WorldWideScience

Sample records for publication nitrosamine contents

  1. [Content of N-nitrosamines in smoked fish and canned food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I N; Kim, G N; Krivosheeva, L V; Khitrovo, I A

    2002-01-01

    The composition and contents of major N-nitrosoamines (NA) in the edible part of herrings and rock trouts exposed to hot and cold smoking and in the Smoked fish in oil type cans were studied. Among NA, only N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were detected in all samples. In the cold-smoked fish, the levels of NDMA and NDEA were higher than in the hot smoked fish and cans. Of all the samples, only those of cold smoked herrings and rock trouts had standardized NDMA concentration that was greater than the standard limitation and equal to 3.48 and 3.74 mukg/kg.

  2. Evaluation of N-Nitrosamine Formation in Routine Potato Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qajarbeygi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrosamine is amongst carcinogen chemical compounds, which can enter the human body through consumption of food. Potatoes are a root vegetable consumed by many people around the world, however their potential for nitrosamine formation during cooking processes needs to be considered for public health matters. Objectives In this study we evaluated the effect of conventional potato cooking method on N-nitrosamine compound formation. Materials and Methods The amounts of four nitrosamines, namely N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA, N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR were determined in four different potato-baking methods. Sixty potato samples were randomly collected from Hamadan city. Fried potato samples were roasted at 180°C and boiled potato samples were scalded at 120°C. Nitrosamine levels were measured using gas chromatography coupled with electronic ionization detector (GC-EID, and spectrophotometry was used for measuring nitrite. Results Fried samples that were measured by the gas chromatography method had the highest average levels of nitrosamine compounds; NDMA, 5.09 ng kg-1, and NDEA, 8.66 ng kg-1. Low levels of nitrosamine compounds were associated with raw potatoes, in which no nitrosamine compound was detected. Based on the analysis of the potato samples by spectrophotometry, the highest levels of nitrite was found in raw potatoes with a mean of 2.43 mg kg-1 and the lowest levels of nitrite were detected in boiled potatoes with an average of 1.172 mg kg-1. Conclusions Nitrosamine was formed with conventional potato baking methods with the most nitrosamine formation found on the surface fried samples. Nitrites amount in baked potatoes decreased. Generally, the amount of nitrosamine in baked potato samples was lower than acceptable limits.

  3. Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Nitrosamines in Treated Drinking Water and Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    N-Nitrosamines, including N-dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA), were identified as chlorination byproducts in drinking water in 1989. Nitrosamines are known rodent carcinogens and probable human carcinogens, so that they have been considered disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of public healt...

  4. Nitrosamines as nicotinic receptor ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Schuller, Hildegard M

    2007-01-01

    Nitrosamines are carcinogens formed in the mammalian organism from amine precursors contained in food, beverages, cosmetics and drugs. The potent carcinogen, NNK, and the weaker carcinogen, NNN, are nitrosamines formed from nicotine. Metabolites of the nitrosamines react with DNA to form adducts responsible for genotoxic effects. We have identified NNK as a high affinity agonist for the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) whereas NNN bound with high affinity to epibatidine-sensi...

  5. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Hawkes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates, the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NOx of secondary amines to give the N-nitrosamines, and the significant safety risks on N-nitrosamines. It is believed that such nitrosamine derivatives should be investigated more fully in the interests of consumer safety.

  6. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David; Mama, John; Hawkes, Jamie

    2013-02-13

    This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates), the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NOx of secondary amines to give the N-nitrosamines, and the significant safety risks on N-nitrosamines. It is believed that such nitrosamine derivatives should be investigated more fully in the interests of consumer safety.

  7. Temporal Variations in Cigarette Tobacco Bacterial Community Composition and Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Content Are Influenced by Brand and Storage Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopyk, Jessica; Chattopadhyay, Suhana; Kulkarni, Prachi; Smyth, Eoghan M.; Hittle, Lauren E.; Paulson, Joseph N.; Pop, Mihai; Buehler, Stephanie S.; Clark, Pamela I.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Sapkota, Amy R.

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco products, specifically cigarettes, are home to microbial ecosystems that may play an important role in the generation of carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), as well as the onset of multiple adverse human health effects associated with the use of these products. Therefore, we conducted time-series experiments with five commercially available brands of cigarettes that were either commercially mentholated, custom-mentholated, user-mentholated, or non-mentholated. To mimic user storage conditions, the cigarettes were incubated for 14 days under three different temperatures and relative humidities (i.e., pocket, refrigerator, and room). Overall, 360 samples were collected over the course of 2 weeks and total DNA was extracted, PCR amplified for the V3V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. A subset of samples (n = 32) was also analyzed via liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for two TSNAs: N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Comparative analyses of the five tobacco brands revealed bacterial communities dominated by Pseudomonas, Pantoea, and Bacillus, with Pseudomonas relatively stable in abundance regardless of storage condition. In addition, core bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in all samples and included Bacillus pumilus, Rhizobium sp., Sphingomonas sp., unknown Enterobacteriaceae, Pantoea sp., Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, and P. putida. Additional OTUs were identified that significantly changed in relative abundance between day 0 and day 14, influenced by brand and storage condition. In addition, small but statistically significant increases in NNN levels were observed in user- and commercially mentholated brands between day 0 and day 14 at pocket conditions. These data suggest that manufacturing and user manipulations, such as mentholation and storage conditions, may directly impact the

  8. Occurrence of N-nitrosamines in U.S. freshwater sediments near wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushgari, Adam J; Halden, Rolf U; Venkatesan, Arjun K

    2017-02-05

    In the present study, 40 freshwater sediments collected near 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across the United States were analyzed for eight N-nitrosamines by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Three N-nitrosamines were detected for the first time in freshwater sediments in units of ng/g dry weight at the specified detection frequency: N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA; 0.2-3.3; 58%), N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA; 0.2-4.7; 50%), and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR; 3.4-19.6; 18%). At least one N-nitrosamine was detected in 70% (28/40) of sediments analyzed. Non-detect values in units of ng/g dw were obtained for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA; N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA; N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA; N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine (NDPA; N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP; N-nitrosamine occurrences in sediment: NDBA and NDPhA were positively correlated with bulk water ammonia and pH levels, and NPYR with sediment content of organic carbon and iron. Interestingly, N-nitrosamine occurrences up- and downstream of WWTPs were statistically indistinguishable (p>0.05). This is the first report on the occurrence of the carcinogenic N-nitrosamines NDBA, NDPhA, and NPYR in U.S. freshwater sediments. Discovery of this phenomenon warrants further research on the compounds' origin, environmental persistence, aquatic toxicity, and risks posed.

  9. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg−1 range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment and...

  10. Nitrosamines as nicotinic receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Hildegard M

    2007-05-30

    Nitrosamines are carcinogens formed in the mammalian organism from amine precursors contained in food, beverages, cosmetics and drugs. The potent carcinogen, NNK, and the weaker carcinogen, NNN, are nitrosamines formed from nicotine. Metabolites of the nitrosamines react with DNA to form adducts responsible for genotoxic effects. We have identified NNK as a high affinity agonist for the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7nAChR) whereas NNN bound with high affinity to epibatidine-sensitive nAChRs. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) bound to both receptors but with lower affinity. High levels of the alpha7nAChR were expressed in human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and in hamster pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs), which serve as a model for the cell of origin of human SCLC. Exposure of SCLC or PNECs to NNK or nicotine increased expression of the alpha7nAChR and caused influx of Ca(2+), activation of PKC, Raf-1, ERK1/2, and c-myc, resulting in the stimulation of cell proliferation. Signaling via the alpha7nAChR was enhanced when cells were maintained in an environment of 10-15% CO(2) similar to that in the diseased lung. Hamsters with hyperoxia-induced pulmonary fibrosis developed neuroendocrine lung carcinomas similar to human SCLC when treated with NNK, DEN, or nicotine. The development of the NNK-induced tumors was prevented by green tea or theophylline. The beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, isoproterenol or theophylline blocked NNK-induced cell proliferation in vitro. NNK and nicotine-induced hyperactivity of the alpha7nAChR/RAF/ERK1/2 pathway thus appears to play a crucial role in the development of SCLC in smokers and could be targeted for cancer prevention.

  11. Mechanism and Influence Factors of N-nitrosamines Formation in Meat Products%肉制品中亚销胺的形成机理及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敬

    2008-01-01

    Nitrite is one of the most important additives in meat products. In most countries the use of the additive is limited and either the ingoing or the residual amounts are regulated by laws. N-nitrosamines are formed by amines or amino acids with nitrite in meat. Investigations on the occurrence of N-nitrosamines in meat products have been carried out in many countries around the world. In this paper, mechanism of N-nitrosamine formation and its corresponding influence factors in meat products were reviewed. The contents of N-nitrosamines in meat and analytical techniques for the compounds were also described.

  12. Intake of Volatile N-nitrosamines and Their Ability to Exogenously Synthesize in the Diet of Inhabitants from High-risk Area of Esophageal Cancer in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective Nan'ao County in Guandong Province is a high-risk area of esophageal cancer in Southern China. Of the suspected etiological factors in the environment, N-nitrosamines and their precursors have received the greatest attenfion. Methods Sixty samples of the diet ingested by the inhabitants were collected and detected for volatile N-nitrosamines and their precursors. Five Nnitrosamines detected by Gas Chromatography-Thermal Energy Analyzer were N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosopiperidine and N-ditrosomethyl-benzylamine. Results The average content of 5 volatile N-nitrosamines in the diet was 312.0 μg/kg (median). The daily intake of the nitrosamines was 286.5 μ tg/head/day. Only the ability to exogenously synthesize N-nitrosopiperidine was powerful among 5 volatile N-nitrosamines. By a computerized stepwise regression analysis and curve fitting, we studied the correlation among the nitrosamines, the precursors and the major food items in the samples. Conclusion It demonstrated that a relatively high content of volatile N-nitrosamines was present in the diet collected in the area.

  13. N-nitrosamines in grass silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Broekhoven, L W; Davies, J A

    1982-01-01

    During the fermentation of silages from nitrate-rich grass, the conditions are suitable for the formation of N-nitrosamines. Earlier investigations had shown that only low concentrations of volatile N-nitrosamines were formed. The first ten days of ensilage were investigated. The formation of nitrite was accompanied by the formation of volatile N-nitrosamines. NDMA and NDEA were detected in concentrations of up to about 2 micrograms/kg. After stabilisation of the silage, these concentrations dropped to about 0.6 microgram/kg. Preliminary results are presented concerning the presence of non-volatile N-nitroso compounds. The method of Walters et al. (1980) indicates that non-volatile N-nitroso compounds were present in amounts equivalent to 85 mg NPIP/kg sample.

  14. [Public health competencies and contents in Spanish undergraduate medical degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Barrio-Fernández, José Luis; Porta, Miquel; Benavides, Fernando G; de Miguel, Ángel Gil

    2016-01-01

    To reach a consensus among public health faculty from various Spanish universities about the core public health competencies that should be integrated into undergraduate medical degrees. The 2nd Forum of University Teachers was held at the Rey Juan Carlos University (Madrid, 11-12 December 2014). Twenty-four university professors and lecturers from 19 Spanish universities imparting medical degrees participated in the forum. They were distributed in three working groups during three working sessions. In the first session, they were asked to identify and classify core public health competencies for medical degrees. In the second, they were asked to propose public health contents for the identified competencies. In the third session, the participants organized these contents in thematic blocks. The results were discussed in distinct plenary sessions. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the activities related to the public health functions «Assessment of the population's health needs» and «Developing health policies». The final programme included basic contents organised into five units: Concept of health, public health and its determinants; Epidemiology and health research; Determinants and health problems; Strategies, interventions and policies; and health systems, clinical and healthcare management. The public health core competencies and contents identified in this Forum may be considered as a starting point to improve and update public health training programmes for future medical professionals. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimation of nitrite, nitrate, and N-nitrosamines in drinking water and soft drinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwan, S.M.; Jawad, I.M.; Abdul-Rahman, S.K.; Al-Kafaji, S.H.

    1987-09-01

    A survey for the determination of the carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in drinking water and selected soft drinks was achieved, using a GLC method. This shows that these substances occur predominantly in the drinks. The average contents of dimethylnitrosamine and diethylnitrosamine in drinking water were 4.1 ..mu..g/L and 0.2 ..mu..g/L respectively, while they were approximately 3.9 ..mu..g/L and 0.43 ..mu..g/L in soft drinks. Nitrite and nitrate contents in drinking water samples were also estimated, as potential factors for the formation of N-nitrosamines. The mean contents of nitrite and nitrate in drinking water were 65 g/L and 10.8 g/L respectively.

  16. Zeolites for nitrosamine and pharmaceutical removal from demineralised and surface water: Mechanisms and efficacy

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.

    2012-03-01

    Zeolites with a high Si/Al ratio can be used as selective adsorbents in water treatment, targeting organic micropollutants which are removed poorly with activated carbon. Due to size exclusion, many Natural Organic Matter (NOM) components cannot access the pores, thus limiting adsorption competition between organic micropollutant and NOM. Furthermore, zeolite channel diameters are close to molecule diameters, which results in strong van der Waals interaction. MOR200 and ZSM5, the two most hydrophobic zeolites, showed the highest removal of neutral nitrosamines in demineralised water, with higher efficacy than activated carbon. DAY and MOR30, which were relatively hydrophilic zeolites, did not show appreciable removal of any of the nitrosamines. When nitrosamines were adsorbed from surface water, there was no influence of competition with, or pore blockage by, NOM components on nitrosamine removal for ZSM5 zeolite, in contrast to activated carbon. Repulsion of negatively charged pharmaceuticals was significant for ZSM5, which had a Si/Al ratio of 80. MOR200 had a Si/Al ratio of 200, indicating a lower Al content than ZSM5 and, as such, a lower negative surface charge. Charge effects were not observed for MOR200. A relationship was found between the Stokes diameter of the pharmaceuticals and nitrosamines, and their removal by ZSM5 and MOR200, indicating that a "close fit" adsorption mechanism is more likely than hydrophobic interaction in these zeolites. Due to their selective nature, adsorption on zeolites should only be considered as an additional treatment step to existing processes, dedicated for the removal of specific organic micropollutants. Less specific treatment techniques, such as activated carbon filtration, are still required to ensure a broad barrier for organic micropollutants in water treatment. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to nitrosamines in thirdhand tobacco smoke increases cancer risk in non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Noelia; Özel, Mustafa Z; Lewis, Alastair C; Marcé, Rosa M; Borrull, Francesc; Hamilton, Jacqueline F

    2014-10-01

    In addition to passive inhalation, non-smokers, and especially children, are exposed to residual tobacco smoke gases and particles that are deposited to surfaces and dust, known as thirdhand smoke (THS). However, until now the potential cancer risks of this pathway of exposure have been highly uncertain and not considered in public health policy. In this study, we estimate for the first time the potential cancer risk by age group through non-dietary ingestion and dermal exposure to carcinogen N-nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) measured in house dust samples. Using a highly sensitive and selective analytical approach we have determined the presence of nicotine, eight N-nitrosamines and five tobacco-specific nitrosamines in forty-six settled dust samples from homes occupied by both smokers and non-smokers. Using observations of house dust composition, we have estimated the cancer risk by applying the most recent official toxicological information. Calculated cancer risks through exposure to the observed levels of TSNAs at an early life stage (1 to 6years old) exceeded the upper-bound risk recommended by the USEPA in 77% of smokers' and 64% of non-smokers' homes. The maximum risk from exposure to all nitrosamines measured in a smoker occupied home was one excess cancer case per one thousand population exposed. The results presented here highlight the potentially severe long-term consequences of THS exposure, particularly to children, and give strong evidence of its potential health risk and, therefore, they should be considered when developing future environmental and health policies.

  18. Biogenic amines in fish: roles in intoxication, spoilage, and nitrosamine formation--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bulushi, Ismail; Poole, Susan; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic amines are non-volatile amines formed by decarboxylation of amino acids. Although many biogenic amines have been found in fish, only histamine, cadaverine, and putrescine have been found to be significant in fish safety and quality determination. Despite a widely reported association between histamine and scombroid food poisoning, histamine alone appears to be insufficient to cause food toxicity. Putrescine and cadaverine have been suggested to potentiate histamine toxicity. With respect to spoilage on the other hand, only cadaverine has been found to be a useful index of the initial stage of fish decomposition. The relationship between biogenic amines, sensory evaluation, and trimethylamine during spoilage are influenced by bacterial composition and free amino acid content. A mesophilic bacterial count of log 6-7 cfu/g has been found to be associated with 5 mg histamine/100 g fish, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maximum allowable histamine level. In vitro studies have shown the involvement of cadaverine and putrescine in the formation of nitrosamines, nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), and nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), respectively. In addition, impure salt, high temperature, and low pH enhance nitrosamine formation, whereas pure sodium chloride inhibits their formation. Understanding the relationships between biogenic amines and their involvement in the formation of nitrosamines could explain the mechanism of scombroid poisoning and assure the safety of many fish products.

  19. The occurrence of N-nitrosamines, residual nitrite and biogenic amines in commercial dry fermented sausages and evaluation of their occasional relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mey, Eveline; De Klerck, Katrijn; De Maere, Hannelore; Dewulf, Lore; Derdelinckx, Guy; Peeters, Marie-Christine; Fraeye, Ilse; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Paelinck, Hubert

    2014-02-01

    Regarding food borne intoxications, the accumulation of biogenic amines must be avoided in all kinds of food products. Moreover, biogenic amines can function as precursors for the formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines when nitrite is present. To estimate the food safety of the dry fermented sausages available on the Belgian market, a screening of the residual sodium nitrite and nitrate contents, biogenic amines and volatile N-nitrosamine concentrations was performed on 101 samples. The median concentrations of residual NaNO2 and NaNO3 were each individually lower than 20mg/kg. In general, the biogenic amine accumulation remained low at the end of shelf life. Only in one product the amounts of cadaverine and putrescine reached intoxicating levels. Concerning the occurrence of N-nitrosamines, only N-nitrosopiperidine and N-nitrosomorpholine were detected in a high number of samples (resp. 22% and 28%). No correlation between the presence of N-nitrosamines and the biogenic amines content was observed. Although the N-nitrosamines could not been linked to specific product categories, the occurrence of N-nitrosopiperidine could probably be attributed to the use of pepper.

  20. Analysis of undergraduate cell biology contents in Brazilian public universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel Luis

    2017-04-01

    The enormous amount of information available in cell biology has created a challenge in selecting the core concepts we should be teaching our undergraduates. One way to define a set of essential core ideas in cell biology is to analyze what a specific cell biology community is teaching their students. Our main objective was to analyze the cell biology content currently being taught in Brazilian universities. We collected the syllabi of cell biology courses from public universities in Brazil and analyzed the frequency of cell biology topics in each course. We also compared the Brazilian data with the contents of a major cell biology textbook. Our analysis showed that while some cell biology topics such as plasma membrane and cytoskeleton was present in ∼100% of the Brazilian curricula analyzed others such as cell signaling and cell differentiation were present in only ∼35%. The average cell biology content taught in the Brazilian universities is quite different from what is presented in the textbook. We discuss several possible explanations for these observations. We also suggest a list with essential cell biology topics for any biological or biomedical undergraduate course. The comparative discussion of cell biology topics presented here could be valuable in other educational contexts.

  1. [The salt content of food: a public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, A; Delaveau, P

    2009-07-01

    Salt abuse in nutrition may exert harmful effects on health, increasing arterial hypertension and its cardiovascular consequences. It is a risk factor, particularly for older subjects and those having chronic diseases such as arterial hypertension, some renal diseases, and obesity. In subjects more particularly vulnerable, the maintenance of sodium balance, which is mainly aldosterone dependent, is perturbed. Although the use of salt for food preservation has greatly declined, it remains a serious risk factor. Excessive salt intake however results more often from poor dietary habits. The WHO and AFSSA have advised to reduce daily salt intake to 5 g, whereas it is currently about 9-10 g. In spite of repeated warnings, salt abuse remains the causal agent for many disease conditions, mainly arterial hypertension. That is why legislative measures should be taken in order to limit the salt content of food industry products, particularly as a preservative in foods. A large-scale public information campaign would be necessary with participation of public health partners, particularly physicians and pharmacists.

  2. The content and efficacy of environmental public health journal homepages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindars, E S; Spickett, J T

    2000-01-01

    The information on several environmental public health journal homepages has been assessed for its quality and quantity, using selected key criteria. These criteria included the extent of text available, the ability to search the website, the table of contents free via email, and the presence of hyper-links. A high degree of variability is seen, with services and facilities offered ranging from none to the entire journal available for no fee. The journal homepages that are the most comprehensive are those that are associated with major institutions and hence financed by contributions from their members or public money, i.e. the British Medical Association, the World Health Organisation and the US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The journal homepages associated with these institutions offered full text of both current and archived issues as well as additions such as the ability to search other sites, web links, and in some cases hyper-linked references and information on related articles. The provision of text on the Internet should be an essential aim for all journal Homepages, to ensure fast and effective conveyance of information to health professionals.

  3. Molecularly imprinted polymers on a silica surface for the adsorption of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-ting; Zhu, Yong-yan; Li, Li; Wang, Wen-na; Yin, Yong-guan; Zhu, Quan-hong

    2015-07-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are one of the most important groups of carcinogens in tobacco products. Using adsorbents as filter additives is an effective way to reduce tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette smoke. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) using nicotinamide as template were grafted on the silica gel surface to obtain MIP@SiO2 and employed as filter additives to absorb tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke. Four milligrams of MIP@SiO2 per cigarette was added to the interface between filter and tobacco rod to prepare a binary filter system. The mainstream smoke was collected on an industry-standard Cambridge filter pad and extracted with ammonium acetate aqueous solution before analysis. Compared to the cigarette smoke of the control group, the levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines with silica gel and with MIP@SiO2 were both reduced, and the adsorption rates of N-nitrosonornicotine, N-nitrosoanabasine, N-nitrosoanatabine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridine)-1-butanone with silica gel and with MIP@SiO2 were 20.76, 15.32, 18.79, and 18.01%, and 41.33, 34.04, 37.86, and 35.53%, respectively. Furthermore the content of total particle materials in cigarette smoke with silica gel was decreased evidently but showed no observable change with MIP@SiO2 . It indicated MIP@SiO2 could selectively reduce tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the mainstream cigarette smoke with no change to the cigarette flavor. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. THE N-NITROSAMINES IN TOBACCO SMOKE AND ITS ADSORPTION AND DEGRADATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    N-nitrosamines are strong carcinogens for humans. This paper gives an overview of the nitrosmaines in cigarette smoke including the formation, the harmfulness, the analytical methods of the nitrosmaines and the adsorptions and degradations of N -nitrosamines.

  5. [Determination of migration of 15 N-nitrosamines and N-nitrosatable substances from children's latex articles by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using solid phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pi; Bai, Hua; Li, Haiyu; Chen, Ming; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    A method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) using solid phase extraction (SPE) has been developed for the determination of 15 N-nitrosamines from children's latex articles. Artificial saliva was used as the migration solution to extract N-nitrosamines in children' s latex articles. And then a polar modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer (Chromabond Easy) was used for the selective SPE of the analytes in the migration solution. The analytes were then separated on an HP-5MS UI GC column and determined by MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Good linearity ranged from 5 microg/L to 2 000 microg/L was observed for all the compounds (R2 > 0.998) and the limits of quantification for the 15 N-nitrosamines were 0.625 - 12.50 microg/kg (S/N = 10), which were lower than the limits required by the EU 2009/48/EC Directive. The average recoveries of the target analytes at low, medium, and high spiked levels were in the ranges of 53.8% - 116.2%, 52.7% - 105.1% and 49.5% - 102.9%, respectively. The average within-day and between-day RSDs were from 1.3% to 14.0% (n = 6) and from 1.6% to 7.6% (n = 4), respectively. The proposed method was used to monitor N-nitrosamines in baby nipples and balloons, and N-nitrosamines were found in some samples. The total contents of the 15 N-nitrosamines in the analyzed nipples and balloons samples ranged from 0.049 9 mg/kg to 41.2 mg/kg. And the total contents of the N-nitrosatable substances in the analyzed samples ranged from 0.026 4 mg/kg to 12.5 mg/kg.

  6. The Gap between Professional and Research Agenda: A Content Analysis of "Public Relations Journal" and "Public Relations Review."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Glen M.; And Others

    A content analysis compared the professional and research agendas of "Public Relations Journal" and "Public Relations Review" for the years 1975-81. A sample of 121 articles from the former and 111 articles from the latter were analyzed, and the content of each was assigned to one of 10 categories related to the context,…

  7. DHS Public Cloud Web Content Management as a Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The actual Web Content Management Solution is based on industry leading open source technology known as Drupal Content Management System. OCIO/ESDO has analyzed the...

  8. IMS Content Packaging v1.2 public draft specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Vogten, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    The IMS Content Packaging Specification provides the functionality to describe and package learning materials, such as an individual course or a collection of courses, into interoperable, distributable packages. Content Packaging addresses the description, structure, and location of online learning

  9. Strong selective adsorption of N-nitrosamines on zeolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@With the functional group of -N-N==O, N-nitrosamines are well known to constitute a serious health risk[1]. These toxicant chemicals not only give rise to poisoning sometimes[2], but also play an important role in causing cancer in almost all organs of experimental animals and are therefore likely to be related to human beings, since they have the similar metabolism and metabalin to those animals[3]. Gaseous nitrogen oxides like NO2, N2O3 and N2O4 are reportedly to react with secondary amines and form N-nitrosamines in environment[4], and some foods, such as beer and salted fish, contain a high concentration of N-nitrosamines and their precursors. However, tobacco and cigarette smoke are believed to be the largest N-nitrosamines pollution for human beings besides the industrial working place. N-nitrosamines are considered important contributors to the total burden of carcinogens resulting from tobacco, especially tobacco smoke, because they can be deposited directly into the blood following inhalation through smoking.

  10. 5 CFR 2634.308 - Reporting periods and contents of public financial disclosure reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... financial disclosure reports. 2634.308 Section 2634.308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Contents of Public Reports § 2634.308 Reporting periods and contents of public financial disclosure...

  11. Including Public Health Content in a Bioethics and Law Course: Vaccine Exemptions, Tort Liability, and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating public health content in a bioethics and law course can prompt rich discussions. This set of materials on mandatory vaccinations, nonmedical exemptions, and potential tort liability for nonvaccination explores the roles of public health law and tort law in advancing social goals and protecting individual rights and interests. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  12. Characterization of the microbial community structure and nitrosamine-reducing isolates in drinking water biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanfeng; Guo, Yanling; Yang, Qingxiang; Huang, Yao; Zhu, Chunyou; Fan, Jing; Pan, Feng

    2015-07-15

    Two biofilters were constructed using biological activated carbon (BAC) and nitrosamine-containing water from two drinking water treatment plants. The microbiome of each biofilter was characterized by 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing, and one nitrosamine-reducing bacterium was isolated. The results showed that nitrosamines changed the relative abundance at both the phylum and class levels, and the new genera were observed in the microbial communities of the two BAC filters after cultivation. As such, the genus Rhodococcus, which includes many nitrosamine-reducing strains reported in previous studies, was only detected in the BAC2 filter after cultivation. These findings indicate that nitrosamines can significantly affect the genus level in the microbial communities. Furthermore, the isolated bacterial culture Rhodococcus cercidiphylli A41 AS-1 exhibited the ability to reduce five nitrosamines (N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, and N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine) with removal ratios that ranged from 38.1% to 85.4%. The isolate exhibited a better biodegradation ability with nitrosamine as the carbon source when compared with nitrosamine as the nitrogen source. This study increases our understanding of the microbial community in drinking water biofilters with trace quantities of nitrosamines, and provides information on the metabolism of nitrosamine-reducing bacteria.

  13. Content and Citation Analyses of "Public Relations Review."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Linda P.; Lin, Li-Yun

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes 161 cited and 177 uncited articles published in "Public Relations Review" (1975-93) to determine if 3 independent variables--research methods, type of statistics, and topics--influenced whether or not articles were cited in other research articles. Finds significant differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods but not…

  14. 40 CFR 141.205 - Content of the public notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminant in their drinking water; (5) Whether alternative water supplies should be used; (6) What actions... taking to install treatment, find alternative sources of water, or otherwise comply with the terms and... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Public Notification of Drinking Water Violations...

  15. Multi-year Content Analysis of User Facility Related Publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Robert M [ORNL; Stahl, Christopher G [ORNL; Hines, Jayson [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL; Wells, Jack C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Scientific user facilities provide resources and support that enable scientists to conduct experiments or simulations pertinent to their respective research. Consequently, it is critical to have an informed understanding of the impact and contributions that these facilities have on scientific discoveries. Leveraging insight into scientific publications that acknowledge the use of these facilities enables more informed decisions by facility management and sponsors in regard to policy, resource allocation, and influencing the direction of science as well as more effectively understand the impact of a scientific user facility. This work discusses preliminary results of mining scientific publications that utilized resources at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These results show promise in identifying and leveraging multi-year trends and providing a higher resolution view of the impact that a scientific user facility may have on scientific discoveries.

  16. [Public health competencies and contents in Spanish university degree programmes of Veterinary Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó-Blanes, María Del Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Huerta, Belén

    2017-04-19

    To reach a consensus among public health faculty from various Spanish universities about the core public health competencies that should be integrated into the Veterinary Medicine degree training. The 3rd Forum of University Professors of Public Health was held at the School of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Cordoba (12-13 January 2016). Forty-two university professors and lecturers from nine Spanish universities with veterinary degrees participated in the forum. They were divided into five working groups during three working sessions to identify and classify core public health competencies for the Veterinary Medicine degree, propose public health contents for the identified competencies and organize such contents in thematic blocks. The results were discussed in different plenary sessions. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the activities related to the following public health functions: «Assessment of the population's health needs» and «Developing health policies». The final programme included basic contents organized into five units: 1) Fundamentals of public health; 2) Study and research in public health; 3) Production, animal health and environment; 4) Food security; and 5) Health education. The public health core competencies and contents identified in this Forum may be considered as a starting point to update public health training programmes for future veterinary professionals. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Content analysis of publications on product-service systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Hänsch Beuren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is an update of the literature on product-service systems (PSS through a review of the literature from 2006 to 2011. Aiming at changing consumption of products to a more sustainable society, the PSS has been considered a competitive opportunity, which offers the use of the product through the provision of services. In this context, this paper aims to complement the existing literature on PSS through a structured search of relevant journal databases. The identified studies have important information on the PSS and these are presented throughout the text, highlighting major journals, most cited authors and the main article used as reference by the academy. From the identified and interpreted publications, the paper highlights some key factors, which the literature has approached on the subject in recent years. Therefore, by analyzing the publications during the selected study period, a conclusive synthesis is presented at the end of each key-factor. Finally, some suggestions for future research on the subject are presented, highlighting the need for theoretical and empirical research to achieve better understanding about the benefits of a PSS as well as tools and methodologies that facilitate its implementation.

  18. Exploiting Publication Contents and Collaboration Networks for Collaborator Recommendation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjie Kong

    Full Text Available Thanks to the proliferation of online social networks, it has become conventional for researchers to communicate and collaborate with each other. Meanwhile, one critical challenge arises, that is, how to find the most relevant and potential collaborators for each researcher? In this work, we propose a novel collaborator recommendation model called CCRec, which combines the information on researchers' publications and collaboration network to generate better recommendation. In order to effectively identify the most potential collaborators for researchers, we adopt a topic clustering model to identify the academic domains, as well as a random walk model to compute researchers' feature vectors. Using DBLP datasets, we conduct benchmarking experiments to examine the performance of CCRec. The experimental results show that CCRec outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in terms of precision, recall and F1 score.

  19. N-nitrosamines induced infertility and hepatotoxicity in male rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheweita, S A; El Banna, Y Y; Balbaa, M; Abdullah, I A; Hassan, H E

    2017-09-01

    N-nitrosamines are widely spread environmental pollutants of well-known toxicity and carcinogenicity in various animal species. These compounds are metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 system predominantly in the liver and in other tissues into more active metabolites leading to generation of both alkylating agents that alkylate DNA and reactive oxygen species. In the current study, we investigated the influence of four types of N-nitrosamines that are commonly present in the environment [methyethylnitrosamine, (MEN), diethylnitrosamine (DEN), diphenylnitroasamine (DPN) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)] on both livers and testes of male rabbits through assessment of 17 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 β-HSD) activity. The protein expression of the three cytochrome P450s (CYP11A1, CYP19A1, and CYP21A2) is involved in the steroidogenesis. The levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) were also determined in the plasma of N-nitrosamines-treated rabbits after one, four-, eight- and twelve weeks of treatment of male New Zealand rabbits with an oral dose of 0.5 mg/kg B.W/day of each compound. In addition, activities of glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and levels of free radicals measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) level were quantified in both livers and testes. The present study showed that levels of free radicals (TBARS) were markedly increased, whereas GSH levels were depleted in the tissues of both livers and testes after treatment of rabbits with any of N-nitrosamines. In addition, all tested N-nitrosamines inhibited the activities of antioxidant enzyme activities (GR, GST, SOD, and CAT) in hepatic and testicular tissues of rabbits after 12 weeks of treatment. Histopathological examination showed that N-nitrosamines caused lymphocytic infiltration with vascular degeneration and necrosis, congestion of central vein with RBCs hemolysis, dilated sinusoids, as well as

  20. 78 FR 23289 - Public Review of Draft National Shoreline Data Content Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Data Content Standard is intended to enhance the shoreline framework by providing technical guidance on... Shoreline Data Content Standard and a summary analysis of the changes will be made available to the public... boundaries, developing nautical charts, and engaging in marine planning and other academic research and...

  1. Digital Broadband Content: Public Sector Information. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 112

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Public bodies hold a range of information and content ranging from demographic, economic and meteorological data to art works, historical documents and books. Given the availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) public sector information can play an important role in producing innovative value-added services and goods.…

  2. Hierarchical Composites to Reduce N-Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the harmful constituents in cigarette smoke, two hierarchical composites were synthesized. Based on, zeolites HZSM-5 or NaY fragments were introduced into the synthetic system of mesoporous silica SBA-15 or MCM-41 and assembled with the mesoporous materials. These porous composites combine the advantages of micro- and mesoporous materials, and exhibit higher effects than activated carbon on reducing tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA and some vapor phase compounds in smoke.

  3. Nitrosamine formation in amine scrubbing at desorber temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Nathan A; Goldman, Mark J; Rochelle, Gary T

    2014-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is a thermodynamically efficient and industrially proven method for carbon capture, but amine solvents can nitrosate in the desorber, forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines. The kinetics of reactions involving nitrite and monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methylethanolamine (MMEA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) were determined under desorber conditions. The nitrosations of MEA, DEA, and MMEA are first order in nitrite, carbamate species, and hydronium ion. Nitrosation of MDEA, a tertiary amine, is not catalyzed by the addition of CO2 since it cannot form a stable carbamate. Concentrated and CO2 loaded MEA was blended with low concentrations of N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine (HeGly), hydroxyethyl-ethylenediamine (HEEDA), and DEA, secondary amines common in MEA degradation. Nitrosamine yield was proportional to the concentration of secondary amine and was a function of CO2 loading and temperature. Blends of tertiary amines with piperazine (PZ) showed n-nitrosopiperazine (MNPZ) yields close to unity, validating the slow nitrosation rates hypothesized for tertiary amines. These results provide a useful tool for estimating nitrosamine accumulation over a range of amine solvents.

  4. Relative importance of N-nitrosodimethylamine compared to total N-nitrosamines in drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2013-04-16

    A U.S.-wide occurrence survey conducted as part of the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 2 found that N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was present in 34% of chloraminated drinking water samples but was the most prevalent of the six N-nitrosamines evaluated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 521. If the U.S. EPA considers limiting exposures to N-nitrosamines as a group, a critical question is whether NDMA is the most prevalent N-nitrosamine or whether significant concentrations occur for N-nitrosamines other than those captured by EPA Method 521. A total N-nitrosamine assay was developed and applied to 36 drinking water plant effluents or distribution system samples from 11 utilities, including 9 utilities that practiced chloramination for secondary disinfection. Concurrent application of EPA Method 521 indicated that NDMA was the most prevalent of the Method 521 N-nitrosamines yet accounted for ∼5% of the total N-nitrosamine pool on a median basis. Among eight plant influent waters, NDMA was detected once, while total N-nitrosamines were detected in five samples, suggesting the importance of source water protection. Similar to NDMA, total N-nitrosamine concentrations in source waters increased after chloramination. Chloramines were applied to organic precursors serving as models for pristine natural organic matter, algal exudate, wastewater effluent, and polyDADMAC quaternary amine-based coagulation polymers. While high yields of NDMA were restricted to the wastewater effluent and polyDADMAC, high yields of total N-nitrosamines were observed from the algal exudate, the wastewater effluent, and polyDADMAC. The results suggest that N-nitrosamines as a class may be more prevalent than suggested by occurrence surveys conducted using EPA Method 521.

  5. Contribution of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors to Domestic Sewage by Greywaters and Blackwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2015-11-17

    N-nitrosamines and their precursors are significant concerns for water utilities exploiting wastewater-impacted water supplies, particularly those practicing potable reuse of wastewater. Previous efforts to identify specific precursors in municipal wastewater accounting for N-nitrosamine formation have met with limited success. As an alternative, we quantified the relative importance of greywater (i.e., shower, kitchen sink, bathroom washbasin, and laundry) and blackwater (i.e., urine and feces) streams in terms of their loadings of ambient specific and total N-nitrosamines and chloramine-reactive and ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors to domestic sewage. Accounting for the volume fractions of individual greywater and blackwater streams, laundry water represented the most significant source of N-nitrosamines and their precursors, followed by shower water and urine. Laundry water was particularly important for ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors, accounting for ∼99% of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors and ∼69% of precursors for other uncharacterized N-nitrosamines. For the other greywater streams, consumer products contributed additional N-nitrosamines and precursors, but the remarkable uniformity across different products suggested the importance of common macroconstituents. The consumption of a standard dose of the antacid ranitidine substantially increased NDMA and its chloramine-reactive precursors in urine. Nevertheless, nearly 40% of the American population would need to consume ranitidine daily to match the NDMA loadings from laundry water.

  6. Metabolism of acyclic and cyclic N-nitrosamines in cultured human bronchi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    bronchial specimens, these N-nitrosamines and/or their metabolites bound to bronchial mucosal DNA and protein. Binding levels were higher to protein than to DNA. Binding levels of DNP were as high as those with the two acyclic N-nitrosamines DMN and DEN, but binding levels of NPy and NPd were lower. Human...

  7. Nitrosamine degradation by UV light in post-combustion CO2 capture: effect of solvent matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, F. de; Voice, A.K.; Trap, H.C.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    Potential production and emission of nitrosamines during post-combustion CO2 capture has drawn some attention due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenicity. One of the possible ways to reduce the concentration of nitrosamines is irradiation of the liquid streams of the capture plant with UV li

  8. Nitrosamine degradation by UV light in post-combustion CO2 capture: effect of solvent matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, F. de; Voice, A.K.; Trap, H.C.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    Potential production and emission of nitrosamines during post-combustion CO2 capture has drawn some attention due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenicity. One of the possible ways to reduce the concentration of nitrosamines is irradiation of the liquid streams of the capture plant with UV

  9. [Public health competencies and contents in pharmacy degree programs in Spanish universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbreras, Blanca; Davó-Blanes, María Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Bosch, Félix

    2015-01-01

    To identify public health core competencies and contents in pharmacy degrees at a meeting of public health lecturers in pharmacy degrees from various public and private universities. The first Meeting of the Forum of University Teaching Staff in Pharmacy Degrees was held at the Faculty of Medicine in the Complutense University, Madrid, Spain on the 19(th) and 20(th) of November 2013. The meeting was attended by 17 lecturers. Participants brought their own teaching programs and were given two previous studies on public health competencies for analysis of public health contents and competencies in pharmacy degrees. Working groups were formed and the results were shared. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the following functions: "Assessment of the population's health needs" and "Developing health policies". The final program included basic contents organized into 8 units: Concept of Public Health, Demography, Epidemiological Method, Environment and Health, Food Safety, Epidemiology of Major Health Problems, Health Promotion and Education, and Health Planning and Management. Representation of almost all the Spanish Pharmacy Faculties and the consensus reached in the description of competences and program contents will greatly improve the quality of teaching in this area. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. EXplaining The Willingness Of Public Professionals To Implement Public Policies: Content, Context, And Personality Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); A.J. Steijn (Bram); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe willingness of public professionals to implement policy programmes is important for achieving policy performance. However, few scholars have developed and tested systematic frameworks to analyze this issue. In this study, we address this by building and testing an appropriate framewo

  11. EXplaining The Willingness Of Public Professionals To Implement Public Policies: Content, Context, And Personality Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); A.J. Steijn (Bram); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe willingness of public professionals to implement policy programmes is important for achieving policy performance. However, few scholars have developed and tested systematic frameworks to analyze this issue. In this study, we address this by building and testing an appropriate

  12. Indoor Air Quality Investigations on Particulate Matter, Carbonyls, and Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Sarah E.

    Americans spend upwards of 90% of their time indoors, hence indoor air quality (IAQ) and the impact of IAQ on human health is a major public health concern. IAQ can be negatively impacted by outdoor pollution infiltrating indoors, the emission of indoor pollutants, indoor atmospheric chemistry and poor ventilation. Energy saving measures like retrofits to seal the building envelope to prevent the leakage of heated or cooled air will impact IAQ. However, existing studies have been inconclusive as to whether increased energy efficiency is leading to detrimental IAQ. In this work, field campaigns were conducted in apartment homes in Phoenix, Arizona to evaluate IAQ as it relates to particulate matter (PM), carbonyls, and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA). To investigate the impacts of an energy efficiency retrofit on IAQ, indoor and outdoor air quality sampling was carried out at Sunnyslope Manor, a city-subsidized senior living apartment complex. Measured indoor formaldehyde levels before the building retrofit exceeded reference exposure limits, but in the long term follow-up sampling, indoor formaldehyde decreased for the entire study population by a statistically significant margin. Indoor PM levels were dominated by fine particles and showed a statistically significant decrease in the long term follow-up sampling within certain resident subpopulations (i.e. residents who reported smoking and residents who had lived longer at the apartment complex). Additionally, indoor glyoxal and methylglyoxal exceeded outdoor concentrations, with methylglyoxal being more prevalent pre-retrofit than glyoxal, suggesting different chemical pathways are involved. Indoor concentrations reported are larger than previous studies. TSNAs, specifically N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 4-(methyl-nitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanal (NNA) and 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) were evaluated post-retrofit at Sunnyslope Manor. Of the units tested, 86% of the smoking units and

  13. The ATLAS Public Web Pages: Online Management of HEP External Communication Content

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, Steven; Phoboo, Abha Eli; Shaw, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Education and Outreach Group is in the process of migrating its public online content to a professionally designed set of web pages built on the Drupal content management system. Development of the front-end design passed through several key stages, including audience surveys, stakeholder interviews, usage analytics, and a series of fast design iterations, called sprints. Implementation of the web site involves application of the html design using Drupal templates, refined development iterations, and the overall population of the site with content. We present the design and development processes and share the lessons learned along the way, including the results of the data-driven discovery studies. We also demonstrate the advantages of selecting a back-end supported by content management, with a focus on workflow. Finally, we discuss usage of the new public web pages to implement outreach strategy through implementation of clearly presented themes, consistent audience targeting and messaging, and th...

  14. Recognition of the Concept of Publicness in Healthcare: a Content Analysis of Korean Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The traditional boundaries between public and private sectors has been blurred, and questions raised regarding how publicness could be conceptualized. The empirical study on the concept of publicness can reveal greatly diversified views on publicness, and help to reduce confusion over publicness. For the content analysis, 750 news articles of 8 national Korean newspapers were retrieved from the Korea Integrated News Database System. The articles were coded by the inductive category for the topic of the paragraph, the concept related to publicness, and the overall tone toward publicness. Publicness was addressed in a number of different issues, and diverse and specific statuses or actions were associated with the realization of publicness. The most frequent concept was “government,” which represented the main agent of healthcare provision and the owner of institutions for “the vulnerable.” Issues of industrialization of healthcare/healthcare industry and reform of the national healthcare system mentioned publicness in a normative sense, which laid stress on “not-for-profit” service and the right of “universal access” to service for publicness. Articles of health/disease information or global health regarded “the population/public” as the main targets or beneficiaries of healthcare services. Occasionally, publicness was not related to specific concepts, being used unclearly or as a routine. The fulfillment of the specific actions or status may lead to the enhancement of publicness. However, publicness itself could not be reduced to the specific concepts suggested. The use of publicness in healthcare delivered only its normative sense without substantive meaning. PMID:28145640

  15. Occurrences of nitrosamines in chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water in three representative cities, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Wang, Zijian, E-mail: wangzj@rcees.ac.cn

    2012-10-15

    An investigation of the occurrence of nine nitrosamines in drinking water following different water treatment processes was conducted using samples from seven drinking water treatment plants in three cities and tap waters in one city in China. The total nitrosamine levels ranged from not detected (n.d.) to 43.45 ng/L. The species and concentrations of the nine nitrosamines varied with disinfection methods and source waters. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), which is the nitrosamines of greatest concern, was identified in raw water, disinfecting water, finished water and tap water samples, ranging from 0.8 to 21.6, 0.12 to 24.2, n.d. to 8.8, and n.d. to 13.3 ng/L, respectively. Chloramination alone produced the most significant amounts of NDMA, while ozonation followed by chloramination led to moderately reduced levels. Additionally, chlorination produced relatively less NDMA, while low pressure ultraviolet radiation followed by chlorination could also significantly reduce them. Total organic carbon is one of the most important factors influencing nitrosamines formation in disinfecting water. In contrast, the addition of chlorine following any other disinfection was found to increase the formation of the other eight species of nitrosamines. The three nitrosamines recommended for monitoring by the US EPA were detected in the tap water samples, but most were present at levels below those that pose a risk to human health. Nevertheless, the occurrence and concentration of nitrosamines regulated in the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List could cause some potential human effects and therefore warrant attention. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrosamines in disinfected drinking water in three Chinese cities were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some nitrosamines could be detected in raw water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advanced treatment affects nitrosamine levels both positively and negatively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matters

  16. Nitrosamine exposure exacerbates high fat diet-mediated type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and neurodegeneration with cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Monte Suzanne M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current epidemics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, and Alzheimer's disease (AD all represent insulin-resistance diseases. Previous studies linked insulin resistance diseases to high fat diets or exposure to streptozotocin, a nitrosamine-related compound that causes T2DM, NASH, and AD-type neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that low-level exposure to nitrosamines that are widely present in processed foods, amplifies the deleterious effects of high fat intake in promoting T2DM, NASH, and neurodegeneration. Methods Long Evans rat pups were treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA by i.p. Injection, and upon weaning, they were fed with high fat (60%; HFD or low fat (5%; LFD chow for 6 weeks. Rats were evaluated for cognitive impairment, insulin resistance, and neurodegeneration using behavioral, biochemical, molecular, and histological methods. Results NDEA and HFD ± NDEA caused T2DM, NASH, deficits in spatial learning, and neurodegeneration with hepatic and brain insulin and/or IGF resistance, and reductions in tau and choline acetyltransferase levels in the temporal lobe. In addition, pro-ceramide genes, which promote insulin resistance, were increased in livers and brains of rats exposed to NDEA, HFD, or both. In nearly all assays, the adverse effects of HFD+NDEA were worse than either treatment alone. Conclusions Environmental and food contaminant exposures to low, sub-mutagenic levels of nitrosamines, together with chronic HFD feeding, function synergistically to promote major insulin resistance diseases including T2DM, NASH, and AD-type neurodegeneration. Steps to minimize human exposure to nitrosamines and consumption of high-fat content foods are needed to quell these costly and devastating epidemics.

