WorldWideScience

Sample records for publication scientific theme

  1. Scientific publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The necessary work for developing a scientific publication is sometimes underestimated and requires the effective participation of many players to obtain a result in good standard. Initially it depends upon the determination of the authors that decide to write the scientific article. Scientific writing is a very challenging and time consuming task, but at the same time essential for any scientist. A published scientific article is unquestionably one of the main indicators of scientific production, especially if published in a qualified scientific journal with highly qualified editorial committee and strict peer review procedure. By looking at evaluation criteria for scientific production of the several Thematic Scientific Committees of the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq it becomes clear publications in scientific journals that has certified quality is the most important item in the evaluation of a scientist production.

  2. Introductory Comments for the Scientific Ethics Theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A. Fischer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, the three Guest Editors for JMBE's first-ever themed section introduce the topic of scientific ethics and decribe the organization of essays within the special section.

  3. Ethics and Scientific Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benos, Dale J.; Fabres, Jorge; Farmer, John; Gutierrez, Jessica P.; Hennessy, Kristin; Kosek, David; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Olteanu, Dragos; Russell, Tara; Wang, Kai

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the major categories of ethical violations encountered during submission, review, and publication of scientific articles. We discuss data fabrication and falsification, plagiarism, redundant and duplicate publication, conflict of interest, authorship, animal and human welfare, and reviewer responsibility. In each section,…

  4. Ethics and Scientific Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benos, Dale J.; Fabres, Jorge; Farmer, John; Gutierrez, Jessica P.; Hennessy, Kristin; Kosek, David; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Olteanu, Dragos; Russell, Tara; Wang, Kai

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the major categories of ethical violations encountered during submission, review, and publication of scientific articles. We discuss data fabrication and falsification, plagiarism, redundant and duplicate publication, conflict of interest, authorship, animal and human welfare, and reviewer responsibility. In each section,…

  5. [Challenge in scientific publication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gilson Luiz; de Freitas, Eliane Gonçalves

    2003-05-01

    We discuss the main problems which make a scientific text difficult to find, to be read or to be accepted by readers. A scientific text is considered a logical argument. Therefore, methods, results and data from literature are premises supporting the conclusions of the work; and in the "Introduction" session, the justification corroborates the objective of the study. This conception makes the text a hermetically coherent structure where only the necessary data should be included (some controversy is still pertinent). In a second step, we show formal mistakes in scientific writing which make texts less attractive. Thus, we give examples of errors or inadequacy of formal aspects of presenting titles, abstracts, results (figures and tables), and grammar mistakes in Portuguese (but also valid for English grammar). After that, we emphasize the need for writing in international language (English) and for publication in periodicals with international impact on the scientific community. Finally, considerations to improve the Brazilian periodicals in the biological area are presented.

  6. Scientific Publication Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman İnci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Science based on consciousness of responsibility and principles of trust puts academics under an obligation to act according to the values and principles, ethical attitudes and standards of behaviour. A quest for perfectness, to observe truth and show respect for the dignity and value of each individual should be a fundamental principle. In this context, academic freedom and autonomy, academic integrity,  responsibility and accountabily, respect for others, the protection of the fundamental rights and competence are among the core values of academic merit. Science is not possible without ethics. Protection of academic value is essential for an academic publication. It is also fundamental that academics should not behave contrary to the ethics values. It is assumed that academic studies are conducted honestly, based on true foundations, that the research data are collected according to the correct methods, accurate statistics are used and results are reported accordingly. It is also assumed that professional standards are carried out in software presentation and share of results. The exceptional methods in academical publications should be classified as those carried out intentionally, aiming to mislead the related studies and the others to be distinguished from the ones carried out by some ignorances and various innocent facts. The most serious infraction of the ethical rules and standards is the ‘academic misappropriation’. Among all, the most crucial one is the academic plagiarism, which is transferring the production of some other person under one’s own name or stealing away the work of other persons. Creating some not-existing data and results, and fabrication is inventing some information just by sitting at the table. Changing the datas and results without scientific reasoning, and falsification is accepted as another and the third kind of misappropriation (FTP. Their most important difference from the other kinds is

  7. Data mining for scientific publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai VLASE

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Searching scientific literature on the Web is a difficult task because of the large volume and the complex dynamics of the scientific literature and because of the complexity and narrow target of typical queries. The problem is compounded by differences among publication standards and formats used in various fields of knowledge. In this paper we review several specific solutions that apply or adapt data mining techniques to searching scientific publications.

  8. Global Climate Change and Society: Scientific, Policy, and Philosophic Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, R.; Bullock, M. A.

    2001-12-01

    The summer of 2001 saw the inauguration of the Global Climate Change and Society Program (GCCS), an eight week, NSF-funded experiment in undergraduate pedagogy held at the University of Colorado and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Acknowledging from the start that climate change is more than a scientific problem, GCCS began with the simultaneous study of basic atmospheric physics, classical and environmental philosophy, and public policy. In addition to lectures and discussions on these subjects, our twelve undergraduates (majoring in the physical sciences, social sciences, and humanities) also participated in internships with scholars and researchers at NCAR, University of Colorado's Center of the American West, and the Colorado School of Mines, on specific issues in atmospheric science, science policy, and ethics and values. This talk will discuss the outcomes of GCCS: specifically, new insights into interdisciplinary pedagogy and the student creation of an extraordinary "deliverable," a group summary assessment of the global climate change debate. The student assessment called for an integrated discussion of both the science of climate change and the human values related to how we inhabit the world. The problems facing society today cannot be addressed through the single-minded adherence to science and technology; instead, society must develop new means of integrating the humanities and science in a meaningful dialogue about our common future.

  9. Toward executable scientific publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Cushing, R.; Vasyunin, D.; Laat, C. de; Belloum, A.S.Z.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Reproducibility of experiments is considered as one of the main principles of the scientific method. Recent developments in data and computation intensive science, i.e. e-Science, and state of the art in Cloud computing provide the necessary components to preserve data sets and re-run code and softw

  10. "Community" as a Guiding Theme for the Public Speaking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson-Lepper, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    First-year students at many universities find themselves in new communities, with little understanding of how their new university, city, academic, or career communities function. Developing a student's sense of community can have long-term benefits. Using the theme of "Community" in the basic public speaking course provides students with…

  11. Characteristics of scientific web publications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund Jepsen, Erik; Seiden, Piet; Ingwersen, Peter Emil Rerup

    2004-01-01

    Because of the increasing presence of scientific publications on the Web, combined with the existing difficulties in easily verifying and retrieving these publications, research on techniques and methods for retrieval of scientific Web publications is called for. In this article, we report on the......Vista and AllTheWeb retrieved a higher degree of accessible scientific content than Google. Because of the search engine cutoffs of accessible URLs, the feasibility of using search engine output for Web content analysis is also discussed....

  12. Analysis of High School Physics, Chemistry and Biology Curriculums in Terms of Scientific Literacy Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Melek Nur; Koseoglu, Fitnat

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze 9th grade physics, chemistry and biology curriculums, which were implemented by the Ministry of Education since the academic year 2008-2009, in terms of scientific literacy themes and the balance of these themes and also to examine the quality of statements about objectives. Physics, chemistry, and biology…

  13. Accelerating scientific publication in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ronald D

    2015-11-03

    Scientific publications enable results and ideas to be transmitted throughout the scientific community. The number and type of journal publications also have become the primary criteria used in evaluating career advancement. Our analysis suggests that publication practices have changed considerably in the life sciences over the past 30 years. More experimental data are now required for publication, and the average time required for graduate students to publish their first paper has increased and is approaching the desirable duration of PhD training. Because publication is generally a requirement for career progression, schemes to reduce the time of graduate student and postdoctoral training may be difficult to implement without also considering new mechanisms for accelerating communication of their work. The increasing time to publication also delays potential catalytic effects that ensue when many scientists have access to new information. The time has come for life scientists, funding agencies, and publishers to discuss how to communicate new findings in a way that best serves the interests of the public and the scientific community.

  14. Representative Nature of Scientific Literacy Themes in a High School Chemistry Course: The Case of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumba, Frackson; Hunter, William J. F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out how the scientific literacy themes are represented in the current Zambian high school chemistry syllabus, textbooks and grade twelve chemistry examination papers in an attempt to find out whether or not the chemistry course has adequate potential to contribute to the preparation of scientifically literate…

  15. Ethics of reviewing scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitani, Federica; Petrini, Carlo; Garattini, Silvio

    2017-05-01

    The approval or rejection of scientific publications can have important consequences for scientific knowledge, so considerable responsibility lies on those who have to assess or review them. Today it seems that the peer review process, far from being considered an outdated system to be abandoned, is experiencing a new upturn. This article proposes criteria for the conduct of reviewers and of those who select them. While commenting on new emerging models, it provides practical recommendations for improving the peer-review system, like strengthening the role of guidelines and training and supporting reviewers. The process of peer review is changing, it is getting more open and collaborative, but those same ethical principles which guided it from its very origin should remain untouched and be firmly consolidated. The paper highlights how the ethics of reviewing scientific publications is needed now more than ever, in particular with regard to competence, conflict of interest, willingness to discuss decisions, complete transparency and integrity. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Curriculum and Instructional Validity of the Scientific Literacy Themes Covered in Zambian High School Biology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalengula, Vivien M.; Mumba, Frackson; Lorsbach, Tony; Moore, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the nature and extent of scientific literacy (SL) themes coverage in Zambian national high school biology curriculum. The three data sources are biology textbooks, biology syllabi, and grade twelve national biology examination papers for a five-year period (2000-2004). These data sources were analyzed…

  17. Editorial bias in scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, J; García-Ramos, R

    2011-01-01

    Many authors believe that there are biases in scientific publications. Editorial biases include publication bias; which refers to those situations where the results influence the editor's decision, and editorial bias refers to those situations where factors related with authors or their environment influence the decision. This paper includes an analysis of the situation of editorial biases. One bias is where mainly articles with positive results are accepted, as opposed to those with negative results. Another is latent bias, where positive results are published before those with negative results. In order to examine editorial bias, this paper analyses the influence of where the article originated; the country or continent, academic centre of origin, belonging to cooperative groups, and the maternal language of the authors. The article analyses biases in the editorial process in the publication of funded clinical trials. Editorial biases exists. Authors, when submitting their manuscript, should analyse different journals and decide where their article will receive adequate treatment. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. NCI at Frederick Scientific Library Reintroduces Scientific Publications Database | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 20-year-old database of scientific publications by NCI at Frederick, FNLCR, and affiliated employees has gotten a significant facelift. Maintained by the Scientific Library, the redesigned database—which is linked from each of the Scientific Library’s web pages—offers features that were not available in previous versions, such as additional search limits and non-traditional metrics for scholarly and scientific publishing known as altmetrics.

  19. Scientific Facts and Methods in Public Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønch-Clausen, Karin; Kappel, Klemens

    2016-01-01

    Should scientific facts and methods have an epistemically privileged status in public reason? In Rawls’s public reason account he asserts what we will label the Scientific Standard Stricture: citizens engaged in public reason must be guided by non-controversial scientific methods, and public reason...... must be in line with non-controversial scientific conclusions. The Scientific Standard Stricture is meant to fulfill important tasks such as enabling the determinateness and publicity of the public reason framework. However, Rawls leaves us without elucidation with regard to when science......’s Scientific Standards Stricture. We then use Rawls’s general theoretical framework to examine various potential justifications for privileging these ‘non-controversial’ scientific methods and conclusions. We conclude that no viable justification is available to Rawls....

  20. Scientific Facts and Methods in Public Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønch-Clausen, Karin; Kappel, Klemens

    2016-01-01

    Should scientific facts and methods have an epistemically privileged status in public reason? In Rawls’s public reason account he asserts what we will label the Scientific Standard Stricture: citizens engaged in public reason must be guided by non-controversial scientific methods, and public reason...... must be in line with non-controversial scientific conclusions. The Scientific Standard Stricture is meant to fulfill important tasks such as enabling the determinateness and publicity of the public reason framework. However, Rawls leaves us without elucidation with regard to when science...... is and is not ‘non-controversial’ and more importantly, we are left without a justification for a stricture which excludes certain controversial beliefs and methods of inquiry from the realm of political justification. In this article, we offer what we deem to be the most plausible interpretation of Rawls...

  1. The martial art of scientific publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    Publication of scientific results in refereed journals is an essential part of the scientific process. It is the final payoff for the obscure labors that compose scientific research. Unfortunately, effective operation of the publication procedure requires simultaneous rational scientific judgment on the part of the author, the referee, and the editor, and the coincidence of all of these cannot be taken for granted on every given occasion. There are times when the working definition of truth is taken to be the consensus of one's scientific intimates: the “good old boys.” Anything outside that limited horizon is discomforting and improper and is to be barred from consideration.

  2. Scientific publications: now a marketing decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have been publishing in journals related to their disciplines. Now with the advent of the internet, many more options are now available and scientific publication has become a marketing decision. Scientific journals are rated by "impact factor" which is based on the average number of cita...

  3. Preliminary design of a public transportation system to support a theme park

    OpenAIRE

    Malacane, Christine Ann

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop the preliminary design of a public transportation system (PTS) that would support a theme park. Disney's America, a theme park originally planned for Northern Virginia, was used as the basis for this project. The problem was that the primary interstate that serves the park site was already overcrowded; this project was intended to expand the realm of possible transportation solutions to include public-transit solutions. The following report identi...

  4. Speaking with Numbers: Scientific Literacy and Public Understanding of Science

    OpenAIRE

    SEVGİ, Levent

    2006-01-01

    Public understanding of science and scientific literacy is discussed. Scientific method, scientific process and scientific filter are reviewed accordingly. Basic terms of measurement and numerical calculation are outlined. Finally, fundamental requirements of scientific literacy and critical response skills are presented.

  5. Scientific Coolections: Informational - Navigational Portal for Scientific Publications Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatencov, Petru; Kozlenco, Ludmila; Ginculova, Silvia; Keradi, Natalia

    At present there is the tendency of uniting efforts of scientific establishments and libraries for using information - communication medium with the purpose of information support of research and pedagogical activity in Moldova. The efficient access to the scientific and technical literature and, first of all, to the new publications, is necessary practically for all scientists and experts irrespective of a field of knowledge, in which they work. Research institutions, knowing how to receive access to the electron information and to use it intellectually, realize that it effects positively the quality and outcomes of the research process. It is obvious, that to ensure maximum utilization of the new information stream by habitual methods is impossible. New non-traditional approaches are necessary for the increase of the level of information provision of scientists and experts. Creation of electron libraries, realizing qualitatively other level of production, storage, organization and distribution of various information is the most effective way to gin this object. The access to the electron versions of scientific journals allows to reduce the acuteness of shortage of scientific literature, the electron information becomes accessible before the publication of paper version of a journal, and taking into account the delivery time of foreign issues into Moldova, this outstripping can reach several months.

  6. Retractions of scientific publications: responsibility and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavić, Vedran

    2014-01-01

    This evidence-based opinion piece gives a short overview of the increase in retractions of publications in scientific journals and discusses various reasons for that increase. Also discussed are some of the recent prominent cases of scientific misconduct, the number of authors with multiple retractions, and problems with reproducibility of published research. Finally, some of the effects of faulty research on science and society, as well as possible solutions are discussed.

  7. Authorship in scientific publications: analysis and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Christian W; Brückner, Christian; Kaiser, Tony; Mauron, Alex; Wahli, Walter; Wenzel, Uwe Justus; Salathé, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, a Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences working group chaired by Professor Emilio Bossi issued a "Memorandum on scientific integrity and the handling of misconduct in the scientific context", together with a paper setting out principles and procedures concerning integrity in scientific research. In the Memorandum, unjustified claims of authorship in scientific publications are referred to as a form of scientific misconduct - a view widely shared in other countries. In the Principles and Procedures, the main criteria for legitimate authorship are specified, as well as the associated responsibilities. It is in fact not uncommon for disputes about authorship to arise with regard to publications in fields where research is generally conducted by teams rather than individuals. Such disputes may concern not only the question who is or is not to be listed as an author but also, frequently, the precise sequence of names, if the list is to reflect the various authors' roles and contributions. Subjective assessments of the contributions made by the individual members of a research group may differ substantially. As scientific collaboration - often across national boundaries - is now increasingly common, ensuring appropriate recognition of all parties is a complex matter and, where disagreements arise, it may not be easy to reach a consensus. In addition, customs have changed over the past few decades; for example, the practice of granting "honorary" authorship to an eminent researcher - formerly not unusual - is no longer considered acceptable. It should be borne in mind that the publications list has become by far the most important indicator of a researcher's scientific performance; for this reason, appropriate authorship credit has become a decisive factor in the careers of young researchers, and it needs to be managed and protected accordingly. At the international and national level, certain practices have therefore developed concerning the listing of authors

  8. Bibliometric indicators: quality measurements of scientific publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durieux, Valérie; Gevenois, Pierre Alain

    2010-05-01

    Bibliometrics is a set of mathematical and statistical methods used to analyze and measure the quantity and quality of books, articles, and other forms of publications. There are three types of bibliometric indicators: quantity indicators, which measure the productivity of a particular researcher; quality indicators, which measure the quality (or "performance") of a researcher's output; and structural indicators, which measure connections between publications, authors, and areas of research. Bibliometric indicators are especially important for researchers and organizations, as these measurements are often used in funding decisions, appointments, and promotions of researchers. As more and more scientific discoveries occur and published research results are read and then quoted by other researchers, bibliometric indicators are becoming increasingly important. This article provides an overview of the currently used bibliometric indicators and summarizes the critical elements and characteristics one should be aware of when evaluating the quantity and quality of scientific output.

  9. Preparing manuscript: Scientific writing for publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Sawhney, Chhavi

    2016-01-01

    Publication has become a burning issue among Indian medical fraternity owing to certain academic and professional necessities. The large number of submissions to the anaesthesia journals has resulted in accumulation of too much below average scientific material. A properly written manuscript is the dream of every editor and reviewer. The art of preparing a manuscript can be acquired only by following certain basic rules and technical aspects, besides knowledge and skills. Before preparing the manuscript, a target journal should be considered. All the instructions to the authors pertaining to that particular journal should be followed meticulously before preparing the manuscript for submission. The basic structure of the manuscript to be followed can be summarised by the acronym IMRaD (introduction, methods, results and discussion). The current review article aims to highlight all those mandatory and desirable features which should be kept in consideration while preparing a scientific manuscript for publication. PMID:27729696

  10. Measuring informal scientific publication in the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Aguillo, Isidro F.

    2002-01-01

    Cyberscientometrics is becoming a popular topic in the scientific evaluation research front, mainly because it is relatively easy to apply traditional bibliometrics methods to formal electronic journals. Some of the results obtained correlate well with previous studies and major discrepancies are best explained by the not yet fully developed electronic new paradigm. But the Web offers more possibilities for evaluation purposes than those restricted to formal electronic publications. Today in ...

  11. An interdisciplinary space of scientific communication in Collective (Public) Health: the journal interface - Communication, Health, Education

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This is a reflection upon 17 years of experience in the production of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, the publication “Interface: Communication, Health, Education,” whose scope is in the fields of Collective (Public) Health, Education and Communication. It also examines retrospectively the themes published by the journal, seeking to identify them in different sections of this publication. Finally, the evolution of the journal is analyzed. Faz-se uma reflexão sobre a experiência de...

  12. Scientific disintegrity as a public bad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    In this article, I argue that scientific dishonesty essentially results from an incentive problem; I do so using a standard economic model-the public bad. Arguably, at least in the short run, most scientists would increase their personal utility by being sloppy with scientific standards. Yet, if they do, it becomes more difficult for all scientists to make their voice heard in society, to convince policy makers to assign public funds to academia, and to lead fulfilling academic lives. The nature of the ensuing governance problem (and appropriate policy intervention) hinges on the definition of scientists' utility function. The policy problem is less grave if society attaches disproportionally more weight to severe or widespread violations and if individual scientists do not precisely know in advance when they will quit their academic lives. If most scientists internalize most scientific standards, then the problem is alleviated. However, internalization is immaterial if honorable scientists dislike that others advance their careers by violating those standards. Sanctions are helpful, even if relatively mild. However, it is important to also punish those who do not punish others for breaking the rules or, alternatively, to put some centralized mechanism for vigilance and enforcement into place.

  13. An interdisciplinary space of scientific communication in Collective (Public) Health: the journal interface--Communication, Health, Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrino, Antonio Pithon; Lima, Elizabeth Araújo; Garcia, Vera Lucia; Teixeira, Ricardo Rodrigues; Foresti, Miriam Celí Pimentel Porto; Schraiber, Lilia Blima

    2015-07-01

    This is a reflection upon 17 years of experience in the production of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, the publication "Interface: Communication, Health, Education," whose scope is in the fields of Collective (Public) Health, Education and Communication. It also examines retrospectively the themes published by the journal, seeking to identify them in different sections of this publication. Finally, the evolution of the journal is analyzed.

  14. Scientific Publications and the Internet - Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller WD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is a potent medium for the global distribution and retrieval of information in all areas of life. We already profit from this opportunity and will do so even more when the Internet will be developed further. But there is another side to all this: The fact that unchecked information is available to an almost unlimited extent also carries dangers with it particularly when it is given the semblance of being based on scientific evidence. For the publication of scientific knowledge, an efficient control system has matured and proved successful over many years: peer review. The Internet is not the only medium to dodge this system, but the Internet is certainly the cheapest, fastest, most widespread and therefore the most efficient (and probably dangerous way to do so. A recent example is Arpad Pusztai's claim in the press and on television programmes in Great Britain that genetically modified (GM potatoes may stunt the growth of rats. His ‘findings', although not published in a peer-reviewed journal, were welcomed and exploited by lobby groups and triggered widespread concern over the issue of GM food. A year later the paper was published in The Lancet accompanied by a critical commentary (A. Pusztai: Lancet 354 (1999 1314-1315. One benefit of the publication in this prestigious journal certainly was that Pusztai had to retract his original claims because the data simply do not support them (N. Loder: Nature 401 (1999 731.A similar case, we believe, is the Internet publication of July 14, 1999, on the website of ‘Action on Smoking and Health’ (ASH entitled ‘Tobacco Additives - Cigarette Engineering and Nicotine Addiction', authored by C. Bates, M. Jarvis and G. Connolly (http://www.ash.org.uk/papers/additives.html. In this report, the authors claim, among other things, that the cigarette industry uses pharmacologically active additives in order to influence the smoking behaviour. The scientific evidence for their claim is mainly

  15. Genetically modified plants: public and scientific perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi Verma, Smita

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed.

  16. The spacelab scientific missions: A comprehensive bibliography of scientific publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torr, Marsha (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    November 1993 represented the 10-year anniversary of the flight of Spacelab 1 mission, with the first precursor mission (OSTA-1) being launched 2 years earlier. Since that time, a total of 27 Shuttle missions has been flown, using the Spacelab system as a facility for conducting scientific research in space. The missions flown to date have allowed a total of approximately 500 Principle Investigator class investigations to be conducted in orbit. These investigations have constituted major scientific efforts in astronomy/astrophysics, atmospheric science, Earth observation, life sciences, microgravity science, and space plasma physics. An initial survey of the scientific products gleaned from Spacelab missions already flown was sent to the Principle Investigators. In that survey, information was gathered from the investigators on the scientific highlights of their investigations and statistical measurements of overall success -- such as papers published. This document is a compilation of the papers that have been published to date in referred literature.

  17. Access to scientific publications: the scientist's perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegor Voronin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scientific publishing is undergoing significant changes due to the growth of online publications, increases in the number of open access journals, and policies of funders and universities requiring authors to ensure that their publications become publicly accessible. Most studies of the impact of these changes have focused on the growth of articles available through open access or the number of open-access journals. Here, we investigated access to publications at a number of institutes and universities around the world, focusing on publications in HIV vaccine research--an area of biomedical research with special importance to the developing world. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We selected research papers in HIV vaccine research field, creating: 1 a first set of 50 most recently published papers with keywords "HIV vaccine" and 2 a second set of 200 articles randomly selected from those cited in the first set. Access to the majority (80% of the recently published articles required subscription, while cited literature was much more accessible (67% freely available online. Subscriptions at a number of institutions around the world were assessed for providing access to subscription-only articles from the two sets. The access levels varied widely, ranging among institutions from 20% to 90%. Through the WHO-supported HINARI program, institutes in low-income countries had access comparable to that of institutes in the North. Finally, we examined the response rates for reprint requests sent to corresponding authors, a method commonly used before internet access became widespread. Contacting corresponding authors with requests for electronic copies of articles by email resulted in a 55-60% success rate, although in some cases it took up to 1.5 months to get a response. CONCLUSIONS: While research articles are increasingly available on the internet in open access format, institutional subscriptions continue to play an important role. However

  18. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.

  19. Publication pressure and scientific misconduct in medical scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijdink, Joeri K; Verbeke, Reinout; Smulders, Yvo M

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that scientific misconduct is more common than previously thought. Strong emphasis on scientific productivity may increase the sense of publication pressure. We administered a nationwide survey to Flemish biomedical scientists on whether they had engaged in scientific misconduct and whether they had experienced publication pressure. A total of 315 scientists participated in the survey; 15% of the respondents admitted they had fabricated, falsified, plagiarized, or manipulated data in the past 3 years. Fraud was more common among younger scientists working in a university hospital. Furthermore, 72% rated publication pressure as "too high." Publication pressure was strongly and significantly associated with a composite scientific misconduct severity score.

  20. Second Annual AEC Scientific Computer Information Exhange Meeting. Proceedings of the technical program theme: computer graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin,A.M.; Shimamoto, Y.

    1974-01-01

    The topic of computer graphics serves well to illustrate that AEC affiliated scientific computing installations are well represented in the forefront of computing science activities. The participant response to the technical program was overwhelming--both in number of contributions and quality of the work described. Session I, entitled Advanced Systems, contains presentations describing systems that contain features not generally found in graphics facilities. These features can be roughly classified as extensions of standard two-dimensional monochromatic imaging to higher dimensions including color and time as well as multidimensional metrics. Session II presents seven diverse applications ranging from high energy physics to medicine. Session III describes a number of important developments in establishing facilities, techniques and enhancements in the computer graphics area. Although an attempt was made to schedule as many of these worthwhile presentations as possible, it appeared impossible to do so given the scheduling constraints of the meeting. A number of prospective presenters 'came to the rescue' by graciously withdrawing from the sessions. Some of their abstracts have been included in the Proceedings.

  1. [The theme of disaster in health care: profile of technical and scientific production in the specialized database on disasters of the Virtual Health Library - VHL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Vania; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli; Carvalho, Mauren Lopes de; Alpino, Tais de Moura Ariza; Freitas, Carlos Machado de

    2014-09-01

    In the specialized database of the Virtual Health Library (VHL), the DISASTER database highlights the importance of the theme for the health sector. The scope of this article is to identify the profiles of technical and scientific publications in the specialized database. Based on systematic searches and the analysis of results it is possible to determine: the type of publication; the main topics addressed; the most common type of disasters mentioned in published materials, countries and regions as subjects, historic periods with the most publications and the current trend of publications. When examining the specialized data in detail, it soon becomes clear that the number of major topics is very high, making a specific search process in this database a challenging exercise. On the other hand, it is encouraging that the disaster topic is discussed and assessed in a broad and diversified manner, associated with different aspects of the natural and social sciences. The disaster issue requires the production of interdisciplinary knowledge development to reduce the impacts of disasters and for risk management. In this way, since the health sector is a interdisciplinary area, it can contribute to knowledge production.

  2. [Scientific publications: a resource for the physician's intellectual development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The physician's professional life involves reading and analysis of scientific journals, regardless of the specialization field. The hospital and academic areas lead to the scientific-literary activity development. The aim of this editorial is to make some reflections about the way a physician reaches intellectual development, through the creation of a culture of writing and reading scientific publications.

  3. The implementation of public health interventions in Africa: a neglected strategic theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, V; Olivier de Sardan, J-P

    2017-02-01

    Organizing effective public health interventions is required to improve population health and reduce social inequalities in health. However, measuring their effectiveness is not enough; we must also understand how these interventions are implemented and what role is played by the context and the social actors. Today, it seems that the importance of studying intervention implementation by public health actors (stakeholders, policy makers, donors, and researchers) has not yet been sufficiently considered. In this Tribune, we wish to draw the attention of the public health community, including that interested in interventions in Africa, to the need to analyze their implementation in depth. We must produce empirical and theoretical knowledge about implementation but also train students and young researchers more effectively in this scientific approach, which, although indispensable, has been ignored too long.

  4. Scientific publications in XML - towards a global knowledge base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Murray-Rust

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments on the World-Wide Web provide an unparalleled opportunity to revolutionise scientific, technical and medical publication. The technology exists for the scientific world to use primary publication to create a knowledge base, or Semantic Web, with a potential greatly beyond the paper archives and electronic databases of today.

  5. [SIGAPS, a tool for the analysis of scientific publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillet, Arnauld

    2015-04-01

    The System for the Identification, Management and Analysis of Scientific Publications (SIGAPS) is essential for the funding of teaching hospitals on the basis of scientific publications. It is based on the analysis of articles indexed in Medline and is calculated by taking into account the place of the author and the ranking of the journal according to the disciplinary field. It also offers tools for the bibliometric analysis of scientific production.

  6. A tool for public analysis of scientific data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Haglin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific method encourages sharing data with other researchers to independently verify conclusions. Currently, technical barriers impede such public scrutiny. A strategy for offering scientific data for public analysis is described. With this strategy, effectively no requirements of software installation (other than a web browser or data manipulation are imposed on other researchers to prepare for perusing the scientific data. A prototype showcasing this strategy is described.

  7. The implementation of integrated science teaching materials based socio-scientific issues to improve students scientific literacy for environmental pollution theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenni, Rita; Hernani, Widodo, Ari

    2017-05-01

    The study aims to determine the increasing of students' science literacy skills on content aspects and competency of science by using Integrated Science teaching materials based Socio-scientific Issues (SSI) for environmental pollution theme. The method used in the study is quasi-experiment with nonequivalent pretest and posttest control group design. The students of experimental class used teaching materials based SSI, whereas the students of control class were still using the usual textbooks. The result of this study showed a significant difference between the value of N-gain of experimental class and control class, whichalso occurred in every indicator of content aspects and competency of science. This result indicates that using of Integrated Science teaching materials based SSI can improve content aspect and competency of science and can be used as teaching materials alternative in teaching of Integrated Science.

  8. The citation merit of scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Juan A; Ortuño-Ortín, Ignacio; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method to assess the merit of any set of scientific papers in a given field based on the citations they receive. Given a field and a citation impact indicator, such as the mean citation or the [Formula: see text]-index, the merit of a given set of [Formula: see text] articles is identified with the probability that a randomly drawn set of [Formula: see text] articles from a given pool of articles in that field has a lower citation impact according to the indicator in question. The method allows for comparisons between sets of articles of different sizes and fields. Using a dataset acquired from Thomson Scientific that contains the articles published in the periodical literature in the period 1998-2007, we show that the novel approach yields rankings of research units different from those obtained by a direct application of the mean citation or the [Formula: see text]-index.

  9. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of special publications, reference publications, conference publications, and technical papers, 1991-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This catalog lists 458 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information database during accession year 1991 through 1992. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  10. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of special publications, reference publications, conference publications, and technical papers, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This catalog lists 190 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered into the NASA scientific and technical information database during accession year 1989. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  11. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of Special Publications, Reference Publications, Conference Publications, and Technical Papers, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This catalog lists 239 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered in the NASA scientific and technical information database during accession year 1987. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  12. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of special publications, reference publications, conference publications, and technical papers, 1987-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This catalog lists 783 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered into NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database during the year's 1987 through 1990. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  13. Improving Research and Scientific Publications in Africa: Analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving Research and Scientific Publications in Africa: Analysis of a ... factors that can guarantee career success in the field of biomedical science in Nigeria. ... in the article, c) Number of figures and presentation of data within the figures, ...

  14. Analysis of scientific publications on artistic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Emanuelli da Silva de Barros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the scientific literature on the Artistic Gymnastics (AG, published in January 2000 to December 2014, in national and international journals. The searches were conducted from systematic review procedures in the following databases: Google Scholar, EBSCO Host, LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, Scopus, Sport Discus, Science Direct and ISI (Web of Science. We selected 382 articles, classified into seven categories of thematic focuses: Sports Training, Biological, Pedagogical, Psychological, Social and Anthropology, Philosophical and Administrative. The results showed higher incidence of international studies, subject to quantitative approach, focused on the analysis of sport techniques in different apparatus. The artistic gymnastics is configured as a research object in the field of Sports Science, based in the Natural Sciences.

  15. Visibility of latin american scientific publications: the example of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Pabón Escobar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the state of the art of scientific publications in Latin American countries generally restricts itself to its supposedly low visibility. This affirmation is generally conditioned to the exclusive use of large international databases, mainly of the USA and Europe, which include thousands of scientific publications that have marginalized a large part of the scientific literature produced in peripheral countries. Given this fact of low visibility, it became imperative for some Latin American countries, beginning in the 90s (20th Century, to develop their own mechanisms of projection of the results of their own scientific production. The experiences constitute an example for countries that, having significant scientific production, still do not have the means to facilitate access to local scientific publications. Although Bolivia still remains distant from these initiatives, a series of studies were identified that show the existence of a tradition of publication in scientific magazines and interest in their visibility, on a local and international level, which demands attention to the most adequate mechanisms in order to carry this out.

  16. Trends in scientific publications of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; He, Hui; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important component of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The fast economic growth of mainland China in the past two decades has promoted the use of TCM beyond Chinese-speaking countries. Chinese researchers have published more TCM research studies in CAM-related professional journals, including the American Journal of Chinese Medicine (AJCM), the highest impact journal in Chinese medicine. The consistent increase of the impact factor of the AJCM suggests a growth in TCM popularity. This study analyzed articles published in the AJCM between 2004 and 2011. Our data show that while enthusiasm towards cardiovascular, nervous system and inflammation related research remained high, more herbal investigations and cancer studies were published. Furthermore, a reduction in TCM formulation studies was replaced by increasing botanical single constituent research. Examples of frequently cited studies, including those before 2004, are presented. These data are not only important to the scientific community for recognition of trends in TCM research, but also for providing information to TCM researchers who are targeting potentially highly cited studies.

  17. Digital Format for Depositary Part of Scientific Publications' Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemskov, Andrei; Evstigneeva, Galina

    As a rule, any large library has so called depositary part of collection. Specific circulation of these publications is not high, but preservation, conservation and provision of access to given collection need permanent efforts. The paper presents evaluation of expenses and centralized systems efficiency. These systems (e.g. JSTOR, Backfiles for Future) are publicly accessible collections of full text versions of scientific periodicals.

  18. [Towards a new equitable system of scientific publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaíno-Salazar, Gilberto

    2009-06-01

    Scientific publications are the most accessible manifestations of research activities and the main mission of public universities and academic communities. The publication legitimizes scientific activity, the authors and the institutions that they promote, but specialized publications have a very small impact on society, since a limited market have implications on their costs' increase and on their possible extinction. In this context, the Open Access initiative (OAI) promotes free access to the scientific knowledge. This movement supports the need for the free availability on Internet of scientific information, for the whole humanity, without restrictions. The modality of open access promotes actions such as stimulus, development and the claim for support for the free subsistence of publications with standards of quality that guarantee a healthy practice, with recognition by the scientific community. In the OAI, the role of the author's copyright should be to grant the control to the authors on the integrity of their work and the right to be adequately recognized and mentioned. It is necessary to emphasize that the OAI will reduce the phenomenon of "lost science", understood as those researches that are never published, taking advantage of the model of development of the Society of the Knowledge and the suitable use of the TICs (technologies of information and communication), to achieve the increment of productivity and the economic and social progress of the countries.

  19. Getting the Public Addicted to Scientific Data Through Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkopf, C. A.; Flasher, J. C.; Lodoysamba, S.

    2013-12-01

    Effectively communicating about a scientific topic to the public can be challenging for scientists for a variety reasons that often boil down to an inadequate bridge between general knowledge and the specialized scientific knowledge needed to understand the context of what a scientist from a particular field wishes to convey. This issue makes it difficult for the public to interpret scientific information and leaves it vulnerable to misinterpretation and misrepresentation. Rather than 'dumb down' scientific information to the public, we believe the most effective way to bridge this gap is to provide a means for the public to have easy access to - and get addicted to! - the actual scientific data itself, presented in a straightforward form. To this end, we will discuss an air quality public awareness campaign that we launched in one of the most polluted cities in the world, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, over the past year. We have installed an air quality instrument at a university in Mongolia, and we automatically post data from the instrument on Facebook (UB Air Quality Info) and Twitter (@UB_Air). We provide infographics on how to understand the data, share relevant articles and local activities, and monitor the sites for questions from the public about the data. We also maintain a website that posts aggregate air quality information (http://ubdata.herokuapp.com) and publicly shares the code that automatically connects our air quality instrument to the social media sites. This social media project, the first of its kind in Mongolia, has been an effective way to provide: (1) a quantifiable context to the public about air pollution issues in Ulaanbaatar, (2) a forum for the public and decision makers - from ambassadors to politicians - to engage with experts in the field and each other, and (3) a device that helps prevent misrepresentation (or fabrication) of data for political ends. We will also discuss the broader utility of our project and possible application to other

  20. [Scientific publications and their influence in specialty teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Alvaro; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2010-10-01

    Scientific publication is used by researchers to transmit information and is the means through which scientists can validate the results obtained in their studies. The rapid introduction of electronic scientific journals faces training specialists with an endless source of information. This article discusses the present and future of biomedical journals in the field of clinical microbiology. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the main sources of information for training specialists in microbiology and parasitology are also evaluated.

  1. Review : Public service motivation—practical problems, scientific evidence and the role of a research community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenabeele, Wouter; Skelcher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This review article introduces Public Money & Management's theme papers and articles on public service motivation (PSM). PSM has proven to be a promising road in creating public performance and public value and this theme brings it to an even wider audience, ensuring that policy-makers and those res

  2. PaperMaker: validation of biomedical scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz-Schuhmann, D; Kavaliauskas, S; Pezik, P

    2010-04-01

    The automatic analysis of scientific literature can support authors in writing their manuscripts. PaperMaker is a novel IT solution that receives a scientific manuscript via a Web interface, automatically analyses the publication, evaluates consistency parameters and interactively delivers feedback to the author. It analyses the proper use of acronyms and their definitions, and the use of specialized terminology. It provides Gene Ontology (GO) and Medline Subject Headings (MeSH) categorization of text passages, the retrieval of relevant publications from public scientific literature repositories, and the identification of missing or unused references. The author receives a summary of findings, the manuscript in its corrected form and a digital abstract containing the GO and MeSH annotations in the NLM/PubMed format. http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Rebholz-srv/PaperMaker.

  3. Public Relations as Scientific Branch of Information and Communication Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jakopović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that the field of information and communication sciences is a young field in the social sciences, it is important to consider how technology impacts the development of this field. This is especially relevant when looking at the area of public relations. Amid changing technological developments public relations is constantly being redefined in this complex environment. This work focuses on the development of public relations as a branch of study in the field of information and communication sciences. I review the scientific methods used to evaluate the influence and effects of public relations, while discussing the different methodological approaches.

  4. Public Participation in Scientific Research: a Framework for Deliberate Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Shirk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Members of the public participate in scientific research in many different contexts, stemming from traditions as varied as participatory action research and citizen science. Particularly in conservation and natural resource management contexts, where research often addresses complex social-ecological questions, the emphasis on and nature of this participation can significantly affect both the way that projects are designed and the outcomes that projects achieve. We review and integrate recent work in these and other fields, which has converged such that we propose the term public participation in scientific research (PPSR to discuss initiatives from diverse fields and traditions. We describe three predominant models of PPSR and call upon case studies suggesting that - regardless of the research context - project outcomes are influenced by (1 the degree of public participation in the research process and (2 the quality of public participation as negotiated during project design. To illustrate relationships between the quality of participation and outcomes, we offer a framework that considers how scientific and public interests are negotiated for project design toward multiple, integrated goals. We suggest that this framework and models, used in tandem, can support deliberate design of PPSR efforts that will enhance their outcomes for scientific research, individual participants, and social-ecological systems.

  5. Theming Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erb, Maribeth; Ong, Chin Ee

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue on Theme Parks in Asia with reflections on how the various theoretical ideas on theming and theme parks that are found in the social science literature can help us to understand the proliferation of theming and theme parks in contemporary Asia. How does theming

  6. Public Awareness of the Scientific Consensus on Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C. Hamilton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Questions about climate change elicit some of the widest political divisions of any items on recent U.S. surveys. Severe polarization affects even basic questions about the reality of anthropogenic climate change (ACC, or whether most scientists agree that humans are changing the Earth’s climate. Statements about scientific consensus have been contentious among social scientists, with some arguing for consensus awareness as a “gateway cognition” that leads to greater public acceptance of ACC, but others characterizing consensus messaging (deliberate communication about the level of scientific agreement as a counterproductive tactic that exacerbates polarization. A series of statewide surveys, with nationwide benchmarks, repeated questions about the reality of ACC and scientific consensus many times over 2010 to 2016. These data permit tests for change in beliefs and polarization. ACC and consensus beliefs have similar trends and individual background predictors. Both rose gradually by about 10 points over 2010 to 2016, showing no abrupt shifts that might correspond to events such as scientific reports, leadership statements, or weather. Growing awareness of the scientific consensus, whether from deliberate messaging or the cumulative impact of many studies and publicly engaged scientists, provides the most plausible explanation for this rise in both series. In state-level data, the gap between liberal and conservative views on the reality of ACC did not widen over this period, whereas the liberal–conservative gap regarding existence of a scientific consensus narrowed.

  7. A "Sense of Place" in Public Participation in Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Public participation in scientific research (PPSR) within the natural sciences has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to expand cognitive knowledge and understanding of ecology, with implications regarding individual perspectives, attitudes, and behaviors about the environment and feelings about the personal relevance of science. Yet the…

  8. Using Bibliographic Knowledge for Ranking in Scientific Publication Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Vesely, Martin; Le Meur, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Document ranking for scientific publications involves a variety of specialized resources (e.g. author or citation indexes) that are usually difficult to use within standard general purpose search engines that usually operate on large-scale heterogeneous document collections for which the required specialized resources are not always available for all the documents present in the collections. Integrating such resources into specialized information retrieval engines is therefore important to cope with community-specific user expectations that strongly influence the perception of relevance within the considered community. In this perspective, this paper extends the notion of ranking with various methods exploiting different types of bibliographic knowledge that represent a crucial resource for measuring the relevance of scientific publications. In our work, we experimentally evaluated the adequacy of two such ranking methods (one based on freshness, i.e. the publication date, and the other on a novel index, the ...

  9. Shared-Book Experience Using Science-Themed Books to Develop Scientific Literacy: An Interactive Approach with Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mi-Hyun; Keckler, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This paper will explain what a reading teacher learned from working with a group of first-grade struggling readers in a series of shared-book experience classes. The shared-book experience approach used a variety of science-themed books that were aligned with the first-grade curriculum and appropriate for beginning readers. Considering the…

  10. Fiction and scientific communication about volcanoes for the young public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonach, H.; Drouin, V.

    2003-12-01

    Since January 2002, I have developed a new type of interactive web site for scientific news and communications about volcanic activities on the Earth and in our solar system. With the help of a small team (including an illustrator) based in GEOTOP at the University of Quebec in Montreal, I have created a monthly French language site on volcanoes including ongoing activity. Our multimedia site www.vickivolka.uqam.ca, combines open-style scientific news, including texts and pictures with scientific explanations. The originality lies in both the content and site structure. The monthly renewals inform the public on volcanic news but also on academic research and scientific experiments that young people can perform at home. We thus link breaking volcanic news with a deeper understanding of the processes and knowledge. Another original aspect is the use of fictional characters (Vicki and Anaky) who present the news and describe their adventures during the volcanic trips (volcanological, geographical, historic contents). Additional sections include interactive functions. Based on the success of this web site (published at the moment in French) - as evidenced notably by numerous primary school visits - we are planning to translate it in English very soon. This mixture of fiction with real world stories and scientific knowledge is an unusual effort by practising researchers and collaborators to strengthen links between the academic world and the general public, especially with children and educators.

  11. Half-century of Dental Public Health research: bibliometric analysis of world scientific trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Moyses, Samuel Jorge

    2016-12-01

    To describe the characteristics of Dental Public Health (DPH) scientific publications within core DPH journals over time and to compare DPH journals with DPH content from other journal types. The Scopus database was used to identify DPH-relevant articles published from 1965 to 2014 in three core DPH journals (DPHJs) and from 2005 to 2014 in Dental Journals (DJs), Public Health (PHJs) and General Journals (GJs). To identify DPH-relevant articles, a search strategy with words about oral health and public health was applied to each group of journals. Research themes were created by grouping similar keywords to report changes in the focus of articles over time. The most productive journals, countries, institutions and authors were also estimated for each set of journals. In 2005-2014, 60 297 articles were identified, of which 2.7% in DPHJs, 10.4% from PHJs, 38.2% from GJs and 48.7% from DJs. DPH-relevant articles published in the core DPHJs, DJs and PHJs tended to share a strong emphasis on dental caries, healthcare/services research on children and adolescents. Over time, the focus in the DPHJs has increased towards health behaviour/promotion/education, quality of life and socioeconomic factors. In the last decade, those themes were more frequent in DPH journals than in the other groups. DPH research published in DPHJs had some unique features and greater focus on the themes of quality of life, socioeconomic factors and health behaviour/education/promotion than other groups of journals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Proposed structure of a data paper structure as scientific publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Roa-Martínez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the main motivations and paths for publishing datasets that are generated and managed during the research process. The Data Paper is considered as a form of scientific publication with the same recognition, acceptance and scientific rigor as conventional research articles. Therefore we propose a common structure defined by elements based mainly on dataset metadata. This will enable creators, publishers, consumers and expert peer reviewers to recognise, share, evaluate and facilitate data reuse. Doing so will facilitate information reproducibility, validation of results, and rapid new research generation.

  13. Citizen science: integrating scientific research, ecological conservation and public participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science, also known as “public participation in scientific research”, is defined as scientific activities in which non-professional scientists participate as volunteers in data collection, analysis and dissemination within a scientific project. With the advent of the information age, citizen science projects, especially in ecological conservation and environmental monitoring, are rapidly expanding our knowledge of the world around us, and contributing to management and policy decisions. Citizen science projects can be classified into five types of models: contractual, contributory, collaborative, co-created and collegial projects. In China, public participation in science related activities has had a long history, but current contributions in citizen science are limited because of relatively low public participation, and the weaknesses in data quality control, data management and analysis. Recently, citizen science has been applied to bird watching and plant monitoring, with some positive and negative experiences. To better increase citizen science activities and enhance such contributions to academic research, improvements are urgently required in financial support, the development of project platforms, the application of new technology, and international collaboration. We believe that the enhancement of citizen science will greatly promote the development of ecological conservation, environmental monitoring and related research fields. To help with this we have established a platform for China citizen science projects (http://www.gongzhongkexue.org to promote communication and cooperation among scientists, governments, other organizations and the public.

  14. Review : Public service motivation—practical problems, scientific evidence and the role of a research community

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenabeele, Wouter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323038816; Skelcher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This review article introduces Public Money & Management's theme papers and articles on public service motivation (PSM). PSM has proven to be a promising road in creating public performance and public value and this theme brings it to an even wider audience, ensuring that policy-makers and those responsible for delivering public services worldwide are aware of the value of PSM research. The article also presents new findings about how best to further PSM research.

  15. Weight loss diets advertised in non-scientific publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maria Silverio Amancio

    Full Text Available Weight-loss diets advertised in mainstream non-scientific publications and targeting the adult female public were evaluated in relation to total energy value, macronutrients, calcium, iron, vitamins A and E, and cholesterol content, as well as the presence of information regarding the duration of diets, fluid intake, physical activity, and maintenance diets. Two publications were selected, considering periodicity, circulation, readership, and years in publication. The Virtual Nutri software was used to evaluate the nutrients of 112 diets. Micronutrient content was compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes. All diets were inadequate in at least one of the evaluated items. Less than 25.0% of the diets presented adequate macronutrient distribution. Calcium, iron, and vitamin E were also predominantly inadequate (85.7, 97.3, and 91.9%, respectively. Non-scientific publications should not be allowed to advertise weight-loss diets. In addition, their chemical composition is inadequate and they are not accompanied by important instructions for such therapy.

  16. Public scientific communication: reflections on the public and its participation forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sekloča

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific communication also pertains to the domain of society, where the formation of public opinion about science and technology is taking place. Concerning this process, two main points are exposed in the commentary. The first is a proposition on how the public as a social category may be conceptualized, and the second is the extent of the participation of members of the public in strengthening socialization and democratization practices in new, highly complex, contexts of scientific research. The public is conceptualized to include all citizens no matter their professional origin, including scientists, which promotes the idea of openness and equality of the public sphere where scientific issues are discussed. To be democratic in its practical-political setting, such a conception needs to deal with the problems of participation in a highly mediatized world, where not every member of the public could be included into scientific research. The author thus reflects on the mechanisms which would enable the formation of public forums where the trust of influential public actors as stakeholders of research can be tested.

  17. Influencing public policies: Two (very good) reasons to look toward scientific knowledge in public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, François; Bellefleur, Olivier

    2014-07-11

    The healthy public policy movement rests on the belief that a range of public policies should be at least partly informed by evidence demonstrating the positive effects of these policies on population health, health inequalities and their determinants. In order to address certain difficulties that the movement faces, knowledge produced in various scientific disciplines regarding public policies may provide some valuable guidance. In this short commentary, we examine how knowledge from the scientific disciplines investigating public policies makes it possible to address two difficulties in the development of healthy public policies: 1) adequately anticipating the effects of public policies, and 2) assessing the political viability of the policies being promoted. Since urban traffic policies are of interest to most of the other contributors to this supplement, we use examples from this field to illustrate some of our points.

  18. Publication, cooperation and productivity measures in scientific research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauffriau, Marianne; Larsen, P.O.; Maye, I.

