PHN studies in the United States and abroad met criteria for inclusion in this review. Satisfaction with teamwork and job autonomy generally was reported. However, inadequate PHN staffing was described as a concern, with problems magnified during prolonged response to public health emergencies. Insufficient control over PHN practice was reported as well. Perceptions regarding other work environment characteristics were mixed or were not measured in detail. More in-depth research is recommended with the ultimate goal of improving PHN recruitment and retention.

  1. Recent advances and findings of angiotensin type 2 receptor:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yu-mei; WANG Yuan; LIU Jian-ping

    2010-01-01

    @@ Angiotensinogen is a member of the serpin family. It is produced constitutively and released into the circulation mainly by the liver. Angiotensinogen forms angiotensin Ⅰ by action of the circulated renin released from the kidney. Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ), an octapeptide hormone with sequence Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe,is converted from angiotensin Ⅰ through removal of two terminal residues by the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mostly catalyzed in the lung.1 This peptide binds to two subtype receptors, angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R),members of the superfamily of heptahelical G protein coupled receptors, with different affinities.2 It is well known that AT1R and AT2R crosstalk and lead to counterregulatory functions in many systems, especially the cardiovascular system.3 Accumulating data established the roles of AT1R in the classic actions of Ang Ⅱ including vasoconstriction and cardiovascular hypertrophy, whereas AT2R is suggested to exert direct functions in vasodilation and antigrowth effects.4 Recent publications provide new insights into the roles of AT2R with increasing responsibilities. Recent progresses in AT2R research are reviewed in this article.

  2. Equity in the allocation of public sector financial resources in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Laura; Lagarde, Mylene; Hanson, Kara

    2015-05-01

    This review aims to identify, assess and analyse the evidence on equity in the distribution of public health sector expenditure in low- and middle-income countries. Four bibliographic databases and five websites were searched to identify quantitative studies examining equity in the distribution of public health funding in individual countries or groups of countries. Two different types of studies were identified: benefit incidence analysis (BIA) and resource allocation comparison (RAC) studies. Quality appraisal and data synthesis were tailored to each study type to reflect differences in the methods used and in the information provided. We identified 39 studies focusing on African, Asian and Latin American countries. Of these, 31 were BIA studies that described the distribution, typically across socio-economic status, of individual monetary benefit derived from service utilization. The remaining eight were RAC studies that compared the actual expenditure across geographic areas to an ideal need-based distribution. Overall, the quality of the evidence from both types of study was relatively weak. Looking across studies, the evidence confirms that resource allocation formulae can enhance equity in resource allocation across geographic areas and that the poor benefits proportionally more from primary health care than from hospital expenditure. The lack of information on the distribution of benefit from utilization in RAC studies and on the countries' approaches to resource allocation in BIA studies prevents further policy analysis. Additional research that relates the type of resource allocation mechanism to service provision and to the benefit distribution is required for a better understanding of equity-enhancing resource allocation policies.

  3. What research tells us about knowledge transfer strategies to improve public health in low-income countries: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siron, Stéphanie; Dagenais, Christian; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-11-01

    This study describes the current state of research on knowledge transfer strategies to improve public health in low-income countries, to identify the knowledge gaps on this topic. In this scoping review, a descriptive and systematic process was used to analyse, for each article retained, descriptions of research context and methods, types of knowledge transfer activities and results reported. 28 articles were analysed. They dealt with the evaluation of transfer strategies that employed multiple activities, mostly targeting health professionals and women with very young children. Most often these studies used quantitative designs and measurements of instrumental use with some methodological shortcomings. Results were positive and suggested recommendations for improving professional practices, knowledge and health-related behaviours. The review highlights the great diversity of transfer strategies used, strategies and many conditions for knowledge use. The review provides specific elements for understanding the transfer processes in low-income countries and highlights the need for systematic evaluation of the conditions for research results utilization.

  4. Global and public health core competencies for nursing education: A systematic review of essential competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Megan; Raffray, Marie; Hendricks, Kristin; Gagnon, Anita J

    2016-05-01

    Nurses are learning and practicing in an increasingly global world. Both nursing schools and nursing students are seeking guidance as they integrate global health into their learning and teaching. This systematic review is intended to identify the most common global and public health core competencies found in the literature and better inform schools of nursing wishing to include global health content in their curricula. Systematic review. An online search of CINAHL and Medline databases, as well as, inclusion of pertinent gray literature was conducted for articles published before 2013. Relevant literature for global health (GH) and public and community health (PH/CH) competencies was reviewed to determine recommendations of both competencies using a combination of search terms. Studies must have addressed competencies as defined in the literature and must have been pertinent to GH or PH/CH. The databases were systematically searched and after reading the full content of the included studies, key concepts were extracted and synthesized. Twenty-five studies were identified and resulted in a list of 14 global health core competencies. These competencies are applicable to a variety of health disciplines, but particularly can inform the efforts of nursing schools to integrate global health concepts into their curricula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. International training programs on eating disorders for professionals, caregivers, and the general public: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piat, Myra; Pearson, Alexis; Sabetti, Judith; Steiger, Howard; Israel, Mimi; Lal, Shalini

    2015-01-01

    This review identified and synthesized published training programs on eating disorders (ED) (anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa) for professionals, natural supporters of people with ED, or the public. A scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley (2005) framework was conducted. Four data bases were searched, for all years, and manual searches from three additional sources were also conducted. Experts on ED were consulted for validation of the identified studies. A narrative synthesis was performed. A total of 20 evaluation studies from five countries were identified, and reviewed in relation to 14 ED training programs. Characteristics of the training programs, and study characteristics, were highly diverse, as shown on Table 1 which compiles results from the charted data. Evaluations were equally divided between training for healthcare and education professionals (9), and training for families or other carers of people with ED (10). One study evaluated ED training for the general public. We found that training orientation varies with the interests and needs of different trainee groups. While most studies assessed trainee outcomes, future research needs to give greater consideration to patient perspectives, and to the relationship between training and evaluation approaches, improved knowledge, and better care.

  6. Review of magnetocaloric effect in perovskite-type oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Wei; Au Chak-Tong; Du You-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We survey the magnetocaloric effect in perovskite-type oxides (including doped ABO3-type manganese oxides,A3B2O7-type two-layered perovskite oxides,and A2B'B''O6-type ordered double-perovskite oxides).Magnetic entropy changes larger than those of gadolinium can be observed in polycrystalline La(Ⅰ)-xCaxMnO3 and alkali-metal (Na or K)doped La0.8Ca0.2MnO3 perovskite-type manganese oxides.The large magnetic entropy change produced by an abrupt reduction of magnetization is attributed to the anomalous thermal expansion at the Curie temperature.Considerable magnetic entropy changes can also be observed in two-layered perovskites La1.6Ca1.4Mn2O7 and La2.5-xK0.5+xMn2O7+δ(0 < x < 0.5),and double-perovskite Ba2Fe1+xMo1-xO6(0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) near their respective Curie temperatures.Compared with rare earth metals and their alloys,the perovskite-type oxides are lower in cost,and they exhibit higher chemical stability and higher electrical resistivity,which together favor lower eddy-current heating.They are potential magnetic refrigerants at high temperatures,especially near room temperature.

  7. Evidence based review of type 2 diabetes prevention and management in low and middle income countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aimee; Afable; Nidhi; Shree; Karingula

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To identify the newest approaches to type 2diabetes(T2DM)prevention and control in the developingworld context.METHODS:We conducted a systematic review of published studies of diabetes prevention and control programs in low and middle-income countries,as defined by the World Bank.We searched Pub Med using Medical Subject Headings terms.Studies needed to satisfy four criteria:(1)Must be experimental;(2)Must include patients with T2DM or focusing on prevention of T2DM;(3)Must have a lifestyle intervention component;(4)Must be written in English;and(5)Must have measurable outcomes related to diabetes.RESULTS:A total of 66 studies from 20 developing countries were gathered with publication dates through September 2014.India contributed the largest number of trials(11/66).Of the total 66 studies reviewed,all but 3 studies reported evidence of favorable outcomes in the prevention and control of type 2 diabetes.The overwhelming majority of studies reported on diabetes management(56/66),and among these more than half were structured lifestyle education programs.The evidence suggests that lifestyle education led by allied health professionals(nurses,pharmacists)were as effective as those led by physicians or a team of clinicians.The remaining diabetes management interventions focused on diet or exercise,but the evidence to recommend one approach over another was weak.CONCLUSION:Large experimental diabetes prevention/control studies of dietary and exercise interventions are lacking particularly those that consider quality rather than quantity of carbohydrates and alternative exercise.

  8. Review of Public Tweets Over Turkey Within a Pre-Determined Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulnerman, A. G.; Gengec, N. E.; Karaman, H.

    2016-09-01

    Spatial data by using public knowledge is the most popular way to gather data in terms of social media within the last decade. Literature defines, public or volunteers are accepted bionic sensors detecting their surroundings and share what they detect in terms of their social media applications or microblogs. Besides being cheapest and fastest and easy way of spatial data acquisition, public or volunteers provides not only spatial data but also attribute data which makes the data more valuable. To understand and interpret those data have some difficulties according to locality. Although some difficulties like difference of languages, society structure and the time period would affect tweets depending on locality, gathering public knowledge or volunteered data contribute many scientific or private researches like Urban, Environmental, and Market side. To extract information, data should be reviewed locally according to main aim of research. In this study, our aim is to draw a perspective for a PhD research about volunteered data in the case of Turkey.

  9. Review and analysis of quality improvement techniques in police departments: application for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William; Brewer, Russell

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study reviews and analyzes quality improvement (QI) techniques in police departments as a background for assessing ways to introduce QI into public health departments. Police departments and public health departments have many elements in common. These findings provide some understanding of how public health departments can incorporate QI methods as well as learn about the potential barriers to implementing QI projects that are inherent in government agencies. The study consists of extensive interviews of informants from academic settings and police departments across the nation. The findings describe (1) the extent of QI diffusion into police departments, (2) barriers and enablers of QI diffusion in police departments, (3) a typology of QI diffusion, and (4) the metrics and incentives to promote QI in the absence of profit motives. Seven specific recommendations are made to promote the application and adoption of QI in public health: (1) implement QI as a comprehensive management approach, (2) top official involvement, (3) a broad focus on mission and vision, (4) lessons for overcoming barriers, (5) how to find resources, (6) how to integrate proven methods, and (7) how to build on existing capabilities.

  10. Web GIS-Based Public Health Surveillance Systems: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Luan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Web Geographic Information System (Web GIS has been extensively and successfully exploited in various arenas. However, to date, the application of this technology in public health surveillance has yet to be systematically explored in the Web 2.0 era. We reviewed existing Web GIS-based Public Health Surveillance Systems (WGPHSSs and assessed them based on 20 indicators adapted from previous studies. The indicators comprehensively cover various aspects of WGPHSS development, including metadata, data, cartography, data analysis, and technical aspects. Our literature search identified 58 relevant journal articles and 27 eligible WGPHSSs. Analyses of results revealed that WGPHSSs were frequently used for infectious-disease surveillance, and that geographical and performance inequalities existed in their development. The latest Web and Web GIS technologies have been used in developing WGPHSSs; however, significant deficiencies in data analysis, system compatibility, maintenance, and accessibility exist. A balance between public health surveillance and privacy concerns has yet to be struck. Use of news and social media as well as Web-user searching records as data sources, participatory public health surveillance, collaborations among health sectors at different spatial levels and among various disciplines, adaption or reuse of existing WGPHSSs, and adoption of geomashup and open-source development models were identified as the directions for advancing WGPHSSs.

  11. REVIEW OF PUBLIC TWEETS OVER TURKEY WITHIN A PRE-DETERMINED TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gulnerman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data by using public knowledge is the most popular way to gather data in terms of social media within the last decade. Literature defines, public or volunteers are accepted bionic sensors detecting their surroundings and share what they detect in terms of their social media applications or microblogs. Besides being cheapest and fastest and easy way of spatial data acquisition, public or volunteers provides not only spatial data but also attribute data which makes the data more valuable. To understand and interpret those data have some difficulties according to locality. Although some difficulties like difference of languages, society structure and the time period would affect tweets depending on locality, gathering public knowledge or volunteered data contribute many scientific or private researches like Urban, Environmental, and Market side. To extract information, data should be reviewed locally according to main aim of research. In this study, our aim is to draw a perspective for a PhD research about volunteered data in the case of Turkey.

  12. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern; a Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Rouhipour, Alaleh; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Yousefifard, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) was first reported in 1976 with two concurrent outbreaks of acute viral hemorrhagic fever centered in Yambuku (near the Ebola river), Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Nzara, Sudan. The current outbreak of the Ebola virus was started by reporting the first case in March 2014 in the forest regions of southeastern Guinea. Due to infection rates raising over 13,000% within a 6-month period, Ebola is now considered as a global public health emergency and on August 8(th), 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. With more than 5000 involved cases and nearly 3000 deaths, this event has turned into the largest and most dangerous Ebola virus outbreak in the world. Based on the above-mentioned, the present article aimed to review the virologic characteristics, transmission, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Ebola virus disease.

  13. Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Rui Peng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syphilis is resurgent in many regions of the world. Molecular typing is a robust tool for investigating strain diversity and epidemiology. This study aimed to review original research on molecular typing of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum with three objectives: (1 to determine specimen types most suitable for molecular typing; (2 to determine T. pallidum subtype distribution across geographic areas; and (3 to summarize available information on subtypes associated with neurosyphilis and macrolide resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two researchers independently searched five databases from 1998 through 2010, assessed for eligibility and study quality, and extracted data. Search terms included "Treponema pallidum," or "syphilis," combined with the subject headings "molecular," "subtyping," "typing," "genotype," and "epidemiology." Sixteen eligible studies were included. Publication bias was not statistically significant by the Begg rank correlation test. Medians, inter-quartile ranges, and 95% confidence intervals were determined for DNA extraction and full typing efficiency. A random-effects model was used to perform subgroup analyses to reduce obvious between-study heterogeneity. Primary and secondary lesions and ear lobe blood specimens had an average higher yield of T. pallidum DNA (83.0% vs. 28.2%, χ(2 = 247.6, p<0.001 and an average higher efficiency of full molecular typing (80.9% vs. 43.1%, χ(2 = 102.3, p<0.001 compared to plasma, whole blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. A pooled analysis of subtype distribution based on country location showed that 14d was the most common subtype, and subtype distribution varied across geographic areas. Subtype data associated with macrolide resistance and neurosyphilis were limited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Primary lesion was a better specimen for obtaining T. pallidum DNA than blood. There was wide geographic variation in T. pallidum subtypes. More research is needed on the

  14. A review of water quality policies in relation to public good benefits and community engagement in rural Ireland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karen Daly; Marion Breuil; Cathal Buckley; Cathal O’ Donoghue; Mary Ryan; Catherine Seale

    2017-01-01

    ... environment under agri-environmental schemes. Specifically, we review policy instruments that protect water for recreational use, their impacts and the challenges they pose for rural development against current requirements to increase public...

  15. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Revised July 2013 External Review Draft) (Public Comment Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is initiating a public comment period prior to peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene oxide (cancer) that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  16. 78 FR 15706 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries.... Participants include: data collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and...

  17. 78 FR 17357 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions, have implemented the Southeast Data... managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including...

  18. 77 FR 60967 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including... Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22...

  19. 78 FR 15708 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions, have implemented the Southeast Data... assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen...

  20. The swine flu vaccine, public attitudes, and researcher interpretations: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire

    2016-06-24

    During pandemics, health authorities may be uncertain about the spread and severity of the disease and the effectiveness and safety of available interventions. This was the case during the swine flu (H1N1) pandemic of 2009-2010, and governments were forced to make decisions despite these uncertainties. While many countries chose to implement wide scale vaccination programmes, few accomplished their vaccination goals. Many research studies aiming to explore barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake have been conducted in the aftermath of the pandemic, including several qualitative studies. 1. To explore public attitudes to the swine flu vaccine in different countries through a review of qualitative primary studies. 2. To describe and discuss the implications drawn by the primary study authors. Systematic review of qualitative research studies, using a broadly comparative cross case-study approach. Study quality was appraised using an adaptation of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) quality assessment tool. The review indicates that the public had varying opinions about disease risk and prevalence and had concerns about vaccine safety. Most primary study authors concluded that participants were uninformed, and that more information about the disease and the vaccine would have led to an increase in vaccine uptake. We find these conclusions problematic. We suggest instead that people's questions and concerns were legitimate given the uncertainties of the situation at the time and the fact that the authorities did not have the necessary information to convince the public. Our quality assessment of the included studies points to a lack of reflexivity and a lack of information about study context. We suggest that these study weaknesses are tied to primary study authors' lack of acknowledgement of the uncertainties surrounding the disease and the vaccine. While primary study authors suggest that authorities could increase vaccine uptake through increased

  1. Public Litigation and the Concept of “Deference” in Judicial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Klaasen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitutional Court is the highest court in all constitutional matters and thus decides appeals from other courts in disputes involving natural and juristic persons and the state, including criminal matters, if the matter is a constitutional matter or an issue connected with a decision on a constitutional matter. The Court may hear any matter, if the Constitutional Court grants leave to appeal because the matter raises an arguable point of law of general public importance that ought to be considered by that court. The Constitution makes it clear that courts are independent and subject only to the Constitution and the law. All persons to whom and organs of state to which a court order or decision applies are bound by it. It is important that the courts employ a standard of judicial review that is compatible with constitutional principles and values. The Constitutional Court subscribes to a standard of “deference” in judicial review. This principle recognises the need to protect the institutional character of each of the three arms of government in a manner that will prevent their ability to discharge their constitutional role being undermined. The principle of deference concerns the function of the judge in mediating between the law and legislative and executive politics. Around the world, litigation or judicial review has become immensely popular as a treatment for the pains of modern governance. South Africa is no exception to this phenomenon. This activism by litigation consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental change, or stasis. Organisations and individuals often disregard or distrust the political process and approach the courts to advance their own interest and to protect their own rights. Litigants seek to enforce constitutional principles and values that affect others as directly as them and that are valued for moral or political reasons and are independent of economic

  2. Citation of non-English peer review publications – some Chinese examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Isaac CH

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Articles published in English language journals with citations of non-English peer reviewed materials are not very common today. However, as epidemiologists are becoming more aware of data and information being readily available and accessible in the non-English literature, the question of whether non-English materials can be cited in English language journals and if so, how should they be cited, has become an increasingly important issue. Bringing together personal insights from the author's familiarity with both the English and Chinese language epidemiological literature and results from a survey on the use of citations of non-English peer reviewed materials across a sample of epidemiology and public health journals, this commentary discusses the different ways authors cite non-English articles in different English language journals and the different methods used by journals to handle non-Latin scripts (e.g. transliteration. This commentary will be useful to both epidemiologists and editors alike.

