Kemp, Ray; O'Riordan, Timothy; Purdue, Mike.
This paper is concerned with the administrative and political processes which form radioactive waste disposal (RWD) policy. It analyses the evidence presented to the Sizewell-B inquiry on RWD, in particular, that of the Department of the Environment (DoE). It concludes that the DoE policy on definition, site disposal strategy and the form of public examination for future site proposals, changed during the course of the Inquiry. This meant that the evidence presented was not always clear and unambiguous. The importance of subjecting controversial policies to public scrutiny is emphasized. (UK)
Purwanto Purwanto; Eddy Madiono Sutanto; Asmara Indahingwati
This study examines the influence of political marketing and political will on public leadership and individual performance. The sample used is the people in Surabaya as many as 265 with a random sampling method. Amos 21 is used to test the indirect effect by using bootstrap test. The result of the research shows that political marketing and political will have a significant influence to the success of gaining public leadership, political marketing and marketing will have no significant effec...
This study examines the assessment of the use of rally as a political public relations strategy for public acceptance of a political party during the 2015 presidential elections in Lagos State. Public relations uses tactical methods of communication to build relations between an organisation and its internal and external publics.
Full Text Available This study examines the influence of political marketing and political will on public leadership and individual performance. The sample used is the people in Surabaya as many as 265 with a random sampling method. Amos 21 is used to test the indirect effect by using bootstrap test. The result of the research shows that political marketing and political will have a significant influence to the success of gaining public leadership, political marketing and marketing will have no significant effect on performance, and public leadership has a significant effect on performance. For the indirect influence, political marketing and political will on individual performance are mediated by public leadership.
This article examines the state of political public relations in the European Union by specifically focusing on reputation management and relationship management. Its arguments are based on a theoretical review of the literature of political public relations, reputation and relationship management......, and EU communication. The article suggests an in-depth examination of the nature of some of the EU’s major problems in political public relations, and contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the possibilities and limitations of applying reputation and relationship management constructs...
Whitfield, Lindsay; Hirvi, Marja
The politics of public-service delivery continues to be neglected under the supposedly more context-sensitive post-Washington Consensus. Using interviews and documentary evidence from Ghana, this article provides an account of the networks of political interference and informal practices in Ghana......'s public water utility. It argues that, in order to understand why private-sector participation succeeds or fails and why similar arrangements have different outcomes across developing countries, we need to examine the effects of the informal institutional context, particularly the country......-specific political settlement in which public-service provision operates....
We study the role of political frictions in public policy outcomes. We propose a simple model of fiscal policy that combines a lack of commitment by the government, political turnover, and another political friction that can be interpreted either as political polarization or as public rent-seeking. We show that political turnover increases public debt levels, while political polarization or public rent-seeking leads to higher public spending. We evaluate the importance of different political ...
Greer, Scott L; Bekker, Marleen; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Wismar, Matthias; Helderman, Jan-Kees; Ribeiro, Sofia; Stuckler, David
If public health is the field that diagnoses and strives to cure social ills, then understanding political causes and cures for health problems should be an intrinsic part of the field. In this article, we argue that there is no support for the simple and common, implicit model of politics in which scientific evidence plus political will produces healthy policies. Efforts to improve the translation of evidence into policy such as knowledge transfer work only under certain circumstances. These circumstances are frequently political, and to be understood through systematic inquiry into basic features of the political economy such as institutions, partisanship and the organization of labour markets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Buehler, Melissa J.; Schneider, Laura U.