    2007-01-01

    The literature on publication counting demonstrates the use of various terminologies and methods. In many scientific publications, no information at all is given about the counting methods used. There is a lack of knowledge and agreement about the sort of information provided by the various methods......, about the theoretical and technical limitations for the different methods and about the size of the differences obtained by using various methods. The need for precise definitions and terminology has been expressed repeatedly but with no success. Counting methods for publications are defined...... and analysed with the use of set and measure theory. The analysis depends on definitions of basic units for analysis (three chosen for examination), objects of study (three chosen for examination) and score functions (five chosen for examination). The score functions define five classes of counting methods...

  19. The views of scientific experts on how the public conceptualize uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Hunt, S.; Brennan, M.; Kuznesof, S.; Ness, M.; Ritson, C.

    2003-01-01

    Scientific experts (drawn from scientific institutions, universities, industry, and government) were interviewed about how they thought the general public might handle information about uncertainty associated with risk analysis. It was found that, for many people within the scientific community, the

  20. Living in the Theme Park: A Textual Tour of Savannah's Public Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Lavazzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In drafting this essay, the author has counter-posed two compositional strategies, one based on conventional rhetorical structures, founded in enlightenment concepts of sequential logic, rationality, and isomorphism—i.e., the standard, academically sanctioned thesis essay form, proceeding in an orderly and hierarchical manner from head (main idea through body (detailed breakdown and investigation of thesis points—equivalent to scientific testing or proof of an initial hypothesis/proposal, deploying transitions and focal topics to govern and control the content of each subsequent investigative unit (paragraph. From this perspective, the essay structure is very much the rhetorical double of the city plan it proposes to elucidate. Working against this more panoptically controlled hierarchical structure, is a postmodern turn toward [Internet] www-based, non-sequential organization. Hence, certain sections of the essay are potentially arrived at via mock-URLs, suggesting the tentative, self-consciously constructed, unnatural nature of the smoothly flowing logical structure; at any moment, a different link could be selected, interrupting/disrupting/complicating the logical and sequential arrangement. Also along these alinear lines are bolded fragments of text, suggesting an associational pattern of connectivity among images and ideas destabilizing and rendering motile the more static, rationally secured surface of the final product.

  1. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara; Adeli, Khosrow

    2014-10-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current article

  2. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author’s scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current

  3. Revista de Saúde Pública in scientific publications on Violence and Health (1967-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Blima Schraiber

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article retrieved the publications from the Revista de Saúde Pública journal (from 1967 to 2015 on violence and health, on the SciELO and PubMed bases, by searching for the terms “violence”, “suicide”, “aggression”, “bullying”, and “external causes”, registered in any part of the text. We found 130 articles (the first one published in 1974. We observed: increase of publications over time, with decrease in the last five years; similar production volume in lethal and non-lethal violence; later publication of the latter; few studies in qualitative research; mostly descriptive production; and visualization of the problem more by the acts than by contexts or motivations and aggressors. Social markers were little approached, appearing, from largest to smallest frequency, social class, gender, race/ethnicity, and generation. Human rights were little used and only recently used as analytical framework, connected more to gender than to social class. Although Revista de Saúde Pública has registered the theme in its publications, consolidating it as scientific production line, there is still great explanatory theoretical rarefaction and little intersectionality between violence, social inequalities, and human rights.

  4. 50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research permits and public... Scientific research permits and public display permits. The Director may, upon receipt of an application and... importation of marine mammals for scientific research purposes or for public display. (a) Application...

  5. The origins of psychology in Italy: Themes and authors that emerge through a content analysis of the Rivista di Filosofia Scientifica [Journal of Scientific Philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Chiara; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro

    2012-08-01

    This article examines the scientific-cultural context of the second half of the 1800s, during which psychological science emerged in Italy. The article explores the contribution made by the emergence of the primary research traditions of that period, namely, physiological anthropology and phreniatry, by means of a methodology that combines content analysis with a classical historiographical study of the period. Themes and authors deriving from the various disciplines in the human and natural sciences were identified through a content analysis of the Rivista di Filosofia Scientifica [Journal of Scientific Philosophy], a periodical that is representative of Italian positivism. The analysis highlights the epistemological perspective held by scholars who, distancing themselves from the mechanistic reductionism of the proponents of positivism, integrated a naturalistic and evolutionary conceptualization with the neo-Kantian critique. A clearly delineated naturalistic and differential perspective of scientific research that brought about the birth of psychology as an experimental discipline in Italy in the 1900s emerges from the analysis, including psychology and psychopathology as studied by the phreniatrists Gabriele Buccola, Enrico Morselli, and Eugenio Tanzi; Tito Vignoli and Giuseppe Sergi's work in comparative anthropology; Giulio Fano's approach and contribution to physiology; and Enrico Ferri's contribution to criminology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. How to measure the internationality of scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Zych, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    Although the term "internationality" has never been defined by consensus, it is commonly used as a synonym of quality. Even though its meaning has never been established, internationality is frequently used to evaluate scientists, publications, or universities in many different countries. The present investigation is based on the opinion about the meaning of the concept "internationality" of the members of scientific community, represented by a broad sample of 16,056 scientists from 109 countries working in all the fields of knowledge defined by UNESCO. The sample was randomly selected from the Web of Science database from the scientists who have published at least one article in one of the journals indexed by the database. A questionnaire based on eleven criteria was designed for the purpose of the study. As a result, the first measure of internationality has been obtained. The most important criteria of internationality are: the publication language, online access, and international publication standards. There are significant differences among geographic zones and fields of knowledge.

  7. Misconduct accounts for the majority of retracted scientific publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ferric C.; Steen, R. Grant; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A detailed review of all 2,047 biomedical and life-science research articles indexed by PubMed as retracted on May 3, 2012 revealed that only 21.3% of retractions were attributable to error. In contrast, 67.4% of retractions were attributable to misconduct, including fraud or suspected fraud (43.4%), duplicate publication (14.2%), and plagiarism (9.8%). Incomplete, uninformative or misleading retraction announcements have led to a previous underestimation of the role of fraud in the ongoing retraction epidemic. The percentage of scientific articles retracted because of fraud has increased ∼10-fold since 1975. Retractions exhibit distinctive temporal and geographic patterns that may reveal underlying causes. PMID:23027971

  8. Eigenfactor: a New Measure for Assessing Scientific Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Mojgan Binesh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, a number of measures for determining the impact of scientific journals were introduced and utilized. The number of citations and Impact Factor value are the indicators have been applied a lot in this area and are of a high reputation in scientometrics. In addition to these indicators, some apt indicators have been introduced to measure the impact of publications which "Eigenfactor" and "Article Influence" are the newest ones. Eigenfactor is a measure of importance and prestige of a journal in scientific community and Article Influence is a measure of average impact of an article among other articles in a journal. The main discussion in present study was on Eigenfactor which besides presenting an introduction and an explanation to this factor, its features and characteristics and its differences with Impact Factor and its calculation method have been explained in detail. Considering the fact that calculating "Article Influence" requires the value of Eigenfactor, this indicator has been shortly explained as well.

  9. Mismatches between 'scientific' and 'non-scientific' ways of knowing and their contributions to public understanding of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulak, Anna

    2011-06-01

    As differentiation within scientific disciplines increases, so does differentiation between the sciences and other ways of knowing. This distancing between 'scientific' and 'non-scientific' cultures reflects differences in what are considered valid and reliable approaches to acquiring knowledge and has played a major role in recent science-oriented controversies. Scientists' reluctance to actively engage in science communication, coupled with journalists' reliance on the norms of balance, conflict, and human interest in covering scientific issues, have combined to exacerbate public mistrust of science on issues like the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. The failure of effective communications between scientists and non-scientists has hindered the progress of both effective science and effective policy. In order to better bridge the gap between the 'scientific' and 'non-scientific' cultures, renewed efforts must be made to encourage substantive public engagement, with the ultimate goal of facilitating an open, democratic policy-making process.

  10. Art, Aesthetics, Design, And Data: Reaching The Public Through Scientific Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmon, R.; Allen, J.; Ward, K.; Carlowicz, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The primary challenge in science communication is attracting a broad audience while maintaining technical accuracy. Scientific topics are often and reflexively considered boring, dry, or difficult by non-scientists. One way to overcome this hurdle and gain the public's attention is through beautiful and striking imagery. Imaging techniques borrowed from art and design can generate interest in technical or abstract concepts. NASA's Earth Observatory routinely uses imagery to communicate current Earth science research. Earth Observatory designers collaborate with NASA scientists to produce imagery using the principles of data visualization. Curiously, the popularity of images tends to be inversely correlated with the scientific content. Simple photographs and illustrations tend to be viewed more often, and more widely shared, than maps and graphs. However, maps of tree density and melt on the Greenland ice sheet are among the most popular images published on the Earth Observatory. These graphics share some features both with each other and our most-viewed natural-color images: clear, relatable themes, intuitive color palettes, and a clean aesthetic. These similarities may explain their success, and provide a roadmap for future data-rich visualizations that engage viewers while communicating complex science.This map of tree density in the united states, based on the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset (NBCD) is one of the NASA Earth Observatory's most popular data-based images. (Map by Robert Simmon, based on data from Woods Hole Research Center.)

  11. Health needs and public health functions addressed in scientific publications in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benie-Bi, J; Cambon, L; Grimaud, O; Kivits, J; Alla, F

    2013-09-01

    To describe the reporting of public health research in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa (FSA). A bibliometric research study of scientific public health publications in FSA, which includes 24 countries and approximately 260 million people. Two researchers analysed original articles published in 2007 in the medical or social sciences fields and indexed in Scopus. At least one co-author of articles had to be based in FSA. The analysis focused on research field, public health function (WHO classification), FSA country author's affiliation, language, journal type and global burden of disease (WHO classification). Of 1047 articles retrieved by the search, 212 were from the public health field. The number of articles per country varied from 0 to 36. Public health functions examined were health service research (24.5%), health monitoring (27.4%), prevention (15%) and legislation (0.5%). The distribution of health needs described in the articles was close to that of the WHO data for Africa for 2004: infectious and parasitic diseases (70% vs 54%), maternal and perinatal conditions (15% vs 17%), non-communicable diseases (15.6% vs 21%), and injuries (0.5% vs 8%). The areas reported in published articles from sub-Saharan Africa reflect the health needs distribution in Africa; however, the number of publications is low, particularly for prevention. In light of the current focus on evidence-based public health, this study questions whether the international scientific community adequately considers the expertise and perspectives of African researchers and professionals. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Abstraction the public from scientific - applied meteorological-climatologic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajanoska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical and meteorological statistic processing of meteorological-climatologic data, which includes assessment of the exactness, level of confidence of the average and extreme values, frequencies (probabilities) of the occurrence of each meteorological phenomenon and element e.t.c. helps to describe the impacts climate may have on different social and economic activities (transportation, heat& power generation), as well as on human health. Having in mind the new technology and the commercial world, during the work with meteorological-climatologic data we have meet many different challenges. Priority in all of this is the quality of the meteorological-climatologic set of data. First, we need compatible modern, sophisticated measurement and informatics solution for data. Results of this measurement through applied processing and analyze is the second branch which is very important also. Should we all (country) need that? Today we have many unpleasant events connected with meteorology, many questions which are not answered and all of this has too long lasting. We must give the answers and solve the real and basic issue. In this paper the data issue will be presented. We have too much of data but so little of real and quality applied of them, Why? There is a data for: -public applied -for jurisdiction needs -for getting fast decision-solutions (meteorological-dangerous phenomenon's) -for getting decisions for long-lasting plans -for explore in different sphere of human living So, it is very important for what kind of data we are talking. Does the data we are talking are with public or scientific-applied character? So,we have two groups. The first group which work with the data direct from the measurement place and instrument. They are store a quality data base and are on extra help to the journalists, medical workers, human civil engineers, electromechanical engineers, agro meteorological and forestry engineer e.g. The second group do work with all scientific

  13. 76 FR 68517 - Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded Scientific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... unclassified digital data that result from federally funded scientific research. The public input provided... unclassified digital data that result from federally funded scientific research. The public input provided... to digital data resulting from federally funded research, and a summary of public input...

  14. Scientific Consensus, Public Perception and Religious Beliefs – A Case Study on Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai A. GÎRŢU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the recent public debate over global warming we discuss the scientific consensus and public perception on climate issues. We then turn to the ongoing debate on diets and nutrition, comparing scientific perspectives, public views and religious standpoints.

  15. International scientific seminar «Chronicle of Nature – a common database for scientific analysis and joint planning of scientific publications»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri P. Kurhinen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Provides information about the results of the international scienti fic seminar «Сhronicle of Nature – a common database for scientific analysis and joint planning of scientific publications», held at Findland-Russian project «Linking environmental change to biodiversity change: large scale analysis оf Eurasia ecosystem».

  16. Developing the Ideas of the Scientific School of L.S. Vygotsky: Scientific Publications of the Journal “Cultural-Historical Psychology” (2005—2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvedovskaya A.A.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the development of the ideas of L.S. Vygotsky’s school using the example of the publications in the international scientific journal “Cultural-Historical Psychology” (for the period 2005 through 2016. Over the period from 2005 to the end of 2016, 595 articles of 524 authors from 32 countries have been published in the journal “Cultural-Historical Psychology.” The study of the subjects of the articles published in the journal was held within the framework of the following criteria: scientometric publication indicators; group of authors; themes of the publications; relevance of the articles for their readers. The research uses the following sources: Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI; repository data of the psychological editions of PsyJournals.ru; report data on the activities of the journal “Cultural-Historical Psychology.” The citation frequency of the journal’s publications peaks in 2007, 2009 and 2006. Empirical findings comprise major part of the publications. The most developed areas are the studies of speech and thinking, personality, and communication.

  17. Persistent data archives, data publication, authorship and scientific recognition (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minster, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Why don’t researchers get nearly as much credit for collecting and publishing high-quality data sets as they do for even a preliminary interpretation of data collected by themselves or by others? That does not seem fair! In the natural sciences, observations collected once can almost never be acquired again, nor can many experiments be repeated. These observations, therefore, are unique by definition, and hence might well become immensely valuable to future scientists. One would think, therefore that a premium should be placed on excellent data science, including peer-review, publication in secure, yet transparently accessible locations, commonly accepted citation standards, and full professional credit and recognition accorded to the practitioners. Technological options opened by today’s management, curation and on-line distribution of multi-disciplinary digital data sets make this an achievable goal. The new ICSU World Data System (WDS) is conceived as a global federated system of long-term data archives and data related services covering a wide spectrum of the sciences, and encouraging interdisciplinary science approaches. Because different disciplines (e.g. seismology, oceanography, astronomy, space sciences, biodiversity, health and social sciences) have developed domain-specific efficient answers to their own data challenges, WDS will by necessity evolve as a system of data systems. Nonetheless, certain overarching principles must be shared by all components: the main focus of WDS is on the long-term stewardship of scientific data (so that the value of data holdings might actually increase with time.) This calls, for instance, for the development and adoption of quality control practices, analysis and metadata services, and data publication services that can be recognized across domain boundaries. The latter will require a strong relationship with science publishers and libraries. Another focus point will be assisting scientists in developing a data

  18. Automatic Extraction of Metadata from Scientific Publications for CRIS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Aleksandar; Ivanovic, Dragan; Milosavljevic, Branko; Konjovic, Zora; Surla, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a system for automatic extraction of metadata from scientific papers in PDF format for the information system for monitoring the scientific research activity of the University of Novi Sad (CRIS UNS). Design/methodology/approach: The system is based on machine learning and performs automatic extraction…

  19. Automatic Extraction of Metadata from Scientific Publications for CRIS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Aleksandar; Ivanovic, Dragan; Milosavljevic, Branko; Konjovic, Zora; Surla, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a system for automatic extraction of metadata from scientific papers in PDF format for the information system for monitoring the scientific research activity of the University of Novi Sad (CRIS UNS). Design/methodology/approach: The system is based on machine learning and performs automatic extraction…

  20. ON THE APPROACH TO SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS VISIBILITY MAXIMIZATION BY THE SCIENTIFIC SOCIAL NETWORKS USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Semenets

    2015-12-01

    3 Research results. Data integration of the user profiles of the scientific social networksThe maximization of visibility and bibliometrics citation increasing of the scientific papers initiated by the given above approach is discussed. The detailed strategy of the user profiles bibliometrics data integration through the scientific social networks is proposed. The role and ways to receiving of the Altmetric rating indices are mentioned.

  1. PUBLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC PERIODICALS AT UNIVERSITIES:NEW CHALLENGES, PARTICIPANTS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. О. Kolesnykova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Publication of scientific periodicals in the Universities is very important and necessary element in the infrastructure of scientific communication. The aim of the article is: 1 providing a new model of publication system of the University scientific periodicals (on the example of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan – DNURT; 2 studying the peculiarities of the «Library publishing» model (Library Publishing and library as a new participant in the publication of world scientific periodicals of the University; 3 description of the developed software automation typesetting of scientific articles and their integration into international databases of scientific and technical information. Methodology. The scientists investigated: 1 the system of publication of scientific periodicals at DNURT; 2 integration system of electronic versions of periodicals and individual articles of scientists from DNURT into the world scientific databases; 3 publishing activity of the scientific and technical library of the University. Findings. The authors proved the need for the fast updates in each higher education institution of Ukrainian management system of scientific periodicals and the creation of the periodicals development concept. The conditions for the occurrence of positive changes in the publishing process in Universities were determined and named as a new participant in these processes – University library. The list of new tasks inherent in the scientific periodicals of the Universities was presented. The software product «Digital designer» was created as a new applied information technology solution to extend the functionality of the basic system information of the publication according to its editorial policy. Originality. The scientists studied the transformation process of the organizational structure of scientific periodicals publishing in the Universities of Ukraine and the world

  2. Struggles over access to the Muslim public sphere: Multiple publics and discourses on agency, belonging and citizenship (Introduction to the Themed Section)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L.A. Willemse (Karin); S.I. Bergh (Sylvia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This introductory essay provides the context for the articles in this Themed Section. Despite the diversity in locations, historical backgrounds and contemporary processes of change, all contributors to this Themed Section focus on the struggle of Muslim groups over access to

  3. Critical appraisal of scientific articles: part 1 of a series on evaluation of scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Röhrig, Bernd; Blettner, Maria

    2009-02-01

    In the era of evidence-based medicine, one of the most important skills a physician needs is the ability to analyze scientific literature critically. This is necessary to keep medical knowledge up to date and to ensure optimal patient care. The aim of this paper is to present an accessible introduction into critical appraisal of scientific articles. Using a selection of international literature, the reader is introduced to the principles of critical reading of scientific articles in medicine. For the sake of conciseness, detailed description of statistical methods is omitted. Widely accepted principles for critically appraising scientific articles are outlined. Basic knowledge of study design, structuring of an article, the role of different sections, of statistical presentations as well as sources of error and limitation are presented. The reader does not require extensive methodological knowledge. As far as necessary for critical appraisal of scientific articles, differences in research areas like epidemiology, clinical, and basic research are outlined. Further useful references are presented. Basic methodological knowledge is required to select and interpret scientific articles correctly.

  4. Public Relations of Scientific Libraries in the Federal Republic of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Y. A.

    1981-01-01

    Up until now, scientific libraries in the Federal Republic of Germany have been very reserved about public relations. One of the reasons for this attitude has been insecurity about the application of the specific methods used in public relations. For this reason the Deutsches Bibliotheksinstitut (West Berlin) organized a project in 1978 that is meant to create the methodological preconditions for public relations in scientific libraries. The methods are to be tried out first in a model of loc...

  5. Implicit normativity in scientific advice: values in nutrition scientists' decisions to give public advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice -- those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society as a whole or with special concern for the most vulnerable members of the population. The third consideration involves scientific advisers' attempts to balance the strengths of the scientific evidence with the expected consequences of scientific advice. We hope to promote more explicit discussion of these issues among scientific advisers and a wider public.

  6. [Impact of scientific publications of German otorhinolaryngologist in international comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godau, S; Finkensieper, M; Guntinas-Lichius, O

    2012-11-01

    The value of German publications in otorhinolaryngology in comparison to the international community has not been analyzed in detail yet. Using the Web of Science ® data base a quantitative bibliometric analysis of publications in the field of otorhinolaryngology was performed for the years 2000-2010. We compared countries, institutions and individual authors in relation to the whole field of otorhinolaryngology and to special topics. 57 157 ENT-publications were identified for the period between 2000 and 2010. The second most number, 12 % of the publications came from Germany. Ranking the authors with most publications, 6 German scientists could be found on the fi rst 20 ranks. USA, Japan, and Germany were the dominating countries looking on publication for the subspecialties. From Germany originated the most publications for the topics smell and taste disorders. Publications form German institutions in the field of clinical and experimental otorhinolaryngology have a high impact in international comparison. German authors could be found in all subspecialties of otorhinolaryngology on the top 3 places. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. List of scientific publications by Professor Dr. H. Engel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der Bauke

    1968-01-01

    From the following bibliography, most of the publications directed to the general public, such as articles in newspapers, etc., as well as part of the book-reviews, have been omitted. The topics are divided over six headings: Hirudinea, Echinodermata, Opisthobranchia, History of Biology, Museology,

  8. List of scientific publications by Professor Dr. H. Engel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der Bauke

    1968-01-01

    From the following bibliography, most of the publications directed to the general public, such as articles in newspapers, etc., as well as part of the book-reviews, have been omitted. The topics are divided over six headings: Hirudinea, Echinodermata, Opisthobranchia, History of Biology, Museology,

  9. Understanding the Correlations between Social Attention and Topic Trends of Scientific Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlei Dong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We propose and apply a simplified nowcasting model to understand the correlations between social attention and topic trends of scientific publications. Design/methodology/approach: First, topics are generated from the obesity corpus by using the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA algorithm and time series of keyword search trends in Google Trends are obtained. We then establish the structural time series model using data from January 2004 to December 2012, and evaluate the model using data from January 2013. We employ a state-space model to separate different non-regression components in an observational time series (i.e. the tendency and the seasonality and apply the “spike and slab prior” and stepwise regression to analyze the correlations between the regression component and the social media attention. The two parts are combined using Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques to obtain our results. Findings: The results of our study show that (1 the number of publications on child obesity increases at a lower rate than that of diabetes publications; (2 the number of publication on a given topic may exhibit a relationship with the season or time of year; and (3 there exists a correlation between the number of publications on a given topic and its social media attention, i.e. the search frequency related to that topic as identified by Google Trends. We found that our model is also able to predict the number of publications related to a given topic. Research limitations: First, we study a correlation rather than causality between topics' trends and social media. As a result, the relationships might not be robust, so we cannot predict the future in the long run. Second, we cannot identify the reasons or conditions that are driving obesity topics to present such tendencies and seasonal patterns, so we might need to do “field” study in the future. Third, we need to improve the efficiency of our model by finding more efficient

  10. Publication Bias The "File-Drawer Problem" in Scientific Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Scargle, J D

    1999-01-01

    Publication bias arises whenever the probability that a study is published depends on the statistical significance of its results. This bias, often called the file-drawer effect since the unpublished results are imagined to be tucked away in researchers' file cabinets, is potentially a severe impediment to combining the statistical results of studies collected from the literature. With almost any reasonable quantitative model for publication bias, only a small number of studies lost in the file-drawer will produce a significant bias. This result contradicts the well known Fail Safe File Drawer (FSFD) method for setting limits on the potential harm of publication bias, widely used in social, medical and psychic research. This method incorrectly treats the file drawer as unbiased, and almost always misestimates the seriousness of publication bias. A large body of not only psychic research, but medical and social science studies, has mistakenly relied on this method to validate claimed discoveries. Statistical c...

  11. Turkish endocrine surgery publications in international scientific journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Batuhan; Alçı, Erman; Hasanov, Ruslan; Mulailua, Kilongo; Makay, Özer; Koçak, Savaş

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, major progress has been made in the field of endocrine surgery in Turkey, similar to that in the rest of the world. Parallel to these developments, there has been a significant increase in the number of publications in the related field. Our study aimed to evaluate Turkey's publications related to endocrine surgery in the international arena. Members of the general surgery departments from academic centers in Turkey were determined. Using these member names, a PubMed search was performed for English papers related to "endocrine surgery." For searching papers from non-academic centers, the same engine was used. To reach manuscripts possibly missed by the PubMed search, 3 national calls were made through the website of the Turkish Society of Endocrine Surgery. The obtained papers were divided into "thyroid," "parathyroid," "adrenal," and "neuroendocrine tumors" and were listed according to the publication year. In addition, all manuscripts were listed according to the publishing journal and the 2012 impact factor of that journal. This study did not require ethical approval, because it did not involve evaluation of experimental or patient data. A search of Turkish general surgery clinics revealed 497 international publications, between 1976 and 2012. When listed according to the year of publication, most publications were found to be in the year 2009. Papers appeared mostly in "Surgery Today." The mean impact factor of the journals where the papers have been published was 1.9 (0.1-13.8). The rates of thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal tissue and neuroendocrine tumors related publications were 69%, 10%, 15% and 6%, respectively. Since this study is not an experimental study or a study related to patient data, we did not apply for ethical approval. The contribution of Turkish general surgeons' to world science is apparent when evaluated in terms of publications related to endocrine surgery until recently. Particularly, since 2002, with the increase in the

  12. Time, science and consensus: the different times involving scientific research, political decision and public opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses the asymmetrical relationship between the time of scientific research and the time of the different segments interested in their results, focusing mainly on necessity to establish technical consensus about the fields of science that require rigorous investigations and texts. In the last years, civil society sectors - mainly scientific journalism, legislative power, and public opinion - has shown growing interest in participating of the decision making process that regulates science routes. In this study, we analyzed the decision making process of the Biosafety Law, as it allows research with embryonic stem cells in Brazil. The results allow us to conclude that this asymmetrical relationship between the different times (of science, scientific disclosure, public opinion, and public power contribute to the maturing of the dialog on scientific policies, as well as to the establishment of a consensus concerning science routes, which aims at the democratization of scientific work.

  13. Self-correction in biomedical publications and the scientific impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Akazhanov, Nurbek A; Kitas, George D

    2014-02-01

    To analyze mistakes and misconduct in multidisciplinary and specialized biomedical journals. We conducted searches through PubMed to retrieve errata, duplicate, and retracted publications (as of January 30, 2014). To analyze publication activity and citation profiles of countries, multidisciplinary, and specialized biomedical journals, we referred to the latest data from the SCImago Journal and Country Rank database. Total number of indexed articles and values of the h-index of the fifty most productive countries and multidisciplinary journals were recorded and linked to the number of duplicate and retracted publications in PubMed. Our analysis found 2597 correction items. A striking increase in the number of corrections appeared in 2013, which is mainly due to 871 (85.3%) corrections from PLOS One. The number of duplicate publications was 1086. Articles frequently published in duplicate were reviews (15.6%), original studies (12.6%), and case reports (7.6%), whereas top three retracted articles were original studies (10.1%), randomized trials (8.8%), and reviews (7%). A strong association existed between the total number of publications across countries and duplicate (rs=0.86, Ppublications. The study suggests that the intensified self-correction in biomedicine is due to the attention of readers and authors, who spot errors in their hub of evidence-based information. Digitization and open access confound the staggering increase in correction notices and retractions.

  14. Theme: Teaching Agriscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Paul R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The theme articles look at the differences between agriscience and regular science and stresses the importance of including both in the agricultural education program. Discusses environmental studies, cooperation between science and agricultural teachers, public image, how much science is being taught, how to incorporate science, integrating…

  15. Historiographical Map of Iranian Engineering Scientific Publications during 1939-2011

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    saman saghafi; Maryam Asadi; Farideh Osareh

    2013-01-01

    .... This study is a descriptive approach using scientometric methods. is The present paper mainly focuses on visualizing the structure of the Iranian scientific publications in the field of engineering indexed in Thomson Reuters (ISI...

  16. 75 FR 16817 - 2010 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... announcing a public meeting entitled ``2010 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System.'' The topic to be discussed is the results from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) and related antimicrobial resistance monitoring and research, including activities...

  17. 78 FR 69682 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Board of Scientific Counselors,...

  18. 76 FR 77235 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Board of Scientific Counselors,...

  19. Publication Bias ( The "File-Drawer Problem") in Scientific Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Publication bias arises whenever the probability that a study is published depends on the statistical significance of its results. This bias, often called the file-drawer effect since the unpublished results are imagined to be tucked away in researchers' file cabinets, is potentially a severe impediment to combining the statistical results of studies collected from the literature. With almost any reasonable quantitative model for publication bias, only a small number of studies lost in the file-drawer will produce a significant bias. This result contradicts the well known Fail Safe File Drawer (FSFD) method for setting limits on the potential harm of publication bias, widely used in social, medical and psychic research. This method incorrectly treats the file drawer as unbiased, and almost always miss-estimates the seriousness of publication bias. A large body of not only psychic research, but medical and social science studies, has mistakenly relied on this method to validate claimed discoveries. Statistical combination can be trusted only if it is known with certainty that all studies that have been carried out are included. Such certainty is virtually impossible to achieve in literature surveys.

  20. Publication Bias ( The "File-Drawer Problem") in Scientific Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Publication bias arises whenever the probability that a study is published depends on the statistical significance of its results. This bias, often called the file-drawer effect since the unpublished results are imagined to be tucked away in researchers' file cabinets, is potentially a severe impediment to combining the statistical results of studies collected from the literature. With almost any reasonable quantitative model for publication bias, only a small number of studies lost in the file-drawer will produce a significant bias. This result contradicts the well known Fail Safe File Drawer (FSFD) method for setting limits on the potential harm of publication bias, widely used in social, medical and psychic research. This method incorrectly treats the file drawer as unbiased, and almost always miss-estimates the seriousness of publication bias. A large body of not only psychic research, but medical and social science studies, has mistakenly relied on this method to validate claimed discoveries. Statistical combination can be trusted only if it is known with certainty that all studies that have been carried out are included. Such certainty is virtually impossible to achieve in literature surveys.

  1. NASA Scientific and Technical Publications: A Catalog of Special Publications, Reference Publications, Conference Publications, and Technical Papers 1991-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    and aerodynamic study 01 a pusher-Propeller STEPHENS. DAVID G. Expenrtent ISCOLE ) Workshop. parr?2 aircraft model Fourth Aircraft Infenor Noise...makers, land-use planners, historians, and rescue teams ail make use of the results of NASA’s research. The findings of this research and development...are published in NASA’s scientific and technical report series as a part of NASA’s mandate to disseminate the results of the agency’s far-reaching work

  2. Using Astronomy to Promote a Scientific Culture in the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, O.

    2009-05-01

    The new ``Planetario Habana'' Cultural Centre for Science and Technology under construction is a joint project between the Office of the Historian of the City of Havana and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of Cuba. The whole centre will be aimed at guiding the interest towards basic sciences and astronomical formation of the people, in the most populated and frequented area of the country. A key objective of this project shall be serving as an instructive motivation and entertainment for the casual or habitual visitors to these facilities, offering them the possibility to enjoy vivid representations, play with interactive amusement equipments and listen to instructive presentations on astronomy and related sciences guided by qualified specialists, professors and outstanding university students. Another fundamental purpose shall be the establishment of a plan for educational complementation in coordination with schools in order to allow children and young people to participate in activities enabling them to get into the fascinating world of Astronomy, Exploration of Outer Space and Life as Cosmic Phenomenon. The setting up of the ``Planetario Habana'' Cultural Centre for Science and Technology will show in function the GOTO Planetarium G Cuba custom obtained under a Japanese Cultural Grant Aid. This centre shall develop into a nonpareil pole in the national environment for the scientific outreach and education of these sciences. Surrounded by the attractiveness of the colonial ``ambience'' of the Old Town of Havana, it shall become a centre for dissemination of information about new discoveries and scientific programs developed at national and international level. Here we present a general view of the project, its objectives, and its present and future development.

  3. Understanding public responses to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear incidents--driving factors, emerging themes and research gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Kristian; Amlôt, Richard; Rogers, M Brooke

    2014-11-01

    This paper discusses the management of public responses to incidents involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear materials (CBRN). Given the extraordinary technical and operational challenges of a response to a CBRN release including, but not limited to, hazard detection and identification, casualty decontamination and multi-agency co-ordination, it is not surprising that public psychological and behavioural responses to such incidents have received limited attention by scholars and practitioners alike. As a result, a lack of understanding about the role of the public in effective emergency response constitutes a major gap in research and practice. This limitation must be addressed as a CBRN release has the potential to have wide-reaching psychological and behavioural impacts which, in turn, impact upon public morbidity and mortality rates. This paper addresses a number of key issues: why public responses matter; how responses have been conceptualised by practitioners; what factors have been identified as influencing public responses to a CBRN release and similar extreme events, and what further analysis is needed in order to generate a better understanding of public responses to inform the management of public responses to a CBRN release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Visibility of latin american scientific publications: the example of Bolivia (Portuguese original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Pabón Escobar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the state of the art of scientific publications in Latin American countries generally restricts itself to its supposedly low visibility. This affirmation is generally conditioned to the exclusive use of large international databases, mainly of the USA and Europe, which include thousands of scientific publications that have marginalized a large part of the scientific literature produced in peripheral countries. Given this fact of low visibility, it became imperative for some Latin American countries, beginning in the 90s (20th Century, to develop their own mechanisms of projection of the results of their own scientific production. The experiences constitute an example for countries that, having significant scientific production, still do not have the means to facilitate access to local scientific publications. Although Bolivia still remains distant from these initiatives, a series of studies were identified that show the existence of a tradition of publication in scientific magazines and interest in their visibility, on a local and international level, which demands attention to the most adequate mechanisms in order to carry this out.

  5. Open semantic annotation of scientific publications using DOMEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccarese Paolo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our group has developed a useful shared software framework for performing, versioning, sharing and viewing Web annotations of a number of kinds, using an open representation model. Methods The Domeo Annotation Tool was developed in tandem with this open model, the Annotation Ontology (AO. Development of both the Annotation Framework and the open model was driven by requirements of several different types of alpha users, including bench scientists and biomedical curators from university research labs, online scientific communities, publishing and pharmaceutical companies. Several use cases were incrementally implemented by the toolkit. These use cases in biomedical communications include personal note-taking, group document annotation, semantic tagging, claim-evidence-context extraction, reagent tagging, and curation of textmining results from entity extraction algorithms. Results We report on the Domeo user interface here. Domeo has been deployed in beta release as part of the NIH Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF, http://www.neuinfo.org and is scheduled for production deployment in the NIF’s next full release. Future papers will describe other aspects of this work in detail, including Annotation Framework Services and components for integrating with external textmining services, such as the NCBO Annotator web service, and with other textmining applications using the Apache UIMA framework.

  6. Trends in scientific publications of Indian spine surgeons over 14 years (2000–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Mugesh Kanna

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The current study shows that publications in the field of spine surgery have been increasing in the last few years, although it is less. Further efforts such as research training of spine surgeons, inducing collaborations and formulation of multicenter projects and periodically allocating adequate funds are key factors to improve the scientific publications from India.

  7. Museum-University Partnerships as a New Platform for Public Engagement with Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jamie; Chesebrough, David; Cryan, Jason; Koster, Emlyn

    2016-01-01

    A growing trend in natural history museums, science museums, and science centers is the establishment of innovative new partnerships with universities to bring scientific research to the public in compelling and transformative ways. The strengths of both kinds of institutions are leveraged in effective and publicly visible programs, activities,…

  8. Scientific publications in international anaesthesiology journals: a 10-year survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Qiu, L-X; Wu, F-X; Yang, L-Q; Sun, S; Yu, W F

    2011-03-01

    Significant growth has been seen in the field of anaesthesiology in recent decades. The current geographic distribution of the publications on anaesthesia research may be different from ten years ago. We performed this literature survey to examine the national origin of articles published in international anaesthesiology journals and to evaluate their contribution to anaesthesia research. Articles published in 18 major anaesthesiology journals from 2000 to 2009 were identified from the PubMed database and the Science Citation Index. A total of 30,191 articles were published in the selected 18 journals from 2000 to 2009. The country responsible for the largest number of articles was the United States of America (29.4%), followed by the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Canada, Australia and France. Denmark, Switzerland and Finland had the largest number of articles per capita. Anesthesia & Analgesia published the most number of articles from 2000 to 2009, followed by Anesthesiology, Pain and the British Journal of Anaesthesia. The numbers of clinical studies and randomised controlled trials decreased markedly from 2000 to 2009.

  9. Revista de Saúde Pública in scientific publications on Violence and Health (1967-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Barros, Claudia; d'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho

    2016-11-10

    This article retrieved the publications from the Revista de Saúde Pública journal (from 1967 to 2015) on violence and health, on the SciELO and PubMed bases, by searching for the terms "violence", "suicide", "aggression", "bullying", and "external causes", registered in any part of the text. We found 130 articles (the first one published in 1974). We observed: increase of publications over time, with decrease in the last five years; similar production volume in lethal and non-lethal violence; later publication of the latter; few studies in qualitative research; mostly descriptive production; and visualization of the problem more by the acts than by contexts or motivations and aggressors. Social markers were little approached, appearing, from largest to smallest frequency, social class, gender, race/ethnicity, and generation. Human rights were little used and only recently used as analytical framework, connected more to gender than to social class. Although Revista de Saúde Pública has registered the theme in its publications, consolidating it as scientific production line, there is still great explanatory theoretical rarefaction and little intersectionality between violence, social inequalities, and human rights. RESUMO A produção da Revista de Saúde Pública (de 1967 até 2015) sobre violência e saúde foi recuperada nas bases SciELO e PubMed utilizando-se os termos "violência", "suicídio", "agressões", "bullying" e "causas externas", registrados em qualquer parte do texto. Foram encontrados 130 artigos (o primeiro deles publicado em 1974). Constatou-se: aumento das publicações no tempo, com decréscimo nos últimos cinco anos; volume similar de produção em violência letal e não letal; publicação mais tardia desta última; poucos estudos em pesquisa qualitativa; produção majoritariamente descritiva; e visibilização do problema, mais pelos atos que pelos contextos ou motivações e agressores. Os marcadores sociais foram pouco tematizados

  10. The quality of information in electronic scientific publications on the Internet: challenges and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo SABBATINI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work analises the main questions and hurdles involved in the adoption of a electronic scientific publication system, those related to the scientific community practices and rules of conduct. We emphasize the quality certification through peer review, interity and legitimiy maintenance and privacity preservation in the digital environment. Furthermore, we analise the academic community own perception of electronic journals available in Internet and its impacts in tenure and prommotion processes.

  11. Time, science and consensus: the different times involving scientific research, political decision and public opinion

    OpenAIRE

    José Aparecido; Isaac Epstein

    2010-01-01

    This essay analyses the asymmetrical relationship between the time of scientific research and the time of the different segments interested in their results, focusing mainly on necessity to establish technical consensus about the fields of science that require rigorous investigations and texts. In the last years, civil society sectors - mainly scientific journalism, legislative power, and public opinion - has shown growing interest in participating of the decision making process that regulate...

  12. The role of twitter in the life cycle of a scientific publication

    CERN Document Server

    Darling1, Emily S; Côté, Isabelle M; Drew, Joshua A

    2013-01-01

    Twitter is a micro-blogging social media platform for short messages that can have a long-term impact on how scientists create and publish ideas. We investigate the usefulness of twitter in the development and distribution of scientific knowledge. At the start of the life cycle of a scientific publication, twitter provides a large virtual department of colleagues that can help to rapidly generate, share and refine new ideas. As ideas become manuscripts, twitter can be used as an informal arena for the pre-review of works in progress. Finally, tweeting published findings can communicate research to a broad audience of other researchers, decision makers, journalists and the general public that can amplify the scientific and social impact of publications. However, there are limitations, largely surrounding issues of intellectual property and ownership, inclusiveness and misrepresentations of science sound bites. Nevertheless, we believe twitter is a useful social media tool that can provide a valuable contributi...

  13. [History in the public communication of specialist scientific societies: history marketing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, F H; Halling, T; Rathert, P; Fangerau, H

    2014-10-01

    History is nowadays used as an economic factor. The past is therefore specifically targeted and cultivated, which for specialist scientific associations and societies often fullfils totally different functions in comparison to the open market, although the techniques and requirements are similar. Within medical specialties these facts are often still unknown. Museums and archives as well as the historians and curators working in them are very familiar with the special cultures of communication within these scientific communities and they play a major role in the establishment and development of history as a modern part of public relations and public identity.

  14. Leaping "out of the doubt"--nutrition advice: values at stake in communicating scientific uncertainty to the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-06-01

    This article deals with scientific advice to the public where the relevant science is subject to public attention and uncertainty of knowledge. It focuses on a tension in the management and presentation of scientific uncertainty between the uncertain nature of science and the expectation that scientific advisers will provide clear public guidance. In the first part of the paper the tension is illustrated by the presentation of results from a recent interview study with nutrition scientists in Denmark. According to the study, nutrition scientists feel their roles as ''public advisers'' and ''scientists'' differ in that the former involves an expectation that they will provide unambiguous advice of the kind that might relegate scientific uncertainty to the background. In the second, more general, part of the paper we provide a normative analysis of different strategies of dealing with the tension. The analysis is structured around the extremes of either total concealment or full openness regarding scientific uncertainty. The result of analysis is that scientific advisers should not simply ''feed'' scientific conclusions to the public. They should rather attempt to promote the ability and willingness of the public to assess and scrutinize scientific knowledge by displaying uncertainties in the scientific basis of advice. On the other hand, scientific advisers must accommodate the public's need for guidance. Such guidance should be restricted by careful consideration of what it is relevant for the public to know in order to evaluate scientific advice in practical terms.

  15. Trusted Sources: The Role Scientific Societies Can Play in Improving Public Opinions on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, C.; Cairns, A.; Buhrman, J.

    2012-12-01

    Public acceptance of the scientific consensus regarding climate change has eroded and misinformation designed to confuse the public is rapidly proliferating. Those issues, combined with an increase of politically motivated attacks on climate scientists and their research, have led to a place where ideology can trump scientific consensus as the foundation for developing policy solutions. The scientific community has been, thus far, unprepared to respond effectively to these developments. However, as a scientific society whose members engage in climate science research, and one whose organizational mission and vision are centered on the concepts of science for the benefit of humanity and ensuring a sustainable future, the American Geophysical Union can, and should, play an important role in reversing this trend. To that end, in 2011, AGU convened a Leadership Summit on Climate Science Communication, in which presidents, executive directors, and senior public policy staff from 17 scientific organizations engaged with experts in the social sciences regarding effective communication of climate science and with practitioners from agriculture, energy, and the military. The discussions focused on three key issues: the environment of climate science communication; public understanding of climate change; and the perspectives of consumers of climate science-based information who work with specific audiences. Participants diagnosed previous challenges and failings, enumerated the key constituencies that need to be effectively engaged, and identified the critical role played by cultural cognition—the influence of group values, particularly around equality and authority, individualism, and community; and the perceptions of risk. Since that meeting, AGU has consistently worked to identify and explore ways that it, and its members, and improve the effectiveness of their communication with the public about climate change. This presentation will focus on the insights AGU has

  16. Trends in scientific publications of Indian spine surgeons over 14 years (2000-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Falavigna, Asdrubal; da Silva, Pedro Guarise; Quadros, Francine Wurzius; Merlin, Luiz Henrique; Radaelli, Lucas; Guyot, Juan Pablo; Dozza, Diego; Riew, Daniel K; Martins, Délio; Yoshiharu, Kawaguchi; Rajasekaran, S

    2016-01-01

    The number and quality of scientific publications reflects the standards of scientific research in a country. However, the contribution of Indian spine surgeons toward global publications is unknown. The goal is to study the publications of Indian spine surgeons between 2000 and 2013. A literature search of the publications by Indian spine surgeons was performed using MEDLINE. The search terms used were India and several spine-related terminologies. The main information of the selected papers including the year of publication, scientific journal, type of pathology studied, Neurosurgical or Orthopedic Department where the study was done, type of study, and the type of article was analyzed. A total of 4459 articles were identified using MEDLINE and after exclusion, 507 articles were analyzed. A growth of 440% in the number of publications was observed in the period between 2009 and 2013, during which 60.15% of the articles were published. Clinical studies (n = 492; 97.04) were the most common types of articles, followed by experimental studies and other types. The Neurosurgery department published the majority of the articles (58.2%). The three most common pathologies studied were spinal tumors (17.35%), surgical technique (15.4%), and spinal infection (15.2%). The current study shows that publications in the field of spine surgery have been increasing in the last few years, although it is less. Further efforts such as research training of spine surgeons, inducing collaborations and formulation of multicenter projects and periodically allocating adequate funds are key factors to improve the scientific publications from India.

  17. Medical scientific publications printed and its evolution into the digital age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunia Gil Hernández

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical evolution of the Cuban medical publications over time, from its appearance in print to the digital age. Reference is made to the first forms of scientific communication in the world, the advent of printing in America and the historical and social events that favored the birth and development of printed publications on the island of Cuba, as well as its development in the digital age.

  18. [How to increase the visibility of your scientific publication on the Internet?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maczuga, Justyna; Przyłuska, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    New technologies compel the scientists to change their thinking about dissemination of their own publications. In the time of rapid information exchange scientific papers should be available to the largest possible audience, it is therefore of vital importance to prepare them properly. The authors present the ways how to optimize the visibility of scientific publications on the Internet by the use of appropriate choice of words in the title, summary and key words. They discuss the mechanisms of indexing in scientific search engines and bibliographic-abstract databases showing at the same time how to use them in drawing up the paper. They also give an example of two summaries of the same article. The first one comprises the elements of academic search engine optimization (ASEO) while the other one does not follow these principles in the article description.

  19. 76 FR 36544 - Scientific Evaluation of Modified Risk Tobacco Product Applications; Public Workshop; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... produced by the consumption of that tobacco product, that may affect a disease or health-related condition... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Scientific Evaluation of Modified Risk Tobacco Product... of public workshop; request for comments. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for...

  20. The Public Understanding of Scientific Information: Communicating, Interpreting, and Applying the Science of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Phillips, Linda M.

    2003-01-01

    Research is conducted in abstract contexts that inhibit practical application. In addition, research results are often uncertain and always circumscribed. Lay people have difficulty interpreting results for use in particular situations. The media could play a significant role in the public understanding of scientific information if it would report…

  1. English as an International Language of Scientific Publication: A Study of Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gibson; Perez-Llantada, Carmen; Plo, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on an issue attracting increasing attention: the possible disadvantage inflicted on non-Anglophone academics by the dominance of English in scientific publication and academic exchange. We critically review the evidence for linguistic disadvantage, noting some of its limitations, and critique the native/non-native distinction as…

  2. Presenting Global Warming and Evolution as Public Health Issues to Encourage Acceptance of Scientific Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Shawn K.; McArthur, Laurence B.; Mabry, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence supporting anthropogenic global warming and evolution by natural selection is considerable, the public does not embrace these concepts. The current study explores the hypothesis that individuals will become more receptive to scientific viewpoints if evidence for evolution and implications of global warming are presented as issues…

  3. English as an International Language of Scientific Publication: A Study of Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gibson; Perez-Llantada, Carmen; Plo, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on an issue attracting increasing attention: the possible disadvantage inflicted on non-Anglophone academics by the dominance of English in scientific publication and academic exchange. We critically review the evidence for linguistic disadvantage, noting some of its limitations, and critique the native/non-native distinction as…

  4. Public Communication of Science and Cultural Consumption. Scientific Information as an Independent Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Castellanos Pineda

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, governments, universities, research centers and other institutions, like museums, invest its resources, human and financial, in public understanding of science. However, the abyss and indifference towards science seem not decrease or doing it slowly. This article looks at theoretical framework of scientific consumption from cultural consumption perspective and discusses some examples of it.

  5. On the diffusion of scientific publications; the case of Econometrica 1987

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper documents that salient features of (time series of annual) citations to scientific publications might be captured by a Bass type diffusion model. This is particularly useful as it allows for a comparison of these features across journals, across disciplines and over time. F

  6. Media Violence and the American Public: Scientific Facts versus Media Misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J.; Anderson, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how news coverage on the connections between media violence and aggression have left the public confused, examining whether media violence mirrors real world violence and how news reports about media violence and aggression have changed over time. Highlights the entertainment industry and scientific community, discussing why they often…

  7. 78 FR 27234 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Development of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for NOX--Health Criteria. DATES: The public teleconference will be held on Wednesday, June 5, 2013 from 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. (Eastern Time). Location: The... on the scientific and technical aspects of issues related to the criteria for air quality...

  8. Attitude of Indian dental professionals toward scientific publications: A questionnaire based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Sachdeva, Suresh K; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Khosa, Rameen; Basavraju, Suman; Dutta, Sanjay

    2015-08-01

    Due to competitiveness and academic benefits, most dental professionals feel an urgent need to increase their publications. Hence, we explored the attitude of students and faculty members toward scientific publications through a questionnaire. A questionnaire consisting of 13 questions was sent by e-mails and posting the printed copies to dental postgraduate (PG) students (second and third year) and faculty members (n = 500 each). The returned completed questionnaires were analyzed. About 37% of dental PG faculty and 35.6% PG students responded to the questionnaire, with overall response of 72.6%. Among the PG faculty, professors (P) had more scientific publications, followed by senior lecturers (SL) and readers (R). The publications as first or corresponding author were less among both faculty and PG students while co-authorship was more among PG students compared to faculty members. Awareness about the term "plagiarism" was overall high and relatively highest among R, followed by SL, P and PG students. The percentage of publications in fee charging journals was more among PG students than faculty members and self-funding for publication was observed in 86.4% of PG students and 94-100% among faculty members. About 72.6% of dental professionals were involved in publishing of their research work and the number of publications increased steadily with an increase in their academic experience. All the dental professionals concurred publications as the criteria for academic excellence.

  9. Scientific authority in policy contexts: Public attitudes about environmental scientists, medical researchers, and economists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Timothy L

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts.

  10. Media violence and the American public. Scientific facts versus media misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, B J; Anderson, C A

    2001-01-01

    Fifty years of news coverage on the link between media violence and aggression have left the U.S. public confused. Typical news articles pit researchers and child advocates against entertainment industry representatives, frequently giving equal weight to the arguments of both sides. A comparison of news reports and scientific knowledge about media effects reveals a disturbing discontinuity: Over the past 50 years, the average news report has changed from claims of a weak link to a moderate link and then back to a weak link between media violence and aggression. However, since 1975, the scientific confidence and statistical magnitude of this link have been clearly positive and have consistently increased over time. Reasons for this discontinuity between news reports and the actual state of scientific knowledge include the vested interests of the news, a misapplied fairness doctrine in news reporting, and the failure of the research community to effectively argue the scientific case.