  17. Determination of 14 nitrosamines at nanogram per liter levels in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yichao; Wu, Minghuo; Wang, Wei; Chen, Beibei; Zheng, Hao; Krasner, Stuart W; Hrudey, Steve E; Li, Xing-Fang

    2015-01-20

    N-Nitrosamines, probable human carcinogens, are a group of disinfection byproducts under consideration for drinking water regulation. Currently, no method can determine trace levels of alkyl and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) of varying physical and chemical properties in water by a single analysis. To tackle this difficulty, we developed a single solid-phase extraction (SPE) method with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of 14 nitrosamines of health concern with widely differing properties. We made a cartridge composed of a vinyl/divinylbenzene polymer that efficiently concentrated the 14 nitrosamines in 100 mL of water (in contrast to 500 mL in other methods). This single SPE-HPLC-MS/MS technique provided calculated method detection limits of 0.01-2.7 ng/L and recoveries of 53-93% for the 14 nitrosamines. We have successfully demonstrated that this method can determine the presence or absence of the 14 nitrosamines in drinking water systems (eight were evaluated in Canada and the U.S.), with occurrence similar to that in other surveys. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiphenylamine, and the TSNA 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol were identified and quantified in authentic drinking water. Formation potential (FP) tests demonstrated that NDMA and TSNA precursors were present in (1) water samples in which tobacco was leached and (2) wastewater-impacted drinking water. Our results showed that prechlorination or ozonation destroyed most of the nitrosamine precursors in water. Our new single method determination of alkylnitrosamines and TSNAs significantly reduced the time and resource demands of analysis and will enable other studies to more efficiently study precursor sources, formation mechanisms, and removal techniques. It will be useful for human exposure and health risk assessments of nitrosamines in drinking water.

  18. Occurrences of nitrosamines in chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water in three representative cities, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Wang, Zijian

    2012-10-15

    An investigation of the occurrence of nine nitrosamines in drinking water following different water treatment processes was conducted using samples from seven drinking water treatment plants in three cities and tap waters in one city in China. The total nitrosamine levels ranged from not detected (n.d.) to 43.45 ng/L. The species and concentrations of the nine nitrosamines varied with disinfection methods and source waters. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), which is the nitrosamines of greatest concern, was identified in raw water, disinfecting water, finished water and tap water samples, ranging from 0.8 to 21.6, 0.12 to 24.2, n.d. to 8.8, and n.d. to 13.3 ng/L, respectively. Chloramination alone produced the most significant amounts of NDMA, while ozonation followed by chloramination led to moderately reduced levels. Additionally, chlorination produced relatively less NDMA, while low pressure ultraviolet radiation followed by chlorination could also significantly reduce them. Total organic carbon is one of the most important factors influencing nitrosamines formation in disinfecting water. In contrast, the addition of chlorine following any other disinfection was found to increase the formation of the other eight species of nitrosamines. The three nitrosamines recommended for monitoring by the US EPA were detected in the tap water samples, but most were present at levels below those that pose a risk to human health. Nevertheless, the occurrence and concentration of nitrosamines regulated in the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List could cause some potential human effects and therefore warrant attention.

  19. The ATLAS Public Web Pages: Online Management of HEP External Communication Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, S.; Marcelloni, C.; Eli Phoboo, A.; Shaw, K.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Education and Outreach Group is in the process of migrating its public online content to a professionally designed set of web pages built on the Drupal [1] content management system. Development of the front-end design passed through several key stages, including audience surveys, stakeholder interviews, usage analytics, and a series of fast design iterations, called sprints. Implementation of the web site involves application of the html design using Drupal templates, refined development iterations, and the overall population of the site with content. We present the design and development processes and share the lessons learned along the way, including the results of the data-driven discovery studies. We also demonstrate the advantages of selecting a back-end supported by content management, with a focus on workflow. Finally, we discuss usage of the new public web pages to implement outreach strategy through implementation of clearly presented themes, consistent audience targeting and messaging, and the enforcement of a well-defined visual identity.

  20. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Limitations of the Post-New Public Management Yin Wenjia (Department of Public Administration, Guangxi Normal College, Nanning,530001 ) Abstract: As the successor and amendment of the new public management, Post-New public management did not really go beyond new public management. There are some limitations in the theory of premise, the theoretical ideas and practice , the most critical one of these limitations is the premise of theory. Investigated from the perspective of the administrative history of ideas, Post-New public management is difficult to become a paradigm of new Public Administration.

  1. Nitrate, sulphate and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Bonfanti, Pietro; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi; Maugeri, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Water samples collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily were analysed for electric conductivity and for their chloride, sulphate and nitrate contents. The samples were collected as uniformly as possible from throughout the Sicilian territory, with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. Chloride contents that ranged from 5.53 to 1,302 mg/l were correlated strongly with electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values are attributable to seawater contamination along the coasts of the island. High chloride and sulphate values attributable to evaporitic rock dissolution were found in the central part of Sicily. The nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 296 mg/l, with 31 samples (4.7% of the total) exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 50 mg/l. Anomalous samples always came from areas of intensive agricultural usage, indicating a clear anthropogenic origin. The same parameters were also measured in bottled water sold in Sicily, and they all were within the ranges for public drinking water supplies. The calculated mean nitrate intake from consuming public water supplies (16.1 mg/l) did not differ significantly from that of bottled water (15.2 mg/l). Although the quality of public water supplies needs to be improved by eliminating those that do not comply with the current drinking water limits, at present it does not justify the high consumption of bottled water (at least for nitrate contents).

  2. Controlling Nitrosamines, Nitramines, and Amines in Amine-Based CO₂ Capture Systems with Continuous Ultraviolet and Ozone Treatment of Washwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2015-07-21

    Formation of nitrosamines and nitramines from reactions between flue gas NOx and the amines used in CO2 capture units has arisen as a significant concern. Washwater scrubbers can capture nitrosamines and nitramines. They can also capture amines, preventing formation of nitrosamines and nitramines downwind by amine reactions with ambient NOx. The continuous application of UV alone, or a combination of UV and ozone to the return line of a washwater treatment unit was evaluated to control the accumulation of nitrosamines, nitramines and amines in a laboratory-scale washwater unit. With model secondary amine solvents ranging from nonvolatile diethanolamine to volatile morpholine, application of 272-537 mJ/cm(2) UV incident fluence alone reduced the accumulation of nitrosamines and nitramines by approximately an order of magnitude. Modeling indicated that the gains achieved by UV treatment should increase over time, because UV treatment converts the time dependence of nitrosamine accumulation from a quadratic to a linear function. Ozone (21 mg/L) maintained low steady-state concentrations of amines in the washwater. While modeling indicated that more than 80% of nitrosamine accumulation in the washwater was associated with reaction of washwater amines with residual NOx, a reduction in nitrosamine accumulation rates due to ozone oxidation of amines was not fully realized because the ozonation products of amines reduced nitrosamine photolysis rates by competing for photons.

  3. Telemedicine--a bibliometric and content analysis of 17,932 publication records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Nigel R; Edirippulige, Sisira; Caffery, Liam J; Bradford, Natalie K; Grey, Joanne W; Smith, Anthony C

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to provide an up-to-date contemporary bibliometric view of the telemedicine and telehealth literature and a longitudinal analysis of changes in content themes. Software tools were used to extract and process MEDLINE entries. Frequencies of papers by year of publication and outlet were calculated, ranked, charted and tabulated. Frequency of publication by author was also calculated, ranked and tabulated. The process was repeated for two time periods to examine change: (i) 1970-1995 and (ii) 2009-2013. Content analysis of abstracts was conducted and tag clouds were generated. This visual representation was used to identify key words and prominent themes. 17,932 records relating to articles published in 2523 unique outlets were analyzed. In the cumulative literature, 3152 (18%) articles were published in specialist telemedicine journals while most articles (14,780 [82%]) were published in mainstream outlets. This pattern was observed in both epochs. Clinical journals were not highly represented. Over time 46,066 unique authors have contributed to the field, with 21,109 of them publishing in the period 2009-2013. Telemedicine is a large and growing field with most publication occurring outside of the specialist journals. Content analysis suggested a change of focus from the technical to the clinical between the two epochs. As a healthcare setting, the home also appears to be emergent. This study updates the findings of previous studies. The emphasis within the literature suggests a move from technical issues to clinical applications and evaluation. The maturity of the field and its accessibility to clinicians and policy makers remains unclear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Science Concierge: A Fast Content-Based Recommendation System for Scientific Publications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titipat Achakulvisut

    Full Text Available Finding relevant publications is important for scientists who have to cope with exponentially increasing numbers of scholarly material. Algorithms can help with this task as they help for music, movie, and product recommendations. However, we know little about the performance of these algorithms with scholarly material. Here, we develop an algorithm, and an accompanying Python library, that implements a recommendation system based on the content of articles. Design principles are to adapt to new content, provide near-real time suggestions, and be open source. We tested the library on 15K posters from the Society of Neuroscience Conference 2015. Human curated topics are used to cross validate parameters in the algorithm and produce a similarity metric that maximally correlates with human judgments. We show that our algorithm significantly outperformed suggestions based on keywords. The work presented here promises to make the exploration of scholarly material faster and more accurate.

  5. Science Concierge: A Fast Content-Based Recommendation System for Scientific Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achakulvisut, Titipat; Acuna, Daniel E; Ruangrong, Tulakan; Kording, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Finding relevant publications is important for scientists who have to cope with exponentially increasing numbers of scholarly material. Algorithms can help with this task as they help for music, movie, and product recommendations. However, we know little about the performance of these algorithms with scholarly material. Here, we develop an algorithm, and an accompanying Python library, that implements a recommendation system based on the content of articles. Design principles are to adapt to new content, provide near-real time suggestions, and be open source. We tested the library on 15K posters from the Society of Neuroscience Conference 2015. Human curated topics are used to cross validate parameters in the algorithm and produce a similarity metric that maximally correlates with human judgments. We show that our algorithm significantly outperformed suggestions based on keywords. The work presented here promises to make the exploration of scholarly material faster and more accurate.

  6. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Social science has long been confronted with a problem of identity, as a branch of social science, the development of Public Administration is also influenced by this problem. Before 1930s, public administration researchers held a scientific belief identical with other social scientists, and took the establishment of a administrative science as their mission; after 1930s, the finding of Hawthorne Experiment greatly wavered the scientific' belief of public administration researchers, which contributed to the bankruptcy of the politics-administration dichotomy; in the 1950s, while public administration researchers in whole had abandoned the dichotomy, social scientists as a whole had rejoined the embrace of scientific pursuit, which produced a huge tension within public administration researchers. Since then, the community of public administration researchers had differentiated into two antithetical camps.

  7. Survey on fluoride, bromide and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi

    2008-10-01

    Six hundred and sixty-seven water samples were collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily and analysed for electric conductivity and for their Cl(-), Br(-) and F(-) contents. The samples were, as far as possible, collected evenly over the entire territory with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. The contents of Cl(-) and Br(-), ranging between 5.53 and 1,302 mg/l and between <0.025 and 4.76 mg/l respectively, correlated well with the electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values were found both along the NW and SE coasts, which we attributed to seawater contamination, and in the central part of Sicily, which we attributed to evaporitic rock dissolution. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.023 to 3.28 mg/l, while the highest values (only three exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 1.5 mg/l) generally correlated either with the presence in the area of crystalline (volcanic or metamorphic) or evaporitic rocks or with contamination from hydrothermal activity. Apart from these limited cases of exceeding F(-) levels, the waters of public drinking water supplies in Sicily can be considered safe for human consumption for the analysed parameters. Some limited concern could arise from the intake of bromide-rich waters (about 3% exceeding 1 mg/l) because of the potential formation of dangerous disinfection by-products.

  8. International publications about sustainability: a review of articles using the technique of qualitative content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Froehlich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify articles related to sustainability in international publications and analyze the categories that emerge from these studies through the use of the technique of qualitative content analysis in order to identify the main approaches, author contributions and theoretical gaps and suggestions for further studies. For application of the technique have been rising about 20 articles in Journals that feature sustainability impact factor relevant, and used the three basic steps for content analysis of the publications listed by Bardin (1977: (a pre-analysis; (b material exploration and; (c treatment data, inference and interpretation. The main results show that the major theories that are related to sustainability are: the resources and capabilities theory, institutional theory, stakeholders theory, the theory of market orientation, theory of supply chain and competitive advantage and both seek to help and explain the factors that facilitate or hinder the practice of corporate sustainability. In addition, some suggestions for further research were identified and analysis of the results presented in this study

  9. Nitrosamines and Heme Iron and Risk of Prostate Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakszyn, Paula G.; Allen, Naomi E.; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Key, Timothy J.; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Tjonneland, Anne; Fons-Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Teucher, Birgit; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Oikonomou, Eleni; Sarantopoulou, Maria; Saieva, Calogero; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Huerta, Jose M.; Ardanaz, Eva; Arguelles, Marcial V.; Molina-Montes, Esther; Larranaga, Nerea; Wirfaelt, Elisabet; Wallstrom, Peter; Johansson, Mattias; Stattin, Paer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, Elio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The evidence about nitrosamines and heme iron intake and cancer risk is limited, despite the biologic plausibility of the hypothesis that these factors might increase cancer risk. We investigated the association between dietary nitrosamines and heme iron and the risk of prostate cancer a

  10. Getting to know the competition: a content analysis of publicly and corporate funded physical activity advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; McCarville, Ron E; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to conduct a content analysis of physical activity advertisements in an effort to determine which advertisements were more likely to include features that may attract and maintain attention levels. Fifty-seven advertisements were collected from top circulation Canadian magazines. The advertisements ranged from publicly funded health promotion pieces to corporate sponsored advertisements using physical activity to sell a product. Advertisements were examined for textual and pictorial factors thought to increase attention allocated to advertising of this nature. Only two public health advertisements were found, and the majority of advertisements (57.9%) were from commercial advertisers using physical activity images to sell products or to encourage brand recognition. The advertisements originating with the private sector tended to possess most of the characteristics thought to attract the attention of readers. Once this attention was gained, however, most of these advertisements failed to highlight the benefits of physical activity. As a result, the positive effect of these advertisements may have been compromised. Public health advertisements were so infrequent that we could not compare their characteristics with those originating with the private sector. The characteristics with those we did find were inconsistent with those thought to attract and maintain attention levels. Results are discussed in terms of potential implications for promoting physical activity.

  11. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in new tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Irina; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S

    2006-04-01

    New tobacco products, designed to attract consumers who are concerned about the health effects of tobacco, have been appearing on the market. Objective evaluation of these products requires, as a first step, data on their potentially toxic constituents. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are an important class of carcinogens in tobacco products, but virtually no data were available on their levels in these products. In the present study, we analyzed several new products-Ariva, Stonewall, Exalt, Revel, Smokey Mountain, and Quest-for TSNAs and compared their TSNA levels with those in nicotine replacement products and conventional smokeless tobacco and cigarette brands. TSNAs were not detected in Smokey Mountain, which is a tobacco-free snuff product. The lowest levels among the new products containing tobacco were in Ariva and Stonewall (0.26-0.28 microg/g wet weight of product). The highest levels in the new products were found in Exalt (3.3 microg/g tobacco), whereas Revel and Quest had intermediate amounts. Only trace amounts were found in nicotine replacement products, and conventional brands had levels consistent with those reported in the literature. These results demonstrate that TSNA levels in new tobacco products range from relatively low to comparable with those found in some conventional brands.

  12. Tobacco specific N-nitrosamines: occurrence and bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, D.; Adams, J.D.; Brunnemann, K.D.; Rivenson, A.; Hecht, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    A new GC-TEA method for the analysis of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA) has been developed. Four TSNA have thus far been identified; these are N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) and N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB). The method is currently being applied to the development of cigarette filter-tips which will selectively remove these carcinogens from cigarette smoke. Since recent epidemiological studies have established a correlation between snuff dipping and oral cancer, we have analysed leading snuff brands for TSNA. Snuff products from Sweden, Denmark, Bavaria and the USA contained 5-106 mg/kg of the TSNA and the saliva of snuff dippers had TSNA levels of 20-890 micrograms/kg. NNN, NNK and NAB induce benign and malignant tumours of the respiratory tract of mice and rats. We have shown that NNN and NNK induce tumours in the upper respiratory tract of hamsters and that NNK is the most active carcinogen of the TSNA, also inducing adenoma and adenocarcinoma in the hamster lung. The reported chemical analyses and bioassay results support the epidemiological findings on the causal association of tobacco use and cancer in man.

  13. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  14. Selective Removal of Nitrosamines from a Model Amine Carbon-Capture Waterwash Using Low-Cost Activated-Carbon Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widger, Leland R; Combs, Megan; Lohe, Amit R; Lippert, Cameron A; Thompson, Jesse G; Liu, Kunlei

    2017-09-19

    Nitrosamines generated in the amine solvent loop of postcombustion carbon capture systems are potent carcinogens, and their emission could pose a serious threat to the environment or human health. Nitrosamine emission control strategies are critical for the success of amine-based carbon capture as the technology approaches industrial-scale deployment. Waterwash systems have been used to control volatile and aerosol emissions, including nitrosamines, from carbon-capture plants, but it is still necessary to remove or destroy nitrosamines in the circulating waterwash to prevent their subsequent emission into the environment. In this study, a cost-effective method for selectively removing nitrosamines from the absorber waterwash effluent with activated-carbon sorbents was developed to reduce the environmental impact associated with amine-based carbon capture. The results show that the commercial activated-carbon sorbents tested have a high capacity and selectivity for nitrosamines over the parent solvent amines, with capacities up to 190 mg/g carbon, under simulated amine waterwash conditions. To further reduce costs, an aerobic thermal sorbent regeneration step was also examined due to the low thermal stability of nitrosamines. To model the effect of oxidation on the sorbent performance, thermal- and acid-oxidized sorbents were also prepared from the commercial sorbents and analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of nitrosamines, the parent amine, and the influence of the physical properties of the carbon sorbents on nitrosamine adsorption was examined. Key sorbent properties included the sorbent hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity, surface pKa of the sorbent, and chemical structure of the parent amine and nitrosamine.

  15. Occurrence and profiling of multiple nitrosamines in source water and drinking water of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanfeng; Yu, Jianwei; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of multiple nitrosamines was investigated in 54 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) from 30 cities across major watersheds of China, and the formation potential (FP) and cancer risk of the dominant nitrosamines were studied for profiling purposes. The results showed that N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA) were the most abundant in DWTPs, and the concentrations in source water and finished water samples were not detected (ND) -53.6ng/L (NDMA), ND -68.5ng/L (NDEA), ND -48.2ng/L (NDBA). The frequencies of detection in source waters were 64.8%, 61.1% and 51.8%, and 57.4%, 53.7%, and 37% for finished waters, respectively. Further study indicated that the FPs of the three main nitrosamines during chloramination were higher than those during chlorination and in drinking water. The results of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) showed that ammonia was the most closely associated factor in nitrosamine formation in the investigated source water; however, there was no significant correlation between nitrosamine-FPs and the values of dominant water-quality parameters. The advanced treatment units (i.e., ozonation and biological activated carbon) used in DWTPs were able to control the nitrosamine-FPs effectively after disinfection. The target pollutants posed median and maximum cancer risks of 2.99×10(-5) and 35.5×10(-5) to the local populations due to their occurrence in drinking water.

  16. Visualizing Public Opinion in Croatia Based on Available Social Network Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševa, Jurica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade advances of computer technologies have lead towards a technological reality where the line between information consumers and information producers is blurred. This technological omnipresence allows for unprecedented data creation capabilities. Based on various data sources, it seems humans have fully embraced data-generating activities. One such activity is using online social network applications, like Facebook or Twitter in almost all aspects of their lives. One of the main features of online social network applications is perceived freedom of speech, individuality and privacy, even though every application has some special features. Therefore, content generated using these services presents the public with interesting insights in private life of people and their attitudes towards public affairs. Social network applications are active the most during specific public events aimed at the massive public. Due to its brevity, ease of use and frequency, Twitter is an interesting social network application for research and analysis. Other than allowing almost exclusively short messages (up to 140 characters, a tweet (a Twitter post can contain location of the message sender as well as a graphic to accompany the textual message. The textual part of the message may contain so called hashtags – keywords used for indexing and easy identification of a subject the message is related to. These hashtags allow us to group messages related to a specific event. Recent governmental elections held in Croatia were very popular amongst the Croatian Twitter community. Usage of hashtags allowed us to identify the right messages and thus most-used words to describe this event and potentially identify how people felt when talking, i.e. writing, about politics and the held elections. Furthermore, geolocation information, optionally embedded in a tweet, makes it possible to analyze which keywords were used in which parts of Croatia, all pertaining to

  17. Measuring use of research evidence in public health policy: a policy content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex

    2014-05-23

    There are few Australian studies showing how research evidence is used to inform the development of public health policy. International research has shown that compensation for injury rehabilitation can have negative impacts on health outcomes. This study examined transport injury compensation policy in the Australian state of Victoria to: determine type and purpose of reference to information sources; and to identify the extent of reference to academic research evidence in transport related injury rehabilitation compensation policy. Quantitative content analysis of injury rehabilitation compensation policies (N = 128) from the Victorian state government transport accident compensation authority. The most commonly referenced types of information were Internal Policy (median = 6 references per policy), Clinical/Medical (2.5), and Internal Legislation (1). Academic Research Evidence was the least often referenced source of information. The main purpose of reference to information was to support injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation claims decision-making. Transport injury compensation policy development is complex; with multiple sources of information cited including legislation, internal policy, external policy and clinical/medical evidence. There is limited use of academic research evidence in Victorian state government injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation policies. Decisions regarding compensation for injury treatment and rehabilitation services could benefit from greater use of academic research evidence. This study is one of the first to examine the use of research evidence in existing Australian public health policy decision-making using rigorous quantitative methods. It provides a practical example of how use of research evidence in public health policy can be objectively measured.

  18. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Tobacco and Mainstream Smoke of U.S. Commercial Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Selvin H; Rossiter, Lana M; Taylor, Kenneth M; Holman, Matthew R; Zhang, Liqin; Ding, Yan S; Watson, Clifford H

    2017-02-20

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are N-nitroso-derivatives of pyridine-alkaloids (e.g., nicotine) present in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Two TSNAs, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are included on the Food and Drug Administration's list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco. The amounts of four TSNAs (NNK, NNN, N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT)) in the tobacco and mainstream smoke from 50 U.S. commercial cigarette brands were measured from November 15, 2011 to January 4, 2012 using a validated HPLC/MS/MS method. Smoke samples were generated using the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) machine-smoking regimens. NNN and NAT were the most abundant TSNAs in tobacco filler and smoke across all cigarette brands, whereas NNK and NAB were present in lesser amounts. The average ratios for each TSNA in mainstream smoke to filler content is 29% by the CI smoking regimen and 13% for the ISO machine-smoking regimen. The reliability of individual TSNAs to predict total TSNA amounts in the filler and smoke was examined. NNN, NAT, and NAB have a moderate to high correlation (R(2) = 0.61-0.98, p smoke from the CI machine-smoking regimen. In contrast, filter ventilation is a major determinant of levels of TSNAs in smoke by the ISO machine-smoking regimen. Comparative analysis demonstrates substantial variability in TSNA amounts in tobacco filler and mainstream smoke yields under ISO and CI machine-smoking regimens among U.S. commercial cigarette brands.

  19. Characterization of dissolved organic matter as N-nitrosamine precursors based on hydrophobicity, molecular weight and fluorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengkun Wang; Xiaojian Zhang; Jun Wang; Chao Chen

    2013-01-01

    It is very important to identify the dominant precursors for N-nitrosamine formation from bulk organic matter,to enhance the understanding of N-nitrosamine formation pathways in water treatment plants and allow the development of practical treatment technologies.In this study,dissolved organic matter (DOM) from two source waters was fractionated with XAD resins and ultrafiltration membranes.The N-nitrosamine formation potential (FP) (ng of N-nitrosamines formed per mg of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) from raw water and each fraction were measured and correlated with the fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM),molecular weight (MW) and other assays.The results showed that the hydrophilic fraction had N-nitrosamine FP 1.3 to 3.5 times higher than the hydrophobic fraction from both source waters.The DOM fraction with low MW was the dominant fraction in these two source waters and contributed more precursors for N-nitrosamine formation than the larger MW fraction.The EEM spectra indicated there were notable amounts of soluble microbial products (SMPs) and aromatic proteins in the two studied rivers,which probably originated from wastewater discharge.The SMPs tended to be more closely correlated with N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential than the other DOM components.Higher N-nitrosamine FP were also related to fractions with lower DOC/DON ratios and lower SUVA254 values.

  20. Influence of amine structural characteristics on N-nitrosamine formation potential relevant to postcombustion CO2 capture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2013-11-19

    Concerns have arisen for the possible contamination of air or drinking water supplies downwind of amine-based CO2 capture facilities by potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines formed from reactions between flue gas NOx and amine solvents. This study evaluated the influence of amine structure on the potential to form total N-nitrosamines within the absorber and washwater units of a laboratory-scale CO2 capture reactor, and in the solvent after a pressure-cooker treatment as a mimic of desorber conditions. Among 16 amines representing 3 amine classes (alkanolamines, straight-chain and cyclic diamines, and amino acids), the order of the amine was the primary determinant of total N-nitrosamine formation in the absorber unit, with total N-nitrosamine formation in the order: secondary amines ≈ tertiary amines ≫ primary amines. Similar results were observed upon pressure-cooker treatment, due to reactions between nitrite and amines at high temperature. For secondary and tertiary amines, total N-nitrosamine formation under these desorber-like conditions appeared to be more important than in the absorber, but for primary amines, significant formation of total N-nitrosamines was only observed in the absorber. For diamines and amino acids, total N-nitrosamine accumulation rates in washwaters were lowest for primary amines. For alkanolamines, however, total N-nitrosamine accumulation in the washwater was similar regardless of alkanolamine order, due to the combined effects of amine reactivity toward nitrosation and amine volatility. While total N-nitrosamine accumulation rates in washwaters were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than in the absorber, they were comparable to absorber rates for several primary amines. Decarboxylation of the amino acid sarcosine resulted in the accumulation of significant concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrodimethylamine in the washwater.

  1. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  2. Surveillance of moist snuff: total nicotine, moisture, pH, un-ionized nicotine, and tobacco-specific nitrosamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Hodge, Knachelle; Stanfill, Stephen; Zhang, Liqin; Watson, Clifford

    2008-11-01

    In 2005, approximately 2.3% of U.S. adults used smokeless tobacco. Moist snuff leads all types of smokeless tobacco in revenues and marketing expenditures. The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that smokeless tobacco use can lead to nicotine addiction. The National Toxicology Program of the National Institutes of Health has classified smokeless tobacco as a human carcinogen. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are potent carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products, and the pH of the product influences the content of un-ionized nicotine which is the form of nicotine most rapidly absorbed in the mouth. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention analyzed 40 top-selling brands of moist snuff to measure nicotine, moisture, pH, un-ionized nicotine, and TSNAs, including 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL). The study findings indicate that moist snuff brands varied widely in content of rapidly absorbed, addictive un-ionized nicotine (500-fold range) and of carcinogenic TSNAs (18-fold range). Product characteristics such as packaging and moisture content appeared to be correlated with concentrations of un-ionized nicotine, and flavor characteristics of low-priced brands may correlate with TSNA concentrations. These findings warrant further study in light of (a) the marketing of smokeless tobacco for use in places where smoking is prohibited, (b) the promotion of smokeless tobacco as a harm-reduction product, and (c) the ever-expanding number of highly flavored smokeless varieties brought to the market.

  3. Effects of flue gas compositions on nitrosamine and nitramine formation in postcombustion CO2 capture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2014-07-01

    Amine-based technologies are emerging as the prime contender for postcombustion CO2 capture. However, concerns have arisen over the health impacts of amine-based CO2 capture associated with the release of nitrosamines and nitramines, which are byproducts from the reactions between flue gas NOx and solvent amines. In this study, flue gas compositions were systematically varied to evaluate their effects on the formation of nitrosamines and nitramines in a lab-scale CO2 capture reactor with morpholine as a model solvent amine. The accumulation of N-nitrosomorpholine in both the absorber and washwater increased linearly with both NO and NO2 for concentrations up to ∼20 ppmv. These correlations could be extrapolated to estimate N-nitrosomorpholine accumulation at extremely low NOx levels (0.3 ppmv NO2 and 1.5 ppmv NO). NO played a particularly important role in driving N-nitrosomorpholine formation in the washwater, likely following partial oxidation to NO2 by O2. The accumulation of N-nitromorpholine in both the absorber and washwater positively correlated with flue gas NO2 concentration, but not with NO concentration. Both N-nitrosomorpholine and N-nitromorpholine accumulated fastest in the absence of CO2. Flue gas humidity did not affect nitrosamine accumulation in either the absorber or the washwater unit. These results provide a basis for estimating the effects of flue gas composition on nitrosamine and nitramine accumulation in postcombustion CO2 capture systems.

  4. Human health risk assessment of nitrosamines and nitramines for potential application in CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnum, S; Rundén-Pran, E; Fjellsbø, L M; Dusinska, M

    2014-07-01

    Emission and accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere exert an environmental and climate change challenge. An attempt to deal with this challenge is made at Mongstad by application of amines for CO2 capture and storage (CO2 capture Mongstad (CCM) project). As part of the CO2 capture process, nitrosamines and nitramines may be emitted. Toxicological testing of nitrosamines and nitramines indicate a genotoxic potential of these substances. Here we present a risk characterization and assessment for five nitrosamines (N-Nitrosodi-methylamine (NDMA) N-Nitrosodi-ethylamine (NDEA), N-Nitroso-morpholine (NNM), N-Nitroso-piperidine (NPIP), and Dinitroso-piperazine (DNP)) and two nitramines (N-Methyl-nitramine (NTMA), Dimethyl-nitramine (NDTMA)), which are potentially emitted from the CO2 capture plant (CCP). Human health risk assessment of genotoxic non-threshold substances is a heavily debated topic, and no consensus methodology exists internationally. Extrapolation modeling from high-dose animal exposures to low-dose human exposures can be crucial for the final risk calculation. In the work presented here, different extrapolation models are discussed, and suggestions on applications are given. Then, preferred methods for calculating derived minimal effect level (DMEL) are presented with the selected nitrosamines and nitramines.

  5. Determination of the total level of nitrosamines in select consumer products in Lagos area of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, H.A.B.; Thomas, A.E.; Akintonwa, A. (Univ. of Lagos (Nigeria))

    1991-11-01

    For some time there has been a considerable interest and growing concern in the extent of contamination of food items by N-nitrosamines because of the known carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of these compounds. Nitrosamines can be derived from the interaction of organic secondary and tertiary amines with nitrite, nitrate under reducing conditions, low pH values or nitrous gases. In Nigeria, the present harsh economic conditions have somewhat influenced the emergence of different kinds of socioeconomic attitude in Nigerians. There is now high incidence of adulteration of many consumer products. Faking of assorted consumables and pharmaceuticals, notably drugs, is a common feature, all in attempt to cut corners. It is a common practice amongst the local people to use certain chemicals as preservatives, colorants and flavorants without taking cognizance of the long-term health and toxicological hazards posed to the citizenry by these foreign agents. Recent work in the authors' laboratory had shown the presence of N-nitrosamines in some consumer products and it was therefore thought that a more thorough investigation and survey of as many foods and drinks as possible in the Lagos metropolis for contamination by nitrosamines might present a more revealing picture.

  6. Supping with the devil? The role of law in promoting tobacco harm reduction using low nitrosamine smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W; Gartner, C

    2009-03-01

    In Sweden, male cigarette smoking has declined as snus, a smokeless tobacco product which is low in carcinogenic nitrosamines, has gained popularity among male tobacco users. Epidemiological modelling based on the Swedish experience indicates that there would be major public health gains if a substantial number of current smokers in other countries could also be persuaded to switch to this product. This form of 'tobacco harm reduction' is very controversial in the public health community for many reasons. These include: objections in principle to the use of less harmful but still addictive nicotine products; uncertainties about the long-term effects of these products on health; doubts about the likely interest in and uptake of these products among existing smokers; concerns that increasing the availability of these products will increase the number of new tobacco users and eventually the number of smokers in the population; and anxiety about how the tobacco industry may use these products to undermine current tobacco control policies. This paper concludes with suggestions for a graduated series of policies that may allow exploration of the public health costs and benefits of encouraging smokers to switch to snus.

  7. Clarifying Boko Haram’s Transnational Intentions, Using Content Analysis of Public Statements in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S. Eveslage

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To advance understanding of the dynamic global security threats emerging in West Africa, this article analyses the radical Islamic sect in Nigeria popularly called “Boko Haram”.This was done by addressing the question: What is the likelihood that Boko Haram will transnationalize? Current literature is inconclusive. On the one hand, some discuss Boko Haram as part of an international network of terror groups, and therefore a transnational threat, while others describe the Boko Haram conflict within a domestic or regional context. This article offers, for the first time, a systematic content analysis of the group’s public statements issued in 2012 to address this question. The analysis found Boko Haram to express itself in an intrinsically domestic orientation, and as such, transnationalization is unlikely. However, Boko Haram also exhibited a highly reactive modus operandi – highlighting concerns for increased transnationalization if international actors engage Boko Haram. In light of the analysis, policy recommendations are offered. 

  8. INTERNET BANKING: CONTENT ANALYSIS OF SELECTED INDIAN PUBLIC AND PRIV ATE SECTOR BANKS’ ONLINE PORTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejinderpal Singh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in technology has played an import ant role in the distribution strategy of commercial banks. Banks distribute their products and services not only through a sole channel but instead through a variety of channels such as internet banking, automated teller machines, mobile banking, phone banking, TV baking etc. Internet banking has attracted the considerable amount of interest of researchers in the recent times. Previously research studies had concentrat ed on the perception about online service quality, adoption of internet banking, impact of information technology in banking, etc. based on customers’ opinion. However, on the other side, in depth analysis of bank’s online portal without approaching the customer s may also provide meaningful insight about the online portals especially when compar ed with other banks’ online portals. The present study aims to compare the pre-login and after login features of selected banks’ online portals. For study purpose, two leading banks, one each from public and private sector were selected. A content analysis technique was used to study the listed features of selected websites. Study found that selected banks’ online portals differ on various features such as accounts information, fund transfer, online requests and general information. In the end, study suggested to include the good feature of other online portal which would help them to make their sites more secure, informative and user friendly.

  9. N-nitrosamine formation by monochloramine, free chlorine, and peracetic acid disinfection with presence of amine precursors in drinking water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Danielle M; Wu, Qihua; Donovan, Ariel; Shi, Honglan; Ma, Yinfa; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Jianmin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the formation of eight N-nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosomethylamine, N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine, N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine, N-Nitrosopiperidine, N-Nitrosopyrrolidine, N-Nitrosomorpholine, were systematically evaluated with respect to seven N-nitrosamine precursors (dimethylamine, trimethylamine, 3-(dimethylaminomethyl)indole, 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine, ethylmethylamine, diethylamine, dipropylamine) and three disinfectants (monochloramine, free chlorine, peracetic acid) under variable dosages, exposure times, and pH in a drinking water system. Without the presence of the seven selected N-nitrosamine precursors N-nitrosamine formation was not observed under any tested condition except very low levels of N-Nitrosopyrrolidine under some conditions. With selected N-nitrosamine precursors present N-nitrosamines formed at different levels under different conditions. The highest N-nitrosamine formation was NDMA with a maximum concentration of 1180 ng/L by monochloramine disinfection with precursors present; much lower levels of N-nitrosamines were formed by free chlorine disinfection; and no detectable level of N-nitrosamines were observed by peracetic acid disinfection except low level of N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine under some conditions. NDMA formation was not affected by pH while four other N-nitrosamine formations were slightly affected by sample pH tested between 7 and 9, with formation decreasing with increasing pH. Monochloramine exposure time study displayed fast formation of N-nitrosamines, largely formed in four hours of exposure and maximized after seven days. This was a systematic study on the N-nitrosamine formation with the seven major N-nitrosamine precursors presence and absence under different conditions, including peracetic acid disinfection which has not been studied elsewhere.

  10. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    (1) Between the Revolutionist and the Legislator: Politics scientific Principle and Law of New England township Ren Junfeng (School of International relation and Public Affairs, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433) Abstract: The flames of American Independence War was started from such towns as Boston, Concord, Lexington, etc., the union of towns helped spread the flames all over the Thirteen Colonies. At Massachusetts Convention of 1780, the making of the State Constitution is the deliberation among townships over representation, executive and judicial powers, the relationship between towns and the State government, these issues became the theoretical and practical basis of the Philadelphia Convention seven years later. In the eyes of Daniel Shays and his Regulators, the government of Massachusetts commonwealth has been abused by those commercial interests in Boston, their rebellion is just a noble attempt to uphold the fundamentals of the Declaration of Inde- pendence; In the eyes of those slave owners in the South during the Civil War, the Federal government has been manipulated by those rapacious Yankees represented by Lincoln and his Republican politicians, the principles of American Founding Fathers are under threat. The Confederate States of America is commissioned to save those principles. A historical examination of New Eng- land township and its significance in the creation of the Republic is the starting point to advance our understanding of American politics and political culture. Key Words: township; New England; American Revolution; U.S. Politics

  11. Formation of N-nitrosamines from eleven disinfection treatments of seven different surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Boyd, Jessica M; Woodbeck, Matthew; Andrews, Robert C; Qin, Feng; Hrudey, Steve E; Li, Xing-Fang

    2008-07-01

    Formation of nine N-nitrosamines has been investigated when seven different source waters representing various qualities were each treated with eleven bench-scale disinfection processes, without addition of nitrosamine precursors. These disinfection treatments included chlorine (OCl-), chloramine (NH2Cl), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), ozone (O3), ultraviolet (UV), advanced oxidation processes (AOP), and combinations. The total organic carbon (TOC) of the seven source waters ranged from 2 to 24 mg x L(-1). The disinfected water samples and the untreated source waters were analyzed for nine nitrosamines using a solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Prior to any treatment, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected ranging from 0 to 53 ng x L(-1) in six of the seven source waters, and its concentrations increased in the disinfected water samples (0-118 ng x L(-1)). N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor), and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA) were also identified in some of the disinfected water samples. NDPhA (0.2-0.6 ng x L(-1)) was formed after disinfection with OCl-, NH2Cl, O3, and MPUV/OCl-. NMEA was produced with OCl- and MPUV/OCl-, and NMor formation was associated with O3. In addition, UVtreatment alone degraded NDMA; however, UV/ OCl- and AOP/OCl- treatments produced higher amounts of NDMA compared to UV and AOP alone, respectively. These results suggest that UV degradation or AOP oxidation treatment may provide a source of NDMA precursors. This study demonstrates that environmental concentrations and mixtures of unknown nitrosamine precursors in source waters can form NDMA and other nitrosamines.

  12. Role of membrane fouling substances on the rejection of N-nitrosamines by reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takahiro; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Aizawa, Hidenobu; Gray, Stephen; Ishida, Kenneth P; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-07-01

    The impact of fouling substances on the rejection of four N-nitrosamines by a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane was evaluated by characterizing individual organic fractions in a secondary wastewater effluent and deploying a novel high-performance liquid chromatography-photochemical reaction-chemiluminescence (HPLC-PR-CL) analytical technique. The HPLC-PR-CL analytical technique allowed for a systematic examination of the correlation between the fouling level and the permeation of N-nitrosamines in the secondary wastewater effluent and synthetic wastewaters through an RO membrane. Membrane fouling caused by the secondary wastewater effluent led to a notable decrease in the permeation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) while a smaller but nevertheless discernible decrease in the permeation of N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) was also observed. Fluorescence spectrometry analysis revealed that major foulants in the secondary wastewater effluent were humic and fulvic acid-like substances. Analysis using the size exclusion chromatography technique also identified polysaccharides and proteins as additional fouling substances. Thus, further examination was conducted using solutions containing model foulants (i.e., sodium alginate, bovine serum albumin, humic acid and two fulvic acids). Similar to the secondary wastewater effluent, membrane fouling with fulvic acid solutions resulted in a decrease in N-nitrosamine permeation. In contrast, membrane fouling with the other model foulants resulted in a negligible impact on N-nitrosamine permeation. Overall, these results suggest that the impact of fouling on the permeation of N-nitrosamines by RO is governed by specific small organic fractions (e.g. fulvic acid-like organics) in the secondary wastewater effluent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  14. The national public's values and interests related to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: A computer content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan; Roger. Kaye

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the national public's values and interests related to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Computer content analysis was used to analyze more than 23,000 media stories about the refuge from 1995 through 2007. Ten main categories of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge values and interests emerged from the analysis, reflecting a diversity of values,...

  15. Effects of Physalis peruviana L on Toxicity and Lung Cancer Induction by Nicotine Derived Nitrosamine Ketone in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Elshama, Said Said; Osman, Hosam-Eldin Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) is considered a key tobacco smoke carcinogen inducing lung tumors. Physalis peruviana L (harankash) is considered one plant with marked health benefits. This study aimed to evaluate Physalis peruviana L effect on the toxic effect of NNK induced lung cancer in the rats by using pulmonary histopathological, immunohistochemical and DNA flow cytometric analyses. Sixty adult male rats were divided into four groups, each consisting of fifteen animals. The first group received saline, the second received two successive toxic doses of NNK only while the third received two successive toxic doses of NNK with a single daily dose of Physalis peruviana L. The fourth group received a single daily dose of Physalis peruviana L only. Toxic doses of NNK induced hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma in the lung and positive immunoreactivity for Ki-67 and p53 staining with disturbance of the lung DNA content. Administration of Physalis peruviana L with NNK led to a mild pulmonary hyperplasia and weak expression of Ki-67 and p53 with an improvement in the lung DNA content. Physalis peruviana L may protect against NNK induced lung carcinogenesis due to its antioxidant and anti-proliferative effects.

  16. Race and Ethnicity in School Psychology Publications: A Content Analysis and Comparison to Publications in Related Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Proctor, Sherrie L.; Dempsey, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has examined the quantity and types of diversity-related research in the field of school psychology, revealing gaps in the literature. Extension of this line of research with current data and comparison to related disciplines is needed. This study used content analysis to address these issues, with a specific focus on the racial…

  17. 12 CFR 25.43 - Content and availability of public file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the good name or reputation of any persons other than the bank or publication of which would violate... Evaluation prepared by the OCC. The bank shall place this copy in the public file within 30 business days.... The bank shall place the statement in the public file within three business days of its receipt from...

  18. 12 CFR 563e.43 - Content and availability of public file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on the good name or reputation of any persons other than the savings association or publication of... this copy in the public file within 30 business days after its receipt from the OTS; (3) A list of the... savings association shall place the statement in the public file within three business days of its receipt...

  19. 12 CFR 228.43 - Content and availability of public file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... name or reputation of any persons other than the bank or publication of which would violate specific... prepared by the Board. The bank shall place this copy in the public file within 30 business days after its... shall place the statement in the public file within three business days of its receipt from the Board...

  20. GC determination of N-nitrosamines by supersonic molecular beam MS equipped with triple quadrupole analyzer, GC/SMB/QQQ/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Voloshenko; Rimma, Shelkov; Lev, Ovadia; Jenny, Gun

    2011-01-31

    The determination of 14 N-nitrosamines by a supersonic molecular beam electron ionization mass spectrometer equipped with triple quadruple analyzer, GC/SMB/EI/QQQ/MS is presented. The supersonic molecular beam electron ionization ion source allows the elucidation of the molecular ion of 13 out of the 14 examined nitrosamines (except for diphenylnitrosamine which was degraded before the analysis). It was possible to use the molecular ions of all the nitrosamines as the parent ions for multiple reactions monitoring mode, which in turn allows significant increase of specificity and lowering of the method limit of detection of the higher molecular weight nitrosamines. The instrumental LOD for different N-nitrosamines was 1-5 pg injection(-1). The proposed method was exemplified by analysis of N-nitrosamines and N-nitrosatables in rubber teats according to the British Standard BS EN 12868:1999. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Economic Incentives in Content-Centric Networking: Implications for Protocol Design and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Parick Kwadwo

    2013-01-01

    Content-centric networking (CCN) has emerged as a dominant paradigm for future Internet architecture design due to its efficient support for content dissemination, which currently dominates Internet use. This dissertation shows how economic and social welfare analysis can be used to inform the design of a CCN architecture that provides network…

  2. Analyzing Public Discourse: Using Media Content Analysis to Understand the Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraisky, Nancy Green

    2016-01-01

    One of the most basic and obvious sources of data for education policy analysis is text. This article discusses content analysis as an important part of the methodological toolbox for elucidating patterns and trends about education policy. Focusing specifically on media, I show how media content analysis can produce nuanced insights about the ways…

  3. 12 CFR 345.43 - Content and availability of public file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nor the responses contain statements that reflect adversely on the good name or reputation of any... bank shall place this copy in the public file within 30 business days after its receipt from the FDIC... statement in the public file within three business days of its receipt from the FDIC. (2) Banks required to...

  4. Writing for Consumers: Guidelines on Style and Content for Preparing HUD Publications. HUD Handbook No. 55502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

    These guidelines are directed to writers of United States Department of Housing and Urban Development publications intended for public distribution. The primary purpose of the guidelines is to improve writing style and to increase sensitivity to the consumer viewpoint. Section one discusses the following topics: looking at the subject from a…

  5. Levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream smoke from different tobacco varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan S; Zhang, Liqin; Jain, Ram B; Jain, Ntasha; Wang, Richard Y; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

    2008-12-01

    It has been estimated that one in every five cancer deaths worldwide are related to tobacco use. According to the IARC, 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and 8 tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), as well as at least 45 other compounds or substances found in tobacco smoke, are potential human carcinogens. The levels of these carcinogens in contents of tobacco and smoke emissions vary between different tobacco products. We evaluated mainstream smoke emissions from cigarettes made with different types of tobacco to examine the relation between their deliveries of TSNAs and PAHs and any possible influence from tobacco nitrate content. To investigate the contribution of tobacco content to mainstream cigarette smoke deliveries without confounders such as filter design, filter ventilation, and paper porosity, we used custom-made, research-grade, unfiltered cigarettes that contained bright, burley, oriental, reconstituted, or mixtures of these tobaccos. Our findings confirm results from other researchers that tobacco type can influence the mainstream smoke delivery of nicotine, TSNAs, and PAHs. However, we found that the effect varies among individual compounds. In addition, we observed a statistically significant relationship between nitrate content and mainstream smoke 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); nitrate level also influenced the mainstream smoke deliveries of the summed total of the 10 PAHs identified by IARC as potential human carcinogens. The influence of nitrate on mainstream smoke NNK and PAH levels were of different magnitude and direction. Our results tend to indicate an inverse relation exists between NNK and PAH deliveries when considering different tobacco blends.

  6. N-nitrosamine rejection by reverse osmosis membranes: a full-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takahiro; Khan, Stuart J; McDonald, James A; Roux, Annalie; Poussade, Yvan; Drewes, Jörg E; Nghiem, Long D

    2013-10-15

    This study aims to provide longitudinal and spatial insights to the rejection of N-nitrosamines by reverse osmosis (RO) membranes during sampling campaigns at three full-scale water recycling plants. Samples were collected at all individual filtration stages as well as at a cool and a warm weather period to elucidate the impact of recovery and feed temperature on the rejection of N-nitrosamines. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected in all RO feed samples varying between 7 and 32 ng/L. Concentrations of most other N-nitrosamines in the feed solutions were determined to be lower than their detection limits (3-5 ng/L) but higher concentrations were detected in the feed after each filtration stage. As a notable exception, in one plant, N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) was observed at high concentrations in RO feed (177-475 ng/L) and permeate (34-76 ng/L). Overall rejection of NDMA among the three RO systems varied widely from 4 to 47%. Data presented here suggest that the feed temperature can influence rejection of NDMA. A considerable variation in NDMA rejection across the three RO stages (14-78%) was also observed. Overall NMOR rejections were consistently high ranging from 81 to 84%. On the other hand, overall rejection of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) varied from negligible to 53%, which was considerably lower than values reported in previous laboratory-scale studies. A comparison between results reported here and the literature indicates that there can be some discrepancy in N-nitrosamine rejection data between laboratory- and full-scale studies probably due to differences in water recoveries and operating conditions (e.g. temperature, membrane fouling, and hydraulic conditions). Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Processed meat consumption, dietary nitrosamines and stomach cancer risk in a cohort of Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2006-08-15

    Processed meat consumption has been associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer in some epidemiological studies (mainly case-control). Nitrosamines may be responsible for this association, but few studies have directly examined nitrosamine intake in relation to stomach cancer risk. We prospectively investigated the associations between intakes of processed meat, other meats and N-nitrosodimethylamine (the most frequently occurring nitrosamine in foods) with risk of stomach cancer among 61,433 women who were enrolled in the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort. Information on diet was collected at baseline (between 1987 and 1990) and updated in 1997. During 18 years of follow-up, 156 incident cases of stomach cancer were ascertained. High consumption of processed meat, but not of other meats (i.e., red meat, fish and poultry), was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of stomach cancer. After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratios for the highest compared with the lowest category of intake were 1.66 (95% CI = 1.13-2.45) for all processed meats, 1.55 (95% CI = 1.00-2.41) for bacon or side pork, 1.50 (95% CI = 0.93-2.41) for sausage or hotdogs and 1.48 (95% CI= 0.99-2.22) for ham or salami. Stomach cancer risk was 2-fold higher among women in the top quintile of N-nitrosodimethylamine intake when compared with those in the bottom quintile (hazard ratio = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.08-3.58). Our findings suggest that high consumption of processed meat may increase the risk of stomach cancer. Dietary nitrosamines might be responsible for the positive association.