Testing assessments of undergraduate political science students is predictable and stagnant. A missing, yet valuable, testing assessment tool that can contribute to the repertoire of political science is the oral examination. Borrowing this testing tool largely from foreign language departments, oral exams require students to "think on their…
Full Text Available Pia Wiegmink’s timely examination of the transforming transnational spaces of protest in a globalizing and technologically mediated public sphere in “Performance and Politics in the Public Sphere” offers a well-researched review of contemporary theory surrounding ideas of the political (Chantal Mouffe, the public sphere (Jürgen Habermas, the transnational public sphere (Nancy Fraser, and the reterritorialized transnational public sphere (Markus Schroer as the basis for her analysis of how the performance of political action in public—virtual or physical—is transformed by the capacity of the local to be played on a global stage, thus turning the citizen-actor into a cosmopolitan, transnational force. Tracing examples from the Seattle protests against the World Trade Organization meetings in 1999 by the Global Justice Movement to the work of the Electronic Disturbance Theater, from the civil rights movement to the subject matter of her larger study, “The Church of Life After Shopping,” “Billionaires for Bush,” and “The Yes Men,” Wiegmink provides an important analysis of the “alternative aesthetics” of the counterpublics’ formation, dissent, and action in and against hegemony. This selection is taken from her monograph, Protest EnACTed: Activist Performance in the Contemporary United States, a strong, cultural studies–focused contribution to transnational American Studies.
Full Text Available Pia Wiegmink’s timely examination of the transforming transnational spaces of protest in a globalizing and technologically mediated public sphere in “Performance and Politics in the Public Sphere” offers a well-researched review of contemporary theory surrounding ideas of the political (Chantal Mouffe, the public sphere (Jürgen Habermas, the transnational public sphere (Nancy Fraser, and the reterritorialized transnational public sphere (Markus Schroer as the basis for her analysis of how the performance of political action in public—virtual or physical—is transformed by the capacity of the local to be played on a global stage, thus turning the citizen-actor into a cosmopolitan, transnational force. Tracing examples from the Seattle protests against the World Trade Organization meetings in 1999 by the Global Justice Movement to the work of the Electronic Disturbance Theater, from the civil rights movement to the subject matter of her larger study, “The Church of Life After Shopping,” “Billionaires for Bush,” and “The Yes Men,” Wiegmink provides an important analysis of the “alternative aesthetics” of the counterpublics’ formation, dissent, and action in and against hegemony. This selection is taken from her monograph, Protest EnACTed: Activist Performance in the Contemporary United States, a strong, cultural studies–focused contribution to transnational American Studies.
Full Text Available This paper aims to find some answers regarding the long term sustainability of the pension system. Romania’s pension system originates from the invalidity insurances and pension system designed by the German cancellor Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismark in 1889. From a European perspective, Romania has to fill an obvious gap regarding the reformation of the national public pension system. International experience, particularly of the last 130 years, indicates that, in actuality, multiple pension systems have been put into function in most of the world’s countries and which are diferenciated by some elements (organizing and managing the system, defyning pension rights, method of forming the resources, the pension’s level rapported to the average income etc. and after the eficacity degree dependent on internal influences, social, economic and demographic environment, and last but not least by the political factor.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The political influence of the food industry, referred to as corporate political activity (CPA, represents a potential barrier to the development and implementation of effective public health policies for non-communicable diseases prevention. This paper reports on the feasibility and limitations of using publicly-available information to identify and monitor the CPA of the food industry in Australia. Methods A systematic search was conducted for information from food industry, government and other publicly-available data sources in Australia. Data was collected in relation to five key food industry actors: the Australian Food and Grocery Council; Coca Cola; McDonald’s; Nestle; and Woolworths, for the period January 2012 to February 2015. Data analysis was guided by an existing framework for classifying CPA strategies of the food industry. Results The selected food industry actors used multiple CPA strategies, with ‘information and messaging’ and ‘constituency building’ strategies most prominent. Conclusions The systematic analysis of publicly-available information over a limited period was able to identify diverse and extensive CPA strategies of the food industry in Australia. This approach can contribute to accountability mechanisms for NCD prevention.
Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary
The political influence of the food industry, referred to as corporate political activity (CPA), represents a potential barrier to the development and implementation of effective public health policies for non-communicable diseases prevention. This paper reports on the feasibility and limitations of using publicly-available information to identify and monitor the CPA of the food industry in Australia. A systematic search was conducted for information from food industry, government and other publicly-available data sources in Australia. Data was collected in relation to five key food industry actors: the Australian Food and Grocery Council; Coca Cola; McDonald's; Nestle; and Woolworths, for the period January 2012 to February 2015. Data analysis was guided by an existing framework for classifying CPA strategies of the food industry. The selected food industry actors used multiple CPA strategies, with 'information and messaging' and 'constituency building' strategies most prominent. The systematic analysis of publicly-available information over a limited period was able to identify diverse and extensive CPA strategies of the food industry in Australia. This approach can contribute to accountability mechanisms for NCD prevention.