  11. The Space Apps Challenge: Using Open Innovation Competitions to Engage The Public in the Scientific Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Space Apps Challenge encourages innovation, creativity and collaborative problem solving by gathering coders, builders, artists, designers, and storytellers in a 48-hour hackathon. Open Innovation competitions such as the Space Apps Challenge bring the scientific world to members of the public, regardless of age, experience, credentials, or expertise. In the past five years, this model of public engagement has been widely employed by government, nonprofit and academic institutions, allowing the building of partnerships between the scientific community and the individuals and communities they serve. Furthermore, advances in technology and challenge models have lowered the barriers and costs to scientific collaboration with and for the public. NASA's Space Apps Challenge, structured as a competition seeking solutions from the public to posed problems, brings together teams and forges collaborations between individuals and groups who would otherwise have never worked together for a short but high intensity problem solving session, Space Apps has has created a pathway to public engagement and innovation that is often faster, cheaper, and more impactful than traditional approaches.

  12. A substantial number of scientific publications originate from non-university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedder, Jens; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Petersen, Lars J; Rasmussen, Claus; Lauszus, Finn F; Frost, Lars; Hornung, Nete; Lederballe, Ole; Andersen, Jens Peter

    2011-11-01

    As we found no recent published reports on the amount and kind of research published from Danish hospitals without university affiliation, we have found it relevant to conduct a bibliometric survey disclosing these research activities. We retrieved all scientific papers published in the period 2000-2009 emanating from all seven Danish non-university hospitals in two regions, comprising 1.8 million inhabitants, and which were registered in a minimum of one of the three databases: PubMed MEDLINE, Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Elsevier's Scopus. In 878 of 1,252 papers, the first and/or last author was affiliated to a non-university hospital. Original papers made up 69% of these publications versus 86% of publications with university affiliation on first or last place. Case reports and reviews most frequently had authors from regional hospitals as first and/or last authors. The total number of publications from regional hospitals increased by 48% over the 10-year period. Publications were cited more often if the first or last author was from a university hospital and even more so if they were affiliated to foreign institutions. Cardiology, gynaecology and obstetrics, and environmental medicine were the three specialities with the largest number of regional hospital publications. A substantial number of scientific publications originate from non-university hospitals. Almost two thirds of the publications were original research published in international journals. Variations between specialities may reflect local conditions. not relevant. not relevant.

  13. Bibliometric analysis of publications on polycystic ovary syndrome and Turkey’s scientific contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp Yaycı

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Bibliometric studies can be used to evaluate the quantitative scientific performance on a specific topic via evaluating the accumulation of scientific data. Interpreting quantitative performance of a country with respect to bibliometric analyses is an important way to assess the quality and quantity of that country’s contribution to the dissemination of medical evidences about a topic. In this study, we aimed to make a quantitative analysis of the scientific publications related to “Polycystic Ovary Syndrome” and also to investigate publications originating from Turkish institutions and authors, which are published in Science Citation Index Expanded covered medical journals. Method. We retrospectively searched papers published in the field of polycystic ovary syndrome between 1980 and 2012 by using the Web of Science software. Papers that were published in Science Citation Index Expanded covered journals were taken into account. Results. Web of Science based search on the field of “Polycystic Ovary Syndrome” through the database of Science Citation Index Expanded from 1980 to the date of the study (June 29, 2012, revealed 8891 English scientific documents. Among these, 2836 (31.9% were from United States of America, followed by England (9.75%, Italy (8.45%, Turkey (5.34%. The international scientific repertory on polycystic ovary syndrome was relatively poor in the beginning of 1980s, however; we observed an international acceleration with respect to the publication number after 1990s. Publications from Turkey on the other hand showed up only after 1990s. Turkey’s contribution to international repertory of polycystic ovary syndrome research speeded up after 2000s. When the ranking of the authors with respect to the number of publications was evaluated, Azziz R was found to be the first, followed by Legro RS, and Franks S. Yildiz BO, Kelestimur F, and Yarali H were the first three among Turkish authors. Fertility and Sterility

  14. United European Gastroenterology Week scientific abstracts and their progression to full publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Suneil A; Sanders, David S; Akram, Rahim; Glover, Rebecca; Al-Rifaie, Ammar; Peever, Elise; Purves, Josh; Scanu, Emily; Kurien, Matthew

    2017-07-26

    Abstracts presentations at scientific meetings enable rapid dissemination of novel research. The percentage of abstracts that proceed to full publication from differing medical specialties is highly variable. This study aims to evaluate the outcomes of abstracts presented at the United European Gastroenterology Week (UEGW). All abstracts presented at UEGW between 2009 and 2011 were assessed. Cross-referencing of the first author, senior author and at least one keyword of the abstract was performed using PubMed and EMBASE databases. Abstracts and possible resultant full publications were then examined in tandem to ensure that they represented the same study. Data were also collected on lag time to publication, journal impact factors, country of the author and factors influencing subsequent publication. A total of 6785 abstracts (1438 oral and 5347 poster presentations) were presented during the period assessed. Of these, 2099 (30.9%) proceeded to full publication in indexed journals. Oral abstract presentations were most likely to proceed to full publication compared with poster presentations (odds ratio: 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-1.56) and were more likely to achieve publication in higher impact journals (median impact factor 4.78 vs. 2.89, P<0.0005). The median lag time to full publication was 15 (IQR: 7-15) months. The Netherlands had the highest United European Gastroenterology abstract conversion rate to full publication (46.8%). This is the first study to assess the publication rates of UEGW. Findings are favourable with similar studies from other societies.

  15. ORI findings of scientific misconduct in clinical trials and publicly funded research, 1992-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sandra M

    2004-01-01

    Since 1992 the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) had reviewed investigations of scientific misconduct in research funded by the US Public Health Service (PHS). ORI defined scientific misconduct as "fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research". The purpose of this study was to summarize the findings and administrative actions reported in ORI notices of scientific misconduct in clinical trials occurring between May 1992 and 2002. Findings of misconduct were gathered from publicly available sources: the ORI annual reports and the NIH Guide to Grants and Contracts. Clinical trials accounted for 17 (13%) of the 136 investigations that resulted in findings of scientific misconduct, and they were noted in 12 (11%) of the 113 brief reports of investigations closed with findings of no scientific misconduct. In clinical trials, the most severe sanction, debarment from US Government funding, was applied in six (35%) of the cases of misconduct compared to 79 (66%) of 119 cases from all other types of research combined. Of individuals cited for misconduct in clinical trials, three (18%) held doctorates in contrast to 81 (68%) in other types of research. In clinical trials, junior employees may bear the burden of sanction for scientific misconduct. The most frequently applied sanction was the requirement that a plan of supervision of the sanctioned employees accompany any future application for funding which would include them. This imposition of sanction on an individual employee does not address possible causes of misconduct which may be inherent in the overall pattern of leadership, training and supervision in the trial. Furthermore, the definition of misconduct, as interpreted by the Departmental Appeals Board, excludes carelessness and other poor research practices that may lead to dissemination of more incorrect data

  16. Economic analysis of scientific publications and implications for energy research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, David

    2016-04-01

    The mix of public and private funding in alternative energy research makes isolating the effect of government funding challenging. Factors such as energy prices and environmental policy influence both private and public R&D decisions, and it may take several years for public R&D’s effect on technology to be realized. Here, by combining data on scientific publications for alternative energy technologies with data on government R&D support, I provide information on the lags between research funding and new publications and link these articles to citations in US energy patents. I find that US$1 million in additional government funding leads to one to two additional publications, but with lags as long as ten years between initial funding and publication. Finally, I show that adjustment costs associated with large increases in research funding are of little concern at current levels of public energy R&D support. These results suggest that there is room to expand public R&D budgets for renewable energy, but that the impact of any such expansion may not be realized for some time.

  17. Toward an Understanding of the Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development: A Categorical Assessment of the Peer-Reviewed Scientific Literature, 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Jake; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2016-01-01

    The body of science evaluating the potential impacts of unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) has grown significantly in recent years, although many data gaps remain. Still, a broad empirical understanding of the impacts is beginning to emerge amidst a swell of research. The present categorical assessment provides an overview of the peer-reviewed scientific literature from 2009-2015 as it relates to the potential impacts of UNGD on public health, water quality, and air quality. We have categorized all available original research during this time period in an attempt to understand the weight and direction of the scientific literature. Our results indicate that at least 685 papers have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals that are relevant to assessing the impacts of UNGD. 84% of public health studies contain findings that indicate public health hazards, elevated risks, or adverse health outcomes; 69% of water quality studies contain findings that indicate potential, positive association, or actual incidence of water contamination; and 87% of air quality studies contain findings that indicate elevated air pollutant emissions and/or atmospheric concentrations. This paper demonstrates that the weight of the findings in the scientific literature indicates hazards and elevated risks to human health as well as possible adverse health outcomes associated with UNGD. There are limitations to this type of assessment and it is only intended to provide a snapshot of the scientific knowledge based on the available literature. However, this work can be used to identify themes that lie in or across studies, to prioritize future research, and to provide an empirical foundation for policy decisions.

  18. Intangible Capital: Four years of growth as an open-access scientific publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pep Simo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue opens the fourth volume of the Intangible Capital journal, which makes its way towards the fifth year of publication. As usually, we start this volume by evaluating the previous one and tracing new directions. Among the main contributions during the year 2007, we consider important to highlight the following aspects: the renewal of the scientific indexation agreements, the platform change to OJS, the appointment of a new editor, new members included in the editorial board, the board of reviewers, the change towards a bilingual model, the new financing obtained and, the last but not the least, the work undertaken together with many scientific editors of open access Spanish journals for obtaining the positive evaluation of the CNEAI (National Commission for the Evaluation of the Research Activity and thus, being a proof of scientific excellence.

  19. Cultural distance between peoples’ worldview and scientific knowledge in the area of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Gauhar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is an attempt to measure the public understanding of science in the area of health and hygiene and test the efficacy of “cultural distance model”. A pre-tested open-ended questionnaire was used for administering cross-sectional surveys at a religio-cultural festival in India. 3484 individuals were interviewed and responses were coded and entered to construct computer database. The data was used for determining the cultural distance of five scientific concepts from the quotidian life of the target population. In developing countries, the formal system of modern education operates as a strong determinant in shaping cultural structures of thoughts prevalent among the citizens. There exists a cultural distance between the scientific structure of configuring natural occurrences and peoples’ complexity of thoughts. The distance varies significantly across the concepts that were subjected to the inspection and is a function of the nature of scientific information.

  20. Scientific Research and Evaluation in Public Security Colleges Based on Scientific Measurement%基于科学计量学的公安院校与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱营周

    2015-01-01

    Academic research of the public security colleges is still lack of the subject foundation, and has lower social influence. Scientific research foundation of public security colleges is weak, scientific research con?sciousness is not strong and the research level is low. Promoting the development of scientific research in public security colleges needs some evaluation mechanisms. Through scientific research evaluation, the scientific re?search achievements of public security colleges in a certain period of time are analyzed, we can find the close de?gree of the combination between scientific research and public security work and the transfer degree of scientific research achievements, which provide the basis for the supervision, forecast, adjustment and control of scientific research management activities and scientific research decision-making. In particular, it can provide some theo?retical support for the construction of discipline.%公安院校开展学术研究尚缺乏依赖的学科基础,社会影响力较低.通过科研评价,对一定时期内公安院校科研成果采用科学的方法进行分析,能够发现其科学研究与公安工作结合的紧密度及科研成果转化程度,为监督、预测、调控科研管理活动及科研决策提供依据,特别是对于学科建设能为其构建提供一定的理论支撑.

  1. Publication Ethics and the Emerging Scientific Workforce: Understanding ‘Plagiarism’ in a Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific publication has long been dominated by the English language and is rapidly moving towards near complete hegemony of English, while the majority of the world’s publishing scientists are not native English speakers. This imbalance has important implications for training in and enforcement of publication ethics, particularly with respect to plagiarism. A lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as patchwriting can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by non-native speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. A rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among both native English speaking and non-native English speaking writers, editors, educators, and administrators. Recommendations for educating and training are provided. PMID:22104051

  2. Mediating objects: scientific and public functions of models in nineteenth-century biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the scientific and public functions of two- and three-dimensional models in the context of three episodes from nineteenth-century biology. I argue that these models incorporate both data and theory by presenting theoretical assumptions in the light of concrete data or organizing data through theoretical assumptions. Despite their diverse roles in scientific practice, they all can be characterized as mediators between data and theory. Furthermore, I argue that these different mediating functions often reflect their different audiences that included specialized scientists, students, and the general public. In this sense, models in nineteenth-century biology can be understood as mediators between theory, data, and their diverse audiences.

  3. A new public policy to ensure access to scientific information resources: the case of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Bravo-Marchant

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of public policies to grant access to scientific information is now a marked trend among numerous countries of Latin America. The creation of specific instruments, the allocation of an ongoing budget and the accumulation of experience in negotiation and contracting of national licences have all been clear signs of the achievements resulting from recent initiatives in these countries. This article reviews the experience of the Consorcio para el Acceso a la Información Cientifíca Electrónica (CINCEL Corporation, a Chilean consortium created in 2002, the public policy that made it possible and the evaluation experience of its main programme, the Electronic Library of Scientific Information (BEIC.

  4. Perspective: publication ethics and the emerging scientific workforce: understanding "plagiarism" in a global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K

    2012-01-01

    English has long been the dominant language of scientific publication, and it is rapidly approaching near-complete hegemony. The majority of the scientists publishing in English-language journals are not native English speakers, however. This imbalance has important implications for training concerning ethics and enforcement of publication standards, particularly with respect to plagiarism. The authors suggest that lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as "patchwriting" can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by nonnative speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. They propose that a rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among editors, educators, administrators, and both native-English-speaking and nonnative-English-speaking writers. They offer recommendations for creating environments in which such dialogue and training can occur.

  5. Historiographical Map of Iranian Engineering Scientific Publications during 1939-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saman saghafi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric, and scientometric approaches are used to provide appropriate tools for evaluating scientific products at local, national, and international levels. Iran, the same as other countries, has many universities and research centers in the field of engineering that Iran's most of the scientific products account for the field of engineering. This study is a descriptive approach using scientometric methods. is The present paper mainly focuses on visualizing the structure of the Iranian scientific publications in the field of engineering indexed in Thomson Reuters (ISI accessible via WoS during 1939-2011. To draw the historiographical map of Iranian scientific outputs in the field of engineering, this study used HistCiteTM software. Two indexes, Local Citation Score and Global Citation Score, were used for the purpose of ranking and visualizing data. The results showed that the published papers of Iranian researchers in the field of engineering showed fluctuation. The proportion of Iran in the engineering outputs constituted 0.65% of total publications and ranked 24 of the world. Five large clusters have been formed on the LCS index. The subject areas of the clusters were in "Thermodynamics and Chemical engineering", "N-O Explosives", "liquid membranes", "Liquid-liquid equilibrium", and "decolorization". However, three clusters have been formed on the GCS index. The subject areas of the clusters were in "liquid membranes", "applied chemistry", and "Liquid-liquid equilibrium". Zafarani-Moattar and Sadeghi, and Ganji, played an important role in this map.

  6. [Scientific production in nutrition and the public perception of hunger and eating in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Marília; Lucatelli, Márcio

    2006-08-01

    There is a contradiction between the perceptions held by different sectors of the Establishment with regard to the questions of hunger and nutrition in Brazil. On the one hand, the flagship of the present Brazilian government's social policy is the "Fome Zero" program. This program is based on the notion that the condition of hunger is socially relevant in this country. On the other hand, the scientific community in the field of nutrition has, through epidemiological studies, highlighted obesity as one of the most serious public health problems in Brazil. The reason why the public perception is dissociated from the production of knowledge on this subject has old roots that are related to the difficulties in institutionalizing science in Brazil. This has been reflected in a relative lack of legitimacy for scientific discourse. The new factor in this situation is the attainment of greater international visibility by the scientific community in nutritional de epidemiology. The future of the practical application of the results from nutritional epidemiology research in Brazil depends on the dynamics of the political agenda regarding hunger and nutrition, and of the sectors associated with this. The objective of this study was to explore this situation by means of analyzing scientometric data on the scientific production, historical data and documents relating to discourse about hunger.

  7. Persistent Identifiers in the Publication and Citation of Scientific Data - Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J.; Brase, J.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Hildenbrand, B.; Hoeck, H.; Lautenschlager, M.; Sens, I.

    2008-12-01

    In the last decade data driven research has become a third pillar of scientific work alongside with theoretical reasoning and experiment. Greatly increased computing power and storage, together with web services and other electronic resources have facilitated a quantum leap in new research based on the analysis of great amounts of data. However, traditional scientific communication only slowly changes to new media other than an emulation of paper. This leaves many data inaccessible and, in the long run exposes valuable data to the risk of loss. To improve access to data and to create incentives for scientists to make their data accessible, a group of German data centres initiated the project "Publication and Citation of Scientific Data" (STD-DOI) which was funded by the German Science Foundation DFG for the periods 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. In this project the German National Library for Science and Technology (TIB Hannover), together with the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ Potsdam), Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) Bremerhaven, University of Bremen, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, and the DLR German Remote Sensing Data Center set up the first system to assign DOIs to data sets and for their publication. A prerequisite for data to be made available is a proper citation. This means that all fields mandatory for a bibliographic citation are included. In addition, a mechanism is needed that ensures that the location of the referenced data on the internet can be resolved at any time. In the past, this was a problematic issue because URLs are short-lived, many becoming invalid after only a few months. Data publication on the internet therefore needs a system of reliable pointers to a web publication to make these publications citeable. To achieve this persistence of identifiers for their conventional publications many scientific publishers use Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The identifier is resolved through

  8. Confined to grow?. Publication dynamics and the proliferation of scientific journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daruka, Istvan

    2014-01-01

    The number of research papers published yearly shows a staggering exponential growth. One can in fact witness a century-long publication avalanche (Fig.1). According to the two major databases INSPEC and Thomson Reuters, there is a 300-fold increase in the number of published items since the year 1900. The world of science has recently reached such a level of proliferating complexity that its structural evolution itself poses challenging scientific problems.

  9. A measure of similarity between scientific journals and of diversity of a list of publications

    CERN Document Server

    Cordier, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this note is to propose a definition of the scientific diversity and corollarly, a measure of the "interdisciplinarity" of collaborations. With respect to previous studies, the proposed approach consists of 2 steps : first, the definition of similarity between journals and second, these similarities are used to characterize the homogeneity (or, on the contrary the diversity) of a publication list (that can be for one individual or a team).

  10. Scientific publications from Arab world in leading journals of Integrative and Complementary Medicine: a bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zyoud, Sa’ed H.; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bibliometric analysis is increasingly employed as a useful tool to assess the quantity and quality of research performance. The specific goal of the current study was to evaluate the performance of research output originating from Arab world and published in international Integrative and Complementary Medicine (ICM) journals. Methods Original scientific publications and reviews from the 22 Arab countries that were published in 22 international peer-reviewed ICM journals during all ...

  11. Fostering Scientific and Numerate Practices in Journalism to Support Rapid Public Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Yarnall

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Journalism has the potential––and arguably the mandate––to expand public understanding of societally important phenomena. However, some methods for more effectively educating the public have been persistently underutilized: in particular, embedding informative numerical rates and efficient scientific explanations in news reports. In the current era of disrupting and downsizing the news business, the challenges to using such methods have only increased. To address this problem, this article seeks to (a raise awareness about the psychological reasons that help explain why it is crucial to use such elements in news reports, and (b exhibit some methods for doing so that require modest effort. Building on a review of relevant psychological literatures, principles, and existing reporting methods, we describe findings from a series of cognitive-scientific studies that demonstrate how using key––and relatively minimal––scientific and numerical elements can enhance public learning from news reports. We conclude by also describing curricula and resources designed to help journalists and bloggers use these methods.

  12. Challenges of scientific knowledge visualization in publication productivity of the university academic staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabanova Natalia N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that a person, an author particularly, faces the challenges of visualization in the cognitive process. The aim of this study is to consider the forms of thinking process and the changes happened in education process and in scientific activity. It was noted that the challenges connected with information perceiving during the work with the text occur in the process of creating academic papers as well. We conclude that the topical field of visualization covers not only the educative process assuming information transfer from person to person (model “teacher-student”, but the process of scientific activity. Applying the methods of visualization in publication activity is the factor for effective communication in social and cultural space that provides the opportunity for academic society to recognize results. We offer possible ways to promote scientific papers via online resources such as scientific social networks and tools of media corporations. The scientific social network ResearchGate and Thomson Reuters media corporation product as an online tool “Researcher ID” placed at the bibliographic database Web of Science TM Core Collection are used as the examples. We state that information technology allows authors to promote the results of their studies around the world.

  13. Features and publication rates of scientific abstracts presented at a rheumatology congress--EULAR 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Sedat; Kalyoncu, Umut; Cinar, Muhammet; Karadag, Omer; Koca, Suleyman Serdar; Simsek, Ismail; Erdem, Hakan; Pay, Salih; Dinc, Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    Various types of scientific abstracts are selected and presented at meetings and listed in abstract books. Recently, a systematic review has shown that 45% of 30,000 abstracts were published in a journal. The aim of this study was to determine the features of abstracts selected to be presented at a EULAR meeting (2008) and the corresponding publication rates. The EULAR 2008 Abstract Book was extracted, presented abstracts were assessed, their publication status was checked, and features related with publication rate were determined. The publication status of abstracts as of January 20, 2011, was verified using PubMed. A total of 1,732 abstracts were assessed. Median publication duration was 13 (range: 0 to 31) months. Most of the abstracts (N=339) were of multi-national origin. Sixty seven percent of abstracts were clinical and 563 (33%) abstracts were preclinical. We found that 601 of all abstracts (34.7%) had been published in a journal, and most of were published in a rheumatology journal. Fifty-seven percent of published abstracts were in journals with an impact factor higher than 4. The publication rate was correlated with presentation type, number of centers involved, trial design, and number of patients enrolled. We found that the publication rate of EULAR 2008 abstracts at 30 months was approximately 35%. This is a high rate compared to a previously published systematic review that investigated the publication rate of studies initially presented as abstracts in medical meetings, which reported the publication rate at 24 and 36 months as 20.7% and 28.1%, respectively. More than half of the published abstracts were accepted by high-impact journals. Presentation type, number of centers, trial design, and enrolled patient numbers were all correlated with the rate of publication.

  14. Plagiarism in Scientific Research and Publications and How to Prevent It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    Quality is assessed on the basis of adequate evidence, while best results of the research are accomplished through scientific knowledge. Information contained in a scientific work must always be based on scientific evidence. Guidelines for genuine scientific research should be designed based on real results. Dynamic research and use correct methods of scientific work must originate from everyday practice and the fundamentals of the research. The original work should have the proper data sources with clearly defined research goals, methods of operation which are acceptable for questions included in the study. When selecting the methods it is necessary to obtain the consent of the patients/respondents to provide data for execution of the project or so called informed consent. Only by the own efforts can be reached true results, from which can be drawn conclusions and which finally can give a valid scholarly commentary. Text may be copied from other sources, either in whole or in part and marked as a result of the other studies. For high-quality scientific work necessary are expertise and relevant scientific literature, mostly taken from publications that are stored in biomedical databases. These are scientific, professional and review articles, case reports of disease in physician practices, but the knowledge can also be acquired on scientific and expert lectures by renowned scientists. Form of text publications must meet standards on writing a paper. If the article has already been published in a scientific journal, the same article cannot be published in any other journal with a few minor adjustments, or without specifying the parts of the first article which is used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article, with or without mentioning the author, uses a substantial portion of previously published articles, including past contributions in the first article. With the permission of the publisher and the author, another journal

  15. Plagiarism in scientific research and publications and how to prevent it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2014-04-01

    Quality is assessed on the basis of adequate evidence, while best results of the research are accomplished through scientific knowledge. Information contained in a scientific work must always be based on scientific evidence. Guidelines for genuine scientific research should be designed based on real results. Dynamic research and use correct methods of scientific work must originate from everyday practice and the fundamentals of the research. The original work should have the proper data sources with clearly defined research goals, methods of operation which are acceptable for questions included in the study. When selecting the methods it is necessary to obtain the consent of the patients/respondents to provide data for execution of the project or so called informed consent. Only by the own efforts can be reached true results, from which can be drawn conclusions and which finally can give a valid scholarly commentary. Text may be copied from other sources, either in whole or in part and marked as a result of the other studies. For high-quality scientific work necessary are expertise and relevant scientific literature, mostly taken from publications that are stored in biomedical databases. These are scientific, professional and review articles, case reports of disease in physician practices, but the knowledge can also be acquired on scientific and expert lectures by renowned scientists. Form of text publications must meet standards on writing a paper. If the article has already been published in a scientific journal, the same article cannot be published in any other journal with a few minor adjustments, or without specifying the parts of the first article which is used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article, with or without mentioning the author, uses a substantial portion of previously published articles, including past contributions in the first article. With the permission of the publisher and the author, another journal

  16. Public acceptance of wind farm development: Developer practices and review of scientific literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin, Tom; Ram, Bonnie; Gannon, Jim

    This report is the first deliverable of Work Package 3 of the Wind2050 project. The Wind2050 project is about the public perception of wind power in Denmark, its role in the planning and development of wind farms and, ultimately, the meaning it has for reaching the Danish government’s targets...... for wind power in 2050. Work Package 3 looks specifically at how private developers handle the public’s perception of wind power and what it means for their projects. This report firstly outlines the common stages found in wind farm development and then discusses what manner of interaction the developer...... commonly has with the public at each stage. The report then shifts focus to what scientific literature says about two important topics in this realm: public risk perception and the NIMBY concept. Finally, the report concludes with suggested topics for research questions and highlights the next steps...

  17. Clustering scientific publications based on citation relations: A systematic comparison of different methods

    CERN Document Server

    Šubelj, Lovro; Waltman, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between di...

  18. Improving Scientific Communication and Publication Output in a Multidisciplinary Laboratory: Changing Culture Through Staff Development Workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, Christine F.; Stratton, Kelly G.

    2015-07-13

    Communication plays a fundamental role in science and engineering disciplines. However, many higher education programs provide little, if any, technical communication coursework. Without strong communication skills scientists and engineers have less opportunity to publish, obtain competitive research funds, or grow their careers. This article describes the role of scientific communication training as an innovative staff development program in a learning-intensive workplace – a national scientific research and development laboratory. The findings show that involvement in the workshop has increased overall participating staff annual publications by an average of 61 percent compared to their pre-workshop publishing performance as well as confidence level in their ability to write and publish peer-reviewed literature. Secondary benefits include improved information literacy skills and the development of informal communities of practice. This work provides insight into adult education in the workplace.

  19. Designing a Secure Storage Repository for Sharing Scientific Datasets using Public Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumbhare, Alok; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

    2011-11-14

    As Cloud platforms gain increasing traction among scientific and business communities for outsourcing storage, computing and content delivery, there is also growing concern about the associated loss of control over private data hosted in the Cloud. In this paper, we present an architecture for a secure data repository service designed on top of a public Cloud infrastructure to support multi-disciplinary scientific communities dealing with personal and human subject data, motivated by the smart power grid domain. Our repository model allows users to securely store and share their data in the Cloud without revealing the plain text to unauthorized users, the Cloud storage provider or the repository itself. The system masks file names, user permissions and access patterns while providing auditing capabilities with provable data updates.

  20. Identification of trends in scientific publications related to genetic polymorphisms in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J S; Minasi, L B; da Cruz, A D; Rodrigues, F M

    2016-05-09

    Gestational diabetes is a genetic multifactorial systemic disease that has been extensively studied. Consequently, there is a large volume of scientific literature pertaining to genes associated with gestational diabetes. The aim of this study was to characterize the main trends in scientific publications focusing on the associations between genetic polymorphisms and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The related articles were extracted from Scopus using the key words "genetic polymorphism" and "gestational diabetes mellitus"; the collected data focused on various fields (medical, biochemical, etc.) and included papers published within December 2013. One hundred and eighty-three relevant articles published between 1987 and 2013 were identified; we observed a significantly increasing trend in the number of publications pertaining to GDM. A majority of the articles focused on the medical (59.9%), biochemical, and genetics and molecular biological (29.6%) aspects of the disease. The genes coding for transcription factor 7-like 2 and glucokinase (TCF7L2, 29% and GCK, 28%) were predominantly studied and reported. This study helped quantify the growth in research pertaining to GDM; researchers from the USA have published a majority of the publications related to GDM. Several candidate genes have been linked to diabetes; however, the specific gene locus responsible for GDM has not yet been identified. The results of this study could help determine the orientation of future research on genetic factors associated with GDM.

  1. The CRACK programme: a scientific alliance for bridging healthcare research and public health policies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corrao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare utilisation databases, and other secondary data sources, have been used with growing frequency to assess health outcomes and healthcare interventions worldwide. Their increased popularity as a research tool is due to their timely availability, the large patient populations covered, low cost, and applicability for studying real-world clinical practice. Despite the need to measure Italian National Health Service performance both at regional and national levels, the wealth of good quality electronic data and the high standards of scientific research in this field, healthcare research and public health policies seem to progress along orthogonal dimensions in Italy. The main barriers to the development of evidence-based public health include the lack of understanding of evidence-based methodologies by policy makers, and of involvement of researchers in the policy process. The CRACK programme was launched by some academics from the Lombardy Region. By extensively using electronically stored data, epidemiologists, biostatisticians, pharmacologists and clinicians applied methods and evidence to several issues of healthcare research. The CRACK programme was based on their intention to remove barriers that thwart the process of bridging methods and findings from scientific journals to public health practice. This paper briefly describes aim, articulation and management of the CRACK programme, and discusses why it might find articulated application in Italy.

  2. Contribution of Oswaldo Paulo Forattini to public health: analysis of scientific production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Juliana Gonçalves; Kobayashi, Keilla Miki; Ueno, Helene Mariko; Ribeiro, Cristiane Martins; Cardoso, Telma Abdalla de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the main characteristics of the scientific production of Oswaldo Paulo Forattini, researcher and, for 40 years, editor of Revista de Saúde Pública. METHODS Descriptive study with bibliometric approach conducted in three steps. (1) identification of bibliographic records using the following search strategy: “Oswaldo Paulo Forattini” OR “Forattini OP” OR “Forattini” up information sources Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed, in July 2016, which retrieved 867 records. (2) composition of research corpus, in which we included 351 bibliographic records of articles, books, book chapters, editorials, book reviews, informative notes and annual reports of the RSP and excluded 516 duplicates and acknowledgement notes, obituary notes, and nonretrievable citations. (3) data organization and analysis, in which we built databases for descriptive analysis and development of the MeSH coauthors and terms networks in VOSviewer software. For analysis of editorials, three reviewers read the full text of each editorial and categorized them according to subject, historical context and perspectives, relating them with historical milestones. RESULTS Forattini’s scientific production occurred from 1946 to 2009, most consisting of articles (n = 218; 62.1%), editorials (n = 43; 12.3%), and books (n = 13; 3.7%). The main subjects were Culicidae (36.8%), Triatominae (12.5%), and Epidemiology (10.0%). The coauthors of articles were his professors, colleagues of his generation, and graduate students. His editorials addressed critical reflections on the production of knowledge, research priorities, and factors that contributed to or hindered progress. The scope of subjects is broad, referring to socioeconomic and scientific development, public health issues in developed countries, or global health. CONCLUSIONS The analysis shows Forattini’s commitment with public health, research with vectors, training of researchers, and scientific

  3. EXCEPTIONAL COLLOQUIUM : Digital scholarship and the changing nature of scientific publication

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Digital media have extended the number of channels that scientists (and other academics) use to communicate and share information. Digital technologies have the potential to make all stages of the research process more visible in the public sphere, and to audiences that have, on occasion, opportunities for interaction and engagement. But digital technologies also are introducing novel demands on researchers, requiring skills and competencies on the part of scientists that are encapsulated by the concept of digital scholarship. In this presentation we explore this developing context via a case study: the publication of emails from the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia (also known as ‘climategate’). The findings of three reviews of ‘climategate’ will be discussed in terms of their implications for science communication. This episode may indirectly influence the ways that scientific knowledge is produced and verified, and what information and data are required to be archived for cir...

  4. 78 FR 55326 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), the PEPFAR Scientific... Relief (PEPFAR). The Board serves the Global AIDS Coordinator in a solely advisory capacity...

  5. 76 FR 52731 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...). The Board serves the Global AIDS Coordinator in a solely advisory capacity concerning scientific... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), the PEPFAR...

  6. 78 FR 33144 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    .... The Board serves the Global AIDS Coordinator in a solely advisory capacity concerning scientific... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), the PEPFAR...

  7. 77 FR 55891 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ...). The Board serves the Global AIDS Coordinator in a solely advisory capacity concerning scientific... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), the PEPFAR...

  8. Does direction of results of abstracts submitted to scientific conferences on drug addiction predict full publication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoli Marina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from scientific literature show that about 63% of abstracts presented at biomedical conferences will be published in full. Some studies have indicated that full publication is associated with the direction of results (publication bias. No study has looked into the occurrence of publication bias in the field of addiction. Objectives To investigate whether the significance or direction of results of abstracts presented at the major international scientific conference on addiction is associated with full publication Methods The conference proceedings of the US Annual Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD, were handsearched for abstracts of randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials that evaluated interventions for prevention, rehabilitation and treatment of drug addiction in humans (years searched 1993–2002. Data regarding the study designs and outcomes reported were extracted. Subsequent publication in peer reviewed journals was searched in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, as of March 2006. Results Out of 5919 abstracts presented, 581 met the inclusion criteria; 359 (62% conference abstracts had been published in a broad variety of peer reviewed journals (average time of publication 2.6 years, SD +/- 1.78. The proportion of published studies was almost the same for randomized controlled trials (62.4% and controlled clinical trials (59.5% while studies that reported positive results were significantly more likely to be published (74.5% than those that did not report statistical results (60.9%., negative or null results (47.1% and no results (38.6%, Abstracts reporting positive results had a significantly higher probability of being published in full, while abstracts reporting null or negative results were half as likely to be published compared with positive ones (HR = 0.48; 95%CI 0.30–0.74 Conclusion Clinical trials were the minority of abstracts presented at the CPDD; we found

  9. SOUTH AMERICAN COLLABORATION IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS ON LEISHMANIASIS: BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN SCOPUS (2000-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamaní, Charles; Romaní, Franco; González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Mejia, Miluska O.; Ramos, José Manuel; Espinoza, Manuel; Cabezas, César

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluate the production and the research collaborative network on Leishmaniasis in South America. Methods: A bibliometric research was carried out using SCOPUS database. The analysis unit was original research articles published from 2000 to 2011, that dealt with leishmaniasis and that included at least one South American author. The following items were obtained for each article: journal name, language, year of publication, number of authors, institutions, countries, and others variables. Results: 3,174 articles were published, 2,272 of them were original articles. 1,160 different institutional signatures, 58 different countries and 398 scientific journals were identified. Brazil was the country with more articles (60.7%) and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) had 18% of Brazilian production, which is the South American nucleus of the major scientific network in Leishmaniasis. Conclusions: South American scientific production on Leishmaniasis published in journals indexed in SCOPUS is focused on Brazilian research activity. It is necessary to strengthen the collaboration networks. The first step is to identify the institutions with higher production, in order to perform collaborative research according to the priorities of each country. PMID:25229217

  10. South American collaboration in scientific publications on leishmaniasis: bibliometric analysis in SCOPUS (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamaní, Charles; Romaní, Franco; González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Mejia, Miluska O; Ramos, José Manuel; Espinoza, Manuel; Cabezas, César

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the production and the research collaborative network on Leishmaniasis in South America. A bibliometric research was carried out using SCOPUS database. The analysis unit was original research articles published from 2000 to 2011, that dealt with leishmaniasis and that included at least one South American author. The following items were obtained for each article: journal name, language, year of publication, number of authors, institutions, countries, and others variables. 3,174 articles were published, 2,272 of them were original articles. 1,160 different institutional signatures, 58 different countries and 398 scientific journals were identified. Brazil was the country with more articles (60.7%) and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) had 18% of Brazilian production, which is the South American nucleus of the major scientific network in Leishmaniasis. South American scientific production on Leishmaniasis published in journals indexed in SCOPUS is focused on Brazilian research activity. It is necessary to strengthen the collaboration networks. The first step is to identify the institutions with higher production, in order to perform collaborative research according to the priorities of each country.

  11. SOUTH AMERICAN COLLABORATION IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS ON LEISHMANIASIS: BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN SCOPUS (2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Huamaní

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluate the production and the research collaborative network on Leishmaniasis in South America. Methods: A bibliometric research was carried out using SCOPUS database. The analysis unit was original research articles published from 2000 to 2011, that dealt with leishmaniasis and that included at least one South American author. The following items were obtained for each article: journal name, language, year of publication, number of authors, institutions, countries, and others variables. Results: 3,174 articles were published, 2,272 of them were original articles. 1,160 different institutional signatures, 58 different countries and 398 scientific journals were identified. Brazil was the country with more articles (60.7% and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ had 18% of Brazilian production, which is the South American nucleus of the major scientific network in Leishmaniasis. Conclusions: South American scientific production on Leishmaniasis published in journals indexed in SCOPUS is focused on Brazilian research activity. It is necessary to strengthen the collaboration networks. The first step is to identify the institutions with higher production, in order to perform collaborative research according to the priorities of each country.

  12. The influence of cultural capital on consumption of scientific culture: A survey of visitors to an open house event at a public scientific research institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Nitta, Naoko

    2013-04-01

    Based on the concept of cultural capital, this study explores the relationship between habitual behaviors of individuals regarding their past accumulation of such capital and current responses to a scientific institute's public outreach activity. At an open house held at the Institute for Molecular Science (IMS), anonymous questionnaires were distributed among 1,350 visitors and collected from 785 of them (collection rate = 58.1%). The results, measuring the past five to six years, showed that the respondents accumulated cultural capital through participation in scientific activities as well as in activities involving art, music, and literature. Given these quantified values, correlations between citizens' levels of accumulated cultural capital and their current scientific consumption behavior were studied. A statistical analysis of the two components of cultural capital (science and technology/art and literature) showed that people's accumulated scientific capital influenced their current behavior and revealed a correlation between the two components.

  13. The Scientific Publications of Richard H. Dalitz, FRS (1925-2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitchison, Ian J.R.; Close, Frank E.; Gal, Avraham; Millener, D.John

    2006-03-29

    Professor Richard H. Dalitz passed away on January 13, 2006. He was almost 81 years old and his outstanding contributions are intimately connected to some of the major breakthroughs of the 20th century in particle and nuclear physics. These outstanding contributions go beyond the Dalitz Plot, Dalitz Pair and CDD poles that bear his name. He pioneered the theoretical study of strange baryon resonances, of baryon spectroscopy in the quark model, and of hypernuclei, to all of which he made lasting contributions. His formulation of the ''{theta} - {tau} puzzle'' led to the discovery that parity is not a symmetry of the weak interactions. A brief scientific evaluation of Dalitz's major contributions to particle and nuclear physics is hereby presented, followed by the first comprehensive list of his scientific publications, as assembled from several sources. The list is divided into two categories: the first, main part comprises Dalitz's research papers and reviews, including topics in the history of particle physics, biographies and reminescences; the second part lists book reviews, public lectures and obituaries authored by Dalitz, and books edited by him. This provides the first necessary step towards a more systematic research of the Dalitz heritage in modern physics.

  14. Open access to scientific publications - an analysis of the barriers to change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Bo-Christer Björk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the effects of the Internet is that the dissemination of scientific publications in a few years has migrated to electronic formats. The basic business practices between libraries and publishers for selling and buying the content have, however, not changed much. Scientists have in protest against the high subscription prices of mainstream publishers started Open Access (OA journals and e-print repositories, which distribute scientific information freely. Despite widespread agreement among academics that OA would be the optimal distribution mode for publicly financed research results, OA channels still constitute only a marginal phenomenon in the global scholarly communication system. This paper discusses, in view of the experiences of the last ten years, the many barriers hindering a rapid proliferation of Open Access. The discussion is structured according to the main OA channels; peer-reviewed journals for primary publishing, subject-specific and institutional repositories for secondary parallel publishing. It also discusses the types of barriers, which can be classified as: legal framework, IT-infrastructure, business models, indexing services and standards, academic reward system, marketing and critical mass.

  15. [Food and Nutrition in Public Health: constitution, contours and scientific status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães; Prado, Shirley Donizete

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the route on which Food and Nutrition in Public Health was build in the Brazilian context, from its fields of origin, identifying tensions and convergences, seeking to demarcate its boundaries and to characterize its status within the scientific field. We seek to evince the existence of a movement marked by the fruitful encounter between the field of "Public Health" and a portion of the field of "Food and Nutrition", or more precisely, one of their cores, starring actors oriented by knowledge distinguished from other nuclei in this field. Such phenomena, that we postulate as outcomes of the contact nuclei of knowledge that identify the Public Health with the field of "Food and Nutrition", led to a specific core of distinct knowledge and praxis in this context corresponds to what we call "Food and Nutrition in Public Health". This is a process marked from the outset by tensions between the biological and social paradigms, becoming the one hand, as a major challenge to be faced, and secondly, as a promising way for the approach between different fields of science, both the more practical, such as those targeted to conceptual reflection.

  16. Scientific publications in anesthesiology journals from East Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Qiu, Li-Xin; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2011-04-01

    The scientific publications in anesthesiology research from East Asian authors have not been reported yet. The present study was designed to analyze the contribution of articles from East Asia to anesthesiology research. Articles published in 17 journals in anesthesiology originating from Japan, China, and South Korea from 2000 to 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Web of Science. From 2000 to 2009, there were 3,076 articles published from East Asia. During this period, there were a notable decrease in publications from Japan and modest increases in publications from both China and South Korea. The average 5-year impact factor of the published articles was similar among the three regions, and China had the highest average number of citations to each article. Anesthesia & Analgesia published more articles than any other journal from all three regions. Our analysis showed that Japan was the most productive region in East Asia, but there was a notable decrease in publications from Japan in 2000-2009. The impact factor of the articles suggests similar levels of scholarship. Anesthesia & Analgesia was the most popular journal in East Asia.

  17. Clustering Scientific Publications Based on Citation Relations: A Systematic Comparison of Different Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šubelj, Lovro; van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between different properties that may be considered desirable for a good clustering of publications. Overall, map equation methods appear to perform best in our analysis, suggesting that these methods deserve more attention from the bibliometric community.

  18. [The representation of scientific publications of RAMS in WEB of science: evaluation of current indicators and prospects of their increasing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubtsev, V I; Kuznetsov, S L; Kurakova, N G; Tsvetkova, L A

    2012-01-01

    The contribution scientific publications of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (RAMS) in the national publication stream, indexed by Web of Science over the past thirty years, was estimated. The indicators of publication activity that are necessary for the institutions of RAMS to achieve in short-term period the conformity with bibliometric indicators, established by Presidential Decree of May 7, 2012 (to increase the share of Russian publications in Web of Science to 2.44% in 2015) were calculated. It is shown that the current structure of global science, where publications in medicine make up for approximately one third of scientific publications in the world, set for RAMS scientists particularly difficult task: to double in three years the number of publications in Web of Sci. In the article are proposed the priorities and the necessary steps to fulfill this task.

  19. Global nanotechnology development from 1991 to 2012: patents, scientific publications, and effect of NSF funding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsinchun [The University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems (United States); Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (United States); Son, Jaebong; Jiang, Shan, E-mail: jiangs@email.arizona.edu; Larson, Catherine A.; Gao, Qiang [The University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems (United States)

    2013-09-15

    In a relatively short interval for an emerging technology, nanotechnology has made a significant economic impact in numerous sectors including semiconductor manufacturing, catalysts, medicine, agriculture, and energy production. A part of the United States (US) government investment in basic research has been realized in the last two decades through the National Science Foundation (NSF), beginning with the nanoparticle research initiative in 1991 and continuing with support from the National Nanotechnology Initiative after fiscal year 2001. This paper has two main goals: (a) present a longitudinal analysis of the global nanotechnology development as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patents and Web of Science (WoS) publications in nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) for the interval 1991-2012; and (b) identify the effect of basic research funded by NSF on both indicators. The interval has been separated into three parts for comparison purposes: 1991-2000, 2001-2010, and 2011-2012. The global trends of patents and scientific publications are presented. Bibliometric analysis, topic analysis, and citation network analysis methods are used to rank countries, institutions, technology subfields, and inventors contributing to nanotechnology development. We then, examined how these entities were affected by NSF funding and how they evolved over the past two decades. Results show that dedicated NSF funding used to support nanotechnology R and D was followed by an increased number of relevant patents and scientific publications, a greater diversity of technology topics, and a significant increase of citations. The NSF played important roles in the inventor community and served as a major contributor to numerous nanotechnology subfields.

  20. Global nanotechnology development from 1991 to 2012: patents, scientific publications, and effect of NSF funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Son, Jaebong; Jiang, Shan; Larson, Catherine A.; Gao, Qiang

    2013-09-01

    In a relatively short interval for an emerging technology, nanotechnology has made a significant economic impact in numerous sectors including semiconductor manufacturing, catalysts, medicine, agriculture, and energy production. A part of the United States (US) government investment in basic research has been realized in the last two decades through the National Science Foundation (NSF), beginning with the nanoparticle research initiative in 1991 and continuing with support from the National Nanotechnology Initiative after fiscal year 2001. This paper has two main goals: (a) present a longitudinal analysis of the global nanotechnology development as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patents and Web of Science (WoS) publications in nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) for the interval 1991-2012; and (b) identify the effect of basic research funded by NSF on both indicators. The interval has been separated into three parts for comparison purposes: 1991-2000, 2001-2010, and 2011-2012. The global trends of patents and scientific publications are presented. Bibliometric analysis, topic analysis, and citation network analysis methods are used to rank countries, institutions, technology subfields, and inventors contributing to nanotechnology development. We then, examined how these entities were affected by NSF funding and how they evolved over the past two decades. Results show that dedicated NSF funding used to support nanotechnology R&D was followed by an increased number of relevant patents and scientific publications, a greater diversity of technology topics, and a significant increase of citations. The NSF played important roles in the inventor community and served as a major contributor to numerous nanotechnology subfields.

  1. Scientific publications in endoscopic ultrasonography: changing trends in the third millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaroli, Pietro; Kypreos, Dimitrios; Alma Petrini, Chiara Ada; Caletti, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    The literature about endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is still very prolific although it was introduced in the early 1980s. We aimed to review last decade's scientific production and to compare it with our earlier data about the period from 1980 to 2000. EUS publications of the period January 2001 to January 2010 were retrieved. Reviews, prospective, and retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, surveys, guidelines, and case-series were assessed. Data were collected on the subject-matter, type of publication, number of patients included, publishing journal, most recent impact factor, year of publication, and country accredited for publication. A total of 1763 relevant papers were published in more than 250 journals. The main areas of research were pancreatic disorders, tumors of the gastrointestinal wall, the extrahepatic biliary tree, submucosal lesions, lung cancer, and mediastinal masses. It is interesting to note that the therapeutic applications of EUS accounted for a new field of investigation. The majority of articles comprised retrospective trials and reviews, followed by prospective studies and case series. However, a considerable number of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses was retrieved, which were absent in the earlier survey. United States, Europe, and Japan still possessed a pivotal role on EUS research, but an increasing number of publications has also emerged from other countries. The available literature on EUS keeps expanding, encompassing not only its well-established diagnostic role, but also novel indications and therapeutic interventions. EUS has evolved into a valuable implement of modern clinical practice, with a critical effect on patients' management. A trend toward well-structured studies is evident.

  2. Beyond Data Points and Research Contributions: The Personal Meaning and Value Associated with Public Participation in Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Benjamin K.

    2016-01-01

    As public participation in scientific research (PPSR) initiatives have expanded rapidly among private, public, and non-profit science research communities over the past decade, program managers and scholars regularly promote, evaluate, and manage such programs with a focus on the value and impact of PPSR efforts on the practice and relevancy of…

  3. Institutional Restrictions on Scientific Productivity: The Case Study of a Mexican Public University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Metlich Medlich

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying factors which restrict research is not only important for universities but for their professors. In this paper different aspects are researched and identified, which may influence scientific productivity. As a basis for this paper 48 interviews were conducted with researchers from a State Public University. These researchers were chosen including those from the highest level in the National System of Researchers (of Mexico, SNI for its acronym in Spanish Sistema Nacional de Investigadores, to those who have not yet entered it. The results sustain that professors have been submitted to requirements that hinder the development of their multiple tasks, among those stand out: produce knowledge, teach, and tutor students, follow internal and surrounding policies.

  4. Choosing statistical tests: part 12 of a series on evaluation of scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Röhrig, Bernd; Hommel, Gerhard; Blettner, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The interpretation of scientific articles often requires an understanding of the methods of inferential statistics. This article informs the reader about frequently used statistical tests and their correct application. The most commonly used statistical tests were identified through a selective literature search on the methodology of medical research publications. These tests are discussed in this article, along with a selection of other standard methods of inferential statistics. Readers who are acquainted not just with descriptive methods, but also with Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t test will be able to interpret a large proportion of medical research articles. Criteria are presented for choosing the proper statistical test to be used out of the most frequently applied tests. An algorithm and a table are provided to facilitate the selection of the appropriate test.

  5. [History of the scientific field of Food and Nutrition in Public Health in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos, Francisco; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to trace the history of the scientific field of Food and Nutrition in Public Health in Brazil (FNPH), trying to describe the contexts that allowed the construction, consolidation and redefinition of the field, to identify the Brazilian scientists who contributed to this process and address the scientific concepts or paradigms that guided the actions of these scientists. As methodological criteria of analysis three cross sections corresponding to contexts of history in this field were established: the first one covers the period from 1930 to 1963, the second one between 1964 and 1984 and the third one considers the period from 1985 to 2010. We conclude that the field of FNPH assumed the current configuration from the mid-1970's, within the so-called Brazilian health movement, whose main ideas were the achievement of health reform and the construction of the Unified Health System. We reaffirm the importance of multidisciplinary character and the premise of the important role of the field of FNPH in ensuring the human right to healthy food, a component of the set of conditions necessary for health promotion, disease prevention, surveillance and health recovery and improvement of quality of life for all Brazilians.