  8. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as “carcinogenic to humans” by the International...

  9. Role of aldehydes in the toxic and mutagenic effects of nitrosamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lisa A; Urban, Anna M; Vu, Choua C; Cummings, Meredith E; Brown, Lee C; Warmka, Janel K; Li, Li; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V; Patel, Yesha; Stram, Daniel O; Pegg, Anthony E

    2013-10-21

    α-Hydroxynitrosamine metabolites of nitrosamines decompose to a reactive diazohydroxide and an aldehyde. To test the hypothesis that the aldehydes contribute to the harmful effects of nitrosamines, the toxic and mutagenic activities of three model methylating agents were compared in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing or not expressing human O⁶-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). N-Nitrosomethylurethane (NMUr), acetoxymethylmethylnitrosamine (AMMN), and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-acetoxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK-4-OAc) are all activated by ester hydrolysis to methanediazohydroxide. NMUr does not form an aldehyde, whereas AMMN generates formaldehyde, and NNK-4-OAc produces 4-oxo-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (OPB). Since these compounds were likely to alkylate DNA to different extents, the toxic and mutagenic activities of these compounds were normalized to the levels of the most cytotoxic and mutagenic DNA adduct, O⁶-mG, to assess if the aldehydes contributed to the toxicological properties of these methylating agents. Levels of 7-mG indicated that the differences in cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of these compounds resulted from differences in their ability to methylate DNA. When normalized against the levels of O⁶-mG, there was no difference between these three compounds in cells that lacked AGT. However, AMMN and NNK-4-OAc were more toxic than NMUr in cells expressing AGT when normalized against O⁶-mG levels. In addition, AMMN was more mutagenic than NNK-4-OAc and MNUr in these cells. These findings demonstrate that the aldehyde decomposition products of nitrosamines can contribute to the cytotoxic and/or mutagenic activity of methylating nitrosamines.

  10. Nitrosamines in pilot-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment plants with ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrity, Daniel; Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Marti, Erica; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Gerringer, Fred; Reungoat, Julien; Dickenson, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Ozone-based treatment trains offer a sustainable option for potable reuse applications, but nitrosamine formation during ozonation poses a challenge for municipalities seeking to avoid reverse osmosis and high-dose ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Six nitrosamines were monitored in full-scale and pilot-scale wastewater treatment trains. The primary focus was on eight treatment trains employing ozonation of secondary or tertiary wastewater effluents, but two treatment trains with chlorination or UV disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent and another with full advanced treatment (i.e., reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation) were also included for comparison. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were the most prevalent nitrosamines in untreated (up to 89 ng/L and 67 ng/L, respectively) and treated wastewater. N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were detected at one facility each, while N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPrA) and N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) were less than their method reporting limits (MRLs) in all samples. Ozone-induced NDMA formation ranging from UV photolysis were effective for NDMA mitigation. NMOR was also removed with activated sludge but did not form during ozonation.

  11. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S S; Duedahl-Olesen, L; Granby, K

    2014-02-21

    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg(-1) range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment and a small volume of organic solvent. Separation and quantification were performed by the developed LC-(APCI/ESI)MS/MS method. The method was validated using spiked samples of three different processed meat products. Satisfactory recoveries (50-130%) and precisions (2-23%) were obtained for eight VNA and six NVNAs with LODs generally between 0.2 and 1μgkg(-1), though for a few analyte/matrix combinations higher LODs were obtained (3 to 18μgkg(-1)). The validation results show that results obtained for one meat product is not always valid for other meat products. We were not able to obtain satisfactory results for N-nitrosohydroxyproline (NHPRO), N-nitrosodibenzylamine (NDBzA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA). Application of the APCI interface improved the sensitivity of the method, because of less matrix interference, and gave the method a wider scope, as some NAs were ionisable only by APCI. However, it was only possible to ionize N-nitroso-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA) and N-nitroso-2-methyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NMTCA) by ESI. The validated method was applied for the analysis of processed meat products and contents of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N-nitrosomethylaniline (NMA), N-nitrosoproline (NPRO), NTCA, and NMTCA were found in one or several nitrite cured meat products, whereas none were detected in non-nitrite cured bacon.

  12. Formation and fates of nitrosamines and their formation potentials from a surface water source to drinking water treatment plants in Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Wang, Chung-Ya; Huang, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-10-01

    Nitrosamines are toxic and emerging disinfection byproducts. In this study, three drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in southern Taiwan treating the same source water in Gaoping River with comparable technologies were selected. The objective was to evaluate the formation and fates of six nitrosamines and their formation potentials (FPs) from a surface water source to drinking water. Albeit decreased further downstream in the river, four nitrosamine-FPs were observed in the source water due to anthropogenic pollution in the upstream areas. In the DWTPs, nitrosamines were formed and NDMA was the main species. While high organic carbon concentrations indicated elevated nitrosamine-FPs in the source water, NDMA formation in the DWTPs was more positively associated with reductions of water parameters that quantify organic matters with double bonded ring structures. Although precursor removal via pre-oxidation is a viable approach to limit nitrosamine formation during post-disinfection, this study clearly indicates that a great portion of NDMA in treated water has been formed in the 1st oxidation step of drinking water treatment. The pre-oxidation simulations in the lab demonstrated the impact of pre-chlorination on nitrosamine formation. Given the limited removal in conventional treatment processes, avoiding nitrosamine-FPs in sources and/or nitrosamine formation during pre-oxidation become important issues to control the threats of nitrosamines in drinking water. Under current circumstance in which pre-oxidation is widely used to optimize the treatment effectiveness in many DWTPs, its adverse effect by forming nitrosamines needs to be carefully minimized and using technologies other than pre-chlorination (e.g., pre-ozonation) may be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of using different competence frameworks to audit the content of a master's programme in public health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A Harrison

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives(1 To quantify the effect of using different public health competence frameworks to audit the curriculum of an online distance learning MPH programme, and (2 to measure variation in the outcomes of the audit depending on which competence framework is used.Study Design Retrospective auditMethodsWe compared the teaching content of an online distance learning MPH programme against each competence listed in different public health competence frameworks relevant to an MPH. We then compared the number of competences covered in each module in the programme’s teaching curriculum and in the programme overall, for each of the competence frameworks used in this audit. ResultsA comprehensive search of the literature identified two competence frameworks specific to MPH programmes and two for public health professional/specialty training. The number of individual competences in each framework was 32 for the taught aspects of the UK Faculty of Public Health Specialist Training Programme, 117 for the American Association of Public Health, 282 for the exam curriculum of the UK Faculty of Public Health Part A exam, and 393 for the European Core Competencies for MPH Education. This gave a total of 824 competences included in the audit. Overall, the online MPH programme covered 88% to 96% of the competences depending on the specific framework used. This fell when the audit focused on just the three mandatory modules in the programme, and the variation between the different competence frameworks was much larger. ConclusionsUsing different competence frameworks to audit the curriculum of an MPH programme can give different indications of its’ quality, especially as it fails to capture teaching considered to be relevant yet not included in an existing competence framework. The strengths and weaknesses of using competence frameworks to audit the content of an MPH programme has largely been ignored. These debates are vital given that external organisations

  14. Total N-nitrosamine Precursor Adsorption with Carbon Nanotubes: Elucidating Controlling Physiochemical Properties and Developing a Size-Resolved Precursor Surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Erin Michelle

    As drinking water sources become increasingly impaired with nutrients and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs)--such as trihalomethanes (THMs), dihaloacetonitriles (DHANs), and N-nitrosamines--during water treatment may also increase. N-nitrosamines may comprise the bulk of the chronic toxicity in treated drinking waters despite forming at low ng/L levels. This research seeks to elucidate physicochemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for removal of DBP precursors, with an emphasis on total N-nitrosamines (TONO). Batch experiments with CNTs were completed to assess adsorption of THM, DHAN, and TONO precursors; physiochemical properties of CNTs were quantified through gas adsorption isotherms and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Numerical modeling was used to elucidate characteristics of CNTs controlling DBP precursor adsorption. Multivariate models developed with unmodified CNTs revealed that surface carboxyl groups and, for TONO precursors, cumulative pore volume (CPV), controlled DBP precursor adsorption. Models developed with modified CNTs revealed that specific surface area controlled adsorption of THM and DHAN precursors while CPV and surface oxygen content were significant for adsorption of TONO precursors. While surrogates of THM and DHAN precursors leverage metrics from UV absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, a TONO precursor surrogate has proved elusive. This is important as measurements of TONO formation potential (TONOFP) require large sample volumes and long processing times, which impairs development of treatment processes. TONO precursor surrogates were developed using samples that had undergone oxidative or sorption treatments. Precursors were analyzed with asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with inline fluorescence detection (FLD) and whole water fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). TONO precursor surrogates were discovered, capable of predicting changes in

  15. Monitoring sodium content of restaurant foods: Public health challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess sodium intake is a major preventable risk factor for high blood pressure, a leading cause for heart disease and stroke. The majority of sodium intake comes from packaged and restaurant foods. At present, data on the sodium content of restaurant foods is limited. The purpose of this study i...

  16. Research Trends on Socioscientific Issues: A Content Analysis of Publications in Selected Science Education Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Nurcan; Aslan, Oktay; Yilmaz, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    Socioscientific issues (SSIs) have gained recently more importance in science education. SSIs are an important component of scientific literacy. SSIs are social dilemmas including conceptual or technological links to science. The present study aims to determine SSIs related research trends via content analyses of the articles published from 2004…

  17. N-Nitrosamines and halogenated disinfection byproducts in U.S. Full Advanced Treatment trains for potable reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Teng; Plewa, Michael J; Mitch, William A

    2016-09-15

    Water utilities are increasingly considering indirect and direct potable reuse of municipal wastewater effluents. Disinfection byproducts (DBPs), particularly N-nitrosamines, are key contaminants of potential health concern for potable reuse. This study quantified the concentrations of N-nitrosamines and a suite of regulated and unregulated halogenated DBPs across five U.S. potable reuse Full Advanced Treatment trains incorporating microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and UV-based advanced oxidation. Low μg/L concentrations of trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, dichloroacetonitrile, and dichloroacetamide were detected in the secondary or tertiary wastewater effluents serving as influents to potable reuse treatment trains, while the concentrations of N-nitrosamines were more variable (e.g., trains. Reverse osmosis rejected DBPs to varying degrees, ranging from low for some (e.g., N-nitrosamines, trihalomethanes, and haloacetonitriles) to high for other DBPs. UV-based advanced oxidation eliminated N-nitrosamines, but only partially removed halogenated DBPs. Chloramination of the treatment train product waters under simulated distribution system conditions formed additional DBPs, with concentrations often equaling or exceeding those in the treatment train influents. Overall, the concentration profiles of DBPs were fairly consistent within individual treatment trains for sampling campaigns separated by months and across different treatment trains for the same sampling time window. Weighting DBP concentrations by their toxic potencies highlighted the potential significance of haloacetonitriles, which were not effectively removed by reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation, to the DBP-associated toxicity in potable reuse waters.

  18. A new method for quantifying N-nitrosamines in wastewater samples by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Suchul; Nakada, Norihide; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2012-08-15

    We developed a methodology for the separation, identification, and quantification of eight N-nitrosamines. For a range of wastewater samples, including raw sewage and final-discharge wastewater, the methodology, which was based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and a purification technique followed by analysis using a gas chromatograph equipped with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, gave effective separation of the targeted compounds. The limits of detection of this method for N-nitrosamines in wastewaters ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 ng L(-1) and the limits of quantification ranged from 0.4 to 3.3 ng L(-1). As a result of preliminary recovery testing, we decided on a combination of two types of sorbent cartridges for SPE-one was aminoprophyl for sample purification and the other was activated charcoal for analyte concentration-that gave excellent recovery rates (98% to 152%) of three deuterided nitrosamines (surrogates). Using this combination of SPE, internal surrogates, and an injection surrogate, we obtained good recovery rates (80% to 131%) with low relative standard deviations (1% to 14%, n=3) for eight N-nitrosamines in all samples of influent, secondary effluent, and final discharge. We applied the newly developed pre-treatment method to an influent wastewater samples. All of the N-nitrosamines except two (NMEA and NDPA) were detected in the influent sample, at 1 to 1057 ng L(-1).

  19. 沸石对亚硝胺吸附及降解的研究进展%Progress on the Adsorption and Degradation of Nitrosamines by Zeolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万密密; 朱建华

    2012-01-01

    Nitrosamines are well-recognized carcinogens, and nitrosamines in smoke causes health hazard by smoking. How to adsorb and catalytically degrade nitrosamines in the environmental tobacco smoke with complex composition becomes the challenge facing zeolite material. In this article some latest research progresses in adsorption and catalytic degradation of nitrosamines by zeolites are reviewed. The special selectivity of zeolite toward nitrosamines and the degradation of nitrosamines by zeolite are described, and how to elevate the efficiency of zeolite with metal compounds modification is introduced. Also, the research progress on the removal of nitrosamines is summarized. Finally the development of new functional materials to eliminate the pollution of nitrosamines is prospected.%亚硝胺是吸烟导致癌症的重要因素,如何在成分复杂的环境烟气中吸附和催化降解亚硝胺成为沸石吸附和催化的难题.本文剖析了沸石对亚硝胺的特殊选择性吸附,讨论了沸石降解亚硝胺的机制以及金属氧化物对沸石去除亚硝胺效率的促进作用,并回顾了相关研究领域的动态和展望环境净化沸石新材料的发展方向.

  20. Institutional Branding: A Content Analysis of Public Service Announcements from American Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Michael J.; Cavanagh, Kevin V.; Hettche, Matt

    2012-01-01

    American universities receive millions of dollars worth of media exposure every year via Public Service Announcements (PSAs) broadcast during their respective school's athletic competitions. This research explores the message strategies and executional devices used by NCAA FBS (National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision)…

  1. User generated content, journalism and the public sphere : The case of comment fields at the Guardian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, Todd

    2011-01-01

    One of the most popular forms of UGC within mainstream news media is comment fields attached to news articles. However, there has been little research on how people are engaging in these spaces. The aim of this paper is to see to what extent such communicative spaces are facilitating public debate c

  2. 34 CFR 300.503 - Prior notice by the public agency; content of notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other mode of communication used by the parent, unless it is clearly not feasible to do so. (2) If the native language or other mode of communication of the parent is not a written language, the public agency... his or her native language or other mode of communication; (ii) That the parent understands...

  3. Using Structured Observation and Content Analysis to Explore the Presence of Older People in Public Fora in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the everyday lives of older people in developing countries. This exploratory study used structured observation and content analysis to examine the presence of older people in public fora and considered the methods' potential for understanding older people's social integration and inclusion. Structured observation occurred of public social spaces in six cities each located in a different developing country and in one city in the United Kingdom, together with content analysis of the presence of people in newspaper pictures and on television in the selected countries. Results indicated that across all fieldwork sites and data sources, there was a low presence of older people, with women considerably less present than men in developing countries. There was variation across fieldwork sites in older people's presence by place and time of day and in their accompanied status. The presence of older people in images drawn from newspapers was associated with the news/non-news nature of the source. The utility of the study's methodological approach is considered, as is the degree to which the presence of older people in public fora might relate to social integration and inclusion in different cultural contexts. PMID:25548675

  4. Caffeine Content Labeling: A Missed Opportunity for Promoting Personal and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kole, Jon; Barnhill, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Current regulation of caffeine-containing products is incoherent, fails to protect consumers' interests, and should be modified in multiple ways. We make the case for one of the regulatory reforms that are needed: all consumable products containing added caffeine should be required by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to include caffeine quantity on their labels. Currently, no foods or beverages that contain caffeine are required to include caffeine content on their labels. Strengthening...

  5. Caffeine Content Labeling: A Missed Opportunity for Promoting Personal and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kole, Jon; Barnhill, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Current regulation of caffeine-containing products is incoherent, fails to protect consumers' interests, and should be modified in multiple ways. We make the case for one of the regulatory reforms that are needed: all consumable products containing added caffeine should be required by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to include caffeine quantity on their labels. Currently, no foods or beverages that contain caffeine are required to include caffeine content on their labels. Strengthening...

  6. Measuring use of research evidence in public health policy: a policy content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Background There are few Australian studies showing how research evidence is used to inform the development of public health policy. International research has shown that compensation for injury rehabilitation can have negative impacts on health outcomes. This study examined transport injury compensation policy in the Australian state of Victoria to: determine type and purpose of reference to information sources; and to identify the extent of reference to academic research evidence in transpo...

  7. Heavy Metals Content in Playground Topsoil of Some Public Primary Schools in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    O.E. Popoola; O. Bamgbose; O.J. Okonkwo; T.A. Arowolo; Odukoya; A. O. Popoola

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the concentration of potentially harmful heavy metals in playground topsoil from public primary schools in metropolitan Lagos, is imperative in order to evaluate the potential risks to the children in the schools. The study was conducted in order to determine if the concentrations of heavy metals in the soil is high enough to constitute a risk to children. Samples were collected from 20 schools in the Lagos metropolis and were subjected to microwave aqua regia digestion. Subsequentl...

  8. [Public health competencies and contents in Spanish university degree programs of physical therapy, occupational therapy, environmental science, dentistry and veterinary science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Segura-Benedicto A, Andreu; Bosch Llonch, Fèlix; G Benavides, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    To identify the basic competencies and contents related to public health to be included in degree programs according to the perspective of lecturers from various Spanish universities. In the context of the Second Workshop on Public Health Contents in Degree Programs (Mahon, 19 to 20 September 2012), 20 lecturers from different Spanish universities were distributed in five working groups. The lecturers had been selected from the instructional guides on public health and epidemiology published on the web sites of the Rectors' Conference of Spanish Universities. Each group worked on a degree program and the results were discussed in plenary sessions. The activities and competencies related to the three basic functions of public health were identified in all degree programs. Most of the professional competencies identified were related to the function of «assessment of population health needs». The contents proposed by the working groups related to epidemiology, basic concepts in public health, public health intervention, health management, and health policy. The main common topics among the degrees concerned the first three contents. Public health professional competencies and contents were identified in the degree programs examined. These results may serve as a starting point for a more detailed review of public health programs across degree levels and the search for a consensus on the common content that should be included in each of them. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinetics of nitrosamine and amine reactions with NO3 radical and ozone related to aqueous particle and cloud droplet chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Christian; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous phase reactivity experiments with the amines dimethylamine (DMA), diethanolamine (DEA) and pyrrolidine (PYL) and their corresponding nitrosamines nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), nitrosodiethanolamine (NDEA) and nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYL) have been performed. NO3 radical reaction rate coefficients for DMA, DEA and PYL were measured for the first time and are 3.7 × 105, 8.2 × 105 and 8.7 × 105 M-1 s-1, respectively. Rate coefficients for NO3 + NDMA, NDEA and NPYL are 1.2 × 108, 2.3 × 108 and 2.4 × 108 M-1 s-1. Compared to OH radical rate coefficients for reactions with amines, the NO3 radical will most likely not be an important oxidant but it is a potential nighttime oxidant for nitrosamines in cloud droplets or deliquescent particles. Ozone is unreactive towards amines and nitrosamines and upper limits of rate coefficients suggest that aqueous ozone reactions are not important in atmospheric waters.

  10. Partnering and teamwork to create content for spherical display systems to enhance public literacy in earth system and ocean sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Patterson, K.; Joyce, K.; Silva, T.; Madin, K.; Spargo, A.; Brickley, A.; Emery, M.

    2013-12-01

    Spherical display systems, also known as digital globes, are technologies that, in person or online, can be used to help visualize global datasets and earth system processes. Using the InterRidge Global Database of Active Submarine Hydrothermal Vent Fields and imagery from deep-sea vehicles, we are creating content for spherical display systems to educate and excite the public about dynamic geophysical and biological processes and exploration in the deep ocean. The 'Global Viewport for Virtual Exploration of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents' is a collaboration between the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Ocean Explorium at New Bedford Seaport, hosting a Magic Planet and Science On a Sphere (SOS), respectively. The main activities in the first year of our project were geared towards team building and content development. Here we will highlight the partnering and teamwork involved in creating and testing the effectiveness of our new content. Our core team is composed of a lead scientist, educators at both institutions, graphic artists, and a professional evaluator. The new content addresses key principles of Earth Science Literacy and Ocean Literacy. We will share the collaborative, iterative process by which we developed two educational pieces, 'Life without sunlight' and 'Smoke and fire underwater' - each focusing on a different set of 3 literacy principles. We will share how we conducted our front-end and formative evaluations and how we focused on 2 NSF Informal Education Impact Categories for our evaluation questionnaire for the public. Each educational piece is being produced as a stand-alone movie and as an interactive, docent-led presentation integrating a number of other datasets available from NOAA's SOS Users Network. The proximity of our two institutions enables a unique evaluation of the learning attained with a stand-alone spherical display vs. live presentations with an SOS.

  11. Influence of Dissolved Metals on N-Nitrosamine Formation under Amine-based CO2 Capture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zimeng; Mitch, William A

    2015-10-06

    As the prime contender for postcombustion CO2 capture technology, amine-based scrubbing has to address the concerns over the formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamine byproducts from reactions between flue gas NOx and amine solvents. This bench-scale study evaluated the influence of dissolved metals on the potential to form total N-nitrosamines in the solvent within the absorber unit and upon a pressure-cooker treatment that mimics desorber conditions. Among six transition metals tested for the benchmark solvent monoethanolamine (MEA), dissolved Cu promoted total N-nitrosamine formation in the absorber unit at concentrations permitted in drinking water, but not the desorber unit. The Cu effect increased with oxygen concentration. Variation of the amine structural characteristics (amine order, steric hindrance, -OH group substitution and alkyl chain length) indicated that Cu promotes N-nitrosamine formation from primary amines with hydroxyl or carboxyl groups (amino acids), but not from secondary amines, tertiary amines, sterically hindered primary amines, or amines without oxygenated groups. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) suppressed the Cu effect. The results suggested that the catalytic effect of Cu may be associated with the oxidative degradation of primary amines in the absorber unit, a process known to produce a wide spectrum of secondary amine products that are more readily nitrosatable than the pristine primary amines, and that can form stable N-nitrosamines. This study highlighted an intriguing linkage between amine degradation (operational cost) and N-nitrosamine formation (health hazards), all of which are challenges for commercial-scale CO2 capture technology.

  12. Framing diabetes public health information during Ramadan - a newspaper content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Kerry; Berzou, Souad; Meeds, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate health-related messages in printed media pertaining to diabetes care in Qatar during Ramadan. Methods Qatar national newspapers (Arabic and/or English) published 6 weeks prior to and 4 weeks during Ramadan 2012 were reviewed. Health-related content was identified and characterized according to four different categories including presence of messages pertaining to both diabetes and Ramadan. Articles describing diabetes and Ramadan combined were further evaluated according to specific features of prominence (surrogates for perceived reader importance). Newspapers were grouped by language, and volume and content of coverage were compared between groups. Results A total of 1 467 newspaper issues published during the 2012 review period (781 in Arabic and 686 in English) were analysed. Health-related articles appeared consistently throughout the study period, but few were specifically diabetes-related (66/1095 [6%] Arabic articles versus 34/1250 [2.7%] English articles; P = 0.008). Only 34/1095 (3.1%) Arabic and 23/1 250 (1.8%) English ( P = 0.05) articles pertaining specifically to diabetes management during Ramadan were published. Twenty/34 (59%, Arabic) and 6/23 (26%, English) were published in high prominence positions. Conclusions Opportunity exists to augment the relatively low coverage of diabetes health-related messages in print media during Ramadan.

  13. International Observe the Moon Night: An Effective Model for Public Engagement with NASA Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Jones, A. J. P.; Shaner, A.; Day, B.; Buxner, S.; Wegner, M.

    2015-01-01

    International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is an annual world-wide public engagement event designed with the goal of inspiring the public to want to learn more about NASAs contributions to planetary science and exploration, using the Earths Moon as an entryway, and to provide connections to do so [1,2,3]. InOMN will celebrate its 6th anniversary on September 19, 2015.Registration statistics from the past five years show an average of 500 InOMN events are held in 50 countries and 45 U.S. states per year (Figure 1), with over half of the events occurring outside the U.S. Host survey data indicate that approximately 55,000 to 75,000people participate in InOMN events each year. The consistent hosting of InOMN events across the U.S. and around the world indicates an interest by hosts in sharing lunar and planetary science with their local communities, as well as connecting with a larger international group of fellow space enthusiasts on an annual basis.

  14. Rapid reduction of N-nitrosamine disinfection byproducts in water with hydrogen and porous nickel catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierdich, Andrew J; Shapley, John R; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for new technologies to rapidly and economically treatwater contaminated with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and related compounds because of their high toxicity and recent detection in drinking water sources as a consequence of industrial releases and chlorine disinfection of wastewater effluent Treatment of N-nitrosamines with H2 in conjunction with a high surface area porous nickel material, a model nonprecious metal catalyst, has been evaluated. Experiments show that NDMA is reduced rapidly and catalytically to dimethylamine and N2 (e.g., t1/2 = 1.5 min for 500 mg/L catalyst and PH2 = 1 atm), and kinetic trends are consistent with a surface-mediated mechanism involving scission of the N-nitrosamine N-N bond and subsequent reactions with adsorbed atomic hydrogen. The metal-loading-normalized pseudo-first-order rate constant (77.9 +/- 13.1 L g(Ni)(-1) h(-1)) exceeds values reported for Pd-based catalysts. Several related N-nitrosamines react at rates similar to those of NDMA, indicating a weak dependence on structure. The reaction rates for NDMA reduction are not significantly affected by changing pH, and the presence of high concentrations of many common water constituents (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4(2-), HCO(3-), and NOM) exerts only a small effect on reaction rates. Nitrate is also reduced by the Ni catalyst, and high nitrate concentrations competitively inhibit the reduction of NDMA. (Bi)sulfide poisons the catalyst by strong chemisorption to the Ni surface. Cost-normalized rate constants for the Ni catalyst are highly favorable compared to Pd-based catalysts, indicating that, with further development, Ni-based catalysts may become attractive alternatives to precious metal catalysts.

  15. Early limited nitrosamine exposures exacerbate high fat diet-mediated type 2 diabetes and neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longato Lisa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and several types of neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's, are linked to insulin-resistance, and chronic high dietary fat intake causes T2DM with mild neurodegeneration. Intra-cerebral Streptozotocin, a nitrosamine-related compound, causes neurodegeneration, whereas peripheral treatment causes DM. Hypothesis Limited early exposures to nitrosamines that are widely present in the environment, enhance the deleterious effects of high fat intake in promoting T2DM and neurodegeneration. Methods Long Evans rat pups were treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA by i.p. injection, and upon weaning, they were fed with high fat (60%; HFD or low fat (5%; LFD chow for 8 weeks. Cerebella were harvested to assess gene expression, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF deficiency and resistance in the context of neurodegeneration. Results HFD ± NDEA caused T2DM, neurodegeneration with impairments in brain insulin, insulin receptor, IGF-2 receptor, or insulin receptor substrate gene expression, and reduced expression of tau and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, which are regulated by insulin and IGF-1. In addition, increased levels of 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine were measured in cerebella of HFD ± NDEA treated rats, and overall, NDEA+HFD treatment reduced brain levels of Tau, phospho-GSK-3β (reflecting increased GSK-3β activity, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and ChAT to greater degrees than either treatment alone. Finally, pro-ceramide genes, examined because ceramides cause insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration, were significantly up-regulated by HFD and/or NDEA exposure, but the highest levels were generally present in brains of HFD+NDEA treated rats. Conclusions Early limited exposure to nitrosamines exacerbates the adverse effects of later chronic high dietary fat intake in promoting T2DM and neurodegeneration. The mechanism involves increased generation of

  16. Effect of irradiation on the prevulcanized latex/low nitrosamines latex blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Pairu; Zin, Wan Manshol Wan [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Daik, Rusli [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,43600 bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Radiation Prevulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) was blended with Low Nitrosamines Latex (LNL) at different composition ratio. Methyl Metachrylate (MMA) was added for grafting onto the blended latex. Blended latex was subjected to gamma irradiation at various doses up to 8kGy. The mechanical properties and FTIR analysis were investigated as a function of the blended composition and irradiation dose. It was found that blending at specific ratio and gamma irradiation at specific dose led to significant improvement on the properties of the latex. The optimum mechanical properties was attained at a total blending ratio of 70% RVNRL and 30% of LNL.

  17. Effect of irradiation on the prevulcanized latex/low nitrosamines latex blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Pairu; Daik, Rusli; Zin, Wan Manshol Wan

    2015-09-01

    Radiation Prevulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) was blended with Low Nitrosamines Latex (LNL) at different composition ratio. Methyl Metachrylate (MMA) was added for grafting onto the blended latex. Blended latex was subjected to gamma irradiation at various doses up to 8kGy. The mechanical properties and FTIR analysis were investigated as a function of the blended composition and irradiation dose. It was found that blending at specific ratio and gamma irradiation at specific dose led to significant improvement on the properties of the latex. The optimum mechanical properties was attained at a total blending ratio of 70% RVNRL and 30% of LNL.

  18. Is content really king? An objective analysis of the public's response to medical videos on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tejas; Shariff, Afreen; Dhingra, Vibhu; Minhas, Deeba; Eure, Megan; Kats, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Medical educators and patients are turning to YouTube to teach and learn about medical conditions. These videos are from authors whose credibility cannot be verified & are not peer reviewed. As a result, studies that have analyzed the educational content of YouTube have reported dismal results. These studies have been unable to exclude videos created by questionable sources and for non-educational purposes. We hypothesize that medical education YouTube videos, authored by credible sources, are of high educational value and appropriately suited to educate the public. Credible videos about cardiovascular diseases were identified using the Mayo Clinic's Center for Social Media Health network. Content in each video was assessed by the presence/absence of 7 factors. Each video was also evaluated for understandability using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM). User engagement measurements were obtained for each video. A total of 607 videos (35 hours) were analyzed. Half of all videos contained 3 educational factors: treatment, screening, or prevention. There was no difference between the number of educational factors present & any user engagement measurement (p NS). SAM scores were higher in videos whose content discussed more educational factors (pYouTube.

  19. The bioload and aflatoxin content of market garri from some selected states in southern Nigeria: public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiehor, I S; Ikenebomeh, M J; Ekundayo, A O

    2007-12-01

    Garri is consumed by several millions of people in the West African sub-region and in Nigeria in particular, regardless of ethnicity and socio-economic class. However, production and handling methods have not been standardized, resulting in a product with varying quality and safety indices hence varying public health concern. To investigate the microbial contamination level, presence, prevalence and distribution of aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁ and G₂ in market garri with the aim of developing useful indices for safe handling and acceptable public health standards. A total of 300 samples comprising of 30 samples each from various market in both urban and rural settings were randomly collected using sterile polyethylene bags. These were analysed for microbiological quality and aflatoxins content using standard procedures. Eight bacteria genera (Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Salmonella Klebsiella and Coliforms groups) genera and six fungi genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Botrytls, Fusarium and Cladosporium) were detected and isolated. Aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁ and G₂ were detected in varying concentrations amongst the samples analysed within and amongst the states investigated with an average occurrence rate of 17.5% Market garri was found to contain high bioload with vast array of micro-organisms and aflatoxins in all the states investigated. Results are useful in developing and establishing public health standards for the production and safe handling of garri.

  20. Heavy Metals Content in Classroom Dust of Some Public Primary Schools in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.E. Popoola

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This aim of the study is to determine the levels of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn in 40 dust samples obtained from the classrooms of some public primary schools in Lagos State, Nigeria. Children are more susceptible to the adverse health effects of heavy metal pollution due to their small body size, developing nervous system, high absorption rate and behavioral pattern present during childhood. Exposure to heavy metalladen dustis considered to be a significant contributor. To assess the extent of pollution by heavy metals, classroom dust samples were obtained from 40 selected schools in Lagos, Nigeria. The samples were subjected to aqua regia microwave digestion and analysed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer.The results showed that the classroom dusts contained PbHD 23.89±16.39, PbLD 22.77±9.21; CrHD 10.53±5.08, CrLD 6.17±2.47; CdHD 0.09±0.12, CdLD 0.09±0.10 μg/g, respectively. Interestingly, the highest concentration of lead (82.51 μg/g was found in a classroom far removed from any commercial or industrial activites, Ajeromi-Ifelodun high density area while Ikeja, a more industrialized area has lower concentration of the metal. The values obtained in this study are lower than expected but it is still a source of concern since children are exposed to this environment daily and for appreciable period of time.

  1. Heavy Metals Content in Playground Topsoil of Some Public Primary Schools in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.E. Popoola

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the concentration of potentially harmful heavy metals in playground topsoil from public primary schools in metropolitan Lagos, is imperative in order to evaluate the potential risks to the children in the schools. The study was conducted in order to determine if the concentrations of heavy metals in the soil is high enough to constitute a risk to children. Samples were collected from 20 schools in the Lagos metropolis and were subjected to microwave aqua regia digestion. Subsequently, the concentrations of the metals in the samples were measured using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS. The investigation revealed that Pb has the highest concentrations of all the metals. Mean metal concentration in playground soils were PbHD 23.08±11.11, PbLD 23.54±14.55; CrHD 5.99±5.79, CrLD 3.80±3.83; CdHD 0.33±0.33, CdLD 0.39±0.31; MnHD 1.60±0.14, MnLD 1.61±0.05 μg/g. Univariate analysis of variance showed that the metal concentrations in the high or low population density areas were not significantly different (p>0.05. The results generally indicated that pollution by metals in the dusts and soils is minimal for Pb and Cr and negligible for Mn and Cd while geographical location of the schools in high and low population density areas of Lagos state, Nigeria was not a determinant in the evaluation of children’s exposure to heavy metals.

  2. Coverage of Team Science by Public Information Officers: Content Analysis of Press Releases about the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graube, Marita; Clark, Fiona; Illman, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the content of press releases from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Centers (STCs) to determine how public information officers (PIOs) presented the outcomes of centers to journalists and the public. A total of 68 press releases were analyzed for type of news covered, visibility of centers and their…

  3. Adsorption of parent nitrosamine on the nanocrystaline M-ZSM-5 zeolite: A density functional study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein Roohi; Mahjoubeh Jahantab

    2013-11-01

    The adsorption of parent nitrosamine (NA) on the Brønsted acid sites of M-ZSM-5 (M = H, Li and Na) zeolites have been investigated via the utilization of 10T cluster model by density functional calculations, at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. Two A and B complexes with two types O(N)…M and NH…OZ interactions were predicted from adsorption of nitrosamine on the M-zeolite clusters. The comparison of interaction energies shows that the order of energies for adsorption of NA on the Brønsted acid site of M-ZSM-5 is Na Li < H for the A complexes and Li < H for the B complexes. The calculated adsorption enthalpy of NA on the Brønsted acid site of 10T cluster of M-ZSM-5 catalyst ranges from −14.41 to −52.95 kJ/mol. The acid strength of H-ZSM-5 was found to exceed those of the corresponding to the alkali metal ion-exchanged zeolites. The results reveal that the interaction between hydrogen of NA and OZ of framework is weaker than O(N)…M one. The NH…OZ and O(N)…HZ hydrogen bonds in these complexes are electrostatic and partially covalent in nature, respectively. The results of natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis showed that charge transfer occurs from NA to M-zeolite cluster.

  4. Nitrate contamination of drinking water: relationship with HPRT variant frequency in lymphocyte DNA and urinary excretion of N-nitrosamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, J.M.S.; Welle, I.J.; Hageman, G.J.; Dallinga, J.W.; Mertens, P.L.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of drinking water: relationship with HPRT variant frequency in lymphocyte DNA and urinary excretion of N-nitrosamines. van Maanen JM, Welle IJ, Hageman G, Dallinga JW, Mertens PL, Kleinjans JC. Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, University of Limburg,

  5. Delay-sensitive content distribution via peer-to-peer collaboration in public safety vehicular ad-hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2014-05-01

    Delay-sensitive content distribution with peer-to-peer (P2P) cooperation in public safety vehicular networks is investigated. Two cooperative schemes are presented and analyzed. The first scheme is based on unicasting from the base station, whereas the second is based on threshold based multicasting. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is used for long range (LR) communications with the base station (BS) and IEEE 802.11p is considered for inter-vehicle collaboration on the short range (SR). The first scheme is shown to outperform non-cooperative unicasting and multicasting, while the second scheme outperforms non-cooperative unicasting beyond a specific number of cooperating vehicles, when the appropriate 802.11p power class is used. The first scheme achieves the best performance among the compared methods, and a practical approximation of that scheme is shown to be close to optimal performance. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Seasonal variations of particle-associated nitrosamines by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the atmospheric environment of Zonguldak, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Mehmet; Ata, Şevket

    2013-10-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method has been proposed for the determination of low-level mutagenic and carcinogenic nitrosamines in particulate matter. The method includes the collection of particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using a dichotomous Partisol 2025 sampler and extraction of the compounds from aqueous solution with dichloromethane/2-propanol after sonication with a slightly basic water solution prior to their GC-MS analysis in electron impact mode. The obtained recoveries of nitrosamines ranged from 92.4 to 99.2 %, and the precision of this method, as indicated by the relative standard deviations, was within the range of 0.95-2.46 %. The detection limits obtained from calculations using the GC-MS results based on S/N=3 were found within the range from 4 to 22 pg/m(3). The predominant nitrosamines determined in particulate matter were N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosodibutylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine. Furthermore, N-mono- and dinitrosopiperazine and N-nitrosoethylbutylamine were also determined. N-dinitrosopiperazine was detected in PM2.5 samples at the highest concentrations of up to 22.85 ng/m(3) and in PM2.5-10 samples at concentrations up to 7.60 ng/m(3) in winter, whereas it was found in PM2.5 samples up to 5.15 ng/m(3) and in PM2.5-10 samples up to 3.12 ng/m(3) in summer. The total concentrations of nitrosamines were up to 161.4 ng/m(3) in fine and 53.90 ng/m(3) in coarse fractions in winter, whereas in summer were up to 35.24 and 12.60 ng/m(3), respectively. The concentration levels of nitrosamines fluctuated significantly within a year, with higher means and peak concentrations in the winter compared to that in the summertime. The seasonal variations of particle-associated nitrosamine concentrations were investigated together with their relationships with meteorological parameters using Pearson's correlation analysis in the winter and summer periods. Analysis of variance was used to determine which

  7. [Comprehensive sexual education in Mexico: an analysis of coverage, comprehensiveness and continuity of contents in Mexican public and private schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Rosalba; Castro, Filipa de; Villalobos, Aremis; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Romero, Martin; Braverman-Bronstein, Ariela; Uribe, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    To analyze coverage of comprehensive sex education (CSE) in high schools in Mexico and describe whether it is comprehensive, homogeneous and has continuity based on student reports of exposure to topics in three dimensions: reproductive and sexual health, self-efficacy and rights and relations. Within a probabilistic, cross-sectional survey with stratified, cluster sampling, a nationally representative sample of 3 824 adolescents attending 45 public and private high-schools in urban and rural areas completed questionnaires on CSE. The proportion of adolescents reporting having received sex education from school personnel varies depending on topics and grade level. Topics most frequently covered are those related to sexual and reproductive health while rights and relations are least frequently dealt with. Most sex education topics are covered during junior high school and much less frequently in elementary or high school. CSE needs to be comprehensive and homogenous in terms of content, ensure inclusion of priority topics, meet national and international recommendations, ensure continuity and adapt contents to student age through all education levels.

  8. Nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamines exposure and the risk of type 1 diabetes: A review of current data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Ghasemi, Asghar; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2016-10-15

    The potential toxic effects of nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamine on pancreatic β cell have remained a controversial issue over the past two decades. In this study, we reviewed epidemiological studies investigated the associations between nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamines exposure, from both diet and drinking water to ascertain whether these compounds may contribute to development of type 1 diabetes. To identify relevant studies, a systematic search strategy of PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct was conducted using queries including the key words "nitrate", "nitrite", "nitrosamine" with "type 1 diabetes" or "insulin dependent diabetes mellitus". All searches were limited to studies published in English. Ecologic surveys, case-control and cohort studies have indicated conflicting results in relation to nitrate-nitrite exposure from drinking water and the risk of type 1 diabetes. A null, sometimes even negative association has been mainly reported in regions with a mean nitrate levels water, while increased risk of type 1 diabetes was observed in those with a maximum nitrate levels > 40-80 mg/L. Limited data are available regarding the potential diabetogenic effect of nitrite from drinking water, although there is evidence indicating dietary nitrite could be a risk factor for development of type 1 diabetes, an effect however that seems to be significant in a higher range of acceptable limit for nitrate/nitrite. Current data regarding dietary exposure of nitrosamine and development of type 1 diabetes is also inconsistent. Considering to an increasing trend of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) along with an elevated nitrate-nitrite exposure, additional research is critical to clarify potential harmful effects of nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamine exposure on β-cell autoimmunity and the risk of T1DM.

  9. Variation of levels and distribution of N-nitrosamines in different seasons in drinking waters of East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Yu, Dian; Xian, Qiming; Li, Aimin; Sun, Cheng

    2015-08-01

    We surveyed the occurrence of nine N-nitrosamine species in ten bottled drinking waters from supermarket and other water samples including raw waters, finished waters, and distribution system waters from nine municipal drinking water treatment plants in eight cities of Jiangsu Province, East China. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected in one of ten bottled drinking water samples at concentration of 4.8 ng/L and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor) was detected in four of the ten bottles with an average concentration and a standard deviation of 16 ± 15 ng/L. The levels of nitrosamines in the distribution system water samples collected during summer season ranged from below detection limit (BDL) to 5.4 ng/L for NDMA, BDL to 9.5 ng/L for N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), BDL to 2.7 ng/L for N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and BDL to 8.5 ng/L for N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr). Samples of distribution system waters collected in winter season had levels of nitrosamines ranged from BDL to 45 ng/L for NDMA, BDL to 5.2 ng/L for NPyr, and BDL to 309 ng/L for N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip). A positive correlation of the concentration of NDMA as well as the total nine N-nitrosamines between finished waters and distribution system waters was observed. Both dissolved organic carbon and nitrite were found to correlate linearly with N-nitrosamine levels in raw waters.

  10. Simple quantification method for N-nitrosamines in atmospheric particulates based on facile pretreatment and GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youngmin; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Sang, Byoung-In; Kim, Hyunook

    2017-07-01

    Nine N-nitrosamines (i.e., N-nitrosomethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip), N-nitorosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA), and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA) in atmospheric PM2.5 collected in the fall season from an roadside site and a residential in Seoul, Korea have been analyzed using a newly developed method consisting of simple direct liquid extraction assisted by ultrasonication and subsequent quantification using a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-TQMS). Excellent recovery values (92-100%) and method detection limits for the target compounds atmospheric PM samples could be achieved even without an evaporation step for sample concentration. The concentration of total N-nitrosamines in PM2.5 was ranged from 0.3 to 9.4 ng m(-3) in this study; NDMA, NDEA, NDBA, NPyr, and NMor in PM2.5 were found to be the most frequently encountered compounds at the sampling sites. Since no industrial plant is located in Seoul, vehicle exhausts were considered major cause of the formation of nitrosamines in this study. The mechanisms how these compounds are formed and detected in the atmosphere are explained from the viewpoint of secondary organic aerosol. Considering the concentrations of N-nitrosamines and their associated potential health risks, a systematic monitoring of nitrosamines present in both ambient air and PM2.5 including seasonal and diurnal variations of selected sites (including potential precursor sources) should be carried out in the future. The proposed sample pretreatment method along with the analytical method will definitely help us perform the monitoring study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of social media as an instructional component on content knowledge, attitudes, and public engagement related to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sallie E.

    Social media (SM) are considered important avenues to reach citizens and engage them in social change. Given the widespread use of SM and their potential to enhance communication, they could also have significant influence when used as an educational tool. Educators are exploring whether classroom SM use has instructional benefits, such as enhancing interactivity and engagement. It is critical to understand the potential of SM for creating meaningful learning environments and public engagement pathways. Much work remains to understand the use of SM in this context and how to use them effectively. This study draws on active learning theory to examine the impact of SM as an instructional component with community college students learning to make connections among science, social responsibility, and global understanding in an environmental biology course (the Course). Using global climate change as a theme, the Course included a Facebook instructional component. A pretest--posttest, nonrandomized comparison group design was used to measure the impact of Facebook as an integrated component of the Course. The treatment and comparison groups were determined to be comparable based on demographics, access and ownership of digital devices, and SM use despite non-random assignment. No statistically significant differences were found between groups on these factors. The intervention consisted of semester-long required use of Facebook for the treatment group. The impact of the SM intervention was measured in three areas: (a) content knowledge, (b) attitudes toward climate change, and (c) public engagement actions and intentions to act. At the conclusion of the Course, no discernable difference was measured in content knowledge gains between the two groups. However, students who used Facebook experienced statistically significant differences in attitude, becoming increasingly concerned about global climate change. The comparison group demonstrated statistically significant

  12. Red meat, dietary nitrosamines, and heme iron and risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakszyn, P.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Lujan-Barroso, L.; Ros, M.M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Roswall, N.; Tjonneland, A.M.; Buchner, F.L.; Egevad, L.; Overvad, K.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Touillaud, M.S.; Chang-Claude, J.; Allen, N.E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Key, T.J.; Kaaks, R.; Boeing, H.; Weikert, S.; Trichopoulou, A.; Oikonomou, E.; Zylis, D.; Palli, D.; Berrino, F.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Mattiello, A.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Parr, C.L.; Gram, I.T.; Skeie, G.; Sanchez, M.J.; Larranaga, N.; Ardanaz, E.; Navarro, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Ulmert, D.; Ehrnstrom, R.; Hallmans, G.; Ljungberg, B.; Roddam, A.W.; Bingham, S.A.; Khaw, K.T.; Slimani, N.; Boffetta, P.A.; Jenab, M.; Mouw, T.; Michaud, D.S.; Riboli, E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiologic studies found inconsistent results for the association between red meat intake, nitrosamines [NDMA: N-nitrosodimethylamine, and ENOC (endogenous nitroso compounds)], and the risk of bladder cancer. We investigated the association between red meat consumption, dieta

  13. Comparison of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electron ionization for determination of N-nitrosamines in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenwen; Li, Xiaoshui; Huang, Huanfang; Zhu, Xuetao; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yuan; Cen, Kuang; Zhao, Lunshan; Liu, Xiuli; Qi, Shihua

    2017-02-01

    N-nitrosamines are trace organic contaminants of environmental concern when present in groundwater and river water due to their potent carcinogenicity. Therefore, N-nitrosamine analysis is increasingly in demand. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), both with electron ionization (EI), were compared for analysis of nine N-nitrosamines extracted from environmental water matrices. A total of 20 fishpond water, river water, and groundwater samples from Sihui and Shunde, China were collected for a survey of N-nitrosamine concentrations in real water samples. Various solid-phase extraction (SPE) conditions and GC conditions were first examined for the pre-concentration and separation steps. The analysis of N-nitrosamines in environmental waters demonstrated that their quantification with GC-MS poses a challenge due to the occurrence of co-eluting interferences. Conversely, the use of GC-MS/MS increased selectivity because of the fragmentation generated from precursor ions in the 'multiple reaction monitoring' (MRM) mode, which is expected to extract target analytes from the environmental water matrix. Thus, the high performance of GC-MS/MS with EI was used to quantify nine N-nitrosamines in environmental waters with detection limits of 1.1-3.1 ng L(-1). N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) concentrations were in the range of N.D. to 258 ng L(-1). Furthermore, other N-nitrosamines, except N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine (NDPA) and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), were also detected. Our findings suggest that GC-MS/MS with EI would be widely applicable in identifying N-nitrosamines in environmental waters and can be used for routine monitoring of these chemicals.