Dr. José Cisneros Espinosa
Full Text Available The following article establishes a critique to the prevalent conception of political communication by focusing on the concept of collective democracy, which is drawn from English political theory. This approach, proposed by David Mena PhD., a researcher from Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, in Mexico, is applied here to contrast the concept of political marketing with the notion of communication as a model for political participation through collective decision-making. Finally, in the conclusive section, the author emphasizes two ideas pointed out by Mena: first, the design of political campaigns as education promotion, and second, the notion of the political debate as a public good.
Public Sphere (EPS). It is inspired by results and reflections from the European Gender Project (EGP) , where intersectionality was used as an approach for analysing negotiations between gender and ethno-national diversity in selected European countries and in relation to the European Public Sphere....... The aim of the essay is to further deepen the theoretical and empirical understanding of intersectionality by reflecting on the relations between political intersectionality and democratic politics from a particular European perspective. It thus confronts theory and research findings concerning...... intersections of gender and ethnic diversity in political life at the national and transnational levels across Europe. In this context, political intersectionality refers to the framing of gender and ethnic diversity by major political actors as well as by activities of women’s and anti-racist organisations...
This article analyzes the role that expectations about particularistic expectations of the political public play in the relationship between political actors and voters. It questions the systems-theoretical assumption that political elections and public communication about politics create an unknown public and that parties therefore can attract voters only with the help of relatively universalistic programs. Beyond the universalism induced by the mass media parties and politicians utilize opp...
The traditional way of introducing comparative politics to freshmen, which is through the study of institutions, is contrasted with an alternative approach. An everyday-politics approach compares the daily struggles of global youth--how they cope in times of peace and war, and with issues of wealth and poverty, identity, education and employment,…
Ortuno-Ortin, Ignacio; Schultz, Christian
This paper concerns public funding of parties. Parteis receive public funds depending on their vote share. Funds finance electoral campaigns. Two cases are investigated. In the first, some voters are policy motivated and some are ?impressionable? ? their vote depends directly on campaign...... expenditures. In the second, campaigning is informative and all voters are policy motivated. Public funds increase policy convergence in both cases. The effect is larger, the more funding depends on vote shares. When campaigns are informative, there may be multiple euqilibria. Intuitively, a large party can...
Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…
News media and social media are often compared in a way that focuses on their contrasts, e.g. as between objective news and passionate opinions – or between a clear-cut public and multiple issue-oriented quasi-publics. If we do not assume such divisions to be pre-given, it becomes possible to study...... of mediated publics. Here, the researcher can begin to think with and not just about contemporary media practices when trying to rethink comparison and its politics....
Wikdahl, C.-E.; Swedish Atomic Forum)
The first important decisions about a large nuclear programme in Sweden were taken in the early 1960s without any political opposition at all. The first signs of an anti-nuclear movement were seen in 1972, and at the general election in 1976 nuclear power was for the first time the main political issue. It remained so until 1980, when Parliament, after a referendum, decided to phase out nuclear power not later than the year 2010. After that decision, political interest in nuclear power evaporated, but returned again after the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. Both the decision in Parliament in 1980 and the Government's bill of May 1987 put Sweden in an unique position. Public attitudes and the political situation in Sweden are examined. (author)
The nuclear industry is entering an historic battle for the hearts and minds of Canadians as government decides on nuclear new build. Recent polls indicate that public support is rising for nuclear power. However, the support could be eroded by negative events or intense lobbying by anti-nuclear groups. The nuclear industry must deal with concerns raised about nuclear power, such as cost, safety, reliability and waste. The nuclear industry should build upon the positive movement in public support. The industry must go to Canadians with a credible message which responds effectively to public concerns. It must be remembered that winning public support will be essential to winning and maintaining political support. (author)
McFadden, D.J. [Gowling LaFleur Henderson, LLP, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
The nuclear industry is entering an historic battle for the hearts and minds of Canadians as government decides on nuclear new build. Recent polls indicate that public support is rising for nuclear power. However, the support could be eroded by negative events or intense lobbying by anti-nuclear groups. The nuclear industry must deal with concerns raised about nuclear power, such as cost, safety, reliability and waste. The nuclear industry should build upon the positive movement in public support. The industry must go to Canadians with a credible message which responds effectively to public concerns. It must be remembered that winning public support will be essential to winning and maintaining political support. (author)
Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Vandemoortele, Thijs
This paper presents a political economy model of public standards in an open economy model. We use the model to derive the political optimum and to analyze different factors that have an influence on this political equilibrium. The paper discusses how the level of development influences the political equilibrium. We also analyze the relation between trade and the political equilibrium and compare this political outcome with the social optimum to identify under which cases ‘under-standardizati...