  6. Looking for landmarks: the role of expert review and bibliometric analysis in evaluating scientific publication outputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Allen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare expert assessment with bibliometric indicators as tools to assess the quality and importance of scientific research papers. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Shortly after their publication in 2005, the quality and importance of a cohort of nearly 700 Wellcome Trust (WT associated research papers were assessed by expert reviewers; each paper was reviewed by two WT expert reviewers. After 3 years, we compared this initial assessment with other measures of paper impact. RESULTS: Shortly after publication, 62 (9% of the 687 research papers were determined to describe at least a 'major addition to knowledge' -6 were thought to be 'landmark' papers. At an aggregate level, after 3 years, there was a strong positive association between expert assessment and impact as measured by number of citations and F1000 rating. However, there were some important exceptions indicating that bibliometric measures may not be sufficient in isolation as measures of research quality and importance, and especially not for assessing single papers or small groups of research publications. CONCLUSION: When attempting to assess the quality and importance of research papers, we found that sole reliance on bibliometric indicators would have led us to miss papers containing important results as judged by expert review. In particular, some papers that were highly rated by experts were not highly cited during the first three years after publication. Tools that link expert peer reviews of research paper quality and importance to more quantitative indicators, such as citation analysis would be valuable additions to the field of research assessment and evaluation.

  7. Scientific publications in obstetrics and gynecology journals from China, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Fei; Hao, Jun-Feng; Xin, Lei

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the output of scientific publications in obstetrics and gynecology journals from 3 principal regions of China: mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Information on article numbers, impact factors, citation reports, and publication in high-impact obstetrics and gynecology journals by Chinese authors between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2009, was extracted from PubMed and WoS databases. Comparisons of quantity and quality were done by Kruskal-Wallis and rank-sum tests. There were 3044 articles from mainland China (n=1042), Taiwan (n=1304), and Hong Kong (n=698). The cumulative impact factors and citations of articles from Taiwan were highest among the 3 regions. In terms of average impact factor and number of citations per article, Hong Kong exceeded mainland China and Taiwan. Fertility and Sterility, Human Reproduction and Gynecologic Oncology were among the most popular obstetrics and gynecology journals used by authors in the 3 regions. The annual number of articles published in obstetrics and gynecology journals from the 3 regions of China increased during the past decade, especially for mainland China. However, the quality of articles from mainland China arouses attention because the average citation of articles from Hong Kong and Taiwan was higher than that of articles from the mainland. © 2013.

  8. Acquisition of Traffic Related Language Through Contemporary Scientific and Technical Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Fabe

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Like teachers of subject related languages in general alsothe teachers of traffic related language are faced with the challengesof contemporary, technologically fast developing society.In modem information times students are much better informedthrough satellite TV; Internet and numerous publications.On the other hand, getting hold of all this information isno easy task for teachers. If they want to be interesting andmake students attend their classes, they must even be ahead oftime or at least be the first to pass on fresh information. Here aquestion arises about the current role of language textbooks intertiary education. Writing of a good textbook requires at least ayear or two, considering the time from its conception to publication.However, by that time it is no longer up-to-date. One ofthe solutions to the problem is presentation of current articlesfound by students in various contemporary scientific and technicalpublications. The present paper gives recommendations,based on long experience, how to acquire traffic-related languagewith such presentations in class.

  9. Country Differences and Changes in Focus of Scientific Tobacco Control Publications between 2000 and 2012 in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Marc C; Nagelhout, Gera E

    2016-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) stresses the importance of scientific research. We examined the differences between 31 European countries regarding quantity and focus of tobacco control research publications. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycInfo were searched for peer-reviewed articles on tobacco, written by European authors, published between 2000 and 2012. For 2000, 2004, 2008, and 2012 we further identified the main focus of the publication. The volume of European tobacco control scientific publications had almost doubled. Scandinavian countries had most publications per inhabitant, while Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia had relatively little research output. There was a smaller increase in publications about harm from tobacco, relative to publications about treatment, and education, and to publications about environmental interventions. In 2012, 49% of all publications were about health, while the total number of publications on environmental interventions was relatively small (10%). Research output had almost doubled, in line with global trends, but is still unevenly distributed across Europe. Although we observed a shift in European publications away from the harm of tobacco towards protecting smokers and changing the environment, the field is still dominated by publications on smoking and health. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The publication of scientific data by World Data Centers and the National Library of Science and Technology in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Brase

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In its 2004 report "Data and information", the International Council for Science (ICSU strongly recommended a new strategic framework for scientific data and information. On an initiative from a working group from the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA, the German Research Foundation (DFG has started the project "Publication and Citation of Scientific Primary Data" as part of the program "Information-infrastructure of network -based scientific-cooperation and digital publication" in 2004. Starting with the field of earth science, the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB is now established as a registration agency for scientific primary data as a member of the International DOI Foundation (IDF.

  11. [Evaluation of scientific production in different subareas of Public Health: limits of the current model and contributions to the debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; Martin, Denise; Camargo Jr, Kenneth Rochel de; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Cláudia Medina

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the limits of the quantitative evaluation model for scientific production in Public Health. An analysis of the scientific production of professors from the various subareas of Public Health was performed for 2010-2012. Distributions of the mean annual score for professors were compared according to subareas. The study estimated the likelihood that 60% of the professors in the graduate studies programs scored P50 (Very Good) or higher in their area. Professors of Epidemiology showed a significantly higher median annual score. Graduate studies programs whose faculty included at least 60% of Epidemiology professors and fewer than 10% from the subarea Social and Human Sciences in Health were significantly more likely to achieve a "Very Good" classification. The observed inequalities in scientific production between different subareas of Public Health point to the need to rethink their evaluation in order to avoid reproducing iniquities that have harmful consequences for the field's diversity.

  12. The rate of growth in scientific publication and the decline in coverage provided by Science Citation Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Peder Olesen; von Ins, Markus

    2010-09-01

    The growth rate of scientific publication has been studied from 1907 to 2007 using available data from a number of literature databases, including Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Traditional scientific publishing, that is publication in peer-reviewed journals, is still increasing although there are big differences between fields. There are no indications that the growth rate has decreased in the last 50 years. At the same time publication using new channels, for example conference proceedings, open archives and home pages, is growing fast. The growth rate for SCI up to 2007 is smaller than for comparable databases. This means that SCI was covering a decreasing part of the traditional scientific literature. There are also clear indications that the coverage by SCI is especially low in some of the scientific areas with the highest growth rate, including computer science and engineering sciences. The role of conference proceedings, open access archives and publications published on the net is increasing, especially in scientific fields with high growth rates, but this has only partially been reflected in the databases. The new publication channels challenge the use of the big databases in measurements of scientific productivity or output and of the growth rate of science. Because of the declining coverage and this challenge it is problematic that SCI has been used and is used as the dominant source for science indicators based on publication and citation numbers. The limited data available for social sciences show that the growth rate in SSCI was remarkably low and indicate that the coverage by SSCI was declining over time. National Science Indicators from Thomson Reuters is based solely on SCI, SSCI and Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). Therefore the declining coverage of the citation databases problematizes the use of this source.

  13. Connecting the Public to Scientific Research Data - Science On a Sphere°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M. A.; Russell, E. L.; Science on a Sphere Datasets

    2011-12-01

    Connecting the Public to Scientific Research Data - Science On a Sphere° Maurice Henderson, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Elizabeth Russell, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, University of Colorado Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences Science On a Sphere° is a six foot animated globe developed by the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA, as a means to display global scientific research data in an intuitive, engaging format in public forums. With over 70 permanent installations of SOS around the world in science museums, visitor's centers and universities, the audience that enjoys SOS yearly is substantial, wide-ranging, and diverse. Through partnerships with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA, the SOS Data Catalog (http://sos.noaa.gov/datasets/) has grown to a collection of over 350 datasets from NOAA, NASA, and many others. Using an external projection system, these datasets are displayed onto the sphere creating a seamless global image. In a cross-site evaluation of Science On a Sphere°, 82% of participants said yes, seeing information displayed on a sphere changed their understanding of the information. This unique technology captivates viewers and exposes them to scientific research data in a way that is accessible, presentable, and understandable. The datasets that comprise the SOS Data Catalog are scientific research data that have been formatted for display on SOS. By formatting research data into visualizations that can be used on SOS, NOAA and NASA are able to turn research data into educational materials that are easily accessible for users. In many cases, visualizations do not need to be modified because SOS uses a common map projection. The SOS Data Catalog has become a "one-stop shop" for a broad range of global datasets from across NOAA and NASA, and as a result, the traffic on the site is more than just SOS users. While the target audience for this site is SOS users, many

  14. Tackling the "so what" problem in scientific research: a systems-based approach to resource and publication tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul A; Kirby, Jacqueline; Swafford, Jonathan A; Edwards, Terri L; Zhang, Minhua; Yarbrough, Tonya R; Lane, Lynda D; Helmer, Tara; Bernard, Gordon R; Pulley, Jill M

    2015-08-01

    Peer-reviewed publications are one measure of scientific productivity. From a project, program, or institutional perspective, publication tracking provides the quantitative data necessary to guide the prudent stewardship of federal, foundation, and institutional investments by identifying the scientific return for the types of support provided. In this article, the authors describe the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research's (VICTR's) development and implementation of a semiautomated process through which publications are automatically detected in PubMed and adjudicated using a "just-in-time" workflow by a known pool of researchers (from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Meharry Medical College) who receive support from Vanderbilt's Clinical and Translational Science Award. Since implementation, the authors have (1) seen a marked increase in the number of publications citing VICTR support, (2) captured at a more granular level the relationship between specific resources/services and scientific output, (3) increased awareness of VICTR's scientific portfolio, and (4) increased efficiency in complying with annual National Institutes of Health progress reports. They present the methodological framework and workflow, measures of impact for the first 30 months, and a set of practical lessons learned to inform others considering a systems-based approach for resource and publication tracking. They learned that contacting multiple authors from a single publication can increase the accuracy of the resource attribution process in the case of multidisciplinary scientific projects. They also found that combining positive (e.g., congratulatory e-mails) and negative (e.g., not allowing future resource requests until adjudication is complete) triggers can increase compliance with publication attribution requests.

  15. Scientific publications from Arab world in leading journals of Integrative and Complementary Medicine: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M

    2015-09-04

    Bibliometric analysis is increasingly employed as a useful tool to assess the quantity and quality of research performance. The specific goal of the current study was to evaluate the performance of research output originating from Arab world and published in international Integrative and Complementary Medicine (ICM) journals. Original scientific publications and reviews from the 22 Arab countries that were published in 22 international peer-reviewed ICM journals during all previous years up to December 31(st) 2013, were screened using the Web of Science databases. Five hundred and ninety-one documents were retrieved from 19 ICM journals. The h-index of the set of papers under study was 47. The highest h-index was 27 for Morocco, 21 for Jordan, followed by 19 for each Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and Egypt, and the lowest h-index was 1 for each of Comoros, Qatar, and Syrian Arab Republic. No data related to ICM were published from Djibouti, and Mauritania. After adjusting for economy and population power, Somalia (89), Morocco (32.5), Egypt (31.1), Yemen (21.4), and Palestine (21.2) had the highest research productivity. The total number of citations was 9,466, with an average citation of 16 per document. The study identified 262 (44.3 %) documents with 39 countries in Arab-foreign country collaborations. Arab authors collaborated most with countries in Europe (24.2 %), followed by countries in the Asia-Pacific region (9.8 %). Scientific research output in the ICM field in the Arab world region is increasing. Most of publications from Arab world in ICM filed were driven by societal use of medicinal plants and herbs. Search for new therapies from available low cost medicinal plants in Arab world has motivated many researchers in academia and pharmaceutical industry. Further investigation is required to support these findings in a wider journal as well as to improve research output in the field of ICM from Arab world region by investing in more national and

  16. Influence of PAHO publications on scientific production in the health field in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A

    1996-06-01

    The influence and impact of PAHO publications on scientific production in the field of health in Latin America and the Caribbean was the subject of a study based on a sample of 45 biomedical journals published between 1985 and 1992 in 17 countries of the Region. A total of 8644 works (mostly articles), containing 82,143 citations, were studied. Of these, 3,806 citations were found to refer to works published by PAHO Headquarters in Washington, D.C.-the Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana receiving 1,444 (38% of the total), the English-language Bulletin of PAHO receiving 222 (6%), works in PAHO's Scientific Publications Series receiving 1064 (28%), and works in other PAHO publications receiving 1076 (28%). Overall, PAHO publications appeared to account for a significant share of the citations studied.

  17. Bibliography of Papers Published in the Journal Migration Themes / Migration and Ethnic Themes (1985 – 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Klempić Bogadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To mark the 30th anniversary of the publication of the journal Migracijske i etničke teme / Migration and Ethnic Themes (up to 2000 it was issued under the title Migration Themes: a Journal for Migration and Ethic Studies, we consider it important and necessary to provide an overview in one place of the papers published in the journal from its first issue in 1985 to the last one in 2014. The most important aim of this bibliography is to introduce the scientific and professional public, especially new researchers, to the topics covered by this journal as well as to enable easier access to the journal and its more convenient use. The bibliography is selective. It includes scientific papers (the original scientific paper, preliminary communication and review paper professional papers, conference papers, panel discussions, discussions, reviews and bibliographies, while reviews of books and periodicals (i.e. papers from the sections Books, Reviews, From Foreign Periodicals and Movie as well as Introductions, Memories, In Memoriam and Conference Reviews (from the sections Reviews and Conferences are not included. All the papers are available at Hrčak – Portal of Scientific Journals of Croatia. Given that all kinds of papers are not included, but primarily in order to provide its better examination and insight into published papers according to specific topics and dealing with various issues, as well as to provide easier and faster access, we have decided to make a subject bibliography, and not a chronological one. (On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Migration Themes journal, the chronological bibliography prepared by Josip Kumper was published in the 3-4/1994 issue. From the very first issue, migration and ethnicity have been the main themes represented in the journal, but the emphasis on the basic issues in previous papers, which involved external migration, internal migration, emigration and minorities/nationalities, have gradually

  18. Patient and public perspectives shaping scientific and medical research: panels for data, discussions, and decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Seilin Uhm1, Kristin Liabo1, Ruth Stewart1,2, Rebecca Rees1, Sandy Oliver11Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London, London, UK; 2The Centre for Language and Culture, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South AfricaAbstract: This paper explores the role of patient panels for shaping research for health, scientific research about health and illness, and applied medical research. After examining the history and purposes of involving patients in discussions and decision making for research, it outlines the expertise and skills required if panels are to be successful. The paper also analyses existing guidance for panels that include patients. Panels benefit from the experiential knowledge of panel members, craft knowledge of panel facilitators, and organizational knowledge gained through previous experience of hosting panels. Guidance is available that addresses structures and resources (for panel funders and interpersonal communication and group dynamics (for panel members and facilitators. This guidance is most comprehensive when it has itself been developed by all these types of stakeholders.Keywords: public involvement, patient panels, expert panels, guidelines, guidance

  19. Are Lipases Still Important Biocatalysts? A Study of Scientific Publications and Patents for Technological Forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiha, Karina de Godoy; Angeli, Renata; de Oliveira, Sabrina Dias; Almeida, Rodrigo Volcan

    2015-01-01

    The great potential of lipases is known since 1930 when the work of J. B. S. Haldane was published. After eighty-five years of studies and developments, are lipases still important biocatalysts? For answering this question the present work investigated the technological development of four important industrial sectors where lipases are applied: production of detergent formulations; organic synthesis, focusing on kinetic resolution, production of biodiesel, and production of food and feed products. The analysis was made based on research publications and patent applications, working as scientific and technological indicators, respectively. Their evolution, interaction, the major players of each sector and the main subject matters disclosed in patent documents were discussed. Applying the concept of technology life cycle, S-curves were built by plotting cumulative patent data over time to monitor the attractiveness of each technology for investment. The results lead to a conclusion that the use of lipases as biocatalysts is still a relevant topic for the industrial sector, but developments are still needed for lipase biocatalysis to reach its full potential, which are expected to be achieved within the third, and present, wave of biocatalysis.

  20. Are Lipases Still Important Biocatalysts? A Study of Scientific Publications and Patents for Technological Forecasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina de Godoy Daiha

    Full Text Available The great potential of lipases is known since 1930 when the work of J. B. S. Haldane was published. After eighty-five years of studies and developments, are lipases still important biocatalysts? For answering this question the present work investigated the technological development of four important industrial sectors where lipases are applied: production of detergent formulations; organic synthesis, focusing on kinetic resolution, production of biodiesel, and production of food and feed products. The analysis was made based on research publications and patent applications, working as scientific and technological indicators, respectively. Their evolution, interaction, the major players of each sector and the main subject matters disclosed in patent documents were discussed. Applying the concept of technology life cycle, S-curves were built by plotting cumulative patent data over time to monitor the attractiveness of each technology for investment. The results lead to a conclusion that the use of lipases as biocatalysts is still a relevant topic for the industrial sector, but developments are still needed for lipase biocatalysis to reach its full potential, which are expected to be achieved within the third, and present, wave of biocatalysis.

  1. Automatic Extraction of Figures from Scientific Publications in High-Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Adam Praczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plots and figures play an important role in the process of understanding a scientificpublication, providing overviews of large amounts of data or ideas that are difficult to in-tuitively present using only the text. State of art in digital libraries, serving as gatewaysto knowledge encoded in scholarly writings, does not take full advantage of the graphicalcontent of documents. Enabling machines to automatically unlock the meaning of scien-tific illustrations would allow immense improvements in the way scientists work and theknowledge is being processed.    In this paper we present a novel solution for the initial problem of processing graphicalcontent, obtaining figures from scholarly publications stored in PDF format. Our methodrelies on vector properties of documents and as such, does not introduce additional errors,characteristic for methods based on raster image processing. Emphasis has been placed oncorrectly processing documents in High Energy Physics. The described approach makesdistinction between different classes of objects appearing in PDF documents and usesspatial clustering techniques to group objects into larger logical entities. A number ofheuristics allow the rejection of incorrect figure candidates and the extraction of differenttypes of metadata.

  2. Shifts in guidelines for ethical scientific conduct: how public and private organizations create and change norms of research integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kathleen; Oliver, Amalya L

    2009-02-01

    We analyze the activities and actors involved in articulating and diffusing guidelines for ethical scientific conduct from 1975 to the present. We use a theoretical framework of institutional change at the organizational-field level to examine the co-evolution of the structure of the organizational field of 'scientific research' and its institutional logic. Public agencies have long provided funding to US universities to support faculty research, expecting that implicit norms of scientific conduct would guide behavior. Growing publicity about research fraud in the late 1960s and early 1970s triggered a shift from implicit norms to explicit behavioral proscriptions, with strong administrative oversight. As private sources of research funding exert new pressures on research behavior, public-private partnerships are emerging to articulate explicit, yet voluntary prescriptive norms of research integrity. The analysis demonstrates the co-evolution and co-dependence of changes in the identity and strength of influential actors in the field of scientific research and changes in the norms of scientific conduct. We examine how the normative guidelines have been constructed over time, illustrating the persistence of earlier norms as the foundation for current guidelines. We conclude with implications for future research conduct.

  3. Theme: The Profession Reacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartin, Stacy A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The theme is the National Academy of Sciences study of agricultural education at the secondary level. Reactors discuss educational change, leadership training, student organizations, supervised occupational experience programs, delivery systems, teacher education, and the future of vocational agriculture. (JOW)

  4. Theme: Experiential Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, Gary; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Theme articles focus on the relationship of experiential learning to school-to-work transition, science fair projects, leadership training, performance-based assessment, livestock judging, management instruction for farm women, and instructor preparation. (JOW)

  5. Theme of Vanity Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝荣玲

    2008-01-01

    1.1The Theme:A Novel without a Hero There is one clear,overarching theme in Vanity Fair:A Novel without a Hero,and Thackeray telegraphs it in his title and subtitle.In the pages of Vanity Fair,all is vanity and all are vain.Some are more vain-more obsessed with self and with the ephemeral treasures of social position and money-than others,

  6. Scientific publications about DNA structure-function and PCR technique in Costa Rica: a historic view (1953-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Federico J

    2004-09-01

    The spreading of knowledge depends on the access to the information and its immediate use. Models are useful to explain specific phenomena. The scientific community accepts some models in Biology after a period of time, once it has evidence to support it. The model of the structure and function of the DNA proposed by Watson & Crick (1953) was not the exception, since a few years later the DNA model was finally accepted. In Costa Rica, DNA function was first mentioned in 1970, in the magazine Biologia Tropical (Tropical Biology Magazine), more than 15 years after its first publication in a scientific journal. An opposite situation occurs with technical innovations. If the efficiency of a new scientific technique is proved in a compelling way, then the acceptance by the community comes swiftly. This was the case of the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. The first PCR machine in Costa Rica arrived in 1991, only three years after its publication.

  7. Map of Scientific Publication in the Field of Educational Sciences and Teacher Education in Turkey: A Bibliometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, Serife Koza; Danisman, Sahin; Yalçin, Mikail; Tosuntas, Sule Betül; Ay, Yusuf; Sölpük, Nihan; Karadag, Engin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to create a map for the scientific publications in the field of educational sciences and teacher education in Turkey. A bibliometric analysis was carried out with 7681 articles published in 32 different peer reviewed journals between 2005 and 2014. The findings show that one third of all articles were published in core journals…

  8. Utilizing Public Scientific Web Lectures to Teach Contemporary Physics at the High School Level: A Case Study of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapon, Shulamit; Ganiel, Uri; Eylon, Bat Sheva

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a teaching experiment designed to examine the learning (i.e., retention of content and conceptual development) that takes place when public scientific web lectures delivered by scientists are utilized to present advanced ideas in physics to students with a high school background in physics. The students watched an exemplary…

  9. Group Projects as a Method of Promoting Student Scientific Communication and Collaboration in a Public Health Microbiology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L. W.; Baker, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    Communication of scientific and medical information and collaborative work are important skills for students pursuing careers in health professions and other biomedical sciences. In addition, group work and active learning can increase student engagement and analytical skills. Students in our public health microbiology class were required to work…

  10. Collaborating with Space-related Research Institutes, Government Agencies and an Artistic team to create a series of Space-themed public events in Ireland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, N.; McSweeney, C.; Smyth, N.; O'Neill, S.; Foley, C.; Phelan, R.; Crawley, J.; Henderson, C.; Cullinan, M.; Baxter, S.; Colley, D.; Macaulay, C. J.; Conroy, L.

    2015-10-01

    A suite of informal interactive public engagement initiatives was created, to promote the importance of Space exploration, to ignite curiosity and discover new and engaging platforms for science in the Arts & in STEM Education, and to increase awareness of careers in Ireland's Space science industries. These included: (1)'To Space'- A live multimedia theatre performance aimed at the general public & young adult, (2) an adaptation of 'To Space' for 13- 17 year old students entitled 'ToSpace for School leavers' and (3) 'My Place in Space', created for families. Blending humour, warmth and humanity and positioning science within story is a highly effective public engagement tool in igniting curiosity across many audience types. The nurturing and investment of artists working within these new cross-disciplinary relationships should be encouraged and supported to further broaden and develop new methodology in public engagement of the planetary sciences.

  11. Contribution of Oswaldo Paulo Forattini to public health: analysis of scientific production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Juliana Gonçalves; Kobayashi, Keilla Miki; Ueno, Helene Mariko; Ribeiro, Cristiane Martins; Cardoso, Telma Abdalla de Oliveira

    2016-12-22

    To analyze the main characteristics of the scientific production of Oswaldo Paulo Forattini, researcher and, for 40 years, editor of Revista de Saúde Pública. Descriptive study with bibliometric approach conducted in three steps. (1) identification of bibliographic records using the following search strategy: "Oswaldo Paulo Forattini" OR "Forattini OP" OR "Forattini" up information sources Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed, in July 2016, which retrieved 867 records. (2) composition of research corpus, in which we included 351 bibliographic records of articles, books, book chapters, editorials, book reviews, informative notes and annual reports of the RSP and excluded 516 duplicates and acknowledgement notes, obituary notes, and nonretrievable citations. (3) data organization and analysis, in which we built databases for descriptive analysis and development of the MeSH coauthors and terms networks in VOSviewer software. For analysis of editorials, three reviewers read the full text of each editorial and categorized them according to subject, historical context and perspectives, relating them with historical milestones. Forattini's scientific production occurred from 1946 to 2009, most consisting of articles (n = 218; 62.1%), editorials (n = 43; 12.3%), and books (n = 13; 3.7%). The main subjects were Culicidae (36.8%), Triatominae (12.5%), and Epidemiology (10.0%). The coauthors of articles were his professors, colleagues of his generation, and graduate students. His editorials addressed critical reflections on the production of knowledge, research priorities, and factors that contributed to or hindered progress. The scope of subjects is broad, referring to socioeconomic and scientific development, public health issues in developed countries, or global health. The analysis shows Forattini's commitment with public health, research with vectors, training of researchers, and scientific communication. Analisar as principais características da produ

  12. Modeling the Uptake of Scientific Information by the Public and Opinion Flow in Society (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, S.; Brown, G. D.; Cook, J.

    2013-12-01

    Improved communication of scientific findings requires knowledge not only of how people process information, but also how such information spreads through society and how people's opinions are shaped by those of others. Recent advances in cognitive science have yielded mathematical modeling techniques that permit the detailed analysis of individuals' cognition as well as the behavior of communities in the aggregate. We present two case studies that highlight the insights that can be derived from mathematical models of cognition: We show how rational processing of information (i.e., Bayesian hypothesis revision) can nonetheless give rise to seemingly 'irrational' belief updating, as for example when acceptance of human-caused global warming decreases among conservatives in response to evidence for human-caused global warming. We also show in an agent-based simulation how social norms can lead to polarization of societies. The model assumes that agents located within a social network observe the behavior of neighbours and infer from their behavior the social distribution of particular attitudes (e.g. towards climate change). Agents are assumed to dislike behaviours that are extreme within their neighbourhood (social extremeness aversion), and hence have a tendency to conform. However, agents are also assumed to prefer choices that are consistent with their own true beliefs (authenticity preference). Expression of attitudes reflects a compromise between these opposing principles. The model sheds light on the role of perceived rather than actual social consensus on attitudes to climate change. This is particularly relevant given the widespread perception among those who reject climate science that the percentage of the public that is sharing their beliefs is much higher than it actually is.

  13. Mundane science use in a practice theoretical perspective: Different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public communication initiatives build on scientific claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkier, Bente

    2015-08-13

    Public communication initiatives play a part in placing complicated scientific claims in citizen-consumers' everyday contexts. Lay reactions to scientific claims framed in public communication, and attempts to engage citizens, have been important subjects of discussion in the literatures of public understanding and public engagement with science. Many of the public communication initiatives, however, address lay people as consumers rather than citizens. This creates specific challenges for understanding public engagement with science and scientific citizenship. The article compares five different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public issue communication involving science, where the first four types are widely represented in the Public Understanding of Science discussions. The fifth understanding is a practice theoretical perspective. The article suggests how the public understanding of and engagement in science literature can benefit from including a practice theoretical approach to research about mundane science use and public engagement.

  14. 78 FR 68439 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Rescheduled Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... meeting of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review, Scientific Uncertainties Associated with Corn Rootworm Resistance Monitoring... notice was published in the Federal Register on October 28, 2013 (78 FR 64211) (FRL-9902-06). All...

  15. 76 FR 47271 - Implementation of Scientific Integrity Principles: Draft Plan for Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... of Scientific Integrity In Government NSF works to maintain a culture of scientific integrity... research requirement of the America COMPETES Act of 2007 (Pub. L. 110- 69). In accordance with Section 7009...-mail, social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and FlickR; Audiovisual: Audio or video...

  16. Apollo telescope mount. A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations, supplement 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) are presented. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) journal publications, (2) journal publications submitted, (3) other publications, (4) presentations - national and international meetings; and (5) other presentations.

  17. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  18. Submission of scientifically sound and ethical manuscripts to peer-reviewed journals - a reviewer's personal perspective on bioanalytical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Naidong

    2012-11-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, bioanalysis is very dynamic and is probably one of the few fields of research covering the entire drug discovery, development and post-marketing process. Important decisions on drug safety can partially rely on bioanalytical data, which therefore can be subject to regulatory scrutiny. Bioanalytical scientists have historically contributed significant numbers of scientific manuscripts in many peer-reviewed analytical journals. All of these journals provide some high-level instructions, but they also leave sufficient flexibility for reviewers to perform independent critique and offer recommendations for each submitted manuscript. Reviewers play a pivotal role in the process of bioanalytical publication to ensure the publication of high-quality manuscripts in a timely fashion. Their efforts usually lead to improved manuscripts. However, it has to be a joint effort among authors, reviewers and editors to promote scientifically sound and ethically fair bioanalytical publications. Most of the submitted manuscripts were well written with only minor or moderate revisions required for further improvement. Nevertheless, there were small numbers of submitted manuscripts that did not meet the requirements for publications because of scientific or ethical deficiencies, which are discussed in this Letter to the Editor. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Design of a Theme-Based and Genre-Oriented Strategic Reading Course to Improve Students' Reading Comprehension Skills at a Public School in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla De La Cerda, Fabián

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the process of designing and partially implementing and evaluating a content-based and genre-oriented syllabus with a group of ninth graders at a public school in Barranquilla, Colombia. The syllabus sought to promote reading strategies in order to improve learners' comprehension of natural science texts. The results of this…

  20. Marketing Your Library: Outreach, Public Relations. An Annotated Selective Bibliography on the Theme of the ARLIS/SLA Conference (New York City, New York, April 28, 1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchansky, Mimi B., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography on public relations and libraries includes sources published primarily within the last decade, with the exception of a few key works published in earlier years. Arranged in topical sections, most of the sources originate from the library and information science literature; however, a few sources are included from the…

  1. 光合作用的起源:一个引人入胜的重大科学命题%Origin of photosynthesis:An enchanting and important scientific theme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅冥相; 高金汉

    2015-01-01

    photosynthetic organisms as well as the problem dealing with how photosynthetic organisms obtain their photosynthetic apparatus;thus,studies on the origin of photosynthesis became an important and enchant_ing scientific theme.Nevertheless,some evidence can be assembled from a variety of sources,including geology,biogeochemistry,comparative biochemistry and molecular evolution analysis, which begin to give some insights into the complex origin and evolutionary history of photosynthesis that chiefly deal with several aspects as follows:(1 ) the origin of photosynthetic life;(2) the origin of photosynthetic appara_tus;and (3) the origin of photosynthetic catalysts.It is very meaningful to pursuit and to summarize some important cognitions enriched_wisdom resulted from both the lasting research and hardworking effort by scientists,which can provide important studying clues and thinking approaches for the further resear_ches of this fascinating scientific.Furthermore,it is also meaningful to trace the advancement on the study of the origin of photosynthesis for the further understanding of the sophisticated coupling process among earth spheres in the early time,which are as follows:(1 ) the transformation from the anoxygenic to the oxygenic photosynthesis; (2) a complex interaction and its synergetic evolution between the biosphere and the atmosphere;(3) a sophisticated evolutionary process from a anoxic to an oxic atmosphere genera_ted by the origin and evolution of the oxygenic photosynthesis;(4) a major long_term effect on Earth_sur_face environments and the development of life that is benefited from the progressive oxygenation of the at_mosphere and hydrosphere;and (5) the molding of the palaeogeographical version of the early Earth and so on.More importantly,some geological especially for sedimentological thinking on the origin of the pho_tosynthesis and some important cognitions,though are not conclusions,have broaden the studying domain of sedimentology and widen the field of

  2. Theme: Developing Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Layle D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Eight articles discuss the theme of entrepreneurship in the rural United States. Includes results of a survey of vocational agricultural graduates who are either sole proprietors or partners in agricultural occupations and a description of an award-winning program at Western High School in Russiaville, Indiana. Also discusses the economics of a…

  3. Unity in Major Themes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.

    We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...

  4. Theme: Urban Mechanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Glen; And Others, Eds.

    1991-01-01

    Six theme articles discuss agricultural mechanics and its image problem, its importance, and its relevance to urban mechanization. They stress the need for agricultural mechanics and science in the urban environment for preparation for a variety of careers including landscape technology, environmental technology, energy systems management, and…

  5. Theme: Agricultural Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)

  6. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  7. 75 FR 10255 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... you agree or disagree; suggest alternatives and substitute language for your requested changes. 4... pharmacodynamic events. This temporality is an important scientific issue for the assessment of the health effects... term exposure. The Agency will be [[Page 10258

  8. 76 FR 16410 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... the scientific issues for this meeting. Nominees should be identified by name, occupation, position... hazard computational and in vitro predictive models, and exposure modeling to target in vivo toxicity...

  9. 77 FR 42307 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... comments on the scientific issues for this meeting. Nominees should be identified by name, occupation... formulation step, where protection goals are defined, along with the conceptual model depicting potential...

  10. A Survey of Scientific Publications in the Field of Anatomy Conducted in Turkey during 2000–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Metin Tellioğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In our study, we aimed to reveal the data of the international scientific publications in the field of anatomy recorded in our country since 2000. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data at the Turkey-based publications, which have at least one anatomy specialist identified and have been published in journals at the ISI Web of Science database and covered by the Science Citation Index (SCI and SCI-E (Expanded, were screened. The time period for the study was between the years 2000 and 2014. Number of publications by year, rate of increase in the number of publications, classification of broadcast (articles, papers, etc., category of publications, and their citation rates were recorded. We evaluated the top 10 journals which have the most comprising publications and the top 10 universities which facilitated these publications. RESULTS: Since 2000, we reached a total of 1390 publications in the field of anatomy. These publications comprised of 1273 original articles, 35 meeting presentations, 32 abstracts, 27 letters to the editor, and 23 compilations. With respect to the number of publications, there is a gradual decrease in recent years, despite a significant increase observed in the year 2009. In Turkey, the most published and cited categories are surgical anatomy, morphology, and neuroscience. The top three journals with the highest number of publications are Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, Saudi Medical Journal, and Clinical Anatomy. The top three publishing institutions are Ankara University, Hacettepe University, and Ege University. CONCLUSION: Our study provides us an understanding of the topics anatomists have favored to study in recent years. A large number of published research articles are about surgical anatomy, morphology, and neuroscience. Obviously, the quality of publications and their number of citations are more important than their scalar quantity. We believe that future studies should focus on the multidisciplinary areas

  11. The use of preliminary scientific evidence in public health: a case study of XMRV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumanan Wilson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kumanan Wilson and colleagues explain how the rapid response to XMRV as a novel pathogen has highlighted some challenges pertaining to policy-making and editorial responsibilities. The impact on policy and the propagation of the initial scientific information may not cease if the evidence is disproven and retracted from the peer-reviewed literature, which creates a challenge for regulators and scientific journals. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  12. The use of preliminary scientific evidence in public health: a case study of XMRV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kumanan; Atkinson, Katherine; Keelan, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    Kumanan Wilson and colleagues explain how the rapid response to XMRV as a novel pathogen has highlighted some challenges pertaining to policy-making and editorial responsibilities. The impact on policy and the propagation of the initial scientific information may not cease if the evidence is disproven and retracted from the peer-reviewed literature, which creates a challenge for regulators and scientific journals. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  13. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations, supplement 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Fields, S. A. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Skylab solar observatory facility that gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974 are presented. The analysis of these data is presently under way. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) journal publications; (2) journal publications submitted; (3) other publications; (4) presentations-national and international meetings; and (5) other presentations.

  14. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A compilation of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) which gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974 is presented. The analysis of these data is presently under way and is expected to continue for several years. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) Journal Publications, (2) Journal Publications Submitted, (3) Other Publications, (4) Presentations - National International Meetings, and (5) Other Presentations. An author index is also included.

  15. Explaining the Unexplainable: Translated Scientific Explanations (TSE) in Public Physics Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapon, Shulamit; Ganiel, Uri; Eylon, Bat Sheva

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the features and design of explanations in public physics lectures. It presents the findings from a comparative study of three exemplary public physics lectures, given by practicing physicists who are acknowledged as excellent public lecturers. The study uses three different perspectives: the lecture, the lecturer, and the…

  16. Utilizing scale-free networks to support the search for scientific publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauff, C.; Nürnberger, A.; de Jong, F.M.G.; Kraaij, W.

    2006-01-01

    When searching for scientific publications, users today often rely on search engines such as Yahoo.com. Whereas searching for publications whose titles are known is considered to be an easy task, users who are looking for important publications in research fields they are unfamiliar with face greater

  17. Personal Publications Lists Serve as a Reliable Calibration Parameter to Compare Coverage in Academic Citation Databases with Scientific Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hughes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Hilbert, F., Barth, J., Gremm, J., Gros, D., Haiter, J., Henkel, M., Reinhardt, W., & Stock, W.G. (2015. Coverage of academic citation databases compared with coverage of scientific social media: personal publication lists as calibration parameters. Online Information Review 39(2: 255-264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/OIR-07-2014-0159 Objective – The purpose of this study was to explore coverage rates of information science publications in academic citation databases and scientific social media using a new method of personal publication lists as a calibration parameter. The research questions were: How many publications are covered in different databases, which has the best coverage, and what institutions are represented and how does the language of the publication play a role? Design – Bibliometric analysis. Setting – Academic citation databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar and scientific social media (Mendeley, CiteULike, Bibsonomy. Subjects – 1,017 library and information science publications produced by 76 information scientists at 5 German-speaking universities in Germany and Austria. Methods – Only documents which were published between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2012 were included. In that time the 76 information scientists had produced 1,017 documents. The information scientists confirmed that their publication lists were complete and these served as the calibration parameter for the study. The citations from the publication lists were searched in three academic databases: Google Scholar, Web of Science (WoS, and Scopus; as well as three social media citation sites: Mendeley, CiteULike, and BibSonomy and the results were compared. The publications were searched for by author name and words from the title. Main results – None of the databases investigated had 100% coverage. In the academic databases, Google Scholar had the highest amount of coverage with an average of 63%, Scopus an average of 31%, and

  18. Comparative study of scientific publications in urology and nephrology journals originating from USA, China and Japan (2001-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Gao, Xian Hua; Bian, Qi; Guo, Zhi Yong; Mei, Xiao Bin; Yu, Guang; Wu, Hao; Lai, Xue Li; Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, scientific research has developed rapidly in China, but the growth seems to vary widely between different disciplines. In this study, we aimed to compare the quantity and quality of publications in urology and nephrology journals from USA, China and Japan. Journals listed in the "Urology and Nephrology" category of Science Citation Index Expanded subject categories were included. Scientific papers in these journals written by researchers from USA, Japan and China were retrieved from the "PubMed" and "Web of Knowledge" online databases. The annual number of total scientific articles increased significantly from 2001 to 2010 in China, and has ranked second in the world since 2006. In the field of urology and nephrology, the annual number increased significantly from 2001 to 2010 in USA and China; but not in Japan. The share of articles increased significantly over time in China, decreased significantly in Japan, and remained unchanged in USA. In 2010, USA contributed 32.17% of the total world output in urology and nephrology field and ranked 1(st); Japan contributed 5.19% and ranked 5(th); China contributed 3.83% and ranked 9(th). Publications from USA had the highest accumulated IFs and the highest total citations of articles (USA>Japan>China, pJapan(6704)>China(2233), pJapan>China, pscientific publication in urology and nephrology journals in the past decade, it still lags far behind USA and Japan in the field of urology and nephrology in terms of quantity and quality.

  19. The Design of a Theme-Based and Genre-Oriented Strategic Reading Course to Improve Students’ Reading Comprehension Skills at a Public School in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Padilla De La Cerda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the process of designing and partially implementing and evaluating a content-based and genre-oriented syllabus with a group of ninth graders at a public school in Barranquilla, Colombia. The syllabus sought to promote reading strategies in order to improve learners’ comprehension of natural science texts. The results of this intervention show that the use of academic texts with low achievers, who in turn can develop a good comprehension of different kind of texts, is possible if these students are aware of the structure of the texts they are reading and if they are provided with reading strategies that are appropriate for each genre.

  20. [Generalists or Specialists? Interdisciplinarity in, and Scientific Development of, Public Health in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razum, O; Dockweiler, C

    2015-11-01

    Interdisciplinarity is not only a constitutive element of public health; it also contributes significantly to the solution of complex public health problems. Only through the cooperation of different disciplines and professions can the diverse social and methodological-technical challenges of developing, implementing and evaluating health-related interventions be solved. In this context, public health in Germany is facing challenges in its further development, two of which we discuss here. Firstly, there is a gap between aspiration and reality of interdisciplinary research and teaching of public health. Secondly, related to that, there is an increasingly difficult balance between professional breadth and specialisation in the university education of future public health experts.

  1. FY17 Strategic Themes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, Robert W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    I am pleased to present this summary of the FY17 Division 1000 Science and Technology Strategic Plan. As this plan represents a continuation of the work we started last year, the four strategic themes (Mission Engagement, Bold Outcomes, Collaborative Environment, and Safety Imperative) remain the same, along with many of the goals. You will see most of the changes in the actions listed for each goal: We completed some actions, modified others, and added a few new ones. As I’ve stated previously, this is not a strategy to be pursued in tension with the Laboratory strategic plan. The Division 1000 strategic plan is intended to chart our course as we strive to contribute our very best in service of the greater Laboratory strategy. I welcome your feedback and look forward to our dialogue about these strategic themes. Please join me as we move forward to implement the plan in the coming months.

  2. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as "individual publications"). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, Paltmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group.

  3. FY16 Strategic Themes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, Robert W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    I am pleased to present this summary of the Division 1000 Science and Technology Strategic Plan. This plan was created with considerable participation from all levels of management in Division 1000, and is intended to chart our course as we strive to contribute our very best in service of the greater Laboratory strategy. The plan is characterized by four strategic themes: Mission Engagement, Bold Outcomes, Collaborative Environment, and the Safety Imperative. Each theme is accompanied by a brief vision statement, several goals, and planned actions to support those goals throughout FY16. I want to be clear that this is not a strategy to be pursued in tension with the Laboratory strategic plan. Rather, it is intended to describe “how” we intend to show up for the “what” described in Sandia’s Strategic Plan. I welcome your feedback and look forward to our dialogue about these strategic themes. Please join me as we move forward to implement the plan in the coming year.

  4. Basic requirements for the design of high–quality scientific publications

    OpenAIRE

    Evseeva, G. P.; SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2015-01-01

     Raising of problem. Scientific and technical activity, on determination of Law on scientific and technical activity, that presently is on a discussion in the committees of supreme soviet of Ukraine, − intellectual creative activity sent to the receipt and use of new knowledge in all industries of technique and technologies. Her by basic forms (by kinds) research, дослідно–конструкторські, project–designer, technological, to the search and project–searching works, making of pre–prod...

  5. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications, supplement 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Reports are compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) that gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974. The analysis of these data is presently under way and is expected to continue for several years. The publications listed in this report are divided into the following categories: (1) Journal Publications, (2) Journal Publications Submitted, (3) Other Publications, (4) Presentations--National and International Meetings, and (5) Other Presentations. An author index is included together with errata for the first report.

  6. Public Experiments and Displays of Virtuosity: The Core-Set Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, H. M.

    1988-01-01

    Makes use of distinctions between experiment and demonstrations to resolve a paradox for the sociology of scientific knowledge. Describes two public tests which illustrate these themes. Discusses types of core-set distortion and suggests a partial solution. (YP)

  7. Migration and Ethnic Themes – Bibliometric Analysis of the Journal for the Period 1985‒2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Jokić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the journal Migration and Ethnic Themes during the last three decades of its publishing. The research sample consists of all the published issues of the journal from 1985 to 2013, which gives a total number of 497 papers which were subjected to bibliometric analysis. The analyzed papers were divided into the following categories: original scientific paper, preliminary report, scientific review paper, and conference paper and professional paper. The bibliographic description components that were considered relevant for the bibliometric analysis were the type of the paper, year of publication, volume/number, author, number of authors, institutions, number of pages and language of paper. Special attention was given to the analysis of the references cited in the papers. This citation analysis provided the information on the type of cited publications, the amount of cited publications, authors, year of publication of the cited publication, the name of the journal and whether it was a domestic or foreign publication. The analysis was performed on samples from three types of cited publications: books, collection of papers and journals. In order to gain insight into the reception of the research results published in Migration and Ethnic Themes, a citation analysis through the journals indexed in Web of Science and Scopus citation databases was provided. The results of this study could serve as guidelines for the future development of the journal.

  8. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Gregori M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manuela De Gregori,1-3,* Valeria Scotti,4,* Annalisa De Silvestri,4 Moreno Curti,4 Guido Fanelli,2,5,6 Massimo Allegri,2,5,6 Michael E Schatman,2,7 1Pain Therapy Service, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 2Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research Group, Parma, Italy; 3Young Against Pain Group, Parma, Italy; 4Center for Scientific Documentation and Biometry Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 5Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Parma, Italy; 6Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy Service, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy; 7US Pain Foundation, Bellevue, WA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as “individual publications”. For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists, we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%, discussed

  9. Tracing the origin of a scientific legend by Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS): the legend of the Darwin finches

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, Werner

    2013-01-01

    In a previews paper we introduced the quantitative method named Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS). With this method one can determine the historical roots of research fields and quantify their impact on current research. RPYS is based on the analysis of the frequency with which references are cited in the publications of a specific research field in terms of the publication years of these cited references. In this study, we illustrate that RPYS can also be used to reveal the origin of scientific legends. We selected Darwin finches as an example for illustration. Charles Darwin, the originator of evolutionary theory, was given credit for finches he did not see and for observations and insights about the finches he never made. We have shown that a book published in 1947 is the most-highly cited early reference cited within the relevant literature. This book had already been revealed as the origin of the term Darwin finches by Sulloway through careful historical analysis.

  10. Golden rice: scientific, regulatory and public information processes of a genetically modified organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghissi, A Alan; Pei, Shiqian; Liu, Yinzuo

    2016-01-01

    Historically, agricultural development evolved in three phases. During the first phase the plants were selected on the basis of the availability of a plant with desirable properties at a specific location. The second phase provided the agricultural community with crossbreeding plants to achieve improvement in agricultural production. The evolution of biological knowledge has provided the ability to genetically engineer (GE) crops, one of the key processes within genetically modified organisms (GMO). This article uses golden rice, a species of transgenic Asian rice which contains a precursor of vitamin A in the edible part of the plant as an example of GE/GMO emphasizing Chinese experience in agricultural evolution. It includes a brief review of agricultural evolution to be followed by a description of golden rice development. Golden rice was created as a humanitarian project and has received positive comments by the scientific community and negative voices from certain environmental groups. In this article, we use the Best Available Science (BAS) Concept and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived from it to evaluate claims and counter claims on scientific aspects of golden rice. This article concludes that opposition to golden rice is based on belief rather than any of its scientifically derived nutritional, safety or environmental properties.

  11. Confidence interval or p-value?: part 4 of a series on evaluation of scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Hommel, Gerhard; Röhrig, Bernd; Blettner, Maria

    2009-05-01

    An understanding of p-values and confidence intervals is necessary for the evaluation of scientific articles. This article will inform the reader of the meaning and interpretation of these two statistical concepts. The uses of these two statistical concepts and the differences between them are discussed on the basis of a selective literature search concerning the methods employed in scientific articles. P-values in scientific studies are used to determine whether a null hypothesis formulated before the performance of the study is to be accepted or rejected. In exploratory studies, p-values enable the recognition of any statistically noteworthy findings. Confidence intervals provide information about a range in which the true value lies with a certain degree of probability, as well as about the direction and strength of the demonstrated effect. This enables conclusions to be drawn about the statistical plausibility and clinical relevance of the study findings. It is often useful for both statistical measures to be reported in scientific articles, because they provide complementary types of information.

  12. Analysis of Research Collaboration between Universities and Private Companies in Spain Based on Joint Scientific Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmeda-Gómez, Carlos; Ovalle-Perandones, María Antonia; de Moya-Anegón, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The article presents the results of a study on scientific collaboration between Spanish universities and private enterprise, measured in terms of the co-authorship of papers published in international journals. Method: Bibliometric analysis of papers published in journals listed in Scopus in 2003-2011. Indicators were calculated for…

  13. 78 FR 12311 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Subjects Environmental protection, Pesticides and pests, and Endocrine disruptors. Dated: February 13, 2013..., and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review the Endocrine... population'' is exposed for the potential to interact with the endocrine system. As recommended by a...

  14. Bisphenol A (BPA) in food contact materials - new scientific opinion from EFSA regarding public health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera

    2015-01-01

    The wide use of bisphenol A (BPA) as a monomer in plastics manufacture or epoxy resins intended for food contact materials (FCM) has triggered numerous concerns due to toxicological findings indicating possible endocrine disrupting properties. This article traces the evolution of the scientific opinions since 1986 when the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for BPA and its specific migration limit (SML) from plastic FCM into food were proposed for the first time by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). Resent extensive scientific studies concerning refined data on toxicity and exposure to BPA from food and non-food sources (eg. dust, cosmetics, thermal paper), including the most vulnerable groups of population, allowed the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to reduce the TDI of BPA from previously 50 µg/kg bw/day to now 4 µg/kg bw/day. EFSA's latest scientific opinion published in 2015 concludes that basing on the current estimations of total exposure to BPA from dietary and non-dietary sources for infants, children and adolescents is below the temporary TDI of 4 μg/kg bw/day. EFSA has also underlined that BPA poses no health risk at the estimated exposure levels of any population age group, including unborn children and the elderly. However, EFSA has indicated that some data on exposure and toxicological effects still require clarifications.