  3. Citation of non-English peer review publications--some Chinese examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Isaac C H

    2008-09-30

    Articles published in English language journals with citations of non-English peer reviewed materials are not very common today. However, as epidemiologists are becoming more aware of data and information being readily available and accessible in the non-English literature, the question of whether non-English materials can be cited in English language journals and if so, how should they be cited, has become an increasingly important issue. Bringing together personal insights from the author's familiarity with both the English and Chinese language epidemiological literature and results from a survey on the use of citations of non-English peer reviewed materials across a sample of epidemiology and public health journals, this commentary discusses the different ways authors cite non-English articles in different English language journals and the different methods used by journals to handle non-Latin scripts (e.g. transliteration). This commentary will be useful to both epidemiologists and editors alike.

  4. 78 FR 9387 - Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... AGENCY Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan... Agency Climate Change Adaptation Plans in response to the President's October 2009 Executive Order (E.O... of EPA's Climate Change Adaptation Plan has been posted to a public docket and is available on...

  5. 77 FR 59925 - Public Buildings Service; Submission for OMB Review; Application/Permit for Use of Space in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Buildings Service; Submission for OMB Review; Application/ Permit for Use of Space in... collection requirement regarding GSA Form 3453, Application/Permit for Use of Space in Public Buildings and... by Information Collection 3090- 0044, GSA Form 3453, Application/Permit for Use of Space in...

  6. The Public's Perceptions about Cognitive Health and Alzheimer's Disease among the U.S. Population: A National Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lynda A.; Day, Kristine L.; Beard, Renee L.; Reed, Peter S.; Wu, Bei

    2009-01-01

    The present review assesses the public's perceptions about cognitive health and Alzheimer's disease among adults in the United States. We searched the published literature and Internet, and contacted experts in the field to locate surveys assessing the public's perceptions about cognition. We found 10 eligible surveys and abstracted data…

  7. Are Public Libraries Developers of Social Capital? A Review of Their Contribution and Attempts to Demonstrate It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the idea, commonly expressed in the Library and Information Services (LIS) literature, that public libraries have a growing role as developers of social capital, and brings to bear some of the growing body of research into public libraries and social capital. It reviews definitions of social capital by writers outside the LIS…

  8. 47 CFR 64.1330 - State review of payphone entry and exit regulations and public interest payphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations and public interest payphones. 64.1330 Section 64.1330 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... its rules and policies to determine whether it has provided for public interest payphones consistent... Provision of Payphone Service § 64.1330 State review of payphone entry and exit regulations and...

  9. 78 FR 52761 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... to a public meeting notice. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 33 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico stocks of gag... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC642 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  10. Are Public Libraries Developers of Social Capital? A Review of Their Contribution and Attempts to Demonstrate It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the idea, commonly expressed in the Library and Information Services (LIS) literature, that public libraries have a growing role as developers of social capital, and brings to bear some of the growing body of research into public libraries and social capital. It reviews definitions of social capital by writers outside the LIS…

  11. Health literacy and public health: A systematic review and integration of definitions and models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sorensen, Kristine

    2012-01-25

    Abstract Background Health literacy concerns the knowledge and competences of persons to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. Although its importance is increasingly recognised, there is no consensus about the definition of health literacy or about its conceptual dimensions, which limits the possibilities for measurement and comparison. The aim of the study is to review definitions and models on health literacy to develop an integrated definition and conceptual model capturing the most comprehensive evidence-based dimensions of health literacy. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify definitions and conceptual frameworks of health literacy. A content analysis of the definitions and conceptual frameworks was carried out to identify the central dimensions of health literacy and develop an integrated model. Results The review resulted in 17 definitions of health literacy and 12 conceptual models. Based on the content analysis, an integrative conceptual model was developed containing 12 dimensions referring to the knowledge, motivation and competencies of accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health-related information within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion setting, respectively. Conclusions Based upon this review, a model is proposed integrating medical and public health views of health literacy. The model can serve as a basis for developing health literacy enhancing interventions and provide a conceptual basis for the development and validation of measurement tools, capturing the different dimensions of health literacy within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion settings.

  12. The dental public health implications of cosmetic dentistry: a scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, J; Lala, R; Marshman, Z

    2016-09-01

    The popularity of cosmetic surgery has seen a rapid increase recently, with the trend mirrored in dentistry. The Department of Health expressed concerns about the potential for biological and psychosocial harm of these cosmetic procedures. Furthermore, the dental public health implications (DPH) of the growing uptake of cosmetic dental procedures have not been explored. Conduct a scoping review to explore the DPH implications of cosmetic dentistry and identify gaps for future research. A fivestage scoping review was conducted of studies identified using the search terms cosmetic AND dentistry. Data from the studies meeting the inclusion criteria were extracted, collated and summarised into themes. Fifty-seven papers met the inclusion criteria (11 cross-sectional studies, 10 literature reviews and 36 opinion pieces). The DPH implications were summarised into five emergent themes: dento-legal and ethical, marketing, psychosocial, biological and workforce. These themes revealed patients' increased expectations, expanding commercialisation of the profession, psychological risks to vulnerable patients, the iatrogenic consequences of invasive cosmetic dental procedures and workforce implications of the current trends. The scoping review found that existing literature on cosmetic dentistry is predominately anecdotal - professional opinions and discussions. Despite this, our findings demonstrated workforce training and governance implications due to increased demand for cosmetic dentistry. Further empirical research is needed to understand the DPH implications of the increasing demand and uptake of cosmetic dental procedures to guide evidence-based policy to safeguard patients and improve the quality of dental services.

  13. Health literacy and public health: A systematic review and integration of definitions and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy concerns the knowledge and competences of persons to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. Although its importance is increasingly recognised, there is no consensus about the definition of health literacy or about its conceptual dimensions, which limits the possibilities for measurement and comparison. The aim of the study is to review definitions and models on health literacy to develop an integrated definition and conceptual model capturing the most comprehensive evidence-based dimensions of health literacy. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify definitions and conceptual frameworks of health literacy. A content analysis of the definitions and conceptual frameworks was carried out to identify the central dimensions of health literacy and develop an integrated model. Results The review resulted in 17 definitions of health literacy and 12 conceptual models. Based on the content analysis, an integrative conceptual model was developed containing 12 dimensions referring to the knowledge, motivation and competencies of accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health-related information within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion setting, respectively. Conclusions Based upon this review, a model is proposed integrating medical and public health views of health literacy. The model can serve as a basis for developing health literacy enhancing interventions and provide a conceptual basis for the development and validation of measurement tools, capturing the different dimensions of health literacy within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion settings.

  14. The APHEKOM Project: A literature review of air pollution interventions and their impact of public health

    OpenAIRE

    Henschel, S; Goodman, P; Atkinson, RW; Zeka, A; Analitis, A; Katsouyanni, K; Pascal, M.; Chanel, O; Medina, S; Forsberg, B

    2011-01-01

    Intervention studies play an important role in supporting and complementing scientific validation of results of epidemiological non-intervention studies linking air pollution and health. In this paper a collection of existing published intervention studies is reviewed with the aim to give a summarized overview spanning a variety of approaches regarding the type of the intervention and findings with the main focus on studies that assessed interventions that improved air quality and the associa...

  15. [Scoliosis: review of types, aetiology, diagnostics, and treatment 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, P; van Biezen, E C; de Baat, C

    2012-10-01

    A scoliosis is a flexible or rigid deformity of the spine in the frontal plane. There are several types of scoliosis, each with specific characteristics. The most prevalent types are idiopathic, congenital, and neuromuscular scoliosis and scoliosis in adults. The aetiology is varied and largely undetermined. Essential components of diagnostics are patient history, physical examination, and radiographs. Treatment options are a conservative approach involving observation and follow-up, a conservative approach involving non-surgical treatment, and surgical treatment. Usually, idiopathic scoliosis causes no or only few complaints at a young age. Up to 35% of patients have a certain degree of back pain. The choice of a certain treatment is determined by the likelihood of progression of the spine deformity. The objective of brace treatment is preventing progression of the deformity. Important objectives of surgical treatment are preventing progression of the deformity and correcting the deformity with correction or preservation of physical equilibrium.

  16. OBESITY RELATED TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF CANCER: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    S. Asha Devi; Babu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease caused by the interaction of myriad genetics, dietary, lifestyle and environmental factors which favours a chronic positive energy balance leading to increased body fat mass. There is an emerging evidence of strong association between obesity and different types of cancer. These include breast cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, gastric cancer etc. The mechanisms linking both the diseases are not fully understood. We hav...

  17. Cervical cancer prevention and treatment research in Africa: a systematic review from a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Wexler, Catherine; Maloba, May; Mabachi, Natabhona; Ndikum-Moffor, Florence; Bukusi, Elizabeth

    2016-06-04

    Women living in Africa experience the highest burden of cervical cancer. Research and investment to improve vaccination, screening, and treatment efforts are critically needed. We systematically reviewed and characterized recent research within a broader public health framework to organize and assess the range of cervical cancer research in Africa. We searched online databases and the Internet for published articles and cervical cancer reports in African countries. Inclusion criteria included publication between 2004 and 2014, cervical cancer-related content pertinent to one of the four public health categories (primary, secondary, tertiary prevention or quality of life), and conducted in or specifically relevant to countries or regions within the African continent. The study design, geographic region/country, focus of research, and key findings were documented for each eligible article and summarized to illustrate the weight and research coverage in each area. Publications with more than one focus (e.g. secondary and tertiary prevention) were categorized by the primary emphasis of the paper. Research specific to HIV-infected women or focused on feasibility issues was delineated within each of the four public health categories. A total of 380 research articles/reports were included. The majority (54.6 %) of cervical cancer research in Africa focused on secondary prevention (i.e., screening). The number of publication focusing on primary prevention (23.4 %), particularly HPV vaccination, increased significantly in the past decade. Research regarding the treatment of precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer is emerging (17.6 %), but infrastructure and feasibility challenges in many countries have impeded efforts to provide and evaluate treatment. Studies assessing aspects of quality of life among women living with cervical cancer are severely limited (4.1 %). Across all categories, 11.3 % of publications focused on cervical cancer among HIV

  18. Growth surveillance in the context of the Primary Public Healthcare Service Network in Brazil: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixis Figueroa Pedraza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to identify and analyze the scientific literature on child growth monitoring in the context of the primary public healthcare service network in Brazil, focusing on the main problems detected in studies. Methods: the review was based on searches ofSciELO, Lilacs and PubMed databases to identify articles published between 2006 and 2014. The articles were categorized according to the analytical categories of structure (items needed to carry out primary activities or work processes (set of activities and procedures used in the management of resources. Results: of the 16 articles included in this review, only six dealt with structure and, in these, thetraining of professionals and availability of protocols were the most frequently identified problems. Processes, addressed in 15 articles, highlighted the underutilization of Child Health Handbook to record growth measurements and the adoption of guidelines on the basis of notes taken. Conclusions: the difficulties found demonstrate the everyday circumstances of the public health service which have a detrimental effect on growth surveillance.

  19. Efficacy of homeopathy in livestock according to peer-reviewed publications from 1981 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehring, C.; Sundrum, A.

    2016-01-01

    Homeopathy is widely used in livestock, especially in order to reduce the use of antibiotics, although it is often seen as controversial. A comprehensive literature review has been conducted to assess the efficacy of homeopathy in cattle, pigs and poultry. Only peer-reviewed publications dealing with homeopathic remedies, which could possibly replace or prevent the use of antibiotics in the case of infective diseases or growth promotion in livestock were included. Search results revealed a total number of 52 trials performed within 48 publications fulfilling the predefined criteria. Twenty-eight trials were in favour of homeopathy, with 26 trials showing a significantly higher efficacy in comparison to a control group, whereas 22 showed no medicinal effect. Cure rates for the treatments with antibiotics, homeopathy or placebo varied to a high degree, while the remedy used did not seem to make a big difference. Looking at all the studies, no study was repeated under comparable conditions. Consequently, the use of homeopathy currently cannot claim to have sufficient prognostic validity where efficacy is concerned. When striving for high therapeutic success in treatment, the potential of homeopathy in replacing or reducing antibiotics can only be validated if evidence of efficacy is confirmed by randomised controlled trials under modified conditions. PMID:27956476

  20. Efficacy of homeopathy in livestock according to peer-reviewed publications from 1981 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehring, C; Sundrum, A

    2016-12-17

    Homeopathy is widely used in livestock, especially in order to reduce the use of antibiotics, although it is often seen as controversial. A comprehensive literature review has been conducted to assess the efficacy of homeopathy in cattle, pigs and poultry. Only peer-reviewed publications dealing with homeopathic remedies, which could possibly replace or prevent the use of antibiotics in the case of infective diseases or growth promotion in livestock were included. Search results revealed a total number of 52 trials performed within 48 publications fulfilling the predefined criteria. Twenty-eight trials were in favour of homeopathy, with 26 trials showing a significantly higher efficacy in comparison to a control group, whereas 22 showed no medicinal effect. Cure rates for the treatments with antibiotics, homeopathy or placebo varied to a high degree, while the remedy used did not seem to make a big difference. Looking at all the studies, no study was repeated under comparable conditions. Consequently, the use of homeopathy currently cannot claim to have sufficient prognostic validity where efficacy is concerned. When striving for high therapeutic success in treatment, the potential of homeopathy in replacing or reducing antibiotics can only be validated if evidence of efficacy is confirmed by randomised controlled trials under modified conditions. British Veterinary Association.

  1. The role of sleep hygiene in promoting public health: A review of empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Leah A; Kline, Christopher E; Gunn, Heather E; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica H

    2015-08-01

    The ineffectiveness of sleep hygiene as a treatment in clinical sleep medicine has raised some interesting questions. If it is known that, individually, each specific component of sleep hygiene is related to sleep, why wouldn't addressing multiple individual components (i.e., sleep hygiene education) improve sleep? Is there still a use for sleep hygiene? Global public health concern over sleep has increased demand for sleep promotion strategies accessible to the population. However, the extent to which sleep hygiene strategies apply outside clinical settings is not well known. The present review sought to evaluate the empirical evidence for sleep hygiene recommendations regarding exercise, stress management, noise, sleep timing, and avoidance of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, and daytime napping, with a particular emphasis on their public health utility. Thus, our review is not intended to be exhaustive regarding the clinical application of these techniques, but rather to focus on broader applications. Overall, though epidemiologic and experimental research generally supported an association between individual sleep hygiene recommendations and nocturnal sleep, the direct effects of individual recommendations on sleep remains largely untested in the general population. Suggestions for clarification of sleep hygiene recommendations and considerations for the use of sleep hygiene in nonclinical populations are discussed.

  2. Public attitudes to laws for smoke-free private vehicles: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G; Wilson, N

    2009-08-01

    As smoke-free car policy is a frontier domain for tobacco control, attitudes to smoke-free private car laws are briefly reviewed. Medline and Google Scholar searches for the period up to mid-November 2008, from English language sources, were undertaken. Studies were included that contained data from national and subnational populations (eg, in states and provinces), but not for smaller administrative units, eg, cities or councils. Jurisdiction, sample size and survey questions were assessed. One reviewer conducted the data extraction and both authors conducted assessments. A total of 15 relevant studies (from 1988) were identified, set in North America, the UK and Australasia. The available data indicates that, for the jurisdictions with data, there is majority public support for laws requiring cars that contain children to be smoke free. There appears to be an increase over time in this support. In five surveys in 2005 or since (in California, New Zealand and Australia), the support from smokers was 77% or more. The high levels of public (and smoker) support for smoke-free car laws found in the studies to date suggest that this can be a relatively non-controversial tobacco control intervention. Survey series on attitudes to such laws are needed, and surveys in jurisdictions where the issue has not been investigated to date.

  3. Procedures for the ethical review of public health surveillance protocols. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The present commentary is based on the following considerations: 1) for the purposes of authorisation, a distinction is drawn between "research" and "intervention". The procedures for authorising the former are more complex, the relevant controls are stricter and approval has to be granted by a Research Ethics Committee (REC); 2) although the debate is still open, it is barely credible to claim that public health surveillance is not a form of research. It should, therefore, be subject to rigorous ethical assessment; 3) when addressing specifically the issue of surveillance, it would be appropriate to shift the focus of attention from the type of procedure (research/intervention) to the risk implied in that procedure; 4) much emphasis has hitherto been placed on the risks that public health surveillance may imply for the protection of personal data; 5) the emphasis on the protection of personal data is frequently excessive and the risks should be examined in a broader context.