Full Text Available There are two major preferences shaping political choices: one, regarding who should play the leading role in running the economy (mar-kets or politicians and the other, concerning social spending. According to reputation, leftist parties assign the leading role to politicians (i.e. the state, whereas rightist parties entrust mar-kets with the central role in running the econo-my. Right-wing parties’ reputation of not favoring social spending is not backed by facts. Since both the left and the right display similar behav-iors vis-à-vis social spending, it is preferable that markets play the central role in running the econ-omy. Flexible markets help economic growth and employment, reducing the need for high social spending. The freedom of property and freedom from corruption indexes show that, in Romania, the market has never played the central role in running the economy. People’s prevailing con-cern over their wellbeing ‘now’ rather than ‘to-morrow’ generates competition among political right and left for higher social spending, leading to high public debt. Neither left, nor right can guarantee sustainable limits for social benef ts and public debt. Capping the share of public debt in GDP by means of the Constitution provides no guarantee for public debt sustainability, but is worth a try.
Jungherr, Andreas; Schoen, Harald; Posegga, Oliver; Jürgens, Pascal
In this article, we examine the relationship between metrics documenting politics-related Twitter activity with election results and trends in opinion polls. Various studies have proposed the possibility of inferring public opinion based on digital trace data collected on Twitter and even the possibility to predict election results based on aggregates of mentions of political actors. Yet, a systematic attempt at a validation of Twitter as an indicator for political support is lacking. In this...
Gonzalez-Bailon, Sandra; Banchs, Rafael E.; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas
This article examines how emotional reactions to political events shape public opinion. We analyze political discussions in which people voluntarily engage online to approximate the public agenda: Online discussions offer a natural approach to the salience of political issues and the means to analyze emotional reactions as political events take…
Research on public attitudes toward political decision-making has typically focused on politics in general. This study attends to issue-level as well as individual-level factors that can explain political process preferences. First, drawing on the classic distinction between easy and hard political
Stacks, Don W.
Political communication has influenced greatly the study of modern public relations. The development of modern public relations can be traced back to the Ancients of Greece. The definition of "political communication" when applied to public relations is typically corporate in nature. That is, public relations defines the role of…
Full Text Available The present endeavor proposes the analysis of public politics which regard the energy sector. The energy sector represents a fundamental and determining component in the states’ social-economic development, a sector which is related even to national security. The European Union is the largest energy importer on a global scale, importing approximately half of the energy demand and the pessimistic projection is placed at approximately 70% in the perspective of the following two decades. Accomplishing energy security on the European Union’s level implies a number of directions for action: diversifying the sources and routes of transport in regard to natural gases; intertwining member countries so that no E.U. state is left isolated in crisis situations; decreasing dependency of conventional sources and increasing energy efficiency; reinforced dialogue with energy suppliers.
This is a review of a collection of essays entitled Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy, edited by Joseph Dunne, Attracta Ingram and Frank Litton, published in Dublin by the Institute of Public Administration in 2000.