  15. Returns to scientific publications for pharmaceutical products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slejko, Julia F; Basu, Anirban; Sullivan, Sean D

    2017-07-10

    Drug-specific clinical and health economic and outcomes research (HEOR) publications have amassed, but their effect on drug sales is largely unknown. We estimated the impact of publications on pharmaceutical sales in 3 markets (statins, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma drugs) with varying generic competition. An event-study approach with fixed effects and difference-in-fixed-effects modeling was used to estimate the causal effects of drug-specific publications on subsequent quarter's drug-specific sales and volume. High-impact clinical and HEOR publications have significant positive effects on sales (mediated through price) and volume in the statin market (high generic competition). High-impact clinical publications have a significant positive effect on sales (mediated through volume) in low-generic competition market (asthma). The effects of publications in the rheumatoid arthritis market (no generic competition) on sales were null. Manufacturers' investment in clinical and HEOR publications needs to be strategic and should be anticipated and complemented by public investments in such studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Publication and Prestige Mobility of University Departments in Three Scientific Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Examines the relationship between prestige, prestige mobility, and publication in major scholarly journals in the disciplines of chemistry, sociology, and political science. The authors conclude that there are differences in this relationship across disciplines and that publication is more important in disciplines with a well developed scientific…

  17. Tracing the scientific outputs in the field of Ebola research based on publications in the Web of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fengyun; Yang, Pin; Sheng, Huifeng

    2016-04-15

    Ebola virus disease (hereafter EVD or Ebola) has a high fatality rate. The devastating effects of the current epidemic of Ebola in West Africa have put the global health response in acute focus. In response, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa as a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern". A small proportion of scientific literature is dedicated to Ebola research. To identify global research trends in Ebola research, the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science™ database was used to search for data, which encompassed original articles published from 1900 to 2013. The keyword "Ebola" was used to identify articles for the purposes of this review. In order to include all published items, the database was searched using the Basic Search method. The earliest record of literature about Ebola indexed in the Web of Science is from 1977. A total of 2477 publications on Ebola, published between 1977 and 2014 (with the number of publications increasing annually), were retrieved from the database. Original research articles (n = 1623, 65.5%) were the most common type of publication. Almost all (96.5%) of the literature in this field was in English. The USA had the highest scientific output and greatest number of funding agencies. Journal of Virology published 239 papers on Ebola, followed by Journal of Infectious Diseases and Virology, which published 113 and 99 papers, respectively. A total of 1911 papers on Ebola were cited 61,477 times. This analysis identified the current state of research and trends in studies about Ebola between 1977 and 2014. Our bibliometric analysis provides a historical perspective on the progress in Ebola research.

  18. [Public scientific knowledge distribution in health information, communication and information technology indexed in MEDLINE and LILACS databases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Abel Laerte; Tardelli, Adalberto Otranto; Castro, Regina Célia Figueiredo

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the distribution of international, regional and national scientific output in health information and communication, indexed in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, between 1996 and 2005. A selection of articles was based on the hierarchical structure of Information Science in MeSH vocabulary. Four specific domains were determined: health information, medical informatics, scientific communications on healthcare and healthcare communications. The variables analyzed were: most-covered subjects and journals, author affiliation and publication countries and languages, in both databases. The Information Science category is represented in nearly 5% of MEDLINE and LILACS articles. The four domains under analysis showed a relative annual increase in MEDLINE. The Medical Informatics domain showed the highest number of records in MEDLINE, representing about half of all indexed articles. The importance of Information Science as a whole is more visible in publications from developed countries and the findings indicate the predominance of the United States, with significant growth in scientific output from China and South Korea and, to a lesser extent, Brazil.

  19. Theme: Physical Science in Agriscience--The New Ag Mech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriak, Phil; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Seven theme articles discuss strategies for teaching mechanics, physical sciences in the study of foods, scientific principles in the agricultural curriculum, environmental issues in agriculture, and applied physical sciences. (SK)

  20. Theme: Physical Science in Agriscience--The New Ag Mech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriak, Phil; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Seven theme articles discuss strategies for teaching mechanics, physical sciences in the study of foods, scientific principles in the agricultural curriculum, environmental issues in agriculture, and applied physical sciences. (SK)

  1. A Principled Approach to Online Publication Listings and Scientific Resource Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelijn Ringersma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Max Planck Institute (MPI for Psycholinguistics has developed a service to manage and present the scholarly output of their researchers. The PubMan database manages publication metadata and full-texts of publications published by their scholars. All relevant information regarding a researcher's work is brought together in this database, including supplementary materials and links to the MPI database for primary research data. The PubMan metadata is harvested into the MPI website CMS (Plone. The system developed for the creation of the publication lists, allows the researcher to create a selection of the harvested data in a variety of formats.

  2. Drupal 7 Theming Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Karthik

    2012-01-01

    Part of Packt's Cookbook series, this book offers solutions to common theme design problems in the form of recipes. Each recipe contains step-by-step instructions and screenshots. The book is designed so that you can read it chapter by chapter, or you can refer to each recipe in no particular order. This book is for Drupal developers and administrators who want to refresh the look and feel of their site. We assume that readers are familiar with basic PHP, CSS, and XHTML as well as the general use of Drupal.

  3. Scientific publications from departments of clinical physiology and nuclear medicine in Denmark. A bibliometric analysis of "impact' in the years 1989-1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, HB; Brinch, K; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1996-01-01

    This study reports a bibliometric analysis of scientific publications emanating from departments of clinical physiology and nuclear medicine, Denmark, during the years 1989-1994. The total number of publications during this period was 860 (763 scientific journal papers, 71 book/book chapters and 26...... theses). Whereas the number of publications per year (188-113) decreased significantly with time (r = -0.94, P ... a collaboration between two or more departments of clinical physiology and nuclear medicine, but the collaboration with other medical specialities and institutions was much greater (85%). The 763 papers were published in 239 different scientific journals, 80% in journals with an official 'impact factor...

  4. Experiential Interface Design for the Transference of Scientific Publications from University to SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Løkkegaard, Sarai; Jantzen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Transferring knowledge between universities and industry is known to be problematic. The paper addresses the situation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in order to understand their use of scientific knowledge. We use our understanding of SME situations and information practices...... to develop suggestions for the interface design of a generic knowledge pathway. The interface design is based on principles from experience design with the aim to draw attention to the scientific knowledge and make it desirable and understandable. The study used practice theory as its conceptual framework...... and this involved three qualitative data-collection methods: 1) introductory interviews with CEOs, 2) walk-alongs with the CEOs while they introduced their work environments, and 3) semi-structured interviews with employees. We used the iterative Life Cycle Model to transform the findings from the practice study...

  5. Types of study in medical research: part 3 of a series on evaluation of scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Bernd; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Wachtlin, Daniel; Blettner, Maria

    2009-04-01

    The choice of study type is an important aspect of the design of medical studies. The study design and consequent study type are major determinants of a study's scientific quality and clinical value. This article describes the structured classification of studies into two types, primary and secondary, as well as a further subclassification of studies of primary type. This is done on the basis of a selective literature search concerning study types in medical research, in addition to the authors' own experience. Three main areas of medical research can be distinguished by study type: basic (experimental), clinical, and epidemiological research. Furthermore, clinical and epidemiological studies can be further subclassified as either interventional or noninterventional. The study type that can best answer the particular research question at hand must be determined not only on a purely scientific basis, but also in view of the available financial resources, staffing, and practical feasibility (organization, medical prerequisites, number of patients, etc.).

  6. Open Access And Openly Accessible: A Study Of Scientific Publications Shared Via The Internet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonathan D. Wren

    2005-01-01

    ... of the article, and to what degree open access publications are shared on non-journal websites. Design The internet was searched using an application programming interface to Google, a popular and freely available search engine...

  7. Bibliography of scientific publications and presentations relating to planetary quarantine: 1966 - 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, F. D.; Nadel, M. R.

    1973-01-01

    A bibliography, which is a compilation of citations relating to planetary quarantine, previously listed in similar publications since 1967, is presented to provide a reference for reviewing planetary quarantine research and development.

  8. 76 FR 76416 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal...-mail: OPHPR.BSC.Questions@cdc.gov . The Director, Management Analysis and Services Office, has...

  9. Masters theses from a university medical college: Publication in indexed scientific journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaliwal Upreet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The thesis is an integral part of postgraduate medical education in India. Publication of the results of the thesis in an indexed journal is desirable; it validates the research and makes results available to researchers worldwide. Aims: To determine publication rates in indexed journals, of works derived from theses, and factors affecting publication. Settings and Design: Postgraduate theses submitted over a five-year period (2001-05 in a university medical college were analyzed in a retrospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: Data retrieved included name and gender of postgraduate student, names, department and hierarchy of supervisor and co-supervisor(s, year submitted, study design, sample size, and statistically significant difference between groups. To determine subsequent publication in an indexed journal, Medline search was performed up to December 2007. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test was used to compare publication rates based on categorical variables; Student′s t-test was used to compare differences based on continuous variables. Results: One hundred and sixty theses were retrieved, forty-eight (30% were published. Papers were published 8-74 (33.7 ± 17.33 months after thesis submission; the postgraduate student was first author in papers from 26 (54% of the published theses. Gender of the student, department of origin, year of thesis submission, hierarchy of the supervisor, number and department of co-supervisors, and thesis characteristics did not influence publication rates. Conclusions: Rate of publication in indexed journals, of papers derived from postgraduate theses is 30%. In this study we were unable to identify factors that promote publication.

  10. Scientific publications in pediatrics over the last ten years in Turkey and worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Demet; Dabak, Orçun; Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu Övünç

    2015-01-01

    In keeping with the large area of interest comprised within the field of pediatrics, the number and diversity of publications in this field has gradually increased over the last ten years in our country as well as worldwide. The objective of this paper is to offer an analysis of the status of pediatrics publications during those ten years. The publications analyzed were listed in the Thomson Reuters Web of Science and/or published in journals included in the Science Citation Index, the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Social Sciences Citation Index. All of these publications appeared in journals in which at least one pediatrics specialist published between the years 2004 and 2013. It may be seen that Turkey is in fifth place worldwide in terms of the number of studies published in these journals, with 6,134 such publications. The conclusion is that it is necessary for more Turkish studies to be multicenter, to involve international participation and to receive more citations; importance must be attached to the objective of transforming of the knowledge produced by Turkish researchers into a greater number of publications of increased quality.

  11. Scientific publications in gastroenterology and hepatology in Taiwan: An analysis of Web of Science from 1993 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Ming-Hwai; Hwang, I-Hsuan; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Han-Chieh; Hou, Ming-Chih; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2017-02-01

    Scientific publications are important for evaluating the achievements of a medical specialty or discipline. Gastroenterology and Hepatology is a medical specialty in great demand in Taiwan, therefore, this study aimed to analyze the Gastroenterology and Hepatology publications from 1993 to 2013 in Taiwan, using the Web of Science (WoS) database. Scientific publications from departments/institutes of gastroenterology and hepatology were retrieved and analyzed from the WoS database, which included articles published in the Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Science Citation Index journals from 1993 to 2013. Among 229,030 articles published from departments/institutes of gastroenterology and hepatology worldwide during 1993-2013, 5061 (2.21%) were published in Taiwan, ranking the country 13(th) in the world. In total, 4759 articles from Taiwan were selected for further analysis, excluding meeting abstracts and corrections. During these two decades, the number of gastroenterology and hepatology publications increased rapidly. There were 440 articles published during 1993-1997, 646 articles during 1998-2002, 1211 articles during 2003-2007, and up to 2462 articles during 2008-2013. However, the mean number of articles cited decreased from 25.35 to 27.25 to 20.64 to 7.28, and the mean impact factor of publishing journals decreased from 5.0 to 4.20 to 4.13 to 4.03 during 1993-1997, 1998-2002, 2003-2007, and 2008-2013, respectively. Most of those publications belong to the subject category gastroenterology and hepatology (2346 articles, 49.30%), followed by surgery (677 articles, 14.23%), medicine, general and internal (358 articles, 7.52%), oncology (316 articles, 6.64%), and pharmacology pharmacy (286 articles, 6.01%). The Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology published the most papers (326 articles, 6.9%), followed by World Journal of Gastroenterology (201 articles, 4.2%), Hepato-Gastroenterology (165 articles, 3.5%), Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (159 articles

  12. Does China Need Another Disneyland Theme Park?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The rumor that Shanghai is about to build a Disneyland theme park has gained some substance. In mid-March, Shanghai Mayor Han Zheng for the first time positively responded to the speculation on a public occasion, saying "Shanghai has conditions

  13. Academic medical libraries' policies and procedures for notifying library users of retracted scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C

    1998-01-01

    Academic medical libraries have a responsibility to inform library users regarding retracted publications. Many have created policies and procedures that identify flawed journal articles. A questionnaire was sent to the 129 academic medical libraries in the United States and Canada to find out how many had policies and procedures for identifying retracted publications. Of the returned questionnaires, 59% had no policy and no practice for calling the attention of the library user to retracted publications. Forty-one percent of the libraries called attention to retractions with or without a formal policy for doing so. Several responding libraries included their policy statement with the survey. The increasing number of academic medical libraries that realize the importance of having policies and practices in place highlights the necessity for this procedure.

  14. Themes in the human experience of nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollio, Howard R; Heaps, Christopher

    2004-02-01

    To identify themes in the human experience of nature, a three-part study was run. In the first part, 100 undergraduate students were asked to list three situations in which they are or were aware of nature and to describe one of these in detail. In the second part, 26 descriptions were selected from these responses, summarized to a 2- to 5-sentence format, and presented to a different group of 30 subjects who sorted them into groups on the basis of cross-item similarity. These groupings were then analyzed by hierarchical clustering and multidimensional scaling procedures to produce thematic meanings. In the third part, a qualitative analysis of themes was performed over the unabridged initial versions of the same set of descriptions. Results of both qualitative and quantitative procedures led to the identification of four themes--Power and Scale, Danger and Safety, Beauty, and Connection and Alienation --and to a smaller number of themes unique to each mode of analysis. All themes were related to the everyday meanings of nature and to the more abstract definitions of nature employed in scientific or aesthetic analyses of the human response to this domain.

  15. The Effect of the Theme and Emotional Appeal on Public Service Ads:An Eye Movement Study%主题与感性诉求对公益广告效果影响的眼动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁德煌; 林凌超; 张劲梅

    2014-01-01

    Using the Eye View Monitoring System of Tobii T60,this paper recorded the eye movement index of 76 second-Year College students,all normally sighted,on browsing plane public service ads presented in different themes and emotional ap-peals.The experiment design was 3 (emotional appeal:fear,humor,sympathy)x 3 (theme:prevention and remedy of pollu-tion,caring for children and animal protection)within subjects design.The results showed that:the emotional appeals and inter-action of the themes and emotional appeals are the important factors that affect advertising effectiveness.Protection of animals ad uses sympathy appeals to strongly influence the audience's attitude.Humor appeals to the pollution ad can effectively cause audi-ence behavior change.%以矫正视力正常的76名大学生为被试,用Tobii T60眼动仪记录他们观看不同感性诉求、不同主题的公益广告的眼动指标和特征,探寻二者对广告效果的影响。实验为3(感性诉求:恐惧感、幽默感、同情感)×3(主题:治理污染、关爱儿童、动物保护)的被试内设计。结果表明:感性诉求以及主题与感性诉求的交互作用是影响广告效果的重要因素;采用同情诉求的动物保护主题广告能够强烈影响受众的态度;幽默诉求方式下的治理污染广告能够有效引发受众行为的改变。

  16. Hubble Space Telescope - Scientific, Technological and Social Contributions to the Public Discourse on Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has unified the world with a sense of awe and wonder for 2 I years and is currently more scientifically powerful than ever. I will present highlights of discoveries made with the Hubble Space Telescope, including details of planetary weather, star formation, extra-solar planets, colliding galaxies, and a universe expanding with the acceleration of dark energy. I will also present the unique technical challenges and triumphs of this phenomenal observatory, and discuss how our discoveries in the cosmos affect our sense of human unity, significance, and wonder.

  17. Comparative study of scientific publications in orthopedics journals originating from USA, Japan and China (2000-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Li-Feng; Daubs, Michael David; Phan, Kevin H; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2013-11-01

    To compare orthopedics publications from USA, Japan and China. Scientific papers belong to ''Orthopedics'' category of Science Citation Index Expanded subject categories were retrieved from the "PubMed'' and ''Web of Knowledge'' online databases. In the field of orthopedics, the annual number increased significantly from 2000 to 2012 in the three countries (porthopedics field and ranked 1st; Japan contributed 5.9% and ranked 4th; China contributed 5.2% and ranked 5th. Publications from USA had the highest accumulated IFs and the highest total citations of articles (USA > Japan > China, porthopedics journals (USA (14355) > Japan (1702) > China (487), porthopedics journals, it still lags far behind USA and Japan in the field of orthopedics in terms of quantity and quality.

  18. Scientific Publications by the Faculty of the College of Science, UP Diliman: September 1988 to May 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Lim

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive survey of the scientific publications by the Faculty (Professors, Associate Professors, and Assistant Professors of the College of Science, UP Diliman. The initial listings are obtained from UNCOVER and MEDLINE databases which are freely available in the Internet. Our search covers articles that have been published between September 1988 and May 1998. Books and conference proceedings are excluded. Performance analysis is done along academic ranks and units. Final tally considers only journals covered by the Science Citation Index. Based on our tally, no academic unit has achieved the rule of thumb for research excellence which is at least one internationally-abstracted publication per faculty per year.

  19. Publish (in English) or perish: The effect on citation rate of using languages other than English in scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bitetti, Mario S; Ferreras, Julián A

    2017-02-01

    There is a tendency for non-native English scientists to publish exclusively in English, assuming that this will make their articles more visible and cited. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effect of language on the number of citations of articles published in six natural sciences journals from five countries that publish papers in either English or other languages. We analyzed the effect of language (English vs non-English), paper length, and year of publication on the number of citations. The articles published in English have a higher number of citations than those published in other languages, when the effect of journal, year of publication, and paper length are statistically controlled. This may result because English articles are accessible to a larger audience, but other factors need to be explored. Universities and scientific institutions should be aware of this situation and improve the teaching of English, especially in the natural sciences.

  20. Theme Comprehension: Beyond the Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Even though theme is cited in two of the 10 Common Core Standards for Reading Literature, little is written on how to teach it. Determining theme while reading a story is a critical element of reading literature, yet some children simply struggle. The instructional strategies presented here are designed to hone students' theme awareness and…

  1. New linked data on research investments: scientific workforce, productivity, and public value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Julia; Owen-Smith, Jason; Rosen, Rebecca; Weinberg, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    Longitudinal micro-data derived from transaction level information about wage and vendor payments made by federal grants on multiple U.S. campuses are being developed in a partnership involving researchers, university administrators, representatives of federal agencies, and others. This paper describes the UMETRICS data initiative that has been implemented under the auspices of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation. The resulting data set reflects an emerging conceptual framework for analyzing the process, products, and impact of research. It grows from and engages the work of a diverse and vibrant community. This paper situates the UMETRICS effort in the context of research evaluation and ongoing data infrastructure efforts in order to highlight its novel and valuable features. Refocusing data construction in this field around individuals, networks, and teams offers dramatic possibilities for data linkage, the evaluation of research investments, and the development of rigorous conceptual and empirical models. Two preliminary analyses of the scientific workforce and network approaches to characterizing scientific teams ground a discussion of future directions and a call for increased community engagement.

  2. Seabird databases and the new paradigm for scientific publication and attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    For more than 300 years, the peer-reviewed journal article has been the principal medium for packaging and delivering scientific data. With new tools for managing digital data, a new paradigm is emerging—one that demands open and direct access to data and that enables and rewards a broad-based approach to scientific questions. Ground-breaking papers in the future will increasingly be those that creatively mine and synthesize vast stores of data available on the Internet. This is especially true for conservation science, in which essential data can be readily captured in standard record formats. For seabird professionals, a number of globally shared databases are in the offing, or should be. These databases will capture the salient results of inventories and monitoring, pelagic surveys, diet studies, and telemetry. A number of real or perceived barriers to data sharing exist, but none is insurmountable. Our discipline should take an important stride now by adopting a specially designed markup language for annotating and sharing seabird data.

  3. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Methods: Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. Results: There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05, especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81, followed by Hong Kong (720.39 and Mainland China (583.94. The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46 was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42 and Mainland China (1.33. Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392, followed by Hong Kong (3,785 and Mainland China (1,493. The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65 was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57 and Mainland China (3.41. The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Discussion: Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count.

  4. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Wang, Xiaming; Yuan, Xueru; Yang, Li; Xue, Yu; Xie, Qian

    2016-01-01

    China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81), followed by Hong Kong (720.39) and Mainland China (583.94). The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46) was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42) and Mainland China (1.33). Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392), followed by Hong Kong (3,785) and Mainland China (1,493). The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65) was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57) and Mainland China (3.41). The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count.

  5. 76 FR 80417 - Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded Scientific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-32947] OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Request for Information: Public Access... Technology Policy (OSTP) on behalf of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) SUPPLEMENTARY... costs. Federal science agencies already have some experience with policies to promote long- term...

  6. 77 FR 20392 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... webcast is a supplementary public process provided only for convenience. If difficulties arise resulting... adjustments to control for bias in atrazine concentrations from monitoring data according to sampling... ] stratified, random statistical survey design. Sampling within these watersheds began in 2004 and is ongoing...

  7. 75 FR 33300 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... webcast. Please note that the webcast is a supplementary public process provided only for convenience. If... environmental sampling and statistical modeling. Nominees should be scientists who have sufficient professional... concentration for a long- term chronic effect) require a less frequent sampling design to approximate longer...

  8. Novel and transgenic food crops: overview of scientific versus public perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal-Mendieta, N L; Lints, F A

    1998-09-01

    Recombinant DNA technology offers opportunities to develop new products in many different fields, including agriculture and the agro-food area. Transgenic plants with improved agronomic traits currently grow in field trials and a few varieties have already reached the European market. By and large, new technologies raise both concerns and expectations and modern biotechnology is no exception. Indeed, a voluntary moratorium on experiments involving recombinant DNA molecules was called for in 1974. At the present time, although a majority of academic and industrial scientists agree that transgenic food crops pose no risk for the environment or human health, some others believe that certain applications of modern plant biotechnology are hazardous. In particular, deliberate releases of genetically modified plants are regarded as risky. There is also a disparity between expert and lay perception of r-DNA technology applications to food crops, which makes public information a difficult task. This paper aims at exposing these conflicting points of view on the agricultural applications of modern biotechnology. We also propose some recommendations pertaining to public information in Europe. It appears that consensus conferences might be a good approach to stimulate public information and public debate in Europe, although this approach has to be adapted to the cultural context of each country.

  9. Scientific Argumentation in Public Physics Lectures: Bringing Contemporary Physics into High-School Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapon, S.; Ganiel, U.; Eylon, B.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an approach to integrating public e-lectures on contemporary physics into a traditional high-school syllabus. This approach was used in a long-distance professional development course for in-service physics teachers. Each lecture was related to a specific obligatory syllabus chapter, and was accompanied by learner-centred…

  10. Preparing and Submitting Scientific and Technical Manuscripts and Other Documents for Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    These include Fact Sheets, Brochures, Newsletters, Special Reports and some Compact Disks. These are used as marketing tools to capture an audience and...inform the reader of current and timely concepts being developed by ARI. These marketing tools must adhere to a review and publication process as all

  11. 77 FR 20823 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... include: (1) Briefings and BSC deliberation on the following topics: CDC Laboratory Preparedness; OPHPR... Management Team; Estimating the Cost of Preparedness; (2) Programmatic responses to...

  12. 76 FR 18221 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10 (a) (2) of the Federal... Conference. Please contact the BSC Coordinator (see Contact Person for More Information) to obtain further... Address. For foreign nationals or non-U.S. citizens, pre-approval is required. Please contact the...

  13. 78 FR 15369 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal....m. (BSC, OPHPR meeting) April 3, 2013 8:30 a.m.-3:30 p.m. (Joint meeting of the BSC, OPHPR and the... . Matters To Be Discussed: Agenda items for this meeting include: (1) Briefings and BSC deliberation on...

  14. 78 FR 56235 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, (BSC, OPHPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response, (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... this 2-day meeting include: (1) Briefings and BSC deliberation on the following topics: Program... OPHPR BSC; program response to recommendations made in the peer review of the Career Epidemiology...

  15. Evaluation of scientific criteria for identifying allergenic foods of public health importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, J.H.M. van; Ronsmans, S.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Rona, R.J.; Przyrembel, H.; Penninks, A.H.; Contor, L.; Houben, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of allergenic foods of public health importance should be based on well-defined criteria. Björkstén et al. (2008) proposed that the criteria should assess the evidence for an IgE mechanism, the reaction, the potency and the severity of the effect of the food and its prevalence. This

  16. Evaluation of scientific criteria for identifying allergenic foods of public health importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, J.H.M. van; Ronsmans, S.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Rona, R.J.; Przyrembel, H.; Penninks, A.H.; Contor, L.; Houben, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of allergenic foods of public health importance should be based on well-defined criteria. Björkstén et al. (2008) proposed that the criteria should assess the evidence for an IgE mechanism, the reaction, the potency and the severity of the effect of the food and its prevalence. This s

  17. Public Private Partnerships, Corporate Welfare or Building the Nation's Scientific Infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, C. V.

    1996-03-01

    A debate is taking place in the U.S. concerning the investment of scarce Federal funds in science and technology research. Clouding this discussion is the proliferation of extreme views illustrated in the title of this talk. The impacts of the end of the cold war, the globalization of the economy and the realities of the budget deficit create a situation that cries out for a new social contract between scientists and taxpayers. We need to examine the successes and failures of the last 50 years to form the basis for a set of principles to enable the creation of a new consensus to define the roles of industry, government, universities and national laboratories in the research enterprise. The scientific infrastructure, and by extension, the economic vitality of the U.S., are at risk.

  18. [Pneumonia awareness year, 2004: scientific impact through publications in Archivos de Bronconeumología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajas Naranjo, Olga; Aspa Marco, Javier

    2006-10-01

    Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious infectious disease. Morbidity and mortality rates continue to be high in spite of major advances and steady progress in diagnosis and treatment. The economic impact of the disease is also great. It is therefore necessary to enlist the public, primary care and emergency physicians, and public policy administrators to join forces to treat and prevent pneumonia for the common good. The annual incidence of pneumonia in the population over the age of 14 years is 1.6 to 2.6 episodes/1000 inhabitants. The mortality rate is 14.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the associated costs are 115 million euros annually. The RESPIRA Foundation and the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) declared 2004 to be pneumonia awareness year with the aim of coordinating efforts to raise awareness, distribute information, and foster debate.

  19. [Quality and integrity in the production and publication of scientific results: data trimming, manipulation and (self) plagiarism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, T F

    2014-08-01

    The publication of scientific manuscripts is an essential part in the research process and in the attempt to produce novel knowledge: only what is published exists. It is the aim of research to produce reproducible and sustainable knowledge. Reproducible knowledge is based on precise observation, the use of modern methodologies and an appropriate statistical analysis. As a consequence, it must be the intention of any scientist to report the truth and nothing but the truth. This principle requires precision and honesty. Deviation from such a behavior may lead to scientific misconduct: It encompasses the use of inappropriate methods and/or statistics, double publication of data, sloppy data presentation and processing, up to data massaging, manipulation, data theft or fabrication. Famous examples can be found throughout the history of research but it appears that such behavior has recently become more common possibly due to excessive competition, the crucial role of grants for scientific productivity and funding as well as promotion. Accordingly, in the training of researchers it seems essential to emphasize the importance of precise data acquisition and analysis to ascertain reproducible data. Similarly, it must be assured that data sets are only published once, that authors have contributed technically and/or intellectually in an important manner and that the work of other scientists is cited appropriately. Editors and reviewers should carefully assess the quality of submitted manuscripts. In fact, it is the aim of the peer review process to assure as much as possible that the quality of submitted manuscripts meets current methodological as well as ethical standards.

  20. [Equally or equitably? Author roles and co-author shares in scientific publication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, András

    2016-03-27

    In the last decades the share of co-authored and, particularly, multi-authored papers has increased immensely. The paper deals with the causes and consequences of this phenomenon, specifically with those connected with scientometric analyses. Possibilities for fractional count of publications and citations, as well as problems of interpreting h-index and self-citation in case of multi-authored papers are focused upon.

  1. Thirty years of artificial intelligence in medicine (AIME) conferences: A review of research themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Niels; Combi, Carlo; Marin, Roque; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Over the past 30 years, the international conference on Artificial Intelligence in MEdicine (AIME) has been organized at different venues across Europe every 2 years, establishing a forum for scientific exchange and creating an active research community. The Artificial Intelligence in Medicine journal has published theme issues with extended versions of selected AIME papers since 1998. To review the history of AIME conferences, investigate its impact on the wider research field, and identify challenges for its future. We analyzed a total of 122 session titles to create a taxonomy of research themes and topics. We classified all 734 AIME conference papers published between 1985 and 2013 with this taxonomy. We also analyzed the citations to these conference papers and to 55 special issue papers. We identified 30 research topics across 12 themes. AIME was dominated by knowledge engineering research in its first decade, while machine learning and data mining prevailed thereafter. Together these two themes have contributed about 51% of all papers. There have been eight AIME papers that were cited at least 10 times per year since their publication. There has been a major shift from knowledge-based to data-driven methods while the interest for other research themes such as uncertainty management, image and signal processing, and natural language processing has been stable since the early 1990s. AIME papers relating to guidelines and protocols are among the most highly cited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Foreign articles as growth factor of falsification for scientific publications and reduction of scientometric indicators of organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pototskaya O.Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Some orders of Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine encourage scientific authors to publish their articles abroad but do not detail selection criteria of the journals recommended. As a result, authors choose the easiest way and publish their papers in low-quality foreign journals. Moreover, some false journals have been created since the Orders entered into force. In this article we emphasize the importance of journal registration in scientometric databases for the international and regional rating of universities. Also attention is paid to the need of verification of journal quality and its reliability by the authors before sending manuscripts for publication. To resolve these problems we propose to indicate URL link of the article in the annual scientific report of scientists, departments and organizations. It will help to verify the quality of the journal and concentrate attention of the authors on checking the existence of journal’s web site before sending their manuscripts. It is important to emphasize that journals without web sites do not influence on the rating of scientific organizations in any scientometric databases. If such link is absent, article should not be scored up for the rating. Additional way is to create adequate system of scientific ratings. For example, articles published in major scientometric databases, such as Scopus and Web of Science, should be scored two (or more times higher than any other articles. Papers published in other scientometric databases (such as RISC also should be scored higher than onother articles. Information about principal scientometric databases should be clarified for scientists to help them in choosing optimal journal for manuscripts publishing.

  3. Scientific and methodical approach to the estimation of the risk level of public-private partnership projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Hrytsenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is improvement of scientific and methodical approach to complex estimation of innovative projects risks through public-private partnership. The results of the analysis. Different models of state and business cooperation that are implemented through the public-private partnership are identified as an effective instrument of such special group of innovative projects as infrastructure projects. During the realization of public-private partnership such special features of infrastructure innovative projects as long-term and contractual character of relationships play one of the most important role. It becomes possible to implement using special forms of public-private partnership and financing models, realization of partner relation on competitive base, diversification of responsibility and risk between participants of public-private partnership. Risk of public-private partnership is recommended to identify as an economic category that characterizes probabilistic assessment of objective threat of losing by public-private partnership participants their material, financial, intellectual resources, subjectively expected revenue shortfall, creation of additional expenditures or any other deviations from the predicted parameters of efficiency. It can happen in a result of making decision about public and private sector cooperation during realization and in the result of changes in investment policy, innovative infrastructure projects innovation and investment environments. Realization of innovative projects in public-private partnership is connected with significant risks that occur at each stage of its realization and preparation. The long-term investments of innovative infrastructure projects, its high value and big quantity of participants, complex system of its financing and organizational structure cause that very urgent task in such projects realization is necessity of taking into account its investment

  4. Positive and Negative Themes Found in Superhero Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Matthew; Georgeson, Andrew; McNamara, Caitlin; Wakefield, Bryan; King, Tonya S; Olympia, Robert P

    2016-12-01

    Superhero films have become incredibly popular. The objective of this study was to determine the positive and negative themes found in a select number of superhero films. A total of 30 superhero films were analyzed. The average numbers of positive and negative themes were 19.4 and 29.5 mean events per hour for all included films, respectively. The most common positive themes were "assisting others/protecting the public," "positive relationships with family/friends," and "teamwork/collaboration." The most common negative themes were "acts of violence/fighting," "use of guns/knives/lethal weapons," and "bullying/intimidation/torture." Based on the superhero films included in our study, the number of negative themes, especially acts of violence, outweighs positive themes. Although an exposure to positive themes found in superhero films may be beneficial to the development of children, pediatric health care providers should counsel children and their families in an attempt to limit their exposure to violence.

  5. Scientific publications from departments of clinical physiology and nuclear medicine in Denmark. A bibliometric analysis of "impact' in the years 1989-1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H B; Brinch, K; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1996-01-01

    a collaboration between two or more departments of clinical physiology and nuclear medicine, but the collaboration with other medical specialities and institutions was much greater (85%). The 763 papers were published in 239 different scientific journals, 80% in journals with an official 'impact factor......This study reports a bibliometric analysis of scientific publications emanating from departments of clinical physiology and nuclear medicine, Denmark, during the years 1989-1994. The total number of publications during this period was 860 (763 scientific journal papers, 71 book/book chapters and 26...... average (1.10, P medicine fell in the period...

  6. Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on waterpipe (narghile, shisha, hookah) tobacco smoking during the period 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M

    2014-04-13

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. However, the evaluation of scientific output in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking has not been studied yet. The main objectives of this study were to analyze worldwide research output in the waterpipe tobacco smoking field, and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database for over a decade. Data from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specific words regarding waterpipe tobacco smoking as "keywords" in the title. Scientific output was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies: (a) total and trends of contributions in waterpipe tobacco smoking research between 2003 and 2012; (b) authorship patterns and research productivity; (c) collaboration patterns; (d) the citations received by the publications; and (e) areas of interest of the published papers. Worldwide there were 334 publications that met the criteria during the study period. The largest number of publications in waterpipe tobacco smoking were from the United States of America (USA) (33.5%), followed by Lebanon (15.3%), and France (10.5%). The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (October 18, 2013) was 4,352, with an average of 13 citations per document and a median (interquartile range) of 4.0 (1.0-16.0). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 34. The highest h-index by country was 27 for the USA, followed by 20 for Syrian Arab Republic and Lebanon. The present data reveal a promising rise and a good start for research activity in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking. More effort is needed to bridge the gap in waterpipe smoking-based research and to promote better evaluation of waterpipe smoking, risks, health effects, or control services worldwide.

  7. Legalization, decriminalization & medicinal use of cannabis: a scientific and public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svrakic, Dragan M; Lustman, Patrick J; Mallya, Ashok; Lynn, Taylor Andrea; Finney, Rhonda; Svrakic, Neda M

    2012-01-01

    Empirical and clinical studies clearly demonstrate significant adverse effects of cannabis smoking on physical and mental health as well as its interference with social and occupational functioning. These negative data far outweigh a few documented benefits for a limited set of medical indications, for which safe and effective alternative treatments are readily available. If there is any medical role for cannabinoid drugs, it lies with chemically defined compounds, not with unprocessed cannabis plant. Legalization or medical use of smoked cannabis is likely to impose significant public health risks, including an increased risk of schizophrenia, psychosis, and other forms of substance use disorders.

  8. Impact of the Psychological Testing Assessment System (SATEPSI) for Scientific Publications in Psychological Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Mansur-Alves,Marcela; Silva, Renata Saldanha; Fernandes,Sthefanie Carvalho de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The strengthening of psychological assessment in Brazil in the twenty-first century can be understood as a result of the foundation of Psychological Test Evaluation System (SATEPSI, its Portuguese acronym) by Resolution 02/2003 of the Federal Council of Psychology. In this sense, the present study aimed to describe the impact of SATEPSI for research in the area. A survey of Brazilian researchers' publications was conducted in two periods in SciELO and BVS-Psi databases - 1993-2002 an...

  9. [The passing eye: museums, public education, and the visualization of scientific evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, Irina

    2005-01-01

    In this examination of certain issues related to the history of museums. An emphasis on the functions and missions entrusted to museums does not necessarily reflect the power museums have to create habits or shape meanings. To the contrary, this may reflect the actual fragility of museums and their need to resort to rhetoric to attract governmental favors and funds. Therefore, concentrating on the monumental, representative, or metaphorical aspects of museums obscures the history of these institutions and of their consolidated practices, there by naturalizing the separation between research space and public space and leaving the historian to play the role of an uninitiated observer of the 'cathedrals of science'.

  10. [Qualitative dimensions of the scientific, technological and innovation production at Public Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Madel Therezinha; Mattos, Rafael da Silva

    2010-07-01

    This article shows the results of a qualitative evaluation on the expansion of the Collective Health area according with the production of the triennial Collective Health Congresses Annals which happen between 1997 to 2006, promoted by Abrasco - Brazilian Association of Collective Health. The specific objective was to estimate the growth of importance of the area in the scientific as well as in the social Brazilian scenario in the last decennary through the analysis of aspects and substantive dimensions. The methodological strategy of the study was to consider the complexity and data profusion referred to the dimensions of this multidisciplinary field (more and more interdisciplinary) of knowledge and intervention. From this perspective, analysis and interpretations of document sources were done, applying theoretical, methodological and analytical referential of the social science and X statistics techniques. It could be observed that: (1) in the last decade, the Collective Health area expanded into its three subareas (Epidemiology, Planning/Management and Health Services and, Human Sciences); (2) there is a tendency of more interactivity among the programs and with their communities and the institutions; (3) there is a growth in the quantity of authors writing about the field and different authors by article; (4) it is being elaborated a big internal specialization into the subareas.

  11. Public debates driven by incomplete scientific data: the cases of evolution theory, global warming and H1N1 pandemic influenza

    CERN Document Server

    Galam, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Public debates driven by incomplete scientific data where nobody can claim absolute certainty, due to current state of scientific knowledge, are studied. The cases of evolution theory, global warming and H1N1 pandemic influenza are investigated. The first two are of controversial impact while the third is more neutral and resolved. To adopt a cautious balanced attitude based on clear but inconclusive data appears to be a lose-out strategy. In contrast overstating arguments with wrong claims which cannot be scientifically refuted appear to be necessary but not sufficient to eventually win a public debate. The underlying key mechanism of these puzzling and unfortunate conclusions are identified using the Galam sequential probabilistic model of opinion dynamics. It reveals that the existence of inflexible agents and their respective proportions are the instrumental parameters to determine the faith of incomplete scientific data public debates. Acting on one's own inflexible proportion modifies the topology of th...

  12. Completion publication of abstracts presented at the scientific meetings of the Pan-African Pediatric Surgical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Abdulrasheed A; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Poenaru, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The expected knowledge translation from discovery into practice occurs when presentations from major scientific meetings are published in peer-reviewed literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of complete publication of peer-reviewed articles arising from presentations at the biennial meetings of the Pan-African Pediatric Surgical Association (PAPSA). All the abstracts accepted for presentation at the biennial meeting of PAPSA between 2006 and 2010 were identified from the conference abstract booklets and published abstracts in the African Journal of Paediatric Surgery. The presentations were searched for publication in Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar, and African Journal OnLine through October 2012, using key words from the abstract title and names of authors listed in the abstracts. A total of 164 abstracts were accepted for presentation, consisting of 118 (72%) oral/podium presentations and 46 (28%) poster presentations. One hundred and thirty-three abstracts (81.1%) came from African countries and 31 (18.9%) from outside Africa. Overall, 49 (29.9%) abstracts resulted in full-text publications in 20 peer-reviewed journals. Thirty-eight of the publications were from Africa (representing 28.6% of abstracts from Africa) and 11 from outside Africa (33.3% of abstracts from outside Africa). The median time to publication was 15 months [interquartile range (IQR) 5-26 months]. The publication rate was statistically significantly correlated to the year of publication (P = 0.016) and the use of comparative statistics in the study (P = 0.005), but not to the study design, study subjects, or institution. The majority of the studies were published in the African Journal of Paediatric Surgery and Pediatric Surgery International (14 and 11 of the 49 reports, respectively). The H-index for international abstracts (median 35, IQR 35-76) was significantly higher than that of African abstracts (14, 3-35) (P = 0.002). Only a third of abstracts presented at

  13. Challenging Expertise: Paul Feyerabend vs. Harry Collins & Robert Evans on democracy, public participation and scientific authority: Paul Feyerabend vs. Harry Collins & Robert Evans on scientific authority and public participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgner, Helene

    2016-06-01

    This paper compares Feyerabend's arguments in Science in a Free Society to the controversial theory of expertise proposed by Harry Collins and Robert Evans as a Third Wave of Science Studies. Is the legitimacy of democratic decisions threatened by the unquestioned authority of scientific advice? Or does, on the contrary, science need protection from too much democratic participation in technical decisions? Where Feyerabend's political relativism envisions democratic society as inherently pluralist and demands equal contribution of all traditions and worldviews to public decision-making, Collins and Evans hold a conception of elective modernism, defending the reality and value of technical expertise and arguing that science deserves a privileged status in modern democracies, because scientific values are also democratic values. I will argue that Feyerabend's political relativism provides a valuable framework for the evaluation of Collins' and Evans' theory of expertise. By constructing a dialog between Feyerabend and this more recent approach in Science and Technology Studies, the aim of this article is not only to show where the two positions differ and in what way they might be reconciled, but also how Feyerabend's philosophy provides substantial input to contemporary debate.

  14. Weight loss diets advertised in non-scientific publications Dietas para perda de peso anunciadas na imprensa leiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maria Silverio Amancio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Weight-loss diets advertised in mainstream non-scientific publications and targeting the adult female public were evaluated in relation to total energy value, macronutrients, calcium, iron, vitamins A and E, and cholesterol content, as well as the presence of information regarding the duration of diets, fluid intake, physical activity, and maintenance diets. Two publications were selected, considering periodicity, circulation, readership, and years in publication. The Virtual Nutri software was used to evaluate the nutrients of 112 diets. Micronutrient content was compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes. All diets were inadequate in at least one of the evaluated items. Less than 25.0% of the diets presented adequate macronutrient distribution. Calcium, iron, and vitamin E were also predominantly inadequate (85.7, 97.3, and 91.9%, respectively. Non-scientific publications should not be allowed to advertise weight-loss diets. In addition, their chemical composition is inadequate and they are not accompanied by important instructions for such therapy.Diversas dietas para redução de peso, anunciadas em periódicos não-científicos de grande circulação, foram avaliadas em relação ao teor energético e de macronutrientes, cálcio, ferro, vitaminas A e E, colesterol e presença de informações sobre a duração da dieta, ingestão de fluidos, atividade física e dieta de manutenção. Duas publicações foram selecionadas em função da periodicidade, tiragem, número de leitores e anos de publicação. Foi utilizado o programa Virtual Nutri para medir os nutrientes de 112 dietas. Os teores de micronutrientes foram comparados com as Dietary Reference Intakes. Todas as dietas eram inadequadas em relação a uma ou mais substâncias avaliadas. Menos de 25,0% das dietas apresentaram distribuição adequada de macronutrientes. Predominavam os níveis inadequados de cálcio, ferro e vitamina E (85,7, 97,3, e 91,9%, respectivamente. Não deveria

  15. Technical Report, Outcome of the public consultation on the draft Scientific Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Contaminants on the Food Chain (CONTAM) on acrylamide in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) has endorsed its draft Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of acrylamide (AA) in food. The opinion has undergone a public consultation from 1 July 2014 to 15 September 2014. Overall, EFSA has...

  16. The Scientific Field during Argentina's Latest Military Dictatorship (1976-1983): Contraction of Public Universities and Expansion of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekerman, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at some of the traits that characterized Argentina's scientific and university policies under the military regime that spanned from 1976 through 1983. To this end, it delves into a rarely explored empirical observation: financial resource transfers from national universities to the National Scientific and Technological Research…

  17. The Scientific Field during Argentina's Latest Military Dictatorship (1976-1983): Contraction of Public Universities and Expansion of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekerman, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at some of the traits that characterized Argentina's scientific and university policies under the military regime that spanned from 1976 through 1983. To this end, it delves into a rarely explored empirical observation: financial resource transfers from national universities to the National Scientific and Technological Research…

  18. Science Concierge: A Fast Content-Based Recommendation System for Scientific Publications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titipat Achakulvisut

    Full Text Available Finding relevant publications is important for scientists who have to cope with exponentially increasing numbers of scholarly material. Algorithms can help with this task as they help for music, movie, and product recommendations. However, we know little about the performance of these algorithms with scholarly material. Here, we develop an algorithm, and an accompanying Python library, that implements a recommendation system based on the content of articles. Design principles are to adapt to new content, provide near-real time suggestions, and be open source. We tested the library on 15K posters from the Society of Neuroscience Conference 2015. Human curated topics are used to cross validate parameters in the algorithm and produce a similarity metric that maximally correlates with human judgments. We show that our algorithm significantly outperformed suggestions based on keywords. The work presented here promises to make the exploration of scholarly material faster and more accurate.

  19. Significance of Pirogov`s scientific ideas for modern organization of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenova L.S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is about Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov, a surgeon and anatomist, prominent scientist and educator, founder of field surgery. He was the first to learn field surgery and military administration in practice. He was the first to use famous triage (the wounded were sorted according to the severity of injuries. N.I.Pirogov considered that well organized triage at dressing stations and temporary military hospitals is the main tool to provide proper care and to prevent harmful consequences. He organized training of medical nurses to help the wounded. He also published the work on the problems of pedagogy in which he proposed reforms of education system. The authors of the article have analyzed N.I.Pirogov`s works and showed their significance for modern social medicine and organization of Public Health.

  20. Science Concierge: A Fast Content-Based Recommendation System for Scientific Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achakulvisut, Titipat; Acuna, Daniel E; Ruangrong, Tulakan; Kording, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Finding relevant publications is important for scientists who have to cope with exponentially increasing numbers of scholarly material. Algorithms can help with this task as they help for music, movie, and product recommendations. However, we know little about the performance of these algorithms with scholarly material. Here, we develop an algorithm, and an accompanying Python library, that implements a recommendation system based on the content of articles. Design principles are to adapt to new content, provide near-real time suggestions, and be open source. We tested the library on 15K posters from the Society of Neuroscience Conference 2015. Human curated topics are used to cross validate parameters in the algorithm and produce a similarity metric that maximally correlates with human judgments. We show that our algorithm significantly outperformed suggestions based on keywords. The work presented here promises to make the exploration of scholarly material faster and more accurate.

  1. Globalisation and health: the role of a new scientific journal in harmonising public health practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ricciardi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Public health professionals are aware of the global imbalance between the range of factors that affect human health and the inadequate structures in place to address them. Global integration is moving at a rapid pace, fuelled by faster communication and greater movement of people and ideas. Yet the world continues to use nineteenth century structures based on individual nation states.

    The rapid pace of change requires new solutions, with effective international co-operative action, with devolved decision making that ensures implementation.The international agencies that should be able to tackle these issues have had limited success. There are examples of governments coming together to address some global problems related to health, such as recent conferences on reproductive health, the conference on climate change in Kyoto and the treaty on landmines.However, this is not sufficient, and implementation of agreements remains a barrier to progress.

  2. Framing of Uncertainty in Scientific Publications: Towards Recommendations for Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, J. H. A.; Helgeson, C.; Elsawah, S.; Jakeman, A. J.; Kummu, M.

    2016-12-01

    Uncertainty is recognised as an essential issue in environmental decision making and decision support. As modellers, we notably use a variety of tools and techniques within an analysis, for example related to uncertainty quantification and model validation. We also address uncertainty by how we present results. For example, experienced modellers are careful to distinguish robust conclusions from those that need further work, and the precision of quantitative results is tailored to their accuracy. In doing so, the modeller frames how uncertainty should be interpreted by their audience. This is an area which extends beyond modelling to fields such as philosophy of science, semantics, discourse analysis, intercultural communication and rhetoric. We propose that framing of uncertainty deserves greater attention in the context of decision support, and that there are opportunities in this area for fundamental research, synthesis and knowledge transfer, development of teaching curricula, and significant advances in managing uncertainty in decision making. This presentation reports preliminary results of a study of framing practices. Specifically, we analyse the framing of uncertainty that is visible in the abstracts from a corpus of scientific articles. We do this through textual analysis of the content and structure of those abstracts. Each finding that appears in an abstract is classified according to the uncertainty framing approach used, using a classification scheme that was iteratively revised based on reflection and comparison amongst three coders. This analysis indicates how frequently the different framing approaches are used, and provides initial insights into relationships between frames, how the frames relate to interpretation of uncertainty, and how rhetorical devices are used by modellers to communicate uncertainty in their work. We propose initial hypotheses for how the resulting insights might influence decision support, and help advance decision making to

  3. 78 FR 31626 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... AIDS Coordinator in a solely advisory capacity concerning scientific, implementation, and policy issues... President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), the PEPFAR Scientific Advisory Board (hereinafter...