  4. The impact of the new public management: Challenges for coordination and cohesion in European public sectors (review essay)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); G. Hammerschmid (Gerhard)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractNew Public Management has been around for a quarter of a century in European public sectors, yet despite the movement’s emphasis on indicators and evidence, there have been surprisingly few encompassing evaluations. In this paper, we provide an overview of academic evaluation and

  5. Improving organizational capacity to address health literacy in public health: a rapid realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, C D; Saul, J E; Bitz, J; Pompu, K; Best, A; Jackson, B

    2014-06-01

    Despite the growing significance of health literacy to public health, relatively little is known about how organizational capacity may be improved for planning, implementing and sustaining health literacy interventions. This study aimed to connect decision makers in a public health agency with evidence of how organizational capacity may be improved for delivering health literacy services. A rapid realist review of published and grey literature was conducted by a partnership between the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) and the InSource Research Group. Realist review methodology attempts to understand what works for whom under what circumstances, and is characterized by its focus on strategies/interventions, contexts, mechanisms and their relationship to outcome. This review was completed in collaboration with a reference panel (comprised of a broad range of PHAC representatives) and an expert panel. Literature searching was conducted using three databases supplemented with bibliographic hand searches and articles recommended by panels. Data were extracted on key variables related to definitions, strategies/interventions associated with increased organizational capacity, contextual factors associated with success (and failure), mechanisms activated as a result of different strategies and contexts, key outcomes, and evidence cited. Strategies found to be associated with improved organizational capacity for delivering health literacy services may be classified into three domains: (1) government action; (2) organizational/practitioner action; and (3) partnership action. Government action includes developing policies to reinforce social norms; setting standards for education; conducting research; and measuring health literacy levels. Organizational/practitioner action relates to appropriate models of leadership (both high-level government engagement and distributed leadership). Innovative partnership action includes collaborations with media outlets, those producing

  6. Mapping the impact of patient and public involvement on health and social care research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jo; Staniszewska, Sophie; Mockford, Carole; Herron-Marx, Sandra; Hughes, John; Tysall, Colin; Suleman, Rashida

    2014-10-01

    There is an increasing international interest in patient and public involvement (PPI) in research, yet relatively little robust evidence exists about its impact on health and social care research. To identify the impact of patient and public involvement on health and social care research. A systematic search of electronic databases and health libraries was undertaken from 1995 to 2009. Data were extracted and quality assessed utilizing the guidelines of the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination 2009 and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Grey literature was assessed using the Dixon-Woods et al. (2005) checklist. All study types that reported the impact PPI had on the health and/or social care research study. A total of 66 studies reporting the impact of PPI on health and social care research were included. The positive impacts identified enhanced the quality and appropriateness of research. Impacts were reported for all stages of research, including the development of user-focused research objectives, development of user-relevant research questions, development of user-friendly information, questionnaires and interview schedules, more appropriate recruitment strategies for studies, consumer-focused interpretation of data and enhanced implementation and dissemination of study results. Some challenging impacts were also identified. This study provides the first international evidence of PPI impact that has emerged at all key stages of the research process. However, much of the evidence base concerning impact remains weak and needs significant enhancement in the next decade. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Politics, Police Accountability, and Public Health: Civilian Review in Newark, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Alecia

    2016-04-01

    Police brutality, a longstanding civil rights issue, has returned to the forefront of American public debate. A growing body of public health research shows that excessive use of force by police and racial profiling have adverse effects on health for African Americans and other marginalized groups. Yet, interventions to monitor unlawful policing have been met with fierce opposition at the federal, state, and local levels. On April 30, 2015, the mayor of Newark, New Jersey signed an executive order establishing a Civilian Complaint Review Board (CCRB) to monitor the Newark Police Department (NPD). Using a mixed-methods approach, this study examined how advocates and government actors accomplished this recent policy change in the face of police opposition and after a 50-year history of unsuccessful attempts in Newark. Drawing on official public documents, news media, and interviews conducted in April and May 2015, I propose that: (1) a Department of Justice investigation of the NPD, (2) the activist background of the Mayor and his relationships with community organizations, and (3) the momentum provided by the national Black Lives Matter movement were pivotal in overcoming political obstacles to reform. Examining the history of CCRB adoption in Newark suggests when and where advocates may intervene to promote policing reforms in other US cities.

  8. A review of the public health impacts of unconventional natural gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, P J; McCoy, D; Goldstein, R; Saunders, A T; Munroe, A

    2016-12-05

    The public health impact of hydraulic fracturing remains a high profile and controversial issue. While there has been a recent surge of published papers, it remains an under-researched area despite being possibly the most substantive change in energy production since the advent of the fossil fuel economy. We review the evidence of effects in five public health domains with a particular focus on the UK: exposure, health, socio-economic, climate change and seismicity. While the latter would seem not to be of significance for the UK, we conclude that serious gaps in our understanding of the other potential impacts persist together with some concerning signals in the literature and legitimate uncertainties derived from first principles. There is a fundamental requirement for high-quality epidemiological research incorporating real exposure measures, improved understanding of methane leakage throughout the process, and a rigorous analysis of the UK social and economic impacts. In the absence of such intelligence, we consider it prudent to incentivise further research and delay any proposed developments in the UK. Recognising the political realities of the planning and permitting process, we make a series of recommendations to protect public health in the event of hydraulic fracturing being approved in the UK.

  9. Reviewing the undergraduate veterinary curriculum in Finland for control tasks in veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maijala, Riitta; Korkeala, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    To review and develop the undergraduate veterinary curriculum on official control in veterinary public health, an electronic survey was sent to 204 Finnish veterinarians employed in the field of food hygiene in 2005. The response rate was 44%. Most frequently cited as strengths of the current curriculum were extensive education and good knowledge. Respondents considered the main challenges in their work to be a wide field of activity, organizational changes, financial resources, organization of substitutes, and collaboration with decision makers. Of the 23 items to be included in the undergraduate curriculum, therefore, respondents prioritized state and local decision making, the role of the public servant, and leadership and management in the area of social factors; in the field of practical control work, in-house control systems, organizations and responsibilities, control techniques, and planning and targeting of controls were prioritized. Of areas traditionally covered in the undergraduate curriculum, legislation; legal proceedings and implications of controls; risks to human, animal, and plant health; and hazards in feed, animal, and food production were stated to be the most important. Although respondents were generally content with their career choice, veterinary public health tasks were not their first choice of career path immediately after graduation. Based on these findings, more attention should be focused on social aspects and practical training in official control in the undergraduate veterinary curriculum. The survey results also highlight the contrasts between society's needs and veterinarians' motivations and career-path expectations, which pose a significant challenge for future curricula.

  10. 78 FR 53183 - Request for Public Comments Regarding the Interim Environmental Review of the Trans-Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... interim environmental review of the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP). The interim... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Request for Public Comments Regarding the Interim Environmental Review of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice of...

  11. 75 FR 6666 - Notice of Public Information Collection Being Submitted for Review and Approval to the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    .... The workshops will add a narrative dimension to the reasons for non-adoption to the statistical... COMMISSION Notice of Public Information Collection Being Submitted for Review and Approval to the Office of... the web page called ''Currently Under Review'', (3) click on the downward- pointing arrow in...

  12. Reviewing Two Types of Addiction - Pathological Gambling and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Jazaeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambling, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, has received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. Gambling disorders affect 0.2-5.3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favorably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioral and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. This article reviews definition, causes and associated features with substance abuse, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches.

  13. A systematic review of global publication trends regarding long-term outcomes of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Paul; Arnold, L Eugene; Shaw, Monica; Caci, Hervé; Kahle, Jennifer; Woods, Alisa G; Young, Susan

    2011-01-01

    There is increased global recognition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a serious medical condition with long-term consequences. Although originally conceived of as a childhood disorder, ADHD is being increasingly recognized in adults. Individual geographic regions may have specific interests and objectives for the study of ADHD. A systematic review of long-term outcomes (LTOs) in ADHD was conducted to evaluate research on ADHD LTOs on a global scale. Studies that were at least 2 years in duration were examined. A total of 351 studies were identified in the final analysis. We identified nine outcomes of interest and classified studies by specific geographical regions, age groups studied and study design by region and over time. Published studies of LTOs in ADHD have increased in all geographical regions over the past three decades, with a peak number of 42 publications in 2008. This rise in publications on ADHD LTOs may reflect a rise in global interest and recognition of consequences and impairment associated with ADHD. Although many world regions have published on ADHD LTOs, the majority of studies have emerged from the US and Canada, followed by Europe. While investigators in the US and Canada were predominantly interested in drug addiction as a LTO, European researchers were more interested in antisocial behavior, and Eastern Asian investigators focused on both of these LTOs as well as self-esteem. Geographical differences in the focus of ADHD LTO studies may reflect regional variations in cultural values. Proportionally fewer prospective longitudinal studies and proportionally more retrospective and cross-sectional studies have been published in more recent decades. Finally, more studies focusing on ADHD in adolescents and adults have been conducted in recent years, and particularly adolescents in Eastern Asia. These changes in basic study design may reflect an increase in the recognition that ADHD is a lifetime chronic disorder. This

  14. Using political science to progress public health nutrition: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullerton, Katherine; Donnet, Timothy; Lee, Amanda; Gallegos, Danielle

    2016-08-01

    Poor dietary intake is the most important behavioural risk factor affecting health globally. Despite this, there has been little investment in public health nutrition policy actions. Policy process theories from the field of political science can aid understanding why policy decisions have occurred and identify how to influence ongoing or future initiatives. The present review aims to examine public health nutrition policy literature and identify whether a policy process theory has been used to analyse the process. Electronic databases were searched systematically for studies examining policy making in public health nutrition in high-income, democratic countries. International, national, state and local government jurisdictions within high-income, democratic countries. Individuals and organisations involved in the nutrition policy-making process. Sixty-three studies met the eligibility criteria, most were conducted in the USA and a majority focused on obesity. The analysis demonstrates an accelerating trend in the number of nutrition policy papers published annually and an increase in the diversity of nutrition topics examined. The use of policy process theory was observed from 2003; however, it was utilised by only 14 % of the reviewed papers. There is limited research into the nutrition policy process in high-income countries. While there has been a small increase in the use of policy process theory from 2003, an opportunity to expand its use is evident. We suggest that nutrition policy making would benefit from a pragmatic approach that ensures those trying to influence or understand the policy-making process are equipped with basic knowledge around these theories.

  15. Consumer demand for surgical innovation: a systematic review of public perception of NOTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucher, Philip H; Sodergren, Mikael H; Lord, Amy C; Teare, Julian; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara

    2015-04-01

    The full scope of benefits offered by NOTES over traditional laparoscopy, if any, is not yet fully clear. Perceived patient demand for truly "scarless surgery" is often referenced one of the driving factors in the continued development of this relatively new technique. The true scale of patient preference and demand for NOTES as a surgical technique is unknown. This review aims to summarise currently available literature on the topic of patient perceptions of NOTES to guide future development of the technique. A comprehensive search of PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases was performed on 1st Jan 2014. To be considered for inclusion, articles were required to assess and report the perception of NOTES in a sample of laypersons (patients or general public). The primary endpoint assessed was acceptance or preference rates expressed by patients for NOTES procedures. Reasons given for preference or rejection of NOTES were recorded, as well as preferred access routes and any predicting factors of NOTES acceptance. Initial search returned 1,334 results, resulting in 15 articles included in final data synthesis. These polled a total of 4,420 subjects. Acceptance of NOTES ranged between 41 and 84 %. Compared to a laparoscopic approach, preference rates for NOTES ranged from 0 to 78 %. Reasons for preferring NOTES were largely centred on potentially reduced recovery time, complications (particularly with reference to hernias) and postoperative pain. Improved cosmesis also played a role, but was secondary to the above issues. Overall, study quality was poor. This review suggests significant public interest in NOTES and scarless surgery in general. Further research and consideration of differences in public perceptions across regions, countries and cultures are required.

  16. A systematic review of the public's knowledge and beliefs about antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, A R; Parekh, S; Rathbone, J; Del Mar, C B; Hoffmann, T C

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically review quantitative and qualitative studies on the public's knowledge and beliefs about antibiotic resistance. We searched four databases to July 2014, with no language or study design restrictions. Two reviewers independently extracted data. We calculated the median (IQR) of the proportion of participants who agreed with each statement and synthesized qualitative data by identifying emergent themes. Of 3537 articles screened, 54 studies (41 quantitative, 3 mixed methods and 10 qualitative) were included (55 225 participants). Most studied adults (50; 93% studies) and were conducted in Europe (23; 43%), Asia (14; 26%) or North America (12; 22%). Some participants [median 70% (IQR 50%-84%); n = 8 studies] had heard of antibiotic resistance, but most [median 88% (IQR 86%-89%); n = 2 studies] believed it referred to changes in the human body. Many believed excessive antibiotic use [median 70% (IQR 59%-77%); n = 11 studies] and not completing antibiotic courses [median 62% (IQR 47%-77%); n = 8 studies] caused resistance. Most participants nominated reducing antibiotic use [median 74% (IQR 72%-85%); n = 4 studies] and discussing antibiotic resistance with their clinician (84%, n = 1 study) as strategies to reduce resistance. Qualitative data supported these findings and additionally identified that: participants believed they were at low risk from antibiotic resistance participants; largely attributed its development to the actions of others; and strategies to minimize resistance should be primarily aimed at clinicians. The public have an incomplete understanding of antibiotic resistance and misperceptions about it and its causes and do not believe they contribute to its development. These data can be used to inform interventions to change the public's beliefs about how they can contribute to tackling this global issue. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  17. Victorian Public Libraries and the Internet: Results and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    This study collected Victorian (Australia) public library and public library user Internet connectivity data that: provides a baseline measure of public library Internet connectivity; describes public library type and level of Internet connectivity; details public library branch Internet connectivity; reviews the costs of public library Internet…

  18. Improving health services in developing countries with new types of public and allied health personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blayney, K D; Trulove, J W

    1982-10-01

    Allied health manpower in developing countries should be able to serve the specific needs of these countries in solving malnutrition, diarrheal disease, and other health problems. Disease patterns tend to evolve in stages with each stage requiring a special type of health manpower: 1) the 1st stage where infectious diseases are linked to poverty, malnutrition, and poor personal hygiene for which personnel trained to improve health through providing safe water supplies, improving sanitation, and immunizing the population are needed; 2) in the 2nd stages, diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and cardiac diseases exist, requiring extensive technology such as is available in the US; and 3) the 3rd stage relates to an awareness of health hazards (caused by the environment, by the lifestyle dysfunctions of the society, and an emphasis on health promotion) and implies a responsibility for one's own health by the individual; this is a difficult stage to apply to developing countries since the ability to bring about change assumes literacy on the part of the population which is not always the case. Since most developing countries need to cause change in the 1st stage, more public health personnel such as sanitarians and generalist workers are needed. Training of these personnel should include on-the-job education; traditionally trained US allied health professionals are not always equipped to deal with health problems in developing countries. Health educators should look to the lessons learned by the US in the allied health movement: 1) the system of control that national membership organizations have over schooling and the job environment has contributed to an increased cost of health care delivery, unnecessary prolonged curricula, overspecialization, extreme protectionism for membership, and inappropriate fractionalization of health care delivery; 2) the emphasis on prolonged curricula sometimes causes the student to lose sight of the supposed direct relationship between

  19. Type 1 diabetes and Ramadan fasting: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan fasting is an important pillars of Islam .although patients and children expected from fasting during Ramadan, but every diabetic adolescents intends to fast should consult his diabetes management time, and intensive monitoring of blood glucose and urine ketones .close observation by endocrinologist, and weekly follow- up and highly individualized planning for each diabetic person is essential. In this Article we described general role that should be considered by type 1 diabetic people if they want to be fast during Ramadan.

  20. Depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus--a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Samreen

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which has been associated with depression. Depression is more common in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as compared to those without. Both micro- and macro vascular diabetic complications are associated with depression and have shown to increase the risk of mood disorder. Further, poor glycemic control in T2DM patients could lead to more complications of diabetes and such patients are more likely to develop depression. More research is needed in this area to determine the exact relationship between depression and T2DM and to unfold the mystery of mechanism behind this.

  1. Exercise therapy and other types of physical therapy for patients with neuromuscular diseases: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cup, E.H.C.; Pieterse, A.J.; Broek-Pastoor, J.M. Ten; Munneke, M.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Hendricks, H.T.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Oostendorp, R.A.B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize and critically appraise the available evidence on exercise therapy and other types of physical therapies for patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMD). DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Medline, CINAHL,

  2. Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V M Montori; A Farmer; P C Wollan; S F Dinneen

    2000-01-01

    Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review. V M Montori , A Farmer , P C Wollan and S F Dinneen Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Olmsted Medical Center, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. Abstract OBJECTIVE...

  3. Missing Citations, Bulking Biographies, and Unethical Collaboration: Types of Cheating among Public Relations Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Giselle A.

    2013-01-01

    Students cheat. For the field of public relations, which continually struggles for credibility, the issue of student cheating should be paramount, as the unethical students of today become tomorrow's practitioners. Through a survey of 170 public relations majors, this study examined the importance students place on the Public Relations Society of…

  4. Missing Citations, Bulking Biographies, and Unethical Collaboration: Types of Cheating among Public Relations Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Giselle A.

    2013-01-01

    Students cheat. For the field of public relations, which continually struggles for credibility, the issue of student cheating should be paramount, as the unethical students of today become tomorrow's practitioners. Through a survey of 170 public relations majors, this study examined the importance students place on the Public Relations Society of…

  5. Exposure to organochlorine pollutants and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengling Tang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Though exposure to organochlorine pollutants (OCPs is considered a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM, epidemiological evidence for the association remains controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis was applied to quantitatively evaluate the association between exposure to OCPs and incidence of T2DM and pool the inconsistent evidence. DESIGN AND METHODS: Publications in English were searched in MEDLINE and WEB OF SCIENCE databases and related reference lists up to August 2013. Quantitative estimates and information regarding study characteristics were extracted from 23 original studies. Quality assessments of external validity, bias, exposure measurement and confounding were performed, and subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the heterogeneity sources. RESULTS: We retrieved 23 eligible articles to conduct this meta-analysis. OR (odds ratio or RR (risk ratio estimates in each subgroup were discussed, and the strong associations were observed in PCB-153 (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.19-1.94, PCBs (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.53-2.99, and p,p'-DDE (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.15-1.54 based on a random-effects model. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis provides quantitative evidence supporting the conclusion that exposure to organochlorine pollutants is associated with an increased risk of incidence of T2DM.

  6. Public libraries, as an infrastructure for a sustainable public sphere: A systematic review of research: A preliminary paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audunson, Ragnar; Svandhild, Aabø,; Blomgren, Roger

    This paper is based on a systematic literature search aiming at identifying research on the role of libraries as institutions underpinning a sustainable public sphere in a digital age. The major research questions are: 1. Is systematic literature search a fruitful method when it comes to a social...... of the major findings are: Research on libraries as public sphere institutions cover a wide range of topics the dominating being freedom of access to information, often related to social inclusion, empowerment and justice. Contributions are often normative and non-empirical, but the proportion of empirically...... based research is increasing. This paper focuses on contributions related to public libraries....