O. A. Tretyak
Full Text Available The public sphere of politics as a theoretical concept of modern political science has been discussed in the article. The reasons of the increasing interest to the public sphere is a dominating subject. Studied The phenomenon of the public sphere being a tool of theoretical and methodological definition of the political world’s boundaries has been studied. The value aspects of media activity in the contemporary politics has been investigated. An attempt has been made to establish the potential of political publicity for the qualitative understanding of participatory democracy. The potential of the public sphere in the development of civil society and social capital has been described. The distinction between the public sphere of politics and political communication in the specific conditions of modern transformational societies has been reasonably grounded. The importance of the presence of state power in all spheres of life of the transformational society has been stressed. Such transformation has not been stoped after the liberal market reforms, which had to ensure the existence of a formal representative democracy. The influence of the elite and expert groups being the reason of the absence of really functioning future civil society has been considered. The features of the formation of civil and social activities as a precondition for the democratic political class’ functioning have been studied. The specifics of public political activity being the prerogative of the competent entities’ political broadcasting have been analyzed. The gradual formation of cyber public sphere and its political branch segment has been revealed. Thorough attention has been given to the processes of the public sphere’s politicization which are usual for primarily authoritarian and closed societies.
Tomić, Zoran; Grbavac, Ivana
Political public relations, as one of the PR programmes, has slowly created strategies and tactics for communication with the public and the media. Media management and information management are the most important activities of the political public relations. These activities are frequently connected with non-ethical communication, whose aim is media manipulation and manipulation of the public. Media manipulation is well known as communication spin. These activities are created by governm...
Patterson, Patrick B; McIntyre, Lynn; Anderson, Laura C; Mah, Catherine L
Household food insecurity (HFI), insufficient income to obtain adequate food, is a growing problem in Canada and other Organisation of economic cooperation and development (OECD) countries. Government political orientations impact health policies and outcomes. We critically examined Canadian political rhetoric around HFI from 1995 to 2012 as a means to support effective healthy public policy argumentation. We analysed a data set comprised of Hansard extracts on HFI from the legislative debates of the Canadian federal and three provincial governments, using thematic coding guided by interpretivist theories of policy. Extracts were examined for content, jurisdiction, the political affiliation of the legislator speaking and governing status. Members of non-governing, or 'opposition' parties, dominated the rhetoric. A central hunger-as-poverty theme was used by legislators across the political spectrum, both in government and in opposition. Legislators differed in terms of policy approach around how income should flow to citizens facing HFI: income intervention on the left, pragmatism in the centre, reliance on markets on the right. This analysis is a case-example from Canada and caution must be exercised in terms of the generalizability of findings across jurisdictions. Despite this limitation, our findings can help healthy public policy advocates in designing and communicating HFI policy interventions in OECD countries with a similar left-right spectrum. First, even with a divisive health policy issue such as actions to address HFI, core themes around poverty are widely understood. Secondly, the non-polarizing centrist, pragmatist, approach may be strategically valuable. Thirdly, it is important to treat the rhetoric of opposition members differently from that of government members. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Murrow, J J; Coulter, R L; Coulter, M K
The area of health care has been called the most important political issue of the 1990s. Attitudes toward health care reform, increasing health costs, and defensive medical practices have been examined in the public press and by academicians. In addition, a substantial amount of research has been directed toward the improvement of individual personal health due to changes in personal health-related habits and behaviors. To date, there are relatively few studies which have attempted to examine the political tendencies of a nationwide sample of respondents as they relate to personal health-related beliefs and behaviors. This article explores the consumer's views on critical questions relating to health orientations and political tendencies. The results indicate a divergence between the political orientations of respondents and their beliefs and behaviors associated with health and wellness. Implications for policy-makers are discussed.
Davis, Theodore J., Jr.
Delaware has long played a pivotal role in the nation's struggle to end school segregation and promote educational equality. This article discusses racial disparities in educational achievement and outcomes by examining the state's political history and the politics of race in public education. This article explores educational disparities from a…
. The essays cover issues related to foreign aid, local government, public administration, taxation, agriculture and political systems, these being the central sites where development efforts are ordinarily undertaken. The thread running through the essays is a common concern with politics, how it should...... be understood and how it shapes development. In Africa, as elsewhere in the world, politics is decisive for change, but poorly understood, sometimes neglected, and often depicted using rigid models. The book seeks to dig below the surface and do justice to the complexity of the politics of production and public...... administration in Africa....
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public examination. 12.40 Section 12.40... ESPIONAGE, COUNTERESPIONAGE, OR SABOTAGE MATTERS UNDER THE ACT OF AUGUST 1, 1956 § 12.40 Public examination. Registration statements shall be available for public examination at the offices of the Registration Unit...