  14. Modifying effects of Soybean and Nigella Sativa against Experimental Hepato-carcinogenesis induced By Nitrosamine Precursor in Rats Histopathological and electron microscopically study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa F. Waer, **Abdel Baset EL Asser, ***Hamdy A. Ibrahim

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become an important topic in medicine since it is a major cause of death in the developing countries and it is now only secondary to that of myocardial infraction. Nitrosamines precursors are known to be carcinogenic to humans, in various organs at relatively low levels of exposure. It induces benign and malignant tumors especially liver tumors following its administration by various routes, including ingestion and inhalation. Humans may be exposed to Nitrosamines through the ingestion of food that contains it, such as cured meat products, and smoked fish. Other exposures to Nitrosamines may be from drinking contaminated water and from breathing cigarette smoke and contaminated ambient air. Individual are most likely to be exposed to Nitrosamines in occupational settings such as in the rubber, tannery, fish processing, dyes, and surfactant industries. The prevalence of liver tumors throughout the world makes in imperative to seek chemo preventive agents. Vegetables, natural products of plant origin and numerous non-nutritive dietary constituents have been shown to play a salutary role in cancer chemoprevention. The present study aims to evaluate the chemo preventive efficacy of soy bean and Nigella sativa on hepato-carcinogenesis induced by dibuty1 nitrosamine (DEN. It could be observed that both soy bean and Nigella sativa have a good effect of amelioration against liver hepatoma induced by nitrosamine. Soy bean more or less showed more prerogative effect than Nigella 9 and 12 months after administration.

  15. Synergism of herpes simplex virus and tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines in cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, N.H.; Dokko, H.; Li, S.L.; Cherrick, H.M. (UCLA School of Dentistry (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that herpes simplex virus (HSV) enhances the carcinogenic activity of smokeless tobacco and tobacco-related chemical carcinogens in animals. Since tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines (TSNAs) such as N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-methyl-N'-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) are major chemical carcinogens of smokeless tobacco and are known to be responsible for the development of oral cancers in smokeless tobacco users, the combined effects of TSNAs and HSV in cell transformation were investigated. Exposure of cells to NNN or NNK followed by virus infection resulted in a significant enhancement of transformation frequency when compared with that observed with chemical carcinogens or virus alone. This study suggests that TSNAs and HSV can interact together and show synergism in cell transformation.

  16. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the determination of nitrosamines in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lona-Ramirez, Fernando J; Gonzalez-Alatorre, Guillermo; Rico-Ramírez, Vicente; Perez-Perez, Ma Cristina I; Castrejón-González, Edgar O

    2016-04-01

    N-nitrosamines (NAms) are highly active carcinogens that have been detected in food and beverages. Currently certain studies report their presence in red wine, while others fail to detect their presence. In this study the head space solid phase micro-extraction technique coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was applied to quantify four NAms in different types of red wine. The technique was found to be a simple, precise, fast and environmentally friendly alternative for the quantification of volatile NAms. A factorial analysis was carried out to evaluate the influence of the parameters on the HS-SPME technique. This is the first study that such analysis has been reported and where NAms in red wine have been quantified using HS-SPME-GC-MS. The method was validated by calculating the linearity, limit of detection and quantification. Two of the four NAms analyzed were found to be present in red wine samples.

  17. Seasonal and spatial variability of nitrosamines and their precursor sources at a large-scale urban drinking water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Gwen C; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Hale, Bruce; Campbell, Zeke; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2015-07-01

    Nitrosamines are considered to pose greater health risks than currently regulated DBPs and are subsequently listed as a priority pollutant by the EPA, with potential for future regulation. Denver Water, as part of the EPA's Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 2 (UCMR2) monitoring campaign, found detectable levels of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) at all sites of maximum residency within the distribution system. To better understand the occurrence of nitrosamines and nitrosamine precursors, Denver Water undertook a comprehensive year-long monitoring campaign. Samples were taken every two weeks to monitor for NDMA in the distribution system, and quarterly sampling events further examined 9 nitrosamines and nitrosamine precursors throughout the treatment and distribution systems. NDMA levels within the distribution system were typically low (>1.3 to 7.2 ng/L) with a remote distribution site (frequently >200 h of residency) experiencing the highest concentrations found. Eight other nitrosamines (N-nitrosomethylethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine, N-nitroso-di-n-butylamine, N-nitroso-di-phenylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosopiperidine, N-nitrosomorpholine) were also monitored but none of these 8, or precursors of these 8 [as estimated with formation potential (FP) tests], were detected anywhere in raw, partially-treated or distribution samples. Throughout the year, there was evidence that seasonality may impact NDMA formation, such that lower temperatures (~5-10°C) produced greater NDMA than during warmer months. The year of sampling further provided evidence that water quality and weather events may impact NDMA precursor loads. Precursor loading estimates demonstrated that NDMA precursors increased during treatment (potentially from cationic polymer coagulant aids). The precursor analysis also provided evidence that precursors may have increased further within the distribution system itself. This comprehensive study of a large

  18. Determinants of disinfectant pretreatment efficacy for nitrosamine control in chloraminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Daniel L; Krasner, Stuart W; von Gunten, Urs; Mitch, William A

    2015-11-01

    Utilities using chloramines need strategies to mitigate nitrosamine formation to meet potential future nitrosamine regulations. The ability to reduce NDMA formation under typical post-chloramination conditions of pretreatment with ultraviolet light from a low pressure mercury lamp (LPUV), free chlorine (HOCl), ozone (O3), and UV light from a medium pressure mercury lamp (MPUV) were compared at exposures relevant to drinking water treatment. The order of efficacy after application to waters impacted by upstream wastewater discharges was O3 > HOCl ≈ MPUV > LPUV. NDMA precursor abatement generally did not correlate well between oxidants, and waters exhibited different behaviors with respect to pH and temperature, suggesting a variety of source-dependent NDMA precursors. For wastewater-impacted waters, the observed pH dependence for precursor abatement suggested the important role of secondary or tertiary amine precursors. Although hydroxyl radicals did not appear to be important for NDMA precursor abatement during O3 or MPUV pretreatment, the efficacy of MPUV correlated strongly with dissolved organic carbon concentration (p = 0.01), suggesting alternative indirect photochemical pathways. The temperature dependences during pre- and post-disinfection indicated that NDMA formation is likely to increase during warm seasons for O3 pretreatment, decrease for HOCl pretreatment, and remain unchanged for MPUV treatment, although seasonal changes in source water quality may counteract the temperature effects. For two waters impacted by relatively high polyDADMAC coagulant doses, pretreatment with HOCl, O3, and MPUV increased NDMA formation during post-chloramination. For O3 pretreatment, hydroxyl radicals likely led to precursor formation from the polymer in the latter tests. MPUV treatment of polymer-impacted water increased subsequent NDMA formation through an indirect photochemical process. Many factors may mitigate the importance of this increased NDMA formation

  19. Role of Oxides of Nitrogen in Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Formation in Flue-Cured Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor TB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is known to contain a class of nitrosamines known as tobacco-specific nitrosamines or TSNA. Nitrosation of naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids is commonly accepted as the mechanism of TSNA formation in tobacco. Because green and freshly harvested tobaccos are virtually free of TSNA, formation and accumulation of TSNA are generally considered to occur during the curing process. Most recent hypotheses have focused on microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrite and other oxides of nitrogen (NOcompounds that react with tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA during curing. This natural microbial process remains the prevalent hypothesis for TSNA formation in burley and other air-cured tobaccos. However, a different mechanism for the formation of TSNA in flue-cured tobacco, independent of microbial activity, is documented in this paper. It is common practice to flue-cure Virginia or blonde tobacco in bulk barns that incorporate forced air ventilation and temperature control. For the last thirty-five years, many modern bulk barns in North America generally have used liquid propane gas (LPG with direct-fired burners that exhaust combustion gases directly into the barn where the tobacco is exposed to those gases. Our studies indicate that LPG combustion by-products in the exhaust stream, namely NO, react with naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA. Heat exchange curing methods preclude exposure of the tobacco to combustion gases and by-products, thereby eliminating this significant source of TSNA formation, without degrading leaf quality or smoking character. Research findings from 1998 and 1999 are presented to demonstrate the role of NOgases in TSNA formation and the significance of direct-fired curing as a primary source of TSNA formation in flue-cured tobacco. Also, data from an extensive barn conversion program in 2000, which resulted in a 94% average reduction in TSNA levels in cured flue-cured leaf, are presented.

  20. Identification of tobacco-specific nitrosamines as disinfection byproducts in chloraminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghuo; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Leavey, Shannon; Hrudey, Steve E; Krasner, Stuart W; Li, Xing-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) exist in environmental waters; however, it is unknown whether TSNAs can be produced during water disinfection. Here we report on the investigation and evidence of TSNAs as a new class of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Using five common TSNAs, including (methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) as the targets, we first developed a solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method capable of rapidly determining these TSNAs at levels as low as 0.02 ng/L in treated water. Using this highly sensitive method, we investigated the occurrence and formation potential (FP) (precursor test conducted in the presence of chloramines) of TSNAs in treated water from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and seven drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). NNAL was detected in the FP samples, but not in the samples before the FP test, confirming NNAL as a DBP. NNK was detected in the treated wastewater before the FP test, but its concentration increased significantly after chloramination in two of three tests. Thus, NNK could be a DBP and/or a contaminant in wastewater. Moreover, these TSNAs were detected in FP tests of wastewater-impacted DWTP plant influents in 9 of 11 samples. However, TSNAs were not detected at full-scale DWTPs, except for at one DWTP with high ammonia where breakpoint chlorination was not achieved. The concentration of the sum of five TSNAs (0.3 ng/L) was 100-fold lower than NDMA, suggesting that TSNAs have a minor contribution to total nitrosamines in water. We examined several factors in the treatment process and found that chlorine or ozone may destroy TSNA precursors and granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment may remove the precursors. Further research is warranted into the efficiency of these processes at different DWTPs using sources of varying water quality.

  1. Research and trends in science education from 1998 to 2002: a content analysis of publication in selected journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Chung; Wen, Meichun Lydia

    2005-01-01

    This study conducted a series of content analyses of the articles published by International Journal of Science Education, Science Education, and Journal of Research in Science Teaching from 1998 to 2002. A total of 802 research papers were analyzed in terms of the authors' nationality, research types and topics. It was found that researchers in four major English-speaking countries, including the US, the UK, Australia, and Canada, contributed to a majority of the publications, but the researchers from other non-English countries may have, to a certain extent, gradually played a valuable role on the published work. This probably implies that science education research may have progressively become an important field recognized by the international academic community. This study also found that most of the published articles were categorized as empirical studies, while position, theoretical and review papers were rarely presented in the journals. Although the research topic of students' conceptions and conceptual change was the most frequently investigated one in these five years, a declining trend was observed when analyzed by year. Moreover, in 1998-2002, the research topics related to student learning contexts, and social, cultural and gender issues were also received relatively more attention among science educators.

  2. U.S. federally funded television public service announcements (PSAs) to prevent HIV/AIDS: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejong, W; Wolf, R C; Austin, S B

    2001-01-01

    This article reports a content analysis of 56 English-language public service announcements (PSAs) for HIV/AIDS prevention produced since 1987 by the U.S. federal government for television broadcast. These PSAs do not lead target audiences through a logical sequence from awareness to motivation, skill building, and maintenance. The PSAs underutilize a strategy of "strategic ambiguity" to craft individual PSAs that can address the needs of and appeal to multiple target audiences, thereby directing information not only to heterosexuals, the primary target of these PSAs, but also to homosexuals and bisexuals. The PSAs largely ignore issues related to injection drug use and needle sharing. What drug-related portrayals there are focus on African American street junkies, which perpetuates racial stereotypes and fails to address occasional injection drug use. The PSAs exploit fear of HIV/AIDS to discourage drug use but do not offer drug treatment or counseling information. PSAs produced by the Clinton administration to promote condom use do not fully address key reasons why people fail to use condoms: concern about sexual pleasure, embarrassment about obtaining condoms, and lack of skills to negotiate condom use with sexual partners. Implications of these conclusions for the future of U.S. HIV/AIDS prevention are discussed.

  3. New Solid-Base Cu-MgO for CO2 Capture at 473 K and Removal of Nitrosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan Y; Dong, Xin Y M; Sun, Xiao D; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Jian H

    2016-11-09

    To fabricate a new solid base with high efficiency in the adsorption of CO2 at 473 K and catalytic activity in the degradation of nitrosamines, magnesium oxalate and copper nitrate are mixed with the assistance of microwave irradiation followed by calcination to immobilize CuO among MgO particles. The binary solid base CuO-MgO is thus moderately reduced to form the Cu-inserted MgO composite with highly exposed strong basic sites, and it can capture 34.6 mg g(-1) of CO2 in the harsh instantaneous adsorption at 473 K and keep a high strong basicity while trapping the CO2 mixed with SO2 and NO. Besides this, the new solid base exhibits high activity in the removal of volatile nitrosamine N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), for the first time expanding the application of solid bases to environmental catalysis.

  4. Nitrosamine and related food intake and gastric and oesophageal cancer risk: A systematic review of the epidemiological evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paula Jakszyn; Carlos Alberto González

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between nitrite and nitrosamine intake and gastric cancer (GC), between meat and processed meat intake, GC and oesophageal cancer (OC), and between preserved fish, vegetable and smoked food intake and GC.METHODS: In this article we reviewed all the published cohort and case-control studies from 1985-2005, and analyzed the relationship between nitrosamine and nitrite intake and the most important related food intake (meat and processed meat, preserved vegetables and fish, smoked foods and beer drinking) and GC or OC risk.Sixty-one studies, 11 cohorts and 50 case-control studies were included.RESULTS: Evidence from case-control studies supported an association between nitrite and nitrosamine intake with GC but evidence was insufficient in relation to OC. A high proportion of case-control studies found a positive association with meat intake for both tumours (11 of 16 studies on GC and 11 of 18 studies on OC). A relatively large number of case-control studies showed quite consistent results supporting a positive association between processed meat intake and GC and OC risk (10 of 14 studies on GC and 8 of 9 studies on OC).Almost all the case-control studies found a positive and significant association between preserved fish, vegetable and smoked food intake and GC. The evidence regarding OC was more limited. Overall the evidence from cohort studies was insufficient or more inconsistent than that from case-control studies.CONCLUSION: The available evidence supports a positive association between nitrite and nitrosamine intake and GC, between meat and processed meat intake and GC and OC, and between preserved fish, vegetable and smoked food intake and GC, but is not conclusive.

  5. Nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamines exposure and the risk of type 1 diabetes: A review of current data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Ghasemi, Asghar; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    The potential toxic effects of nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamine on pancreatic β cell have remained a controversial issue over the past two decades. In this study, we reviewed epidemiological studies investigated the associations between nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamines exposure, from both diet and drinking water to ascertain whether these compounds may contribute to development of type 1 diabetes. To identify relevant studies, a systematic search strategy of PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct was conducted using queries including the key words “nitrate”, “nitrite”, “nitrosamine” with “type 1 diabetes” or “insulin dependent diabetes mellitus”. All searches were limited to studies published in English. Ecologic surveys, case-control and cohort studies have indicated conflicting results in relation to nitrate-nitrite exposure from drinking water and the risk of type 1 diabetes. A null, sometimes even negative association has been mainly reported in regions with a mean nitrate levels 40-80 mg/L. Limited data are available regarding the potential diabetogenic effect of nitrite from drinking water, although there is evidence indicating dietary nitrite could be a risk factor for development of type 1 diabetes, an effect however that seems to be significant in a higher range of acceptable limit for nitrate/nitrite. Current data regarding dietary exposure of nitrosamine and development of type 1 diabetes is also inconsistent. Considering to an increasing trend of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) along with an elevated nitrate-nitrite exposure, additional research is critical to clarify potential harmful effects of nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamine exposure on β-cell autoimmunity and the risk of T1DM. PMID:27795817

  6. Implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) Programmes in Public Administration: Russian Students' and Matriculants' Opinion about Their First CLIL Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtcova, Mariia; Kaisarova, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is a pedagogic approach that has developed in response to the demand for integrating education in both school/university subjects and language skills. Our paper is devoted to the implementation of CLIL programmes in Public Administration within a particular sociolinguistic context: that of Russian…

  7. Implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) Programmes in Public Administration: Russian Students' and Matriculants' Opinion about Their First CLIL Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtcova, Mariia; Kaisarova, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is a pedagogic approach that has developed in response to the demand for integrating education in both school/university subjects and language skills. Our paper is devoted to the implementation of CLIL programmes in Public Administration within a particular sociolinguistic context: that of Russian…

  8. Factors affecting ultraviolet irradiation/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) degradation of mixed N-nitrosamines in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang; Chu, Wenhai; Rong, Wenlei; Zhou, Shengdong

    2012-09-15

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are a great challenge to our drinking water security. Particularly, nitrosamines (NAms), as emerging DBPs, are potently carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic, and have increasingly attained public attention. This study was to evaluate the performance of the NAms degradation by the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (253.7 nm) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). In the UV/H(2)O(2) system, hydroxyl radicals (OH), a type of nonselective and powerful oxidant, was produced to attack the molecules of NAms. Factors affecting the treatment efficiency, including the H(2)O(2) dosage, initial NAms concentration, UV irradiation intensity, initial solution pH, and inorganic anions present in water, were evaluated. All the NAms degradation exhibited a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern. Within 60 min, 0.1 mg/L of any NAms could be almost decomposed except NDPhA that required 120 min for complete removal, at 25 μmol/L H(2)O(2) and at initial pH 7. Results demonstrate that the UV/H(2)O(2) treatment is a viable option to control NAms in water.

  9. Police Tweets and Public Perceptions of Safety and Police Performance: An Experiment on Framing and Other Tweet Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Smulders

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new media as a means of communication by the police triggers interesting questions about the impact of such new developments, such as the effect on people’s safety perceptions. Since communication is mostly overlooked as a possible determinant of safety perception, this led to a research project into the relationship between Twitter use by community policing officers and citizen’s perceptions of safety. This article reports on a part of this study, an experiment on framing and other linguistic effects of tweets by police officers. To assess the aforementioned relationship, it is important to examine how the precise content of a community policing officer’s tweet is perceived by the public. In an experimental setting the effects of gain versus loss frames, implicit versus explicit advice and style of addressing have been tested, with regard to safety perceptions and several related factors. The results show that gain framed tweets yield significantly more positive responses concerning opinion about police performance, perceived risk of burglary or assault, safety perception and marginally for perceived crime level in the neighbourhood. Including an explicitly or implicitly formulated piece of advice in the tweets doesn’t make a difference in any of the queried variables and style of addressing has only small effects: formal address leads to slightly more positive opinions about police performance than impersonal address.  The results show that formulation aspects – specifically framing – are worth taking into account in safety communications and that this type of research is beneficial for studying effects of social media.

  10. Comparative in vitro toxicity of nitrosamines and nitramines associated with amine-based carbon capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Elizabeth D; Osiol, Jennifer; Mitch, William A; Plewa, Michael J

    2014-07-15

    Amine-based CO2 capture is a prime contender for the first full-scale implementation of CO2 capture at fossil fuel-fired power plants postcombustion. However, the formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines from reactions of flue gas NOx with the amines presents a potential risk for contaminating airsheds and drinking water supplies. Setting regulatory emission limits is hampered by the dearth of toxicity information for the N-nitramines. This study employed quantitative in vitro bioassays for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium, and chronic cytotoxicity and acute genotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to compare the toxicity of analogous N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines relevant to CO2 capture. Although the rank order was similar for genotoxicity in CHO cells and mutagenicity in S. typhimurium, the Salmonella assay was far more sensitive. In general, mutagenicity was higher with S9 hepatic microsomal activation. The rank order of mutagenicity was N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)>N-nitrosomorpholine>N-nitrodimethylamine>1,4-dinitrosopiperazine>N-nitromorpholine>1,4-dinitropiperazine>N-nitromonoethanolamine>N-nitrosodiethanolamine>N-nitrodiethanolamine. 1-Nitrosopiperazine and 1-nitropiperazine were not mutagenic. Overall, N-nitrosamines were ∼15-fold more mutagenic than their N-nitramine analogues.

  11. Occurrence of aromatic amines and N-nitrosamines in the different steps of a drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Sánchez, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Evaristo; Gallego, Mercedes

    2012-09-15

    The occurrence of 24 amines within a full scale drinking water treatment plant that used chlorinated agents as disinfectants was evaluated for the first time in this research. Prior to any treatment (raw water), aniline, 3-chloroaniline, 3,4-dichloroaniline and N-nitrosodimethylamine were detected at low levels (up to 18 ng/L) but their concentration increased ∼10 times after chloramination while 9 new amines were produced (4 aromatic amines and 5 N-nitrosamines). Within subsequent treatments, there were no significant changes in the amine levels, although the concentrations of 2-nitroaniline, N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosodiethylamine increased slightly within the distribution system. Eleven of the 24 amines studied were undetected either in the raw and in the treatment plant samples analysed. There is an important difference in the behaviour of the aromatic amines and N-nitrosamines with respect to water temperature and rainfall events. Amine concentrations were higher in winter due to low water temperatures, this effect being more noticeable for N-nitrosamines. Aromatic amines were detected at their highest concentrations (especially 3,4-dichloroaniline and 2-nitroaniline) in treated water after rainfall events. These results may be explained by the increase in the levels of amine precursors (pesticides and their degradation products) in raw water since the rainfall facilitated the transport of these compounds from soil which was previously contaminated as a result of intensive agricultural practices.

  12. Impact of Nitrification on the Formation of N-Nitrosamines and Halogenated Disinfection Byproducts within Distribution System Storage Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2016-03-15

    Distribution system storage facilities are a critical, yet often overlooked, component of the urban water infrastructure. This study showed elevated concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), total N-nitrosamines (TONO), regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), 1,1-dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP), trichloroacetaldehyde (TCAL), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and haloacetamides (HAMs) in waters with ongoing nitrification as compared to non-nitrifying waters in storage facilities within five different chloraminated drinking water distribution systems. The concentrations of NDMA, TONO, HANs, and HAMs in the nitrifying waters further increased upon application of simulated distribution system chloramination. The addition of a nitrifying biofilm sample collected from a nitrifying facility to its non-nitrifying influent water led to increases in N-nitrosamine and halogenated DBP formation, suggesting the release of precursors from nitrifying biofilms. Periodic treatment of two nitrifying facilities with breakpoint chlorination (BPC) temporarily suppressed nitrification and reduced precursor levels for N-nitrosamines, HANs, and HAMs, as reflected by lower concentrations of these DBPs measured after re-establishment of a chloramine residual within the facilities than prior to the BPC treatment. However, BPC promoted the formation of halogenated DBPs while a free chlorine residual was maintained. Strategies that minimize application of free chlorine while preventing nitrification are needed to control DBP precursor release in storage facilities.

  13. Determination of secondary and tertiary amines as N-nitrosamine precursors in drinking water system using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihua; Shi, Honglan; Ma, Yinfa; Adams, Craig; Eichholz, Todd; Timmons, Terry; Jiang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    N-Nitrosamines are potent mutagenic and carcinogenic emerging water disinfection by-products (DBPs). The most effective strategy to control the formation of these DBPs is minimizing their precursors from source water. Secondary and tertiary amines are dominating precursors of N-nitrosamines formation during drinking water disinfection process. Therefore, the screening and removal of these amines in source water are very essential for preventing the formation of N-nitrosamines. A rapid, simple, and sensitive ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed in this study to determine seven amines, including dimethylamine, ethylmethylamine, diethylamine, dipropylamine, trimethylamine, 3-(dimethylaminomethyl)indole, and 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine, as major precursors of N-nitrosamines in drinking water system. No sample preparation process is needed except a simple filtration. Separation and detection can be achieved in 11 min per sample. The method detection limits of selected amines are ranging from 0.02 μg/L to 1 μg/L except EMA (5 μg/L), and good calibration linearity was achieved. The developed method was applied to determine the selected precursors in source water and drinking water samples collected from Midwest area of the United States. In most of water samples, the concentrations of selected precursors of N-nitrosamines were below their method detection limits. Dimethylamine was detected in some of water samples at the concentration up to 25.4 μg/L. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. GENRE, LANGUAGE AND STYLE OF WEB-PUBLICATIONS. ANALYSIS OF CONTENT-RELATED COMPONENT OF INTERNET-TEXTS

    OpenAIRE

    Иван Георгиевич Зубков

    2013-01-01

     “Genre” in terms of printing journalism and internet-journalism are different.They differ because the basis of internet-publication is hypertext. The characteristics of internet-publication genre are presented below.In one Internet publication traditional journalism genres such as commentary (reporting), essay and the others can be joined together. It is very difficult to find one internet-publication which is written in one genre. For example, web-commentary can be met only in Internet-copi...

  15. 78 FR 951 - Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content and Format Public Workshop; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... caregivers, and patients themselves. As more medical devices migrate out of clinical care environments and... Labeling 1. Review the outline for a draft standard content and format of medical device labeling. 2... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content...

  16. Information Subsidies and Media Content: A Study of Public Relations Influence on the News. Journalism Monographs Number 100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Judy VanSlyke

    A study examined the relationship between one "family" of the media--newspapers--and one group of public relations (PR) practitioners--public information officers (PIO) for state government agencies--to determine the nature and level of influence the agencies have upon the media's agenda. Eight daily and Sunday newspapers published in New Orleans,…

  17. Selectively reduction of tobacco specific nitrosamines in cigarette smoke by use of nanostructural titanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qixin; Huang, Chaozhang; Zhang, Jianping; Xie, Wei; Xu, Hanchun; Wei, Mingdeng

    2013-05-01

    In this study, titanate nanosheets, nanotubes, and nanowires, were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment anatase TiO2 in different temperatures. The obtained products are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron micrograph (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen sorption-desorption measurement. Then, the nanostructural titanates were used as additives for selectively reducing tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TNSAs) in mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) for the first time. These nanomaterials exhibited high reduction ability of TSNAs which was related to their intrinsic properties. The N-NO functional group of TSNAs with a negative charge would react with H+ on the surface of nanomaterials via chemical absorption and can be retained on the surface of the titanates. Among these materials, titanate nanowires (TNW) captured more TNSAs owing to their network structure, which resulted in the selective reduction ratio of TSNAs being improved significantly. Thus, TNW is a useful additive for selectively reducing the TSNAs in CS without changing the cigarette flavor.

  18. Halonitroalkanes, halonitriles, haloamides, and N-nitrosamines: a critical review of nitrogenous disinfection byproduct formation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amisha D; Mitch, William A

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the formation of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) has increased because toxicological research has indicated that they are often more genotoxic, cytotoxic, or carcinogenic than many of the carbonaceous disinfection byproducts (C-DBPs) that have been a focus for previous research. Moreover, population growth has forced utilities to exploit source waters impaired by wastewater effluents or algal blooms. Both waters feature higher levels of organic nitrogen, that might serve as N-DBP precursors. Utilities are exploring new disinfectant combinations to reduce the formation of regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. As some of these new combinations may promote N-DBP formation, characterization of N-DBP formation pathways is needed. Formation pathways for halonitroalkanes, halonitriles, haloamides, and N-nitrosamines associated with chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, UV, and chloramine disinfection are critically reviewed. Several important themes emerge from the review. First, the formation pathways of the N-DBP families are partially linked because most of the pathways involve similar amine precursors. Second, it is unlikely that a disinfection scheme that is free of byproduct formation will be discovered. Disinfectant combinations should be optimized to reduce the overall exposure to toxic byproducts. Third, the understanding of formation pathways should be employed to devise methods of applying disinfectants that minimize byproduct formation while accomplishing pathogen reduction goals. Fourth, the well-characterized nature of the monomers constituting the biopolymers that likely dominate the organic nitrogen precursor pool should be exploited to predict the formation of byproducts likely to form at high yields.

  19. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2014-07-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as "carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. NNK and NNN are present in the tobacco of virtually all marketed cigarettes; levels in cigarette smoke are directly proportional to the amounts in tobacco. The NNK metabolite NNAL, itself a strong carcinogen, is present in the urine of smokers and nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Some of the highest levels of NNK and NNN are found in U.S. products. It is well established that factors such as choice of tobacco blend, agricultural conditions, and processing methods influence levels of NNK and NNN in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is time to control these factors and produce cigarettes with 100 ppb or less each of NNK and NNN in tobacco, which would result in an approximate 15- to 20-fold reduction of these carcinogens in the mainstream smoke of popular cigarettes sold in the United States.

  20. Synthesis and application of a quaternary phosphonium polymer coagulant to avoid N-nitrosamine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Teng; Pignatello, Joseph J; Li, Russell Jingxian; Mitch, William A

    2014-11-18

    Quaternary ammonium cationic polymers, such as poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC) are widely used for coagulating and removing negatively charged particles and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from drinking water. Their use, however, has been linked to the formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines as byproducts during chloramine-based drinking water disinfection. In this study, a novel quaternary phosphonium cationic polymer, poly(diallyldiethylphosphonium chloride) (polyDADEPC), was synthesized such that the quaternary nitrogen atom of polyDADMAC was substituted with a phosphorus atom. Formation potential tests revealed that even under strong nitrosation conditions, polyDADEPC and related lower-order P-based compounds formed oxygenated and not nitrosated products. Bench-scale jar tests using three different source waters further demonstrated that polyDADEPC achieved coagulation performance comparable to commercial polyDADMACs for particle and DOM removals within the typical dose range used for drinking water treatment. This work highlights the potential use of a phosphonium coagulant polymer, polyDADEPC, as a viable alternative to polyDADMAC to avoid nitrosated byproduct formation during chloramination.

  1. Analytical studies on tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnemann, K D; Hoffmann, D

    1991-01-01

    Chemical-analytical studies have led to the identification of approximately 3000 compounds in tobacco and 4000 in tobacco smoke. These include carcinogens in processed tobacco as well as tumor initiators, tumor promoters, cocarcinogens, and organ-specific carcinogens in tobacco smoke. The latter group includes N-nitrosamines, in particular those that derive from nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids, the TSNA. In vitro nitrosation of nicotine yields NNN, NNA, and NNK. Nitrosation of other tobacco alkaloids leads to the formation of NAT, and NAB. Our analytical studies using GC-TEA have led to the identification of seven TSNA in tobacco and tobacco smoke. In addition to NNN, NAT, NAB, and NNK, we also identified NNAL, iso-NNAL, and, most recently, iso-NNAC. Their levels range from 0.01 to 92 ppm in tobacco and from 6 to 530 ng/cigarette in tobacco smoke. The high levels observed in snuff are primarily due to fermentation and aging. Technological methods exist today to reduce the levels of TSNA in both tobacco and cigarette smoke.

  2. Anticancer activity of Cynodon dactylon L. root extract against diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kowsalya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and a lethal disease. In view of the limited treatment and a grave prognosis of liver cancer, preventive control has been emphasized. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of roots of Cynodon dactylon was screened for its hepato-protective activity in diethyl nitrosamine (DEN induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. The plant extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg was administered orally once a week, up to 30 days after DEN administration. The animals were sacrificed; blood sample and liver tissue were collected and used for enzyme assay such as, asparatate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. The liver marker enzymes AST and ALT produced signifi cant results in the protective action. Results: The antioxidant enzyme assay results concerning the improved activity of GPx, GST and CAT. These results concluded that enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme and reduced amount of serum amino transaminase, which are suggested to be the major mechanisms of C. dactylon root extract in protecting the mice from hepatocarcinoma induced by DEN. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of C. dactylon possesses signifi cant anticancer properties

  3. Occurrence of nitrosamines and their precursors in drinking water systems around mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Er; Shu, Yuanyuan; Li, Shixiang; Liao, Xiaobin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Chao; Krasner, Stuart

    2016-07-01

    N-Nitrosamines (NAs) in drinking water have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to their high carcinogenicity, frequent occurrence, and their potential regulation. During the past three years, we have collected about 164 water samples of finished water, tap water, and source water from 23 provinces, 44 cities from large cities to small towns, and 155 sampling points all over China. The occurrence of NAs in the finished and tap water was much higher in China than that in the U.S. Nine NAs were measured and NDMA had the highest concentration. The occurrence of NDMA was in 33% of the finished waters of water treatment plants and in 41% of the tap waters. The average NDMA concentration in finished and tap waters was 11 and 13 ng/L, respectively. Formation potentials (FPs) of source waters were examined with an average NDMA FP of 66 ng/L. Large variations in NA occurrence were observed geographically in China and temporally in different seasons. The Yangtze River Delta area, one sub-area in East China, had the highest concentrations of NAs, where the average NDMA concentrations in the finished and tap water were 27 and 28.5 ng/L, respectively, and the average NDMA FP in the source water was 204 ng/L. NA control may be achieved by applying breakpoint free chlorination and/or advanced treatment of ozone - granular activated carbon process to remove the NA precursors before disinfection.

  4. Designing and Implementing Content-Based Courses in English with a Non-Language Faculty at a Public Colombian University

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabio Alberto Arismendi Gómez; Claudia Patricia Díaz Mosquera; Leidy Natalia Salazar Valencia

    2008-01-01

    ... participated in a multi-site study to implement content-based (CB) courses in English. The professors, who had a high level of proficiency in English, worked in collaboration with language faculty...

  5. Factors affecting ultraviolet irradiation/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) degradation of mixed N-nitrosamines in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Gao, Naiyun, E-mail: gaonaiyun1@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Deng, Yang [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ 07043 (United States); Chu, Wenhai [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Rong, Wenlei; Zhou, Shengdong [Wuxi Water Supply General Company, Wuxi 214031 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAms with three-induced toxicity, as emerging DBPs, has caused a great public attention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No paper regards UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} oxidation of mixed NAms in an aquatic environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The treatment effect is typically affected by a few factors in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NPIP and NDPhA are the most readily and difficult to be degraded due to unique structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the NAms degradation exhibited a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern. - Abstract: Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are a great challenge to our drinking water security. Particularly, nitrosamines (NAms), as emerging DBPs, are potently carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic, and have increasingly attained public attention. This study was to evaluate the performance of the NAms degradation by the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (253.7 nm) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). In the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system, hydroxyl radicals (OH{center_dot}), a type of nonselective and powerful oxidant, was produced to attack the molecules of NAms. Factors affecting the treatment efficiency, including the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage, initial NAms concentration, UV irradiation intensity, initial solution pH, and inorganic anions present in water, were evaluated. All the NAms degradation exhibited a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern. Within 60 min, 0.1 mg/L of any NAms could be almost decomposed except NDPhA that required 120 min for complete removal, at 25 {mu}mol/L H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and at initial pH 7. Results demonstrate that the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment is a viable option to control NAms in water.

  6. Application of ultraviolet, ozone, and advanced oxidation treatments to washwaters to destroy nitrosamines, nitramines, amines, and aldehydes formed during amine-based carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amisha D; Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2013-03-19

    Although amine-based CO(2) absorption is a leading contender for full-scale postcombustion CO(2) capture at power plants, concerns have been raised about the potential release of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines formed by reaction of exhaust gas NO(x) with the amines. Experiments with a laboratory-scale pilot unit suggested that washwater units meant to scrub contaminants from absorber unit exhaust could potentially serve as a source of N-nitrosamines via reactions of residual NO(x) with amines accumulating in the washwater. Dosage requirements for the continuous treatment of the washwater recycle line with ultraviolet (UV) light for destruction of N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines, and with ozone or hydroxyl radical-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for destruction of amines and aldehydes, were evaluated. Although capture synergies between UV and ozone treatments.

  7. Competencias y contenidos comunes de salud pública en los programas universitarios de grado Common competencies and contents in public health in graduate programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Carmen Davó

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar competencias y contenidos básicos de salud pública en los programas de grado de enfermería, farmacia, magisterio, medicina, nutrición humana y dietética, óptica y optometría, relaciones laborales y recursos humanos, y trabajo social, y realizar propuestas de mejora. Métodos: Organización del taller Contenidos de salud pública en los programas de grado en la XXI Escuela de Salud Pública de Menorca. Formación de ocho grupos coordinados por 37 profesores de universidades españolas seleccionados a través de informantes clave y bola de nieve. Se utilizaron dos estudios sobre competencias profesionales en salud pública, y los programas de los participantes, para analizar las competencias profesionales de salud pública, los contenidos y las recomendaciones para mejorar los programas de salud pública. Cada grupo trabajó sobre un grado y se compartieron los resultados. Resultados: Se identificaron competencias profesionales para las tres funciones esenciales de salud pública en todas las titulaciones excepto en magisterio, óptica y optometría, y trabajo social. En enfermería, magisterio, nutrición humana y dietética, y trabajo social, se rescribieron competencias para destacar el papel de cada profesional en las funciones de salud pública. Los grupos coincidieron en los temas de introducción (conceptos fundamentales y determinantes de la salud y en las estrategias de intervención. Conclusión: Se identifican competencias y contenidos comunes en los grados. La actualización de contenidos de salud pública contribuiría a definir y visibilizar el perfil salubrista de los distintos profesionales.Objective: To identify fundamental public health competencies and contents in nursing, pharmacy, teaching, medicine, human nutrition and dietetics, optics and optometry, labor relations and human resources, and social work in graduate programs and to formulate proposals for their improvement. Methods: The workshop on

  8. GENRE, LANGUAGE AND STYLE OF WEB-PUBLICATIONS. ANALYSIS OF CONTENT-RELATED COMPONENT OF INTERNET-TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Иван Георгиевич Зубков

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available  “Genre” in terms of printing journalism and internet-journalism are different.They differ because the basis of internet-publication is hypertext. The characteristics of internet-publication genre are presented below.In one Internet publication traditional journalism genres such as commentary (reporting, essay and the others can be joined together. It is very difficult to find one internet-publication which is written in one genre. For example, web-commentary can be met only in Internet-copies of printed editions. Journalism was greatly transformed during last decades because of new technologies, world-view, high speed of life – all this was brought by Internet. But even before the world network appeared there were works which described interactions of traditional and innovative journalism.  It was pointed out by V. Helemendik who considered interrelations between newspaper, radio and TV. Transformation of journalism can be noted even in appearance of newspapers and TV transmissions which take design techniques from the style of interactive publications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-21

  9. Occurence and dietary exposure of volatile and non-volatile N-Nitrosamines in processed meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    a high level of consumer protection Denmark obtains National low limits of the nitrite use in meat products. An estimation of the dietary exposure to volatile NAs (VNA) and non-volatile NAs (NVNA) is necessary when performing a risk assessment of the use of nitrite and nitrate for meat preservation.......Nitrite and nitrate have for many decades been used for preservation of meat. However, nitrite can react with secondary amines in meat to form N-Nitrosamines (NAs), many of which have been shown to be genotoxic1 . The use of nitrite therefore ought to be limited as much as possible. To maintain...

  10. Maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines and selected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, John C; Brender, Jean D; Zheng, Qi; Sharkey, Joseph R; Vuong, Ann M; Shinde, Mayura U; Griesenbeck, John S; Suarez, Lucina; Langlois, Peter H; Canfield, Mark A; Romitti, Paul A; Weyer, Peter J

    2013-03-21

    Dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines can increase the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach. Results from animal studies suggest that these compounds might be teratogenic. We examined the relationship between maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites (including plant and animal sources as separate groups), and nitrosamines and several types of birth defects in offspring. For this population-based case-control study, data from a 58-question food frequency questionnaire, adapted from the short Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire and administered as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), were used to estimate daily intake of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in a sample of 6544 mothers of infants with neural tube defects (NTD)s, oral clefts (OC)s, or limb deficiencies (LD)s and 6807 mothers of unaffected control infants. Total daily intake of these compounds was divided into quartiles based on the control mother distributions. Odds ratios (OR)s and 95% confidence intervals (CI)s were estimated using logistic regression; estimates were adjusted for maternal daily caloric intake, maternal race-ethnicity, education, dietary folate intake, high fat diet (>30% of calories from fat), and state of residence. While some unadjusted ORs for NTDS had 95% (CI)s that excluded the null value, none remained significant after adjustment for covariates, and the effect sizes were small (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]<1.12). Similar results were found for OCs and LDs with the exception of animal nitrites and cleft lip with/without cleft palate (aORs and CIs for quartile 4 compared to quartile 1 =1.24; CI=1.05-1.48), animal nitrites and cleft lip (4th quartile aOR=1.32; CI=1.01-1.72), and total nitrite and intercalary LD (4th quartile aOR=4.70; CI=1.23-17.93). Overall, odds of NTDs, OCs or LDs did not appear to be significantly associated with estimated dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines.

  11. Research Trends in Technology-Based Learning from 2000 to 2009: A Content Analysis of Publications in Selected Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Chen; Ho, Hsin Ning Jessie; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chu, Hui-Chun; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a content analysis of studies in technology-based learning (TBL) that were published in five Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) journals (i.e. "the British Journal of Educational Technology, Computers & Education, Educational Technology Research & Development, Educational Technology & Society, the Journal of Computer…

  12. 78 FR 6825 - Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content and Format Public Workshop; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Administration (FDA) is correcting a document that appeared in the Federal Register of January 7, 2013 (78 FR 951... Federal Register of January 7, 2013, in FR Doc. 951-953, on page 952, the following correction is made... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content...

  13. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Electronic Cigarettes: Comparison between Liquid and Aerosol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although electronic cigarette (EC liquids contain low levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs, studies evaluating the levels emitted to the aerosol are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of TSNAs between liquids and generated aerosol. Methods: Three EC liquids were obtained from the market. An additional (spiked sample was prepared by adding known amounts of standard TSNAs solutions to one of the obtained liquids. N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT, N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB and 4-(methylnitrosamino1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK were measured. Three 100-puff sets from each liquid were trapped in filter pads and were subsequently analyzed for the presence of TSNAs. The expected levels of TSNAs (calculated based on the liquid consumption were compared with the measured levels in the aerosol. Results: Only NAB was found at trace levels in two commercial liquids (1.2 and 2.3 ng/g, while the third contained 1.5 ng/g NAB and 7.7 ng/g NNN. The 100-puff sets resulted in 336–515 mg liquid consumption, with no TSNAs being detected in the aerosol. The spiked sample contained 42.0–53.9 ng/g of each of the TSNAs. All TSNAs were detected in the aerosol with the measured levels being statistically similar to the expected amounts. A significant correlation between expected and measured levels of TSNAs in the aerosol was found (r = 0.83, p < 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that exposure of EC users to TSNAs can be accurately assessed based on the levels present in the liquid, without the need to analyze the aerosol.

  14. Analysis of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Common Smokeless Tobacco Afzal in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Al-Mukhaini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is a lack of awareness regarding the carcinogenicity of Afzal, an illegal smokeless tobacco product (STP widely used among the Omani youth. Previous research has shown that certain types of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs are associated with oral and lung cancers. This study therefore aimed to assess levels of four common TSNAs in a randomly selected sample of Afzal. Methods: This study was carried out at Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman, between April and September 2013. A random sample of Afzal was analysed for four types of TSNAs using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The four types of TSNAs analysed were 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK, N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT and N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB. As a reference product, a sample of laboratory-manufactured American moist snuff (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA was also used to confirm the accuracy and precision of the analysis. Results: The analysis revealed total TSNA levels of 3.573 μg/g in the Afzal sample. Mean levels of NNN, NNK, NAT and NAB were 1.205, 1.015, 0.809 and 0.545 μg/g, respectively. Conclusion: Levels of the two most abundant TSNAs (NNN and NNK found in the Afzal sample exceeded international regulatory limits. Afzal users therefore need to be educated regarding the potential health risks associated with their STP use. Stricter implementation of current legislation is recommended to reduce the availability and usage of Afzal in Oman.

  15. Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines Intake and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential associations between dietary consumption of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and gastric cancer risk have been investigated by several studies, but yielded inconclusive results. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of their relationships. Relevant articles were identified by a systematic literature searching of PubMed and Embase databases prior to August 2015. Random-effects models were employed to pool the relative risks. A total of 22 articles consisting of 49 studies—19 studies for nitrates, 19 studies for nitrites, and 11 studies for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA—were included. The summary relative risk of stomach cancer for the highest categories, compared with the lowest, was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.69–0.93 for dietary nitrates intake, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.13–1.52 for nitrites, and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02–1.76 for NDMA (p for heterogeneity was 0.015, 0.013 and <0.001, respectively. The study type was found as the main source of heterogeneity for nitrates and nitrites. The heterogeneity for NDMA could not be eliminated completely through stratified analysis. Although significant associations were all observed in case-control studies, the cohort studies still showed a slight trend. The dose-response analysis indicated similar results as well. High nitrates intake was associated with a weak but statistically significant reduced risk of gastric cancer. Whereas increased consumption of nitrites and NDMA seemed to be risk factors for cancer. Due to the lack of uniformity for exposure assessment across studies, further prospective researches are warranted to verify these findings.

  16. Tobacco-specific nitrosamine exposures in smokers and nonsmokers exposed to cigarette or waterpipe tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Ghada; Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005-2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78-2.58 in CS and 0.21-1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01-0.60 in CS wives, 0.05-0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day.

  17. A Model To Estimate the Sources of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowicz, Peter J; Seeman, Jeffrey I

    2017-08-21

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are one of the most extensively and continually studied classes of compounds found in tobacco and cigarette smoke.1-5 The TSNAs N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) have been characterized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products,6 and cigarette manufacturers report their levels in cigarette tobacco filler and cigarette smoke to the FDA. NNN and NNK are classified by IARC as carcinogenic to humans.7 TSNAs transfer from tobacco to smoke by evaporation driven by heat and the flow of gases down the cigarette rod. Other TSNA sources in smoke include pyrorelease, where room temperature-unextractable TSNAs are released by smoking, and pyrosynthesis, where TSNAs are formed by reactions during smoking. We propose the first model that quantifies these three sources of TSNA in smoke. In our model, evaporative transfer efficiency of a TSNA is equated to the evaporative transfer efficiency of nicotine. Smoke TSNA measured in excess of what is transferred by evaporation is termed "pyrogeneration," which is the net sum of pyrorelease and pyrosynthesis minus pyrodegredation. This model requires no internal standard, is applicable to commercial cigarettes "as is," and uses existing analytical methods. This model was applied to archived Philip Morris USA data. For commercial blended cigarettes, NNN pyrogeneration appears to be unimportant, but NNK pyrogeneration contributes roughly 30-70% of NNK in smoke with the greater contribution at lower tobacco NNK levels. This means there is an opportunity to significantly reduce smoke NNK by up to 70% if pyrogeneration can be decreased or eliminated, perhaps by finding a way to grow and cure tobacco with reduced matrix-bound NNK. For burley research cigarettes, pyrogeneration may account for 90% or more of both NNN and NNK in smoke.

  18. Pubcast and Genecast: Browsing and explor-ing publications and associated curated con-tent in biology through mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldweber, Scott; Theodore, Jamal; John Torcivia-Rodriguez, John; Simonyan, Vahan; Mazumder, Raja

    2016-03-23

    Services such as Facebook, Amazon, and eBay were once solely accessed from stationary computers. These web services are now being used increasingly on mobile devices. We acknowledge this new reality by providing users a way to access publications and a curated cancer mutation database on their mobile device with daily automated updates.

  19. 78 FR 17934 - Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content and Format Public Workshop; Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... January 7, 2013 (78 FR 951). In the notice, FDA requested comments on the public workshop entitled... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of January 7, 2013 (78 FR 951), FDA published a notice of..., including topics outlined in section II of that document (78 FR 951 at 952). The agency has received...

  20. Rapid and sensitive gas chromatography ion-trap mass spectrometry method for the determination of tobacco specific N-nitrosamines in secondhand smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SLEIMAN, Mohamad; MADDALENA, Randy L.; GUNDEL, Lara A.; DESTAILLATS, Hugo

    2009-07-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are some of the most potent carcinogens in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Accurate quantification of these chemicals is needed to help assess public health risks. We developed and validated a specific and sensitive method to measure four TSNAs in both the gas- and particle-phase of secondhand smoke (SHS) using gas chromatography and ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry,. A smoking machine in an 18-m3 room-sized chamber generated relevant concentrations of SHS that were actively sampled on Teflon coated fiber glass (TCFG) filters, and passively sampled on cellulose substrates. A simple solid-liquid extraction protocol using methanol as solvent was successfully applied to both filters with high recoveries ranging from 85 to 115percent. Tandem MS parameters were optimized to obtain the best sensitivity in terms of signal to-noise ratio (S/N) for the target compounds. For each TSNA, the major fragmentation pathways as well as ion structures were elucidated and compared with previously published data. The method showed excellent performances with a linear dynamic range between 2 and 1000 ng mL-1, low detection limits (S/N> 3) of 30-300 pg.ml-1 and precision with experimental errors below 10percent for all compounds. Moreover, no interfering peaks were observed indicating a high selectivity of MS/MS without the need for a sample clean up step. The sampling and analysis method provides a sensitive and accurate tool to detect and quantify traces of TSNA in SHS polluted indoor environments.