  7. Readiness of ethics review systems for a changing public health landscape in the WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motari, Marion; Ota, Martin Okechukwu; Kirigia, Joses Muthuri

    2015-12-02

    The increasing emphasis on research, development and innovation for health in providing solutions to the high burden of diseases in the African Region has warranted a proliferation of studies including clinical trials. This changing public health landscape requires that countries develop adequate ethics review capacities to protect and minimize risks to study participants. Therefore, this study assessed the readiness of national ethics committees to respond to challenges posed by a globalized biomedical research system which is constantly challenged by new public health threats, rapid scientific and technological advancements affecting biomedical research and development, delivery and manufacture of vaccines and therapies, and health technology transfer. This is a descriptive study, which used a questionnaire structured to elicit information on the existence of relevant national legal frameworks, mechanisms for ethical review; as well as capacity requirements for national ethics committees. The questionnaire was available in English and French and was sent to 41 of the then 46 Member States of the WHO African Region, excluding the five Lusophone Member States. Information was gathered from senior officials in ministries of health, who by virtue of their offices were considered to have expert knowledge of research ethics review systems in their respective countries. Thirty three of the 41 countries (80.5 %) responded. Thirty (90.9 %) of respondent countries had a national ethics review committee (NEC); 79 % of which were established by law. Twenty-five (83.3 %) NECs had secretarial and administrative support. Over 50 % of countries with NECs indicated a need for capacity strengthening through periodic training on international guidelines for health research (including clinical trials) ethics; and allocation of funds for administrative and secretariat support. Despite the existing training initiatives, the Region still experiences a shortage of professionals

  8. Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) with Physicians: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David H.

    This document reviews the research on the use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), with medical students and physicians. The MBTI is a paper-and-pencil instrument based on C. G. Jung's theory of personality typology. The introductory section of the review describes the MBTI and explains its dimensions (extroverted versus introverted, sensing…

  9. Limited evidence for effects of diet for type 2 diabetes from systematic reviews.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, F.A. van de; Akkermans, R.P.; Binsbergen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Systematic reviews are an appraised method to summarize research in a concise and transparent way, and may enable to draw conclusions beyond the sum of results of individual studies. We assessed the results, quality and external validity of systematic reviews on diet in patients with type

  10. An Updated Review of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Clinical, Epidemiological, Environmental, and Public Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Melissa A.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Backer, Lorraine C.; Dickey, Robert W.; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Schrank, Kathleen; Kibler, Steven; Stephan, Wendy; Gribble, Matthew O.; Bienfang, Paul; Bowen, Robert E.; Degrasse, Stacey; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Loeffler, Christopher R.; Weisman, Richard; Blythe, Donna; Berdalet, Elisa; Ayyar, Ram; Clarkson-Townsend, Danielle; Swajian, Karen; Benner, Ronald; Brewer, Tom; Fleming, Lora E.

    2017-01-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients. It updates and expands upon the previous review of CFP published by Friedman et al. (2008) and addresses new insights and relevant emerging global themes such as climate and environmental change, international market issues, and socioeconomic impacts of CFP. It also provides a proposed universal case definition for CFP designed to account for the variability in symptom presentation across different geographic regions. Information that is important but unchanged since the previous review has been reiterated. This article is intended for a broad audience, including resource and fishery managers, commercial and recreational fishers, public health officials, medical professionals, and other interested parties. PMID:28335428

  11. Modelling the economics of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention: a literature review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P; Preston, L; Squires, H; Chilcott, J; Brennan, A

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to review modelling methods for type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention cost-effectiveness studies. The review was conducted to inform the design of a policy analysis model capable of assisting resource allocation decisions across a spectrum of prevention strategies. We identified recent systematic reviews of economic evaluations in diabetes prevention and management of obesity. We extracted studies from two existing systematic reviews of economic evaluations for the prevention of diabetes. We extracted studies evaluating interventions in a non-diabetic population with type 2 diabetes as a modelled outcome, from two systematic reviews of obesity intervention economic evaluations. Databases were searched for studies published between 2008 and 2013. For each study, we reviewed details of the model type, structure, and methods for predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our review identified 46 articles and found variation in modelling approaches for cost-effectiveness evaluations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Investigation of the variables used to estimate the risk of type 2 diabetes suggested that impaired glucose regulation, and body mass index were used as the primary risk factors for type 2 diabetes. A minority of cost-effectiveness models for diabetes prevention accounted for the multivariate impacts of interventions on risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Twenty-eight cost-effectiveness models included cardiovascular events in addition to type 2 diabetes. Few cost-effectiveness models have flexibility to evaluate different intervention types. We conclude that to compare a range of prevention interventions it is necessary to incorporate multiple risk factors for diabetes, diabetes-related complications and obesity-related co-morbidity outcomes.

  12. Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2: A clinical and molecular review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D Gareth R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 is a tumour-prone disorder characterised by the development of multiple schwannomas and meningiomas. Prevalence (initially estimated at 1: 200,000 is around 1 in 60,000. Affected individuals inevitably develop schwannomas, typically affecting both vestibular nerves and leading to hearing loss and deafness. The majority of patients present with hearing loss, which is usually unilateral at onset and may be accompanied or preceded by tinnitus. Vestibular schwannomas may also cause dizziness or imbalance as a first symptom. Nausea, vomiting or true vertigo are rare symptoms, except in late-stage disease. The other main tumours are schwannomas of the other cranial, spinal and peripheral nerves; meningiomas both intracranial (including optic nerve meningiomas and intraspinal, and some low-grade central nervous system malignancies (ependymomas. Ophthalmic features are also prominent and include reduced visual acuity and cataract. About 70% of NF2 patients have skin tumours (intracutaneous plaque-like lesions or more deep-seated subcutaneous nodular tumours. Neurofibromatosis type 2 is a dominantly inherited tumour predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in the NF2 gene on chromosome 22. More than 50% of patients represent new mutations and as many as one-third are mosaic for the underlying disease-causing mutation. Although truncating mutations (nonsense and frameshifts are the most frequent germline event and cause the most severe disease, single and multiple exon deletions are common. A strategy for detection of the latter is vital for a sensitive analysis. Diagnosis is based on clinical and neuroimaging studies. Presymptomatic genetic testing is an integral part of the management of NF2 families. Prenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is possible. The main differential diagnosis of NF2 is schwannomatosis. NF2 represents a difficult management problem with most patients facing substantial

  13. Type 1 diabetes and osteoporosis: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Dhaon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With better care and intensive insulin therapy, microvascular complications have reduced and longevity has increased in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM. Therefore, there is a need to change the focus from microvascular complications to cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Though number of studies from other parts of the world show that patients with T1DM are at increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures, there is a paucity of data from India. A number of factors and mechanisms affecting bone health in patients with T1DM have been proposed. The main defect in genesis of osteoporosis is osteoblastic function, rather than osteoclastic overfunction. Assessment of bone mineral density by dual X-ray absorptiometry and other risk factors for osteoporosis, as a part of diagnostic procedure can help to design tailored treatment plans. A physically active healthy lifestyle, prevention of diabetic complications and adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation are the mainstay for prevention of osteoporosis. Treatment of osteoporosis is not evidence based but it is proposed to be similar to osteoporosis associated with other conditions. Bisphosphonates are the mainstay for treatment of osteoporosis in patients with T1DM. However, more studies are needed to make definitive guidelines on prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with T1DM.

  14. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A: a 25-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iler, M A; King, D R; Ginn-Pease, M E; O'Dorisio, T M; Sotos, J F

    1999-01-01

    Before 1970, treatment decisions for the thyroid lesions in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) were based on physical findings. For the next 20 years, biological markers assumed a preeminent role, and at present, DNA testing is being used to define the need for therapeutic intervention. This report presents a 25-year review of 22 children with MEN-2A, with a mean follow-up of 12.5 years. All 22 children underwent a total thyroidectomy, and four (18%) were rendered permanently hypoparathyroid. Since 1976, however, only one patient (6.7%) has lost parathyroid function. Despite the fact that biological screening studies routinely were performed once a year in the majority of our patients and surgery was recommended for any elevation in the serum calcitonin (CT) levels, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) developed in 17 children (77%) and only five had C cell hyperplasia (CCH). Thirteen of the 17 had macroscopic tumor described by the pathologist, evidence of recurrent disease (MTC-REC) has developed in four children (24%). There was considerable overlap in both the basal and stimulated CT levels among the five children with CCH, the 13 with localized MTC (MTC-NED), and the four who later had recurrent MTC. The basal calcitonin levels were between 25 and 110 (mean, 58) in the CCH patients, 30 to 1,130 (mean, 184) in the MTC-NED group, and 108 to 201 (mean, 140) in those with recurrent MTC. The corresponding stimulated calcitonin levels were 45 to 417 (mean, 179) in CCH, 111 to 9,510 (mean, 1,407) in MTC-NED, and 449 to 5,093 (mean, 3,383) in MTC-REC. (1) Basal and pentagastrin-stimulated CT levels did not reliably discriminate between CCH and MTC and should not be used to define the timing of thyroid surgery in children with MEN-2A. (2) Surgical therapy should be undertaken early in childhood on the basis of molecular genetic testing. (3) Postoperative complications are infrequent in the modern era.

  15. Ethics reporting practices in clinical research publications: A review of four Indian journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh N Belhekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manuscript authors of scientific journals are expected to report if their studies were conducted according to international and national ethical guidelines and inform readers regarding ethics approval and informed consent obtained from participants and/or their legally acceptable representative/s. In the present study we assessed the reporting practices of ethics approval and informed consent (assent in case of pediatric studies in four Indian journals. Materials and Methods: Original research articles published over a period of 4 years (2009-2012 in four major national clinical journals, viz. Journal of Association of Physicians of India (JAPI, Indian Journal of Surgery (IJS, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India (JOGI, and Indian Journal of Orthopedics (IJO were reviewed with regard to documentation of ethics approval and written informed consent and assent in case of pediatric participants. Results: We reviewed 673 research articles and found that, overall ethical approval was mentioned in 163 (24.2% and informed consent or assent was mentioned in 179 (26.5% articles in all four journals. Individually we found, in JAPI of the 174 manuscripts reviewed, 74 (42.5% reported having obtained approval from the ethics committee and 68 (39.1% reported taking written informed consent from participants. In IJS of 123 manuscripts, 18 (14.6% reported ethics committee approval and 20 (16.2% reported informed consent from participants. In JOGI of 152 manuscripts, 21 (13.8% reported ethics committee approval while 49 (32.2% reported informed consent from participants. In IJO, of 224 manuscripts, 50 (22.3% reported ethics committee approval and 42 (18.7% reported obtaining informed consent. Conclusion: Majority of the publications did not provide information regarding compliance to ethical guidelines in spite of the availability of various guidelines. Thus, there is a need for awareness and training on bioethics for authors, reviewers, and

  16. Type, frequency and purpose of information used to inform public health policy and program decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex

    2015-04-15

    There is a growing demand for researchers to document the impact of research to demonstrate how it contributes to community outcomes. In the area of public health it is expected that increases in the use of research to inform policy and program development will lead to improved public health outcomes. To determine whether research has an impact on public health outcomes, we first need to assess to what extent research has been used and how it has been used. However, there are relatively few studies to date that have quantitatively measured the extent and purpose of use of research in public health policy environments. This study sought to quantitatively measure the frequency and purpose of use of research evidence in comparison to use of other information types in a specific public health policy environment, workplace and transport injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation. A survey was developed to measure the type, frequency and purpose of information used to inform policy and program decision-making. Research evidence was the type of information used least frequently and internal data and reports was the information type used most frequently. Findings also revealed differences in use of research between and within the two government public health agencies studied. In particular the main focus of participants' day-to-day role was associated with the type of information used. Research was used mostly for conceptual purposes. Interestingly, research was used for instrumental purposes more often than it was used for symbolic purposes, which is contrary to findings of previous research. These results have implications for the design and implementation of research translation interventions in the context within which the study was undertaken. In particular, they suggest that intervention will need to be targeted to the information needs of the different role groups within an organisation. The results can also be utilised as a baseline measure for intervention

  17. Clinical aspects of type 1 posterior laryngeal clefts: literature review and a report of 31 patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doef, H.P. van der; Yntema, J.L.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den; Marres, H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The clinical relevance of posterior laryngeal clefts (PLCs) of type 1 has only recently been highlighted in the medical literature. We present a review of the literature and a report of a contributive series of 31 type 1 PLC patients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a MEDLINE

  18. Generalized acquired cutis laxa type 1: a case report and brief review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Piyush; Savant, Sushil S; Das, Anupam

    2016-03-16

    Cutis laxa, clinically characterized by loose and pendulous skin related to loss of elastic tissue, is a rare heterogeneous condition. It is classified into congenital and acquired types. We report a case of generalized acquired cutis laxa type 1 in a young man following pruritic urticarial plaques. We have done a brief review of literature.

  19. Rainbow reviews. VII: Recent publications of the National Center for Health Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekel, J F

    1996-07-01

    In this article, selected recent publications of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) are reviewed. In particular, data from a recent NCHS report on hearing loss were found to be consistent with a prediction made in a preview article in this series that there would be an increase in high-tone hearing loss among persons who were exposed to loud music as teenagers and young adults, beginning in the late 1960s, although the data were not specific enough to be considered proof. In addition, the article discusses: (1) recent data on home health care, (2) new insights on how people remember and report on preventive examinations and tests, (3) a comparison of vital statistics in the United States and the Russian Federation, and (4) trends in births to unmarried women.

  20. What types of unintentional injuries kill our children? Do infants die of the same types of injuries? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Honda Imamura

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review mortality from external causes (accidental injury in children and adolescents in systematically selected journals. This was a systematic review of the literature on mortality from accidental injury in children and adolescents. We searched the Pubrvled, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences and Excerpta Medica databases for articles published between July of 2001 and June of 2011. National data from official agencies, retrieved by manual searches, were also reviewed. We reviewed 15 journal articles, the 2011 edition of a National Safety Council publication and 2010 statistical data from the Brazilian National Ministry of Health Mortality Database. Most published data were related to high-income countries. Mortality from accidental injury was highest among children less than 1 year of age. Accidental threats to breathing (non-drowning threats constituted the leading cause of death among this age group in the published articles. Across the pediatric age group in the surveyed studies, traffic accidents were the leading cause of death, followed by accidental drowning and submersion. Traffic accidents constitute the leading external cause of accidental death among children in the countries understudy. However, infants were vulnerable to external causes, particularly to accidental non-drowning threats to breathing, and this age group had the highest mortality rates for external causes. Actions to reduce such events are suggested. Further studies investigating the occurrence of accidental deaths in low-income countries are needed to improve the understanding of these preventable events.

  1. Management of osteogenesis imperfecta type I in pregnancy; a review of literature applied to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Mauro; Perelli, Federica; Maggio, Luana; Coccia, Maria Elisabetta; Quaranta, Michela; Gizzo, Salvatore; Mecacci, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare heritable heterogenous disorder characterized by bone fragility and susceptibility to fractures with a wide spectrum of clinical expression due to defects in collagen type I biosynthesis. The purpose of the review is to highlight the practical norms in pregnancies with osteogenesis imperfecta. We carried out a literature review in MEDLINE on OI during pregnancy, focusing on diagnosis, therapy and delivery. We reviewed 28 articles (case reports, original articles and reviews). Pregnant women affected by type I OI should be closely monitored to assess fetal well-being and detect pregnancy-related complications associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis, restrictive pulmonary disease, cephalopelvic disproportion and other problems related to connective tissue disorders. Mode of delivery remains controversial and should be determined on an individual basis. In conclusion, women affected by type I OI represent a subset of patients whose pregnancies should be considered high risk and warrant a multidisciplinary approach in a referral center.

  2. What is the evidence base for public involvement in health-care policy?: results of a systematic scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn; Morris, Zoë; Nolte, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Public involvement in health-care policy has been advocated as a means to enhance health system responsiveness, yet evidence for its impact has been difficult to ascertain. To review the peer-reviewed empirical evidence on outcomes of public involvement in health-care policy. We systematically searched PsychINFO and PubMed from November 2000 to April 2010 for empirical studies that reported on original research only; studies in languages other than English, German or French were excluded. Data were extracted using a standardized evidence table with a priori determined headings. Nineteen studies were identified as eligible for inclusion in our review. We found that sound empirical evidence of the outcomes of public involvement activities in health care remains underdeveloped. The concept and the indicators used to examine and determine outcomes remain poorly specified and inconsistent, as does the reporting of the evidence. There was some evidence for the developmental role of public involvement, such as enhancing awareness, understanding and competencies among lay participants. Evidence for instrumental benefits of public involvement initiatives was less well documented. Despite the growing body of work on public involvement in health-care policy, evidence of its impact remains scarce; thus, firm conclusions about involvement activities that are appropriate and effective for policy development are difficult to draw. However, focus on outcomes risks missing the normative argument that involving the public in the health-care policy process may be seen to be of intrinsic value. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A preliminary investigation of user perception and behavioral intention for different review types: customers and designers perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Waheed, Mehwish; Waheed, Mahwish; Khan, Saif Ur Rehman; Abraham, Ajith

    2014-01-01

    Existing opinion mining studies have focused on and explored only two types of reviews, that is, regular and comparative. There is a visible gap in determining the useful review types from customers and designers perspective. Based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and statistical measures we examine users' perception about different review types and its effects in terms of behavioral intention towards using online review system. By using sample of users (N = 400) and designers (N = 106), current research work studies three review types, A (regular), B (comparative), and C (suggestive), which are related to perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavioral intention. The study reveals that positive perception of the use of suggestive reviews improves users' decision making in business intelligence. The results also depict that type C (suggestive reviews) could be considered a new useful review type in addition to other types, A and B.