  4. Examining authentic talk and student authorship of scientific ideas: Public pedagogy and affinity space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaton, Adriane McNamara

    One of the great challenges to teachers both historically and contemporarily is to facilitate a classroom as a group of students, while concurrently attending to each individual student. As the profession becomes increasingly aware and sensitive to student (dis)abilities, academic giftedness, pressures of athletics and extra-curricular events, and acknowledges the racial, cultural, sexual, economic, gendered identities of students--- the complexity of each individual student becomes ever more apparent. It is a seemingly insurmountable challenge. This dissertation examines how stem cell unit guided group learning while also attending to the individual learning needs of each student. What makes classroom study unusual in research is that it is completely "usual". This study was not part of a university partnership nor did it take place in an affluent school district. Instead, this unit took place in a large, Midwestern urban high school that was/is often written off as a failing---underscoring that powerful science teaching and learning is occurring in schools society simultaneously portrays as victim and villain in the media. Using a sociocultural lens, this ethnographic study draws upon two frameworks, Wenger's communities of practice (1998) and Hayes and Gee's (2011) public pedagogy, to examine how participation in a debate individualizes and personalizes student knowledge and participation in science. The primary use of a community of practice framework allowed for analysis of the norms, rules, practices, and routines of Classroom 507---to establish the nature of the community of learners in the study. A secondary framework, public pedagogy, allowed for deeper understanding of the practices drawn upon in the classroom through consideration of the design, resources, and an emergent "affinity space". This hybridized analysis led to further understanding of how students and teacher stand to learn, participate, engage and use a classroom lesson, the debate, to serve

  5. Beyond dose assessment: using risk with full disclosure of uncertainty in public and scientific communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, F Owen; Kocher, David C; Apostoaei, A Iulian

    2011-11-01

    Evaluations of radiation exposures of workers and the public traditionally focus on assessments of radiation dose, especially annual dose, without explicitly evaluating the health risk associated with those exposures, principally the risk of radiation-induced cancer. When dose is the endpoint of an assessment, opportunities to communicate the significance of exposures are limited to comparisons with dose criteria in regulations, doses due to natural background or medical x-rays, and doses above which a statistically significant increase of disease has been observed in epidemiologic studies. Risk assessment generally addresses the chance (probability) that specific diseases might be induced by past, present, or future exposure. The risk of cancer per unit dose will vary depending on gender, age, exposure type (acute or chronic), and radiation type. It is not uncommon to find that two individuals with the same effective dose will have substantially different risks. Risk assessment has shown, for example, that: (a) medical exposures to computed tomography scans have become a leading source of future risk to the general population, and that the risk would be increased above recently published estimates if the incidence of skin cancer and the increased risk from exposure to x-rays compared with high-energy photons were taken into account; (b) indoor radon is a significant contributor to the baseline risk of lung cancer, particularly among people who have never smoked; and (c) members of the public who were exposed in childhood to I in fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and were diagnosed with thyroid cancer later in life would frequently meet criteria established for federal compensation of cancers experienced by energy workers and military participants at atmospheric weapons tests. Risk estimation also enables comparisons of impacts of exposures to radiation and chemical carcinogens and other hazards to life and health. Communication of risk with

  6. The Critic as Rhetor: Psychiatry and Fantasy Theme Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatz, Richard E.; Weinberg, Lee S.

    1987-01-01

    Examines Barbara Sharf's article analyzing public commentary about psychiatrists generated by the Hinkley trial and finds that dominant media messages elicit undeserved negative fantasy themes concerning psychiatry. Argues that fantasy theme analysis offers rhetorical critics a framework for examining process by which the meaning of world events…

  7. Current use of medical eponyms – a need for global uniformity in scientific publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Nalini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although eponyms are widely used in medicine, they arbitrarily alternate between the possessive and nonpossessive forms. As very little is known regarding extent and distribution of this variation, the present study was planned to assess current use of eponymous term taking "Down syndrome" and "Down's syndrome" as an example. Methods This study was carried out in two phases – first phase in 1998 and second phase in 2008. In the first phase, we manually searched the terms "Down syndrome" and "Down's syndrome" in the indexes of 70 medical books, and 46 medical journals. In second phase, we performed PubMed search with both the terms, followed by text-word search for the same. Results In the first phase, there was an overall tilt towards possessive form – 62(53.4% "Down's syndrome" versus 54(46.6% "Down syndrome." However, the American publications preferred the nonpossesive form when compared with their European counterpart (40/50 versus 14/66; P Conclusion Inconsistency in the use of medical eponyms remains a major problem in literature search. Because of linguistic simplicity and technical advantages, the nonpossessive form should be used uniformly worldwide.

  8. Scientific Production in Finance: mapping of publications in journals Qualis A in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Herling

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The current field of financial management is directly linked to the science of Directors also inheriting traits of his crib before then, the economic sciences. There are many published studies in finance over the years, but the very definition of what financial management is studying is not something simple disclosure. About seventy years ago, researchers in the field have questioned and tried to make an approximation of what this field of operation aim to treat. Through a descriptive study as quantitative treatment of the data using descriptive statistics, we sought to understand how the publications are in the area of financial management in high-impact journals classified according to the last published qualis Capes in 2012. Through research showed that between 2010 until 2012 there is a greater concentration of research in Finance Short Term Finance Long Term Markets and Financial Institutions subareas, researchers with higher productivity are of Mackenzie University and Getulio Vargas Foundation (EAESP/FGV, and that RAUSP SAR and magazines have the largest amount of published articles on finance.

  9. Scientific publication productivity of Korean medical colleges: an analysis of 1988-1999 MEDLINE papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, M C; Lee, C S

    2000-02-01

    To identify where the quality research activity has been and is carried out in Korea, and to examine to what extents Korean medical colleges play leading roles in the production of international research papers, we investigated the publication productivity of Korean medical colleges and their medical departments as measured by the number of papers published in foreign journals indexed in MEDLINE. The 12-year period from 1988 to 1999 is covered. A total of 4,881 papers is published in MEDLINE foreign journals by the researchers in Korean medical colleges during the period. The production of MEDLINE papers are concentrated in a few universities. More than 60% of MEDLINE foreign journal papers is published by top five universities 25% by Seoul National University, and 15% by Yonsei University. The newly established medical colleges at the University of Ulsan and Sungkyunkwan University produced outstanding numbers of papers in less than ten years. Radiology has led the internationalization of Korean medical papers. It was the most productive specialty identified in this study. The productivity of Internal medicine is on the rise from the mid-1 990s, and the field began to produce the most number of papers since then.

  10. Continuously variable rating: a new, simple and logical procedure to evaluate original scientific publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha e Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Impact Factors (IF are widely used surrogates to evaluate single articles, in spite of known shortcomings imposed by cite distribution skewness. We quantify this asymmetry and propose a simple computer-based procedure for evaluating individual articles. METHOD: (a Analysis of symmetry. Journals clustered around nine Impact Factor points were selected from the medical ‘‘Subject Categories’’ in Journal Citation Reports 2010. Citable items published in 2008 were retrieved and ranked by granted citations over the Jan/2008 - Jun/2011 period. Frequency distribution of cites, normalized cumulative cites and absolute cites/decile were determined for each journal cluster. (b Positive Predictive Value. Three arbitrarily established evaluation classes were generated: LOW (1.33.9. Positive Predictive Value for journal clusters within each class range was estimated. (c Continuously Variable Rating. An alternative evaluation procedure is proposed to allow the rating of individually published articles in comparison to all articles published in the same journal within the same year of publication. The general guiding lines for the construction of a totally dedicated software program are delineated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Skewness followed the Pareto Distribution for (1

  11. Operational Earthquake Forecasting and Earthquake Early Warning: The Challenges of Introducing Scientific Innovations for Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Although variants of both earthquake early warning and short-term operational earthquake forecasting systems have been implemented or are now being implemented in some regions and nations, they have been slow to gain acceptance within the disciplines that produced them as well as among those for whom they were intended to assist. To accelerate the development and implementation of these technologies will require the cooperation and collaboration of multiple disciplines, some inside and others outside of academia. Seismologists, social scientists, emergency managers, elected officials and key opinion leaders from the media and public must be the participants in this process. Representatives of these groups come from both inside and outside of academia and represent very different organizational cultures, backgrounds and expectations for these systems, sometimes leading to serious disagreements and impediments to further development and implementation. This presentation will focus on examples of the emergence of earthquake early warning and operational earthquake forecasting systems in California, Japan and other regions and document the challenges confronted in the ongoing effort to improve seismic safety.

  12. Media and Public Ability to Participate In Scientific Decision-making: Using Nanotechnology as A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Jen Shih

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the paradigm of science communication transferred from a one-way, deficit model to an approach that emphasizes public participation and dialogue, citizens in the modern society have thus assumed different civic abilities. These civic abilities include basic knowledge about science, understanding of both the advantages and disadvantages of science, and the ability to make decisions regarding future development of emerging technologies. Because people rely mostly on the media for scientific information, the role of the media in cultivating civic responsibility warrants investigation. Using nanotechnology as a case study, this study aims to examine whether the media can build an informed citizenry and are helpful in people’s decision-making process. The analysis is based on a nationally representative telephone survey (N= 918. The findings indicate that attention to science news on TV has a direct and positive effect on support for nanotechnology. It also exerts an indirect effect by increasing risk perception. Attention to science news on newspapers increases the level of nano knowledge, which, in turn, heightens benefit perception and support. However, the effect of the Internet is subtler. Its effect on knowledge and support depends on education or age. The results of this study suggest that different media platforms play different roles in cultivating the necessary abilities people need in modern, scientific society. By understanding the differential role of the media, science communicators not only can choose appropriate channels for effective communication, but can develop strategies to better use the media as helpful tools in public science education.

  13. La primatologie comme vecteur d’éducation à la citoyenneté The study of Primates as an educational means of becoming a good citizen. A scientific workshop experiment in High School which has evolution as its main theme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Renault

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’un atelier scientifique en collège, des élèves sont amenés à s’intéresser aux grands singes et aux raisons des menaces de leur disparition. De cette connaissance nouvelle, émerge une prise de conscience citoyenne qui conduit les élèves à faire partager leurs analyses et à obtenir des avancées auprès des décideurs et des consommateurs.Centered around a scientific workshop in High School, pupils are encouraged to have a deeper look at the apes and the reason why they are threatened with extinction. From this new-found knowledge a civic awareness is born in the minds of the pupils and this leads them to share their findings and obtain improvements from decision makers and consumers alike.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to the consumption of raw drinking milk

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    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raw drinking milk (RDM has a diverse microbial flora which can include pathogens transmissible to humans. The main microbiological hazards associated with RDM from cows, sheep and goats, horses and donkeys and camels were identified using a decision tree approach. This considered evidence of milk-borne infection and the hazard being present in the European Union (EU, the impact of the hazard on human health and whether there was evidence for RDM as an important risk factor in the EU. The main hazards were Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC, Brucella melitensis, Mycobacterium bovis and tick-borne encephalitis virus, and there are clear links between drinking raw milk and human illness associated with these hazards. A quantitative microbiological risk assessment for these hazards could not be undertaken because country and EU-wide data are limited. Antimicrobial resistance has been reported in several EU countries in some of the main bacterial hazards isolated from raw milk or associated equipment and may be significant for public health. Sale of RDM through vending machines is permitted in some EU countries, although consumers purchasing such milk are usually instructed to boil the milk before consumption, which would eliminate microbiological risks. With respect to internet sales of RDM, there is a need for microbiological, temperature and storage time data to assess the impact of this distribution route. Intrinsic contamination of RDM with pathogens can arise from animals with systemic infection as well as from localised infections such as mastitis. Extrinsic contamination can arise from faecal contamination and from the wider farm environment. It was not possible to rank control options as no single step could be identified which would significantly reduce risk relative to a baseline of expected good practice, although potential for an increase in risk was also noted. Improved risk communication to

  15. It Ain't (Just) the Heat, It's the Humanity: Increasing Public Understanding of Scientific Consensus and Its Role in Climate Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P.; Cook, J.; Nuccitelli, D.

    2014-12-01

    An overwhelming scientific consensus exists on the issue of anthropogenic climate change. Unfortunately, public perception of expert agreement remains low- only around 1 in 10 Americans correctly estimates the actual level of consensus on the topic. Moreover, several recent studies have demonstrated the pivotal role that perceived consensus plays in the public's acceptance of key scientific facts about environmental problems, as well as their willingness to support policy to address them. This "consensus gap", between the high level of scientific agreement vs. the public's perception of it, has led to calls for increased consensus messaging. However this call has been challenged by a number of different groups: climate "skeptics" in denial about the existence and validity of the consensus; some social science researchers and journalists who believe that such messages will be ineffective or counterproductive; and even some scientists and science advocates who downplay the value of consensus in science generally. All of these concerns can be addressed by effectively communicating the role of consensus within science to the public, as well as the conditions under which consensus is likely to be correct. Here, we demonstrate that the scientific consensus on anthropogenic climate change satisfies these conditions, and discuss past examples of purported consensus that failed or succeeded to satisfy them as well. We conclude by discussing the way in which scientific consensus is interpreted by the public, and how consensus messaging can improve climate literacy.

  16. Scientific publications about DNA structure-function and PCR technique in Costa Rica: A historic view (1953-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J Albertazzi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The spreading of knowledge depends on the access to the information and its immediate use. Models are useful to explain specific phenomena. The scientific community accepts some models in Biology after a period of time, once it has evidence to support it. The model of the structure and function of the DNA proposed by Watson & Crick (1953 was not the exception, since a few years later the DNA model was finally accepted. In Costa Rica, DNA function was first mentioned in 1970, in the magazine Biología Tropical (Tropical Biology Magazine, more than 15 years after its first publication in a scientific journal. An opposite situation occurs with technical innovations. If the efficiency of a new scientific technique is proved in a compelling way, then the acceptance by the community comes swiftly. This was the case of the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. The first PCR machine in Costa Rica arrived in 1991, only three years after its publication. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 417-421. Epub 2004 Dic 15.La diseminación del conocimiento depende de la disponibilidad de la información y aplicar dicha información para resolver una problema. Los modelos sirvan para explicar fenómenos determinados. En Biología los modelos son aceptados por la comunidad científica después de cierto tiempo si ha probado su validez y reconocido la evidencia para apoyar dicho modelo. El modelo estructural y función de la molécula de ADN propuesto por Watson y Crick (1953 no fue la excepción pues tardó varios años en ser completamente aceptado por la comunidad científica. En Costa Rica la primera publicación relacionada con la función del ADN fue en la Revista Biología Tropical fue en 1970, más de 15 años después de ser propuesta. La situación contraria se presenta cuando son innovaciones técnicas. Si la eficiencia es demostrada, rápidamente se incorpora dentro de la comunidad. Este fue el caso de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, abreviado en inglés como

  17. Scientific publications in laboratory medicine from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: A ten-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding-Hua; Cui, Wei; Yao, Yun-Tai; Jiang, Qi-Qi

    2010-10-09

    We investigated scientific publications in laboratory medicine originating from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan over the past 10 years. The information about articles published in the included journals were determined by computer-searching on PubMed and data were extracted independently and analyzed in relation to the number of articles. From 2000 to 2009 there were 1166 articles published in laboratory medicine journals from the major Chinese regions (mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan). This exceeded Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom and France from 2005 onwards. Also, the number of articles from mainland China exceeded those from Hong Kong and Taiwan from 2004 onwards. The average impact factor (IF) from Hong Kong ranked the first, followed by mainland China, and then Taiwan. Clinica Chimica Acta seems to be the most popular laboratory medicine journal among Chinese authors. Over the past 10 years, Chinese authors have been more and more active in the field of laboratory medicine. Mainland China seems to have caught up to Hong Kong and Taiwan regarding publication of papers in this field. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Utilizing public scientific web lectures to teach contemporary physics at the high school level: A case study of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulamit Kapon1,*

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a teaching experiment designed to examine the learning (i.e., retention of content and conceptual development that takes place when public scientific web lectures delivered by scientists are utilized to present advanced ideas in physics to students with a high school background in physics. The students watched an exemplary public physics web lecture that was followed by a collaborative generic activity session. The collaborative session involved a guided critical reconstruction of the main arguments in the lecture, and a processing of the key analogical explanations. Then the students watched another exemplary web lecture on a different topic. The participants (N=14 were divided into two groups differing only in the order in which the lectures were presented. The students’ discussions during the activities show that they were able to reason and demonstrate conceptual progress, although the physics ideas in the lectures were far beyond their level in physics. The discussions during the collaborative session contributed significantly to the students’ understanding. We illustrate this point through an analysis of one of these discussions between two students on an analogical explanation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect that was presented in one of the lectures. The results from the tests that were administered to the participants several times during the intervention further support this contention.

  19. Communicating Ocean Acidification and Climate Change to Public Audiences Using Scientific Data, Interactive Exploration Tools, and Visual Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. K.; Rossiter, A.; Spitzer, W.

    2016-12-01

    The Exploratorium, a hands-on science museum, explores local environmental conditions of San Francisco Bay to connect audiences to the larger global implications of ocean acidification and climate change. The work is centered in the Fisher Bay Observatory at Pier 15, a glass-walled gallery sited for explorations of urban San Francisco and the Bay. Interactive exhibits, high-resolution data visualizations, and mediated activities and conversations communicate to public audiences the impacts of excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and ocean. Through a 10-year education partnership with NOAA and two environmental literacy grants funded by its Office of Education, the Exploratorium has been part of two distinct but complementary strategies to increase climate literacy beyond traditional classroom settings. We will discuss two projects that address the ways complex scientific information can be transformed into learning opportunities for the public, providing information citizens can use for decision-making in their personal lives and their communities. The Visualizing Change project developed "visual narratives" that combine scientific visualizations and other images with story telling about the science and potential solutions of climate impacts on the ocean. The narratives were designed to engage curiosity and provide the public with hopeful and useful information to stimulate solutions-oriented behavior rather than to communicate despair about climate change. Training workshops for aquarium and museum docents prepare informal educators to use the narratives and help them frame productive conversations with the pubic. The Carbon Networks project, led by the Exploratorium, uses local and Pacific Rim data to explore the current state of climate change and ocean acidification. The Exploratorium collects and displays local ocean and atmosphere data as a member of the Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System and as an observing station for NOAA's Pacific

  20. Rate and Predictors of the Conversion of Abstracts Presented at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress Scientific Meetings to Full Peer-Reviewed Publications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuzeid, Wael; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2013-01-01

    abstracts presented at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress (CCC) from 2006 to 2010 into peer-reviewed article publications within 2 years of their initial presentation. Using a previously validated computer algorithm, we searched the International Statistical Institute Web of Science to identify peer......The rate of conversion of abstracts presented at scientific meetings into peer-reviewed published manuscripts is an important metric for medical societies, because it facilitates translation of scientific knowledge into practice. We determined the rate and predictors of conversion of scientific...

  1. Publication rates of manuscript presentations at the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons Annual Scientific Conference between 1999 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukis, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    Publication is the ultimate desired end point of scientific research. However, oral manuscript presentations of research studies are often referenced in textbooks, journal articles, and industry white papers, and, as a result, influence treatment care plans. No data exist for the actual publication rate of podiatric foot and ankle surgery oral manuscript presentations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the actual publication rates of oral manuscript presentations at the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS) Annual Scientific Conference over 10 years. Print or electronic media for the ACFAS Annual Scientific Conference official program between 1999 and 2008 were obtained. Each year's official program was hand searched for any oral manuscript presentation, and, when identified, the title and authors were individually searched through electronic internet-based search engines to determine whether an oral manuscript presentation had been followed by publication of a full-text article. Additionally, pertinent journals were hand searched for potential articles. A total of 67.5% (139/206) oral manuscript presentations were ultimately published in 1 of 12 medical journals in a mean of 14.5 months. All journals except one (91.7%) represented peer-reviewed journals. The publication rate of oral manuscript presentations at the ACFAS Annual Scientific Conference is similar to or greater than orthopaedic subspecialties, including foot and ankle surgery, publication rates. Based on the above, attendees of the ACFAS Annual Scientific Conference should be aware that the majority of oral manuscript material presented at the ACFAS Annual Scientific Conference can be considered as accurate because they survive the rigors of the peer-review process more than two thirds of the time.

  2. Recent Themes in Social Networking Service Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, John S.; Ho, Mei Hsiu-Ching; Lu, Louis Y. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The body of literature addressing the phenomenon related to social networking services (SNSs) has grown rather fast recently. Through a systematic and quantitative approach, this study identifies the recent SNS research themes, which are the issues discussed by a coherent and growing subset of this literature. A set of academic articles retrieved from the Web of Science database is used as the basis for uncovering the recent themes. We begin the analysis by constructing a citation network which is further separated into groups after applying a widely used clustering method. The resulting clusters all consist of articles coherent in citation relationships. This study suggests eight fast growing recent themes. They span widely encompassing politics, romantic relationships, public relations, journalism, and health. Among them, four focus their issues largely on Twitter, three on Facebook, and one generally on both. While discussions on traditional issues in SNSs such as personality, motivations, self-disclosure, narcissism, etc. continue to lead the pack, the proliferation of the highlighted recent themes in the near future is very likely to happen. PMID:28107541

  3. Scientific publications in public, environmental and occupational health journals by authors from China, Japan and Korea in East Asia: A 10-year literature survey from 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meina; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    To compare the number and quality of public, environmental and occupational health articles published in international journals from the 3 major non-English speaking countries of East Asia: China, Japan and Korea. Public, environmental and occupational health articles from China, Japan and Korea that were published in 161 journals from 2003 to 2012 were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. We recorded the numbers of total articles, impact factors (IF), citations, number of articles in top 10 journals, references as well as the article distribution from various regions in China. From 2003 to 2012, China, Japan and Korea published 5713, 3802 and 1967 papers respectively, with accumulated impact factor of 14 934.55, 8758.36 and 6189.25, the average impact factor of 2.61, 2.30 and 3.15 and the average citation numbers per document of 5.08, 6.49 and 5.25. In the top 10 high-impact public, environmental and occupational health journals, China, Japan and Korea accounted for 50.19%, 20.34% and 29.47% of all the papers published in those journals, respectively. Total impact factors of the most popular 10 papers for China, Japan and Korea were: 26.23, 27.08 and 26.91. Distribution of scientific papers among regions was unbalanced in China, for Hong Kong and Taiwan it accounted for 47.31% of the papers from China. From 2003 to 2012, both the quality and number of papers from China published in public, environmental and occupational health journals have greatly improved. China exceeded Japan and Korea in the number, accumulated impact factor, total citation times and the average number of references, while Korea had the highest average impact factor. Japan had the highest journal impact factor among the most popular journals, and the highest average citation number per document. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Rate and predictors of the conversion of abstracts presented at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress scientific meetings to full peer-reviewed publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzeid, Wael; Fosbøl, Emil L; Fosbøl, Philip L; Fosbøl, Marie; Zarinehbaf, Sanaz; Ross, Heather; Ko, Dennis T; Bennell, Maria C; Wijeysundera, Harindra C

    2013-11-01

    The rate of conversion of abstracts presented at scientific meetings into peer-reviewed published manuscripts is an important metric for medical societies, because it facilitates translation of scientific knowledge into practice. We determined the rate and predictors of conversion of scientific abstracts presented at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress (CCC) from 2006 to 2010 into peer-reviewed article publications within 2 years of their initial presentation. Using a previously validated computer algorithm, we searched the International Statistical Institute Web of Science to identify peer-reviewed full manuscript publications of these abstracts. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent factors associated with successful publication. From 2006 to 2010, 3565 abstracts were presented at the CCC. Overall 24.1% of presented abstracts were published within 2 years of the conference. Mean impact factor for publications was 5.2 (range, 0.4-53.2). The type of presentation (for poster vs oral; odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.83; P publication. Late breaking abstracts and those related to cancer and clinical sciences were more likely to be published, compared with prevention, vascular biology, and pediatrics. In conclusion, the publication rate at the CCC is only marginally lower than that reported for large international North American and European cardiology conferences (30.6%). Efforts should focus on several identified barriers to improve conversion of abstracts to full report publication. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of GDP, spending on R&D, number of universities and scientific journals on research publications among Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al Masri, Abeer A; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood; Memon, Almas Naeem; Zaidi, Syed Ziauddin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the impact of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, spending on Research and Development (R&D), number of universities, and Indexed Scientific Journals on total number of research documents (papers), citations per document and Hirsch index (H-index) in various science and social science subjects among Asian countries. In this study, 40 Asian countries were included. The information regarding Asian countries, their GDP per capita, spending on R&D, total number of universities and indexed scientific journals were collected. We recorded the bibliometric indicators, including total number of research documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social sciences subjects during the period 1996-2011. The main sources for information were World Bank, SCI-mago/Scopus and Web of Science; Thomson Reuters. The mean per capita GDP for all the Asian countries is 14448.31±2854.40 US$, yearly per capita spending on R&D 0.64±0.16 US$, number of universities 72.37±18.32 and mean number of ISI indexed journal per country is 17.97±7.35. The mean of research documents published in various science and social science subjects among all the Asian countries during the period 1996-2011 is 158086.92±69204.09; citations per document 8.67±0.48; and H-index 122.8±19.21. Spending on R&D, number of universities and indexed journals have a positive correlation with number of published documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social science subjects. However, there was no association between the per capita GDP and research outcomes. The Asian countries who spend more on R&D have a large number of universities and scientific indexed journals produced more in research outcomes including total number of research publication, citations per documents and H-index in various science and social science subjects.

  6. Impact of GDP, spending on R&D, number of universities and scientific journals on research publications among Asian countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the impact of Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita, spending on Research and Development (R&D, number of universities, and Indexed Scientific Journals on total number of research documents (papers, citations per document and Hirsch index (H-index in various science and social science subjects among Asian countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 40 Asian countries were included. The information regarding Asian countries, their GDP per capita, spending on R&D, total number of universities and indexed scientific journals were collected. We recorded the bibliometric indicators, including total number of research documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social sciences subjects during the period 1996-2011. The main sources for information were World Bank, SCI-mago/Scopus and Web of Science; Thomson Reuters. RESULTS: The mean per capita GDP for all the Asian countries is 14448.31±2854.40 US$, yearly per capita spending on R&D 0.64±0.16 US$, number of universities 72.37±18.32 and mean number of ISI indexed journal per country is 17.97±7.35. The mean of research documents published in various science and social science subjects among all the Asian countries during the period 1996-2011 is 158086.92±69204.09; citations per document 8.67±0.48; and H-index 122.8±19.21. Spending on R&D, number of universities and indexed journals have a positive correlation with number of published documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social science subjects. However, there was no association between the per capita GDP and research outcomes. CONCLUSION: The Asian countries who spend more on R&D have a large number of universities and scientific indexed journals produced more in research outcomes including total number of research publication, citations per documents and H-index in various science and social science subjects.

  7. Oral health in the agenda of priorities in public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Bastos, João Luiz; Frazão, Paulo; Narvai, Paulo Capel; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes the scientific production on oral health diffused in Revista de Saúde Pública, in the 50 years of its publication. A narrative review study was carried out using PubMed, as it is the search database that indexes all issues of the journal. From 1967 to 2015, 162 manuscripts specifically focused on oral health themes were published. This theme was present in all volumes of the journal, with increasing participation over the years. Dental caries was the most studied theme, constantly present in the journal since its first issue. Periodontal disease, fluorosis, malocclusions, and other themes emerged even before the decline of dental caries indicators. Oral health policy is the most recurring theme in the last two decades. Revista de Saúde Pública has been an important vehicle for dissemination, communication, and reflection on oral health, contributing in a relevant way to the technical-scientific interaction between professionals in this field. PMID:27598787

  8. Oral health in the agenda of priorities in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes the scientific production on oral health diffused in Revista de Saúde Pública, in the 50 years of its publication. A narrative review study was carried out using PubMed, as it is the search database that indexes all issues of the journal. From 1967 to 2015, 162 manuscripts specifically focused on oral health themes were published. This theme was present in all volumes of the journal, with increasing participation over the years. Dental caries was the most studied theme, constantly present in the journal since its first issue. Periodontal disease, fluorosis, malocclusions, and other themes emerged even before the decline of dental caries indicators. Oral health policy is the most recurring theme in the last two decades. Revista de Saúde Pública has been an important vehicle for dissemination, communication, and reflection on oral health, contributing in a relevant way to the technical-scientific interaction between professionals in this field.

  9. The Puerto Rico Journal of Public Health and Tropical Medicine (1925-1950): From a Health Department Bulletin to a UPR School of Tropical Medicine Scientific Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Santana, Raúl

    2016-12-01

    This essay presents a history of the scientific journal of the University of Puerto Rico, School of Tropical Medicine (STM) under the auspices of Columbia University: The Puerto Rico Journal of Public Health and Tropical Medicine. This is the third article in a historical series about the STM, and includes supporting information relevant to the forthcoming articles on the school's scientific endeavors. This article is conceived as a history from the perspective of the literature of journal genre in the field of tropical medicine. The STM scientific journal, precursor of the Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal, had five main stages. First (1925-1927), originated as an official bulletin of the Health Department (Porto Rico Health Review). Second (1927-1929), became a project of mutual collaboration between the Health Department and the STM, and the publication's title reflected the fields of public health and tropical medicine. Third (1929-1932), acquired a scientific focus as it changed to a quarterly science publication. Fourth (1932-1942), became a fully bilingual journal and acquired its definitive name. Fifth (1942-1950), the final phase in which the first Puerto Rican Director became the principal editor until the Journal's dissolution. The analysis of authorship and the content analysis of the topics of diseases, public health and basic sciences, clarify the history of tropical medicine during the first half of the 20th century in Puerto Rico. The article highlights major symbolic events that delve into the understanding of a collaborative exemplar of the modernity of medical science.

  10. Toward executable scientific publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Strijkers; R. Cushing; D. Vasyunin; C. de Laat; A.S.Z. Belloum; R. Meijer

    2011-01-01

    Reproducibility of experiments is considered as one of the main principles of the scientific method. Recent developments in data and computation intensive science, i.e. e-Science, and state of the art in Cloud computing provide the necessary components to preserve data sets and re-run code and softwa

  11. Creation of meanings on the theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Borges

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Investments in policies for science teachers, as well as their adaptation to new realities and technologies are essential, since the teacher is the key to changing mindsets and attitudes of their students. Thus, conceptual discussions are proposed between chemistry teachers in a virtual environment on the Moodle platform on topics previously chosen by the education teacher. The objective is to analyze the process of creating meanings of participants of the forum on the theme "nature of science." It was noticed that new media can help building students' knowledge and motivate them to expand their research and scientific readings; however, rules must be preestablished so that a real interaction and mediation could occur. Initiatives like these are useful for the understanding of scientific and technical fields, and may also facilitate communication and interaction between teachers and students.

  12. Meaningful public participation in scientific research: How to build an effective site-based long-term education program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, L.

    2013-12-01

    Many site-based educators (Wildlife Refuges, nature centers, Cooperative Extension Programs, schools, arboretums) struggle with developing and implementing cohesive long-term scientific monitoring projects into their existing outreach programming. Moreover, projects that are not meaningful to participants often have little or no sustainable long-term impact. Programs proven most effective are those which 1.) engage the participants in the study design and implementation process, 2.) answer a scientific question posed by site leaders; the data collected supports USA-NPN efforts as well as related site management and monitoring questions, 3.) are built into existing outreach and education programs, using phenology as a lens for understanding both natural and cultural history, and 4.) consistently share outcomes and results with the participants. The USA National Phenology Network's (USA-NPN) Education Program provides phenology curriculum and outreach to educators in formal, non-formal, and informal settings. Materials are designed to serve participants in grades 5-12, higher education, and adult learners. Phenology, used as a lens for place-based education, can inform science, environmental, and climate literacy, as well as other subject areas including cultural studies, art, and language arts. The USA-NPN offers consultation with site leaders on how to successfully engage site-based volunteers and students in long-term phenological studies using Nature's Notebook (NN), the professional and citizen science phenology monitoring program. USA-NPN education and educator instruction materials are designed and field-tested to demonstrate how to implement a long-term NN phenology-monitoring program at such sites. These curricula incorporate monitoring for public visitors, long-term volunteers, and school groups, while meeting the goals of USA-NPN and the site, and can be used as a model for other public participation in science programs interested in achieving similar

  13. Inter-observer agreement on a checklist to evaluate scientific publications in the field of animal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, Céline; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Arlt, Sebastian P

    2012-01-01

    This study's objective was to determine respondents' inter-observer agreement on a detailed checklist to evaluate three exemplars (one case report, one randomized controlled study without blinding, and one blinded, randomized controlled study) of the scientific literature in the field of bovine reproduction. Fourteen international scientists in the field of animal reproduction were provided with the three articles, three copies of the checklist, and a supplementary explanation. Overall, 13 responded to more than 90% of the items. Overall repeatability between respondents using Fleiss's κ was 0.35 (fair agreement). Combining the "strongly agree" and "agree" responses and the "strongly disagree" and "disagree" responses increased κ to 0.49 (moderate agreement). Evaluation of information given in the three articles on housing of the animals (35% identical answers) and preconditions or pretreatments (42%) varied widely. Even though the overall repeatability was fair, repeatability concerning the important categories was high (e.g., level of agreement=98%). Our data show that the checklist is a reasonable and practical supporting tool to assess the quality of publications. Therefore, it may be used in teaching and practicing evidence-based veterinary medicine. It can support training in systematic and critical appraisal of information and in clinical decision making.

  14. Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications in transplantation journals from Mainland China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan between 2006 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Qiang-Hong; Lyu, Qiu-Ju; Su, Huai-Yu

    2016-08-03

    The aim of this study is to compare the quantity and quality of scientific publications in transplantation fields that were written by researchers from Mainland China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan in the East Asia region. East Asia. Articles except editorials, conference abstracts, letters, news and corrections published in 25 transplantation journals from 2006 to 2015 were screened with the Web of Science database. The number of total and annual articles, article types (study design and transplantation site), impact factor, citations and articles in the high-impact journals was determined to assess the quantity and quality of transplantation research from East Asia. The correlation of socioeconomic factors and annual publications was also analysed. From 2006 to 2015, there were 47 141 articles published in transplantation journals, of which researchers from Japan published 3694 articles, followed by Mainland China, South Korea and Taiwan with 2778, 1643 and 951 articles, respectively. Similar trends were observed in accumulated impact factor, accumulated citations, articles in the high-impact journals and articles on transplantation site. Publications from Japan had the highest average impact factor and citation, while those from Mainland China had the lowest. Additionally, in terms of study design, authors from Mainland China contributed to most clinical trials and randomised controlled trials, but authors from Japan contributed to most case reports. The annual numbers of articles from Mainland China and South Korea increased linearly (p<0.05), but those from Japan and Taiwan remained stable for the period studied. The annual numbers of articles from Mainland China and South Korea were positively correlated with gross domestic product (p<0.05). Transplantation research productivity in East Asia is highly skewed, with gross domestic product having a significant positive correlation. Mainland China still lags far behind Japan in most bibliometric indicators

  15. Revisiting the Environmental and Socioeconomic Effects of Population Growth: a Fundamental but Fading Issue in Modern Scientific, Public, and Political Circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Mora

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reversing ongoing declines in human welfare and biodiversity is at the core of human development. Although numerous institutions and avenues are in place to reverse such trends, there seems to be limited consideration of population growth as an ultimate driver. I review recent studies showing how the issue of population growth has been downplayed and trivialized among scientific fields, which may in part account for the reduced public interest in the issue and in turn the limited will for policy action. Different sources of evidence suggest that population growth could fundamentally affect society, nature, and the climate. Although tackling the issue of overpopulation will suffer from major impediments including scientific motivation, public scientific illiteracy, religion, and media attention, ongoing neglect of this issue will increase not only the extent of anthropogenic stressors but also the struggle associated with strategies to reverse biodiversity loss and improve human welfare.

  16. Public debates driven by incomplete scientific data: The cases of evolution theory, global warming and H1N1 pandemic influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galam, Serge

    2010-09-01

    Public debates driven by incomplete scientific data where nobody can claim absolute certainty, due to the current state of scientific knowledge, are studied. The cases of evolution theory, global warming and H1N1 pandemic influenza are investigated. The first two are of controversial impact while the third is more neutral and resolved. To adopt a cautious balanced attitude based on clear but inconclusive data appears to be a lose-out strategy. In contrast overstating arguments with incorrect claims which cannot be scientifically refuted appears to be necessary but not sufficient to eventually win a public debate. The underlying key mechanisms of these puzzling and unfortunate conclusions are identified using the Galam sequential probabilistic model of opinion dynamics (Galam, 2002 [4], Galam, 2005 [18], Galam and Jacobs, 2007 [19]). It reveals that the existence of inflexible agents and their respective proportions are the instrumental parameters to determine the faith of incomplete scientific data in public debates. Acting on one’s own inflexible proportion modifies the topology of the flow diagram, which in turn can make irrelevant initial supports. On the contrary focusing on open-minded agents may be useless given some topologies. When the evidence is not as strong as claimed, the inflexibles rather than the data are found to drive the opinion of the population. The results shed a new but disturbing light on designing adequate strategies to win a public debate.

  17. ROMANIAN PUBLICATIONS IN NOMINAL COLLECTION OF BOOKS OF V. I. GRIGOROVICH AT THE SCIENTIFIC LIBRARY OF ODESSA I. I. MECHNIKOV NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. А. Мельниченко

    2017-02-01

    from the fund of ONU Scientific library named after I. I. Mechnikov. Book publications are interesting in that printed a special font, which is typical for that time in Romania. In the personal collection are saved 5 editions. These are printed in Cyrillic and Latin fonts.

  18. Evolution of three Nobel Prize themes and a Nobel snub theme in chemistry: a bibliometric study with focus on international collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sichao; Ahlgren, Per

    2017-01-01

    In this study, three chemistry research themes closely associated with the Nobel Prize are bibliometrically analyzed-Ribozyme, Ozone and Fullerene-as well as a research theme in chemistry not associated with the Nobel Prize (a Nobel snub theme): Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation. We analyze, based on an algorithmically constructed publication-level classification system, the evolution of the four themes with respect to publication volume and international collaboration, using two datasets, one of them a subset of highly cited publications, for each considered time period. The focus of the study is on international collaboration, where co-occurrence of country names in publications is used as a proxy for international collaboration. For all four themes, especially for Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation, the publication volumes increase considerably from the earliest period to the later periods. The international collaboration rate shows an increasing trend for each theme. For Ozone, Fullerene and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation, the international collaboration rate tend to be higher for the highly cited publications compared to full datasets. With regard to the evolution of number of countries per international publication and per highly cited international publication, a vast majority of the distributions are positively skewed, with a large share of publications with two countries. With respect to the last four periods of the study, the concentration to two countries per publication is more pronounced for the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation theme compared to the three Nobel Prize themes.

  19. Complex systems approach to scientific publication and peer-review system: development of an agent-based model calibrated with empirical journal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanis, Michail; Porcher, Raphaël; Ravaud, Philippe; Trinquart, Ludovic

    Scientific peer-review and publication systems incur a huge burden in terms of costs and time. Innovative alternatives have been proposed to improve the systems, but assessing their impact in experimental studies is not feasible at a systemic level. We developed an agent-based model by adopting a unified view of peer review and publication systems and calibrating it with empirical journal data in the biomedical and life sciences. We modeled researchers, research manuscripts and scientific journals as agents. Researchers were characterized by their scientific level and resources, manuscripts by their scientific value, and journals by their reputation and acceptance or rejection thresholds. These state variables were used in submodels for various processes such as production of articles, submissions to target journals, in-house and external peer review, and resubmissions. We collected data for a sample of biomedical and life sciences journals regarding acceptance rates, resubmission patterns and total number of published articles. We adjusted submodel parameters so that the agent-based model outputs fit these empirical data. We simulated 105 journals, 25,000 researchers and 410,000 manuscripts over 10 years. A mean of 33,600 articles were published per year; 19 % of submitted manuscripts remained unpublished. The mean acceptance rate was 21 % after external peer review and rejection rate 32 % after in-house review; 15 % publications resulted from the first submission, 47 % the second submission and 20 % the third submission. All decisions in the model were mainly driven by the scientific value, whereas journal targeting and persistence in resubmission defined whether a manuscript would be published or abandoned after one or many rejections. This agent-based model may help in better understanding the determinants of the scientific publication and peer-review systems. It may also help in assessing and identifying the most promising alternative systems of peer

  20. Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of chromium in food and drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available EFSA received a request from the Hellenic Food Authority for a scientific opinion on estimation of the risk to human health from the presence of chromium (Cr in food, particularly in vegetables, and Cr(VI in bottled water. The CONTAM Panel derived a TDI of 0.3 mg/kg b.w. per day for Cr(III from the lowest NOAEL identified in an NTP chronic oral toxicity study in rats. Under the assumption that all chromium in food is Cr(III, the mean and 95th percentile dietary exposure across all age groups were well below the TDI and therefore does not raise concerns for public health. In the case of drinking water, the Panel considered all chromium in water as Cr(VI. For non-neoplastic effects the lowest BMDL10 for diffuse epithelial hyperplasia of duodenum in female mice and the lowest BMDL05 for haematotoxicity in male rats in a 2-year NTP study were selected as reference points. The MOEs indicate that for non-neoplastic effects the current exposure levels to Cr(VI via drinking water are of no concern for public health. For neoplastic effects, the CONTAM Panel selected a lowest BMDL10 for combined adenomas and carcinomas of the mouse small intestine as the reference point. Overall, the calculated MOEs indicate low concern regarding Cr(VI intake via drinking water (water intended for human consumption and natural mineral waters for all age groups when considering the mean chronic exposure values with the exception of infants at the upper bound (UB exposure estimates. MOEs below 10 000 were calculated at the UB 95th percentile exposure estimates, particularly for ‘Infants’, ‘Toddlers’ and ‘Other children’, which were highly influenced by the relatively high occurrence values under the UB assumption. To improve the risk assessment, there is a need for data on the content of Cr(III and Cr(VI in food and drinking water.

  1. Archaeology and public perception of a trans-scientific problem; disposal of toxic wastes in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Isaac Judah

    1986-01-01

    Predicting the effects of toxic-waste disposal on the environment over periods of millenia to hundreds of millenia is a transscientific problem; that is, one not fully addressed by quantitative scientific and engineering endeavors. Archaeology is a pertinent adjunct to such predictions in several ways. First, and foremost, archaeological records demonstrate that delicate, as well as durable, objects buried in thick unsaturated zones of arid and semiarid environments may survive intact for millenia to tens of millenia. This successful preservation of Late Paleolithic to Iron Age artifacts provides independent support for the tentative favorable conclusions of earth scientists regarding the general utility of thick unsaturated zones for toxic-waste isolation. By analogy with the archaeological record, solidified toxic wastes of low solubility that are buried in arid unsaturated zones should remain isolated from the environment indefinitely; modern man presumably should be able to improve upon the techniques used by his ancestors to isolate and preserve their sacred and utilitarian objects. Second, archaeological evidence pertinent to the fate of objects buried in unsaturated zones-although qualitative in nature and subject to the limitations of arguments by analogy-is meaningful to the public and to the courts who, with some scientists and engineers, are reluctant to rely exclusively on computer-generated predictions of the effects of buried toxic wastes on the environment. Third, the archaeological record issues a warning that our descendants may intrude into our waste disposal sites and that we must therefore take special measures to minimize such entry and, if it occurs, to warn of the dangers by a variety of symbols. And fourth, archaeology provides a record of durable natural and manmade materials that may prove to be suitable for encapsulation of our wastes and from which we can construct warning markers that will last for millenia. For these four reasons

  2. Mainstream Issues of Education and Public Awareness of Space Activities and Sciences among universities and Scientific Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir

    This paper is an effort to study and analyze several constraints and issues of space technology and education that organizations other than governmental organizations face in awareness program. In recent years, advancements in technologies have made it possible for Volunteer and Technical Communities, non-government organizations, private agencies and academic research institutions to provide increasing support to space education management and emphasis on response efforts. Important cornerstones of this effort and support are the possibility to access and take advantage of satellite imagery as well as the use of other space-based technologies such as telecommunications satellites and global navigation satellite systems included in main curriculum plus the implementation of programs for use of high class sophisticated technologies used by industries to the students and researchers of non-space faring nations. The authors recognize the importance of such new methodologies for education and public Awareness. This paper demonstrates many hurdles universities and scientific institutions face including lack of access in terms of financial and technical resources for better support. A new model for coordinated private sector partnership in response to space sciences and education has been discussed. In depth analysis and techniques need to connect these pioneering communities with the space industry as well as the space governmental agencies, with special emphasis on financial constraints. The paper mandates its role to promote the use of space-based information; its established networks bringing together national institutions responsible for these space based activities, as well as other end users, and space solution experts; and its technical foundation, particularly in the area of information technologies. To help building a tighter cooperation and further understanding among all these communities, paper delivers an intensive report and solutions for future

  3. Interaction Themes in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Based on a doctoral study, the author presents a type of music therapy interaction called ‘Interaction Themes.’ These are developed from session to session and often appear in music therapy interventions with children with severe functional limitations, especially children with autism. Although...... whose expressions are often difficult to understand. This presentation describes the characteristics and functions of Interaction Themes, compares the phenomenon with music therapy case literature and delimits it in regard to other types of music therapy interaction with this client group....... the Interaction Themes are characterised by a relatively simple and self-generated content, they have an essential function because they contain the child’s and music therapist’s joint interaction history. They make up the context within which it is possible to create meaningful interaction with a client group...

  4. Interaction Themes in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Based on a doctoral study, the author presents a type of music therapy interaction called ‘Interaction Themes.’ These are developed from session to session and often appear in music therapy interventions with children with severe functional limitations, especially children with autism. Although...... whose expressions are often difficult to understand. The presented article describes the characteristics and functions of Interaction Themes, compares the phenomenon with music therapy case literature and delimits it in regard to other types of music therapy interaction with this client group....... the Interaction Themes are characterised by a relatively simple and self-generated content, they have an essential function because they contain the child’s and music therapist’s joint interaction history. They make up the context within which it is possible to create meaningful interaction with a client group...

  5. Interaction Themes in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Based on a doctoral study, the author presents a type of music therapy interaction called ‘Interaction Themes.’ These are developed from session to session and often appear in music therapy interventions with children with severe functional limitations, especially children with autism. Although...... whose expressions are often difficult to understand. The presented article describes the characteristics and functions of Interaction Themes, compares the phenomenon with music therapy case literature and delimits it in regard to other types of music therapy interaction with this client group....... the Interaction Themes are characterised by a relatively simple and self-generated content, they have an essential function because they contain the child’s and music therapist’s joint interaction history. They make up the context within which it is possible to create meaningful interaction with a client group...

  6. Interaction Themes in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Based on a doctoral study, the author presents a type of music therapy interaction called ‘Interaction Themes.’ These are developed from session to session and often appear in music therapy interventions with children with severe functional limitations, especially children with autism. Although...... whose expressions are often difficult to understand. This presentation describes the characteristics and functions of Interaction Themes, compares the phenomenon with music therapy case literature and delimits it in regard to other types of music therapy interaction with this client group....... the Interaction Themes are characterised by a relatively simple and self-generated content, they have an essential function because they contain the child’s and music therapist’s joint interaction history. They make up the context within which it is possible to create meaningful interaction with a client group...

  7. Interaction themes in music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    Based on a doctoral study, the author presents a type of music therapyinteraction called ?Interaction Themes.? These are developed fromsession to session and often appear in music therapy interventions withchildren with severe functional limitations, especially children withautism. Although...... whoseexpressions are often difficult to understand. The article describes thecharacteristics and functions of Interaction Themes, compares thephenomenon with music therapy case literature and delimits it in regardto other types of music therapy interaction with this client group. Theresults are described through...... the Interaction Themes are characterised by arelatively simple and self-generated content, they have an essentialfunction because they contain the child?s and music therapist?s jointinteraction history. They make up the context within which it ispossible to create meaningful interaction with a client group...

  8. A Comparative Study of Scientific Publications in Health Care Sciences and Services from Mainland China, Taiwan, Japan, and India (2007–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Lv

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to compare the quantity and quality of publications in health care sciences and services journals from the Chinese mainland, Taiwan, Japan, and India. Journals in this category of the Science Citation Index Expanded were included in the study. Scientific papers were retrieved from the Web of Science online database. Quality was measured according to impact factor, citation of articles, number of articles published in top 10 journals, and the 10 most popular journals by country (area. In the field of health care sciences and services, the annual incremental rates of scientific articles published from 2007 to 2014 were higher than rates of published scientific articles in all fields. Researchers from the Chinese mainland published the most original articles and reviews and had the highest accumulated impact factors, highest total article citations, and highest average citation. Publications from India had the highest average impact factor. In the field of health care sciences and services, China has made remarkable progress during the past eight years in the annual number and percentage of scientific publications. Yet, there is room for improvement in the quantity and quality of such articles.

  9. A Comparative Study of Scientific Publications in Health Care Sciences and Services from Mainland China, Taiwan, Japan, and India (2007-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yipeng; Tang, Bihan; Liu, Xu; Xue, Chen; Liu, Yuan; Kang, Peng; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-12-24

    In this study, we aimed to compare the quantity and quality of publications in health care sciences and services journals from the Chinese mainland, Taiwan, Japan, and India. Journals in this category of the Science Citation Index Expanded were included in the study. Scientific papers were retrieved from the Web of Science online database. Quality was measured according to impact factor, citation of articles, number of articles published in top 10 journals, and the 10 most popular journals by country (area). In the field of health care sciences and services, the annual incremental rates of scientific articles published from 2007 to 2014 were higher than rates of published scientific articles in all fields. Researchers from the Chinese mainland published the most original articles and reviews and had the highest accumulated impact factors, highest total article citations, and highest average citation. Publications from India had the highest average impact factor. In the field of health care sciences and services, China has made remarkable progress during the past eight years in the annual number and percentage of scientific publications. Yet, there is room for improvement in the quantity and quality of such articles.

  10. A Comparative Study of Scientific Publications in Health Care Sciences and Services from Mainland China, Taiwan, Japan, and India (2007–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yipeng; Tang, Bihan; Liu, Xu; Xue, Chen; Liu, Yuan; Kang, Peng; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the quantity and quality of publications in health care sciences and services journals from the Chinese mainland, Taiwan, Japan, and India. Journals in this category of the Science Citation Index Expanded were included in the study. Scientific papers were retrieved from the Web of Science online database. Quality was measured according to impact factor, citation of articles, number of articles published in top 10 journals, and the 10 most popular journals by country (area). In the field of health care sciences and services, the annual incremental rates of scientific articles published from 2007 to 2014 were higher than rates of published scientific articles in all fields. Researchers from the Chinese mainland published the most original articles and reviews and had the highest accumulated impact factors, highest total article citations, and highest average citation. Publications from India had the highest average impact factor. In the field of health care sciences and services, China has made remarkable progress during the past eight years in the annual number and percentage of scientific publications. Yet, there is room for improvement in the quantity and quality of such articles. PMID:26712774

  11. Rural Economy: A Geographical Distribution of Scientific Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Méndez, María; Seebacher, Alina; Diaz Puente, Jose Maria

    2015-01-01

    In the political system and in public perception, the well-functioning of economy is frequently equalled to the output of the national economy?that is, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, during the last decades, this narrow conception of economic prosperity started to erode. This paper describes the scientific discussion surrounding the topic of ?economy? in rural places, with the objective of exploring who is setting the agenda and which themes are prevalent. We examine 102 journal p...