  1. Comprehensive chemical characterization of Rapé tobacco products: Nicotine, un-ionized nicotine, tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and flavor constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfill, Stephen B; Oliveira da Silva, André Luiz; Lisko, Joseph G; Lawler, Tameka S; Kuklenyik, Peter; Tyx, Robert E; Peuchen, Elizabeth H; Richter, Patricia; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-08-01

    Rapé, a diverse group of smokeless tobacco products indigenous to South America, is generally used as a nasal snuff and contains substantial amount of plant material with or without tobacco. Previously uncharacterized, rapé contains addictive and harmful chemicals that may have public health implications for users. Here we report % moisture, pH, and the levels of total nicotine, un-ionized nicotine, flavor-related compounds, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for manufactured and hand-made rapé. Most rapé products were mildly acidic (pH 5.17-6.23) with total nicotine ranging from 6.32 to 47.6 milligram per gram of sample (mg/g). Calculated un-ionized nicotine ranged from 0.03 to 18.5 mg/g with the highest values associated with hand-made rapés (pH 9.75-10.2), which contain alkaline ashes. In tobacco-containing rapés, minor alkaloid levels and Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to confirm the presence of Nicotiana rustica, a high nicotine tobacco species. There was a wide concentration range of TSNAs and PAHs among the rapés analyzed. Several TSNAs and PAHs identified in the products are known or probable carcinogens according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Milligram quantities of some non-tobacco constituents, such as camphor, coumarin, and eugenol, warrant additional evaluation.

  2. An Outlook of Public Accounting Undergraduate Programs in Colombia Regarding Forensic Auditing and Financial Crime Prevention Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Baracaldo-Lozano, Natalia Andrea; Universidad de la Salle. Universidad Santiago de Chile. ontificia Universidad Javeriana; Daza-Giraldo, Luis Eduardo; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2016-01-01

    Recent cases of economic and financial crimes, financial fraud, corruption, and corporate malpractice in the local and international corporate environment have created the need to have professionals trained to face the challenges related to their investigation and analysis, activities carried out by forensic auditing.This article highlights several key aspects to understand why is important to specifically include forensic auditing as a subject in curricula during the studies of public accoun...

  3. Occurrence of volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines in processed meat products and the role of heat treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    2015-01-01

    Most of the available data on the occurrence of N-nitrosamines (NA) in processed meat products have been generated in the 1980s and 1990s and especially data on the occurrence of non-volatile NA (NVNA) are scarce. Therefore we have studied the levels of volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and NVNA...... in processed meat products on the Danish market (N = 70) and for comparison also products on the Belgian market (N = 20). The effect of heat treatment on the NA levels, in selected samples, was also studied, in order to enable an evaluation of how preparation before consumption affects the levels of NA...... μg kg−1 for one Danish sample and two Belgian samples. Levels of up to 2000 and 4000 μg kg−1 of N-nitroso-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA) an NVNA occurred in the Danish and the Belgian samples, respectively. The majority of the Danish processed meat products contain NVNA but also VNA occur...

  4. Determination of nicotine and N-nitrosamines in house dust by pressurized liquid extraction and comprehensive gas chromatography--nitrogen chemiluminiscence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Noelia; Ozel, Mustafa Z; Lewis, Alastair C; Marcé, Rosa M; Borrull, Francesc; Hamilton, Jacqueline F

    2012-01-06

    A novel, highly selective method for the determination of nicotine, N-nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in indoor dust samples is presented in this study. Samples were extracted by in-cell clean-up pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) that allows high extraction efficiency with moderate consumption of organic solvents. The extracts were analyzed by comprehensive gas chromatography and detected with a nitrogen chemiluminiscence detector (GC×GC-NCD) that provided enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for organic nitrogen containing compounds. Method validation showed good linearity, repeatability and reproducibility (%RSD<8%). Recovery was higher than 80% for most target compounds and limits of detection lower than 16 ng g(-1). The method was used for the determination of the nitrosamine target compounds in house dust samples from both smoking and non-smoking households. All the analytes were found in the samples, nicotine being the most abundant compound in smokers' dust and one of the most abundant in non-smokers' dust. To our knowledge this is the first time that volatile N-nitrosamines and TSNAs have been determined in indoor dust samples. The results demonstrate the presence of these highly carcinogenic compounds in house dust, with inherent human exposure through inhalation and/or involuntary ingestion of house dust.

  5. Analysis of nitrosamines in cooked bacon by QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry with backflushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrites are added as a preservative to a variety of cured meats, including bacon, to kill bacteria, extend shelf-life, and improve quality. During cooking, nitrites in the meat can be converted to carcinogenic nitrosamines (NAs), the formation of which are mitigated by the addition of anti-oxidant...

  6. Elevated urinary levels of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in patients with urinary tract infections measured by isotope dilution online SPE LC–MS/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Chiung-Wen [Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Shih, Ying-Ming [Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Liu, Hung-Hsin [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Yi-Chen [Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China); Chen, Chih-Ming [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chao, Mu-Rong, E-mail: chaomurong@gmail.com [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Occupational Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • Nine N-nitrosamines in urine were quantified by LC–MS/MS. • N-nitrosodiphenylamine was firstly identified in human urine. • UTI patients had much higher N-nitrosamines concentrations than healthy subjects. • N-nitrosamines were dramatically decreased after antibiotic treatment. • NDMA was correlated with the pH, WBC esterase activity or nitrite in UTI patients. - Abstract: N-nitrosamines (NAms) are well-documented for their carcinogenic potential. Human exposure to NAms may arise from the daily environment and endogenous formation via the reaction of secondary amines with nitrites or from bacteria infection. We describe the use of isotope dilution online solid-phase extraction (SPE) LC–MS/MS to quantify nine NAms in human urine. This method was validated and further applied to healthy subjects and patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were analyzed with an APCI source, while N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA) were quantified with an ESI source, due to their effect on the sensitivity and chromatography. NDMA was the most abundant N-nitrosamine, while NDPhA was firstly identified in human. UTI patients had three to twelve-fold higher concentrations for NDMA, NPIP, NDEA, NMOR and NDBA in urine than healthy subjects, and the NAms were significantly decreased after antibiotics treatment. NDMA concentrations were also significantly correlated with the pH value, leukocyte esterase activity or nitrite in urines of UTI patients. Our findings by online SPE LC–MS/MS method evidenced that UTI patients experienced various NAms exposures, especially the potent carcinogen NDMA, which was likely induced by bacteria infection.

  7. Selective determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke by GC coupled to positive chemical ionization triple quadrupole MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Da; Lu, Yifeng; Lin, Huaqing; Zhou, Wanhong; Gu, Wenbo

    2013-08-01

    A rapid method for the selective determination of four kinds of tobacco-specific nitrosamines, N-nitrosonornicotine, N-nitrosoanatabine, N-nitrosoanabasine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, in mainstream cigarette smoke was developed by GC coupled to positive chemical ionization triple-quadrupole MS. After mainstream cigarette smoke was collected on a cambridge filter pad, the particulate matter was extracted with 0.1 M HCL aqueous solution, cleaned by positive cation-exchange solid extraction, and finally injected into GC-MS/MS using isotopically labeled analogues as internal standards. Excellent linearity was obtained over the concentration range of 0.5-200.0 ng mL(-1) for all tobacco-specific nitrosamines with values for correlation coefficient between 0.9996-0.9999. Limits of detection of each tobacco specific nitrosamine varied from 0.023-0.028 ng cig(-1), and lower limits of quantification varied from 0.077-0.093 ng cig(-1). The recovery of each tobacco specific nitrosamine was from 90.0-109.0%. The relative standard deviations of the intra-day and inter-day precisions were 3.1-5.8 and 3.9-6.6, respectively. This method was applied to reference and domestic cigarettes. The result showed that the method was consistent with traditional methods and can be used as an effective approach for the routine analysis of tobacco-specific nitrosamines. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Disease detection or public opinion reflection? Content analysis of tweets, other social media, and online newspapers during the measles outbreak in The Netherlands in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollema, Liesbeth; Harmsen, Irene Anhai; Broekhuizen, Emma; Clijnk, Rutger; De Melker, Hester; Paulussen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Ruiter, Robert; Das, Enny

    2015-05-26

    to those public concerns. More research is required to develop an automatic coding system that captures content and user's characteristics that are most relevant to the diseases within the National Immunization Program and related public health events and can inform official responses.

  9. Disease Detection or Public Opinion Reflection? Content Analysis of Tweets, Other Social Media, and Online Newspapers During the Measles Outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Irene Anhai; Broekhuizen, Emma; Clijnk, Rutger; De Melker, Hester; Paulussen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Ruiter, Robert; Das, Enny

    2015-01-01

    an automatic coding system that captures content and user’s characteristics that are most relevant to the diseases within the National Immunization Program and related public health events and can inform official responses. PMID:26013683

  10. A Collaborative Study for the Determination of Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan WT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript presents results from a collaborative study by 15 different laboratories using two different methods to determine tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs in tobacco and was performed under the auspices of the Tobacco Science Research Conference Analytical Methods Committee (TSRC-AMC. Although it is apparent that some of the laboratories failed to follow the provided protocols, both methods proved robust for determining TSNAs in a variety of different tobacco types. Twelve laboratories extracted the tobacco sample using an alkaline-methylene chloride extraction (Method 1 and nine used a buffer to extract the tobacco sample (Method 2. Six laboratories performed both methods. All participants used gas chromatography (GC to separate the TSNAs and chemiluminescence detection. Method 1 used N-hexyl-N-nitroso-1-hexanamine (NDHA as a surrogate (added prior to extraction internal standard for quantitation. Method 2 used N-nitrosoguvacoline (NG as the surrogate internal standard, NDHA as a chromatographic (added after extraction, prior to analysis internal standard and external standard quantitation. After demonstrating that the average accuracy of both methods was at least about 92% through recovery studies, eight different tobacco types were analyzed in triplicate by each method. Means, reproducibility (precision between laboratories and repeatability (precision within a laboratory of results were determined for each method. After statistical analyses, it was established that both methods were capable of analyzing a variety of tobacco types and repeatability between methods was not significantly different. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantitation (LOQ were lower for Method 2 as compared to Method 1 when using the surrogate internal standard. Reproducibility variation, analyzed as the coefficient of variation, was 6% lower for Method 2 vs. Method 1 for N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN and directionally 12% lower for 4-(methylnitrosamino

  11. Association of bacteriuria and urinary nitrosamine formation with Schistosoma haematobium infection in the Qalyub area of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, R M; Ismail, M M; Walters, C L; Beecham, P T; Rabie, M F; El Alamy, M A

    1982-01-01

    In Egypt, bladder cancer incidence is high in areas where the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection is also high. Experimental evidence shows bladder carcinogenesis to be a multi-stage process which can be accelerated by many factors. N-nitroso compounds, some of which are known bladder carcinogens, can be formed from amine precursors and nitrate in urine during some bacterial infections. In experimental animals the growth of nitrosamine-induced urothelial cancers is accelerated by damage to the urothelium caused by S. haematobium infections, and by analogy in man this could account for the lower peak age of incidence of this cancer in Egypt by comparison with Europe. The present study was designed to investigate whether bacterial infection of the urinary tract was common in areas of endemic schistosomiasis and whether N-nitrosamines were regularly found to be associated with bacteriuria. Urine samples from young men in the Qalyub area of Egypt and from an adjacent Delta region were analysed for S. haematobium ova, the nature and intensity of any bacterial infection, nitrate and nitrite, and total N-nitroso compounds plus volatile N-nitrosamines. A relatively high prevalence of bacteriuria was found in young men with schistosomiasis and low levels of N-nitroso compounds were present in all specimens. When the groups were sub-divided on the basis of the ability of their bacterial flora to reduce nitrate to nitrite (the latter is required for the nitrosation of amine precursors to N-nitroso compounds), significantly higher levels of N-nitroso compounds were found in S. haematobium-infected individuals also infected with nitrate-reducing bacteria by comparison either with uninfected controls (p less than 0.0005) or with those infected with non-nitrate-reducing bacteria (p less than 0.001). The results show N-nitroso compounds to be present in the urines of young men in areas of endemic S. haematobium infection in Egypt, and elevated levels of

  12. A Content Analysis of Health and Safety Communications Among Internet-Based Sex Work Advertisements: Important Information for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Background The capacity to advertise via the Internet continues to contribute to the shifting dynamics in adult commercial sex work. eHealth interventions have shown promise to promote Internet-based sex workers’ health and safety internationally, yet minimal attention has been paid in Canada to developing such interventions. Understanding the information communicated in Internet-based sex work advertisements is a critical step in knowledge development to inform such interventions. Objective The purpose of this content analysis was to increase our understanding of the health and safety information within the Internet advertisements among women, men, and transgender sex workers and to describe how this information may be utilized to inform eHealth service development for this population. Methods A total of 75 Internet-based sex worker advertisements (45 women, 24 men, and 6 transgender persons) were purposefully selected from 226 advertisements collected as part of a larger study in Western Canada. Content analysis was employed to guide data extraction about demographic characteristics, sexual services provided, service restrictions, health practices and concerns, safety and security, and business practices. Frequencies for each variable were calculated and further classified by gender. Thematic analysis was then undertaken to situate the communications within the social and commercialized contexts of the sex industry. Results Four communications themes were identified: (1) demographic characteristics; (2) sexual services; (3) health; and (4) safety and security. White was the most common ethnicity (46/75, 61%) of advertisements. It was found that 20-29 years of age accounted for 32 of the 51 advertisements that provided age. Escort, the only legal business title, was the most common role title used (48/75, 64%). In total, 85% (64/75) of advertisements detailed lists of sexual services provided and 41% (31/75) of advertisements noted never offering uncovered

  13. A Content Analysis of Health and Safety Communications Among Internet-Based Sex Work Advertisements: Important Information for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kille, Julie; Bungay, Vicky; Oliffe, John; Atchison, Chris

    2017-04-13

    The capacity to advertise via the Internet continues to contribute to the shifting dynamics in adult commercial sex work. eHealth interventions have shown promise to promote Internet-based sex workers' health and safety internationally, yet minimal attention has been paid in Canada to developing such interventions. Understanding the information communicated in Internet-based sex work advertisements is a critical step in knowledge development to inform such interventions. The purpose of this content analysis was to increase our understanding of the health and safety information within the Internet advertisements among women, men, and transgender sex workers and to describe how this information may be utilized to inform eHealth service development for this population. A total of 75 Internet-based sex worker advertisements (45 women, 24 men, and 6 transgender persons) were purposefully selected from 226 advertisements collected as part of a larger study in Western Canada. Content analysis was employed to guide data extraction about demographic characteristics, sexual services provided, service restrictions, health practices and concerns, safety and security, and business practices. Frequencies for each variable were calculated and further classified by gender. Thematic analysis was then undertaken to situate the communications within the social and commercialized contexts of the sex industry. Four communications themes were identified: (1) demographic characteristics; (2) sexual services; (3) health; and (4) safety and security. White was the most common ethnicity (46/75, 61%) of advertisements. It was found that 20-29 years of age accounted for 32 of the 51 advertisements that provided age. Escort, the only legal business title, was the most common role title used (48/75, 64%). In total, 85% (64/75) of advertisements detailed lists of sexual services provided and 41% (31/75) of advertisements noted never offering uncovered services (ie, no condom). Gender and the

  14. Whole-genome gene expression modifications associated with nitrosamine exposure and micronucleus frequency in human blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebels, Dennie G A J; Jennen, Danyel G J; van Herwijnen, Marcel H M

    2011-01-01

    association between MN frequency and urinary NOCs (r = 0.41, P = 0.025) and identified modifications in among others cytoskeleton remodeling, cell cycle, apoptosis and survival, signal transduction, immune response, G-protein signaling and development pathways, which indicate a response to NOC......N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) are suspected human carcinogens and relevant in human exposure. NOCs also induce micronuclei (MN) formation in vivo. Since lymphocytic MN represent a validated biomarker of human cancer risk, establishing a link between NOC exposure and MN frequency in humans...... for analysing such potentially carcinogenic gene expression and MN formation events in target organs. To assess NOC exposure, urine samples were analysed for marker nitrosamines. NOC excretion levels and MN frequency were subsequently linked to peripheral blood transcriptomics. We demonstrated a significant...

  15. Tobacco alkaloids and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in dust from homes of smokeless tobacco users, active smokers, and nontobacco users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P; Havel, Christopher; Metayer, Catherine; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-05-18

    Smokeless tobacco products, such as moist snuff or chewing tobacco, contain many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke; however, the impact on children of indirect exposure to tobacco constituents via parental smokeless tobacco use is unknown. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, dust samples were collected from 6 homes occupied by smokeless tobacco users, 6 homes occupied by active smokers, and 20 tobacco-free homes. To assess children's potential for exposure to tobacco constituents, vacuum-dust concentrations of five tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including N'-nitrosonornicotine [NNN] and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK], as well as six tobacco alkaloids, including nicotine and myosmine, were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used generalized estimating equations derived from a multivariable marginal model to compare levels of tobacco constituents between groups, after adjusting for a history of parental smoking, income, home construction date, and mother's age and race/ethnicity. The ratio of myosmine/nicotine was used as a novel indicator of the source of tobacco contamination, distinguishing between smokeless tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Median dust concentrations of NNN and NNK were significantly greater in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. In multivariable models, concentrations of NNN and NNK were 4.8- and 6.9-fold higher, respectively, in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. Median myosmine/nicotine ratios were lower in homes with smokeless tobacco users (1.8%) compared to homes of active smokers (7.7%), confirming that cigarette smoke was not the predominant source of tobacco constituents in homes with smokeless tobacco users. Children living with smokeless tobacco users may be exposed to carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines via contact with contaminated dust and household surfaces.

  16. Exposure and Metabolic Activation Biomarkers of Carcinogenic Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S; Stepanov, Irina; Carmella, Steven G

    2016-01-19

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the world, and cigarette smoking is its main cause. Oral cavity cancer is another debilitating and often fatal cancer closely linked to tobacco product use. While great strides have been made in decreasing tobacco use in the United States and some other countries, there are still an estimated 1 billion men and 250 million women in the world who are cigarette smokers and there are hundreds of millions of smokeless tobacco users, all at risk for cancer. Worldwide, lung cancer kills about three people per minute. This Account focuses on metabolites and biomarkers of two powerful tobacco-specific nitrosamine carcinogens, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), considered to be among the main causes of lung cancer and oral cavity cancer in people who use tobacco products. Three properties of NNK and NNN are critical for successful biomarker studies: they are present in all tobacco products, they are tobacco-specific and are not found in any other product, and they are strong carcinogens. NNK and NNN are converted in humans to urinary metabolites that can be quantified by mass spectrometry as biomarkers of exposure to these carcinogens. They are also metabolized to diazonium ions and related electrophiles that react with DNA to form addition products that can be detected and quantified by mass spectrometry. These urinary metabolites and DNA addition products can serve as biomarkers of exposure and metabolic activation, respectively. The biomarkers of exposure, in particular the urinary NNK metabolites 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides, have been extensively applied to document tobacco-specific lung carcinogen uptake in smokers and nonsmokers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke. Highly sensitive mass spectrometric methods have been developed for quantitative analysis of these NNK metabolites as well as metabolites of NNN in human urine

  17. Carcinogenic Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines in U.S. Cigarettes -Three Decades of Remarkable Neglect by the Tobacco Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, Irina; Knezevich, Aleksandar; Zhang, Liqin; Watson, Clifford; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2011-01-01

    Modification of tobacco curing methods and other changes in cigarette manufacturing techniques could substantially reduce the levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), a group of potent carcinogens, in cigarette smoke. In 1999, two major U.S. cigarette manufacturers stated their intent to move towards using tobaccos low in TSNA. Since there is no information available on current TSNA levels in tobacco of various cigarettes available in the U.S., we examined the levels of these carcinoge...

  18. Identification and quantification of seven volatile n-nitrosamines in cosmetics using gas chromatography/chemical ionization-mass spectrometry coupled with head space-solid phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Na Rae; Kim, Yong Pyo; Ji, Won Hyun; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Ahn, Yun Gyong

    2016-01-01

    An analytical method was developed for the identification and quantification of seven volatile n-nitrosamines (n-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], n-nitrosoethylmethylamine [NMEA], n-nitrosodiethylamine [NDEA], n-nitrosodipropylamine [NDPA], n-nitrosodibutylamine [NDBA], n-nitrosopiperidine [NPIP], and n-nitrosopyrrolidine [NPYR]) in water insoluble cream type cosmetics. It was found that the head space-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was suitable for extraction, clean up, and pre-concentration of n-nitrosamines in the cream type samples so its optimal conditions were investigated. Identification and quantification of n-nitrosamines using single quadrupole gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in chemical ionization (CI) mode were carried out with accurate mass measurements. Their accurate masses of protonated molecular ions were obtained within 10 mDa of the theoretical masses when sufficiently high signal was acquired from the unique calibration method using mass and isotope accuracy. For the method validation of quantification, spiking experiments were carried out to determine the linearity, recovery, and method detection limit (MDL) using three deuterated internal standards. The average recovery was 79% within 20% relative standard deviation (RSD) at the concentration of 50 ng/g. MDLs ranged from 0.46 ng/g to 36.54 ng/g, which was satisfactory for the directive limit of 50 ng/g proposed by the European Commission (EC). As a result, it was concluded that the method could be provided for the accurate mass screening, confirmation, and quantification of n-nitrosamines when applied to cosmetic inspection.

  19. Maternal characteristics associated with the dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in women of child-bearing age: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Canfield Mark A; Romitti Paul A; McDonald Thomas J; Rene Antonio A; Huber John C; Steck Michelle D; Sharkey Joseph R; Brender Jean D; Griesenbeck John S; Langlois Peter H; Suarez Lucina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple N-nitroso compounds have been observed in animal studies to be both mutagenic and teratogenic. Human exposure to N-nitroso compounds and their precursors, nitrates and nitrites, can occur through exogenous sources, such as diet, drinking water, occupation, or environmental exposures, and through endogenous exposures resulting from the formation of N-nitroso compounds in the body. Very little information is available on intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamine...

  20. Research Content and Ethical Thinking of Public Health Ethics%公共卫生伦理学的研究内容及伦理思考∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁琳; 胡晓燕

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines the arising, the research content, the related ethical issues and the future de-velopment of public health ethics. The related ethical issues contains the ethical issues of disease prevention and control, the ethical issues in group unit, the ethical issues in public health policy-making, the ethical issues un-der the influence of biological science, and ethics review issues related with the thinking methoods namely moderate diversity, avoiding the socialism and in a relationship. The last, the article points out the human subjects in bio-medical researches.%通过概述公共卫生伦理学的兴起,论述了公共卫生伦理学的研究内容及相关伦理问题,即疾病防治中的伦理问题,以群体为单位的伦理问题,公共卫生政策制定中的伦理问题,生物科学影响下的伦理问题,涉及人的生物医学研究的伦理审查问题。并分析了公共卫生伦理学的思考方式,即适度多元化,避免主义化及外在关系中的思考方式,最后指出了公共卫生伦理学未来的发展状况。

  1. Oxidation of methyl and ethyl nitrosamines by cytochrome P450 2E1 and 2B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Calcutt, M Wade; Nagy, Leslie D; Guengerich, F Peter

    2012-12-18

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2E1 is the major enzyme that oxidizes N-nitrosodimethylamine [N,N-dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)], a carcinogen and also a representative of some nitrosamines formed endogenously. Oxidation of DMN by rat or human P450 2E1 to HCHO showed a high apparent intrinsic kinetic deuterium isotope effect (KIE), ≥8. The KIE was not attenuated in noncompetitive intermolecular experiments with rat liver microsomes {(D)V = 12.5; (D)(V/K) = 10.9 [nomenclature of Northrop, D. B. (1982) Methods Enzymol. 87, 607-625]} but was with purified human P450 2E1 [(D)V = 3.3; (D)(V/K) = 3.7], indicating that C-H bond breaking is partially rate-limiting with human P450 2E1. With N-nitrosodiethylamine [N,N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN)], the intrinsic KIE was slightly lower and was not expressed [e.g., (D)(V/K) = 1.2] in noncompetitive intermolecular experiments. The same general pattern of KIEs was also seen in the (D)(V/K) results with DMN and DEN for the minor products resulting from the denitrosation reactions (CH(3)NH(2), CH(3)CH(2)NH(2), and NO(2)(-)). Experiments with deuterated N-nitroso-N-methyl-N-ethylamine demonstrated that the lower KIEs associated with ethyl versus methyl oxidation could be distinguished within a single molecule. P450 2E1 oxidized DMN and DEN to aldehydes and then to the carboxylic acids. No kinetic lags were observed in acid formation; pulse-chase experiments with carrier aldehydes showed only limited equilibration with P450 2E1-bound aldehydes, indicative of processive reactions, as reported for P450 2A6 [Chowdhury, G., et al. (2010) J. Biol. Chem. 285, 8031-8044]. These same features (no lag phase for HCO(2)H formation and a lack of equilibration in pulse-chase assays) were also seen with (rat) P450 2B1, which has a lower catalytic efficiency for DMN oxidation and a larger active site. Thus, the processivity of dialkyl nitrosamine oxidation appears to be shared by a number of P450s.

  2. Volatile N-nitrosamines in Environment Tobacco Smoke: Sampling,Analysis, Smission Factors, and Indoor Air Exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanama, K.R.R.; Daisey, J.M.

    1995-05-01

    A more convenient sampling and analysis method for the volatile N-nitrosamines (VNA) in ETS, using commercially available TherrnosorbIN cartridges, was developed and validated. Using the method, emission factors for the two major VNA in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were determined in a room-sized environmental chamber for six commercial cigarette brands, which together accounted for 62.5% of the total market in California in 1990. The average emission factors were 565 {+-} 115 and 104 {+-} 20 ng per cigarette for N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine, respectively. The emission factors were used to estimate VNA exposures from ETS in a typical office building and an average residence. Indoor concentrations of N,N dimethylnitrosamine from ETS for these scenarios were less than 10% of the reported median outdoor concentration. This median outdoor concentration, however, includes many measurements made in source-dominated areas and may be considerably higher than one based on more representative sampling of outdoor air.

  3. Dietary exposure to volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines from processed meat products in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S S; Duedahl-Olesen, L; Christensen, T; Olesen, P T; Granby, K

    2015-06-01

    Recent epidemiological studies show a positive association between cancer incidence and high intake of processed meat. N-nitrosamines (NAs) in these products have been suggested as one potential causative factor. Most volatile NAs (VNAs) are classified as probable human carcinogens, whereas the carcinogenicity for the majority of the non-volatile NA (NVNA) remains to be elucidated. Danish adults (15-75 years) and children (4-6 years) consume 20 g and 16 g of processed meat per day (95th percentile), respectively. The consumption is primarily accounted for by sausages, salami, pork flank (spiced and boiled) and ham. This consumption results in an exposure to NVNA of 33 and 90 ng kg bw(-1) day(-1) for adults and children, respectively. The exposure to VNA is significantly lower amounting to 0.34 and 1.1 ng kg bw(-1) day(-1) for adults and children, respectively. Based on a BMDL10 of 29 µg kg bw(-1) day(-1) a MOE value ≥17,000 was derived for the exposure to NA known to be carcinogenic (VNA including NSAR), indicating an exposure of low concern. The exposure to the NVNA is substantially higher and if found to be of toxicological significance the exposure may be of concern.

  4. Trihalomethane, Dihaloacetonitrile, and Total N-nitrosamine Precursor Adsorption by Carbon Nanotubes: The Importance of Surface Oxides and Pore Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Erin Michelle

    As drinking water sources become increasingly impaired, enhanced removal of natural organic matter (NOM) may be required to curb formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) upon chlor(am)ination. While carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can adsorb NOM, their properties for DBP precursor adsorption have not been elucidated. Nine types of CNTs were assessed for trihalomethane (THM), dihaloacetonitrile (DHAN), and total N-nitrosamine (TONO) precursor adsorption. Batch isotherm experiments were completed with lake water and, to simulate an impaired condition, effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Adsorption varied with CNT type and dose, with TONO precursors having the highest percent removals from WWTP effluent (up to 97%). Physicochemical properties of CNTs were characterized by gas adsorption isotherms and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and numerical models were developed to identify CNT properties driving DBP precursor adsorption. The models fits were strong (R2 > 0.92) and indicated removal of the three precursor types increased with percent carboxyl groups (p adsorption of DBP precursors and demonstrate the potential of CNTs for TONO precursor removal.

  5. Inhibition of urinary bladder tumors induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine in rats by green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, D

    1999-02-01

    Recently, the anticarcinogenic effects of green tea have been studied in sites other than the urinary tract. The present study examined the inhibition by green tea of vesical tumors induced in rats by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN). In the first series of experiments, 0.05% BBN was added to the drinking water of rats and remained present for 5 weeks. In one experiment, six groups of animals received either tap water, green tea, matcha, hojicha, oolong tea or black tea from week 6. In a second experiment, three groups of rats received either tap water, green tea extract or powdered green tea mixed into a pellet diet from week 6. In a third experiment, five groups of rats were fed a pellet diet with addition of either 0, 0.15, 1.5 or 3.0% powdered green tea from week 6. All rats were killed and examined at 40 weeks. Green tea, particularly green tea leaves, dose-dependently inhibited the growth of BBN-induced urinary bladder tumors when given after the carcinogen. Green tea may inhibit bladder tumor growth.

  6. Synthesis of (plus or minus) [5-{sup 3}H] N'-Nitrosoanatabine, a tobacco-specific nitrosamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Dhimant; Lin, Guoying; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Amin, Shantu

    2002-06-14

    Tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines (TSNA) are a unique class of systemic organ-specific carcinogens. The TSNA are formed by N-nitrosation of nicotine and of the minor tobacco alkaloids after harvesting of tobacco and during smoking. The N-nitrosation of anatabine leads to N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT; 1-nitroso-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2,3'-bipyridyl) which requires in-depth assays in laboratory animals other than the rat. Furthermore, delineation of its tissue distribution and metabolism is needed for structure:activity comparisons with other TSNA and for the assessment of potential human risk from this TSNA. We have, therefore, synthesized (+)[5-3H]NAT. 5-Bromo-3-pyridine-carboxaldehyde was condensed with ethyl carbamate prior to Diels-Alder reaction with 1,4-butadiene to give the racemic anatabine ring system. Hydrolysis followed by reduction with LiAlT4 and nitrosation, led to (+)[5-3H]NAT (60 percent yield, specific activity 266 mCi/mmol, radiochemical purity of >99 percent).

  7. A Framework of Network Public Opinion Content Analysis System Based on Knowledge Technology%一种基于知识技术的网络舆情内容分析系统框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静婷; 徐震

    2016-01-01

    This paper expounds the process of network public opinion content analysis and some works needed to be completed in content analysis phase, introduces in detail the paths for the construction of the framework of network public opinion content analysis system based on knowledge technology, that is to introduces the knowledge technology into the network public opinion content analysis process, to make a full integration of the key technologies such as the information pre-processing, information clustering and classifying, and orientation analysis, etc. with the related results such as the knowledge organization, knowledge representation, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge mining, etc. and to combine the ontology and semantic computing with public opinion analysis, establishing a framework of the network public opinion content analysis based on knowledge technology to improve the accuracy of network public opinion content analysis. The experimental results show that the network public opinion content analysis system achieves its ideal effect.%概述了网络舆情内容分析的流程以及内容分析阶段需要完成的工作,详细介绍了基于知识技术的网络舆情内容分析系统框架的构建路径,即将知识技术引入网络舆情内容的分析过程,将信息预处理、信息聚类和分类、倾向性分析等关键技术手段与知识组织、知识表示、知识获取和知识挖掘等相关成果充分融合,将本体论和语义计算等技术与舆情分析相结合,建立基于知识技术的网络舆情内容分析框架,以提高网络舆情内容分析的准确度. 实验结果表明,基于知识技术的网络舆情内容分析系统达到了理想效果.

  8. Factors Influencing the Formation of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in French Air-Cured Tobaccos in Trials and at the Farm Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    deRoton C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several trials the results of which are compiled in this paper, were carried out at the Tobacco Institute of Bergerac (ITB and in the area nearby from 1996 to 2003. The objective was to study the formation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA in dark air-cured and burley tobaccos during curing and post-curing treatment under the conditions of cultivation, curing and storage commonly applied by the growers in the south-western part of France. For experimental purposes special treatments were performed in certain trials.

  9. Applying the polarity rapid assessment method to characterize nitrosamine precursors and to understand their removal by drinking water treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaobin; Bei, Er; Li, Shixiang; Ouyang, Yueying; Wang, Jun; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian; Krasner, Stuart W; Suffet, I H Mel

    2015-12-15

    Some N-nitrosamines (NAs) have been identified as emerging disinfection by-products during water treatment. Thus, it is essential to understand the characteristics of the NA precursors. In this study, the polarity rapid assessment method (PRAM) and the classical resin fractionation method were studied as methods to fractionate the NA precursors during drinking water treatment. The results showed that PRAM has much higher selectivity for NA precursors than the resin approach. The normalized N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential (NDMA FP) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) FP of four resin fractions was at the same level as the average yield of the bulk organic matter whereas that of the cationic fraction by PRAM showed 50 times the average. Thus, the cationic fraction was shown to be the most important NDMA precursor contributor. The PRAM method also helped understand which portions of the NA precursor were removed by different water treatment processes. Activated carbon (AC) adsorption removed over 90% of the non-polar PRAM fraction (that sorbs onto the C18 solid phase extraction [SPE] cartridge) of NDMA and NDEA precursors. Bio-treatment removed 80-90% of the cationic fraction of PRAM (that is retained on the cation exchange SPE cartridge) and 40-60% of the non-cationic fractions. Ozonation removed 50-60% of the non-polar PRAM fraction of NA precursors and transformed part of them into the polar fraction. Coagulation and sedimentation had very limited removal of various PRAM fractions of NA precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Agonist and antagonist effects of tobacco-related nitrosamines on human α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eBrusco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of the ‘neuronal’ nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs is implicated in both tobacco addiction and smoking-dependent tumor promotion. Some of these effects are caused by the tobacco-derived N-nitrosamines, which are carcinogenic compounds that avidly bind to nAChRs. However, the functional effects of these drugs on specific nAChR subtypes are largely unknown. By using patch-clamp methods, we tested 4-(methylnitrosamine-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN on human α4β2 nAChRs. These latter are widely distributed in the mammalian brain and are also frequently expressed outside the nervous system. NNK behaved as a partial agonist, with an apparent EC50 of 16.7 μM. At 100 μM, it activated 16 % of the maximal current activated by nicotine. When NNK was co-applied with nicotine, it potentiated the currents elicited by nicotine concentrations ≤ 100 nM. At higher concentrations of nicotine, NNK always inhibited the α4β2 nAChR. In contrast, NNN was a pure inhibitor of this nAChR subtype, with IC50 of approximately 1 nM in the presence of 10 μM nicotine. The effects of both NNK and NNN were mainly competitive and largely independent of Vm. The different actions of NNN and NNK must be taken into account when interpreting their biological effects in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in tobacco from U.S. brand and non-U.S. brand cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, David L; Beeson, Michelle D; Johnson, Diana R; McCraw, Joan M; Richter, Patricia; Pirkle, James L; Pechacek, Terry F; Song, Siqing; Watson, Clifford H

    2003-06-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are one of the major classes of carcinogens found in tobacco products. As part of collaborative efforts to reduce tobacco use and resulting disease, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) carried out a two-phase investigation into the worldwide variation of the levels of TSNAs in cigarette tobacco. In the first phase, representatives of the World Health Organization (WHO) purchased cigarettes; scientists from the CDC subsequently measured the levels of TSNAs in tobacco from 21 different countries. Although the data collected from this initial survey suggested that globally marketed U.S.-brand cigarettes typically had higher TSNA levels than locally popular non-U.S. cigarettes in many countries, the number of samples limited the statistical power of the study. To improve statistical power and to ensure adequate sampling, the CDC conducted a second survey of 14 countries. In addition to the United States, the CDC selected the world's 10 most populous countries and three additional countries, so that at least two countries from each of the six WHO regions were represented. For each country, the CDC compared 15 packs of Marlboro cigarettes, which is the world's most popular brand of cigarettes, with 15 packs of a locally popular non-U.S. brand in the study country. Marlboro cigarettes purchased in 11/13 foreign countries had significantly higher tobacco TSNA levels than the locally popular non-U.S. brands purchased in the same country. The findings suggest that TSNA levels in tobacco can be substantially reduced in some cigarettes.

  12. Analysis of four tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke of Virginia cigarettes by LC- MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ming-jian; DAI Yun-hui; TUO Su-xing; HU Nian-nian; LI Yong; CHEN Xiao-ming

    2008-01-01

    An improved method was developed for the determination of the four major tobacco-specific nitrosamines(TSNAs) in mainstream cigarette smoke. The new method offers decreased sample preparation and analysis time as compared to traditional methods. This method uses isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization and is significantly more sensitive than traditional methods. It also shows no evidence of artifactual formation of TSNAs.Sample concentrations were determined for four TSNAs in mainstream smoke using two isotopically labeled TSNAs analogues as internal standards. Mainstream smoke was collected on an industry standard 44-mm Cambridge filter pad, extracted with 0.1mol/L ammonium acetate, purified by solid-phase extraction, and analyzed without further sample cleanup. The analytical column is a 3.9mm×150mm Waters Symmertry Shield RP18 column and volume fraction of the mobile phase is 50% methanol, 50% water containing 0.1% acetic acid. The results show that the linear range is 0.5-100.0mg/L except for N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB) from 0.25 to 50.0mg/L. The limits of detection are 0.1mg/L for N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 0.08mg/L for 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-py-ridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), 0.05mg/L for N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) and 0.06mg/L for NAB. The recoveries of the four TSNAs are from 90.2% to 105.7%.

  13. National Sexuality Education Standards: Core Content and Skills, K-12. A Special Publication of the Journal of School Health. Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School Health Association (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper, "National Sexuality Education Standards: Core Content and Skills, K-12," is to provide clear, consistent and straightforward guidance on the "essential minimum, core content" for sexuality education that is developmentally and age-appropriate for students in grades K-12. The development of these standards is a result of an…

  14. N-nitrosamines in processed meat products – analysis, occurrence, formation, mitigation and exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange

    products already available, though several areas especially regarding non-volatile NA (NVNA) are relatively unexplored. Studies performed in actual meat products are also scarce. The more that is understood about which factors affects the formation of both volatile NA (VNA) and NVNA the more likely...... is it to identify strategies for the prevention of NA formation in general and not only for a few NA. The aim of the present thesis was therefore to study the role of ingoing amount of nitrite, factors relevant for industrial processing of meat, fat content and the effect of heat treatment on the formation of VNA...... nitrite was added. This may indicate that the relevant precursors are not present. Studies by others have indicated especially the formation of NDMA to depend more on factors as meat quality including feeding and/or breeding conditions and processing factors as temperatures and duration of drying...

  15. On-site analysis of volatile nitrosamines in food model systems by solid-phase microextraction coupled to a direct extraction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventanas, S; Ruiz, J

    2006-12-15

    Analysis of nitrosamine (NA) standards in a model system was carried out by extraction using SPME coupled to a direct extraction device (DED) and subsequent GC/MS in selected ion monitoring mode. Gelatine (20%, w/v) systems of a NA standard (10mugL(-1)) were prepared, in order to mimic food protein matrix systems such as meat and meat products, fish and so on. Different SPME fibre coatings were tested Both divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) and carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fibres coupled to DED satisfactorily extracted all nine NA included in the studied standard (EPA 8270 nitrosamines mix, Sigma-Aldrich) from the gelatine system at 25 degrees C without any sample manipulation. Values of reproducibility, linearity and limit of detection for each type of fibre are reported. SPME-DED appears as a rapid, non-destructive technique for preliminary screening of the presence of toxic substances such as NA in solid foods.

  16. Exposure to nitrosamines, carbon black, asbestos, and talc and mortality from stomach, lung, and laryngeal cancer in a cohort of rubber workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straif, K; Keil, U; Taeger, D; Holthenrich, D; Sun, Y; Bungers, M; Weiland, S K

    2000-08-15

    There is sufficient evidence for an excess occurrence of stomach and lung cancer among rubber workers. However, evidence for causal associations with specific exposures is still limited. A cohort of 8,933 male German rubber workers was followed for mortality from January 1, 1981 through December 31, 1991. Work histories were reconstructed using routinely documented cost center codes. For each cost center code, calendar time-and plant-specific levels of exposure to nitrosamines, asbestos, talc (low, medium (m), and high (h)), and carbon black (two levels) were estimated by industrial hygienists. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models, with the lowest exposure level used as the reference category. Exposure was lagged 10 years to account for latency. Exposure-response relations between exposure to asbestos and lung cancer mortality (RRm = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.9; RRh = 2.0, 95% CI: 0.9, 4.1) and between exposure to dust (talc and asbestos combined) and stomach cancer mortality (RRm = 1.8, 95% CI: 0.9, 3.8; RRh = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 7.1) were observed. Exposure to nitrosamines was not associated with mortality from stomach or lung cancer. These results suggest that the increased mortality from lung and stomach cancer among rubber workers is associated with exposure to asbestos and dust, respectively.

  17. METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR THE ANALYSIS OF N-NITROSODIMETHYLAMINE AND OTHER N-NITROSAMINES IN DRINKING WATER AT LOW NANOGRAM/LITER CONCENTRATIONS USING SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH CHEMICAL IONIZATION TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a probable human carcinogen that has been identified as a drinking water contaminant of concern. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 521 has been developed for the analysis of NDMA and six additional N-nitrosamines in dri...

  18. Effects of plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol on lipid oxidation, residual nitrites, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines formation during ripening and storage of dry-cured bacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of plant polyphenols (green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract (GSE) and a-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, lipid oxidation, residual nitrite, microbiological counts, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines were determined in bacons during dry-curing and storage. Results show ...

  19. Construction of Basic Sport Public Service Standardization:Content,Dilemma and Strategy%基本公共体育服务标准化建设:内容、困境与策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学彬; 郑家鲲

    2015-01-01

    为了解我国基本公共体育服务标准化建设现状,促进我国基本公共体育服务标准化建设。通过文献分析和调查,对我国基本公共体育服务标准化的内涵、背景、动因及体育服务领域标准化建设进行分析和总结。在此基础上,提出基本公共体育服务标准化建设内容,探索基本公共体育服务标准化建设存在的困境,并从宏观、中观、微观3个方面提出发展基本公共体育服务标准化建设的策略。%In order to understand the current situation of China's basic sports public service standardization ,and promote the construction of basic sports public service standardization ,this paper analyzes and summarizes the content ,background ,motivation and sports service stand‐ardization construction of basic sports public service in China by means of literature review and investigation .On this basis ,the author puts forward the basic sports public service standardiza‐tion construction content ,and explores the dilemma of the basic sports public service standardi‐zation construction ,and provides the development strategy of basic public sports service stand‐ardization construction from the macro ,meso and micro aspects .

  20. Oxidation of Methyl and Ethyl Nitrosamines by Cytochromes P450 2E1 and 2B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Calcutt, M. Wade; Nagy, Leslie D.; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2E1 is the major enzyme that oxidizes N-nitrosodimethylamine (N,N-dimethylnitrosamine, DMN), a carcinogen and also a representative of some nitrosamines formed endogenously. Oxidation of DMN by rat or human P450 2E1 to HCHO showed a high apparent intrinsic kinetic deuterium isotope effect (KIE), ≥ 8. The KIE was not attenuated in non-competitive intermolecular experiments with rat liver microsomes (DV 12.5, D(V/K) 10.9, nomenclature of Northrop, D.B. (1982) Methods Enzymol. 87, 607–625) but was with purified human P450 2E1 (DV 3.3, D(V/K) 3.7), indicating that C-H bond breaking is partially rate-limiting with human P450 2E1. With N-nitrosodiethylamine (N,N-diethylnitrosamine, DEN), the intrinsic KIE was slightly lower and was not expressed (e.g., D(V/K) 1.2) in non-competitive intermolecular experiments. The same general pattern of KIEs was also seen in the D(V/K) results with DMN and DEN for the minor products resulting from the denitrosation reactions (CH3NH2, CH3CH2NH2, and NO2−). Experiments with deuterated N-nitroso-N-methyl,N-ethylamine demonstrated that the lower KIEs associated for ethyl compared to methyl oxidation could be distinguished within a single molecule. P450 2E1 oxidized DMN and DEN to aldehydes and then to the carboxylic acids. No kinetic lags were observed in acid formation; pulse-chase experiments with carrier aldehydes showed only limited equilibration with P450 2E1-bound aldehydes, indicative of processive reactions, as reported for P450 2A6 (Chowdhury, G. et al. (2010) J. Biol. Chem. 285, 8031–8044). These same features (no lag phase for HCO2H formation, lack of equilibration in pulse-chase assays) were also seen with (rat) P450 2B1, which has lower catalytic efficiency for DMN oxidation and a larger active site. Thus, the processivity of dialkylnitrosamine oxidation appears to be shared by a number of P450s. PMID:23186213

  1. Inorganic arsenic in drinking water accelerates N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced bladder tissue damage in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Paul-Yann [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi, Chang Gung University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yung-Lun; Huang, Chin-Chin; Chen, Sin-Syu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biopharmaceuticals, College of Life Sciences, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yi-Wen, E-mail: ywlss@mail.ncyu.edu.tw [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biopharmaceuticals, College of Life Sciences, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China)

    2012-02-15

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that exposure to an arsenic-contaminated environment correlates with the incidence of bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is highly recurrent after intravesical therapy, and most of the deaths from this disease are due to invasive metastasis. In our present study, the role of inorganic arsenic in bladder carcinogenesis is characterized in a mouse model. This work provides the first evidence that inorganic arsenic in drinking water promotes N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder tissue damage, including the urothelium and submucosal layer. This damage to the bladder epithelium induced by BBN includes thickening of the submucosal layer, the loss of the glycosaminoglycan layer and an increase in both the deoxyguanosine oxidation and cytosine methylation levels in the DNA. Further, when 10 ppm inorganic arsenic is combined with BBN, the number of bladder submucosal capillaries is increased. In addition, inorganic arsenic also increases the deoxyguanosine oxidation level, alters the cytosine methylation state, decreases the activities of glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, decreases the protein expression of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) and increases the protein expression of specific protein 1 (Sp1) in bladder tissues. In summary, our data reveal that inorganic arsenic in drinking water promotes the BBN-induced pre-neoplastic damage of bladder tissue in mice, and that the 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 5-methylcytosine, NQO-1 protein and Sp1 protein levels may be pre-neoplastic markers of bladder tumors. -- Highlights: ► The role of inorganic arsenic in bladder carcinogenesis is characterized in mice. ► We examine the changes in the histology and biochemistry of bladder tissues. ► Inorganic arsenic enhances BBN-induced DNA oxidation while decreases BBN-induced DNA methylation in the mouse bladder. ► Inorganic arsenic alters the activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes in

  2. Determination of eight nitrosamines in water at the ng L{sup -1} levels by liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripolles, Cristina; Pitarch, Elena; Sancho, Juan V.; Lopez, Francisco J. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Hernandez, Felix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@qfa.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {center_dot} Eight N-nitrosamines in water by LC(APCI)MS/MS QqQ analysis. {center_dot} Validation at two levels: 10 ng L{sup -1} (LOQ) and 100 ng L{sup -1} in drinking water. {center_dot} Developed method applied to different types of water samples. {center_dot} NDMA was the analyte more frequently detected and at the highest concentration levels. - Abstract: In this work, we have developed a sensitive method for detection and quantification of eight N-nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosopirrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip), N-nitroso-n-dipropylamine (NDPA) and N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA) in drinking water. The method is based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode with a triple quadrupole analyzer (QqQ). The simultaneous acquisition of two MS/MS transitions in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM) for each compound, together with the evaluation of their relative intensity, allowed the simultaneous quantification and reliable identification in water at ppt levels. Empirical formula of the product ions selected was confirmed by UHPLC-(Q)TOF MS accurate mass measurements from reference standards. Prior to LC-MS/MS QqQ analysis, a preconcentration step by off-line SPE using coconut charcoal EPA 521 cartridges (by passing 500 mL of water sample) was necessary to improve the sensitivity and to meet regulation requirements. For accurate quantification, two isotope labelled nitrosamines (NDMA-d{sub 6} and NDPA-d{sub 14}) were added as surrogate internal standards to the samples. The optimized method was validated at two concentration levels (10 and 100 ng L{sup -1}) in drinking water samples, obtaining satisfactory recoveries (between 90 and 120%) and precision (RSD < 20%). Limits of detection were found to be in the range of 1-8 ng L{sup -1

  3. Publication Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Roy Paul

    This book is designed to solve the problem of coordinating art and typography with content in publications. Through text and illustrations, this book suggests ways to make pages and spreads in magazines, newspapers, and books attractive and readable. As a book of techniques, it is directed at potential and practicing art directors, designers, and…

  4. Publication Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Roy Paul

    This book is designed to solve the problem of coordinating art and typography with content in publications. Through text and illustrations, this book suggests ways to make pages and spreads in magazines, newspapers, and books attractive and readable. As a book of techniques, it is directed at potential and practicing art directors, designers, and…

  5. 烟草中特有的亚硝胺研究进展%Advance of Tobacco-specific Nitrosamines (TSNA) in Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷红琼; 芮晓东; 曹红云; 郭亚东

    2011-01-01

    烟叶中烟草特有的亚硝胺(TSNAs)已成为目前世界烟草研究的重点领域之一,综述了近年来国内外有关TSNAs的研究进展,阐述了TSNAs的形成、致癌性,介绍了TSNAs检测方法,并探讨了如何降低烟叶中的TSNAs。%Tobacco-specific nitrosamines has become one of the important areas which is currently the world tobacco research. In recent years, the research progress of domestic and foreign TSNAs was reviewed. The formation, carcinogenicity were expounded. Author analyzed all kinds of test methods and discussed how to reduce the TSNAs tobacco leaves.