  4. A systematic review of long-term outcomes in ADHD: global publication trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eHodgkins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increased global recognition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD as a serious medical condition with long-term consequences. Although originally conceived of as a childhood disorder, ADHD is being increasingly recognized in adults. Individual geographic regions may have specific interests and objectives for the study of ADHD. A systematic review of long-term outcomes (LTOs in ADHD was conducted to evaluate research on ADHD LTOs on a global scale. Studies that were at least two years in duration were examined. We identified nine outcomes of interest and classified studies by specific geographical regions, age groups studied and study design by region and over time. Published studies of LTOs in ADHD have increased in all geographical regions over the past three decades, with a peak number of publications in 2008. Although many world regions have published on ADHD LTOs, the majority of studies have emerged from the US and Canada, followed by Europe. While investigators in the US and Canada were predominantly interested in drug addiction as a LTO, European researchers were more interested in antisocial behavior, and Eastern Asian investigators focused on both of these LTOs as well as self-esteem. Proportionally fewer prospective longitudinal studies and proportionally more retrospective and cross-sectional studies have been published in more recent decades. Finally, more studies focusing on ADHD in adolescents and adults have been conducted in recent years, and particularly adolescents in Eastern Asia. This systematic review analysis of publication trends in ADHD LTOs reflects geographically-based interests that change over time.

  5. Green perspectives for public health: a narrative review on the physiological effects of experiencing outdoor nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Schönbauer, Regina; Cervinka, Renate

    2014-05-19

    Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological stress reactions, was

  6. Barriers to Remote Health Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Proposed Classification Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Hye-Chung; Gonzalez Coronado, Karla; Foster, Margaret J; Ortega, Pearl; Lawley, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management involves adherence to healthy daily habits typically involving blood glucose monitoring, medication, exercise, and diet. To support self-management, some providers have begun testing remote interventions for monitoring and assisting patients between clinic visits. Although some studies have shown success, there are barriers to widespread adoption. Objective The objective of our study was to identify and classify barriers to adoption of remote health for management of type 2 diabetes. Methods The following 6 electronic databases were searched for articles published from 2010 to 2015: MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), CINAHL, Cochrane Central, Northern Light Life Sciences Conference Abstracts, and Scopus (Elsevier). The search identified studies involving remote technologies for type 2 diabetes self-management. Reviewers worked in teams of 2 to review and extract data from identified papers. Information collected included study characteristics, outcomes, dropout rates, technologies used, and barriers identified. Results A total of 53 publications on 41 studies met the specified criteria. Lack of data accuracy due to input bias (32%, 13/41), limitations on scalability (24%, 10/41), and technology illiteracy (24%, 10/41) were the most commonly cited barriers. Technology illiteracy was most prominent in low-income populations, whereas limitations on scalability were more prominent in mid-income populations. Barriers identified were applied to a conceptual model of successful remote health, which includes patient engagement, patient technology accessibility, quality of care, system technology cost, and provider productivity. In total, 40.5% (60/148) of identified barrier instances impeded patient engagement, which is manifest in the large dropout rates cited (up to 57%). Conclusions The barriers identified represent major challenges in the design of remote health interventions for diabetes. Breakthrough technologies and systems are needed

  7. Risk Allocation in Public Private Partnership (PPP Project: A Review on Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Alkaf Abd Karim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important for the public and private sectors to establish effective risk allocation strategies for Public-Private Partnership (PPP projects. According to Malaysia’s PPP Guideline, one of the key feature or characteristics is to optimal sharing of risk whereby risk is allocated to the party who is the best able to manage. This mean that in PPP itself, it emphasis risk allocation in construction project. This paper presents on reviewing the risk factors of PPP construction project by mapping previous research works on PPP project around the world. The matrix of the mapping gives the frequency of factors that are considered the risk allocation of PPP project. The risk factors are clustered into 10 groups namely: Political, Construction, Legal, Economic, Operation, Market, Project selection, Project finance, Relationship and Natural factor. Result shows that the highest score frequency factors are change in law, delay in project approvals & permits and land acquisition. By knowing the risk factors gives better understanding in allocating them to parties/stakeholders involved.

  8. Systematic Review and Quality Appraisal of Economic Evaluation Publications in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmukayakul, U; Calache, H; Clark, R; Wasiak, J; Faggion, C M

    2015-10-01

    Economic evaluation (EE) studies have been undertaken in dentistry since the late 20th century because economic data provide additional information to policy makers to develop guidelines and set future direction for oral health services. The objectives of this study were to assess the methodological quality of EEs in oral health. Electronic searching of Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database from 1975 to 2013 were undertaken to identify publications that include costs and outcomes in dentistry. Relevant reference lists were also searched for additional studies. Studies were retrieved and reviewed independently for inclusion by 3 authors. Furthermore, to appraise the EE methods, 1 author applied the Drummond 10-item (13-criteria) checklist tool to each study. Of the 114 publications identified, 79 studies were considered full EE and 35 partial. Twenty-eight studies (30%) were published between the years 2011 and 2013. Sixty-four (53%) studies focused on dental caries prevention or treatment. Median appraisal scores calculated for full and partial EE studies were 11 and 9 out of 13, respectively. Quality assessment scores showed that the quality of partial EE studies published after 2000 significantly improved (P = 0.02) compared to those published before 2000. Significant quality improvement was not found in full EE studies. Common methodological limitations were identified: absence of sensitivity analysis, discounting, and insufficient information on how costs and outcomes were measured and valued. EE studies in dentistry increased over the last 40 y in both quantity and quality, but a number of publications failed to satisfy some components of standard EE research methods, such as sensitivity analysis and discounting.

  9. A Systematic Review of the Direct Economic Burden of Type 2 Diabetes in China

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is associated with acute and chronic complications and poses a large economic, social, and medical burden on patients and their families as well as society. Objective This study aims to evaluate the direct economic burden of type 2 diabetes in China. Data source: systematic review on cost of illness, health care costs, direct service costs, drug costs, and health expenditures in relation to type 2 diabetes was conducted up to 2014 using databases such as Pubmed; EBS...

  10. Systematic reviews on reports of hip fractures in Web of Science:a bibliometric analysis of publication activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Zhi; Wang Guoqi; Mei Xifan; Chen Shuo; Liu Xiaoxie; Zeng Xiantao; Long Anhua

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to analyze the trend in the publication of systematic reviews on hip fractures through a bibliometric approach.Methods Literature including systematic reviews or meta-analyses on hip fractures was searched from the ISI Web of Science citation database.The search results were analyzed in terms of geographical authorship and frequency of citation by country,institution,author,and periodical distribution.Results A total of 654 published systematic reviews from 1995 to 2013 in 48 countries or regions were retrieved.The United States (171) was the predominant country in terms of the number of total publications,followed by the United Kingdom (149),Canada (120),Australia (76),and China (54).The number of systematic reviews significantly increased during the last 6 years,especially in China.The production ranking changed in 2012,at which time the United States and China were the leaders in the yearly production of systematic reviews on hip fractures.The amount of literature (27 publications) from China contributed almost one-quarter of the total literature (109 publications) in 2012.However,the average number of citations of each article from China was still low (6.70),while the highest number of citations of each article was from Sweden (193.36).The references were published in 239 different journals,with 15 journals contributing to 41.3% of the systematic reviews on hip fractures.The two journals that contributed the most were Osteoporosis International (10.6%) and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7.6%).The predominant institution in terms of the number of publications was McMaster University (36) in Canada.Conclusions The best evidence in the field of hip fractures has attracted increasing attention.Systematic reviews on hip fractures from China have been increasingly more frequent during the past 6 years,particularly in 2012.

  11. Just telling and selling: current limitations in the use of digital media in public health: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clar, C; Dyakova, M; Curtis, K; Dawson, C; Donnelly, P; Knifton, L; Clarke, A

    2014-12-01

    To undertake a scoping review and to map research in the area of digital media use in public health. Scoping review. PubMed, PsycINFO, Google and major textbooks of public health communication and health psychology were searched for primary studies or systematic reviews examining the use of digital media in a health context. Searches focussed on studies published between the start of 2000 and the end of June 2013. Abstracts of reviews of public health interventions were examined with respect to target groups, health topic, intervention characteristics, media used, study design, issues of quality and ethics, and outcomes. To map this area of work fully, this information was supplemented by adding information from primary studies. Areas were identified where systematic review evidence was scarce or non-existent by comparing the final map with information from the reviews analysed. 221 systematic reviews related to digital media use in a public health context were included. Most reviews included studies with an experimental design and general 'at risk' target populations. Specific settings were not specified in the majority of reviews. A large variety of health topics were covered. About a quarter of reviews did not specify a health topic but were concerned with broader issues of health promotion, disease prevention, or health education. Over half of the reviews focussed on eHealth and telemedicine, and another third were concerned with mass media - social marketing. Reviews most frequently reported behaviour-related outcomes or conducted some form of content analysis or analysis of the use of particular media. Research gaps were identified relating to community-based research, participation and empowerment, active media use (especially with respect to visual media und use of specific visual methodologies), and the use of salutogenic or assets-based approaches. The available research relating to digital media use in public health is dominated by studies relating to e

  12. A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis; González-López, Miguel

    2016-10-05

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is undeniably transforming the way that organizations communicate and organize everyday businesses and industrial procedures. Its adoption has proven well suited for sectors that manage a large number of assets and coordinate complex and distributed processes. This survey analyzes the great potential for applying IoT technologies (i.e., data-driven applications or embedded automation and intelligent adaptive systems) to revolutionize modern warfare and provide benefits similar to those in industry. It identifies scenarios where Defense and Public Safety (PS) could leverage better commercial IoT capabilities to deliver greater survivability to the warfighter or first responders, while reducing costs and increasing operation efficiency and effectiveness. This article reviews the main tactical requirements and the architecture, examining gaps and shortcomings in existing IoT systems across the military field and mission-critical scenarios. The review characterizes the open challenges for a broad deployment and presents a research roadmap for enabling an affordable IoT for defense and PS.

  13. A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fraga-Lamas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is undeniably transforming the way that organizations communicate and organize everyday businesses and industrial procedures. Its adoption has proven well suited for sectors that manage a large number of assets and coordinate complex and distributed processes. This survey analyzes the great potential for applying IoT technologies (i.e., data-driven applications or embedded automation and intelligent adaptive systems to revolutionize modern warfare and provide benefits similar to those in industry. It identifies scenarios where Defense and Public Safety (PS could leverage better commercial IoT capabilities to deliver greater survivability to the warfighter or first responders, while reducing costs and increasing operation efficiency and effectiveness. This article reviews the main tactical requirements and the architecture, examining gaps and shortcomings in existing IoT systems across the military field and mission-critical scenarios. The review characterizes the open challenges for a broad deployment and presents a research roadmap for enabling an affordable IoT for defense and PS.

  14. A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis; González-López, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is undeniably transforming the way that organizations communicate and organize everyday businesses and industrial procedures. Its adoption has proven well suited for sectors that manage a large number of assets and coordinate complex and distributed processes. This survey analyzes the great potential for applying IoT technologies (i.e., data-driven applications or embedded automation and intelligent adaptive systems) to revolutionize modern warfare and provide benefits similar to those in industry. It identifies scenarios where Defense and Public Safety (PS) could leverage better commercial IoT capabilities to deliver greater survivability to the warfighter or first responders, while reducing costs and increasing operation efficiency and effectiveness. This article reviews the main tactical requirements and the architecture, examining gaps and shortcomings in existing IoT systems across the military field and mission-critical scenarios. The review characterizes the open challenges for a broad deployment and presents a research roadmap for enabling an affordable IoT for defense and PS. PMID:27782052

  15. The efficacy of Chinese medicine for SARS: a review of Chinese publications after the crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ping-Chung

    2007-01-01

    During the SARS crisis in China, 40-60% infected patients, at some stages of their treatment, received Chinese medicine treatment on top of the standard modern medicine treatment. This practice was endorsed and encouraged by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and some details of the herbal treatment were recommended. A review of the publications during and after the SARS crisis enabled us to get an objective view of the true value of the adjuvant therapy using Chinese medicinal herbs. Of the 130 articles searched, 90 were of reasonable quality and contained sufficient information for the enlightenment of the situation. These were reviewed. The results revealed positive but inconclusive indications about the efficacy of the combined treatments using Chinese medicine as an adjuvant. Positive effects using adjuvant herbal therapy included better control of fever, quicker clearance of chest infection, lesser consumption of steroids and other symptoms relief. In a few reports, some evidences of immunological boosterings were also found. More caution is required on the allegation about the efficacy of herbal medicine for the treatment or prevention of viral infection affecting the respiratory tract, while more clinical studies are indicated.

  16. An Internal Audit of Diabetes Care for Type 2 Diabetic Patients in a Public Hospital Diabetes Clinic in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieng, Yung Chun

    2017-03-01

    Earlier studies have identified a gap between guidelines and actual clinical diabetes care in Malaysia. We audited the quality of care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) attending our diabetes clinic at a public hospital. A structured review of the outpatient clinic cards, prescriptions and laboratory results was conducted for patients attending the diabetes clinic at Sibu Hospital in October and November 2014. For the total of 233 patients who were audited, the levels of fasting blood sugar, blood pressure, body mass index and fasting lipid profile were satisfactory at 99.1%, 99.6%, 92.6% and 99.6% respectively. 79.7% of the subjects had had HbA1c performed at least once over the previous six months. Only 25.8% had annual foot screening, while the eye screening rate was 71.2% and the albuminuria screening rate was 93.6%. For outcome measures, the mean (SD) HbA1c level was 9.2% (1.91%), with 13 patients (6.7%) having HbA1c less than 6.5%; 36.4% of participants achieved BP < 130/80 mmHg; and 69.4% had LDL < 2.6 mmol/L. The majority of the patients were overweight or obese (91.4%). Overall, the performance of diabetic care processes at our hospital was satisfactory, except for foot examination. The glycaemic and weight control among the subjects were suboptimal and warrant an optimised and comprehensive approach on the part of the management.

  17. An Analysis of Future Publications, Career Choices, and Practice Characteristics of Research Presenters at an American College of Surgeons State Conference: A 15-Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Humera F; Jarman, Benjamin T; Kallies, Kara J; Shapiro, Stephen B

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires scholarly activity within general surgery residency programs. The association between in-training research presentations and postgraduation publications is unknown. We hypothesized that surgical trainee presentations at an American College of Surgeons (ACS) state chapter meeting resulted in peer-reviewed publications and future scholarly activity. The ACS Wisconsin state chapter meeting agendas from 2000 to 2014 were reviewed to identify all trainees who delivered podium presentations. A literature search was completed for subsequent publications. Program coordinators were queried and an electronic search was performed to determine practice location and type for each residency graduate. Wisconsin state chapter ACS meeting. General surgery residents, fellows, and medical students in Wisconsin. There were 288 podium presentations by trainees (76% residents, 20% medical students, and 4% fellows). Presentations were clinical (79.5%) and basic science (20.5%). There were 204 unique presenters; 25% presented at subsequent meetings. Of these unique presenters, 46% published their research and 31% published additional research after residency. Among presenters who completed residency or fellowship (N = 119), 34% practiced in a university setting, and 61% practiced in a community setting; 31% practiced in Wisconsin. When comparing clinical vs basic science presenters, there was no difference in fellowship completion (37% vs 44%; p = 0.190) or practice type (38% vs 46% in a university setting; p = 0.397). Repeat presenters were more likely to pursue a fellowship vs those presenting once (76% vs 37%; p = 0.001). Research presentations by surgical trainees at an ACS state chapter meeting frequently led to peer-reviewed publications. Presenters were likely to pursue research opportunities after residency. Repeat presenters were more likely to pursue a fellowship. ACS Wisconsin chapter meetings provide an

  18. The peer-reviewed literature on undergraduate education for public health in the United States, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evashwick, Connie J; Tao, Donghua; Arnold, Lauren D

    2014-01-01

    The education of undergraduate college students in the field of public health has burgeoned over the past decade. Professional literature in peer-reviewed journals is one indicator of the status of a field of study and its related body of knowledge. It is also a mechanism for sharing information among professionals about challenges, issues, experiences, and best practices. The purpose of the literature review conducted here was to describe the status of the peer-reviewed literature over the past decade pertaining to the education of undergraduates about the field of public health in the United States (U.S.). A literature search was conducted of three databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ERIC. Inclusion criteria were publication date from January 1, 2004 through July 31, 2014; written in the English language; pertaining to undergraduate education in the U.S.; and a focus on public health as the primary discipline. Public health was searched as an overarching discipline; articles focused on sub-disciplines or other health professions disciplines were excluded. The search resulted in 158 articles. Each of the authors reviewed the abstracts for all articles and read full articles when necessary. The result was 23 articles that were then considered in depth. The articles were categorized according to their primary theme: curriculum, courses, learning objectives (N = 14); evaluation of teaching method (N = 3); case study (N = 3); career path and advising (N = 2); accreditation (N = 1). Year of publication and journal were also examined. The results of the literature search lead to several observations about how the peer-reviewed literature has been used to date and how it could be used to advance the emerging field of undergraduate education for public health.

  19. The Peer Reviewed Literature on Undergraduate Education for Public Health in the United States, 2004-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie J Evashwick

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The education of undergraduate college students in the field of public health has burgeoned over the past decade. Professional literature in peer-reviewed journals is one indicator of the status of a field of study and its related body of knowledge. It is also a mechanism for sharing information among professionals about challenges, issues, experiences and best practices.The purpose of the literature review conducted here was to describe the status of the peer reviewed literature over the past decade pertaining to the education of undergraduates about the field of public health in the U.S.A literature search was conducted of three data bases: PubMed, Scopus and ERIC. Inclusion criteria were publication date from January 1, 2004 through July 31, 2014; written in the English language; pertaining to undergraduate education in the U.S.; and a focus on public health as the primary discipline. Public health was searched as an overarching discipline; articles focused on sub-disciplines or other health professions disciplines were excluded.The search resulted in 158 articles. Each of the authors reviewed the abstracts for all articles and read full articles when necessary. The result was 23 articles that were then considered in depth. The articles were categorized according to their primary theme: curriculum, courses, learning objectives (N=14; evaluation of teaching method (N=3; case study (N=3; career path and advising (N=2; accreditation (N=1. Year of publication and journal were also examined.The results of the literature search lead to several observations about how the peer reviewed literature has been used to date and how it could be used to advance the emerging field of undergraduate education for public health.

  20. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-11-05

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types--always far higher within the arc--but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Solitonic-type excitations in laser-condensed matter interaction: additional proof by independent publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudriavtsev, Eugene M.