  12. Accessing Transgenerational Themes Through Dreamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jennifer; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Proposes use of dreamwork to evoke historical patterns or transgenerational themes. Describes new variant of dreamwork which combines aspects of both gestalt and family systems therapies. Implications of therapeutic dramatization for couple therapy are suggested. Examples are included. (Author/NB)

  13. Theme: Staying Current--Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shry, Carroll L., Jr.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This theme issue on staying current in horticulture includes articles on sex equity in horticulture, Future Farmers of America, career opportunities in horticulture, staying current with your school district's needs, staying current in horticulture instruction, staying current with landscape trade associations, emphasizing the basics in vocational…

  14. Theme: A Parable on Destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlow, George; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Theme articles discuss the need for agriculture teachers to heed research in science education; describe the landscape horticulture program at Anoka (MN) High School; propose a change of curriculum objectives to ones that teach students career readiness; and describe the East Environmental Science and Agri-Business Magnet High School in Kansas…

  15. BuddyPress theme development

    CERN Document Server

    Lister, Tammie

    2013-01-01

    This book is a hands-on tutorial guide to using BuddyPress.This book is great for designers and developers who are looking to learn how to develop BuddyPress themes. It's assumed that the reader has some understanding of Wordpress and is familiar with CSS and HTML.

  16. Abiding by codes of ethics and codes of conduct imposed on members of learned and professional geoscience institutions and - a tiresome formality or a win-win for scientific and professional integrity and protection of the public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    In 2012, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) formed the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism ("TG-GGP") to bring together the expanding network of organizations around the world whose primary purpose is self-regulation of geoscience practice. An important part of TG-GGP's mission is to foster a shared understanding of aspects of professionalism relevant to individual scientists and applied practitioners working in one or more sectors of the wider geoscience profession (e.g. research, teaching, industry, geoscience communication and government service). These may be summarised as competence, ethical practice, and professional, technical and scientific accountability. Legal regimes for the oversight of registered or licensed professionals differ around the world and in many jurisdictions there is no registration or licensure with the force of law. However, principles of peer-based self-regulation universally apply. This makes professional geoscience organisations ideal settings within which geoscientists can debate and agree what society should expect of us in the range of roles we fulfil. They can provide the structures needed to best determine what expectations, in the public interest, are appropriate for us collectively to impose on each other. They can also provide the structures for the development of associated procedures necessary to identify and discipline those who do not live up to the expected standards of behaviour established by consensus between peers. Codes of Ethics (sometimes referred to as Codes of Conduct), to which all members of all major professional and/or scientific geoscience organizations are bound (whether or not they are registered or hold professional qualifications awarded by those organisations), incorporate such traditional tenets as: safeguarding the health and safety of the public, scientific integrity, and fairness. Codes also increasingly include obligations concerning welfare of the environment and

  17. Characteristics and trends in publication of scientific papers presented at the European Congress of Radiology: a comparison between 2000 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Loughborough

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine journal publication rates of scientific papers presented orally at the European Congress of Radiology (ECR 2010, with comparison of country data to ECR 2000. Methods All oral presentations from ECR 2010 were evaluated for publication between 2010 and 2014 using the MEDLINE database. Countries, collaborations, subspecialties, modalities and study design were ranked by publication percentage. Chi-square tests were used to compare publication percentages for each category of variables. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated for each country relative to the host nation, Austria. ECR 2010 country statistics were compared with analogous data from ECR 2000. Results In total, 360/840 abstracts were subsequently published (43 %. The author’s country of origin (p = 0.02, subspecialty (p = 0.02 and study design (p = 0.001 were significantly associated with subsequent publication. Switzerland, the Netherlands, France and Germany were among the top six countries by publication percentage in 2000 and 2010. In 2010, Switzerland had the highest publication rate (62 % and HR in comparison to Austria (HR 2.62 [1.31–5.25], p = 0.01. Three Asian nations increased relative publication rates over the 10-year period. Conclusion Several European nations consistently convert relatively high percentages of oral abstracts at ECR into publications, and the influence of Asian countries is increasing. Main Messages • Certain European nations consistently publish high percentages of orally presented abstracts at ECR. • The influence of several Asian countries on ECR is increasing. • Country, subspecialty and study design are significantly associated with journal publication. • Authors collaborating internationally have the highest publication rates and mean impact factors. • Among all modalities, PET-CT, MRI and CT have the highest publication percentages.

  18. Getting Healthy Scientifically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Recently,Zhao Zhixin,a Beijing-based instructor on scientific bodybuilding and public sport,was interviewed by China Youth Daily,sharing his views on how to get healthy scientifically.Edited excerpts follow:

  19. Google Earth Grand Tour Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.; Dordevic, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF TUES Type 3 project entitled "Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education (GEODE)," we are assembling a "Grand Tour" of locations on Earth and other terrestrial bodies that every geoscience student should know about and visit at least in virtual reality. Based on feedback from colleagues at previous meetings, we have identified nine Grand Tour themes: "Plates and Plumes," "Rocks and Regions," "Geology Through Time," "The Mapping Challenge*," "U.S. National Parks*," "The Magical Mystery Tour*," "Resources and Hazards," "Planets and Moons," and "Top of the Pops." Themes marked with an asterisk are most developed at this stage and will be demonstrated in real time. The Mapping Challenge invites students to trace geological contacts, measure bedding strike and dip and the plunge, trend, and facing of a fold. There is an advanced tool for modeling periclinal folds. The challenge is presented in a game-like format with an emphasis on puzzle-solving that will appeal to students regardless of gender. For the tour of U.S. national parks, we divided the most geologically important parks into four groups—Western Pacific, West Coast, Rockies, and East Coast. We are combining our own team's GigaPan imagery with imagery already available on the Internet. There is a great deal of imagery just waiting to be annotated for geological education purposes. The Magical Mystery Tour takes students to Google Streetview locations selected by instructors. Students are presented with questions or tasks and are given automatic feedback. Other themes are under development. Within each theme, we are crowd-sourcing contributions from colleagues and inviting colleagues to vote for or against proposed locations and student interactions. The GEODE team includes the authors and: Heather Almquist, Stephen Burgin, Cinzia Cervato, Gene Cooper, Paul Karabinos, Terry Pavlis, Jen Piatek, Bill Richards, Jeff Ryan, Ron Schott, Kristen St. John, and Barb Tewksbury.

  20. Spring Framework 5: Themes & Trends

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Spring Framework 5.0/5.1, scheduled for release in early/late 2017, focuses on several key themes: reactive web applications based on Reactive Streams, comprehensive support for JDK 9 and HTTP/2, as well as the latest API generations in the Enterprise Java ecosystem. This talk presents the overall story in the context of wider industry trends, highlighting Spring’s unique programming model strategy.

  1. Scientific presentations and their publication. Experience over a 10-year period in the Argentine Division of the I.A.D.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, A M; Piloni, M J; Keszler, A

    1993-01-01

    At present the "Impact Factor" developed by the Scientific Information Institute (Philadelphia), is an indicator of the quality of the journals in terms of the quality of the papers which are published. The results of odontological research which are presented and discussed at the annual meetings of the DAAIIO are proof of the quality and quantity of scientific production in this area in Argentina. Presentations are undoubtedly numerous. However, their diffusion and qualitative evaluation are of utmost importance. One way to estimate these parameters would be to monitor the ratio between number of presentations and their publication as full papers in journals with a system of referees (Ratio Publ./Pres.). With this aim in mind the presentations at DAAIIO over the 1980-1989 period were considered. Employing the author index of the DAAIIO meetings, we searched for possible publications in the Index Dental and the Index Medicus. The references were compared with the results presented to disregard publications which had not been previously presented at DAAIIO meetings. The data obtained were grouped according to subject area and Research Center. A total of 747 presentations led to 94 publications, the Publ./Pres. Ratio being 1/8 (12.5%). The ratio for each research center was the following: Univ. Buenos Aires 1/7; Natl. Univ. La Plata 1/8; Natl. Univ. Córdoba 1/15. The research groups with the highest publication ratios were Dent. Mat., Natl. Univ. La Plata 1/3; Clinical Pathol., Univ. Bs. As. 1/4; Oral Pathol., Univ. Bs. As. 1/4; Physiol. and Pharmacol., Univ. Bs. As. 1/4; Natl. Univ. Córdoba 1/7. The majority of the publications within 2 years of presentation were in English (69%). These results suggest that an acceptable number of presentations are published, particularly in the area of basic research. We should hope for an increase in the publication/presentation ratio in the future, particularly in the area of applied clinical research since publication would

  2. Temi firthiani di linguistica applicata: "Restricted Languages" e "Collocation" (Firthian Themes in Applied Linguistics: "Restricted Languages" and "Collocation")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Magda

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the importance of two Firthian themes for language teaching. The first theme, "Restricted Languages," concerns the "microlanguages" of every language (e.g., literary language, scientific, etc.). The second theme, "Collocation," shows that equivalent words in two languages rarely have the same position in both languages. (Text is in…

  3. Temi firthiani di linguistica applicata: "Restricted Languages" e "Collocation" (Firthian Themes in Applied Linguistics: "Restricted Languages" and "Collocation")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Magda

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the importance of two Firthian themes for language teaching. The first theme, "Restricted Languages," concerns the "microlanguages" of every language (e.g., literary language, scientific, etc.). The second theme, "Collocation," shows that equivalent words in two languages rarely have the same position in…

  4. Temi firthiani di linguistica applicata: "Restricted Languages" e "Collocation" (Firthian Themes in Applied Linguistics: "Restricted Languages" and "Collocation")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Magda

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the importance of two Firthian themes for language teaching. The first theme, "Restricted Languages," concerns the "microlanguages" of every language (e.g., literary language, scientific, etc.). The second theme, "Collocation," shows that equivalent words in two languages rarely have the same position in…

  5. Contemporary aesthetic forms and scientific museology (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Drioli

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of various expressive artistic forms in science centres and in interactive museums is becoming increasingly widespread. This paper proposes an interpretation of this phenomenon that emphasises how contemporary art contributes to experimentation with new forms of scientific communication. Furthermore, it examines the considerable overlap apparent between the themes addressed by contemporary artists and current scientific developments. Indeed, just as can be seen in science centres, artistic experimentation has assumed a new role: raising public awareness of what is happening around us today.

  6. Increasing Public Access to Scientific Research through Stakeholder Involvement: Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.; DeLorme, D. E.; Ruple, D.; Graham, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) has the potential to have a myriad of deleterious effects on coastal ecology and human infrastructure. Stakeholders, including managers of coastal resources, must be aware of potential consequences of SLR and adjust their plans accordingly to protect and preserve the resources under their care. Members of the public, particularly those who live or work in coastal areas, should also be informed about the results of scientific research on the effects of SLR. However, research results are frequently published in venues or formats to which resource managers and the broader public have limited access. It is imperative for scientists to move beyond traditional publication venues in order to more effectively disseminate the results of their research (Dennison, W. 2007, Estu. Coast. Shelf Sci. 77, 185). One potentially effective way to advance public access to research is to incorporate stakeholder involvement into the research project process in order to target study objectives and tailor communication products toward stakeholder needs (Lemos, M. & Morehouse, B. 2005, Glob. Env. Chg. 15, 57). However, it is important to manage communication and clarify participant expectations during this type of research (Gawith, M. et al. 2009, Glob. Env. Chg. 19, 113). This presentation describes the process being undertaken by an ongoing 5-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM), to improve accessibility and utility of scientific research results through stakeholder engagement. The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing the ecological risks from SLR along the Mississippi, Alabama and Florida Panhandle coasts, coastal habitats, and floodplains. It has incorporated stakeholder involvement throughout the research process so as to better target and tailor the emerging research products to meet resource managers' needs, as well as to facilitate eventual public dissemination of results. An

  7. Benefit Goal Oriented Information Public System of Public Financial Support for Scientific Research Project%效益目标导向的公共财政支持科研项目信息公开机制探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商兰芳

    2013-01-01

      公共财政的公益性特征与资源配置职能决定了其支出不仅要满足社会公共需要与公众公共利益,而且应当符合社会净效益最大化的原则。因此建立在公共财政支持基础上的科研项目理应将效益作为其逻辑起点与目标追求。文章针对当前公共财政支持科研项目的现实起点,指出信息公开是联结两个起点的有效实践通道,并根据当前科研项目的现状,提出构建效益指向的科研项目信息公开机制的对策建议。%Characteristics of public welfare and public finance resource allocation function determines its spending not only to meet the social public needs and the public interest, and shall conform to the principles of net social benefit maximization. Therefore based on public financial support of scientific research project would benefit as the logical starting point and objective pursuit. This article in view of the current public financial support research projects the reality of the starting point, points out that the information is connecting two starting point the effective practice of the channel, and according to the current situation of scientific research project, and puts forward constructing benefit pointing in the direction of the scientific research project of information disclosure mechanism countermeasures.

  8. What is Authorship, and What Should it Be? A Survey of Prominent Guidelines for Determining Authorship in Scientific Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.; Holland, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    Before the mid 20th century most scientific writing was solely authored (Claxton, 2005; Greene, 2007) and thus it is only relatively recently, as science has grown more complex, that the ethical and procedural issues around authorship have arisen. Fields as diverse as medicine (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, 2008), mathematics…

  9. [Gender analysis of Spanish scientific publications in the area of substance abuse in biomedicine 1999-2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Valderrama-Zurián, Juan Carlos; Navarro-Molina, Carolina; Alonso-Arroyo, Adolfo; Bolaños-Pizarro, Máxima; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Concern for encouraging gender equality makes it one of the high priority spheres of action for governments and organisations responsible for instigating scientific policies, with particular importance being placed on including the gender variable in evaluative analyses of scientific and technological activity. A comparative study was made, broken down by gender, of the scientific output of Spanish researchers with a high production in the field of substance abuse. We identified the gender of 338 authors who had published more than four different articles during the period from 1999-2004 and which were indexed in the IME/Indice Médico Español and the SCI/Science Citation Index databases, making a comparative analysis of their output and collaboration patterns, based on the gender variable. In the area of substance abuse, of those with the highest output (> 9 papers), 70% were men compared with 30% women. Among the average producers (5-9 papers), 57% of the authors identified were men and 43% women. Statistically significant differences were observed between men and women with the highest output with regard to the number of published works and those with whom they had collaborated. There is no gender equality in the area of substance abuse, particularly when considering the top researchers. It is essential to make in-depth studies that evaluate scientific output, broken down by gender, in order to adopt the necessary corrective measures to eliminate the disparity between men and women.

  10. What is Authorship, and What Should it Be? A Survey of Prominent Guidelines for Determining Authorship in Scientific Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.; Holland, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    Before the mid 20th century most scientific writing was solely authored (Claxton, 2005; Greene, 2007) and thus it is only relatively recently, as science has grown more complex, that the ethical and procedural issues around authorship have arisen. Fields as diverse as medicine (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, 2008), mathematics…

  11. Scientific papers presented at the European Congress of Radiology 2000: publication rates and characteristics during the period 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel-Dasit, Alberto [La Plana de Vila-Real Hospital, Resonancia Magnetica Section, Castellon (Spain); Marti-Bonmati, Luis [Hospital Universitario Doctor Peset, Resonancia Magnetica, Servicio de Radiologia, Valencia (Spain); Sanfeliu, Pilar [Cardenal Herrera-CEU University, Valencia (Spain); Aleixandre, Rafael [University of Valencia-CSIC, Institute of History of Science and Documentation Lopez Pinero, Valencia (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    To determine the rate at which abstracts orally presented at the ECR 2000 were published between 2000-2004, and to identify predictive factors of publication and differences between abstracts and subsequently published papers. Specific search profiles were devised to retrieve items from the Medline database. From 1020 abstracts originating from 39 countries, 479 articles (publication rate 47%) were subsequently published in 139 Medline-indexed journals, most frequently in European Radiology (14%). Country of origin statistically (P<0.0001) influences the subsequent publication of the abstract, Germany having the highest number of presentations (n=343) and derived articles (publication rate 54%). Abstracts presented by authors from the USA (n=21) had the highest publication rate (76%). Most papers were published within the first 3 years after the meeting, as original articles and in English-language journals. Both the study sample size and the first author frequently changed. Chest and cardiac studies had the highest publication rates (56%, both). In summary, abstracts presented at the ECR 2000 had a high publication rate in Medline-indexed journals. Country of origin and subspecialty of presentation appeared to influence subsequent full publication. More articles were published in European Radiology than in other journal. (orig.)

  12. Academic Entrepreneurship in France: The Promotion of Economic Returns of Public Research and Its Political and Scientific Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manifet, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    Emphasising the level of the observation of university configurations and the example of academic entrepreneurship, the author analyses the drivers of economic returns of public research in France. Based on the study of national public policy in this field since 1999 and a general survey of the paths of researchers-entrepreneurs, the article…

  13. Dominance and leadership in research activities: Collaboration between countries of differing human development is reflected through authorship order and designation as corresponding authors in scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Park, Jinseo; Huamaní, Charles; Ramos, José M

    2017-01-01

    Scientific collaboration is an important mechanism that enables the integration of the least developed countries into research activities. In the present study, we use the order of author signatures and addresses for correspondence in scientific publications as variables to analyze the interactions between countries of very high (VHHD), high (HHD), medium (MHD), and low human development (LHD). We identified all documents published between 2011 and 2015 in journals included in the Science Citation Index-Expanded categories' of Tropical Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Parasitology, and Pediatrics. We then classified the countries participating in the publications according to their Human Development Index (HDI), analyzing the international collaboration; positioning and influence of some countries over others in cooperative networks; their leadership; and the impact of the work based on the HDI and the type of collaboration. We observed a high degree of international collaboration in all the areas analyzed, in the case of both LHD and MHD countries. We identified numerous cooperative links between VHHD countries and MHD/LHD countries, reflecting the fact that cooperative links are an important mechanism for integrating research activities into the latter. The countries with large emerging economies, such as Brazil and China stand out due to the dominance they exert in the collaborations established with the United States, the UK, and other European countries. The analysis of the leadership role of the countries, measured by the frequency of lead authorships, shows limited participation by MHD/LHD countries. This reduced participation among less developed countries is further accentuated by their limited presence in the addresses for correspondence. We observed significant statistical differences in the degree of citation according to the HDI of the participating countries. The order of signatures and the address for correspondence in scientific publications are

  14. [Objective evaluation and comparison of the scientific publication from the departments of the Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris: analysis of the SIGAPS score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, J H; Faron, M; Drouin, S J; Glanard, A; Chartier-Kastler, E; Parc, Y; Rouprêt, M

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the results of the bibliometric system (SIGAPS score) of scientific publications in the Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) and to compare the scientific production among the various medical and surgical specialties of the academic hospitals of Paris. All the publications imported from Pubmed between 2006 and 2008 were included. The following data were taken into account and analysed: the hospital department of origin, the number of articles published, the number of full-time physicians, the SIGAPS score. Thirty-eight thousand, seven hundred and nine publications were included. The departments were consisted of 747 full-time practitioners 5719 (1895 Professors [33.1%], 2772 Assistant Professors [48.4%] and 1052 fellows [18.4%]). The average number of full-time practitioner by department was 7.7±6.7 (range 1-69). The average total number of articles published in a department was 51.8±49.4 (range 1-453). The average SIGAPS score was more important in medicine than in surgery (621.2±670.1 vs. 401±382.2; P=0.01) but not the average number of article per practitioner (8.1±8.3 vs. 6.6±6.2; P=0.0797). The mean number of publication by full-time practitioner was 7.9±7.8 (1-45), or an average of 2.7±2.6 for each full-time practitioner each year. Academic hospitals in Paris have a reasonably scientific output but with a mean of 2.7 articles per full-time practitioner per year. No major differences between medical and surgical disciplines were observed. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The brain seduction: the public perception of neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The increasing number of magazine covers dedicated to brain studies and the success of magazines and scientific journals entirely dedicated to brain and mind indicate a strong interest on these themes. This interest is clearly surpassing the boundaries of scientific and medical researches and applications and underlines an engagement of the general public, too. This phenomenon appears to be enhanced by the increasing number of basic researches focusing on non-health-related fMRI studies, inve...

  16. The Theme of Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua, D. K. H.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The papers in this issue of the Journal come from different industry sectors, yet there can be a common theme that ties them together. Two of the papers address explicitly the issue of risk management, while the other three may be related to it in different degrees. One of the critical factors for project success is risk identification, as determined by Chua et al. (1999. The importance of risk management cannot be overemphasized. Failure to identify crucial risk elements in a project can lead to significant project failures in terms of cost and schedule.

  17. The Theme of Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, D. K. H.

    2014-01-01

    The papers in this issue of the Journal come from different industry sectors, yet there can be a common theme that ties them together. Two of the papers address explicitly the issue of risk management, while the other three may be related to it in different degrees. One of the critical factors for project success is risk identification, as determined by Chua et al. (1999). The importance of risk management cannot be overemphasized. Failure to identify crucial risk elements in a project can le...

  18. The Lay Public's Misinterpretation of the Meaning of 'Significant': A Call for Simple yet Significant Changes in Scientific Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Tromovitch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A large national sample of U.S. adults (n > 1,000 was queried regarding their interpretation of the term significant when used in regard to scientific findings. The vast majority provided incorrect interpretations of the meaning with only 5.8% providing a reasonably correct interpretation. Most respondents who reported they hold doctoral degrees provided incorrect interpretations. Given the widespread misinterpretation of this term, scientific journals should require—not merely recommend—that all usages of the term significant be prefaced with an adjective (e.g., statistically, practically, clinically and that the meaning of statistical significance be reviewed prior to its first usage. Additionally, all claims regarding the size of a finding should be required to be supported with appropriate effect size statistics to ensure that statistical significance is not misrepresented as indicating practical significance.

  19. PyRDM: A Python-based library for automating the management and online publication of scientific software and data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian T. Jacobs

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The recomputability and reproducibility of results from scientific software requires access to both the source code and all associated input and output data. However, the full collection of these resources often does not accompany the key findings published in journal articles, thereby making it difficult or impossible for the wider scientific community to verify the correctness of a result or to build further research on it. This paper presents a new Python-based library, PyRDM, whose functionality aims to automate the process of sharing the software and data via online, citable repositories such as Figshare. The library is integrated into the workflow of an open-source computational fluid dynamics package, Fluidity, to demonstrate an example of its usage.

  20. Are some categories of scientific publication more equal than others? On the ambiguous use of the label "original work".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erren, Thomas C

    2009-03-01

    The problem addressed here is the observation that numerous people in academia attach differential value to publication category or format rather than publication contents alone. This can be formally visible in academic tenure procedures where the record of research regularly favours an imbalance of loosely called "original work" versus "other". Such practice is a recipe for the devaluation of some of the best and fine thinking and work included in "other" publications such as reviews, perspective papers, hypotheses, editorials and correspondence. In this vein, issue is taken with the label "original" being attached to "new results" from an "individual study" alone rather than being a criterion of or expectation in any, or at least many, publications beyond individual studies or experiments.

  1. Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on waterpipe (narghile, shisha, hookah) tobacco smoking during the period 2003-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Zyoud, Sa’ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Sweileh, Waleed M

    2014-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. However, the evaluation of scientific output in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking has not been studied yet. The main objectives of this study were to analyze worldwide research output in the waterpipe tobacco smoking field, and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database for over a decade. Methods Data from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specif...

  2. The survival of 19th-century scientific optimism: the public discourse on science in Belgium in the aftermath of the Great War (ca. 1919-1930).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onghena, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    In historiography there is a tendency to see the Great War as marking the end of scientific optimism and the period that followed the war as a time of discord. Connecting to current (inter)national historiographical debate on the question of whether the First World War meant a disruption from the pre-war period or not, this article strives to prove that faith in scientific progress still prevailed in the 1920s. This is shown through the use of Belgium as a case study, which suggests that the generally adopted cultural pessimism in the post-war years did not apply to the public rhetoric of science in this country. Diverse actors -- scientists, industrialists, politicians, the public opinion, and the military staff -- declared a confidence in science, enhanced by wartime results. Furthermore, belief in science in Belgium was not affected by public outcry over the use of mustard gas, unlike in the former belligerent countries where the gas became an unpleasant reminder of how science was used during the war. Even German science with its industrial applications remained the norm after 1918. In fact, the faith in science exhibited during the pre-war years continued to exist, at least until the 1920s, despite anti-German sentiments being voiced by many sections of Belgian society in the immediate aftermath of the war.

  3. [Bibliometric study of scientific output published by the Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health from 1997-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Valero, Javier; Casterá, Vicente Tomás; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-02-01

    To characterize the scientific output of the Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health (RPSP) as a scientific publication of reference in the public health sector in the Americas. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted based on the articles published in the RPSP from 1997-2012. Bibliometric indicators of productivity (documents published, languages, authorship, and indices of productivity and collaboration); impact (impact factor according to the SciELO Network, Journal Citation Report and SCImago); key words; and bibliographic references, their structure (document type and main nucleus of Bradford) and degree of obsolescence (Burton and Kebler half-life, and Price index), were analyzed. A total of 2 815 articles with a median of 3 authors and 2 institutions per article were published. The percentage of original research articles increased in 2008-2012 compared to 2003-2007 and 1997-2002 (P < 0.001). The predominant language was Spanish, displaced by English in the last 5 years. A total of 88.76% of the key words referred to the Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) and had a public health and community orientation related to the Americas. The Burton and Kebler half-life of bibliographic references was 8 years, although it decreased to 5 years in 2012. The Price index was 20.47% and the nucleus of Bradford was made up of 20 mainstream journals. The percentage of self-citation was low (2.07%). The RPSP is an international publication with bibliometric indicators similar to those of the most representative Latin American health science journals, with improvements in the recent years studied that lead it to fully meet international publishing criteria.

  4. "Everybody knows psychology is not a real science": Public perceptions of psychology and how we can improve our relationship with policymakers, the scientific community, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Underdeveloped Themes in Qualitative Research: Relationship With Interviews and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Lynne M; Peltzer, Jill N

    2016-01-01

    In this methodological article, the authors address the problem of underdeveloped themes in qualitative studies they have reviewed. Various possible reasons for underdeveloped themes are examined, and suggestions offered. Each problem area is explored, and literature support is provided. The suggestions that are offered are supported by the literature as well. The problem with underdeveloped themes in certain articles is related to 3 interconnected issues: (a) lack of clear relationship to the underlying research method, (b) an apparent lack of depth in interviewing techniques, and (c) lack of depth in the analysis. Underdeveloped themes in a qualitative study can lead to a lack of substantive findings that have meaningful implications for practice, research, and the nursing profession, as well as the rejection of articles for publication. Fully developed themes require knowledge about the paradigm of qualitative research, the methodology that is proposed, the effective techniques of interviewing that can produce rich data with examples and experiences, and analysis that goes beyond superficial reporting of what the participants have said. Analytic problem areas include premature closure, anxiety about how to analyze, and confusion about categories and themes. Effective qualitative research takes time and effort and is not as easy as is sometimes presumed. The usefulness of findings depends on researchers improving their research skills and practices. Increasingly researchers are using qualitative research to explore clinically important issues. As consumers of research or members of a research team, clinical nurse specialists need to understand the nature of this research that can provide in-depth insight and meaning.

  6. Some aspects of public associations’ participation in implementing public control at municipal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Gornev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to clarify the status of public associations as subjects of public control and to analyze the problems of participation of citizens 39 associations in conducting public expertise and public audits. Methods the methodology of research includes general scientific methods such as dialectic method. Specific jurisprudence methods of scientific cognition have also been used. Systematic method was used for the analysis of forms of public control by citizens39 associations at the municipal level. The principle of scientific objectivity has allowed for a comprehensive and objective analysis of the factual material the totality of factors affecting the interaction of public associations with local authorities in the implementation of public control. The formallegal method allowed to analyze the normativelegal acts to reveal the signs of fixing of such public control forms as public expertise and public audit. In the present study other research methods were also applied allowing to study the theme in detail. Results the study identified the lack of legal regulation of the legal status of public associations as subjects of public control as well as some forms of public control. The additions to the list of subjects of public control by public associations were proposed as well as improvements in the implementation of public expertise and public audit by the citizens39 associations as forms of social control. Scientific novelty the author found a lack of regulation of public associationsrsquo participation in some forms of social control and justified proposals for their improvement from a scientific point of view. Practical significance the possibility to apply the research results in legislative activity aimed at improving the provisions of the Federal Laws quotOn fundamentals of public control in the Russian Federationquot and quotOn the general principles of local selfgovernment organization in the Russian Federationquot. In addition the

  7. Scientific opinion on the risks for public health related to the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and TTX analogues in marine bivalves and gastropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues are produced by marine bacteria and have been detected in marine bivalves and gastropods from European waters. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of TTX and TTX analogues in marine......, based on a large portion size of 400 g, was considered not to result in adverse effects in humans. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC–MS/MS) methods are the most suitable for identification and quantification of TTX and its analogues, with LOQs between 0.1 and 25 μg/kg....

  8. Scientific publications in critical care medicine journals from East Asia: A 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhenyu; Ou, Chongyang; Teng, Hongfei; Liu, Xiguang; Tang, Hongxin

    2016-01-01

    The quantity and quality of publications in critical care medicine from East Asia haven't been reported. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of publications from East Asia. Articles from China, Japan and South Korea in 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from Web of Science and Pubmed. The number of publications, impact factor, citation, and article types were analyzed. There were 3076 publications from East Asia (1720 from China, 913 from Japan, and 443 from South Korea). There were a significant decrease in publications from Japan (p = 0.024) and significant increases from China (p = 0.000) and South Korea (p = 0.009). From 2006, the number of articles from China exceed Japan. China had the highest total impact factor (6618.48) and citation (18416), followed by Japan (4566.03; 15440) and South Korea (1998.19; 5599). Japan had the highest mean impact factor (5.00) and citations (16.91), followed by South Korea (4.51; 12.64) and China (3.85; 10.71). China and South Korea`s contributions to critical care medicine had significant increases during the past 10 years, while Japan had a significant decrease. China was the most productive region in East Asia since 2006. Japan had the highest quality research output.

  9. Making Data a First Class Scientific Output: Data Citation and Publication by NERC’s Environmental Data Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Callaghan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The NERC Science Information Strategy Data Citation and Publication project aims to develop and formalise a method for formally citing and publishing the datasets stored in its environmental data centres. It is believed that this will act as an incentive for scientists, who often invest a great deal of effort in creating datasets, to submit their data to a suitable data repository where it can properly be archived and curated. Data citation and publication will also provide a mechanism for data producers to receive credit for their work, thereby encouraging them to share their data more freely.

  10. Fomento à publicação científica e proteção do conhecimento científico Financing of the scientific publication and protection of the scientific knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Santos de Oliveira Filho

    2005-01-01

    tecnológicas, no Brasil ou no exterior, para apresentação de trabalho de sua autoria, não publicado, que exponha resultados inéditos. O Brasil vem aumentando sua participação nas publicações científicas internacionais. A nova realidade exige, além da publicação, uma preocupação com a proteção do conhecimento. A mudança da cultura da publicação para a da publicação com proteção do conhecimento é recente no país, tanto por parte das empresas, dos institutos de pesquisa, das universidades como das agências de fomento à pesquisa. Os pesquisadores devem-se conscientizar da necessidade de proteção do conhecimento e as agências de fomento considerar, como critérios de avaliação de produtividade científica, um peso mais equilibrado entre as publicações científicas, os resultados patenteáveis e o know how.The main purpose of a study is its publication on a scientific journal. Research financing agencies are important institutions so that studies can be developed and published. The most important research financing agencies that are discussed in this article are: "Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior" (CAPES, "Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico" (CNPq and "Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo" (FAPESP. CAPES' activities can be grouped in four different strategy lines: a it evaluates the stricto sensu, at the post-graduation level; b it provides access and development of scientific research; c it provides investment on the development of high qualified human resources in Brazil and abroad, and d it promotes international scientific cooperation. Although CAPES does not support directly scientific publications, almost all actions of this agency contribute to the development of scientific research and publication. CNPq has two main purposes: financing researches and development of human resources. It provides the researchers with financial aid to scientific publication

  11. Sea otters in captivity: applications and implications of husbandry development, public display, scientific research and management, and rescue and rehabilitation for sea otter conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanblaricom, Glenn R.; Belting, Traci F.; Triggs, Lisa H.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sea otters in captivity began in 1932, producing important insights for conservation. Soviet (initiated in 1932) and United States (1951) studies provided information on captive otter husbandry, setting the stage for eventual large-scale translocations as tools for population restoration. Early studies also informed effective housing of animals in zoos and aquaria, with sea otters first publicly displayed in 1954. Surveys credited displayed otters in convincing the public of conservation values. After early studies, initial scientific data for captive sea otters in aquaria came from work initiated in 1956, and from dedicated research facilities beginning in 1968. Significant achievements have been made in studies of behavior, physiology, reproduction, and high-priority management issues. Larger-scale projects involving translocation and oil spill response provided extensive insights into stress reactions, water quality issues in captivity, and effects of oil spills.

  12. "What is Authorship, and What Should it Be? A Survey of Prominent Guidelines for Determining Authorship in Scientific Publications"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Osborne

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Before the mid 20th century most scientific writing was solely authored (Claxton, 2005; Greene, 2007 and thus it is only relatively recently, as science has grown more complex, that the ethical and procedural issues around authorship have arisen. Fields as diverse as medicine (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, 2008, mathematics (e.g., American Statistical Association, 1999, the physical sciences (e.g., American Chemical Society, 2006, and the social sciences (e.g., American Psychological Association, 2002 have, in recent years, wrestled with what constitutes authorship and how to eliminate problematic practices such as honorary authorship and ghost authorship (e.g., Anonymous, 2004; Claxton, 2005; Manton & English, 2008. As authorship is the coin of the realm in academia (Louis, Holdsworth, Anderson, & Campbell, 2008, it is an ethical issue of singular importance. The goal of this paper is to review prominent and diverse guidelines concerning scientific authorship and to attempt to synthesize existing guidelines into recommendations that represent ethical practices for ensuring credit where (and only where credit is due.

  13. The evolution of peer review as a basis for scientific publication: directional selection towards a robust discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Catarina; Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Bennett, Amanda M; Ellington, E Hance; Terwissen, Christine; Austin, Cayla; Borlestean, Adrian; Boudreau, Melanie R; Chan, Kevin; Forsythe, Adrian; Hossie, Thomas J; Landolt, Kristen; Longhi, Jessica; Otis, Josée-Anne; Peers, Michael J L; Rae, Jason; Seguin, Jacob; Watt, Cristen; Wehtje, Morgan; Murray, Dennis L

    2016-08-01

    Peer review is pivotal to science and academia, as it represents a widely accepted strategy for ensuring quality control in scientific research. Yet, the peer-review system is poorly adapted to recent changes in the discipline and current societal needs. We provide historical context for the cultural lag that governs peer review that has eventually led to the system's current structural weaknesses (voluntary review, unstandardized review criteria, decentralized process). We argue that some current attempts to upgrade or otherwise modify the peer-review system are merely sticking-plaster solutions to these fundamental flaws, and therefore are unlikely to resolve them in the long term. We claim that for peer review to be relevant, effective, and contemporary with today's publishing demands across scientific disciplines, its main components need to be redesigned. We propose directional changes that are likely to improve the quality, rigour, and timeliness of peer review, and thereby ensure that this critical process serves the community it was created for.

  14. Ciência & Saúde coletiva Journal at the national and international context of scientific communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Gomes, Romeu

    2015-07-01

    The article discusses the role of the Ciência & Saúde Coletiva Journal in the dissemination of knowledge in Brazil and in the international scientific community, its new challenges and role in the consolidation of the national public health field. Its history is outlined, positioning it as a scientific journal and the themes approached in it are analyzed. Among the findings, it is emphasized that the journal features a structured space by the habitus of public health, and creates its own habitus that contributes to structure this field. In addition, the journal contributes to the development of critical mass in the area and is committed to the Brazilian Public Health System.

  15. Quality and quantity of research publications by Iranian neurosurgeons: Signs of scientific progress over the past decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Marjan; Taslimi, Shervin; Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2013-01-01

    This is an analysis of papers published by Iranian neurosurgeons while working in Iran until the year 2010. We collected bibliometric data and assigned a level of evidence (LOE) for each paper and compared neurosurgical research productivity across three time periods (before 1990, between 1991 and 2000, and after 2000). For further illustration, the annual growth rates of Iranian publications were calculated for all papers published after 1995. We found a total of 1196 papers by 422 Iranian neurosurgeons. Five authors accounted for 22.9% of the papers. The average number of authors for each published manuscript was 3.48 and increased significantly from 2.0 to 4.0 across the three investigated periods (P publications, respectively. The proportion of case reports decreased while the proportion of original articles increased across the three time periods (P publications, original articles, case reports, clinical trials, and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were 14.4%, 16.6%, 10.7%, 13.46%, and 14.7% per year, respectively. Overall, the four most frequently investigated topics were spine (27.3%), trauma (22.3%), tumor (19.1%), and vascular diseases (13.5%). The mean impact factor for journals publishing these studies and average number of citations for each paper (obtained from web of science) were found to be 1.2 and 5.46, respectively. A partitioning of these publications into assigned categories reflecting the LOE of each paper yielded the following LOE distribution for all assessed publications: Ib: 6.02%, Ic: 0.3%, IIa: 0.2%, IIb: 5.4%, IIc: 0.41%, IIIb: 4.8%, IV: 22.5%, and V: 1.2%. The relative number of publications categorized into higher LOE classes increased over the three investigated periods (P = 0.003). Based on growth curve model, the rate of increase in total numbers of publications following each position change from nonuniversity affiliated neurosurgeon to university affiliated and from university affiliated neurosurgeon to chairman university

  16. Scientific publications in nephrology and urology journals from Chinese authors in East Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diseases of the kidneys and genitourinary tract are common health problems that affect people of all ages and demographic backgrounds. In this study, we compared the quantity and quality of nephrological and urological articles published in international journals from the three major regions of China: the mainland (ML, Hong Kong (HK, and Taiwan (TW. METHODS: Nephrological and urological articles originating from ML, TW, and HK that were published in 61 journals from 1999-2008 were retrieved from the PubMed database. We recorded the numbers of total articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, case reports, impact factors (IF, citations, and articles published in the leading general-medicine journals. We used these data to compare the quantity and quality of publication output from the three regions. RESULTS: The total number of articles increased significantly from 1999 to 2008 in the three regions. The number of articles from ML has exceeded that from HK since 2004, and surpassed that from TW in 2008. Publications from TW had the highest accumulated IF, total citations of articles, and the most articles published in leading general-medicine journals. However, HK publications had the highest average IF. Although ML produced the largest quantity of articles, it exhibited the lowest quality among the three regions. CONCLUSION: The number of nephrological and urological publications originating from the three major regions of China increased significantly from 1999 to 2008. The annual number of publications by ML researchers exceeded those from TW and HK. However, the quality of articles from TW and HK was higher than that from ML.

  17. Scientific publications in ophthalmic journals from China and other top-ranking countries: a 12-year review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenbin; Wang, Wei; Zhan, Jiao; Zhou, Minwen; Chen, Shida; Zhang, Xiulan

    2013-06-26

    Eye diseases with increasing mortality are common health problems that affect people of all ages and demographic backgrounds. In this study, we study the publication characteristics in international ophthalmic journals of the US, the UK, Germany, Australia, Japan, and China. Articles published in 53 ophthalmic journals from 2000 to 2011 were retrieved from the PubMed database. We recorded the number of articles published each year, analyzed the publication type, and evaluated the accumulated and average impact factors (IFs), and the distribution of articles in ophthalmic journals in relation to IFs. The characteristics of publication outputs from China and other top-ranking countries were compared. The total number of articles increased significantly during the past 12 years, with an increase of 51.0%. The growth in the annual number of articles from the US, the UK, Australia, and China showed a significantly positive trend. Publications from the US exceeded those from any other country and had the highest IFs, largest number of total citations of articles, and the most articles published in leading ophthalmic journals. During the past 12 years, China contributed 3.5% of the total publications, and the number of Chinese articles showed a more than 6-fold increase (from 99 to 605, R2 =0.947, P<0.001). The numbers of IFs and citations of articles originating in China were mostly lower than for other top-ranking counties. Research on ophthalmic journals has maintained an upward growing trend from 2000 to 2011. Chinese ophthalmology research has developed rapidly, but the gap still exists between China and other top-ranking countries for the advanced level of research.

  18. Judging a plethora of p-values: how to contend with the problem of multiple testing--part 10 of a series on evaluation of scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Anja; Elsässer, Amelie; Hommel, Gerhard; Blettner, Maria

    2010-01-01

    When reading reports of medical research findings, one is usually confronted with p-values. Publications typically contain not just one p-value, but an abundance of them, mostly accompanied by the word "significant." This article is intended to help readers understand the problem of multiple p-values and how to deal with it. When multiple p-values appear in a single study, this is usually a problem of multiple testing. A number of valid approaches are presented for dealing with the problem. This article is based on classical statistical methods as presented in many textbooks and on selected specialized literature. Conclusions from publications with many "significant" results should be judged with caution if the authors have not taken adequate steps to correct for multiple testing. Researchers should define the goal of their study clearly at the outset and, if possible, define a single primary endpoint a priori. If the study is of an exploratory or hypothesis-generating nature, it should be clearly stated that any positive results might be due to chance and will need to be confirmed in further targeted studies. It is recommended that the word "significant" be used and interpreted with care. Readers should assess articles critically with regard to the problem of multiple testing. Authors should state the number of tests that were performed. Scientific articles should be judged on their scientific merit rather than by the number of times they contain the word "significant."

  19. [The scientific support of public health institutions with the technology for the sociomedical assessment of the health of miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobets, G P; Zinger, F Kh; Kal'ianov, A V; Gadzhiev, G P

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of the scientific research activities of the Donetsk Research Centre of Occupational Hygiene and Prevention of Traumatism was carried out, which offered a basis for the development of technology for medicosocial assessment of morbidity involving temporary unfitness for work, occupational morbidity, invalidism and mortality among coal miners, risk for development of nonoccupational and occupational diseases, prevalence of IHD and other non-infectious diseases, functional status of the organism according to psychophysiological indices for those going to work in the mine, as well as of the state of undue fatigue and overstrain experienced by the miners. The analysis permits the above technology to be inaugurated in the health care establishments and research institutes.

  20. Recognizing scientific artifacts in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groza, Tudor; Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Hunter, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Today's search engines and digital libraries offer little or no support for discovering those scientific artifacts (hypotheses, supporting/contradicting statements, or findings) that form the core of scientific written communication. Consequently, we currently have no means of identifying central themes within a domain or to detect gaps between accepted knowledge and newly emerging knowledge as a means for tracking the evolution of hypotheses from incipient phases to maturity or decline. We present a hybrid Machine Learning approach using an ensemble of four classifiers, for recognizing scientific artifacts (ie, hypotheses, background, motivation, objectives, and findings) within biomedical research publications, as a precursory step to the general goal of automatically creating argumentative discourse networks that span across multiple publications. The performance achieved by the classifiers ranges from 15.30% to 78.39%, subject to the target class. The set of features used for classification has led to promising results. Furthermore, their use strictly in a local, publication scope, ie, without aggregating corpus-wide statistics, increases the versatility of the ensemble of classifiers and enables its direct applicability without the necessity of re-training.

  1. TRANSFORMATION OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN WESTERN SIBERIA WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE “THAW” DURING LATE 1950s-EARLY 1960s BASED ON MATERIALS OF REGIONAL TRADE UNIONS, PUBLIC ENGINEERING ORGANIZATIONS, AND TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Николаевич Першиков

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the changes in the structure, personnel, and areas of practical activity of the trade unions, public engineering organizations and technical and scientific societies in the West Siberian region during late 1950s – early 1960s. The impact of national and regional factors on the transformation content, character, and results is investigated.Objective Analyze the transformation process of public organizations in Western Siberia during late 1950s-early 1960s, revel the characteristic trends and regional specific features.Method or methodology of the study: problem and chronological method, historical-and-systematic method, statistical method.Results: it was established that public organizations experienced certain changes, lost the dependence on government  institutions,  enlarged the area of  activity, but they complementely remained in the field of the party control and operations, did not aquire the proper self-reliance and independence of practical actions.Results application scope: scientific research and preparation of training in the field of historical knowledge.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-29

  2. Scientific publication in orthopedics journals from Chinese authors: a survey of 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Chenglong; Chu, Jianjun; Yang, Cheng; Kong, Jinhai; Sun, Zhengwang; Xiao, Hui; Liu, Tielong; Xiao, Jianru

    2015-08-01

    In the scientific community, a scientist's productivity is usually measured by his scientific output. The productivity of a group, an institution or, on a larger scale, a country can be assessed in similar manner. This study aims to show the contribution of Chinese authors to orthopedics research, from three major regions, namely Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Articles published in 63 orthopedics journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong from 2003 to 2012 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Journal Citation Report. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted for the total number of articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trails, case reports, impact factors (IF), citations, and articles published in high-impact journals. There were totally 3473 articles from Mainland China (1859), Taiwan (1111), and Hong Kong (503) from 2003 to 2012, showing gradual increase from 2003 to 2012. From 2006 onward, the number of published articles from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong and exceeded that from Taiwan in 2008. The accumulated IF of articles from Mainland China (3746.21) was higher than that from Taiwan (2466.74) and that from Hong Kong (1089.35). However, Taiwan witnessed the highest mean IF (2.22), followed by Hong Kong (2.17), and Mainland China (2.02). Hong Kong displayed the highest mean citations of each article (9.35), followed by Taiwan (9.12), and Mainland China (5.71). By contract, Spine was the most popular journal to choose in these three regions. The total number of orthopedics articles in China increased markedly from 2003 to 2012. Of the three regions, Mainland China published the most articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trails, and case reports. In general, Spine was the most popular journal to choose in the three regions.

  3. [Scientific publications of Costa Rica in Science Citation Index bibliometric analysis of the period 1999-2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno; Ainsworth, Shirley

    2002-01-01

    This study analyzed the publications of authors from Costa Rican institutions that were included in the Science Citation Index (SCI) during 1999-2001. Out of the 722 references detected, distributed in 328 journals, 90.7% corresponded to original research articles. The total productivity figures showed a moderately increasing trend, both in absolute and population-adjusted terms, in concordance with previous data recorded for the period 1980-1998. The contribution of Revista de Biología Tropical to these figures corresponded to 10.0%, 8.9%, and 19.1%, for the years 1999, 2000, and 2001, respectively. The subject distribution of articles followed a similar pattern to that described for 1980-1998, with a predominance of biomedical (33.3%) and biological (27.5%) sciences, followed by agronomical (15.5%) sciences, chemistry (13.6%), physics (5.0%), geological sciences (3.6%), and mathematics (1.5%). Citation analyses for individual publications (up to July 15, 2002) revealed that only 45.2% of the articles had been cited at least once. The ten most cited references were analyzed, varying from 26 to 114 citations. The average citation per article was 2.60, and the average number of authors per article was 2.92. In agreement with data from 1980-1998, the University of Costa Rica appeared as the institution with highest productivity of SCI publications during 1999-2001, with a contribution of 50.0%. The percentage of publications performed without the participation of foreign co-authors showed a change in its decreasing trend of 1980-1998, stabilizing near the range of 25-30% during the period 1999-2001.

  4. Cahit Arf: Exploring his scientific influence using social network analysis, author co-citation maps and single publication h index1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Tonta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cahit Arf (1910-1997, a famous Turkish scientist whose picture is depicted in one of the Turkish banknotes, is a well-known figure in mathematics with his discoveries named after him (e.g., Arf invariant, Arf rings, the Hasse-Arf theorem. Although Arf may not be considered as a prolific scientist in terms of number of papers (he authored a total of 23 papers, his influence on mathematics and related disciplines was profound. As he was active before, during, and after World War II, Arf′s contributions are not properly listed in citation indexes, and thus did not generate many citations even though several papers with "Arf" in their titles appeared in literature. This paper traces influence of Arf in scientific world using citation analysis techniques first. It reviews scientific impact of Arf by analyzing both; the papers authored by Arf and papers whose titles or keywords containing various combinations of "Arf invariant," "Arf rings," and so on. The paper then goes on to study Arf′s contributions using social network analysis (SNA and author co-citation analysis (ACA techniques. CiteSpace and pennant diagrams are used to explore scientific impact of Arf by mapping his cited references derived from Thomson Reuters′ Web of Science (WoS database. The direct and indirect influences of Arf′s highly cited paper on Arf invariant are assessed through ACA and single publication h index, respectively. The paper ends with a discussion of whether data analysis techniques used in this study can be useful to study scientific impact of researchers retrospectively.

  5. The locomotor system as seen in Brazilian scientific journals: a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha e Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To make recent selected publications on the locomotor system available to the readership of Clinics. METHOD: A general survey of articles published in selected Brazilian journals was inspected and 91 articles were critically analyzed. They were categorized and briefly described. A final summary of themes is reproduced here. RESULTS: Papers fall into two main categories: articular and muscular pathology and therapeutics; medical sports. A number of papers are not classifiable under these headings. CONCLUSION: The locomotor system has been extensively analyzed and discussed in the Brazilian scientific press in recent years. Not surprisingly, knee and ankle pathology, soccer and running are dominant themes.

  6. Scientific and public responses to the ongoing volcanic crisis at Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico: Importance of an effective hazards-warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Tilling, Robert I.

    2008-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions and other potentially hazardous natural phenomena occur independently of any human actions. However, such phenomena can cause disasters when a society fails to foresee the hazardous manifestations and adopt adequate measures to reduce its vulnerability. One of the causes of such a failure is the lack of a consistent perception of the changing hazards posed by an ongoing eruption, i.e., with members of the scientific community, the Civil Protection authorities and the general public having diverging notions about what is occurring and what may happen. The problem of attaining a perception of risk as uniform as possible in a population measured in millions during an evolving eruption requires searching for communication tools that can describe—as simply as possible—the relations between the level of threat posed by the volcano, and the level of response of the authorities and the public. The hazards-warning system adopted at Popocatépetl Volcano, called the Volcanic Traffic Light Alert System(VTLAS), is a basic communications protocol that translates volcano threat into seven levels of preparedness for the emergency-management authorities, but only three levels of alert for the public (color coded green–yellow–red). The changing status of the volcano threat is represented as the most likely scenarios according to the opinions of an official scientific committee analyzing all available data. The implementation of the VTLAS was intended to reduce the possibility of ambiguous interpretations of intermediate levels by the endangered population. Although the VTLAS is imperfect and has not solved all problems involved in mass communication and decision-making during a volcanic crisis, it marks a significant advance in the management of volcanic crises in Mexico.