  6. Determination of eight nitrosamines in water at the ng L(-1) levels by liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripollés, Cristina; Pitarch, Elena; Sancho, Juan V; López, Francisco J; Hernández, Félix

    2011-09-19

    In this work, we have developed a sensitive method for detection and quantification of eight N-nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosopirrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip), N-nitroso-n-dipropylamine (NDPA) and N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA) in drinking water. The method is based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode with a triple quadrupole analyzer (QqQ). The simultaneous acquisition of two MS/MS transitions in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM) for each compound, together with the evaluation of their relative intensity, allowed the simultaneous quantification and reliable identification in water at ppt levels. Empirical formula of the product ions selected was confirmed by UHPLC-(Q)TOF MS accurate mass measurements from reference standards. Prior to LC-MS/MS QqQ analysis, a preconcentration step by off-line SPE using coconut charcoal EPA 521 cartridges (by passing 500 mL of water sample) was necessary to improve the sensitivity and to meet regulation requirements. For accurate quantification, two isotope labelled nitrosamines (NDMA-d(6) and NDPA-d(14)) were added as surrogate internal standards to the samples. The optimized method was validated at two concentration levels (10 and 100 ng L(-1)) in drinking water samples, obtaining satisfactory recoveries (between 90 and 120%) and precision (RSDwater samples: chlorinated from drinking water and wastewater treatment plants (DWTP and WWTP, respectively), wastewaters subjected to ozonation and tap waters.

  7. Metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in the patas monkey: pharmacokinetics and characterization of glucuronide metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, S S; Trushin, N; Reid-Quinn, C A; Burak, E S; Jones, A B; Southers, J L; Gombar, C T; Carmella, S G; Anderson, L M; Rice, J M

    1993-02-01

    The metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) was examined in the patas monkey, in order to provide further information about NNK metabolic pathways in primates. Female patas monkeys were given i.v. injections of [5-3H]NNK, and metabolites in serum and urine were analyzed by HPLC. Metabolism by alpha-hydroxylation of NNK was rapid and extensive, and the products of this pathway, 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)butyric acid and 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl) butyric acid, accounted for a relatively large proportion of serum and urinary metabolites at all time points. This is significant because the formation of these products is associated with modification of DNA by NNK. The other major metabolic pathway was carbonyl reduction to 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), which detected both unconjugated and diastereomeric O-glucuronides. One of these glucuronides had been previously identified in rat urine, but the other diastereomer, which was the more prevalent of the two in serum and urine, had not been observed in studies of NNK metabolism in rodents. It was characterized by its spectral properties, by enzymatic hydrolysis to NNAL, and by derivatization of the released NNAL enantiomer with (R)-(+)-alpha-methylbenzylisocyanate. The two NNAL glucuronides accounted for 15-20% of the urinary metabolites in monkeys given 0.1 micrograms/kg NNK, which is similar to a smoker's dose, suggesting their use as dosimeters of NNK exposure in humans. Pharmacokinetic parameters were consistent with those observed in previous studies of nitrosamines, and varied predictably with body weight of five species. The results of this study have provided new insights relevant to assessing human metabolism of NNK.

  8. Child and youth practice area publications in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy in 2008 and 2009: a content analysis, methodology overview, and summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted

    2010-01-01

    In this review, 39 articles published in the American journal of occupational therapy in 2008 and 2009 that were categorized in the practice area of children and youth were examined using content analysis. The most frequent type of research published was basic research, which accounted for 38.5% (n=15) of the 39 studies published on the topic. Instrument development and testing and effectiveness studies were the next two most frequently noted research approaches, accounting for 25.6% (n=10) and 20.5% (n=8) of the studies, respectively. Among the 8 effectiveness studies, the level of evidence distribution was as follows: Level I, 3; Level III, 2; Level IV, 1; and Level V, 2. Quantitative studies were the predominant research paradigm used with 76.9% (n=30) of the studies.

  9. What do the JAMA editors say when they discuss manuscripts that they are considering for publication? Developing a schema for classifying the content of editorial discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rennie Drummond

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to identify previously unrecognized aspects of editorial decision-making, we explored the words and phrases that one group of editors used during their meetings. Methods We performed an observational study of discussions at manuscript meetings at JAMA, a major US general medical journal. One of us (KD attended 12 editorial meetings in 2003 as a visitor and took notes recording phrases from discussion surrounding 102 manuscripts. In addition, editors attending the meetings completed a form for each manuscript considered, listing the reasons they were inclined to proceed to the next step in publication and reasons they were not (DR attended 4/12 meetings. We entered the spoken and written phrases into NVivo 2.0. We then developed a schema for classifying the editors' phrases, using an iterative approach. Results Our classification schema has three main themes: science, journalism, and writing. We considered 2,463 phrases, of which 87 related mainly to the manuscript topic and were not classified (total 2,376 classified. Phrases related to science predominated (1,274 or 54%. The editors, most of whom were physicians, also placed major weight on goals important to JAMA's mission (journalism goals such as importance to medicine, strategic emphasis for the journal, interest to the readership, and results (729 or 31% of phrases. About 16% (n = 373 of the phrases used related to writing issues, such as clarity and responses to the referees' comments. Conclusion Classification of editorial discourse provides insight into editorial decision making and concepts that need exploration in future studies.

  10. What do the JAMA editors say when they discuss manuscripts that they are considering for publication? Developing a schema for classifying the content of editorial discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickersin, Kay; Ssemanda, Elizabeth; Mansell, Catherine; Rennie, Drummond

    2007-01-01

    Background In an effort to identify previously unrecognized aspects of editorial decision-making, we explored the words and phrases that one group of editors used during their meetings. Methods We performed an observational study of discussions at manuscript meetings at JAMA, a major US general medical journal. One of us (KD) attended 12 editorial meetings in 2003 as a visitor and took notes recording phrases from discussion surrounding 102 manuscripts. In addition, editors attending the meetings completed a form for each manuscript considered, listing the reasons they were inclined to proceed to the next step in publication and reasons they were not (DR attended 4/12 meetings). We entered the spoken and written phrases into NVivo 2.0. We then developed a schema for classifying the editors' phrases, using an iterative approach. Results Our classification schema has three main themes: science, journalism, and writing. We considered 2,463 phrases, of which 87 related mainly to the manuscript topic and were not classified (total 2,376 classified). Phrases related to science predominated (1,274 or 54%). The editors, most of whom were physicians, also placed major weight on goals important to JAMA's mission (journalism goals) such as importance to medicine, strategic emphasis for the journal, interest to the readership, and results (729 or 31% of phrases). About 16% (n = 373) of the phrases used related to writing issues, such as clarity and responses to the referees' comments. Conclusion Classification of editorial discourse provides insight into editorial decision making and concepts that need exploration in future studies. PMID:17894854

  11. What do the JAMA editors say when they discuss manuscripts that they are considering for publication? Developing a schema for classifying the content of editorial discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickersin, Kay; Ssemanda, Elizabeth; Mansell, Catherine; Rennie, Drummond

    2007-09-25

    In an effort to identify previously unrecognized aspects of editorial decision-making, we explored the words and phrases that one group of editors used during their meetings. We performed an observational study of discussions at manuscript meetings at JAMA, a major US general medical journal. One of us (KD) attended 12 editorial meetings in 2003 as a visitor and took notes recording phrases from discussion surrounding 102 manuscripts. In addition, editors attending the meetings completed a form for each manuscript considered, listing the reasons they were inclined to proceed to the next step in publication and reasons they were not (DR attended 4/12 meetings). We entered the spoken and written phrases into NVivo 2.0. We then developed a schema for classifying the editors' phrases, using an iterative approach. Our classification schema has three main themes: science, journalism, and writing. We considered 2,463 phrases, of which 87 related mainly to the manuscript topic and were not classified (total 2,376 classified). Phrases related to science predominated (1,274 or 54%). The editors, most of whom were physicians, also placed major weight on goals important to JAMA's mission (journalism goals) such as importance to medicine, strategic emphasis for the journal, interest to the readership, and results (729 or 31% of phrases). About 16% (n = 373) of the phrases used related to writing issues, such as clarity and responses to the referees' comments. Classification of editorial discourse provides insight into editorial decision making and concepts that need exploration in future studies.

  12. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  13. Publicações feministas do CFEMEA: análise de conteúdo do Jornal Fêmea Feminist publications: Jornal Fêmea content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cristiane Lopes Barbosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi elaborado com a intenção de se apresentar uma análise de conteúdo referente aos assuntos abordados no Jornal Fêmea, produzido mensalmente pelo CFEMEA. Para fins metodológicos, decidiu-se delimitar as avaliações e reflexões, fazer uma releitura especial das edições publicadas entre 1992 e 2002, analisando-se uma década de produção.Verificou-se de que maneira o Jornal Fêmea aborda temas de interesse dos movimentos de mulheres e feministas, em seus diferentes tipos de textos: editoriais, reportagens, artigos, entrevistas e notas. A intenção foi comparar o que mudou, em relação às pautas escolhidas, ao longo destes 10 anos. Em pleno século 21, quais são as reivindicações dos movimentos de mulheres e feministas? Ou melhor, o que já se alcançou em relação aos principais anseios e necessidades nos idos dos anos 90? Quais são os atuais desafios, tão importantes, a ponto de merecer espaço nos instrumentos de comunicação? Em linhas gerais, é possível afirmar que ao mesmo tempo em que novas pautas surgiram nos últimos anos - como a questão orçamentária - assuntos antigos continuam sendo temas para debates, mobilizações e repercussões em pequenos e grandes veículos de comunicação. Isso porque, neste início de século XXI além de lutar pela ampliação dos direitos das mulheres, é necessário garantir a manutenção dos já existentes. Estes estão ameaçados por fatores como o fortalecimento de teorias fundamentalistas, flexibilização das leis trabalhistas, etc. Enfim, pressões típicas de um mundo predominantemente globalizado e capitalista.The purpose of this study is to analyze the issues covered in Jornal Fêmea, a monthly newspaper published by CFEMEA - Feminist Center for Studies and Advisory Services. For methodological reasons, the study only analyzes the editions published between 1992 and 2002, thus carefully examining a decade of content. It considers in what ways Jornal Fêmea

  14. 肉制品中N-亚硝胺检测与控制的研究进展%Research progress on N-nitrosamines detection and control in meat products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晓楠; 王宗义; 丁轲; 杜斌; 韩涛

    2015-01-01

    N-亚硝胺是一类公认的带有强毒性的化合物,是在弱酸性条件下由亚硝酸盐和二级胺反应生成的一种致癌物质,在肉制品特定的加工环境中容易生成。以往研究表明:人类是挥发性亚硝胺引起癌症的易感群体,这些物质存在于食物中被认为是某些人类癌症包括胃癌、食道癌及鼻咽癌等癌症的致病危险因子,所以国内外对食物中挥发性亚硝胺的检测、形成和控制进行了大量的研究。本文介绍了肉制品中N-亚硝胺的来源和危害;总结了该类化合物的检测方法,如气相色谱法(GC)、气相色谱质谱联用法(GC-MS)、高效液相色谱法(HPLC)等;应用辐照和天然植物等阻断剂消除和控制肉制品中N-亚硝胺技术措施的研究进展。%N-nitrosamines are recognized as a kind of carcinogenic compounds, which formed by the reaction of nitrite and secondary amines under faintly acid circumstance. They are easily generated in particular situations of meat processing. Extensive experimental and some epidemiological data suggest that human are susceptible to carcinogensis by N-nitrosamines and that the presence of these compounds in some foods may be regarded as an aetiologocal risk factor for certain human cancers including cancers of the stomach, oesophagus and nasopharynx. Therefore, great efforts have been made to investigate these compounds on detection, formation and control. This paper discussed the sources of N-nitrosamines and harms of N-nitrosamine compounds in meat products, summarized the measure methods to this class of compounds, as GC (gas chromatography), GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometer), HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). The progress of research has been summarized that irradiation and natural plant has been used for blocking and controlling N-nitrosamines in meat products.

  15. Effect of Schistosoma haematobium and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine on the development of urothelial neoplasia in the baboon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, R M; James, C; Webbe, G

    1980-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether bladder cancer would develop in primates (Papio sp.) infected with S. haematobium and concurrently exposed to low initiating doses of the bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN). To control for the systemic effects of schistosomiasis, 5 baboons were infected with S. mansoni, which does not lay its eggs in the bladder wall; to control for the effect of the carcinogen alone, 5 others were treated with BBN alone at the rate of 5 or 50 mg/kg per week for the duration of the experiment. Five animals were infected with S. haematobium and had no further treatment, and the main experimental group of 10 baboons was infected with S. haematobium and also treated weekly with 5 mg/kg BBN for up to 2½ years. Four of the 10 animals in the last group, but none in the three control groups developed neoplastic disease of the urothelium. Four animals with S. haematobium plus BBN treatment developed in situ carcinoma in the bladder (3 latent adenomatous lesions and 1 more advanced papillary tumour) and 2 of these animals plus 1 other had slightly dysplastic urothelial endophytic papillary growths of the ureter which penetrated the muscle layer. By contrast, none of the control animals developed urothelial carcinomas, though 4/5 of those with S. haematobium infection alone had inflamed bladders with polypoid lesions, and one individual had endophytic papillary hyperplasia of the ureter. The animals were killed after 2½ years while still relatively immature or adolescent, and it is possible that had they been allowed to survive longer some of the BBN-only group would have developed bladder cancer, and more of the latent lesions seen in the BBN + schistosomiasis group would have progressed to invasive carcinoma. It is postulated that, in this model for human bilharzial bladder cancer, schistosomiasis supplies the proliferative stimulus necessary to accelerate cancer growth from latent tumour foci produced by

  16. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any...

  17. Analysis of Nitrosamines in Cooked Bacon by QuEChERS Sample Preparation and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Backflushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Han, Lijun; Johnston, John J

    2015-12-02

    Nitrites are added as a preservative to a variety of cured meats, including bacon, to kill bacteria, extend shelf life, and improve quality. During cooking, nitrites in the meat can be converted to carcinogenic nitrosamines (NAs), the formation of which is mitigated by the addition of antioxidants. In the past, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) monitored NAs in pan-fried bacon, but FSIS terminated monitoring of NAs in the 1990s due to the very low levels found. FSIS recently chose to conduct a risk assessment of NAs in cooked bacon to determine if current levels warrant routine monitoring of NAs again. To meet FSIS needs, we developed, validated, and implemented a new method of sample preparation and analysis to test cooked bacon for five NAs of most concern, which consist of N-nitroso-dimethylamine, -diethylamine, -dibutylamine, -piperidine, and -pyrrolidine. Sample preparation was based on the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) approach and analysis by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ruggedness was improved markedly in the analysis of the complex fatty extracts by backflushing the guard column, injection liner, and half of the analytical column after every injection. Validation results were acceptable with recoveries of 70-120% and bacon gave slightly lower concentrations overall compared to pan-frying.

  18. Diindolylmethane and Lupeol Modulates Apoptosis and Cell Proliferation in N-Butyl-N-(4-Hydroxybutyl) Nitrosamine Initiated and Dimethylarsinic Acid Promoted rat Bladder Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Bhoopathy; Sivakumar, Annamalai; Sundaresan, Sivapatham

    2016-10-01

    Bladder cancer has been shown to resist programmed cell death with altered expression of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins. To study is to investigate the apoptotic properties of Diindolylmethane (DIM) and Lupeol on N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) Nitrosamine (BBN) initiated and Dimethylarsinic Acid (DMA) promoted urinary bladder cancer. Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups. Group I: Control. Group II: Rats were experimentally developed bladder carcinogenesis with BBN and DMA. Group III and IV: DIM and lupeol were administered after BBN treatment for 28 weeks. Group V and VI: DIM and lupeol alone treatment for 36 weeks. All the experimental rats were maintained and euthanized after 36 weeks protocol. Urinary bladder tissues were collected and processed for further investigations. Apoptotis and cell proliferative marker such as Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9 and PCNA were quantified using immunohistochemical analysis. The Immunohistochemical expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9 and PCNA were aberrant in BBN + DMA treated tumor group. Administration of DIM and lupeol inhibited the progression of bladder cancer, induced the expression of apoptotic Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9 and inhibited the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, PCNA in the urinary bladder of rats. Administration of diindolylmethane and lupeol treatment induces apoptosis and cellular proliferation by its anti-carcinogenic properties. From our results DIM and lupeol would be the agent or adjunct for the treatment of bladder carcinogenesis.

  19. New Molecular Sieves for Adsorbing Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines%吸附烟草特有亚硝胺的分子筛新材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建华

    2012-01-01

    烟草特有亚硝胺(TSNA)属于强致癌物,是吸烟导致癌症的重要因素.如何在成分复杂的环境烟气里吸附亚硝胺成为环境保护的难题.文章综述了近年来的研究进展,剖析了分子筛形貌对TSNA吸附的影响,讨论了液相吸附TSNA的新材料,并展望特定分子筛新材料的发展方向.%Tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA) are well-recognized carcinogens, and TSNA in smoke causes health hazard by smoking. How to adsorb TSNA in tobacco smoke with complex composi- tion becomes the challenge facing environment protection. In this article some latest research progress in adsorption of TSNA by new molecular sieves are reviewed. The special effect of molecular sieves morphol- ogy on the adsorption of TSNA in tobacco smoke is described, and the new functional adsorbents to trap the TSNA in aqueous tobacco extract solution are introduced. Finally the development of new functional materials to eliminate the pollution of TSNA is prospected.

  20. Expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase variant in tobacco reduces tobacco-specific nitrosamine accumulation in cured leaves and cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianli; Zhang, Leichen; Lewis, Ramsey S; Bovet, Lucien; Goepfert, Simon; Jack, Anne M; Crutchfield, James D; Ji, Huihua; Dewey, Ralph E

    2016-07-01

    Burley tobaccos (Nicotiana tabacum) display a nitrogen-use-deficiency phenotype that is associated with the accumulation of high levels of nitrate within the leaf, a trait correlated with production of a class of compounds referred to as tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Two TSNA species, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), have been shown to be strong carcinogens in numerous animal studies. We investigated the potential of molecular genetic strategies to lower nitrate levels in burley tobaccos by overexpressing genes encoding key enzymes of the nitrogen-assimilation pathway. Of the various constructs tested, only the expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase (NR) dramatically decreased free nitrate levels in the leaves. Field-grown tobacco plants expressing this NR variant exhibited greatly reduced levels of TSNAs in both cured leaves and mainstream smoke of cigarettes made from these materials. Decreasing leaf nitrate levels via expression of a constitutively active NR enzyme represents an exceptionally promising means for reducing the production of NNN and NNK, two of the most well-documented animal carcinogens found in tobacco products. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. No Promoting Effect of Ethyl Tertiary-butyl Ether (ETBE) on Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis Initiated with N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Doi, Yuko; Suguro, Mayuko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Furukawa, Fumio; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    The effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) on two-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis in male F344 rats initiated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) were investigated at various dose levels with regard to possible promoting activity. Groups of 30 rats were given drinking water containing 500 ppm BBN, as an initiator, for 4 weeks and starting one week thereafter received ETBE by gavage (daily, 7 days/week) at dose levels of 0 (control), 100, 300, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day until experimental week 36. No statistically significant differences in incidences of preneoplastic lesions, papillomas, and carcinomas of the urinary bladder were evident in rats treated with 100-1000 mg/kg/day ETBE as compared with control values. Furthermore, the average numbers of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions per unit length of basement membrane in rats given 100-1000 mg/kg/day ETBE were also comparable to control values. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder was found in 4 out of 30 rats (13%) in the group given 1000 mg/kg/day ETBE, and soft stones in the urinary bladder were found in 3 out of these 4 rats. The results thus demonstrated that ETBE did not exert promotional activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder developed in small numbers of the rats given ETBE at 1000 mg/kg/day but not in rats given 500 mg/kg/day or lower doses.

  2. A Historical Context Analysis of Changes in Content Management Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    content management system (Doyle, 2004). The dynamic capability of digital...as multiple media publication of content…..publication is rarely automated unless a content management system is in place” (Rockley, Kostur et al...Investments: An Assessment of Investment Alternatives for a Web Content Management System 2002 CM web ContentP2P: a peer-to-peer content management system

  3. Publicity, news content, and cultural debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Kristensen, Nete; From, Unni

    2015-01-01

    Taking our point of departure in mediatization theory (Hjarvard, 2013; Lundby, 2009; Schulz, 2004), we analyse the interwoven communicative forms of the film industry and the printed press as they are expressed in the coverage of three blockbusters in Danish newspapers – Ben-Hur (1959/62); Batman...... stimulate socio-cultural debate, at the same time as the portrayal of blockbuster movie events and their directors and actors at-tracts media audiences, serving as entertainment, service as well as enlightenment....

  4. Content Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rossi, George Bedinelli; Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; João, Belmiro Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach...

  5. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    LE, DUC

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  6. 78 FR 13876 - Content Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Content Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States is in the process of reviewing its content policy. A list of the questions and issues...

  7. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  8. 吡咯烷酮羧酸钠吸附卷烟烟气中亚硝胺的研究%Study on L-pyrrolidone Carboxylic Acid-Na to Absorb the N-nitrosamine in Cigarette Smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄天辉; 黄泰松; 邹克兴; 刘启斌; 李志华; 潘连华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究吡咯烷酮羧酸钠对降低卷烟气中亚硝胺的释放量的影响.[方法]对添加吡略烷酮羧酸钠的卷烟的感官指标、物理指标和化学指标进行评价.[结果]与对照烟相比,添加吡咯烷酮羧酸钠的卷烟在香气、刺激性、协调性、杂气和余味等感官指标上有较大的改善;在重量、吸阻、圆周、园度和硬度等物理指标上无明显变化;在焦油、一氧化碳、烟碱、N-亚硝胺等化学指标上均有所降低.[结论]吡咯烷酮羧酸钠对降低卷烟气中焦油、一氧化碳、烟碱、N-亚硝胺等有害成分有一定的效果.%[Objective] To study effects of L-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid-Na on reducing N-nitrosamine in cigarette smoke. [Method] The sensory index, physical index and chemical index in cigarette added with L-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid-Na were evaluated. [Result] Compared with control tobacco, cigarettes added with L-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid-Na was improved in fragrance, throat irritation, harmoniousness, mixed gas and aftertaste, resembled at weight, resistance, roundness and rigidity, and reduced at tar, carbon monoxide, nicotine and N-nitrosamine. [ Conclusion ] L-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid-Na was efficient to reduce the harmful ingredients such as tar, carbon monoxide, nicotine and N-nitrosamine in cigarette smoke.

  9. A salting out-acetonitrile homogeneous extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of thirteen N-nitrosamines in skin care cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Guo, Xindong; Xian, Yanping; Luo, Haiying; Wang, Bin; Wu, Yuluan

    2015-11-27

    A sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was established for the simultaneous determination of thirteen N-nitrosamines (NAs) in skin care cosmetics. The cosmetics samples were firstly dispersed by water and subsequently extracted and purified using salting out-acetonitrile homogeneous extraction method. Finally, the extracting solution was concentrated by slow nitrogen gas blowing. All of the samples were separated by INNOWAX capillary chromatographic column, and detected by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by isotope internal standard method. The method was validated for linearity and range, accuracy, precision and sensitivity. Under the optimized condition, the calibration curves were linear over the selected concentration ranges of 2-500μg/L for all the thirteen analytes, with calculated coefficients of determination (R(2)) of greater than 0.996. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the method were 3-15μg/kg and 10-50μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries were calculated at three levels of concentration spiked in two kinds of cosmetics (skin care cream and water). The values were found between 93.8% and 121.0% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 2.5-7.2% for intra-day precision (n=6) and 3.3-6.7% for inter-day precision (n=5). The method was successfully applied to analyze twenty-two cosmetics samples and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected in one sample with the concentration of 207μg/kg.

  10. Analysis of Traces of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines (TSNAs in USP Grade Nicotine, E-Liquids, and Particulate Phase Generated by the Electronic Smoking Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu Serban C.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the development of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS technique for the analysis of trace levels of four tobaccospecific nitrosamines (TSNAs: nitrosoanabasine (NAB, nitrosoanatabine (NAT, 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK, and nitrosonornicotine (NNN. The technique can be applied for the analysis of TSNAs in USP grade nicotine. Nicotine used in e-liquids for the electronic smoking devices is typically obtained from tobacco plant materials (Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana rustica and, although it is purified, it contains besides nicotine low levels of several contaminants such as minor alkaloids. It also contains traces of TSNAs. Analysis of TSNAs in USP grade nicotine is a challenging task since the analyzed samples contain about 10+7–10+8 times more nicotine than individual TSNAs. Because the analyzed solutions cannot be diluted too much in order to keep the TSNAs level above the limit of quantitation (LOQ, even for apparently good chromatographic separations, the peak tailing of nicotine may generate interferences. The new method of analysis uses a Luna Omega 1.6 μm particles chromatographic column for separation and detection on a LC-MS/MS instrument with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (Scheduled MRM. The levels of TSNAs in nicotine of USP purity from four commercial sources varied between 3 to 8 ng/g NAB, 4 to 20 ng/g NAT, 30 to 50 ng/g NNK, and 0.5 to 2 ng/g for NNN. Besides the analysis of TSNAs in nicotine, the technique has been applied successfully in the analysis of TSNAs in e-liquids and in particulate phase generated by the electronic smoking devices.

  11. Public Relations as Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Annette N.

    Public relations as strategic communication is one possible theme for an introductory course in public relations. This perspective focuses attention on messages (their content, timing, media, and so forth) as strategic responses to the audience and the situation. It provides a defensible rationale for including certain relevant topics in the…

  12. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  13. 43 CFR 10010.18 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    ... CFR 1508.9(b)). (b) In addition, an EA may be expanded to more fully describe the proposal and a... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Content. 10010.18 Section 10010.18 Public... Environmental Assessments § 10010.18 Content. (a) At a minimum, an EA will include brief discussions of the need...

  14. MAIN CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Discussion on the Modern Agriculture Management Mode and its Innovation in China Mode of agricultural management is organic unify between form of agriculture management and way of agriculture management. Changes of agricultural management form are the content of system innovation;Transformation of agricultural management way belongs to the category of technical progress. We found that, precision agriculture with the moderate scale by professional farmers is the dominant mode of agricultural management. Coexisting of multiple modes is the pattern and evolution trend of modern agriculture management mode. The precision agriculture based on household business of moderate scale mode, we needs of rural economd socialization of

  15. Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bedinelli Rossi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach. The most common types are the conceptual and relational analysis. The latter receives influences of linguistic, cognitive and mental models and it is subdivided in affective extraction, analysis of proximity and cognitive mapping. Regarding the importance of this type of analysis, we have quantitative and qualitative character and the latter approach can be used to identify hypotheses, theoretical constructs or even models that can be tested by multivariate statistical techniques or even by experiments. 

  16. 公共关系定量研究中的理论贡献的方式对《PR Review》、《PR Research》中定量研究论文的内容分析%Methods of Theoretical Contribution of Quantitative Researches in Public Relations: A Content Analysis of Quantitative Papers in Public Relations Review and Journal of Public Relations Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贞芳; 陈先红; 江丛珍

    2012-01-01

    本研究从理论贡献的方式的角度,对《PR Review》、《PR Research》中采用社会科学定量研究方法的论文进行内容分析(N=214),发现在使用了某种理论或理论概念的161篇(75%)研究中,6%提供了概念的测量方案,12%检验了已有的理论或假设,30%提出了新的影响因素或适用范围,对关系理论,情景理论和卓越理论的验证和发展占主导地位。本文提供了一个公共关系定量研究中理论贡献方式的图谱,可成为公共关系定量研究理论创新的参照。%From the perspective of the methods of theoretical contribution, this paper analyses the quantitative papers (N= 214) in Public Relations Review and Journal of Public Relations Research with content analysis. It finds that among 161 theory-oriented articles, 6% provides the measurement of concept, 12% tests the existing theories or hypotheses, and 30% proposes new factors or new applications of theories. This paper provides a map of the methods of theoretical contribution made by quantitative papers in public relations.

  17. The 'Publicness-puzzle' in public leadership. A theoretical exploration of leadership in public organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Dorsman (Stephan); M. Thaens (Marcel); S.M. Groeneveld (Sandra)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Following a contingency approach we argue that the content and style of administrative leadership depends on characteristics of the public context. The purpose of the paper is to develop hypotheses on the relationships between several dimensions of publicness and the content a

  18. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  19. Selected Elite Newspapers and Coverage of the Persian Gulf War: A content Analysis and Study of the Influence of the New York Times and Los Angeles Times on Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-18

    American Institute For Political Communication . Media and Non-media Effects on the Formation of Public Opinion. (Washington: AIPC, 1969) 1. 8 AIPC 2. Gallup...of events and of poll results, would therefore be critical players in the process. MEDIA IMPACT ON PUBLIC OPINION The American Institute for Political ... Communication released a report in 1969 that attempted to quantify to some degree the dynamics of public opinion. The study concluded that about two

  20. Interaction Design for Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Karen Johanne

    2008-01-01

    In this abstract I describe the doctorial research project "Interaction Design for Public Spaces". The objective of the project is to explore and design interaction contexts in culture related public spaces such as museums, experience centres and festivals. As a perspective on this domain, I...... will help interaction designers when designing for bodily movement, and communicating and staging interactive content in public spaces....

  1. 植物多酚对模拟胃酸体系中亚硝酸盐清除能力与亚硝胺生成的影响%Effects of polyphenols on the nitrite scavenging and N-nitrosamine formation in simulated gastric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 张汆; 周光宏; 徐幸莲

    2013-01-01

    在模拟胃酸体系中研究了茶多酚(TP)和葡萄籽提取物(GP)对亚硝酸盐清除能力和二乙基亚硝胺(NDEA)生成的影响,并对两种多酚的抗氧化性进行了分析.NDEA和亚硝酸盐含量分别采用液相色谱法和分光光度法进行测定.结果表明:随多酚浓度增加和反应时间延长,TP和GP对亚硝酸盐清除能力增强,其中TP的作用效果强于GP.随TP和GP添加量的增加,体系中NDEA相对生成量逐渐增加,当添加0.5 mg· mL-1TP和1.0 mg· mL-1GP时,NDEA相对生成量达到最大,此后NDEA的相对生成量逐渐减少,最终完全抑制了NDEA的形成.抗氧化活性分析表明,随多酚含量的增加,抗氧化能力增强,其中TP的抗氧化活性强于GP.结论:在本试验条件下,TP和GP具有较强的抗氧化和清除亚硝酸盐的能力,对NDEA的生成具有促进和抑制的双重作用效果.%In simulated gastric acid,effects of tea polyphenols (TP) and grape seed polyphenols (GP) on nitrite scavenging and nitrosamine formation were determined,and their antioxidant activities were assessed.The c.ontent of N-nitrosodiethylamine(NDEA) and nitrite were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometric method,respectively.The results showed that with plant polyphenols contents increasing and reaction times extending,the nitrite scavenging effect of TP and GP increased.The scavenging effect of TP was better than that of GP.With the increase of TP and GP contents,the relative content of NDEA increased gradually.When the contents of TP and GP were 0.5 and 1.0 mg· mL-1,the relative content of NDEA reached the maximum.Afterwards,the content of NDEA declined and finally the NDEA formation was inhibited completely.Antioxidant activity analysis showed that with the increase of polyphenols contents,the antioxidant capacity increased gradually.Also,TP exhibited the higher antioxidant activity than GP.These results confirmed that at least in our experimental

  2. Phenotypic modification of human airway epithelial cells in air-liquid interface culture induced by exposure to the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Johnny L; Brighton, Luisa E; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-04-01

    The nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a potent tobacco-specific carcinogen. We used an air-liquid interface epithelial cell culture system to model changes associated with NNK exposure relative to pathologies documented in human tobacco-related illnesses. Although in vitro systems exhibit certain limitations, they often offer accentuation of subtle pathologies. While the distribution of cell types in control cultures typically favors the ciliated cell phenotype, NNK-exposed cultures transitioned to non-ciliated cell phenotypes as well as reflecting features consistent with squamous metaplasia. We conclude that NNK impacts normal growth and differentiation of human airway epithelium in a short interval of time in vitro.

  3. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  4. 43 CFR § 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Contents. § 2812.1-2 Section § 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any...

  5. Deploying Content Management System to enhance State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Most of these sites present only “public relations” materials aimed at promoting .... world such as USA, India, Finland,. Australia and ... through the use of ICT and convergent media. 3.0 Content Management System. Defined.

  6. Public Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshan, Harry M.; Arnheim, Louise

    This paper, the second in a series exploring future options for public policy in the communications and information arenas, examines some of the issues underlying public broadcasting, primarily public television. It advances two reasons why quality local public television programming is scarce: funds for the original production of programming have…

  7. Public Information for Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

  8. Public Information for Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

  9. Database Support for Research in Public Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, James Cory

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which databases support student and faculty research in the area of public administration. A list of journals in public administration, public policy, political science, public budgeting and finance, and other related areas was compared to the journal content list of six business databases. These databases…

  10. Public Finance, Public Economics, and Public Choice: A Survey of Undergraduate Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Roger S.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews undergraduate public finance textbooks for content, difficulty, and ideology. Includes tables summarizing the percentage space devoted to specific topics in 13 popular textbooks. Offers suggestions for supplementary materials. (Author/DH)

  11. 43 CFR 1862.1 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Contents. 1862.1 Section 1862.1 GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) CONVEYANCES, DISCLAIMERS AND CORRECTION DOCUMENTS Patent Preparation and Issuance § 1862.1 Contents. (a) Patents for lands entered or located under general laws can be issued only in the name of the...

  12. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  13. Treatability of organics and nitrosamine precursors by the conventional/O3-BAC process%常规/臭氧生物活性炭去除有机物及亚硝胺前体物特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖晓斌; 陈超; 汪隽; 张晓健

    2013-01-01

    The conventional/ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) process was used to treat micro-organism polluted lake water in Eastern China for 18 months.The results show that the long-term operation had limited ability to remove organic compounds,but effectively removed nitrosamine precursors.The dissolved organic carbon (DOC),UV254 and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) levels in the effluent were 3.12 mg/L,0.053 cm 1 and 0.171mg/L,with removal rates of 34.9%,53.9% and 32.7%.The average removal efficiency of the nitrosamine precursors reached 72.3%.The ozone and the bacteria in the BAC significantly improved the removal rates.Micro molecular organics,aromatic proteins and microbial metabolites were effectively removed by the BAC unit.Therefore,improvements to the BAC process should focus on removal of organics and nitrosamine precursors in long-term operations.%该文考察运行18个月的常规/臭氧-生物活性炭(O3-BAC)组合工艺对中国华东地区某微污染湖泊水的处理特性.结果表明:此时该工艺去除有机物能力有限,但对消毒副产物亚硝胺前体物的去除能力高于其他有机物.工艺出水溶解性有机碳(DOC)质量浓度、UV254和溶解性有机氮(DON)质量浓度的平均值分别为3.12 mg/L、0.053 cm-1和0.171 mg/L,平均去除率分别为34.9%、53.9%和32.7%;对亚硝胺前体物的去除率为72.3%.臭氧和炭池中的微生物在去除亚硝胺前体物中发挥了重要作用.小分子有机物、芳香性蛋白质和微生物代谢产物主要在活性炭单元中去除.因而,要关注长期运行的常规/O3-BAC组合工艺对有机物及其亚硝胺前体物的去除,充分发挥微生物作用.

  14. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Visual perception is very important for road users and in the dark it can be facilitated by public lighting. Public lighting has a mostly positive road safety effect. Installing public lighting on roads that were previously unlit generally results in fewer and less serious crashes. This effect seems

  15. The 'Publicness-puzzle' in public leadership. A theoretical exploration of leadership in public organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Dorsman (Stephan); M. Thaens (Marcel); S.M. Groeneveld (Sandra)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Following a contingency approach we argue that the content and style of administrative leadership depends on characteristics of the public context. The purpose of the paper is to develop hypotheses on the relationships between several dimensions of publicness and

  16. Characteristics of scientific web publications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund Jepsen, Erik; Seiden, Piet; Ingwersen, Peter Emil Rerup

    2004-01-01

    Because of the increasing presence of scientific publications on the Web, combined with the existing difficulties in easily verifying and retrieving these publications, research on techniques and methods for retrieval of scientific Web publications is called for. In this article, we report on the......Vista and AllTheWeb retrieved a higher degree of accessible scientific content than Google. Because of the search engine cutoffs of accessible URLs, the feasibility of using search engine output for Web content analysis is also discussed....

  17. Estimation of the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes in interpretation of the results of the public survey to assess the thyroidal iodine content following a radiation accident at the nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinkarev S.M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A detail consideration has been done to assess an importance of the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes to the exposure rate measured near the thyroid by the public survey for following the Chernobyl accident. Empirical ratios have been derived to take into account that contribution under interpretation of the results of survey meter monitoring of the public. Materials and methods. Model calculations for typical radionuclide intake by the residents living in contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident have been carried out in order to assess the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes to the exposure rate measured near the thyroid by the survey. Under such calculations two the most important modes of intake have been considered: 1 inhalation and 2 ingestion with cow milk. Results. According to the estimates received the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes to the exposure rate measured near the thyroid during the first 20 days does not exceed 20% for the residents of southern areas of Gomel region and 30% for the residents of Mogil'yov region. During 60 days following the accident that contribution is estimated to be within (50-80 % for the residents of southern areas of Gomel region and (80-95 % for the residents of Mogil'yov region. Conclusion. For the period of intensive thyroid measuring in the southern areas of Gomel region (the second part of May account of the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes is relatively unimportant, but for Mogil'yov region (the end of May — it is important to account for. For the thyroid measurements conducted in June of 1986 it is important for all residents living in Belarus to take into account the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes.

  18. p53 and H-ras mutations and microsatellite instability in renal pelvic carcinomas of NON / Shi mice treated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine: different genetic alteration from urinary bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gen, H; Yamamoto, S; Morimura, K; Min, W; Mitsuhashi, M; Murai, T; Mori, S; Hosono, M; Oohara, T; Makino, S; Wanibuchi, H; Fukushima, S

    2001-12-01

    We previously reported p53 mutations to be frequent (greater than 70%), whereas both H-ras mutations and microsatellite instability (MSI) were infrequent (about 10%), in urinary bladder carcinomas (UBCs) and their metastatic foci in the N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN)-induced mouse urothelial carcinogenesis model. In the present study, an analysis of p53 and H-ras mutations as well as MSI was performed on 12 renal pelvic carcinomas (RPCs) and 8 metastatic or invading foci produced by the same experimental procedure. Histologically, 10 of the RPCs were transitional cell carcinomas and the remaining 2 were squamous cell carcinomas. p53 mutations were infrequent and only found in one primary RPC (8%), its metastatic foci and an invading lesion in another animal (in a total 2 of 12; 17%). H-ras mutations were slightly more frequent (found in 3 of 12 animals; 25%), 4 of 5 involving codon 44, GTG to GCG, not a hot-spot reported for human cancers. In two cases, H-ras mutations were confined to lung metastasis and not detectable in their primary RPCs. MSI analysis was available for 6 pairs of primary RPCs and their metastatic foci, and 4 animals (67%) had MSI at one or more microsatellite loci. Overall, the distribution of genetic alterations differed from that in UBCs produced by the same experimental protocol. The results thus suggest that different genetic pathways may participate in carcinogenesis of the upper and lower urinary tract due to BBN.

  19. Digital Broadband Content: Digital Content Strategies and policies. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 119

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The development of digital content raises new issues as rapid technological developments challenge existing business models and government policies. This OECD study identifies and discusses six groups of business and public policy issues and illustrates these with existing and potential OECD Digital Content Strategies and Policies: (1) Innovation…

  20. Mobile Public Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Tilton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article will look at the impact that mobile technologies have had on the ability of people to document their everyday lives. What is important to note about this documentation is that it has become a public display of events and experiences via mediated content. This documentation becomes more interesting to observe when it is put in context of how people can now record their travels. This “public memory” of private travel is assisted via mobile technologies with applications designed to record locations through Global Positioning System data and mediated content. After the documentation, the consumption of this content is conducted through social media services and other public outlets as opposed to the traditional means of showing where people have traveled via postcards, slides, and souvenirs. Through a mixed-method study, this process of documentation is analyzed via the thematic dichotomies that emerged throughout the course of surveys and interviews. This article will explore this contrast between the digital and physical through an analysis of the “traditional tourist” versus the “archiver of experiences.” Finally, the impact of this documentation will be framed in the context of mobile communication.

  1. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial IJRED

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES PAGEPotency of Solar Energy Applications in Indonesia pp.33-38 N.A. Handayani and D. AriyantiThe Social Aspects and Public Acceptance of Biomass Giving the Example of aHungarian Region pp.29-43 Z. Bujdosó, C. Patkós, T. Kovács, Z. Radics and Z. BarosCultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME pp. 45-49 H. Hadiyanto, M.M. Azimatun Nur, and G.D. HartantoThermodynamic Model of a Very High Efficiency Power Plant based on a BiomassGasifier, SOFCs, and a Gas Turbine pp.51-55 P.V. Aravind, C. Schilt, B. Türker, and T. WoudstraBiodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process pp. 57-60 W. Widayat and S. SuhermanBiogas Production from Cow Manure pp.61-64 D.A. Putri, R.R. Saputro, and Budiyono

  2. 媒介融合背景下出版业内容编辑体系的变化%Changes of Content Editing System of Publication Industry in the Era of Media Convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白林

    2016-01-01

    技术发展推动媒介融合快速发展,不断发展形成“大媒体产业”:传媒业内部界线模糊,外部边界不断扩大,呈现融合式发展,深刻地改变了人们获取信息和阅读的方式,对出版业未来发展产生重要影响。本文以媒介融合理论为基础,研究媒介融合对出版产业的一般影响,进而研究对出版业的生产核心——内容编辑体系带来的影响和变化。%Technology development has promoted the rapid development of media convergence, which leads to the mega‐media industry: the inner boundaries of different media are gradualy blurring, the outer boundaries are expanding and the development of the media convergence is presented. Media convergence has profoundly changed the way how people acquire information and how people read, and meanwhile has an important impact on the future development of the publishing industry. Based on the media convergence, the paper studies the general effect of the publishing industry, and then studies the impacts and changes of the content editing system.

  3. Digital Content Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Halbheer; Florian Stahl; Oded Koenigsberg; Lehmann, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies content strategies for online publishers of digital information goods. It examines sampling strategies and compares their performance to paid content and free content strategies. A sampling strategy, where some of the content is offered for free and consumers are charged for access to the rest, is known as a "metered model" in the newspaper industry. We analyze optimal decisions concerning the size of the sample and the price of the paid content when sampling serves the dua...

  4. 10 CFR 501.35 - Public file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public file. 501.35 Section 501.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Hearings and Conferences During Administrative Proceedings § 501.35 Public file. (a) Contents. The public file shall consist of the rule, order, or petition, with supporting data and supplemental...

  5. Identifying the Gender Dimension in Research Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.; Lalonde, B.St.L.; Tippett, C.; Archambault, E.; Callaert, J.; Mantouvalou, K.; Arora, L.

    2016-07-01

    Globally, there is an increasing interest in integrating the gender dimension in research content (GDRC). As a first step towards monitoring progress in this area, a new indicator measuring the proportion of a country’s scientific publications integrating a gender dimension in their subject matter was developed for the European Commission’s She Figures 2015 publication. This indicator is based on a keyword-based query covering both sex-related terms (biological characteristics of both women and men) and gender-related terms (social/cultural factors of both women and men). The final GDRC dataset consisted of some 212,600 distinct publications including a gender dimension in their research content. Findings suggest that integrating a gender dimension into research content is relatively rare. Unsurprisingly, it was less common for scientific articles in the fields of agricultural sciences, engineering and technology, and natural sciences to do so, and more common in the social sciences. (Author)

  6. Public knowledge and public trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    As health care applications derived from human genetics research are likely to move increasingly from 'clinic to community', there is growing interest not just in how patients understand and take up health-related genetic information but also in the views of the wider population, as well as a range of professional groups. In this paper, issues relating public knowledge and public trust are raised and discussed in an attempt to move forward debates about public involvement in genomic research and the role of sociologists within interdisciplinary teams. As the field of public understanding of science has developed, we have seen a shift from a focus on the lack of scientific literacy as problem to a recognition of the range of different knowledges that people have and use as they confront science and technology in their everyday lives. As a mood for dialogue pervades many institutions in their relations with 'publics', attention must now be paid to the way in which knowledge and expertise is expressed, heard and acted upon in dialogic encounters. There is increasing concern about public trust in science and calls to increase public confidence, particularly through more open engagement with a range of publics. However, lack of trust or loss of confidence may be constructed as problems rather than reflecting empirical reality, where more complex relationships and attitudes prevail. Lack of trust is often privatized, deeply rooted in lived experience and routinely managed. Trust relations are generally characterized by ambivalence, uncertainty and risk, and are always provisional. Drawing on selected literature and empirical research to review and illustrate this field, this paper argues that scepticism or ambivalence on the part of publics are not necessarily problems to be overcome in the interest of scientific progress, but rather should be mobilized to enhance open and public debates about the nature and direction of genomics research, medicine, and the related

  7. Evolution Mechanism of Online Public Opinion from the Perspective of Group Polarization:a Research Based on a Content Analysis of Doctor Slain in Wenling City%群体极化视域下网络舆情的演化机制研究*--以微博网民讨论“浙江温岭杀医案”为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛文娟; 赖涵

    2015-01-01

    以2013年引发新浪微博网民热议的“浙江温岭杀医案”为例,对网民就此事的评论进行了内容分析。结合群体极化理论,探析网络舆情演化的生命周期和群体极化如何随网络舆情的演化而变,总结出群体极化在网络舆情不同发展过程中的存在形式。同时,分析了影响网络舆情演化和群体极化变化的因素,并初步建立了一个模型来总结群体极化视角下网络舆情的演化过程。%This paper conducts a content analysis of the Internet public opinions of the tragic event of Doctor Slain in Wenling city which aroused heated debates among the Sina Weibo users in 2013. Using group polarization theory, the paper explores the life cycle of Internet public opinion as well as the evolution trends and existing forms of group polarization arising from the netizens' debates on the sensitive is-sues. The paper also analyses the factors influencing the evolution of the Internet public opinion and group polarization in the case. At last, the paper builds a mechanism model of the evolution of Internet public opinion in Sina Weibo.

  8. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers’ understanding of smoking-related risks—a cross-country comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers’ level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. PMID:24848554

  9. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers' understanding of smoking-related risks-a cross-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents.