    2000-08-01

    The goal of this report is to discuss (in addition to review) the independent literature works which come to our attention in 2 last years with experimental or theoretical proofs the existence of the solitonic type Wave of Change in Reflection and Conduction (WCRC). WCRC presents a new variety of transfer phenomena in condensed matter. It was excited by a single IR laser pulse with a threshold of more than 10 kW/cm2 and consists of a series of about 30 solitary pulses with propagation velocity of each subsequent pulse decreasing two times comparing with that of preceding one in the range from sound velocity to less than about micron/s. Each pulse has the following solitary wave features: (1) it is all the time of one sign, (2) its velocity Ui is nearly constant, (3) it reflects from sample surfaces without noticeable velocity change. So far the systematic WCRC study was made in Lebedev Physical Institute, grate deal in collaboration with group of Marseilles University (prof. M. Autric) and also with some others groups. Literature analysis showed independent works where WCRC can be seen and which was made in different institutions with different own goals in mind. As example, work on optical monitoring of laser damage in IR materials or thermocouple measurements of temperature non stability in water cooled copper shield stopped the high power e-beam, etc. We will discuss also some details of theoretical work connected with development of Frenkel-Kontorova (1937) topological soliton model. WCRC is rather universal phenomenon, it appears in many laser-condensed matter interactions and so it should be studied for the WCRC mechanism understanding and its effect evaluation for different applications.

  2. [A review on the advancement of internet-based public health surveillance program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y Q; Ma, W J

    2017-02-10

    Internet data is introduced into public health arena under the features of fast updating and tremendous volume. Mining and analyzing internet data, researchers can model the internet-based surveillance system to assess the distribution of health-related events. There are two main types of internet-based surveillance systems, i.e. active and passive, which are distinguished by the sources of information. Through passive surveillance system, information is collected from search engine and social media while the active system gathers information through provision of the volunteers. Except for serving as a real-time and convenient complementary approach to traditional disease, food safety and adverse drug reaction surveillance program, Internet-based surveillance system can also play a role in health-related behavior surveillance and policy evaluation. Although several techniques have been applied to filter information, the accuracy of internet-based surveillance system is still bothered by the false positive information. In this article, we have summarized the development and application of internet-based surveillance system in public health to provide reference for a better surveillance program in China.

  3. 网络舆情研究综述%Review of the Research on Network Public Opinions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林源

    2015-01-01

    Facing the new situation of that the public opinion carrier has been shifting from the traditional media to the Internet, this paper reviews the network public opinion research in China from two aspects of the basic theories of the network public opinion and the main technologies of the network public opinion research, and analyzes the current status of the network public opinion research in China.%面对舆情载体已从传统媒体向互联网转移的新形势,从网络舆情基本理论、网络舆情研究的主要技术两个方面对我国网络舆情研究进行了梳理,并对国内网络舆情研究现状进行了分析.

  4. Botulinum toxin type A products are not interchangeable: a review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brin MF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitchell F Brin,1,2 Charmaine James,3 John Maltman1 1Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; 2Department of Neurology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Allergan, Marlow, UKAbstract: Botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA products are injectable biologic medications derived from Clostridium botulinum bacteria. Several different BoNTA products are marketed in various countries, and they are not interchangeable. Differences between products include manufacturing processes, formulations, and the assay methods used to determine units of biological activity. These differences result in a specific set of interactions between each BoNTA product and the tissue injected. Consequently, the products show differences in their in vivo profiles, including preclinical dose response curves and clinical dosing, efficacy, duration, and safety/adverse events. Most, but not all, published studies document these differences, suggesting that individual BoNTA products act differently depending on experimental and clinical conditions, and these differences may not always be predictable. Differentiation through regulatory approvals provides a measure of confidence in safety and efficacy at the specified doses for each approved indication. Moreover, the products differ in the amount of study to which they have been subjected, as evidenced by the number of publications in the peer-reviewed literature and the quantity and quality of clinical studies. Given that BoNTAs are potent biological products that meet important clinical needs, it is critical to recognize that their dosing and product performance are not interchangeable and each product should be used according to manufacturer guidelines.Keywords: onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA, incobotulinumtoxinA, glabellar lines, non-interchangeability

  5. Models of Particle Physics from Type IIB String Theory and F-theory: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Maharana, Anshuman

    2012-01-01

    We review particle physics model building in type IIB string theory and F-theory. This is a region in the landscape where in principle many of the key ingredients required for a realistic model of particle physics can be combined successfully. We begin by reviewing moduli stabilisation within this framework and its implications for supersymmetry breaking. We then review model building tools and developments in the weakly coupled type IIB limit, for both local D3-branes at singularities and global models of intersecting D7-branes. Much of recent model building work has been in the strongly coupled regime of F-theory due to the presence of exceptional symmetries which allow for the construction of phenomenologically appealing Grand Unified Theories. We review both local and global F-theory model building starting from the fundamental concepts and tools regarding how the gauge group, matter sector and operators arise, and ranging to detailed phenomenological properties explored in the literature.

  6. Review on the Evaluation System of Public Safety Carrying Capacity about Small Town Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Tianyu; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Recently,small town community public safety problem has been increasingly highlighted,but its research is short on public safety carrying capacity. Through the investigation and study of community public safety carrying capacity,this paper analyzes the problem of community public safety in our country,to construct index evaluation system of public safety carrying capacity in small town community. DEA method is used to evaluate public safety carrying capacity in small town community,to provide scientific basis for the design of support and standardization theory about small town community in public safety planning.

  7. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy from the perspective of public health and maternal health care: review and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Markov Garnizov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present mini-review attempts to analyse the incidence, microbial agents and complications of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnancy. Although there are regional differences in the incidence and microflora involved in ASB in different countries and geographical areas, the prevalence of ASB in pregnant women is generally high and its complications aggravate pregnancy outcomes and exacerbate maternal and foetal morbidity. This makes ASB in pregnancy particularly important from a public health perspective, suggesting that all pregnant women should be subject to routine ASB testing. Another aspect that is highlighted here is the need for general consensus guidelines for treatment of ASB in pregnancy: recommended duration of treatment, types of antibiotics suitable for use in pregnancy, adverse side effects, both maternal and foetal. Finally, this paper describes a case of ASB in a pregnant woman, with Klebsiella pneumoniae identified as the causative agent. The pregnant woman had typical ASB-associated complications combined with an atypical symptom: urinary retention in early postpartum period, which, to the best of our knowledge, is described here for the first time.

  8. A review of measurements of radionuclides in members of the public in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, S A; Ham, G J; Youngman, M J; Etherington, G; Stradling, G N

    2004-12-01

    This paper summarises a comprehensive review of radio-analytical data from autopsy, whole or partial body monitoring and the assay of teeth, foetuses and urine for non-occupationally exposed members of the public in the UK between 1957 and 2003. Most attention has been given to measurements of artificial radionuclides formed in the nuclear fuel cycle, uranium and thorium. The review concentrates on measurements on people in the UK who live or have lived in the vicinity of nuclear power sites. When UK data are unavailable, or for the purposes of comparison, information has been included from studies in other countries. Highlights of key findings of the document are listed: The concentrations of strontium-90 in bone and teeth have reflected changes in the amounts present in the environment due to fallout from nuclear testing. There are higher concentration levels of 239+240Pu in samples from West Cumbria compared with the rest of the UK. However, the levels are so low that any increase in risk of induced skeletal tumours (including leukaemia) would be very small compared with those arising from the intake of natural radionuclides. As expected there have been only a few published autopsy studies. Both tissue sample mass and radionuclide concentrations were low, leading to relatively large measurement uncertainties. Whole body measurements of 137Cs in residents in Berkshire and Oxfordshire clearly show the effect of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons and of the Chernobyl accident. A survey of whole body 137Cs and 134Cs content following the Chernobyl accident showed that residents of Central Scotland, North-West England and North Wales had twice the radiocaesium content of residents in the rest of England and Wales. Measurements of 131I in the thyroid have been reported following the accidents at Windscale and Chernobyl for most regions of the UK. Few excretion studies have been reported although this does not diminish their importance. One study on the urinary

  9. Hormones in Dairy Foods and Their Impact on Public Health- A Narrative Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MALEKINEJAD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of hormones in milk and dairy foods was discussed decades ago but rather more concerns attended to that with respect to finding hormones as biomarkers in milk for diseases and pregnancy diagnosis. Moreo-ver, considerable amount of studies demonstrated that existing of hormones in humans and animals milk are essential for infants growing and immunity. During the last couple of years, increasing body of evidence are indicating another property of hormones in dairy products as possible impact on human health including the role of some estrogens and insulin-like growth factor-1 in initiation and provoking of breast, prostate and endometrial tumours.Methods: Data was gathered from the published articles in database such as MEDLINE, science direct, Google scholar and web of science. We put no limitation on date of published date. Moreover, our own published and con-ducted methods and results also are presented. In this review we concentrated on several aspects of presence of hor-mones in dairy foods with especial emphasize on cow’s milk as a major source of consuming milk for humans espe-cially for children.Results: The collected data from other researchers and our own data are indicating that the presence of steroid hor-mones in dairy products could be counted as an important risk factor for various cancers in humans.Conclusion: Our gathered data in this review paper may suggest more sophisticate analytical detection methods for oestrogens determination and also could be considered as a remarkable concern for consumers, producers and public health authorities.

  10. Types of study in medical research: part 3 of a series on evaluation of scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Bernd; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Wachtlin, Daniel; Blettner, Maria

    2009-04-01

    The choice of study type is an important aspect of the design of medical studies. The study design and consequent study type are major determinants of a study's scientific quality and clinical value. This article describes the structured classification of studies into two types, primary and secondary, as well as a further subclassification of studies of primary type. This is done on the basis of a selective literature search concerning study types in medical research, in addition to the authors' own experience. Three main areas of medical research can be distinguished by study type: basic (experimental), clinical, and epidemiological research. Furthermore, clinical and epidemiological studies can be further subclassified as either interventional or noninterventional. The study type that can best answer the particular research question at hand must be determined not only on a purely scientific basis, but also in view of the available financial resources, staffing, and practical feasibility (organization, medical prerequisites, number of patients, etc.).

  11. Incretin-based medications for type 2 diabetes: an overview of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, J-M; Clarke, A; Myers, K J; Agnew, M D; Hatch, K; Snow, M M; Davis, E M

    2015-07-01

    To summarize evidence from and assess the quality of published systematic reviews evaluating the safety, efficacy and effectiveness of incretin-based medications used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We identified systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials or observational studies published in any language that evaluated the safety and/or effectiveness of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists or dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. Data sources used include the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, table of contents of diabetes journals, and hand-searching of reference lists and clinical practice guidelines. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was independently assessed by two reviewers using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist. Our study protocol was registered with PROSPERO (2013:CRD42013005149). The primary outcomes were pooled treatment effect estimates for glycaemic control, macrovascular and microvascular complications, and hypoglycaemic events. We identified 467 unique citations of which 84 systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria. There were 51 reviews that evaluated GLP-1 receptor agonists and 64 reviews that evaluated DPP-4 inhibitors. The median (interquartile range) AMSTAR score was 6 (3) out of 11 for quantitative and 1 (1) for non-quantitative reviews. Among the 66 quantitative systematic reviews, there were a total of 718 pooled treatment effect estimates reported for our primary outcomes and 1012 reported pooled treatment effect estimates for secondary outcomes. Clinicians and policy makers, when using the results of systematic reviews to inform decision-making with regard to round clinical care or healthcare policies for incretin-based medications, should consider the variability in quality of reviews. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. 75 FR 74049 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Submitted for Review and Approval to the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ..., including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology; and (e) ways.... Further, this information will assist the Commission in preventing companies from circumventing the... COMMISSION Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Submitted for Review and Approval to the...

  13. 77 FR 73657 - Public Buildings Service; Submission for OMB Review; Art-in-Architecture Program National Artist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Architect, Art-in-Architecture & Fine Arts Division (PCAC), 1800 F Street NW., Room 3305, Washington, DC...; Sequence 16] Public Buildings Service; Submission for OMB Review; Art-in- Architecture Program National... requirement regarding Art-in Architecture Program National Artist Registry (GSA Form 7437). A notice was...

  14. The More You Know: The Impact of Publication and Peer-Review Experience on Psychology Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Jennifer M.; Somerville, William; Harlem-Siegel, Jessica; Steele, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The New School Psychology Bulletin (NSPB) is a peer-reviewed journal operated by clinical psychology graduate students. Forty-four members of the editorial board and 27 authors were surveyed before and after working with NSPB. Results of the survey demonstrated that experience with the publication process resulted in quantitative decreases in…

  15. "Counselor Education and Supervision" Golden Anniversary Publication Pattern Review: Author and Article Characteristics from 1985 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Stephanie A.; Byrd, Rebekah; Erford, Bradley T.; Hays, Danica G.

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of articles accepted for publication in "Counselor Education and Supervision" from the past 25 years were reviewed in this meta-study. Results were described and statistically analyzed to identify trends over time in author characteristics (sex, institutional classifications, employment setting, domicile) and article characteristics…

  16. The More You Know: The Impact of Publication and Peer-Review Experience on Psychology Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Jennifer M.; Somerville, William; Harlem-Siegel, Jessica; Steele, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The New School Psychology Bulletin (NSPB) is a peer-reviewed journal operated by clinical psychology graduate students. Forty-four members of the editorial board and 27 authors were surveyed before and after working with NSPB. Results of the survey demonstrated that experience with the publication process resulted in quantitative decreases in…

  17. 76 FR 3887 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Submitted for Review and Approval to the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... information collection request (ICR) submitted to OMB: (1) Go to the Web page http://reginfo.gov/public/do/PRAMain , (2) look for the section of the Web page called ``Currently Under Review'', (3) click on the... set-top devices linked by a control system that provides functionality equivalent to that of a...

  18. Central African Republic Public Expenditure Review : Creating Fiscal Space to Transition Out of Fragility Through Growth and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This public expenditure review (PER) aims to assist the government in its efforts to achieve a transition out of fragility through growth and development. Higher and sustained per capita real gross domestic product (GDP) growth to raise the income of the population and create employment is needed to reduce poverty and lower the risk of reversion to conflict. Significant productive investme...

  19. 77 FR 11066 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA924 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of SEDAR Data/Assessment...

  20. 78 FR 8110 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... dumerili). SUMMARY: The SEDAR 33 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico gag grouper and greater amberjack... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC480 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  1. 76 FR 103 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... for Gulf of Mexico yellowedge grouper and tilefish. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessments of the Gulf of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA118 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  2. 78 FR 9372 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC491 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: The South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA...

  3. 78 FR 67339 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... gag and greater amberjack webinars. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 33 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico stocks of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC948 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  4. 78 FR 34046 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC708 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of SEDAR Data/Assessment...

  5. 77 FR 53869 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Mexico Red Snapper Post-Data Workshop Webinar. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 31 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico Red... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC214 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  6. 78 FR 33069 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    .... SUMMARY: The SEDAR 33 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico stocks of gag (Mycteroperca microlepis) and greater... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC642 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  7. 78 FR 24730 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC642 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of SEDAR 33 Gulf of Mexico...

  8. 77 FR 70149 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... 28 Gulf of Mexico Spanish mackerel and cobia assessment Webinar. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 28 assessment of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC328 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  9. 78 FR 8111 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... red snapper assessment webinars. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 31 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico red snapper... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC479 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  10. 78 FR 54869 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC846 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of SEDAR 33 Gulf of Mexico...

  11. 78 FR 10607 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC491 Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  12. Review of consumption trends and public policies promoting woody biomass as an energy feedstock in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Stephen Shifley

    2011-01-01

    A review of the four main wood energy sectors in the U.S. was conducted to explore historic trends and the impact of alternative energy prices and public policies on wood energy consumption. High oil prices have triggered the adoption of government regulation and financial incentives to promote greater use of wood energy over the last four decades. However, the amount...

  13. Depression and Type 2 Diabetes in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mendenhall, Emily; Norris, Shane A; Shidhaye, Rahul; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2014-01-01

    Eighty percent of people with type 2 diabetes reside in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Yet much of the research around depression among people with diabetes has been conducted in high-income countries (HICs). In this systematic review we searched Ovid Medline, PubMed, and PsychINFO for studies that assessed depression among people with type 2 diabetes in LMICs. Our focus on quantitative studies provided a prevalence of co-morbid depression among those with diabetes...

  14. The Usefulness of Type Ia Supernovae for Cosmology - a Personal Review

    OpenAIRE

    Krisciunas, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We review some results of the past 12 years derived from optical and infrared photometry of Type Ia supernovae. A combination of optical and infrared photometry allows us to determine accurately the extinction along the line of sight. The resulting distance measurements are much more accurate than can be obtained from optical data alone. Type Ia supernovae are very nearly standard candles in the near-infrared. Accurate supernova distances, coupled with other observational data available at pr...

  15. Smokeless tobacco: A major public health problem in the SEA region: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash C Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Smokeless tobacco use is on the upswing in some parts of the world, including parts of SEAR. It is therefore important to monitor this problem and understand the possible consequences on public health. Material for this review was obtained from documents and data of the World Health Organization, co-authors, colleagues, and searches on key words in PubMed and on Google. Smokeless tobacco use in SEAR, as betel quid with tobacco, declined with increased marketing of cigarettes from the early twentieth century. Smokeless tobacco use began to increase in the 1970s in South Asia, with the marketing of new products made from areca nut and tobacco and convenient packaging. As a consequence, oral precancerous conditions and cancer incidence in young adults have increased significantly. Thailand′s successful policies in reducing betel quid use through school health education from the 1920s and in preventing imports of smokeless tobacco products from 1992 are worth emulating by many SEAR countries. India, the largest manufacturing country of smokeless tobacco in the Region, is considering ways to regulate its production. Best practices require the simultaneous control of smokeless and smoking forms of tobacco. Governments in SEAR would do well to adopt strong measures now to control this problem.