  7. Scientific and public responses to the ongoing volcanic crisis at Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico: Importance of an effective hazards-warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Tilling, Robert I.

    2008-02-01

    Volcanic eruptions and other potentially hazardous natural phenomena occur independently of any human actions. However, such phenomena can cause disasters when a society fails to foresee the hazardous manifestations and adopt adequate measures to reduce its vulnerability. One of the causes of such a failure is the lack of a consistent perception of the changing hazards posed by an ongoing eruption, i.e., with members of the scientific community, the Civil Protection authorities and the general public having diverging notions about what is occurring and what may happen. The problem of attaining a perception of risk as uniform as possible in a population measured in millions during an evolving eruption requires searching for communication tools that can describe—as simply as possible—the relations between the level of threat posed by the volcano, and the level of response of the authorities and the public. The hazards-warning system adopted at Popocatépetl Volcano, called the Volcanic Traffic Light Alert System (VTLAS), is a basic communications protocol that translates volcano threat into seven levels of preparedness for the emergency-management authorities, but only three levels of alert for the public (color coded green-yellow-red). The changing status of the volcano threat is represented as the most likely scenarios according to the opinions of an official scientific committee analyzing all available data. The implementation of the VTLAS was intended to reduce the possibility of ambiguous interpretations of intermediate levels by the endangered population. Although the VTLAS is imperfect and has not solved all problems involved in mass communication and decision-making during a volcanic crisis, it marks a significant advance in the management of volcanic crises in Mexico.

  8. Open Access Centre at the Nature Research Centre: a facility for enhancement of scientific research, education and public outreach in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šerpenskienė, Silvija; Skridlaitė, Gražina

    2014-05-01

    Open Access Centre (OAC) was established in Vilnius, Lithuania in 2013 as a subdivision of the Nature Research Centre (NRC) operating on the principle of open access for both internal and external users. The OAC consists of 15 units, i.e. 15 NRC laboratories or their branches. Forty four sets of research equipment were purchased. The OAC cooperates with Lithuanian science and studies institutions, business sector and other governmental and public institutions. Investigations can be carried in the Geosciences, Biotaxonomy, Ecology and Molecular Research, and Ecotoxicology fields. Environmental radioactivity, radioecology, nuclear geophysics, microscopic and chemical composition of natural compounds (minerals, rocks etc.), paleomagnetic, magnetic and environmental investigations, as well as ground and water contamination by oil products and other organic environment polluting compounds, identification of fossils, rocks and minerals can be studied in the Georesearch field. Ecosystems and identification of plants, animals and microorganisms are main subjects of the Biotaxonomy, Ecology and Molecular Research field. The Ecotoxicologal Research deals with toxic and genotoxic effects of toxic substances and other sources of pollution on macro- and microorganisms and cell cultures. Open access is guaranteed by: (1) providing scientific research and experimental development services; (2) implementing joint business and science projects; (3) using facilities for the training of specialists of the highest qualifications; (4) providing properly qualified and technically trained users with opportunities to carry out their scientific research and/or experiments in the OAC laboratories by themselves. Services provided in the Open Access Centre can be received by both internal and external users: persons undertaking innovative economic activities, students of other educational institutions, interns, external teams of researchers engaged in scientific research activities, teachers

  9. Ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030: Scientific Developments from the 2016 INTEREST Conference in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Catherine A; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata; Kilmarx, Peter; Ferrari, Guido; Schechter, Mauro; Kane, Coumba Touré; Venter, François; Boucher, Charles Ab; Ross, Anna-Laura; Zewdie, Debrework; Eholié, Serge Paul; Katabira, Elly

    2017-01-01

    The underpinning theme of the 2016 INTEREST Conference held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, 3-6 May 2016 was ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. Focused primarily on HIV treatment, pathogenesis and prevention research in resource-limited settings, the conference attracted 369 active delegates from 34 countries, of which 22 were in Africa. Presentations on treatment optimization, acquired drug resistance, care of children and adolescents, laboratory monitoring and diagnostics, implementation challenges, HIV prevention, key populations, vaccine and cure, hepatitis C, mHealth, financing the HIV response and emerging pathogens, were accompanied by oral, mini-oral and poster presentations. Spirited plenary debates on the UNAIDS 90-90-90 treatment cascade goal and on antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis took place. Joep Lange career guidance sessions and grantspersonship sessions attracted early career researchers. At the closing ceremony, the Yaoundé Declaration called on African governments; UNAIDS; development, bilateral, and multilateral partners; and civil society to adopt urgent and sustained approaches to end HIV by 2030.

  10. A Secure Web Application Providing Public Access to High-Performance Data Intensive Scientific Resources - ScalaBLAST Web Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Darren S.; Peterson, Elena S.; Oehmen, Chris S.

    2008-05-04

    This work presents the ScalaBLAST Web Application (SWA), a web based application implemented using the PHP script language, MySQL DBMS, and Apache web server under a GNU/Linux platform. SWA is an application built as part of the Data Intensive Computer for Complex Biological Systems (DICCBS) project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). SWA delivers accelerated throughput of bioinformatics analysis via high-performance computing through a convenient, easy-to-use web interface. This approach greatly enhances emerging fields of study in biology such as ontology-based homology, and multiple whole genome comparisons which, in the absence of a tool like SWA, require a heroic effort to overcome the computational bottleneck associated with genome analysis. The current version of SWA includes a user account management system, a web based user interface, and a backend process that generates the files necessary for the Internet scientific community to submit a ScalaBLAST parallel processing job on a dedicated cluster.

  11. [The theme as intersubjectivity possibility -- the choice of the nursing journal: text and context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza; da Silva, Denise Maria Guerreiro Vieira

    2002-01-01

    The present study is a descriptive and exploratory research which has as its objective accomplishing a critical analysis of the magazine "Texto e Contexto-Enfermagem" (Nursing--Text and Context), as a thematic option. Eighteen issues of the magazine, published between 1992 and 2000, were analyzed. Two instruments were used to evaluate the inter-relation of the themes with the lines of research of the Post Graduation Program of Nursing in the Federal University of Santa Catarina (PEN/UFSC) in Brazil; the type of articles published; and the origin and profile of the authors of the magazine. It was verified that: the themes in the magazine are linked to the lines of research of PEN/UFSC; the average of articles published per issue is 23.88%; the majority of the articles are reflections and researches; most of the authors have a masters or doctors degree and do not teach at UFSC; and the rejection rate of the articles was 11.86%. The magazine bears most of the essential and complementary criteria established by CAPES and has great acceptance of among the Brazilian scientific community, since it brought a new dimension to the health care publications.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the risk for public and animal health related to the presence of sterigmatocystin in food and feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on sterigmatocystin (STC in food and feed. STC is a polyketide mycotoxin that shares its biosynthetic pathway with aflatoxins. Following an EFSA call for data, analytical results from 247 food and 334 feed samples were submitted. In food, analytical results on STC were reported to be all below the limit of detection or limit of quantification. In feed, only four quantified results were reported. Therefore, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel concluded that the available occurrence data are too limited to carry out a reliable human and animal dietary exposure assessment. Acute oral toxicity of STC is relatively low, and liver and kidneys are the target organs. STC is mutagenic in both bacterial and mammalian cells after metabolic activation and forms DNA adducts. Tumourigenicity has been observed after oral, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous and dermal administration resulting in hepatocellular carcinomas, haemangiosarcomas in the liver, angiosarcomas in brown fat and lung adenomas. Since no exposure data were available, the margin of exposure approach for substances that are genotoxic and carcinogenic could not be applied for STC, and thus the CONTAM Panel could not characterise the risk for human health. Regarding animals, the Panel noted that STC is hepatotoxic in poultry and pigs, and nephrotoxic in poultry and toxic in several fish species. However, in the absence of exposure data for livestock, fish and companion animals, and given the limited knowledge on the adverse effects of STC, the CONTAM Panel could not characterise the risk for animal health. More occurrence data on STC in food and feed need to be collected to allow dietary exposure assessment. For food, methods with a limit of quantification of less than 1.5 µg/kg should be applied.

  13. Scientific publications on systematic review and meta-analysis from Chinese authors: a 10-year survey of the English literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiping; Wu, Qiong; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming

    2012-03-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are playing an increasingly important role in clinical research and practice. This study aimed to measure the scientific production of systematic review and meta-analysis from the three major regions of China: the Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW). English articles on systematic review and meta-analysis from ML, HK, and TW from 2001 to 2010 were retrieved from the PubMed database. The total number of articles, impact factors (IF), and articles published in high-impact journals were conducted for quantity and quality comparisons among the three regions. There were 1 587 published articles from ML (1 292), HK (203), and TW (92) during the past ten years. The annual total numbers of articles in the three regions increased significantly from 2001 to 2010 (from 13 to 677). The number of articles from ML has exceeded that from TW since 2001, and surpassed that from HK in 2003. The accumulated IF of articles from ML (3 488.24) was higher than those from HK (493.16) and TW (216.39). HK had the highest average IF of 3.31, followed by ML of 2.90 and TW of 2.85. Researchers from HK published a larger proportion of papers in high-impact journals than those from ML and TW. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was the most popular journal in China. Chinese authors have been very active to enhance the systematic review and meta-analysis research over the past ten years, especially in ML. The gap between ML and the other two regions has been narrowed. But there is still considerable room for Chinese authors to improve their studies on systematic review and meta-analysis.

  14. Scientific publications on primary biliary cirrhosis from 2000 through 2010: an 11-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Baodong; Liang, Yan; Yang, Zaixing; Zhong, Renqian

    2012-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease characterized by intrahepatic bile-duct destruction, cholestasis, and fibrosis. It can lead to cirrhosis and eventually liver failure. PBC also shows some regional differences with respect to incidence and prevalence that are becoming more pronounced each year. Recently, researchers have paid more attention to PBC. To evaluate the development of PBC research during the past 11 years, we determined the quantity and quality of articles on this subject. We also compared the contributions of scientists from the US, UK, Japan, Italy, Germany, and China. The English-language papers covering PBC published in journals from 2000 through 2010 were retrieved from the PubMed database. We recorded the number of papers published each year, analyzed the publication type, and calculated the accumulated, average impact factors (IFs) and citations from every country. The quantity and quality of articles on PBC were compared by country. We also contrasted the level of PBC research in China and other countries. The total number of articles did not significantly increase during the past 11 years. The number of articles from the US exceeded those from any other country; the publications from the US also had the highest IFs and the most citations. Four other countries showed complex trends with respect to the quantity and quality of articles about PBC. The researchers from the US have contributed the most to the development of PBC research. They currently represent the highest level of research. Some high-level studies, such as RCTs, meta-analyses, and in-depth basic studies should be launched. The gap between China and the advanced level is still enormous. Chinese investigators still have a long way to go.

  15. Academic Debate: Publications Which Promote Political Agendas Have no Place in Scientific and Medical Journals, and Academics Should Refrain from Publishing in Such Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon; Clarfield, A Mark; Strous, Rael D; Horton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the full debate held on October 1, 2014, which focused on the following resolution: "Publications which promote political agendas have no place in scientific and medical journals, and academics should refrain from publishing in such journals." The debate moderator was Professor Shimon Glick. Taking the pro stance was Professor A. Mark Clarfield; the con stance was held by Professor Rael D. Strous. Following the first part of the debate, Dr Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief of The Lancet, gave his thoughts on the topic. This was followed by the opportunity for rebuttal by Professors Clarfield and Strous. The debate was summarized and closed by Professor Glick. This paper provides a slightly edited text of the debate, for ease of reading.

  16. Academic Debate: Publications Which Promote Political Agendas Have no Place in Scientific and Medical Journals, and Academics Should Refrain from Publishing in Such Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon Glick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the full debate held on October 1, 2014, which focused on the following resolution: “Publications which promote political agendas have no place in scientific and medical journals, and academics should refrain from publishing in such journals.” The debate moderator was Professor Shimon Glick. Taking the pro stance was Professor A. Mark Clarfield; the con stance was held by Professor Rael D. Strous. Following the first part of the debate, Dr Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief of The Lancet, gave his thoughts on the topic. This was followed by the opportunity for rebuttal by Professors Clarfield and Strous. The debate was summarized and closed by Professor Glick. This paper provides a slightly edited text of the debate, for ease of reading.

  17. Scientific Opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the presence of seeds of Ambrosia spp. in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    of Ambrosia. Ambrosia seeds may contaminate feed. However, animal feed materials compounded for use in livestock are extensively processed. This processing destroys Ambrosia seeds and hence the contribution of compounded feed to the dispersion of Ambrosia is considered to be negligible. Bird feed often......The European Commission requested EFSA to provide a scientific opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the further distribution of Ambrosia spp. in the European Union and on the importance of feed materials, in particular bird feed, in the dispersion of Ambrosia...... could become highly invasive in certain environmentally-valuable habitats and might be linked to an impoverishment of species richness, therefore further ecological studies are needed. The CONTAM Panel focused on the relative importance of animal feed, bird feed in particular, on the dispersion...

  18. Academic Debate: Publications Which Promote Political Agendas Have no Place in Scientific and Medical Journals, and Academics Should Refrain from Publishing in Such Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon; Clarfield, A. Mark; Strous, Rael D.; Horton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the full debate held on October 1, 2014, which focused on the following resolution: “Publications which promote political agendas have no place in scientific and medical journals, and academics should refrain from publishing in such journals.” The debate moderator was Professor Shimon Glick. Taking the pro stance was Professor A. Mark Clarfield; the con stance was held by Professor Rael D. Strous. Following the first part of the debate, Dr Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief of The Lancet, gave his thoughts on the topic. This was followed by the opportunity for rebuttal by Professors Clarfield and Strous. The debate was summarized and closed by Professor Glick. This paper provides a slightly edited text of the debate, for ease of reading. PMID:25717385

  19. CITEX: A new citation index to measure the relative importance of authors and papers in scientific publications

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the performance of researchers and measuring the impact of papers written by scientists is the main objective of citation analysis. Various indices and metrics have been proposed for this. In this paper, we propose a new citation index CITEX, which gives normalized scores to authors and papers to determine their rankings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first citation index which simultaneously assigns scores to both authors and papers. Using these scores, we can get an objective measure of the reputation of an author and the impact of a paper. We model this problem as an iterative computation on a publication graph, whose vertices are authors and papers, and whose edges indicate which author has written which paper. We prove that this iterative computation converges in the limit, by using a powerful theorem from linear algebra. We run this algorithm on several examples, and find that the author and paper scores match closely with what is suggested by our intuition. The algorithm is theor...

  20. Quantitative Study and Structure Visualization of Scientific Publications in the Field of Information Management in Web of Science Database during 1988-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Hamdipour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study endeavored to analysis the scientific publications that were indexed in the Web of Science database as the information management records and the visualization of science structure in this field during 1988-2009. The research method was scientometrics. During the study period, 1120 records in the field of information management have been published. These records were extracted in the form of plain text files and stored in a PC. Then they were analyzed by ISI.exe and HistCite softwares. Author's coefficient collaboration (CC was grown from zero in 1988 to 0.33 in 2009. Average coefficient collaboration between the authors was 0.22 which confirmed low authors collaboration in this area. The records have been published in 63 languages. Among these records the English language with 93.8 % possessed the highest proportion. City University London and the University of Sheffield in England had the most common publications in information management field. Based on the number of published records, T.D. Wilson with 13 records and 13 citations ranked as the first. The average number of global citations to 112 documents has been equal to 8.78. Despite the participation of different countries in the production of documents, more than 28.9% of records have been produced in the United States. According to results, 10 countries have published more than 72.4 percent of the records. City University London and the University of Sheffield have had highest frequency in this area. 15 journals have published 564 records (50.4% of the total productions. Finally, by implementation of scientific software HistCite map drawing clustered and authors, articles and four effective specific subjects were introduced..

  1. Scientific publications and research groups on alcohol consumption and related problems worldwide: authorship analysis of papers indexed in PubMed and Scopus databases (2005 to 2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Castelló-Cogollos, Lourdes; Castellano-Gómez, Miguel; Agullo-Calatayud, Víctor; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael; Alvarez, Francisco Javier; Valderrama-Zurián, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The research of alcohol consumption-related problems is a multidisciplinary field. The aim of this study is to analyze the worldwide scientific production in the area of alcohol-drinking and alcohol-related problems from 2005 to 2009. A MEDLINE and Scopus search on alcohol (alcohol-drinking and alcohol-related problems) published from 2005 to 2009 was carried out. Using bibliometric indicators, the distribution of the publications was determined within the journals that publish said articles, specialty of the journal (broad subject terms), article type, language of the publication, and country where the journal is published. Also, authorship characteristics were assessed (collaboration index and number of authors who have published more than 9 documents). The existing research groups were also determined. About 24,100 documents on alcohol, published in 3,862 journals, and authored by 69,640 authors were retrieved from MEDLINE and Scopus between the years 2005 and 2009. The collaboration index of the articles was 4.83 ± 3.7. The number of consolidated research groups in the field was identified as 383, with 1,933 authors. Documents on alcohol were published mainly in journals covering the field of "Substance-Related Disorders," 23.18%, followed by "Medicine," 8.7%, "Psychiatry," 6.17%, and "Gastroenterology," 5.25%. Research on alcohol is a consolidated field, with an average of 4,820 documents published each year between 2005 and 2009 in MEDLINE and Scopus. Alcohol-related publications have a marked multidisciplinary nature. Collaboration was common among alcohol researchers. There is an underrepresentation of alcohol-related publications in languages other than English and from developing countries, in MEDLINE and Scopus databases. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Dates of publication of the Zoology parts of the Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 1873-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Martyn E Y; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2013-01-01

    The dates of publication and exact titles of the 83 parts of the Zoology of the Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 1873-76 are presented. Exact dates of publication for 71 of these parts have been determined using notices of their publication in contemporary publications. The dates of publication of the two Narrative volumes of the voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger (which contain available indications of new names) are also determined.

  3. A temática do álcool e outras drogas na produção científica de enfermagem La temática de alcohol y otras drogas en la producción científica de enfermería Alcohol and other drugs theme in the nursing scientific production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malena Storani Gonçalves Rosa

    2008-09-01

    the insertion from the nurse attention in practice to the user as of alcohol and other drugs in the review systematic as of articles into periodic scientific. It was realized a literature review at the virtual data bases BDENF, SCIELO, LILACS e BIREME from the year of 2001 to 2006. It was found 29 articles. The data were put in groups by the following categories: nurse's knowledge about how to deal with user as of alcohol and other drugs; limits for patient care and intervention, such as strategies promoting the good health. It had been concluded that nursing still needs qualified professionals to assist the necessities of the alcohol and drugs users, fact that can be modified by the inclusion of the theme on the graduation disciplines and the realization of nurses' training to the several health services of this care.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from farmed game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. in farmed wild boar and Toxoplasma gondii in farmed deer and farmed wild boar were ranked as a high priority for meat inspection. Trichinella spp. in wild boar was ranked as low priority due to current controls, which should be continued. For chemical hazards, all substances were ranked as medium or lower potential concern. More effective control of biological hazards could be achieved using an integrated farm to chilled carcass approach, including improved food chain information (FCI and risk-based controls. Further studies are required on Salmonella spp. in farmed wild boar and T. gondii in farmed wild boar and farmed deer. If new information confirms a high risk to public health from meat from these species, setting targets at carcass level should be considered. Palpation and incision should be omitted, as it will not detect biological hazards considered to be a high priority for meat inspection while increasing the potential spread and cross-contamination of the carcasses with Salmonella. Palpation and/or incision may be applied where abnormalities have been detected but away from the slaughter line. However the elimination of routine palpation and incision would be detrimental for detecting tuberculosis. As farmed deer and farmed wild boar can act as tuberculosis reservoirs, any reduction in the detection, due to changes in the post-mortem inspection procedures, will have consequences for the overall surveillance of tuberculosis. Monitoring programmes for chemical hazards should be more flexible and based on the risk of occurrence, taking into account FCI, which should be expanded to reflect the specific environmental conditions of the farms where the animals are reared, and the ranking of chemical substances, which should be regularly updated and include new hazards. Control programmes across the food chain, national residue control programmes, feed control and monitoring of environmental contaminants should be better

  5. Effective Collaboration Between Scientists and Local Governments to Improve Scientific Communication for Public Safety in Dallas and Irving, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanpied, M. L.; Perry, S. C.; Carriere, J.; DeShon, H. R.; Oden, K.; Vaz, R.; Williams, R. A.; Stump, B. W.; Hayward, C.; Choy, G. L.; Hoover, S. M.; Mueller, C. S.; LaGrassa, N.; Miller, G.; Osburn, M.

    2016-12-01

    Felt earthquakes have occurred in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Irving area since 2008, raising concern about seismic risks and potential links to petroleum industry activities - and leading to a productive, long-standing interaction between earthquake scientists and local government officials. City staff, including emergency managers, formed the Dallas Irving Earthquake Working Group (DIEWG) in early 2015 to share information, learn about their new hazard, and coordinate public messages and response planning. The DIEWG has held regular meetings that included academic and government experts including scientists from Southern Methodist University (SMU) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). SMU apprised DIEWG of monitoring and research results, and responded to media inquiries. USGS provided information about seismic hazard and the likelihood of damaging earthquakes, and worked with FEMA Regions VI & VIII to provide impact planning scenarios for plausible earthquakes of M4.8 and M5.6. USGS briefed DIEWG before the release of an assessment of the likelihood of damage from natural and induced earthquakes, as local officials needed to understand the information and its implications in order to translate for their constituents. DIEWG has now asked USGS to help to develop tabletop response exercises. Through these interactions, local officials and scientists increased understanding of each other's roles, capabilities and limitations. The interactions have also improved DIEWG members' understanding of earthquake risk and impact, supported hazard mitigation planning, influenced infrastructure and building code decisions, and informed conversations with residents and media. Input from DIEWG has improved scientists' translation of complex information for use in planning, and identified persistent misunderstandings about concepts and terminology that are relevant to many earthquake information products. A key aspect of this success has been the repeated personal interaction over time.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A risk ranking process identified Toxoplasma gondii and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC as the most relevant biological hazards for meat inspection of sheep and goats. As these are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system using risk-based interventions was proposed. Further studies are required on T. gondii and pathogenic VTEC. If new information confirms these hazards as a high risk to public health from meat from sheep or goats, setting targets at carcass level should be considered. Other elements of the system are risk-categorisation of flocks/herds based on improved Food Chain Information (FCI, classification of abattoirs according to their capability to reduce faecal contamination, and use of improved process hygiene criteria. It is proposed to omit palpation and incision from post-mortem inspection in animals subjected to routine slaughter. For chemical hazards, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were ranked as being of high potential concern. Monitoring programmes for chemical hazards should be more flexible and based on the risk of occurrence, taking into account FCI, which should be expanded to reflect the extensive production systems used, and the ranking of chemical substances, which should be regularly updated and include new hazards. Control programmes across the food chain, national residue control plans, feed control and monitoring of environmental contaminants should be better integrated. Meat inspection is a valuable tool for surveillance and monitoring of animal health and welfare conditions. Omission of palpation and incision would reduce detection effectiveness for tuberculosis and fasciolosis at animal level. Surveillance of tuberculosis at the slaughterhouse in small ruminants should be improved and encouraged, as this is in practice the only surveillance system available. Extended use of FCI could compensate for some, but not all, the information

  7. Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of bisphenol A (BPA in foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This opinion describes the assessment of the risks to public health associated with bisphenol A (BPA exposure. Exposure was assessed for various groups of the human population in three different ways: (1 external (by diet, drinking water, inhalation, and dermal contact to cosmetics and thermal paper; (2 internal exposure to total BPA (absorbed dose of BPA, sum of conjugated and unconjugated BPA; and (3 aggregated (from diet, dust, cosmetics and thermal paper, expressed as oral human equivalent dose (HED referring to unconjugated BPA only. The estimated BPA dietary intake was highest in infants and toddlers (up to 0.875 µg/kg bw per day. Women of childbearing age had dietary exposures comparable to men of the same age (up to 0.388 µg/kg bw per day. The highest aggregated exposure of 1.449 µg/kg bw per day was estimated for adolescents. Biomonitoring data were in line with estimated internal exposure to total BPA from all sources. BPA toxicity was evaluated by a weight of evidence approach. “Likely” adverse effects in animals on kidney and mammary gland underwent benchmark dose (BMDL10 response modelling. A BMDL10 of 8 960 µg/kg bw per day was calculated for changes in the mean relative kidney weight in a two generation toxicity study in mice. No BMDL10 could be calculated for mammary gland effects. Using data on toxicokinetics, this BMDL10 was converted to an HED of 609 µg/kg bw per day. The CEF Panel applied a total uncertainty factor of 150 (for inter- and intra-species differences and uncertainty in mammary gland, reproductive, neurobehavioural, immune and metabolic system effects to establish a temporary Tolerable Daily Intake (t-TDI of 4 µg/kg bw per day. By comparing this t-TDI with the exposure estimates, the CEF Panel concluded that there is no health concern for any age group from dietary exposure and low health concern from aggregated exposure. The CEF Panel noted considerable uncertainty in the exposure estimates for non

  8. Blending Multiple Genres in Theme Baskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richison, Jeannine D.; Hernandez, Anita C.; Carter, Marcia

    2002-01-01

    Proposes using "theme baskets" as a progression of texts to scaffold core literature. Defines the theme basket as a combination of several approaches: using a thematic approach to teaching literature; using children's books in secondary classrooms; coupling young adult books with the classics; and capitalizing on young adults'…

  9. [Principles and criteria used by the National Evaluation Committee of Research Activity (CNEAI-Spain) for the assessment of scientific publications: 1989-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Rafael; Delgado López-Cózar, Emilio; Jiménez-Contreras, Evaristo

    2010-11-01

    Study of the origins, philosophy and history of the criteria used to assess research activities in Spain by the CNEAI. The assessment criteria and quality evidence of publications is discussed. Results are presented on the temporal development of the criteria used, grouped by publication type (articles and books) and fields of knowledge. Between 1989-1996, assessment was based on the definition and goals set by the Spanish scientific framework and on general criteria. Between 1996-2004, the formulation of indicators began to be almost exclusively based on Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Success rates up to 2004 indicate that the evaluation criteria and publishing behaviour matched the "hard sciences", but not the Social Sciences and Economics. In 2005, the criteria used were further developed and reoriented with an eye to softening the preceding JCR-centrism by taking into consideration other databases and defining the quality criteria to be met by journals, books and conferences not included in JCR. Correspondingly, the success rates for 2007 indicate a dramatic recovery in Economics. In the last 4 years, Humanities and Social Sciences have consolidated the further opening of the criteria used with the addition of new benchmarks and the full integration of books.

  10. Surveillance Systems from Public Health Institutions and Scientific Societies for Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare-Associated Infections in Europe (SUSPIRE): protocol for a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Núñez, María; Navarro, María Dolores; Gkolia, Panagiota; Babu Rajendran, Nithya; del Toro, María Dolores; Voss, Andreas; Sharland, Mike; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Tacconelli, Evelina; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The worldwide spread of antimicrobial resistance is now recognised as a global public health threat. Owing to the geographical heterogeneity, complexity and continuously evolving dynamics of resistant organisms and genes, surveillance is a key tool for understanding, measuring and informing actions in the fight against this problem. To date there is no harmonisation of key indicators or of methodologies used to obtain them. Methods and analysis The main objective of this project is to systematically review and analyse the current publicly available surveillance activities on antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections in Europe. Eligible activities are those endorsed by regional, national or transnational health organisations and scientific societies providing data on a periodic basis. Grey and peer-reviewed literature will be searched with no language restrictions. Three independent reviewers will perform a two-step selection process using a previously piloted, tailored electronic data extraction form. Descriptive summaries and tables of all relevant findings will be performed and reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Ethics and dissemination We did not seek ethical approval for this study because the data to be collected are not linked to individuals. Data will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number CRD42016033867. PMID:28348192

  11. A Political Campaign Strategy and Campaign Theme : How to Win a Political Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    河村, 直幸; Kawamura, Naoyuki

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to introduce a political campaign strategy. A political campaign should do on a scientific system and needs effective strategy. Before political campaign begin, a candidate and its campaigner needs to analyze election district and sample voter opinion. An election campaign needs campaign theme. The creation of campaign theme needs careful and elaborate planning. A style of campaign varies according to incumbent or challenger. The developing of an effective po...

  12. The Guatemala-Penn Partners: An Innovative Inter-Institutional Model for Scientific Capacity-Building, Healthcare Education, and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua-Avila, Maria Alejandra; Messenger, Elizabeth; Nelson, Caroline A; Calgua, Erwin; Barg, Frances K; Bream, Kent W; Compher, Charlene; Dean, Anthony J; Martinez-Siekavizza, Sergio; Puac-Polanco, Victor; Richmond, Therese S; Roth, Rudolf R; Branas, Charles C

    2017-01-01

    Population health outcomes are directly related to robust public health programs, access to basic health services, and a well-trained health-care workforce. Effective health services need to systematically identify solutions, scientifically test these solutions, and share generated knowledge. The World Health Organization (WHO)'s Global Healthcare Workforce Alliance states that the capacity to perform research is an essential factor for well-functioning public health systems. Low- and middle-income countries have greater health-care worker shortages and lower research capacity than higher-income countries. International global health partnerships between higher-income countries and low-middle-income countries aim to directly address such inequalities through capacity building, a process by which human and institutional resources are strengthened and developed, allowing them to perform high-level functions, solve complex problems, and achieve important objectives. The Guatemala-Penn Partners (GPP) is a collaboration among academic centers in Guatemala and the University of Pennsylvania (Penn), in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania that echoes the vision of the WHO's Global Healthcare Workforce Alliance. This article describes the historical development and present organization of the GPP according to its three guiding principles: university-to-university connections, dual autonomies with locally led capacity building, and mutually beneficial exchanges. It describes the GPP activities within the domains of science, health-care education, and public health, emphasizing implementation factors, such as sustainability and scalability, in relation to the guiding principles. Successes and limitations of this innovative model are also analyzed in the hope that the lessons learned may be applied to similar partnerships across the globe.

  13. Getting Healthy Scientifically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhixin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Recently, Zhao Zhixin, a Beijing-based instructor on scientific bodybuiiding and public sport,was interviewed by China Youth Daily, sharing his views on how to get healthy scientifically.Edited excerpts follow: China Youth Daily: What do you think about food therapy as a regimen?

  14. Adapting an Infectious Diseases Course for "Engaged Citizen" Themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senchina, David S

    2016-03-01

    This article describes philosophies and perspectives underpinning scientific citizenship-focused curricular changes implemented into a pre-existing undergraduate infectious diseases course. Impetus for the curricular changes was a novel, campus-wide, multidisciplinary "Engaged Citizen" theme for the general education curriculum. The first half of the article describes the larger contexts from which the curricular changes were borne and the resulting instructional model. The second half of the article shares both student and instructor perspectives on the curricular changes and potential application of the model to other science courses.

  15. [Scientific production in nursing in northeastern Brazil (1988-1992)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, M M; do Nascimento, M A; Jorge, M S; Matos, M S; Braga, V A; Moreira, A S; Garcia, T R

    1993-12-01

    Descriptive exploratory study accomplished with the purpose of identifying nurses' scientific productions in the Northeast Region during the period of 1988-1992, checking the rind of papers presented, the predominating theme area and the divulgation used. We observe that there is a sensitive increase in these productions since 1990. Scientific articles and assistentcal area themes predominated, as did the divulgation through national events.

  16. Physiotherapists’ experiences of physiotherapy interventions in scientific physiotherapy publications focusing on interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative phenomenographic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Physiotherapy research concerning interventions for children with CP is often focused on collecting evidence of the superiority of particular therapeutic methods or treatment modalities. Articulating and documenting the use of theory, instrumentation and research design and the assumptions underlying physiotherapy research interventions are important. Physiotherapy interventions focusing on children with Cerebral Palsy should, according to the literature, be based on a functional and environmental perspective with task-specific functional activity, motor learning processes and Family-Centred Service i.e. to enhance motor ability and improve capacity so that the child can perform the tasks necessary to participate actively in everyday life. Thus, it is important to coordinate the norms and values of the physiotherapist with those of the family and child. The aim of this study was to describe how physiotherapists’ experiences physiotherapy interventions for children with CP in scientific physiotherapy publications written by physiotherapists. Methods A qualitative phenomenographic approach was used. Twenty- one scientific articles, found in PubMed, strategically chosen according to year of publication (2001–2009), modality, journals and country, were investigated. Results Three qualitatively different descriptive categories were identified: A: Making it possible a functional-based intervention based on the biopsychosocial health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as collaborative, interacting with the child and family in goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation, B: Making it work an impairment-based intervention built on a mixed health paradigm (biomedical and biopsychosocial), and the role of the physiotherapist as a coach, leading the goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation and instructing family members to carry out physiotherapist directed orders, and; C: Making it normal an impairment-based intervention built on a

  17. Physiotherapists' experiences of physiotherapy interventions in scientific physiotherapy publications focusing on interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative phenomenographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Ingalill; Miller, Michael; Liljedahl, Kerstin; Gard, Gunvor

    2012-07-02

    Physiotherapy research concerning interventions for children with CP is often focused on collecting evidence of the superiority of particular therapeutic methods or treatment modalities. Articulating and documenting the use of theory, instrumentation and research design and the assumptions underlying physiotherapy research interventions are important. Physiotherapy interventions focusing on children with Cerebral Palsy should, according to the literature, be based on a functional and environmental perspective with task-specific functional activity, motor learning processes and Family-Centred Service i.e. to enhance motor ability and improve capacity so that the child can perform the tasks necessary to participate actively in everyday life. Thus, it is important to coordinate the norms and values of the physiotherapist with those of the family and child. The aim of this study was to describe how physiotherapists' experiences physiotherapy interventions for children with CP in scientific physiotherapy publications written by physiotherapists. A qualitative phenomenographic approach was used. Twenty- one scientific articles, found in PubMed, strategically chosen according to year of publication (2001-2009), modality, journals and country, were investigated. Three qualitatively different descriptive categories were identified: A: Making it possible a functional-based intervention based on the biopsychosocial health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as collaborative, interacting with the child and family in goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation, B: Making it work an impairment-based intervention built on a mixed health paradigm (biomedical and biopsychosocial), and the role of the physiotherapist as a coach, leading the goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation and instructing family members to carry out physiotherapist directed orders, and; C: Making it normal an impairment-based intervention built on a biomedical health paradigm, and

  18. Physiotherapists’ experiences of physiotherapy interventions in scientific physiotherapy publications focusing on interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative phenomenographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Ingalill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiotherapy research concerning interventions for children with CP is often focused on collecting evidence of the superiority of particular therapeutic methods or treatment modalities. Articulating and documenting the use of theory, instrumentation and research design and the assumptions underlying physiotherapy research interventions are important. Physiotherapy interventions focusing on children with Cerebral Palsy should, according to the literature, be based on a functional and environmental perspective with task-specific functional activity, motor learning processes and Family-Centred Service i.e. to enhance motor ability and improve capacity so that the child can perform the tasks necessary to participate actively in everyday life. Thus, it is important to coordinate the norms and values of the physiotherapist with those of the family and child. The aim of this study was to describe how physiotherapists’ experiences physiotherapy interventions for children with CP in scientific physiotherapy publications written by physiotherapists. Methods A qualitative phenomenographic approach was used. Twenty- one scientific articles, found in PubMed, strategically chosen according to year of publication (2001–2009, modality, journals and country, were investigated. Results Three qualitatively different descriptive categories were identified: A: Making it possible a functional-based intervention based on the biopsychosocial health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as collaborative, interacting with the child and family in goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation, B: Making it work an impairment-based intervention built on a mixed health paradigm (biomedical and biopsychosocial, and the role of the physiotherapist as a coach, leading the goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation and instructing family members to carry out physiotherapist directed orders, and; C: Making it normal an impairment

  19. The Science of Pizza: The Molecular Origins of Cheese, Bread, and Digestion Using Interactive Activities for the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Amy C.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a presentation on the science of pizza, which is designed for the general public including children ages 6 and older. The presentation focuses on the science of making and digesting cheese and bread. We highlight 4 major scientific themes: (1) how macromolecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are composed of atoms and small…

  20. The Science of Pizza: The Molecular Origins of Cheese, Bread, and Digestion Using Interactive Activities for the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Amy C.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a presentation on the science of pizza, which is designed for the general public including children ages 6 and older. The presentation focuses on the science of making and digesting cheese and bread. We highlight 4 major scientific themes: (1) how macromolecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are composed of atoms and small…

  1. Semantic Theme Analysis of Pilot Incident Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    Pilots report accidents or incidents during take-off, on flight and landing to airline authorities and Federal aviation authority as well. The description of pilot reports for an incident contains technical terms related to Flight instruments and operations. Normal text mining approaches collect keywords from text documents and relate them among documents that are stored in database. Present approach will extract specific theme analysis of incident reports and semantically relate hierarchy of terms assigning weights of themes. Once the theme extraction has been performed for a given document, a unique key can be assigned to that document to cross linking the documents. Semantic linking will be used to categorize the documents based on specific rules that can help an end-user to analyze certain types of accidents. This presentation outlines the architecture of text mining for pilot incident reports for autonomous categorization of pilot incident reports using semantic theme analysis.

  2. Theme: The Latest Trends in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Theme issue includes 10 articles on the following topics: innovation, trends in agricultural curriculum, working with special populations, the role of history, standards, curriculum integration, distance learning, integrating math and science, and developing leaders. (JOW)

  3. How Environmental "Merchants of Doubt" Use Peer-Reviewed Publication as a Means to Commandeer Scientific Debate: A Case Study of a Publishing Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D. I.

    2015-12-01

    This year, the USEPA reported no systemic problem with respect to pollution of potable waters by solutes or natural gas resulting from unconventional drilling for oil and gas, despite attempts by anti-fracking opponents to frighten the public about water pollution from rare circumstances (much as those who have cherry- picked climate data to suggest burning fossil fuels does not affect climate). Scientific "merchants of doubt" have figured out how to use peer-reviewed papers to advocate their bias, regardless of the side for which they advocate. I present a personal example. Prior to the EPA report, authors of a highly-cited peer-reviewed paper argued that more dissolved methane than usual should be expected in ground water located close to unconventional gas wells. This paper figured prominently in the New York State's recent ban on fracking. To test the reproducibility of this conclusion, colleagues and I redid the study but by sampling ~13,000 NE Pennsylvania domestic wells, densely arrayed near ~800 gas wells. Not surprising, we found no systemic relationship between methane in drinking water and proximity to gas wells; failed gas wells actually are rare. The peer reviewed system of publication has been broken for years, because of continual pressure to publish more to achieve academic success coupled to a flood of international submissions. Editors routinely have a difficult time finding senior scientists to agree to review papers, and so they wind up relying more on reviewers suggested by authors, who can and have gamed the peer review system through it. To resolve this problem, I suggest that journal editors be more far more draconian before releasing papers for review and that they enforce clear rubrics to insure that reviewers address reviews properly. Finally, conflict of interest disclosure needs to be clearer, since common assumption that bias inherently evolves from funded research outside of Federal and non-profit organizations, appears to be, at

  4. On the emergence theme of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The book surveys mathematical relations between classical and quantum mechanics, gravity, time and thermodynamics from various points of view and many sources (with appropriate attribution). The emergence theme is developed with an emphasis on the meaning via mathematics. A background theme of Bohemian mechanics and connections to the quantum equivalence principle of Matone et al. is also developed in great detail. Some original work relating the quantum potential and Ricci flow is also included.

  5. “Araby” and Revelation of Theme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洁

    2015-01-01

    “Araby” is a wel-known short story written by James Joyce.It is wel-known for its writing techniques such as symbolism,the use of epiphany,and especialy the profound themes that the author meant to reveal.After doing detailed analysis,the author of this thesis reaches the folowing themes:loss of innocence, paralysis of people and the society,mental poverty of people around the boy and disilusionment of dream.

  6. Future Research Themes in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Guest post on research results published in the article "Mapping the Landscape of Future Research Themes in Supply Chain Management" by Andreas Wieland, Robert Handfield and Christian Durach ( Journal of Business Logistics (2016). Vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 205-212).......Guest post on research results published in the article "Mapping the Landscape of Future Research Themes in Supply Chain Management" by Andreas Wieland, Robert Handfield and Christian Durach ( Journal of Business Logistics (2016). Vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 205-212)....

  7. [Floods and public health: a review of the recent scientific literature on the causes, consequences and responses to prevention and mitigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli

    2012-06-01

    Floods are among the most frequent natural disasters and they affect the lives of approximately 102 million people each year, mainly in developing countries and in major urban areas with a tendency to grow further over the coming decades. The scope of this paper is to provide input for a clearer understanding of these events through the results and experiences to be gleaned from the recent scientific literature. From the Pubmed database, 70 articles were analyzed that fulfilled the criteria to address at least one of the items selected for analysis, namely: 1) causes; 2) consequences; 3) responses and actions: submission of proposals and solutions for the prevention and/or mitigation of the risks and impacts of flooding. Tables for each of the items selected were organized in order to systematize and synthesize the results for causes (attributed to natural and human activities); environmental, infrastructure and services, and health consequences (injuries and diseases classified according to chapters of ICD-10); prevention and mitigation responses and actions. It was concluded that given the scenarios of increased frequency and severity of these events, the challenges facing public health for disaster risk reduction require integrated responses with broad policies for sustainable development.

  8. HIV/AIDS in childhood and adolescence. Trends in Brazilian scientific production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Cardoso de Paula

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the theme HIV/AIDS in childhood and adolescence, its characteristics and trends, in Brazilian scientific production between 1983 and 2010. Methodology. Review of 121 quantitative and qualitative descriptive studies. Results. 81% of the production comes from the South-East/South of the country. In the 1980's, a balance is observed between experience reports (50% and research (50%. Seventy percent of the papers were produced between 2003 and 2010. The most frequent theme analyzed with regard to childhood was care delivery (75%, against prevention in adolescence (72%. Studies related to HIV/ AIDS in emphasized clinical-epidemiological aspects (70%, while sociocultural studies predominated for the adolescent period (90%, with a preventive trend. Conclusion. The scientific production under analysis is coherent with the Brazilian policy to cope with the epidemic and addresses all care levels related to this public health problem.

  9. Entering new publication territory in chemoinformatics and chemical information science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The F1000Research publishing platform offers the opportunity to launch themed article collections as a part of its dynamic publication environment. The idea of article collections is further expanded through the generation of publication channels that focus on specific scientific areas or disciplines. This editorial introduces the Chemical Information Science channel of F1000Research designed to collate high-quality publications and foster a culture of open peer review. Articles will be selected by guest editor(s) and a group of experts, the channel Editorial Board, and subjected to open peer review.

  10. SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS: FORM, CONTENT AND INDEXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Oliveira Silveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this editorial,we highlight the content postedin" Course XXIS cientific Editing and Satellite VII Seminar for Editors plenums" held in 2013, which had as its central theme: Scientific Journal Indexing and brought questions as: How to buildan article scientific qualityin the age of communication? How to publish? Where and how to index a journal?

  11. Improvement of Theme Park Marketing Mode: A Case Study of Theme Parks in Chengdu

    OpenAIRE

    LI, MIN; Xiong, Gaoli

    2013-01-01

    Construction of theme park has been launched since the early 1990s in Chengdu City, but ended up as a losing proposition after its short-term prosperity because of similar scale and theme with those in other cities. As more international well-known theme parks enter the market, theme parks in Chengdu have been faced with the transition, and novel concepts introduced into the operation of these parks. T o adapt to the market, it is imperative to make marketing strategies and combine marketing ...

  12. Scientific dissemination discourse a study of specialized magazines disseminating science to lay audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Moraes Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Dissemination enunciations in the media are form of public discourse that integrates social, cultural, ideological and political aspects related to their spatial and temporal context. With theoretical support of Discourse Analysis the article presents distinct modes of disseminating science to the lay audience found in three magazines disseminating scientific knowledge: the Scientific American Brazil, Pesquisa Fapesp and Superinteressante. The editorial commitment of each one of these magazines to its readers is the basis of the discursive construction. The Scientific American Brazil draws on many sources for its explanations using a technical approach and close proximity to the patterns of science. The Pesquisa FAPESP magazine addresses the themes in their Brazilian context, uses Brazilian scientists as sources and adopts the journalistic reporting genre with exts by specislized journalists. Superinteressante magazine has a has a more distant commitment to science with exts free from using, instead, catch phrases, slang and types of comparison appropriate the language of its audience.

  13. SCIENTIFIC DISSEMINATION DISCOURSE A STUDY OF SPECIALIZED MAGAZINES DISSEMINATING SCIENCE TO LAY AUDIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Moraes Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Dissemination enunciations in the media are form of public discourse that integrates social, cultural, ideological and political aspects related to their spatial and temporal context. With theoretical support of Discourse Analysis the article presents distinct modes of disseminating science to the lay audience found in three magazines disseminating scientific knowledge: the Scientific American Brazil, Pesquisa Fapesp and Superinteressante. The editorial commitment of each one of these magazines to its readers is the basis of the discursive construction. The Scientific American Brazil draws on many sources for its explanations using a technical approach and close proximity to the patterns of science. The Pesquisa FAPESP magazine addresses the themes in their Brazilian context, uses Brazilian scientists as sources and adopts the journalistic reporting genre with exts by specislized journalists. Superinteressante magazine has a has a more distant commitment to science with exts free from using, instead, catch phrases, slang and types of comparison appropriate the language of its audience. 

  14. On Cultivation Mechanism of Scientific Research Innovation Capacity for the Postgraduates of Public Administration%公共管理学科研究生科研创新能力培养机制与路径选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗依平; 甘纪平; 范娜

    2011-01-01

    公共管理学科研究生科研创新能力的培养是公共管理学科研究生教育的核心内容,也是培养高层次公共管理人才的必然要求。本文在分析公共管理学科研究生科研创新能力培养机制内涵的基础上,提出了构建公共管理学科研究生科研创新能力培养机制的有效路径。%The cultivation of scientific research innovation capacity for the postgraduate of public management discipline is not only the core subject for education of the postgraduates of public administration,but also the inevitable requirement to develop high--level public administration talent. By analyzing the meaning of cultivation mechanism of scientific-- research innovation capacity for the postgraduate of public administration, the measures for building the cultivation mechanism of scientific-- re- search innovation capacity for the postgraduate of public administration discipline are put forward.

  15. World Map of Scientific Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad

    2017-06-26

    A comparative world map of scientific misconduct reveals that countries with the most rapid growth in scientific publications also have the highest retraction rate. To avoid polluting the scientific record further, these nations must urgently commit to enforcing research integrity among their academic communities.

  16. Willa Cather and Her Pioneering Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张菁华

    2013-01-01

      This thesis aims at the elaboration of Willa Cather’s pioneering themes based on her major works spanning over the pro⁃logue and epilogue of American pioneering age. Among which, O Pioneers! and My Antonia applause for the transcendent glory of innovative and enterprising pioneer ladies, declined in A Lost Lady and My Mortal Enemy and substituted with hedonism, affinity reliance and mammonism. In her late years, Cather resurrected her pioneering themes through the recollection of the best bygone time spent in waste west land.

  17. Inserção do tema violência contra a pessoa idosa nas políticas públicas de atenção à saúde no Brasil The insertion of the violence against elderly theme at health care public policies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinilsa Ramos de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a inserção do tema violência contra a pessoa idosa nas políticas públicas brasileiras de atenção à saúde. Nele são apresentados os conceitos de violência que se aplicam a esse grupo populacional, dados de mortalidade e de internação por violências e acidentes e são cotejadas, discutidas e comparadas algumas políticas que tratam direta ou indiretamente da atenção aos idosos vítimas de violência, objeto específico do texto. Metodologicamente, primeiramente buscou-se identificar se o tema da violência foi contemplado nos documentos oficiais e, em caso positivo, quais são as diretrizes que orientam a atenção do setor para o cuidado da saúde da pessoa idosa, tanto em relação ao atendimento como no tocante às ações de prevenção. As conclusões a que se chega é que as políticas oficiais, com destaque para o Estatuto do Idoso e para a Política Nacional de Atenção à Pessoa Idosa, muito lentamente vão incorporando esse tema e oferecendo suporte para Redes de Proteção, principalmente nesta primeira década do século XXI.This article approaches the insertion of violence against elderly in the Brazilian health care public policies. It presents concepts of violence applied to this group of population, mortality data and number of elder interned by violence and accidents. Also, it compares and discusses some policies that are, direct or indirectly, about elder care, victims of violence, and the specific object of the text. Methodologically, it first aimed to identify if the theme of violence was contemplated in official documents, and if so, which are the guidelines that orient elder care, not only regarding attendance, but also regarding prevention actions. The conclusions are that official policies, with special emphasis to the Elder Statute and the National Policy to Elder Care, are very slowly incorporating this theme and offering support to the Protection Network, mainly in this first decade of

  18. Soviet Gothic-fantastic: a study of Gothic and supernatural themes in early Soviet literature

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, Muireann

    2009-01-01

    Related publication: Stalin's Ghosts www.peterlang.com?430787 This thesis analyses the persistence of Gothic-fantastic themes and motifs in the literature of Soviet Russia between 1920 and 1940. Nineteenth-century Russian literature was characterized by the almost universal assimilation of Gothic-fantastic themes and motifs, adapted from the fiction of Western writers such as E.T.A. Hoffmann, Ann Radcliffe and Edgar Allen Poe. Writers from Pushkin to Dostoevskii, including the major Sy...

  19. Private Science and Public Knowledge: The Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Claims of the Paranormal and its Use of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinch, T. J.; Collins, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Shows the part played by formal/informal literatures in the social construction of scientific knowledge, analyzing the work of the "Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Claims of the Paranormal" (which critically investigates fringe-sciences). Indicates that popular literature can deconstruct facts while scientific…

  20. Trade Books with a Rural Community Theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Kathy Everts

    1989-01-01

    Lists books with rural or small community themes available for children, grades K-eight, to serve as motivational reading texts or resources in units on farming or rural life in social studies or science. Categorizes selections as informational, poetry, traditional, contemporary realistic fiction, fantasy, historical fiction, or concept books.…