  10. Public opinion on public services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evelien Eggink; Debbie Verbeek-Oudijk; Evert Pommer

    2013-01-01

    Original titel: Burgers over de kwaliteit van publieke diensten Most citizens come into contact with public services, for example as a patient, as a student or pupil, as a passenger on public transport or as a museum visitor. More and more importance is being attached to the quality of those service

  11. 43 CFR § 10010.18 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    ... CFR 1508.9(b)). (b) In addition, an EA may be expanded to more fully describe the proposal and a... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Content. § 10010.18 Section § 10010.18... Environmental Assessments § 10010.18 Content. (a) At a minimum, an EA will include brief discussions of the need...

  12. Public Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the role of sociology in society? How can - and should - sociology contribute with insights relevant and useful to the outside world? Is sociology attuned to accommodate the demands of the wider public and of surrounding society? Who benefits from the knowledge produced and provided...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...... irrelevance and introversion and the Charybdis of public relevancy and extroversion. But what does it mean to be a ‘public sociologist' in contemporary society and are there really any other ways of doing sociology? What are the requirements of sociologists in a social world increasingly informed and shaped...

  13. Miscellaneous Publications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Late 19th century Weather Bureau publications and Congressional reports pertaining to weather. Set of Weather Bureau Snowfall Bulletins for Rocky Mountain states...

  14. Public Airports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a vector point digital data structure that contains the locations of General Public Use Airports in the State of New Mexico. It only contains those...

  15. A Study on Eliminating Nitrite and Breaking Nitrosamine Synthesis by Gentiana Scabra Bunge in Vitro With Semi-bionic Extraction Methodology%半仿生下龙胆草体外清除亚硝酸盐及阻断亚硝胺合成的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊生; 张佩虹; 陈晓銮; 林少宏

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied the ability of eliminating nitrite and breaking nitrosamine synthesis by Gen- tiana scabra Bunge in vitro with semi-bionic extraction methodology, according to the percentages of eliminat- ing nitrite and breaking nitrosamine synthesis. The results showed that: the best effects reached when extracting 3 times with the ratio to extraction liquid 1:15, 70 ℃, and 1.5 h for each time with semi-bionic extraction meth- odology. The max capability of eliminating nitrite was 87.14%. The max capability of breaking nitrosamine syn- thesis was 65.23%. These percentages are 4 times and 1.5 times higher than using the usual methods.%以清除亚硝酸盐及阻断亚硝胺合成的百分率为综合评价指标,研究了半仿生法下龙胆草提取液体外清除亚硝酸盐和阻断亚硝胺合成的能力.研究结果表明,半仿生法下在70℃,用1:15的料液比提取3次,每次1.5h,所得结果最佳,对亚硝酸盐最大清除率可达90.79%,亚硝胺合成的阻断率最大达65.23%,分别是常规提取方法的4倍、1.5倍.

  16. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Do you have questions about the elections to the Staff Council, 2017 MERIT exercise, EVE and School, LD to IC exercise, CHIS, the Pension Fund… Come get informed and ask your questions at our public meetings. These public meetings are also an opportunity to get the more information on current issues. Benefit from this occasion to get the latest news and to discuss with the representatives of the statutory body that is the Staff Association!

  17. Publication Location, Press Level, Press Orientation, and Media Performance: A Content Analysis to Newspaper from Five Cities%媒体地域、媒体级别、媒体导向与专业主义媒介表现——基于全国五城市媒体的内容分析报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳

    2012-01-01

    Based on a content analysis to twelve dailies from five cities in 2009 and 2010, this study explores the media performance by media in different publication location, press level and press orientation, and tries to conclude an evaluation coding sheet on media performance in contemporary China.%通过对全国五所城市12家日报2009和2010年报道内容进行内容分析,本文考察了不同地域、不同级别和不同导向的媒体在媒介表现方面的差异,试图作出解释,并提出评估本土媒体专业主义表现的指标体系。

  18. A Comparative Study of Social Liability of Chinese and American Public Libraries Based on Network Content Analysis%中美公共图书馆社会责任的比较研究--基于网络内容分析法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2017-01-01

    Content analysis was performed on 20 public library websites to identify types of social responsibility, in-tended audience, area of presentation and manifestations from June 2014 to April 2015. Then focusing on these four areas to contrast between the U.S. and China, try to find gaps and analyze the causes in the paper.%文章以中美20个公共图书馆为研究对象,通过跟踪整理其10个月内网站内容的变化情况,从图书馆社会责任内容主题、传达对象、表现形式和实现方式四个方面比较分析了中美两国公共图书馆在承担和履行社会责任方面的差异。

  19. Abstracts of Main Contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    (10)Several Ponderations over Carbon Emission Reduction of Shanghai Ground Public Transport Pei Zhikang With practice of carbon emission reduction of Shanghai ground public transport, the paper expounds the importance of sustainable development of urban transport, especially, ground public transport and points out that the implementation of carbon emission reduction of ground public transport needs joint effects of the state, relevant government authorities, relevant enterprises and communities to set up resource-saving, environment-friendly society.

  20. Fully automated analysis of four tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke using two-dimensional online solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Bai, Ruoshi; Yi, Xiaoli; Yang, Zhendong; Liu, Xingyu; Zhou, Jun; Liang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A fully automated method for the detection of four tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS) has been developed. The new developed method is based on two-dimensional online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/LC-MS/MS). The two dimensional SPE was performed in the method utilizing two cartridges with different extraction mechanisms to cleanup disturbances of different polarity to minimize sample matrix effects on each analyte. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a UPLC C18 reversed phase analytical column. Under the optimum online SPE/LC-MS/MS conditions, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) were baseline separated with good peak shapes. This method appears to be the most sensitive method yet reported for determination of TSNAs in mainstream cigarette smoke. The limits of quantification for NNN, NNK, NAT and NAB reached the levels of 6.0, 1.0, 3.0 and 0.6 pg/cig, respectively, which were well below the lowest levels of TSNAs in MSS of current commercial cigarettes. The accuracy of the measurement of four TSNAs was from 92.8 to 107.3%. The relative standard deviations of intra-and inter-day analysis were less than 5.4% and 7.5%, respectively. The main advantages of the method developed are fairly high sensitivity, selectivity and accuracy of results, minimum sample pre-treatment, full automation, and high throughput. As a part of the validation procedure, the developed method was applied to evaluate TSNAs yields for 27 top-selling commercial cigarettes in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of alleles at the Yellow Burley (Yb) loci and nitrogen fertilization rate on nitrogen utilization efficiency and tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) formation in air-cured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramsey S; Parker, Robert G; Danehower, David A; Andres, Karen; Jack, Anne M; Whitley, D Scott; Bush, Lowell P

    2012-06-27

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) formation in tobacco is influenced by alkaloid levels and the availability of nitrosating agents. Tobacco types differ in their potential for TSNA accumulation due to genetic, agronomic, and curing factors. Highest TSNA concentrations are typically measured in burley tobaccos. One of the main genetic differences between burley and all other tobacco types is that this tobacco type is homozygous for recessive mutant alleles at the Yellow Burley 1 (Yb(1)) and Yellow Burley 2 (Yb(2)) loci. In addition, burley tobacco is typically fertilized at higher nitrogen (N) rates than most other tobacco types. This study utilized nearly isogenic lines (NILs) differing for the presence of dominant or recessive alleles at the Yb(1) and Yb(2) loci to investigate the potential influence of genes at these loci on TSNA accumulation. Three pairs of NILs were evaluated at three different nitrogen fertilization rates for alkaloid levels, nitrogen physiology measures, and TSNA accumulation after air-curing. As previously observed by others, positive correlations were observed between N application rates and TSNA accumulation. Recessive alleles at Yb(1) and Yb(2) were associated with increased alkaloid levels, reduced nitrogen use efficiency, reduced nitrogen utilization efficiency, and increased leaf nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N). Acting together, these factors contributed to significantly greater TSNA levels in genotypes possessing the recessive alleles at these two loci relative to those carrying the dominant alleles. The chlorophyll-deficient phenotype conferred by the recessive yb(1) and yb(2) alleles probably contributes in a substantial way to increase available NO(3)-N during curing and, consequently, increased potential for TSNA formation.

  2. [Public health education in Austria. An overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Günter; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2014-04-01

    The future challenges for the Austrian health care system require an increasing number of public health experts of different professions in all fields of public health. In this article the offer of public health education in Austrian universities and universities for applied sciences was searched based on the predominantly online available information on web platforms of the schools. Currently (2013), there are three postgraduate public health university courses and two public health doctoral programs in Austria. Additionally, 34 degree programmes could be identified, in which parts of public health are covered. But also in medical curricula at Austrian medical schools, public health contents have found their place. In Austria, there is already a multifaceted offer for public health education. However, to build an appropriate public health work force, capable to manage the public health challenges in all its dimensions in terms of health in all policies, this offer should still be intensified.

  3. Going public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem...... deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific...... conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand...

  4. Going public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem...... deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific...... conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand...

  5. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically......In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....

  6. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....... of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically...

  7. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  8. A Rhetoric of Public Theology: The Religious Rhetoric and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldzwig, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Identifies a rhetoric of public theology that is specifically targeted for mass audiences in an attempt to influence religious and secular publics on public policy. Argues that such a rhetoric differs markedly from that of civil religion and displays three characteristics: expedient simplicity, existential content, and action rituals. (JD)

  9. An assessment of information communication technology content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of information communication technology content, context and process dimensions in public health facilities in Machakos and Nairobi ... to lack of support from hospital top management team (χ 9.44, d.f.=4 and p=0.005).

  10. Public economics

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Poterba

    2005-01-01

    The International Handbook on Teaching and Learning Economics provides a comprehensive resource for instructors and researchers in economics, both new and experienced. This wide-ranging collection is designed to enhance student learning by helping economic educators learn more about course content, pedagogic techniques, and the scholarship of the teaching enterprise.

  11. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she ad

  12. Public Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, C. P.

    In this book effects of technological developments on world conditions are discussed on the basis of the author's public statements made between 1959-70. A total of seven pieces is presented under the headings: The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution, The Two Cultures: A Second Look, The Case of Leavis and the Serious Case, Science and…

  13. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  14. Streaming Virtual Reality Content

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ganainy, Tarek; Hefeeda, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The recent rise of interest in Virtual Reality (VR) came with the availability of commodity commercial VR prod- ucts, such as the Head Mounted Displays (HMD) created by Oculus and other vendors. To accelerate the user adoption of VR headsets, content providers should focus on producing high quality immersive content for these devices. Similarly, multimedia streaming service providers should enable the means to stream 360 VR content on their platforms. In this study, we try to cover different ...

  15. Content management systems (CMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Oriahi, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the three most common and widely used content management systems (CMS) used to power several millions of business websites on the internet. Since there are many other content managements systems online, this report provides some helpful guides on each of the three most used systems and the web design projects that each of them maybe most suitable. There are plenty of options when it comes to selecting a content management system for a development project and this the...

  16. Algorithms and Public Service Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Hutchinson, Jonathon

    2017-01-01

    When Public Service Media (PSM) organisations introduce algorithmic recommender systems to suggest media content to users, fundamental values of PSM are challenged. Beyond being confronted with ubiquitous computer ethics problems of causality and transparency, also the identity of PSM as curator...

  17. Scalable Content Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Krishna S, Jayant Dani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Immense growth in the volume of contents every day demands more scalable system to handle and overcome difficulties in capture, storage, transform, search, sharing and visualization of data, where the data can be a structured or unstructured data of any type. A system to manage the growing contents and overcome the issues and complexity faced using appropriate technologies would advantage over measurable qualities like flexibility, interoperability, customizability, security, auditability, quality, community support, options and cost of licensing. So architecting aContent Management System in terms of enterprise needs and a scalable solution to manage the huge data growth necessitates a Scalable Content Management System.

  18. 潮州菜常用三种调味植物提取液清除亚硝酸盐和阻断亚硝胺合成的研究%Study on Eliminating Sodium Nitrite and Blocking Nitrosamine Synthesis by Anthocyanin from Three Kinds of Conventional Seasoning Plants in Chaozhou Cuisine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燕如; 陈宜菲

    2014-01-01

    The study is under the condition of simulated gastric fluid in vitro (pH 3.0,37 ℃);the eliminating activities against sodium nitrite and blocking activities against the synthesis of nitrosamine from three extracts Herba Mentha Haplocalyx, Ocimum basilicum and Coriandrum sativum are determined by spectrophotometry.The results show that the extracts from three kinds of conventional seasoning plants have favorable activities both in eliminating against nitrite and in blocking against the synthesis of nitrosamine,the effect of which has positive correlation with the dosage of extracts.The eliminating and blocking capability vary in different seasoning plants.%在模拟人体胃液(pH 3.0、温度37℃)条件下,用分光光度法测定了薄荷叶、罗勒、香菜三种提取物对亚硝酸盐的清除率和对亚硝胺合成的阻断率。结果表明:三种调味植物提取物均显示了良好的清除亚硝酸盐及阻断亚硝胺合成的能力,且与提取液用量基本呈正相关性,但三种调味植物提取物的清除和阻断效果存在一定差异性。

  19. Research Overview of Formation Mechanism for Typical Nitrogenous Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs)-Nitrosamines in Drinking Water%饮用水典型含氮消毒副产物亚硝胺类的生成机制研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超

    2014-01-01

    Nitrosamines are a group of emerging disinfection by-products formed during chlorine-based and chloramine-based water treatment,which have caused great attention because of their strong toxicity. The studies mainly focus on the occurrence and formation mechanism of typical nitrogenous disinfection byproducts-nitrosamines (NAms)in drinking water. In the light of some shortcomings existing,main research fields in the future and problems to be solved are proposed.%亚硝胺类是饮用水消毒处理过程中产生的一类典型含氮消毒副产物,其强烈的“三致”毒性引起人们越来越多的关注。该文从浓度分布和生成机制两个方面对亚硝胺类进行系统的分析,并针对现有亚硝胺类研究的不足之处,提出了今后研究的主要方向和需解决的问题。

  20. How to use the public platform effectively delivering content school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张弟龙

    2014-01-01

    Based on the powerful communication function of wechat, this research discusses the possibility of using wechat to strengthen the education reform, and expounds the application to promote the education reform and accelerate the auxiliary education development from two aspects of connecting the family, school, society and al other various education channels and promoting teachers’ professional development.

  1. 12 CFR 563c.3 - Qualification of public accountant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification of public accountant. 563c.3... REQUIREMENTS Form and Content of Financial Statements § 563c.3 Qualification of public accountant. (See also 17 CFR 210.2-01.) The term “qualified public accountant” means a certified public accountant or...

  2. Public Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the role of sociology in society? How can - and should - sociology contribute with insights relevant and useful to the outside world? Is sociology attuned to accommodate the demands of the wider public and of surrounding society? Who benefits from the knowledge produced and provided...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...... - will be addressed in this book.   Sociology, as the self-proclaimed ‘the science of society', finds itself in an exceptional position within the scientific community in that it studies a universe it itself is part and parcel of. This means that sociology and sociologists are inextricably connected and linked...

  3. Scientific publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The necessary work for developing a scientific publication is sometimes underestimated and requires the effective participation of many players to obtain a result in good standard. Initially it depends upon the determination of the authors that decide to write the scientific article. Scientific writing is a very challenging and time consuming task, but at the same time essential for any scientist. A published scientific article is unquestionably one of the main indicators of scientific production, especially if published in a qualified scientific journal with highly qualified editorial committee and strict peer review procedure. By looking at evaluation criteria for scientific production of the several Thematic Scientific Committees of the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq it becomes clear publications in scientific journals that has certified quality is the most important item in the evaluation of a scientist production.

  4. Public opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, A

    2013-04-01

    This opinion-based article aims to highlight the worrying decline in support for dental public health as a specialty. Not only is this specialty important for its role in commissioning services, it is crucial for the identification of vulnerable groups in society and ensuring dental services are acceptable and assessable for these populations. Dental public health also addresses the social determinants of health in its approach, acknowledging the impact of these in perpetuating inequalities and looking for multisectoral approaches to their management. This article also looks at the lack of appreciation for these determinants in dental foundation training and how a change in the structure of the programme could both address this and the current shortage of places.

  5. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    MARS PENSIONS CONTRACT POLICY GENERAL INFORMATION   PUBLIC MEETINGS COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Monday 15 Oct. 2 pm Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Wednesday 17 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Thursday 18 Oct. 10 am Salle du Conseil/ Council Chamber 503-1-001 Meyrin Thursday 18 Oct. 2 pm Filtration Plant, 222-R-001(in English) Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2012 : lessons learned Pension Fund Capital preservation policy : what is it ? Contract policy LC2IC statistics SA proposal General information CVI 2013 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS)  

  6. Content-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  7. Branded content infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl RODRÍGUEZ-FERRÁNDIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  8. Content Analysis: Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others

    Content analyses of the depiction of aggression and images of reality on Canadian television were performed on 109 program tapes of top-rated Toronto programs. Content was coded in terms of global messages communicated, character portrayals, context and setting of the program, amount and nature of conflict portrayed, and detailed information on…

  9. Print advertising : Vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.H.H.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in rep

  10. Print advertising: vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in rep

  11. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  12. Content-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  13. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  14. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  15. How Public Is Public Administration? A Constitutional Approach of Publicness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeling, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Both in Public Administration and in practice, there is a loss of the concept of public. A view became dominant in which markets were superior to governments and public to private. Not only did the esteem of the public sphere diminish, but also its significance in our reasoning and teaching. It became less clear what the public sphere stood for.…

  16. How Public Is Public Administration? A Constitutional Approach of Publicness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeling, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Both in Public Administration and in practice, there is a loss of the concept of public. A view became dominant in which markets were superior to governments and public to private. Not only did the esteem of the public sphere diminish, but also its significance in our reasoning and teaching. It became less clear what the public sphere stood for.…

  17. Adventures in public data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharevitz Dan W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article contains the slides and transcript of a talk given by Dan Zaharevitz at the "Visions of a Semantic Molecular Future" symposium held at the University of Cambridge Department of Chemistry on 2011-01-19. A recording of the talk is available on the University Computing Service's Streaming Media Service archive at http://sms.cam.ac.uk/media/1095515 (unfortunately the first part of the recording was corrupted, so the talk appears to begin at slide 6, 'At a critical time'. We believe that Dan's message comes over extremely well in the textual transcript and that it would be poorer for serious editing. In addition we have added some explanations and references of some of the concepts in the slides and text. (Charlotte Bolton; Peter Murray-Rust, University of Cambridge Editorial preface The following paper is part of a series of publications which arose from a Symposium held at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics at the University of Cambridge to celebrate the lifetime achievements of Peter Murray-Rust. One of the motives of Peter's work was and is a better transport and preservation of data and information in scientific publications. In both respects the following publication is relevant: it is about public data and their representation, and the publication represents a non-standard experiment of transporting the content of the scientific presentation. As you will see, it consists of the original slides used by Dan Zaharevitz in his talk "Adventures in Public Data" at the Unilever Centre together with a diligent transcript of his speech. The transcribers have gone through great effort to preserve the original spirit of the talk by preserving colloquial language as it is used at such occasions. For reasons known to us, the original speaker was unable to submit the manuscript in a more conventional form. We, the Editors, have discussed in depth whether such a format is suitable for a scientific journal. We have eventually

  18. Adventures in public data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Dan W

    2011-10-14

    This article contains the slides and transcript of a talk given by Dan Zaharevitz at the "Visions of a Semantic Molecular Future" symposium held at the University of Cambridge Department of Chemistry on 2011-01-19. A recording of the talk is available on the University Computing Service's Streaming Media Service archive at http://sms.cam.ac.uk/media/1095515 (unfortunately the first part of the recording was corrupted, so the talk appears to begin at slide 6, 'At a critical time'). We believe that Dan's message comes over extremely well in the textual transcript and that it would be poorer for serious editing. In addition we have added some explanations and references of some of the concepts in the slides and text. (Charlotte Bolton; Peter Murray-Rust, University of Cambridge) EDITORIAL PREFACE: The following paper is part of a series of publications which arose from a Symposium held at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics at the University of Cambridge to celebrate the lifetime achievements of Peter Murray-Rust. One of the motives of Peter's work was and is a better transport and preservation of data and information in scientific publications. In both respects the following publication is relevant: it is about public data and their representation, and the publication represents a non-standard experiment of transporting the content of the scientific presentation. As you will see, it consists of the original slides used by Dan Zaharevitz in his talk "Adventures in Public Data" at the Unilever Centre together with a diligent transcript of his speech. The transcribers have gone through great effort to preserve the original spirit of the talk by preserving colloquial language as it is used at such occasions. For reasons known to us, the original speaker was unable to submit the manuscript in a more conventional form. We, the Editors, have discussed in depth whether such a format is suitable for a scientific journal. We have eventually decided to publish this

  19. Instrument content validation on nasogastric intubation skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Kelly da Silva Medeiros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to validate the content of an instrument on nasogastric intubation skills based on Pasquali's model of content validation. This was a methodological study conducted with 23 nursing teachers in public higher education institutions in Rio Grande do Norte. The Content Validation Index (CVI and Kappa Index was applied. In the overall evaluation, the instrument obtained a CVI with values above 0.75 with a total CVI of 0.95 and a total Kappa of 0.91. However, some changes were made on the instructional sequence requirements of the topics, and to vocabulary. The instrument proved to be reliable and trustworthy in facilitating nursing care quality and can be used for health services and educational institutions to assess skill levels of professionals and undergraduate students. However, the instrument requires additional stages for a more precise and specific content validation.

  20. The Influence of Authoritative Information upon the Content of Micro-blogging in Public Emergency -A Case Study on Liuzhou Cadmium Pollution Event%突发公共事件中权威信息对微博内容的影响研究——以柳州镉污染事件为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗潇潇; 何跃; 熊涛

    2012-01-01

    The authors gather micro-bloggings about Liuzhou cadmium pollution, and classify them according to their contents. The authors use GMDH algorithm to build models, and analyse the influence of the authoritative-information release on the trend of each type of micro-blogging. At last, the authors make an empirical study on Sina micro-blogging. The results show that with the releasing of authoritative information, the proportions of action-related and doubt-related micro-bloggings decrease correspondingly, while the proportions of emotion-related and opinion-related micro-bloggings are stabilized gradually. Therefore, faced with the public emergency, the government needs to make authoritative announcements in time, and set up an unimpeded communication channels to ensure the correct guidance of public opinion.%搜集突发公共事件柳州镉污染事件的相关微博,根据其内容进行分类。利用GMDH算法建立各类微博的模型,并分析权威信息的发布对微博内容发展趋势的影响。最后利用新浪微博做实证研究。研究结果表明:随权威信息的发布,行动类和疑问类微博的比例减少,观点类和情绪类微博趋于平稳。因而,政府在处理突发公共事件时,需及时发布权威信息并建立畅通的信息沟通渠道,以正确控制和引导舆论。

  1. Front Matter and Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The present study is primarily aimed at an audience of evolutionary biologists in the broad sense for Parts 1-3, as well as at scientists from other professional disciplines looking for new approaches to explore phenomena in nature. However, the content is in general not written as technical text or filled with equations that make it utterly incomprehensible for 'normal' people, although they would have to skip strictly professional biochemical and biological terms that are a constituent part of the evidence in a scientific sense. Therefore, large parts of Part 2 may also be enjoyed by a broader audience with little prior insight into evolutionary biology or science, when in search of explanations for the phenomena that we see in nature. Finally, Part 4 - with a view into Parts 1-3 - is meant for systems analysts and researchers striving to find a general systems theory. Parts 3 and 4 are the only parts that are not relevant for a general audience. A Note for the Reader Extensive use of references in scientific literature is generally perceived as evidence in favour of an author's statement when synthesizing findings in the literature on a given topic. At the same time, when applying citations of such literature one has to copy the text literally including printing errors, references and everything relevant, unless otherwise explicitly stated. Including such references in cited text often a) creates confusion because such references are not included in the reference list even if they appear in the text; and furthermore b) they tend to add an unnecessary cognitive burden on the reader. Therefore, references with cited text in the present publication have been replaced by the Italicized text 'ref' or 'refs', i.e. single or plural, depending on the number of references omitted in a given place. About the Author/Contributors The authorJBMcNis the initiatorsole contributor to the present study. JBMcN and her husband, Dr. Peter McNair, in close cooperation developed the

  2. Managing Public Accountability : How Public Managers Manage Public Accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillemans, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Accountability is of growing importance in contemporary governance. The academic literature on public accountability is fraught with concerned analyses, suggesting that accountability is a problematic issue for public managers. This article investigates how public managers experience accountability

  3. Teaching Art to Teens in Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford Barniskis, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    One of the hottest terms among public librarians today is "content creation," which involves stuff that library patrons make instead of simply use in a library context. Videos, music, fiction, paintings, 3D printed materials, websites--all these are made in public libraries, and will increase in popularity as more libraries shift from purveyors of…

  4. Enhancing Digital Information Access in Public Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Ayers, Kathleen; Liu, Yan Quan

    2006-01-01

    To explore the impact of public digital library resources on urban residents, to elucidate the current usage patterns of public digital library resources/services and levels of satisfaction with the resources/content in urban digital libraries and make recommendations as to steps that would improve service to this population.

  5. Public Opinion Poll Question Databases: An Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates five polling resource: iPOLL, Polling the Nations, Gallup Brain, Public Opinion Poll Question Database, and Polls and Surveys. Content was evaluated on disclosure standards from major polling organizations, scope on a model for public opinion polls, and presentation on a flow chart discussing search limitations and usability.

  6. Public-Key Encryption with Delegated Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibraimi, Luan; Nikova, Svetla; Hartel, Pieter; Jonker, Willem

    2011-01-01

    In public-key setting, Alice encrypts email with public key of Bob, so that only Bob will be able to learn contents of email. Consider scenario when computer of Alice is infected and unbeknown to Alice it also embeds malware into message. Bob's company, Carol, cannot scan his email for mali

  7. Public Libraries, Digital Literacy and Participatory Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In recent years public libraries have experimented with user-generated or community-contributed content through the interactive tools of Web 2.0. For some commentators this not just establishes a new relationship between libraries and their publics, but signals the end of information hegemony and an "expert paradigm". Such claims need to…

  8. Teaching Art to Teens in Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford Barniskis, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    One of the hottest terms among public librarians today is "content creation," which involves stuff that library patrons make instead of simply use in a library context. Videos, music, fiction, paintings, 3D printed materials, websites--all these are made in public libraries, and will increase in popularity as more libraries shift from purveyors of…

  9. Public Libraries, Digital Literacy and Participatory Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In recent years public libraries have experimented with user-generated or community-contributed content through the interactive tools of Web 2.0. For some commentators this not just establishes a new relationship between libraries and their publics, but signals the end of information hegemony and an "expert paradigm". Such claims need to be…

  10. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability. Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of categories and deductive application of categories, are worked out. The possibilities of computer programs in supporting those qualitative steps of analysis are shown and the possibilities and limits of the approach are discussed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002204

  11. Encryption for digital content

    CERN Document Server

    Kiayias, Aggelos

    2010-01-01

    Encryption for Digital Content is an area in cryptography that is widely used in commercial productions (e.g., Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs). This book provides a comprehensive mathematical treatment of combinatorial encryption techniques used in digital content distribution systems and related attack models. A complete description of broadcast encryption with various revocation and tracing functionalities is included. ""Encryption for Digital Content"" introduces the subset cover framework (currently used in AACS, Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs,) and tracking/revocation mechanisms in various attack models. Pirat

  12. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      MARS 2015 FIVE YEARLY REVIEW CONTRACT POLICY PENSION FUND GENERAL INFORMATION   COME AND BE INFORMED! PUBLIC MEETINGS Friday 3rd October at 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Friday 3rd October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Monday 6th October at 10 am Kjell Johnsen Auditorium, 30-7-018 Meyrin Monday 6th October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin  

  13. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Public meetings : Come and talk about your future employment conditions !   The Staff Association will come and present the results of our survey on the 2015 five-yearly review. Following the survey, the topics discussed, will be contract policy, recognition of merit (MARS), working time arrangements and family policy. After each meeting and around a cup of coffee or tea you will be able to continue the discussions. Do not hesitate to join us, the five-yearly review, it is with YOU!

  14. A public world without public relations?

    OpenAIRE

    Nayden, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    The term "public relations" (PR) has long gained currency as meaning the practice of producing a positive public image. This article argues that public relations should be released from the prison of "PR" and, instead, reconceptualised as relations which define the public realm much as economic relations define the economy. From this point of view, three main levels of public relations can be distinguished: (1) relations between public institutions, (2) relations between citizens and public i...

  15. A public world without public relations?:

    OpenAIRE

    Nayden, Nikolay

    2009-01-01

    The term "public relations" (PR) has long gained currency as meaning the practice of producing a positive public image. This article argues that public relations should be released from the prison of "PR" and, instead, reconceptualised as relations which define the public realm much as economic relations define the economy. From this point of view, three main levels of public relations can be distinguished: (1) relations between public institutions, (2) relations between citizens and public i...

  16. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention.

  17. A Critical Study of The Public English Test System (PETS) -From Its Text Content, Item Formats and Design Principles%全国公共英语等级考试的测试内容评论性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹鹏举

    2012-01-01

    Tiffs paper begins with a brief hterature review of language testing, which is separated into three pha- ses. The identification of the history of language testing assists in a better understanding of The Public English Test System (PETS) : its background, design principles, item formats, test content. Finally, the author appraises the merits and demerils of PETS in the light of language testing theory.%本文共分三部分,第一部分简要回顾语言测试的文献资料;第二部分就全国公共英语等级考试的背景、设计原则、题型、测试内容详细阐述。作者在文章的最后一部分一语言测试理论为依据评价了当前的全国公共英语等级考试。

  18. Learning Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache JURUBESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the evolution of e-Learning and related concepts and tools and its connection with other concepts such as Knowledge Management, Human Resources Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Information Technology. The paper also distinguished Learning Content Management Systems from Learning Management Systems and Content Management Systems used for general web-based content. The newest Learning Content Management System, very expensive and yet very little implemented is one of the best tools that helps us to cope with the realities of the 21st Century in what learning concerns. The debates over how beneficial one or another system is for an organization, can be driven by costs involved, efficiency envisaged, and availability of the product on the market.

  19. Fannish form and content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TWC Editor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue showcases a variety of investigations into a myriad of platforms, featuring several essays that switch the focus from content to form and illustrate the importance of a range of different fan engagements.

  20. Public Outreach With Smart-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M.; Foing, B.; Heather, D.; Marini, A.; Lumb, R.; Racca, G.

    SMART-1 will be the first European Space Agency mission to the Moon. Therefore it is possible to foresee that any public outreach activity related to the mission can have a big impact in the media and public in general. This expectation for a large audience carries with it the large responsibility to create a program where is maximized the quality, both didactic and ludic, of the public outreach products, in order to keep the interest in the mission for a longer period. In order to assure the good quality of these products it is important that even when planning the mission some of the targets are selected for its rich outreach content. This presentation will focus on some of the public outreach activities envisaged for SMART-1 as well as the selection of the most suitable targets for that end.

  1. Scalable Content Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Krishna S, Jayant Dani

    2013-01-01

    Immense growth in the volume of contents every day demands more scalable system to handle and overcome difficulties in capture, storage, transform, search, sharing and visualization of data, where the data can be a structured or unstructured data of any type. A system to manage the growing contents and overcome the issues and complexity faced using appropriate technologies would advantage over measurable qualities like flexibility, interoperability, customizabi...

  2. Enhancing public health law communication linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Ross D

    2008-01-01

    Although interest in the field of public health law has dramatically increased over the past two decades, there remain significant challenges in communicating and sharing public health law-related knowledge. Access to quality information, which may assist in a public health department's efforts to protect the public's health, welfare, and safety, varies widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and interjurisdictional communication remains at best a patchwork quilt with many holes. What follows is an analysis of several approaches the Public Health Law Association or other public health law-related organizations might undertake to serve as a conduit for the identification, gathering, and dissemination of extant public health law information, as well as the development of new public health law-related content, with a particular focus on the use of electronic means for such efforts.

  3. Cobra: A Content-Based Video Retrieval System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.

    2002-01-01

    An increasing number of large publicly available video libraries results in a demand for techniques that can manipulate the video data based on content. In this paper, we present a content-based video retrieval system called Cobra. The system supports automatic extraction and retrieval of high-level

  4. 42 CFR 84.41 - Quality control plans; contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality control plans; contents. 84.41 Section 84... AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.41 Quality control plans; contents. (a) Each quality control plan shall contain provisions for...

  5. 36 CFR 223.228 - Contents of advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of advertisement... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.228 Contents of advertisement. The Forest Service shall include the following information in...

  6. 36 CFR 223.82 - Contents of advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of advertisement... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.82 Contents of advertisement. (a) A timber sale advertisement shall include the following...

  7. Focus on Literacy: Effective Content Teachers for the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Jan; Watson, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an excerpt from the most recent ACEI publication. It describes the characteristics of effective middle level teachers and the characteristics of effective content-area instruction which makes use of reading and writing as often as possible. The use of literacy processes in content disciplines can lead to improved…

  8. 34 CFR 5.83 - Contents of request for review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of request for review. 5.83 Section 5.83 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC PURSUANT TO PUB. L. 90-23 (Eff. until 7-14-10) Administrative Review § 5.83 Contents of request for...

  9. Rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of nine N-nitrosamines in drinking water by UPLC-MS/MS%超高效液相色谱串联质谱快速测定饮用水中9种N-亚硝胺的新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗茜; 王东红; 王炳一; 张子秋; 王子健

    2011-01-01

    N-Nitrosomines, a group of probable human carcinogens, has been detected as a disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water.To comprehensively investigate the occurrence of possible nitrosamines in drinking water, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique was developed to detect both thermally stable and unstable total nine nitrosamines.With optimized liquid chromatography column, mobile phases, and triple quadrupole conditions, UPLC-MS/MS enabled the determination of ng/L levels of nine nitrosamines.Isotope-labeled N-nitrosodimethylamine-d6 (NDMA-d6) was used as the surrogate standard for determining recovery, and N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine-d14 (NDPA-d14) was used as the internal standard for quantification.The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for NDMA were estimated to be 0.1 and 1 ng/L, NDPA were 2.5 and 10 ng/L,and other seven nitrosamines were 0.5 and 2.0 ng/L, respectively, which were less than maximum permissible concentration by US EPA.The occurrence and distribution of N-nitrosamines in different treatment processes (raw water, deposition and finished water) in drinking water treatment plants with chloramines disinfectant were determined using UPLC-MS/MS with direct injection method.The three nitrosamines with carcinogen risk, NDMA is found in finished water with concentration 3.5 ng/L, NMEA and NDEA were lower than LOQ.This indicated N-nitrosamines in drinking water that could not lead to the health risk for urban residents.%N-亚硝胺是潜在的人类致癌物,是近年来关注的一类饮用水消毒副产物,同时也是环境分析研究的热点.本文建立了超高效液相色谱(UPLC)串联质谱快速测定饮用水中9种N-亚硝胺的新方法,讨论了色谱柱和流动相对分离9种N-亚硝胺的影响,优化了多级反应质谱(MRM,MS/MS)条件.二甲基亚硝胺-d6为贮存和回收率内标,亚硝基二丙胺-d14为定量内标,UPLC-MS/MS能够直接快速检测饮

  10. 36 CFR 223.229 - Contents of prospectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of prospectus. 223.229 Section 223.229 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids §...

  11. 36 CFR 223.83 - Contents of prospectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of prospectus. 223.83 Section 223.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids §...

  12. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, I am pleased to invite you to a public meeting which will be held on Thursday 11 November 2010 at 2:30 p.m., in the Main Auditorium (welcome coffee from 2 p.m.) In this meeting Sigurd Lettow, Director for Administration and General Infrastructure will present the Management’s proposals towards restoring full funding of the Pension Fund. The meeting will follow discussions which took place with the Staff Association, at the Standing Concertation Committee (CCP) of 1 November 2010 and will be held with the Members States, at the Tripartite Employment Conditions Forum (TREF) of 4 November 2010. You will be able to attend this presentation in the Main Auditorium or via the webcast. The Management will also be available to reply to your questions on this subject. Best regards, Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  13. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    MARS SURVEY 5YR 2015 GENERAL INFORMATION ELECTIONS 2013   COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Tuesday 1st Oct. 10 am Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Tuesday 1st Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin Friday 4 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Monday 7 Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Tuesday 8 Oct. 10 am Amphi Kjell Johnsen, 30-7-018 Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2013: lessons learned Survey: five-yearly review, give us your opinion General information CVI 2014 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS) Elections 2013 Renewal of the Staff Council 2014 - 2015  

  14. Public Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    on the entrepreneurship–society relationship. SE, as all entrepreneurship practices, operates by social and economic forces (limiting ourselves to those here), and generates social and economic outcomes (amongst others). Its second half, however, dominates the concept of SE, and our analysis seek to remedy this imbalance......In this paper we want to affirm the desiring-social-change that we find in practices presently represented by theorists and policy-makers as examples of ‘social entrepreneurship’ (SE). We do this as an attempt to intensify the presence of the social and sociality in today's discourse...... by focusing on the social productivity of entrepreneurship, on entrepreneurship desiring social change. We suggest ‘public entrepreneurship’ might grasp this as a more balanced concept that will also support a more precise analysis of the entrepreneurship–society relationship....

  15. Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  16. MVC for content management on the cloud

    OpenAIRE

    McGruder, Crystal A.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cloud computing portrays a new model for providing IT services over the Internet. In cloud computing, resources are accessed from the Internet through web-based tools. Although cloud computing offers reduced cost, increased storage, high automation, flexibility, mobility, and the ability of IT to shift focus, there are other concerns such as the management, organization and structure of content on the cloud that large organizations sh...

  17. Content Analysis in Systems Engineering Acquisition Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    quantitative and qualitative methods exist to (1) capture or generate data needed for a particular analysis, (2) reduce the data, (3) evaluate the data to...presented in this report was supported by the Acquisition Research Program of the Graduate School of Business & Public Policy at the Naval...analysis in systems engineering technical evaluation processes. Content analysis is a qualitative data analysis methodology used to discover

  18. Vgi Based Urban Public Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymurian, F.; Alesheikh, A. A.; Alimohammadi, A.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in information technology have made geographic information system (GIS) a powerful and affordable tool for planning and decision making in various fields such as the public transportation. These technologies such as the social network (e.g. face-book, twitter), new technologies such as ubiquitous, mobile, Web 2.0, geo tagging and RFID can help to create better shapes and forms of the communication and geo-collaboration for public. By using these, user-generated content and spatial information can be easily and quickly produced and shared in a dynamic, interactive, multimedia and distributed environment. The concept of volunteered geographic information (VGI) has been introduced by the transaction from consultation to content interaction. VGI describes any type of content that has a geographic element and has been voluntarily collected. In other words, ordinary users; without a professional training, can participate in generating and using the spatial information. As a result, the gaps between the producers and users of GIS and spatial information, has been considerably reduced. Public transportation is one of the most important elements of the transportation system. Rapid growth of the cities has resulted in high increase of demand for the public transportation which created new challenges. Improvement of the desirability of public transportation can increase its efficiency, reduction of the environmental pollution (such as air and noise pollution), traffic problems, and fuel consumption. Hence, development of an urban public transportation system which is responsive to citizen's need and motivates them to use public transportation system is one of the most important objectives and issues that urban planners and designers are concerned about. One solution to achieve this, goal is to develop public transportation system by assistance from the system users. According to approach, users are considered as the valuable resources, because people who are

  19. Content-aware objective video quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Jaramillo, Benhur; Niño-Castañeda, Jorge; Platiša, Ljiljana; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Since the end-user of video-based systems is often a human observer, prediction of user-perceived video quality (PVQ) is an important task for increasing the user satisfaction. Despite the large variety of objective video quality measures (VQMs), their lack of generalizability remains a problem. This is mainly due to the strong dependency between PVQ and video content. Although this problem is well known, few existing VQMs directly account for the influence of video content on PVQ. Recently, we proposed a method to predict PVQ by introducing relevant video content features in the computation of video distortion measures. The method is based on analyzing the level of spatiotemporal activity in the video and using those as parameters of the anthropomorphic video distortion models. We focus on the experimental evaluation of the proposed methodology based on a total of five public databases, four different objective VQMs, and 105 content related indexes. Additionally, relying on the proposed method, we introduce an approach for selecting the levels of video distortions for the purpose of subjective quality assessment studies. Our results suggest that when adequately combined with content related indexes, even very simple distortion measures (e.g., peak signal to noise ratio) are able to achieve high performance, i.e., high correlation between the VQM and the PVQ. In particular, we have found that by incorporating video content features, it is possible to increase the performance of the VQM by up to 20% relative to its noncontent-aware baseline.

  20. Loser Generated Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Mørk

    2008-01-01

    , is that the Internet functions as a double–edged sword; the infrastructure does foster democracy, participation, joy, creativity and sometimes creates zones of piracy. But, at the same time, it has become evident how this same infrastructure also enables companies easily to piggyback on user generated content......In this article [ 1 ] some of the critical aspects of Web 2.0 are mapped in relation to labor and the production of user generated content. For many years the Internet was considered an apt technology for subversion of capitalism by the Italian post–Marxists. What we have witnessed, however...

  1. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  2. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Last Monday at 9 a.m. the Council Chamber was full, with several people standing, for the public meeting of the Staff Association. Simultaneously, many of our colleagues followed the presentations in the Amphitheatre in Prévessin. We would like to thank all of you for the interest you have shown and for your feedback. In the introduction we explained how the Staff Association represents the staff in its discussions with Management and Member States, and how the staff itself defined, by its participation in the 2013 staff survey, the priority assigned to various points related to the employment conditions. The position of the Staff Association regarding the new contract policy, to be implemented as of 31 March 2015 after approval by Council, was stated. Then, in the framework of the 2015 five-yearly review, the general approach that we would like to see for the new career structure, was explained. Concerning diversity, based on what we know about the situation in other international organiza...

  3. AN INVESTIGATION OF TEACHERS’ PEDAGOGICAL SKILLS AND CONTENT KNOWLEDGE IN A CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Nor Rizan Tengku Mohamad Maasum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advocates of the content-based approach believed that a language can be learnt effectively when it is the medium of instruction rather than just a subject. Integrating English and content as part of instruction has become one of the cornerstones of second language pedagogy. Researchers claimed that there are many benefits of integrating English and content instruction. Among the benefits are the increase in students’ interest with content themes, meaningful input and understanding. In 2003, the Malaysian Ministry of Education introduced the teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English for Year One, Form One and Lower Six Form in all government public schools. This paper describes the challenges faced by teachers when they are required to teach content subjects such as science and mathematics in English. The focus of the paper is on the teachers’ pedagogical skills and content knowldge which comprises subject matter content, pedagogical approach, classroom management, use of resources, assessment, preparation of teaching materials, managing students, teachers’ compensatory communication strategies, use of first language and teachers’ perspectives of teaching content subjects in English. Data were obtained from a self-report questionnaire administered to 495 secondary school teachers in West Malaysia. Results from the study provide implications for school administrators in making decisions in assignment of capable teachers to teach the various levels of classes. Suggestions for teacher self-development and life-long learning efforts are also provided.

  4. On the integration of public law jurisprudence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shuhong

    2006-01-01

    After two to three hundred years of development,modern public laws have become more and more important,mature and integrated especially since the 20th century.Traditionally,the dispersive and overlapping public law researches were grounded on the sectional public laws like constitutional law,administrative law,criminal law,procedural law,international public law,etc.Nevertheless,with all-around emergence of public law,the traditional research method can no longer adapt to the development needs of the modern public law.Therefore,it is quite necessary for us to create a kind of moderate unified public law between the laws and the sectional public laws,so as to do comprehensive,integrated and systematic researches on various sectional public laws.Based on the indepth argumentation about the necessity of developing unified public laws,this paper further puts forward that,to discuss an all-encompassing way about the main problems of creating the unified public laws and expect to fill the gap with it,the unified public law should define its study objectives mainly focused on the contents of integrated public law criteria,common public law features and general public law rules and so on;form its theoretical basis on the line of the relations between public power and the citizen privilege;establish its category structure found on the concept of public power and the derivative core and basic categories;and build up the disciplinary system based on the systematic integrity of the public law research results.

  5. Data Content Protection for Virtual Libraries Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai DOINEA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents aspects of digital content protection in virtual library systems. The legislation aspects are presented to better emphasize the need of new security mechanisms. Integrated library systems architecture is presented with focus on their main purpose, manipulating and rendering digital content to end-users. The cultural heritage stored in such systems is an important asset that needs to be protected against malicious manipulation. The characteristics of a smart virtual library, supported by an integrated library system, are analyzed and a security model is proposed for implementation, based on its particularities. The model aims to be an interface between the interactions of anonymous users with the Online Public Access Catalog of a virtual library that assures the protection of digital content. Conclusions are drawn to better support the idea of cultural persistence by the use of Information Systems.

  6. Astronomical Content in Rongorongo Tablet Keiti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal

    2011-01-01

    Th e fi eld of rongorongo research: the study of Easter Island’s native script is in a peculiar state at the moment. While relative progress has been made in structural and statistical analysis in the last decades, at the level of both single glyphs as well as entire texts, little to no advancement...... has been achieved in the actual decipherment. To shed new light on rongorongo research, a hypothesis regarding the contents of tablet Keiti, one of the 25 obtained artifacts, is proposed. Th e content, as well as the meaning, of all but one of these 25 rongorongo texts is still unknown....... In this publication, an interpretation for the recto side of tablet Keiti is presented. It is argued that the tablet contains astronomical observations or instructions regarding the Rapa Nui lunar calendar, and is similar in content to the only other rongorongo text whose function has been partially ascertained...

  7. Astronomical Content in Rongorongo Tablet Keiti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal

    2011-01-01

    Th e fi eld of rongorongo research: the study of Easter Island’s native script is in a peculiar state at the moment. While relative progress has been made in structural and statistical analysis in the last decades, at the level of both single glyphs as well as entire texts, little to no advancement...... has been achieved in the actual decipherment. To shed new light on rongorongo research, a hypothesis regarding the contents of tablet Keiti, one of the 25 obtained artifacts, is proposed. Th e content, as well as the meaning, of all but one of these 25 rongorongo texts is still unknown....... In this publication, an interpretation for the recto side of tablet Keiti is presented. It is argued that the tablet contains astronomical observations or instructions regarding the Rapa Nui lunar calendar, and is similar in content to the only other rongorongo text whose function has been partially ascertained...

  8. PUBLIC RELATIONS AS AN INFORMATION PROCESS PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TKACH L. M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. If public relations as a phenomenon of information management are examined, we deal with the question of knowledge content and nature of relationship of PR with environment, ability to manage the perception and attitude of people to events in the environment; ensure priority of information over other resources. Goal. To investigate the concept of "public relations" of foreign and domestic experts; consider the typology of the public and the "laws" of public opinion; define the basic principles according to which relations with public should be built, and to identify PR activities as a kind of social communication. Conclusions. Public relations on the basis of advanced information and communication technologies create fundamentally new opportunities for information control and influence on public consciousness.

  9. The European Public on Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarta, Ancuta-Gabriela

    This study explorers the European public on social media by discussing the case of communicative interactions taking place on the official Facebook page of the European Parliament. Based on the theoretical framework conceptualizing the public and the public sphere on social network sites, the study...... examines the European social media public from two perspectives. The first is a top-down, institutional perspective of European Parliament, based on a case-study approach to the way this European institution constructs and addresses the public through its social media communication. The second is a bottom......-up perspective of the public of social media users, informed by a content analysis of Facebook comments and a discourse analysis of live chat interactions with Members of the European Parliament. Results confirm a discursive potential of the Facebook public of users. In the case of the Facebook comment threads...

  10. Tourist-created Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between tourists' user-generated content on the web and destination branding, as well as to discuss the online strategies used by destination management organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The research adopts an explorato...