  16. Approaches to environmental public health: Bogotá and Medellín. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Rincón Forero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental health is closely related with the prevention of diseases due to the fact that: physical, environmental, chemical, biological and social factors can inuence the outcome. Due to the tremendous growth and notorious increase in contamination, the national and regional government has been forced to intervene. They have tailored specic plans according to the city that is being affected, in order to better the population’s situation. Objective: To evaluate and compare the environmental health policies in Bogota and Medellin to determine their impact on the population. Materials and methods: A systematic review of literature was conducted in the cities of Bogotá and Medellín, about the impact and context of environmental health programs, to do that a search for articles and compilation of public policies was conducted by consulting various databases in the last decade. Results: We found that it is possible to obtain some quantitative results on the degree of pollution and changes in these over time intervention as development plans available in the city of Medellin. The available data for the city of Bogotá are unclear or nonexistent and therefore no proper monitoring for these. Conclusions: deciency is observed in the follow according to standards established by OMS because no continuity is given to the various projects by the change in administration. It is necessary to conduct a comparative analysis of environmental health programs and sustainable development through qualitative study.

  17. [Publication rates of audiology master and doctoral theses in peer-reviewed journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikgün, Bahtiyar; Derinsu, Ufuk; Çiprut, A Ayça; Torun, Merve; Kalcıoğlu, M Tayyar

    2016-01-01

    Theses are the prime indicators of the scientific productivity of a country and one of the main and strongest resources for the emergence of scientific articles. This study aims to examine, by using the survey method, how many of the audiology master and/or doctoral theses in Turkey were turned into a scientific work. Individuals who received a master's degree in audiology were surveyed whether their theses had been reviewed as a paper or publication. Forty-five of the 230 audiology specialists and 22 audiologists with a doctorate degree working in Turkey participated in the study by answering the survey questions. In general, while 45.4% of master theses were presented orally or as a poster presentation in a national convention, 20.4% were presented orally or as a poster presentation in an international convention. While 18.1% of theses were published as an article in a national journal, 15.9% were published as an article in an international SCI or SCI-E journal. The distribution of the doctoral theses is 26.6%, 33.3%, 13.3% and 26.6%, respectively. We found the rate of theses in audiology turning into a scientific article to be below the desired level, as in other fields. The reasons for this should be emphasized and efforts should be made to raise these rates to the desired level.

  18. Managing across Public­Private Partnerships: A Review of Implementation in China and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo-See Beh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnership is about governance in the contemporary public service and public interest in public administration with the participation of private sector in the market economy in establishing strategic partnerships in responsible economic management of public services. This article provides an overview of the implementation of public-private partnerships and how these evidences have been managed across China (including Hong Kong SAR and Australia. It also depicts the key challenges of managing them in both countries given their different stages of maturity in implementation framework of regulation and evaluation.

  19. Comparative performance of private and public healthcare systems in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Basu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Private sector healthcare delivery in low- and middle-income countries is sometimes argued to be more efficient, accountable, and sustainable than public sector delivery. Conversely, the public sector is often regarded as providing more equitable and evidence-based care. We performed a systematic review of research studies investigating the performance of private and public sector delivery in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Peer-reviewed studies including case studies, meta-analyses, reviews, and case-control analyses, as well as reports published by non-governmental organizations and international agencies, were systematically collected through large database searches, filtered through methodological inclusion criteria, and organized into six World Health Organization health system themes: accessibility and responsiveness; quality; outcomes; accountability, transparency, and regulation; fairness and equity; and efficiency. Of 1,178 potentially relevant unique citations, data were obtained from 102 articles describing studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries. Comparative cohort and cross-sectional studies suggested that providers in the private sector more frequently violated medical standards of practice and had poorer patient outcomes, but had greater reported timeliness and hospitality to patients. Reported efficiency tended to be lower in the private than in the public sector, resulting in part from perverse incentives for unnecessary testing and treatment. Public sector services experienced more limited availability of equipment, medications, and trained healthcare workers. When the definition of "private sector" included unlicensed and uncertified providers such as drug shop owners, most patients appeared to access care in the private sector; however, when unlicensed healthcare providers were excluded from the analysis, the majority of people accessed public sector care. "Competitive

  20. Comparative performance of private and public healthcare systems in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Andrews, Jason; Kishore, Sandeep; Panjabi, Rajesh; Stuckler, David

    2012-01-01

    Private sector healthcare delivery in low- and middle-income countries is sometimes argued to be more efficient, accountable, and sustainable than public sector delivery. Conversely, the public sector is often regarded as providing more equitable and evidence-based care. We performed a systematic review of research studies investigating the performance of private and public sector delivery in low- and middle-income countries. Peer-reviewed studies including case studies, meta-analyses, reviews, and case-control analyses, as well as reports published by non-governmental organizations and international agencies, were systematically collected through large database searches, filtered through methodological inclusion criteria, and organized into six World Health Organization health system themes: accessibility and responsiveness; quality; outcomes; accountability, transparency, and regulation; fairness and equity; and efficiency. Of 1,178 potentially relevant unique citations, data were obtained from 102 articles describing studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries. Comparative cohort and cross-sectional studies suggested that providers in the private sector more frequently violated medical standards of practice and had poorer patient outcomes, but had greater reported timeliness and hospitality to patients. Reported efficiency tended to be lower in the private than in the public sector, resulting in part from perverse incentives for unnecessary testing and treatment. Public sector services experienced more limited availability of equipment, medications, and trained healthcare workers. When the definition of "private sector" included unlicensed and uncertified providers such as drug shop owners, most patients appeared to access care in the private sector; however, when unlicensed healthcare providers were excluded from the analysis, the majority of people accessed public sector care. "Competitive dynamics" for funding appeared between the two sectors, such

  1. Allocation of Public Resources for Psychological Therapy between Types of Mental Health Condition: Towards Structural Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustin, Don

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of allocating public resources efficiently between mental health conditions that are associated with different levels of disability, and presents an adaptation of an established framework to help decision-making in this area. The adapted framework refers to psychological interventions that are universal, indicated,…

  2. [Twenty-year History and Future Challenges in Transparency Enhancement of Review Process for Approval: Focus on Public Release of Review Reports regarding New Drugs and Medical Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kazushige; Kawasaki, Satoko; Yoshida, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW, formerly Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW)) has been trying to increase transparency of the review process for approving reports in order to promote the rational use of newly approved drugs and medical devices. The first Summary Basis of Approval (SBA) was published by MHW in 1994. In 1999, evaluation reports were prepared by MHW and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Evaluation Center to make them available to the public. In 2005, a notice from the Chief Executive of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) made procedures for public release of information on reviewing applications for new drugs. In 2006, 90 review reports of newly approved drugs and eight medical devices were revealed on PMDA websites. The dissemination of information by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and that of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) were studied and compared with that of the MHLW and PMDA. While common technical documents (CTD) for new drugs and summary technical documents (STED) for new medical devices have been released by PMDA, such documents are not released by the FDA and EMA. The European Public Assessment Report (EAPR) summary for the public is an interesting questionnaire approach that uses the "What," "How" and "Why" format. Finally, future proposals for the next decade are also outlined.

  3. Socio-Psychological Determinants of Public Acceptance of Technologies: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, many technologies have been associated with societal controversies, leading to public rejection of their use. It is therefore important to understand the psychological determinants of societal acceptance of emerging technologies. Socio-psychological determinants of public acceptance of

  4. A systematic review of types of healthy eating interventions in preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Vang; Husby, Sofie; Skov, Laurits Rohden

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review evaluates different types of healthy eating interventions attempting to prevent obesity among 3 to 6 year-olds in preschools, kindergartens and day care facilities. Studies that included single interventions, educational interventions and/or multicomponent interventions were eligible...

  5. Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes among Youth: A Systematic Review, Implications for the School Nurse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Dana E.; Cutshall, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity and the early development of type 2 diabetes (T2 DM) place students at risk for chronic health problems. The school nurse is uniquely situated to promote school health initiatives that influence health behavior. The purpose of this review was to determine effective nonpharmacological interventions for prevention of T2 DM in…

  6. Impact of social determinants of health on outcomes for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebekah J; Smalls, Brittany L; Campbell, Jennifer A; Strom Williams, Joni L; Egede, Leonard E

    2014-09-01

    Social determinants of health include the social and economic conditions that influence health status. Research into the impact of social determinants on individuals with type 2 diabetes has largely focused on the prevention of or risk of developing diabetes. No review exists summarizing the impact of social determinants of health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. This systematic review examined whether social determinants of health have an impact on health outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Medline was searched for articles that (a) were published in English (b) targeted adults, ages 18 + years, (c) had a study population which was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, (d) the study was done in the United States, and (e) the study measured at least one of the outcome measures-glycemic control, cholesterol (LDL), blood pressure, quality of life or cost. Using a reproducible strategy, 2,110 articles were identified, and 61 were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twelve were categorized as Economic Stability and Education, 17 were categorized as Social and Community Context, 28 were categorized as Health and Health Care, and three were categorized as Neighborhood and Built Environment. Based on the studies reviewed, social determinants have an impact on glycemic control, LDL, and blood pressure to varying degrees. The impact on cost and quality of life was not often measured, but when quality of life was investigated, it did show significance. More research is needed to better characterize the direct impact of social determinants of health on health outcomes in diabetes.

  7. Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes among Youth: A Systematic Review, Implications for the School Nurse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Dana E.; Cutshall, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity and the early development of type 2 diabetes (T2 DM) place students at risk for chronic health problems. The school nurse is uniquely situated to promote school health initiatives that influence health behavior. The purpose of this review was to determine effective nonpharmacological interventions for prevention of T2 DM in…

  8. The Effects of Trained Peer Review on EFL Students' Revision Types and Writing Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hui-Tzu

    2006-01-01

    This preliminary classroom study aims to examine the impact of trained responders' feedback on EFL college students' revisions, both in terms of revision types and quality. After a 4-hour in-class demonstration and a 1-hour after-class reviewer-teacher conference with each student (n = 18), the instructor/researcher collected students' first…

  9. Cross sectional: perception of children from public and private schools regarding the esthetic impact of different types of face masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Ferraz, Caio Sousa; de Oliveira, Gabriel Couto; Dos Santos, Adrielle Mangabeira; Couto, Felipe Santos; da Silva Coqueiro, Raildo; Dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the esthetic perception among children from public and private schools regarding the use of different types of face masks. Six different types of orthopedic face masks made from images of the same patient were evaluated. Initially, the images were standardized with the help of Adobe Photoshop software. The variable considered was type of mask: (A) Delaire with facebow; (B) Petit; (C) Delaire; (D)Turley; (E) Hickham; and (F) Sky Hook. The images were printed on photographic paper and incorporated into a specific personalized questionnaire that was distributed to 7- to 10-year-olds attending public and private schools (n=120). The data obtained were compared via chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, Mann-Whitney and Spearman's tests. The proportion of participants who chose image A as the best was significantly higher (P.05). The mean scores between groups were not significantly correlated between private vs public schoolchildren (r=0.32) and between boys and girls (r=0.41). Delaire face mask with facebow was chosen as the most attractive, and the Petit and Sky Hook face masks were voted the least attractive.

  10. Drusen-like beneath retinal deposits in type II mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hage Amaro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to do a review of Drusen-like beneath retinal deposits in type II mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis. Drusenlike beneath retinal deposits in type II mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis appear to develop at an early age, often second decade of life different of drusen from age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Long term follow-up of the cases in this disease shows in the most of them, no progression of the of drusen-like beneath retinal deposits in type II mesangiocapillary glomerulonefritis, the most of subjects retain good visual acuity and no specific treatment is indicated.

  11. The security agenda under review: shocking cases, issues and public problems in Argentina's democratic period (1983-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Galar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the emergence of issues and the formation of public problems that constitute the security agenda in Argentina in the democratic stage from processes associated to the public problematisation of violent deaths constituted as shocking cases. The analysis integrates reconstructions of shocking cases in the register of public action with a review of research from social sciences presenting dimensions of violent death and problems related to national security agenda. As a point of arrival we emphasize the capacity that currently expresses insecurity to absorb and integrate dimensions, a problem which it is constituted as a privileged cultural script for the understanding of violence, which synthesizes social meanings of risk and serves as a platform for political demand for large segments of the public

  12. 75 FR 42363 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002; Biennial Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 RIN 0920-AA34 Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and...: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Public Health Security and... potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. In determining whether to include an agent...

  13. Mapping fields of interest: A systematic literature review on public clients in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, P.R.; Volker, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To create an overview of scientific knowledge currently available on public clients in order to set up a research agenda for public commissioning in construction. Background: Public clients are important actors and change agents in the construction industry. While sharing characteristics w

  14. Mapping fields of interest: A systematic literature review on public clients in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, P.R.; Volker, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To create an overview of scientific knowledge currently available on public clients in order to set up a research agenda for public commissioning in construction. Background: Public clients are important actors and change agents in the construction industry. While sharing characteristics

  15. Mapping fields of interest: A systematic literature review on public clients in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, P.R.; Volker, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To create an overview of scientific knowledge currently available on public clients in order to set up a research agenda for public commissioning in construction. Background: Public clients are important actors and change agents in the construction industry. While sharing characteristics w

  16. 75 FR 69134 - Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request, Proposed Collection: Public Libraries Survey, FY 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    .... 9108). Abstract: The Public Libraries Survey has been conducted by the Institute of Museum and Library... descriptive data on the universe of public libraries in the U.S. and the Outlying Areas. Information such as public service hours per year, circulation of library books, etc., number of librarians, population of...

  17. 78 FR 12105 - Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request, Proposed Collection: Public Needs for Library and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    .... 9108), the intention of the PNLMS (formerly the PDMLS, Public Demand for Museum and Library Services.... Current Actions: This notice proposes clearance of the Public Needs for Library and Museum Services (PNLMS...: Public Needs for Library and Museum Services Survey. OMB Number: To Be Determined. Agency Number:...

  18. Review and Analysis of Publication Trends over Three Decades in Three High Impact Medicine Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Alexander; Kaczkowska, Beata A; Khan, Saadat A; Ho, Jean; Tavakol, Morteza; Prasad, Ashok; Bhumireddy, Geetha; Beall, Allan F; Klem, Igor; Mehta, Parag; Briggs, William M; Sacchi, Terrence J; Heitner, John F

    2017-01-01

    Over the past three decades, industry sponsored research expanded in the United States. Financial incentives can lead to potential conflicts of interest (COI) resulting in underreporting of negative study results. We hypothesized that over the three decades, there would be an increase in: a) reporting of conflict of interest and source of funding; b) percentage of randomized control trials c) number of patients per study and d) industry funding. Original articles published in three calendar years (1988, 1998, and 2008) in The Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine and Journal of American Medical Association were collected. Studies were reviewed and investigational design categorized as prospective and retrospective clinical trials. Prospective trials were categorized into randomized or non-randomized and single-center or multi-center trials. Retrospective trials were categorized as registries, meta-analyses and other studies, mostly comprising of case reports or series. Study outcomes were categorized as positive or negative depending on whether the pre-specified hypothesis was met. Financial disclosures were researched for financial relationships and profit status, and accordingly categorized as government, non-profit or industry sponsored. Studies were assessed for reporting COI. 1,671 original articles were included in this analysis. Total number of published studies decreased by 17% from 1988 to 2008. Over 20 year period, the proportion of prospective randomized trials increased from 22 to 46% (p < 0.0001); whereas the proportion of prospective non-randomized trials decreased from 59% to 27% (p < 0.001). There was an increase in the percentage of prospective randomized multi-center trials from 11% to 41% (p < 0.001). Conversely, there was a reduction in non-randomized single-center trials from 47% to 10% (p < 0.001). Proportion of government funded studies remained constant, whereas industry funded studies more than doubled (17% to 40%; p < 0.0001). The number

  19. Review and Analysis of Publication Trends over Three Decades in Three High Impact Medicine Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Alexander; Kaczkowska, Beata A.; Khan, Saadat A.; Ho, Jean; Tavakol, Morteza; Prasad, Ashok; Bhumireddy, Geetha; Beall, Allan F.; Klem, Igor; Mehta, Parag; Briggs, William M.; Sacchi, Terrence J.; Heitner, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Context Over the past three decades, industry sponsored research expanded in the United States. Financial incentives can lead to potential conflicts of interest (COI) resulting in underreporting of negative study results. Objective We hypothesized that over the three decades, there would be an increase in: a) reporting of conflict of interest and source of funding; b) percentage of randomized control trials c) number of patients per study and d) industry funding. Data sources and Study Selection Original articles published in three calendar years (1988, 1998, and 2008) in The Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine and Journal of American Medical Association were collected. Data Extraction Studies were reviewed and investigational design categorized as prospective and retrospective clinical trials. Prospective trials were categorized into randomized or non-randomized and single-center or multi-center trials. Retrospective trials were categorized as registries, meta-analyses and other studies, mostly comprising of case reports or series. Study outcomes were categorized as positive or negative depending on whether the pre-specified hypothesis was met. Financial disclosures were researched for financial relationships and profit status, and accordingly categorized as government, non-profit or industry sponsored. Studies were assessed for reporting COI. Results 1,671 original articles were included in this analysis. Total number of published studies decreased by 17% from 1988 to 2008. Over 20 year period, the proportion of prospective randomized trials increased from 22 to 46% (p < 0.0001); whereas the proportion of prospective non-randomized trials decreased from 59% to 27% (p < 0.001). There was an increase in the percentage of prospective randomized multi-center trials from 11% to 41% (p < 0.001). Conversely, there was a reduction in non-randomized single-center trials from 47% to 10% (p < 0.001). Proportion of government funded studies remained constant, whereas

  20. Recent publications from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: Reviewing progress toward improved AD clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael W; Veitch, Dallas P; Aisen, Paul S; Beckett, Laurel A; Cairns, Nigel J; Green, Robert C; Harvey, Danielle; Jack, Clifford R; Jagust, William; Morris, John C; Petersen, Ronald C; Saykin, Andrew J; Shaw, Leslie M; Toga, Arthur W; Trojanowski, John Q

    2017-04-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has continued development and standardization of methodologies for biomarkers and has provided an increased depth and breadth of data available to qualified researchers. This review summarizes the over 400 publications using ADNI data during 2014 and 2015. We used standard searches to find publications using ADNI data. (1) Structural and functional changes, including subtle changes to hippocampal shape and texture, atrophy in areas outside of hippocampus, and disruption to functional networks, are detectable in presymptomatic subjects before hippocampal atrophy; (2) In subjects with abnormal β-amyloid deposition (Aβ+), biomarkers become abnormal in the order predicted by the amyloid cascade hypothesis; (3) Cognitive decline is more closely linked to tau than Aβ deposition; (4) Cerebrovascular risk factors may interact with Aβ to increase white-matter (WM) abnormalities which may accelerate Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression in conjunction with tau abnormalities; (5) Different patterns of atrophy are associated with impairment of memory and executive function and may underlie psychiatric symptoms; (6) Structural, functional, and metabolic network connectivities are disrupted as AD progresses. Models of prion-like spreading of Aβ pathology along WM tracts predict known patterns of cortical Aβ deposition and declines in glucose metabolism; (7) New AD risk and protective gene loci have been identified using biologically informed approaches; (8) Cognitively normal and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects are heterogeneous and include groups typified not only by "classic" AD pathology but also by normal biomarkers, accelerated decline, and suspected non-Alzheimer's pathology; (9) Selection of subjects at risk of imminent decline on the basis of one or more pathologies improves the power of clinical trials; (10) Sensitivity of cognitive outcome measures to early changes in cognition has been improved and

  1. Types and quality of physical therapy research publications: has there been a change in the past decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Kaitlyn; Hassan, Ali; Sutherland, Lauren; Chau, Leo; Senior, Tristan; Janaudis-Ferreira, Tania; Brooks, Dina

    2014-01-01

    To describe and compare the type and quality of evidence published in physical therapy (PT) journals during two time periods (2000-2002 vs. 2010-2012) and to explore scientific editors' opinions on changes in the types and quality of articles. A quantitative, longitudinal, retrospective journal review was used to categorize and assess the methodological rigour of items published in four PT journals using the Hedges Project. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional survey explored the opinions of scientific editors. Percentages and frequencies of article types (as defined by the Hedges Project criteria), items passing rigour, and editor responses were calculated. Statistical significance of differences in article type and rigour between the two time periods was determined using Fisher's Exact Test. There was a significant increase in original studies and review articles from 2000-2002 to 2010-2012 (pdesigns, and randomized controlled trials and believed that quality had improved by 2010-2012. From 2000-2002 to 2010-2012, the quality of articles published in PT journals improved and the proportion of original studies and review articles increased.

  2. Publishing negative findings and the challenge of avoiding type II errors in studies of suspect teratogens: Example of a recent ondansetron publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlavitch, Stanley A

    2017-01-01

    It is important that negative, as well as positive, studies be published to complete the available picture in areas of scientific inquiry. At the same time, it is critical that the implications of a negative study not be overstated and generalized when major issues of study design and data accuracy may be the reason that no relationship was discovered. The challenge of avoiding type II errors in interpreting negative findings has major public health implications, especially when the relationship of an exposure to birth defects is the concern. This is particularly important when interpreting the report by Fazio et al. (June issue of Reproductive Toxicology) on the relationship of ondansetron exposure to pregnancy outcome and birth defects. This review addresses the study design and conclusions and suggests that an alternative concluding statement would be more apropos, given the limitations of the data.

  3. Factors influencing successful peer-reviewed publication of original research presentations from the American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ASPO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinney, Erin C; Chun, Robert H; Cassidy, Laura D; Link, T Roxanne; Sulman, Cecille G; Kerschner, Joseph E

    2015-03-01

    To analyze factors associated with progression of an original scientific presentation at the American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ASPO) Annual Meeting to publication in a peer-reviewed journal. A dataset of presenters was created to enable prospective follow-up to assess early impressions regarding publication success with longer-term publication outcomes. Prior to the Annual ASPO meeting in 2013, a survey consisting of 10 questions was e-mailed to all 59 presenters. Questions were designed to assess presenter expectations on publication, barriers to publishing, and experience in presenting, publishing and clinical practice. A second survey was sent 12 months later to those respondents of the first survey who were amenable to follow-up. Overall, 46 of 59 (78%) presenters responded to the initial survey prior to their ASPO 2013 presentation. Of these, 34 agreed to participate in a longer-term follow-up of their presentation to publication experience. Of these 34, there were 17 who participated in the follow-up survey 1 year later. Just under half of the original respondents were residents (46%). All presenters (100%) planned to re-submit a revised manuscript if initially rejected. However, 35% of follow-up respondents did not make initial submission to a peer-reviewed journal. Results of a descriptive analysis suggest that more experienced researchers expect their submitted manuscript to be accepted for publication within a shorter time frame than those that have published fewer papers. Time was ranked as the greatest barrier to publication (60%) of those surveyed both in the initial prospective survey and for those who did not publish a paper in the follow-up survey (83%). This study suggests a strong desire and expectation of publishing ASPO presentations. Despite this expectation, past research and this data set suggest this expectation often does not materialize. "Time constraints" were the most commonly identified barrier to publication. To enhance

  4. Salivary glucose in monitoring glycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Mak, Joon Wah

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. Monitoring glycaemia is essential for control of diabetes mellitus. Conventional blood-based measurement of glucose requires venepuncture or needle prick, which is not free from pain and risk of infection. The non-invasiveness, ease and low-cost in collection made saliva an attractive alternative sample. The objective of this review was to systematically review the evidence on the relationship between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level in monitoring glycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We searched studies which evaluate salivary glucose levels and serum glycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus in electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid and Google Scholar. We selected the eligible studies, following the inclusion criteria set for this review. Due to heterogeneity of studies, we conducted qualitative synthesis of studies. Ten observational studies were included in this review, including a total of 321 cases and 323 controls with ages between 3 and 61 years and the majority were males (62%). Two studies were done exclusively on children below 17 years old. The significant difference between salivary glucose levels in type 1 diabetes mellitus and controls were reported in 6 studies with 8 data sets. Five studies with 7 datasets reported the correlation coefficient between salivary glucose and blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Findings suggest that salivary glucose concentrations may be helpful in monitoring glycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the utility of using salivary glucose level to monitor glycaemia should be evaluated in future well designed, prospective studies with adequate number of participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  5. 对我国公立医院补偿机制的思考%Review and Analysis of Reimbursement Mechanism of Public Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏文明; 田文华; 张志敏; 张鑫; 于军

    2011-01-01

    文章回顾了国外公立医院补偿概况和我国建国后公立医院补偿机制的历史变革.分析了我国公立医院补偿的现状,即政府投入不足、医疗服务价格扭曲、药品补偿过高三大特点.阐述了笔者关于公立医院补偿机制研究的思考:(1)科学卫生规划,定性公立医院:(2)系统设计机制,注重公平效率;(3)加强定量研究,建立补偿模型.%The article reviewed reimbursement types of the foreign public hospitals, and summarized reimbursement changes of public hospitals in China after the establishment of People's Republic of China. It also analyzed the reimbursement characteristics of public hospitals, such as low financial aid from government, distorted prices of medical services, and high incomes of drugs. The author also proposed suggestions on the research of reimbursement mechanism, which are (1) scientifical regulating health and determining public hospitals; (2) systematical designing system and focusing on fairness and efficiency; (3) intensifying quantitative research and establishing compensation model.

  6. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    This review marks the appearance of Volume II, after the publication of Volume I, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, in 1990; several more volumes are expected in the future before completion of the Vascular plants as a whole. The present volume contains 73 families out of some 250-500 families which ca

  7. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

    2013-12-01

    Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology.

  8. Systematic review with meta-analysis: associations between coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfström, P; Sundström, J; Ludvigsson, J F

    2014-11-01

    In the past decade, a number of population-based studies have examined the prevalence of coeliac disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes but prevalences have differed considerably. To examine the prevalence of coeliac disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes. A systematic review of English-language articles published in PubMed Medline between 2000 and May 2014. Search terms included 'celiac disease' or 'coeliac disease' and 'diabetes mellitus'. Studies were selected with at least 100 individuals with type 1 diabetes being screened for coeliac disease where the coeliac diagnosis was later confirmed through small intestinal biopsy. Data synthesis used random-effects inverse variance-weighted models, and metaregression was used to examine heterogeneity in subgroups. A pooled analysis, based on 26,605 patients with type 1 diabetes, found a prevalence of biopsy-confirmed coeliac disease of 6.0% (95% CI = 5.0-6.9%). Heterogeneity was large (I(2) = 93.2%). The prevalence was lower in adults with type 1 diabetes (2.7%), and in mixed populations with both children and adults with type 1 diabetes (4.7%) than in children (6.2%) with type 1 diabetes (P coeliac disease prevalence between studies. More than one in twenty patients with type 1 diabetes have biopsy-verified coeliac disease. This prevalence is high enough to motivate screening for coeliac disease among patients with type 1 diabetes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Open evaluation (OE: A vision for entirely transparent post-publication peer review and rating for science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus eKriegeskorte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The two major functions of a scientific publishing system are to provide access to and evaluation of scientific papers. While open access (OA is becoming a reality, open evaluation (OE, the other side of coin, has received less attention. Evaluation steers the attention of the scientific community and thus the very course of science. It also influences the use of scientific findings in public policy. The current system of scientific publishing provides only journal prestige as an indication of the quality of new papers and relies on a non-transparent and noisy pre-publication peer review process, which delays publication by many months on average. Here I propose an OE system, in which papers are evaluated post-publication in an ongoing fashion by means of open peer review and rating. Through signed ratings and reviews, scientists steer the attention of their field and build their reputation. Reviewers are motivated to be objective, because low-quality or self-serving signed evaluations will negatively impact their reputation. A core feature of this proposal is a division of powers between the accumulation of evaluative evidence and the analysis of this evidence by paper evaluation functions (PEFs. PEFs can be freely defined by individuals or groups (e.g. scientific societies and provide a plurality of perspectives on the scientific literature. Simple PEFs will use averages of ratings, weighting reviewers (e.g. by H-factor and rating scales (e.g. by relevance to a decision process in different ways. Complex PEFs will use advanced statistical techniques to infer the quality of a paper. Papers with initially promising ratings will be more deeply evaluated. The continual refinement of PEFs in response to attempts by individuals to influence evaluations in their own favor will make the system ungameable. OA and OE together have the power to revolutionize scientific publishing and usher in a new culture of transparency, constructive criticism, and

  10. 40 CFR 142.310 - How can a person served by the public water system obtain EPA review of a State proposed small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water system obtain EPA review of a State proposed small system variance? 142.310 Section 142.310....310 How can a person served by the public water system obtain EPA review of a State proposed small system variance? (a) Any person served by the public water system may petition the Administrator...

  11. Alternative Therapeutic Method for Type Two Diabetes: Whole Body Vibration Therapy: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L Simmerman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes continues to increase there is a need for new interventions to control this epidemic. Multiple alternative treatment methods exist for type 2 diabetes mellitus such as acupuncture, bariatric surgery, yoga, aromatherapy, herbal remedies, etc. Whole Body Vibration is a relatively new area of interest recently utilized as an adjunctive therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus, representing a potentially new and novel treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective The primary objective of this study was to summarize current literature regarding the effects of whole body vibration on type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review details the effect of whole body vibration on areas of high clinical impact in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus such as glycemic control, body composition, renal function, inflammatory indices, peripheral neuropathy, and wound healing. Methods Reviewers independently screened abstracts and full texts in journal articles and books to extract data from multiple studies and literature to compile a current review on the topic of whole body vibration and diabetes mellitus. Results Current literature in murine and human models reported an overall improvement in glycemic control, renal function, inflammatory indices, and peripheral neuropathy following whole body vibration therapy. Whole body vibration effect on body mass composition is controversial with inconsistent reports of the effect on lean mass, bone density, and fat mass. Conclusions Whole body vibration has demonstrated significant promise in improving multiple systems related to the sequela of type 2 diabetes mellitus, thereby suggesting a new and novel treatment modification in this patient population. Subsequent studies are needed to further analyze the effect of whole body vibration on type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Longevity of dental implants in type IV bone: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, M C; dos Santos, D M; Santiago, J F; Moreno, A; Pellizzer, E P

    2014-09-01

    Bone quality and quantity are important factors with regard to the survival rate of dental implants. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of dental implants inserted in low-density bone and to determine the survival rate of dental implants with surface treatments over time. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken by two independent individuals; the Medline/PubMed database was searched for the period July 1975 to March 2013. Relevant reports on bone quality and osseointegration of dental implants were selected. The search retrieved 1018 references, and after inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 19 studies were selected for review. A total of 3937 patients, who had received a total of 12,465 dental implants, were analyzed. The survival rates of dental implants according to the bone density were: type I, 97.6%; type II, 96.2%; type III, 96.5%; and type IV, 88.8%. The survival rate of treated surface implants inserted in low-density bone was higher (97.1%) than that of machined surface implants (91.6%). Surface-treated dental implants inserted in low-density bone have a high survival rate and may be indicated for oral rehabilitation. However, more randomized studies are required to better evaluate this issue.

  13. Factors associated with the willingness of health care personnel to work during an influenza public health emergency: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devnani, Mahesh

    2012-12-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has witnessed three major influenza public health emergencies: (1) the severe acute respiratory syndrome of 2002-2003; (2) the avian flu of 2006; and (3) the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza. An effective public health response to an influenza public health emergency depends on the majority of uninfected health care personnel (HCP) continuing to report to work. The purposes of this study were to determine the state of the evidence concerning the willingness of HCP to work during an influenza public health emergency, to identify the gaps for future investigation, and to facilitate evidence-based influenza public health emergency planning. A systemic literature review of relevant, peer-reviewed, quantitative, English language studies published from January 1, 2001 through June 30, 2010 was conducted. Search strategies included the Cochrane Library, PubMed, PubMed Central, EBSCO Psychological and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Google Scholar, ancestry searching of citations in relevant publications, and information from individuals with a known interest in the topic. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Factors associated with a willingness to work during an influenza public health emergency include: being male, being a doctor or nurse, working in a clinical or emergency department, working full-time, prior influenza education and training, prior experience working during an influenza emergency, the perception of value in response, the belief in duty, the availability of personal protective equipment (PPE), and confidence in one's employer. Factors found to be associated with less willingness were: being female, being in a supportive staff position, working part-time, the peak phase of the influenza emergency, concern for family and loved ones, and personal obligations. Interventions that resulted in the greatest increase in the HCP's willingness to work were preferential access to Tamiflu for the HCP and his/her family, and

  14. Public Preferences Across Europe for Different Forest Stand Types as Sites for Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Edwards

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Delphi survey involving experts in forest preference research was carried out to derive scores for the recreational value of 240 forest stand types across Europe. The survey was organized around four regional panels: Great Britain, Nordic Region, Central Europe, and Iberia. In each region, 60 forest stand types were defined according to five forest management alternatives (FMAs on a continuum of management intensity, four phases of development (establishment, young, medium, and adult, and three tree species types (conifer, broadleaved, and mixed stands of conifer and broadleaved. The resulting scores were examined using conjoint analysis to determine the relative importance of the three structural attributes (FMA, phase of development, and tree species type, and each level or component of the attributes. The findings quantify the extent to which forest visitors prefer a degree of management to unmanaged forest nature reserves across the four regions. Phase of development was shown to make the highest contribution to the recreational value of forests while the contribution of tree species type was shown to be relatively unimportant. While the results are indicative, they provide evidence to support long-term retention and low-impact silviculture in forests where recreation is a primary objective of management.

  15. Public attitudes about different types of anti-bullying laws: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; King, Kelly M

    2015-02-01

    State anti-bullying laws have been enacted across the United States to address bullying both by and of youths. Although these statutes can provide critical protection to youth, there is debate about whether such laws should enumerate protected classes of youth. Weight-based bullying is an increasingly prevalent form of harassment and it has been overlooked in policy initiatives. Enumeration in existing laws might help protect overweight victims. As no research has examined this issue, we conducted a national survey of American adults (N=1155) to assess public opinion about enactment of anti-bullying laws that vary according to whether or not they enumerate distinguishing characteristics. Our results demonstrated substantial public agreement (ranging from 2/3 to 3/4 of participants) with enactment of state and federal anti-bullying laws that enumerate distinguishing characteristics, including physical appearance and weight, which are currently absent in most statutes. Our evidence can inform policy and legal approaches to protect youth effectively from bullying.

  16. Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of type 2 myocardial infarction: review and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Joseph S; Thygesen, Kristian A; White, Harvey D; Jaffe, Allan S

    2014-02-01

    The Task Force for the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction recently published updated guidelines for the clinical and research diagnosis of myocardial infarction under a variety of circumstances and in a variety of categories. A type 1 myocardial infarction (MI) is usually the result of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease with thrombotic coronary arterial obstruction secondary to atherosclerotic plaque rupture, ulceration, fissuring, or dissection, causing coronary arterial obstruction with resultant myocardial ischemia and necrosis. Patients with a type 2 MI do not have atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In this latter group of patients, myocardial necrosis occurs because of an increase in myocardial oxygen demand or a decrease in myocardial blood flow. Type 2 MI has been the subject of considerable clinical discussion and confusion. This review by knowledgeable members of the Task Force seeks to help clinicians resolve the confusion surrounding type 2 MI.

  17. Accumulation of cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater "seafood" and its consequences for public health: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibelings, B.W.; Chorus, I.

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses the current understanding of human exposure to cyanobacterial toxins in “seafood” collected from freshwater and coastal areas. The review consists of three parts: (a) the existing literature on concentrations of cyanobacterial toxins in seafood is reviewed, and t

  18. 78 FR 65673 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...) with fewer data drop down menu choices, and a search engine that supports key word queries in the... utilizes an existing web-based data collection form and database to gather critical reviewer information... select expert grant reviewers for objective review committees. The web-based system also...

  19. Accumulation of cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater "seafood" and its consequences for public health: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibelings, B.W.; Chorus, I.

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses the current understanding of human exposure to cyanobacterial toxins in “seafood” collected from freshwater and coastal areas. The review consists of three parts: (a) the existing literature on concentrations of cyanobacterial toxins in seafood is reviewed, and t

  20. Referrals between Public Sector Health Institutions for Women with Obstetric High Risk, Complications, or Emergencies in India - A Systematic Review.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) within primary health care systems requires a linked referral system to be effective in reducing maternal death. This systematic review aimed to summarize evidence on the proportion of referrals between institutions during pregnancy and delivery, and the factors affecting referrals, in India. We searched 6 electronic databases, reviewed four regional databases and repositories, and relevant program reports from India published between 1994 and 2013. All types o...