  11. Where's the Content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Will

    2006-01-01

    Although teachers focus on style, fluency, tone, and correct grammar in writing, they rarely emphasize the importance of content. Both the National Commission on Writing in America's Schools and Colleges and the NAEP seem to favor emotional and personal writing, at least at the high school level. Judging from their guidelines, both the SAT and the…

  12. Content Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Jeff; Stenstrom, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a guide in acquiring content management system. They conducted a vendor survey that covers four areas: (1) general information about the product (including standards supported); (2) administration of the product; (3) functionality; and (4) contact information for readers who want to know more. A list of product…

  13. Contents & Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Does Globalization Widen or Narrow the Income Inequality in China?Knowledge Composition, Emigration and Economic Growth,China's Status in Division of Labor in the World: A Multinational Analysis based on the Whole and Domestic Technological Contents of Exports

  14. Table of contents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. S. Nyombo Luboya

    C. Drying with salt results in a nutritionally and organoleptically good product, ... studies are recommended to assess whether there is variation in nutrient and ... Though nutritious, SPL have been considered a poor man's salad [2,4]. ... The vegetables were mixed every minute and a small amount .... Iron content was much.

  15. Mathematics: Content and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2009-01-01

    The debate has gone on for some time in terms of which is more salient for the teacher to be well versed in, mathematical content versus methods and approaches in teaching. Both are salient. They cannot be separated from each other. The mathematics teacher must indeed have broad, in-depth knowledge of subject matter as well as in teaching and…

  16. Integrating Language and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmeyer, Jon, Ed.; Barduhn, Susan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The definition of "English language classroom" is changing. When students have the opportunity to learn content and language at the same time, disciplinary boundaries overlap. Teachers are rethinking how they design courses, plan lessons, assess students, and collaborate with colleagues to support student learning and facilitate their…

  17. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  18. Contents & Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of Electroplated Nickel- Phosphorus/Nanometer Silicon Carbide Composite Coating;Effect of Curing Temperature on Corrosion Resistance of Sodium Silicate Conversion Antirust Coating;Effect of Silicon Content on Solidified Structure and Corrosion Resistance of Hot - Dipped Zinc - 40% Aluminum Alloy Coating

  19. CCD: Efficient Customized Content Dissemination in Distributed Publish/Subscribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Hojjat; Hore, Bijit; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    In this paper, we propose a new content-based publish/subscribe (pub/sub) framework that enables a pub/sub system to accommodate richer content formats including multimedia publications with image and video content. The pub/sub system besides being responsible for matching and routing the published content, is also responsible for converting the content into the suitable (target) format for each subscriber. Content conversion is achieved through a set of content adaptation operators (e.g., image transcoder, document translator, etc.) at different nodes in the overlay network. We study algorithms for placement of such operators in the pub/sub broker overlay in order to minimize the communication and computation resource consumption. Our experimental results show that careful placement of these operators in pub/sub overlay network can lead to significant cost reduction.

  20. From Public Relations to Corporate Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    -win solutions supported by the general public. While existing research suggests that an important function of public relations is to create a perception of legitimacy and that the hope of economic and commercial public diplomacy is to create a perception of attractiveness among the public in foreign countries...

  1. Institutionalising of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, R

    2014-01-01

    Though public health situation in Nepal is under-developed, the public health education and workforce has not been prioritised. Nepal should institutionalise public health education by means of accrediting public health courses, registration of public health graduates in a data bank and increasing job opportunities for public health graduates in various institutions at government sector.

  2. The inhibitory effect of vinegar on dimethyl nitrosamine induced esophagus cancer in rat%食醋对二甲基亚硝胺诱导的大鼠食管癌的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯继申; 孙光蕊; 丛秀云; 辛国华; 梁宗英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the inhibition effect of vinegar on dimethyl nitrosamine(NDMA)induced rat esophagus cancer. Meth-ods Eighty SD rats were divided into two groups randomly. 10 mg/ kg of NDMA was subcutaneously injected once a week in both groups of rats to induce esophagus cancer. The rats in group B received vinegar - containing food and water instead of conventional water and food in group A. After 24 weeks,the rats were sacrificed,esophageal tissue was obtained for pathological examination. The incidences of esophageal cancer in two groups were compared and analyzed statistically. Results In group A,of the 34 live rats,32 had esophageal cancer(94. 12% ). In group B,of the 38 live rats,28 had esophageal cancer(73. 68% ). The incidence of esophageal cancer in group B was significantly lower than group A( P﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion The vinegar have certain inhibitory effect on esophageal cancer induced by NDMA in SD rat.%目的:应用食醋对二甲基亚硝胺(NDMA)诱发大鼠食管癌动物模型进行干预,观察大鼠食管癌患病率,研究食醋对食管癌的抑制作用。方法随机将80只 SD 大鼠平均分成两组。Ⅰ组:普通饲料、普通饮水饲养,每周一次NDMA 皮下注射,10 mg/ kg;Ⅱ组:含醋饲料、含醋饮水饲养,每周一次 NDMA 皮下注射,10 mg/ kg。24周后,解剖各组存活大鼠,取食管组织,常规染色切片后行病理组织学观察,记录两组实验鼠食管癌发病数据。以各组实验鼠食管癌发病率数据为对比参数,对数据进行统计学分析。结果Ⅰ组存活34只大鼠中有32只罹患食管癌,患病率为94.12%。Ⅱ组存活38只实验鼠中有28只患食管癌,患病率为73.68%。Ⅱ组大鼠食管癌患病率明显低于Ⅰ组,差异有显著性( P﹤0.05)。结论食醋对 NDMA 诱导的 SD 大鼠食管癌有一定的抑制作用。

  3. US Department of Energy environmental management advisory board public meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    Contents of this publication include: list of participants; March 14, 1994--opening of public meeting and subcommittee reports, and public comment session; March 15, 1994--presentation by Thomas P. Grumbly, assistant secretary for environmental management, presentations by senior environmental management officials, and committee business.

  4. Elite Polarization and Public Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua; Mullinix, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Elite polarization has reshaped American politics and is an increasingly salient aspect of news coverage within the United States. As a consequence, a burgeoning body of research attempts to unravel the effects of elite polarization on the mass public. However, we know very little about how...... polarization is communicated to the public by news media. We report the results of one of the first content analyses to delve into the nature of news coverage of elite polarization. We show that such coverage is predominantly critical of polarization. Moreover, we show that unlike coverage of politics focused...... on individual politicians, coverage of elite polarization principally frames partisan divisions as rooted in the values of the parties rather than strategic concerns. We build on these novel findings with two survey experiments exploring the influence of these features of polarization news coverage on public...

  5. When public service drama travels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Waade, Anne Marit

    This paper will investigate how and to what extent the Danish public service broadcaster DR employs external funding for its drama productions. This investigation is carried out in order to discuss the schisms involved when a public service broadcaster – whose traditional obligations arguably...... such as canned programme export revenues, co-productions, pre-sale and format sale. We therefore believe it is relevant to explore how and to what extent DR makes use of external funding for its drama productions in order to discuss potential advantages and disadvantages in doing so for a public service...... pertain to the national sphere – becomes a player in the international market for television content and, as a consequence, partly reliant on international funding through either co-productions, canned programming export revenues, pre-sale or format sale. DR’s drama productions such as The Killing...

  6. Secretly political: Civic engagement in online publics in Kazakhstan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Valtysson, Bjarki

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of networked forms of communication has captured the attention of media and scholars alike. We have never had quite as many resources for communication as we have today, and such communicative potential has implications for social change. In this article we consider public spheres...... spheres defined through engagement and participation of diverse publics. We consider a range of publics that might emerge, such as mundane-publics, issue-publics, and counter-publics and how these differ in their content and purpose. While the majority of work on networked publics has been situated...... at times result in substantial social change, despite the inability to hold open political discussions online...

  7. Towards Multimodal Content Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Multimodal interfaces, combining the use of speech, graphics, gestures, and facial expressions in input and output, promise to provide new possibilities to deal with information in more effective and efficient ways, supporting for instance: - the understanding of possibly imprecise, partial or ambiguous multimodal input; - the generation of coordinated, cohesive, and coherent multimodal presentations; - the management of multimodal interaction (e.g., task completion, adapting the interface, error prevention) by representing and exploiting models of the user, the domain, the task, the interactive context, and the media (e.g. text, audio, video). The present document is intended to support the discussion on multimodal content representation, its possible objectives and basic constraints, and how the definition of a generic representation framework for multimodal content representation may be approached. It takes into account the results of the Dagstuhl workshop, in particular those of the informal working group...

  8. Content Based Video Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Patel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Content based video retrieval is an approach for facilitating the searching and browsing of large image collections over World Wide Web. In this approach, video analysis is conducted on low level visual properties extracted from video frame. We believed that in order to create an effective video retrieval system, visual perception must be taken into account. We conjectured that a technique which employs multiple features for indexing and retrieval would be more effective in the discrimination and search tasks of videos. In order to validate this claim, content based indexing and retrieval systems were implemented using color histogram, various texture features and other approaches. Videos were stored in Oracle 9i Database and a user study measured correctness of response.

  9. Web Content Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Hidalgo, José María; Puertas Sanz, Enrique; Carrero García, Francisco Manuel; Buenaga Rodríguez, Manuel de

    2009-01-01

    Across the years, Internet has evolved from an academic network to a truly communication medium, reaching impressive levels of audience and becoming a billionaire business. Many of our working, studying, and entertainment activities are nowadays overwhelmingly limited if we get disconnected from the net of networks. And of course, with the use comes abuse. The World Wide Web features a wide variety of content that are harmful for children or just inappropriate in the workplace. Web filtering ...

  10. Twitter content classification

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper delivers a new Twitter content classification framework based sixteen existing Twitter studies and a grounded theory analysis of a personal Twitter history. It expands the existing understanding of Twitter as a multifunction tool for personal, profession, commercial and phatic communications with a split level classification scheme that offers broad categorization and specific sub categories for deeper insight into the real world application of the service.

  11. Towards Network-Failure-Tolerant Content Delivery for Web Content

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wen; Wang, Zhi; Sun, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    Popularly used to distribute a variety of multimedia content items in today Internet, HTTP-based web content delivery still suffers from various content delivery failures. Hindered by the expensive deployment cost, the conventional CDN can not deploy as many edge servers as possible to successfully deliver content items to all users under these delivery failures. In this paper, we propose a joint CDN and peer-assisted web content delivery framework to address the delivery failure problem. Dif...

  12. Content Documents Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  13. Determination of Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  14. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  15. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  16. Performance evaluation of the UV/H2O2 process on selected nitrogenous organic compounds: reductions of organic contents vs. corresponding C-, N-DBPs formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Chia-Yang; Wang, Gen-Shuh

    2011-10-01

    The presence of various organic contaminants in water sources is of concern due to their direct threats to human health and potential to react with disinfectants to form carcinogenic byproducts including trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids and nitrosamines in finished water. This study applied both medium-pressure and low-pressure ultraviolet light coupled with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) to evaluate its efficacy for degradation of selected nitrogenous organic compounds and corresponding disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Six organic compounds were chosen as target precursors based on their nitrogen contents and molecular structures. The results showed that higher oxidation capacity resulted in better reduction of organic matters and DBP formation potentials (DBPFPs). However, insufficient contact time and oxidant doses could lead to a rise of DBPFPs in the early stages of UV/H2O2 reactions. A greater percentage removal was achieved for organic carbon than organic nitrogen after UV/H2O2 treatment, especially for compounds with complicated structure such as diltiazem. During the UV/H2O2 treatment, the intermediate products include tertiary amine, dimethyl amine (DMA) or DMA-like structures, which are N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors after chlorination or chloramination. Furthermore, it was observed that using dissolved organic nitrogen and DMA to predict NDMAFP could lead to biased conclusions because of the complex nature of nitrogenous matters in aqueous environments.

  17. User innovation in public service broadcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis; Tadayoni, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to understand how public service media can encourage media entrepreneurship in the society to enrich user innovations as a source of ideas, products, contents, talent and creativity. The assumption is that media entrepreneurs turn users into sources of external creativity...... and develop user innovations into professional content. This study follows a qualitative approach with a document study of Denmark's public service broadcast and two interviews. Findings indicate that the commitment to quality and professional content prevents managers of PSBs from outsourcing...... their production to media entrepreneurs, but they trust large media companies as external producers. This research contributes to the field by proposing that public service media can foster media entrepreneurship in a society indirectly and by creating demand for external sources of creativity. Large media...

  18. Content Marketing Practices in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Suuronen, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to draw attention to increasingly important business phenomenon of content marketing. This paper defines content marketing, identifies its key elements and phases, and explores content marketing practices. The theorethical part is based on Pam Didner's 4P model that describes the stages of content marketing cycle: plan, produce, promote and perfect. The empirical part of the study is based on semi-structured interviews of seasoned content marketing professionals t...

  19. Public Relations in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    of the Excellence Project in Public Relations and thus applies a research instrument similar to that used in other international scholarly investigations in public relations. The population comprises civil servants working in information and communication activities for Italian public administrations. Findings...... relations. Research limitations: Due to a lack of information on the exact number of public communication officers working in the Italian public administration and a too small number of respondents in one of the respondent groups, it is not possible to draw inferences or general conclusions from...... knowledge on strategic public relations and public communication by offering a specific analysis of the strategic management of information and communication programs in the Italian public administration....

  20. Analysis on the Content and Characteristics of the Public Higher Education Institution Performance Evaluation System in the United States ~-Taking Tennessee State as An Example%美国公立高校绩效评价体系内容与特点分析——以田纳西州为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春春; 张男星

    2012-01-01

    Performance evaluation of the public higher education institutions is a key element in the state accountability system in the U.S. Based on the 2010~2015 Performance Funding policy of Tennessee, this paper analyzes the contents of the performance evaluation system which is a core of the Performance Funding policy. The characteristics of this performance evaluation system are as follow: it is periodic ,with good planning and obvious emphasis. It focuses on education quality guarantee, and particularly on the concerns of undergraduates learning outcomes, the quality of academic program and students' satisfaction. It makes use of the current and influential assessment agency's investigation outcomes or test outcomes as evaluation evidence. It emphasizes the quality of the evaluation itself. However, this kind of performance evaluation also has its own shortcomings.%美国公立高校绩效评价是美国州高等教育绩效问责制度中的重要环节。本文对田纳西州2010年~2015年绩效资助政策中的绩效评价体系进行分析,认为其具有以下特点:是一种自我评价基础之上的第三方评价;强调计划性和周期性,目标明确,重点突出;聚焦于教育质量保障,尤其关注本科生的学习成效、学科专业项目的质量和学生的满意度;利用美国国内现有的、影响较大的各类测评机构的测试结果或调查结果作为评价依据;注重对绩效评价本身的质量保障。

  1. Explicit Content Image Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Marcial Basilio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a system gives for explicit content image detection based on Computer VisionAlgorithms, pattern recognition and FTK software Explicit Image Detection. In the first stage, HSV colormodel is used for the input images for the purpose of discriminating elements that are not human skinimages. Then the image is filtered using skin detection. The output image only contains the areas of whichit is composed. The results show a comparison between the proposed system and the company softwareAccess Data called Forensic Toolkit 3.1 Explicit Image Detection isperformed.

  2. Explicit Content Image Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Marcial Basilio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a system gives for explicit content image detection based on Computer Vision Algorithms, pattern recognition and FTK software Explicit Image Detection. In the first stage, HSV color model is used for the input images for the purpose of discriminating elements that are not human skin images. Then the image is filtered using skin detection. The output image only contains the areas of which it is composed. The results show a comparison between the proposed system and the company software Access Data called Forensic Toolkit 3.1 Explicit Image Detection isperformed.

  3. Personalized professional content recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  4. Thoughts About Health Policy Content in Baccalaureate Nursing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Ashley; Adams, Jeffrey M; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2016-10-01

    We describe a framework used to analyze health policy content in baccalaureate nursing program courses that combines the conceptual model for nursing and health policy and the Adams influence model to account for knowledge and skills needed for health policy work. Our analysis of health policy content in courses in one baccalaureate nursing program focused on what policies were emphasized and how educational content supported the development of personal influence. The analysis revealed course content focused on public sources of health policies and lack of overt course content about policies from organizational and professional sources. Additionally, we identified little course content about the development of personal influence skills except for communication and message articulation components. As the nursing profession continues to build influence in the policy arena, educators must continue to prepare future nurses for such work. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. AN INVESTIGATION OF TEACHERS’ PEDAGOGICAL SKILLS AND CONTENT KNOWLEDGE IN A CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Nor Rizan Tengku Mohamad Maasum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Advocates of the content-based approach believed that a language can be learnt effectively when it is the medium of instruction rather than just a subject.  Integrating English and content as part of instruction has become one of the cornerstones of second language pedagogy. Researchers claimed that there are many benefits of integrating English and content instruction.  Among the benefits are the increase in students’ interest with content themes, meaningful input and understanding. In 2003, the Malaysian Ministry of Education introduced the teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English for Year One, Form One and Lower Six Form in all government public schools. This paper describes the challenges faced by teachers when they are required to teach content subjects such as science and mathematics in English.  The focus of the paper is on the teachers’ pedagogical skills  and content knowldge which comprises subject matter content, pedagogical approach, classroom management, use of resources, assessment, preparation of teaching materials, managing students, teachers’ compensatory communication strategies, use of first language and teachers’ perspectives of teaching content subjects in English. Data were obtained from a self-report questionnaire administered to 495 secondary school teachers in West Malaysia. Results from the study provide implications for school administrators in making decisions in assignment of  capable teachers to teach the various levels of classes. Suggestions for teacher self-development and life-long learning efforts are also provided.   Key words: Content-based instruction, ESL instruction, second language, first language and second language pedagogy

  6. Who Watches the Watchmen? Internet Content Rating Systems and Privatised Censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Yaman

    1998-01-01

    Content-control proposals have been found to be more intrusive and restrictive than supporters of rating systems and filtering software claim. These systems often exceed claims in types of content restricted, numbers and types of people prevented from reaching content, technical changes required to public electronic networks, and burdens on…

  7. Evaluation of the Bilingual Curriculum Content (BCC) Pilot Project: A Three Year Study. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothfarb, Sylvia H.; And Others

    A three-year longitudinal study of bilingual curriculum content (BCC) was initiated in the 1983-84 school year to assess alternative strategies for teaching curriculum content to Limited English Proficient (LEP) students in Dade County (Florida) Public Schools. The BCC strategy (in which content subjects are taught bilingually) was contrasted with…

  8. Who Watches the Watchmen? Internet Content Rating Systems and Privatised Censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Yaman

    1998-01-01

    Content-control proposals have been found to be more intrusive and restrictive than supporters of rating systems and filtering software claim. These systems often exceed claims in types of content restricted, numbers and types of people prevented from reaching content, technical changes required to public electronic networks, and burdens on…

  9. The living publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    data allows readers to perform direct calculations of the electron density (using X-rays and electrons as probes) or the nuclear density (using neutrons as probe) on which the molecular models are directly based. This current community practice is described in our first article. There are various ways that these data and tools can be used to further analyze the molecules that have been crystallized. Notably, once a set of results is announced via the publication, the research community can start to interact directly with the data and models. This gives the community the opportunity not only to read about the structure, but to examine it in detail, and even generate subsequent improved models. These improved models could, in principle, be archived along with the original interpretation of the data and can represent a continuously improving set of interpretations of a set of diffraction data. The models could improve both by correction of errors in the original interpretation and by the use of new representations of molecules in crystal structures that more accurately represent the contents of a crystal. These possible developments are described in our second article. A current, significant, thrust for the IUCr is whether it would be advantageous for the crystallographic community to require, rather than only encourage, the archiving of the raw (unprocessed) diffraction data images measured from a crystal, a fibre or a solution. This issue is being evaluated in detail by an IUCr Working Group (see http://forums.iucr.org). Such archived raw data would be linked to and from any associated publications. The archiving of raw diffraction data could allow as yet undeveloped processing methods to have access to the originally measured data. The debate within the community about this much larger proposed archiving effort revolves around the issue of 'cost versus benefit'. Costs can be minimized by preserving the raw data in local repositories, either at centralized

  10. Preparing the Public for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; Smith, Denise A.; Lawton, Brandon L.; Jirdeh, Hussein; Meinke, Bonnie K.

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. STScI and the Office of Public Outreach are committed to bringing awareness of the technology, the excitement, and the future science potential of this great observatory to the public, to educators and students, and to the scientific community, prior to its 2018 launch. The challenges in ensuring the high profile of JWST (understanding the infrared, the vast distance to the telescope's final position, and the unfamiliar science territory) requires us to lay the proper background. We currently engage the full range of the public and scientific communities using a variety of high impact, memorable initiatives, in combination with modern technologies to extend reach, linking the science goals of Webb to the ongoing discoveries being made by Hubble. We have injected Webb-specific content into ongoing E/PO programs: for example, simulated scientifically inspired but aesthetic JWST scenes, illustrating the differences between JWST and previous missions; partnering with high impact science communicators such as MinutePhysics to produce timely and concise content; educational materials in vast networks of schools through products like the Star Witness News.

  11. ARES Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Galindo, Charles; Graff, Paige; Willis, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The ARES Directorate education team is charged with translating the work of ARES scientists into content that can be used in formal and informal K-12 education settings and assisting with public outreach. This is accomplished through local efforts and national partnerships. Local efforts include partnerships with universities, school districts, museums, and the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) to share the content and excitement of space science research. Sharing astromaterials and exploration science with the public is an essential part of the Directorate's work. As a small enclave of physical scientists at a NASA Center that otherwise emphasizes human space operations and engineering, the ARES staff is frequently called upon by the JSC Public Affairs and Education offices to provide presentations and interviews. Scientists and staff actively volunteer with the JSC Speaker's Bureau, Digital Learning Network, and National Engineers Week programs as well as at Space Center Houston activities and events. The education team also participates in many JSC educator and student workshops, including the Pre-Service Teacher Institute and the Texas Aerospace Scholars program, with workshop presentations, speakers, and printed materials.

  12. Interactive 3D multimedia content

    CERN Document Server

    Cellary, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The book describes recent research results in the areas of modelling, creation, management and presentation of interactive 3D multimedia content. The book describes the current state of the art in the field and identifies the most important research and design issues. Consecutive chapters address these issues. These are: database modelling of 3D content, security in 3D environments, describing interactivity of content, searching content, visualization of search results, modelling mixed reality content, and efficient creation of interactive 3D content. Each chapter is illustrated with example a

  13. Public Relations in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    of the Excellence Project in Public Relations and thus applies a research instrument similar to that used in other international scholarly investigations in public relations. The population comprises civil servants working in information and communication activities for Italian public administrations. Findings...... relations. Research limitations: Due to a lack of information on the exact number of public communication officers working in the Italian public administration and a too small number of respondents in one of the respondent groups, it is not possible to draw inferences or general conclusions from...... the findings. The study also suffers from the limits of a quantitative research approach, which provides less elaborate accounts of public communication officers’ perceptions of the strategic role of communication in the public sector. Originality/value of paper: This study contributes to the existing...

  14. Secretly political: Civic engagement in online publics in Kazakhstan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Valtysson, Bjarki

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of networked forms of communication has captured the attention of media and scholars alike. We have never had quite as many resources for communication as we have today, and such communicative potential has implications for social change. In this article we consider public spheres...... that emerge through communication in the digital realm, paying atten- tion to how networked publics operate within such spheres. We present results from a study of a popular local online discussion forum in Kazakhstan. Steeped in Habermas’s idea of the public sphere, this study focuses on cultural public...... spheres defined through engagement and participation of diverse publics. We consider a range of publics that might emerge, such as mundane-publics, issue-publics, and counter-publics and how these differ in their content and purpose. While the majority of work on networked publics has been situated...

  15. The Role of Content Aggregators In GEOValue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. J.; Breyer, S.; Hogeweg, M.; Foust, J.; Jordan, L.; Plunkett, G.

    2016-12-01

    Data (aka content) in the form of numbers or layers, and transformed into information by way of maps, images, graphs, charts, tables, even stories, are foundational for a myriad of decision-makers. Recent advances in information technology, as well as civil remote sensing of the Earth, are rapidly allowing us to advance beyond mere static data collection and archiving, further enabling information awareness and understanding, and leading us towards knowledge and better decision making. However, such volumes, velocities, and varieties of data streams also bring with them serious dilemmas with regard to effective organization, cataloging, and easy access. This is where the role of aggregator comes in, with their provision of the necessary sustainability and reliability of information via proven, well-engineered platforms, all with the necessary interoperability and openness as guaranteed through the adoption of established standards. Information technology (IT) giants such as Google, Facebook, IBM and Apple are well known for aggregating just about every aspect of life in modern society, from our music to our mood swings. A use case of the Environmental Systems Research Institute (aka Esri) is presented as a geospatial aggregator. It has over the years, compiled, assembled and produced a carefully curated library of public content into a global "Living Atlas of the World," organized into different themes such as Earth observation, transportation, demographics, natural hazards, ecological land units, elevation, and more. Among a myriad of decision scenarios with this content to be presented is the tracking of sea ice in the Arctic, estimating potential impact to shipping lanes or coastal infrastructure, and forecasting future conditions. Esri as the main aggregator of Living Atlas content continues to welcome not only contributors who will publish new content to be included in this global Atlas, but fellow curators who will assist in reviewing, organizing, and even

  16. Public Service Broadcasting as a Public Good: Challenges in the Digital Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Andrijašević

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a summary of the most important standpoints of the economic debate about public service broadcasting as a public good, and its provision in both the analogue and digital age of broadcasting. Due to frequent technological developments, which heavily influence the broadcasting sector, this debate, initiated in 1958 by American economist Paul A. Samuelson, has continued up to the present day. It also reflects on the concept of PSM as a public good in a globalizing, multi-platform, usergenerated content infused media landscape. Finally, it ponders the future developments of PSM as a public good in the digital era of broadcasting.

  17. Image Content Engine (ICE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brase, J M

    2007-03-26

    The Image Content Engine (ICE) is being developed to provide cueing assistance to human image analysts faced with increasingly large and intractable amounts of image data. The ICE architecture includes user configurable feature extraction pipelines which produce intermediate feature vector and match surface files which can then be accessed by interactive relational queries. Application of the feature extraction algorithms to large collections of images may be extremely time consuming and is launched as a batch job on a Linux cluster. The query interface accesses only the intermediate files and returns candidate hits nearly instantaneously. Queries may be posed for individual objects or collections. The query interface prompts the user for feedback, and applies relevance feedback algorithms to revise the feature vector weighting and focus on relevant search results. Examples of feature extraction and both model-based and search-by-example queries are presented.

  18. Personalized professional content recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  19. Digital Content Licensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    Copyright is territorial. But is the Internet? The Internet has changed the way we consume copyright-protected material. Yet, territorial segmentation of online content is a reality in the 28 EU Member States. Licensing and access practices do not reflect the digital reality, in which end...... the Digital Single Market (DSM). National and European authorities and legislators have created a host of – often industry- and sometimes business model-specific – initiatives, proposals and rules in order to facilitate the DSM and reconcile it with the territorial nature of copyright and its business...... practices; in part accompanying, refining or codifying industry-led solutions. In this – despite the novel nature of Internet uses and business models – traditional stress field, competition law and policy and copyright overlap and interfere. This thesis probes the different regulatory (legislative and non...

  20. Multimedia content analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ohm, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This textbook covers the theoretical backgrounds and practical aspects of image, video and audio feature expression, e.g., color, texture, edge, shape, salient point and area, motion, 3D structure, audio/sound in time, frequency and cepstral domains, structure and melody. Up-to-date algorithms for estimation, search, classification and compact expression of feature data are described in detail. Concepts of signal decomposition (such as segmentation, source tracking and separation), as well as composition, mixing, effects, and rendering, are discussed. Numerous figures and examples help to illustrate the aspects covered. The book was developed on the basis of a graduate-level university course, and most chapters are supplemented by problem-solving exercises. The book is also a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of multimedia content analysis systems in industry. .

  1. Public Value Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, lotte bøgh; Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    Further integration of the public value literature with other strands of literature within Public Administration necessitates a more specific classification of public values. This paper applies a typology linked to organizational design principles, because this is useful for empirical public...... administration studies. Based on an existing typology of modes of governance, we develop a classification and test it empirically, using survey data from a study of the values of 501 public managers. We distinguish between seven value dimensions (the public at large, rule abidance, societal interests, budget...... the integration between the public value literature and other parts of the Public Administration discipline....

  2. The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Ashley A.; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2010-01-01

    The shift toward online communication in all realms, from print newspapers to broadcast television, has implications for how the general public consumes information about nanotechnology. The goal of this study is threefold: to investigate who is using online sources for information and news about science and nanotechnology, to examine what the general public is searching for online with regards to nanotechnology, and to analyze what they find in online content of nanotechnology. Using survey ...

  3. Applying Content Analysis to Web-based Content

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Inhwa; Kuljis, Jasna

    2010-01-01

    Using Content Analysis onWeb-based content, in particular the content available onWeb 2.0 sites, is investigated. The relative strengths and limitations of the method are described. To illustrate how content analysis may be used, we provide a brief overview of a case study that investigates cultural impacts on the use of design features with regard to self-disclosure on the blogs of South Korean and United Kingdom’s users. In this study we took a standard approach to conducting the content an...

  4. Approaching Academic Digital Content Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital content management in higher education. Highlights include learning objects that make content more modular so it can be used in other courses or by other institutions; and a system at Ohio State University for content management that includes the creation of learner profiles. (LRW)

  5. Applied public-key steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Pierre; Furon, Teddy; Duhamel, Pierre

    2002-04-01

    We consider the problem of hiding information in a steganographic framework, i.e. embedding a binary message within an apparently innocuous content, in order to establish a suspicion-free digital communication channel. The adversary is passive as no intentional attack is foreseen. The only threat is that she discovers the presence of a hidden communication. The main goal of this article is to find if the Scalar Costa Scheme, a recently published embedding method exploiting side information at the encoder, is suitable for that framework. We justify its use assessing its security level with respect to the Cachin's criterion. We derive a public-key stego-system following the ideas of R. Anderson and P. Petitcolas. This technique is eventually applied to PCM audio contents. Experimental performances are detailed in terms of bit-rate and Kullback-Leibler distance.

  6. Public health, public trust and lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynia, Matthew K

    2007-06-01

    Each year, infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) leads to millions of abnormal Pap smears and thousands of cases of cervical cancer in the US. Throughout the developing world, where Pap smears are less common, HPV is a leading cause of cancer death among women. So when the international pharmaceutical giant Merck developed a vaccine that could prevent infection with several key strains of HPV, the public health community was anxious to celebrate a major advance. But then marketing and lobbying got in the way. Merck chose to pursue an aggressive lobbying campaign, trying to make its new vaccine mandatory for young girls. The campaign stoked public mistrust about how vaccines come to be mandated, and now it's not just Merck's public image that has taken a hit. The public health community has also been affected. What is the lesson to be learned from this story? Public health communication relies on public trust.

  7. Media Makes for Public Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockman, S.

    2013-12-01

    Learning from media: what studies of media projects can help us understand about informing the public about science issues. Saul Rockman, has studied a variety of television and radio projects funded by NSF, NASA, and foundations. He will highlight findings that inform strategies to increase learning about science content and issues through the media, as well as inform policy on communicating complex scientific ideas to citizens of all ages. Rockman has gathered evidence from science media ranging from Bill Nye The Science Guy to BURN, An Energy Journal.Media for Children vs. Adults

  8. Online Public Deliberation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Internet discussion platforms in China provide a hugely interesting and relevant source for understanding dynamics of online discussions in a unique context. Adopting the theoretical lens of public deliberation, this paper investigates the evolution of patterns of similar-minded and different......-minded interactions over time on a Chinese online discussion forum. We analyse the content and reply networks of 18,000+ messages on four highly debated topics on the Bulletin Board System (BBS) platform Tianya. Findings provide nuanced evidence to the phenomenon of increased network homophily over time, mitigated...

  9. Lessons in Public Touchscreen Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas K. Orphanides

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In October 2010, the NCSU Libraries debuted its first public touchscreen information kiosk, designed to provide on-demand access to useful and commonly consulted real-time displays of library information. This article presents a description of the hardware and software development process, as well as the rationale behind a variety of design and implementation decisions. This article also provides an analysis of usage of the touchscreen since its debut, including a numerical analysis of most popular content areas, and a heatmap-based analysis of user interaction patterns with the kiosk's interface components.

  10. The Public Health Practitioner of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-08-01

    The requisite capacities and capabilities of the public health practitioner of the future are being driven by multiple forces of change, including public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, globalized travel, and the repercussions of the Affordable Care Act. We describe five critical capacities and capabilities that public health practitioners can build on to successfully prepare for and respond to these forces of change: systems thinking and systems methods, communication capacities, an entrepreneurial orientation, transformational ethics, and policy analysis and response. Equipping the public health practitioner with the requisite capabilities and capacities will require new content and methods for those in public health academia, as well as a recommitment to lifelong learning on the part of the practitioner, within an increasingly uncertain and polarized political environment.

  11. Web-Based Media Contents Editor for UCC Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoksoo

    The purpose of this research is to "design web-based media contents editor for establishing UCC(User Created Contents)-based websites." The web-based editor features user-oriented interfaces and increased convenience, significantly different from previous off-line editors. It allows users to edit media contents online and can be effectively used for online promotion activities of enterprises and organizations. In addition to development of the editor, the research aims to support the entry of enterprises and public agencies to the online market by combining the technology with various UCC items.

  12. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  13. Public private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility. Des

  14. Public private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility.

  15. Public Library Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    This study reviews trends in public library finance; examines recent political, economic, and technological changes; and assesses the impact of these changes on public library services. A history of the public library in America is presented, as well as an analysis of the principles of economics and public finance which reveals that current…

  16. Public Relations and Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Daniel D.

    1987-01-01

    Urges community colleges to adopt pro-active public relations strategies. Examines the role of the public information officer in such areas as coordination of public relations and marketing activities, relations with media, and the development of a comprehensive public relations plan. (AYC)

  17. Public private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility. Des

  18. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJRED Editorial

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES PAGEPassive Design of Buildings for Extreme Weather EnvironmentS.N. Al-Zubaidy, S. Tokbolat, R. Tokpatayeva 1-11 Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource SubstitutionK.J. Sreekanth, S. Jayaraj, N. Sudarsan 13-18 Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi KenyaMary Njenga, A Yonemitsu, N Karanjaa, M Iiyama, J Kithinji, M Dubbeling C Sundberge, R R Jamnadass 19-29 A Novel Design of Multi-Chambered Biomass BatteryK. Sudhakar, R. Ananthakrishnan, A. Goyal, H.K. Darji 31-34 Power Quality Improvement Wind Energy System Using Cascaded Multilevel InverterJ.S. Sathiyanarayanan, A. S. Kumar 35-43 Solar PV Lighting and Studying after Sunset: Analysis of Micro-benefits in Off-grid Rural GhanaGeorge Y. Obeng 45-51 Innovative Green Technology for Sustainable Industrial Estate DevelopmentR. Hadiwijoyo, P Purwanto, Sudharto P Hadi 53-58 Empowering Distributed Solar PV Energy For Malaysian Rural Housing: Towards Energy Security And Equitability Of Rural CommunitiesN.A. Ahmad, H. Byrd 59-68

  19. Using Social Media to Communicate with the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    These procedures establish the required steps for using social media intended for external use to communicate with the public. External use refers to EPA content on an Extranet (password protected site) or the Internet ,on EPAor on third party sites.

  20. Content, Clarity and Charisma

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    The winning recipe of FameLab is all in the three Cs that are written on the evaluation chart of the judges. If you are a young researcher and dream of communicating your science to the public in a TV-like setting, challenge yourself with the FameLab golden rules and give an amazing three-minute speech at the next FameLab competition in any of the participating countries.   Fergus McAuliffe during the 2013 FameLab final. Last week, the Cheltenham Science Festival hosted the 2013 FameLab final. Participants from 19 countries – the winners of the national heats – gave amazing speeches in front of a large  live audience and an even greater online audience following the webcast. And the winner was… Fergus McAuliffe from Ireland! Fergus’ research focuses on the use of willow trees for sustainable wastewater treatment. His fellow contestants were all university and PhD students involved in a variety of scientific fields, from medicine to particle ...

  1. Twitter and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Catherine; Wurtz, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Twitter can serve as a powerful communication modality to both "push" and "pull" public health data; each user is a potential public health sensor and actor. However, in 2012, only 8% of local health departments had Twitter accounts. We outline how Twitter works, describe how to access public tweets for public health surveillance purposes, review the literature on Twitter's current and potential role supporting public health's essential services, summarize Twitter's limitations, and make recommendations for health department use.

  2. Vliv public relations na česká média po roce 1989

    OpenAIRE

    Střelcová, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    (EN) Diploma thesis "Constraints of Public Relations on Czech Media after 1989"deals with one crucial aspect of journalism which is the influence of various interest groups on the content of the media by public relations. It concerns with the topic from the point of view of professional journalists as media content producers and attempts to find out what mechanisms are driving the Czech media system in regards to public relations. The thesis examines shortly the history of public relations, b...

  3. Reframing Public Education as a Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese-Germain, Bernie

    2013-01-01

    In his 1847 "Report on a System of Public Elementary Instruction for Upper Canada", Egerton Ryerson stated that public education was created in Canada to ensure that youth were prepared for their "appropriate duties and employments of life … as persons of business, and also as members of the civil community in which they live."…

  4. Public Schools and the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2003-01-01

    Essay addresses three questions: What purposes should schools serve and who should determine those purposes? Who should set performance goals for schools? Does school choice comport schooling mission to serve the public interest? Argues for need to be more disciplined and explicit in determining the public interest that schools serve and how that…

  5. From networked publics to issue publics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    As an increasing part of everyday life becomes connected with the web in many areas of the globe, the question of how the web mediates political processes becomes still more urgent. Several scholars have started to address this question by thinking about the web in terms of a public space...... that the complex connectivity of the web puts user privacy at risk and enables the enclosure of public debate in virtual echo chambers. Our first argument is that these concerns are united by a set assumptions coming from liberal political philosophy that are rarely made explicit. As a second contribution......, this paper points towards an alternative way to think about publics by proposing a pragmatist reorientation of the public/private distinction in web science, away from seeing two spheres that needs to be kept separate, towards seeing the public and the private as something that is continuously connected...

  6. A Content Analysis of Cognitive Health Promotion in Popular Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Price, Anna E.

    2011-01-01

    Health behaviors, particularly physical activity, may promote cognitive health. The public agenda for health behaviors is influenced by popular media. We analyzed the cognitive health content of 20 United States magazines, examining every page of every 2006-2007 issue of the highest circulating magazines for general audiences, women, men, African…

  7. Content Management Middleware for the Support of Distributed Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalapatas, Hariklia; Stav, John B.; Kalantzis, Christos

    2004-01-01

    eCMS is a web-based federated content management system for the support of distributed teaching based on an open, distributed middleware architecture for the publication, discovery, retrieval, and integration of educational material. The infrastructure supports the management of both standalone material and structured courses, as well as the…

  8. TechTrends 2010-2015: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Eric

    2017-01-01

    This study is a content analysis of articles published within the journal "TechTrends" from 2000 to 2015. The study reveals that the publication "TechTrends" has increased the overall number of peer reviewed original papers over the last 6 years. The author describes the proportion of these original papers per volume and…

  9. Publication of the bulletin

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2007-01-01

    The table below lists the 2008 publication dates for the paper version of the Bulletin and the corresponding deadlines for the submission of announcements. Please note that all announcements must be submitted by 12.00 midday on Tuesdays at the latest. Bulletin publication 2008 Bulletin N° 4-5 Publication: Monday 21 january Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 15 January Bulletin N° 6-7 Publication: Monday 4 february Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 29 January Bulletin N° 8-9 Publication: Monday 18 february Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 12 February Bulletin N° 10-11 Publication: Monday 3 march Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 26 February Bulletin N° 12-13 Publication: Monday 17 march Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 11 March Bulletin N° 14-15 Publication: Monday 31 march Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 25 March Bulletin N° 16-17 Publication: Monday 14 april Submission deadline for...

  10. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Tin (II Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.75-81 75-81 Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Prima Astuti Handayani, Rochmadi Rochmadi, Suryo Purwono, Arief Budiman   Utilization of Iles-Iles and Sorghum Starch for Bioethanol Production DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.83-89 83-89 Kusmiyati Kusmiyati, Agus Sulistiyono   Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.91-97 91-97 I.K.G. Wirawan, I.N.G. Wardana,        Rudy Soenoko, Slamet Wahyudi   Castor Seed from Melkasa Agricultural Research Centre, East Showa, Ethiopia and it’s biodiesel performance in Four Stroke Diesel Engine DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3. 3.2.99-105 99-105 Tesfahun Tegegne Akanawa, Haimanot Gebrehiwot Moges, Ramesh Babu, Daniel Bisrat   Economic feasibility of large scale PV water pumping applications utilizing real field data for a case study in Jordan DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.107-117 107-117 Ibrahim Odeh   Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.119-123 119-123 Md. Hamidul Islam, Md. Mosharraf Hossain,Md. Abdul Momin   Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.125-131 125-131 Debasish Padhee, Hifjur Raheman   The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.133-143 133-143 Widya Fatriasari, Wasrin Syafii, Nyoman J Wistara, Khaswar Syamsu, Bambang Prasetya   Influence of the Determination Methods of K and C Parameters on the Ability of Weibull Distribution to Suitably Estimate Wind Potential and Electric Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.145-154 145-154 Ruben M. Mouangue, Myrin Y. Kazet, Alexis Kuitche, Jean-Marie Ndjaka    

  11. List of Article Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Section

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES Premixed combustion of coconut oil in a hele-shaw cell DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.155-160 155-160 Hadi Saroso, I.N.G. Wardana, Rudy Soenoko, Nurkholis Hamidi   Analysing the potential of retrofitting ultra-low heat loss triple vacuum glazed windows to an existing UK solid wall dwelling DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.161-174 161-174 Saim Memon   Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.175-183 175-183 Bardi Murachman, Dicky Pranantyo, Eddie Sandjaya Putra   Thermal effects investigation on electrical properties of silicon solar cells treated by laser irradiation DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.184-187 184-187 Ali Pourakbar Saffar, Bahman Deldadeh Barani   Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperatur and Molar Ratio DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.188-192 188-192 Yeti Widyawati, Ani Suryani, Muhammad Romli, Sukardi Sukardi   Incorporating Root Crops under Agro-Forestry as the Newly Potential Source of Food, Feed and Renewable Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.193-206 193-206 Yudi Widodo, St. A. Rahayuningsih, Nasir Saleh, Sri Wahyuningsih   Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.207-216 207-216 Indradip Mitra, Kaushal Chhatbar, Ashvini Kumar, Godugunur Giridhar, Ramdhan Vashistha, Richard Meyer, Marko Schwandt   Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.217-227 217-227 A. Ghafoor, A. Munir   Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.228-235 228-235 Hifjur Raheman, Debasish Padhee    

  12. Transgenic and mutation-based suppression of a berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBL) gene family reduces alkaloid content in field-grown tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramsey S; Lopez, Harry O; Bowen, Steve W; Andres, Karen R; Steede, William T; Dewey, Ralph E

    2015-01-01

    Motivation exists to develop tobacco cultivars with reduced nicotine content for the purpose of facilitating compliance with expected tobacco product regulations that could mandate the lowering of nicotine levels per se, or the reduction of carcinogenic alkaloid-derived tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). A berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBL) gene family was recently characterized for N. tabacum and found to catalyze one of the final steps in pyridine alkaloid synthesis for this species. Because this gene family acts downstream in the nicotine biosynthetic pathway, it may represent an attractive target for genetic strategies with the objective of reducing alkaloid content in field-grown tobacco. In this research, we produced transgenic doubled haploid lines of tobacco cultivar K326 carrying an RNAi construct designed to reduce expression of the BBL gene family. Field-grown transgenic lines carrying functional RNAi constructs exhibited average cured leaf nicotine levels of 0.684%, in comparison to 2.454% for the untransformed control. Since numerous barriers would need to be overcome to commercialize transgenic tobacco cultivars, we subsequently pursued a mutation breeding approach to identify EMS-induced mutations in the three most highly expressed isoforms of the BBL gene family. Field evaluation of individuals possessing different homozygous combinations of truncation mutations in BBLa, BBLb, and BBLc indicated that a range of alkaloid phenotypes could be produced, with the triple homozygous knockout genotype exhibiting greater than a 13-fold reduction in percent total alkaloids. The novel source of genetic variability described here may be useful in future tobacco breeding for varied alkaloid levels.

  13. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  14. Content Distribution for Telecom Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Falchuk

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of digital content is a key revenue opportunity for telecommunications carriers. As media content moves from analog and physical media-based distribution to digital on-line distribution, a great opportunity exists for carriers to claim their role in the media value chain and grow revenue by enhancing their broadband “all you can eat” high speed Internet access offer to incorporate delivery of a variety of paid content. By offering a distributed peer to peer content delivery capability with authentication, personalization and payment functions, carriers can gain a larger portion of the revenue paid for content both within and beyond their traditional service domains. This paper describes an approach to digital content distribution that leverages existing Intelligent Network infrastructure that many carriers already possess, as well as Web Services.

  15. The living publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    data allows readers to perform direct calculations of the electron density (using X-rays and electrons as probes) or the nuclear density (using neutrons as probe) on which the molecular models are directly based. This current community practice is described in our first article. There are various ways that these data and tools can be used to further analyze the molecules that have been crystallized. Notably, once a set of results is announced via the publication, the research community can start to interact directly with the data and models. This gives the community the opportunity not only to read about the structure, but to examine it in detail, and even generate subsequent improved models. These improved models could, in principle, be archived along with the original interpretation of the data and can represent a continuously improving set of interpretations of a set of diffraction data. The models could improve both by correction of errors in the original interpretation and by the use of new representations of molecules in crystal structures that more accurately represent the contents of a crystal. These possible developments are described in our second article. A current, significant, thrust for the IUCr is whether it would be advantageous for the crystallographic community to require, rather than only encourage, the archiving of the raw (unprocessed) diffraction data images measured from a crystal, a fibre or a solution. This issue is being evaluated in detail by an IUCr Working Group (see http://forums.iucr.org). Such archived raw data would be linked to and from any associated publications. The archiving of raw diffraction data could allow as yet undeveloped processing methods to have access to the originally measured data. The debate within the community about this much larger proposed archiving effort revolves around the issue of 'cost versus benefit'. Costs can be minimized by preserving the raw data in local repositories, either at centralized

  16. Content of teachers' stereotypes about adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourse on 'problematic behavior' of the young in adolescence period is often present in lay, media, professional and scientific public. In this research, we performed empirical testing of the psychological concept of 'storm and stress', which is manifested by stereotypes about adolescents as rebels. The goal was to establish whether teachers hold stereotypes about younger adolescents as a social group and what the content of the stereotype is. Research participants were 193 teachers teaching the seventh grade in ten Belgrade primary schools. Factor analysis method established the presence of several factors, which reflect the psychological content and meaning of teachers' stereotypes about younger adolescents. The results of our research point out: (a that stereotypes of teachers about younger adolescents stand in partial correspondence with the content of a widely distributed concept of 'storm and stress'; (b that this concept is mostly loaded with a negative perception of pupils on the part of teachers and (c that teachers less often perceive pupils through the prism of some positive qualities. That is, teachers think that these positive qualities are not 'typical' qualities of adolescents if they are observed as a group. Interviewed teachers hold stereotypes about younger adolescents, but intensity and valence of stereotypes vary depending on the nature of obtained factors.

  17. Selected DOE headquarters publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    Selected DOE Headquarters Publications provides cumulative listings, from October 1, 1977 onward, of two groups of publications issued by headquarters organizations of the Department of Energy, and an index to their title keywords. The two groups consist of publications assigned a DOE/XXX-type report number code and headquarters contractor publications, prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department. Publications such as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins, newsletters, and telephone directories, are omitted, as are publications issued under the DOE-tr, CONF, DOE/JPL, and DOE/NASA codes. (RWR)

  18. Implementation of the Website Information Publication Using PHP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANLi; CHENLiaoyuan; WANGXiuhui; WANGWeiping; DENGWei; QIANLin

    2003-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the internet, the fast information communication and the comprehensive information publication become available. To attract the attention of browsers and let browsers know the hot news in time,a website is required to update its content constantly. The traditional mode to manually update website is no longer suitable for the rapid growth of website contents. Moreover,

  19. Content analysis in information flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grusho, Alexander A. [Institute of Informatics Problems of Federal Research Center “Computer Science and Control” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Grusho, Nick A.; Timonina, Elena E. [Institute of Informatics Problems of Federal Research Center “Computer Science and Control” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    The paper deals with architecture of content recognition system. To analyze the problem the stochastic model of content recognition in information flows was built. We proved that under certain conditions it is possible to solve correctly a part of the problem with probability 1, viewing a finite section of the information flow. That means that good architecture consists of two steps. The first step determines correctly certain subsets of contents, while the second step may demand much more time for true decision.

  20. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.