Barnes, Carolyn Y; Hope, Elan C
In recent years, scholars have pointed to the politically demobilizing effects of means-tested assistance programs on recipients. In this study, we bridge the insights from policy feedback literature and adolescent political socialization research to examine how receiving means-tested programs shapes parent influence on adolescent political participation. We argue that there are differences in pathways to political participation through parent political socialization and youth internal efficacy beliefs for adolescents from households that do or do not receive means-tested assistance. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 536 Black, Latino, and White adolescents (50.8% female), we find that adolescents from means-tested assistance households report less parent political socialization and political participation. For all youth, parent political socialization predicts adolescent political participation. Internal political efficacy is a stronger predictor of political participation for youth from a non-means-tested assistance household than it is for youth from a household receiving means-tested assistance. These findings provide some evidence of differential paths to youth political participation via exposure to means-tested programs.
Salami Issa Afegbua
Full Text Available This work examined politics-administration interface and the sustenance of public service ethos in Southwest Nigeria. Public servants and political functionaries in Southwest Nigeria are constantly in a struggle to fix each other in their pre-conceived mould of mental judgment which invariably breeds mutual suspicion, apprehension and setting the stage for conflict which is likely to impact negatively on the performance of public servants in Southwest Nigeria. The article identified the factors influencing the interface of public servants and political office holders in Southwest Nigeria. It also determined the influence of the interface between on public service ethos and finally examined the efforts made towards sustaining public service ethos in Southwest Nigeria. In carrying out this work, primary and secondary data were used. In the case of primary data, survey was carried out and questionnaire was used to elicit information from respondents in the Southwest geo-political zone of the country. Purposive random sampling techniques were adopted to determine the target respondents. The study has a sample of five hundred and thirty-five (535, which constitute 50 percent of the total population figure of 1070. The findings revealed amongst others, that the synergy between political functionaries and public office holders is often characterized by both conflict and cooperation. In addition, there are certain factors influencing the interface of public servants and political office holders in Southwest Nigeria, these factors include: contract awards, consideration in the appointment of top civil servants etc. The study therefore, recommends the need for Southwest Nigeria to strengthen politics-administration interface in such a way that the public services in that region will be more productive. There is also the need for government in the Southwest to clarify the respective roles of political office holders and public servants. The principles
May 14, 2010 ... within the university context as well as the politics associated with publication .... anthropology graduate students who left NMMU at the end of his third ... would, for practical and financial reasons, not be willing to travel be-.
This paper investigates contemporary academic accounts of the public sphere. In particular, it takes stock of post-Habermasian public sphere scholarship, and acknowledges a lively and variegated debate concerning the multiple ways in which individuals engage in contemporary political affairs. A critical eye is cast over a range of key insights which have come to establish the parameters of what 'counts' as a/the public sphere, who can be involved, and where and how communicative networks are established. This opens up the conceptual space for re-imagining a/the public sphere as an assemblage. Making use of recent developments in Deleuzian-inspired assemblage theory - most especially drawn from DeLanda's (2006) 'new philosophy of society' - the paper sets out an alternative perspective on the notion of the public sphere, and regards it as a space of connectivity brought into being through a contingent and heterogeneous assemblage of discursive, visual and performative practices. This is mapped out with reference to the cultural politics of roadside memorialization. However, a/the public sphere as an assemblage is not simply a 'social construction' brought into being through a logic of connectivity, but is an emergent and ephemeral space which reflexively nurtures and assembles the cultural politics (and political cultures) of which it is an integral part. The discussion concludes, then, with a consideration of the contribution of assemblage theory to public sphere studies. (Also see Campbell 2009a). © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.
Piotrowski, Marcelina; Ruitenberg, Claudia
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between news media and political education within consumer society. We argue that political education today needs to be understood as part of consumerism and media culture, in which individuals selectively expose themselves to and scrutinize various media representations not only of…
Full Text Available Public sphere is a social space, open to active individual access and free discussion, rescued from state intervention, where communicative action free from violence and individual benefits is undertaken; and rational-critical discourse is built. Political advertisement is the type advertising which aims at directing voters or the government to a particular action, having them adopt a certain view or approach. The concept of political advertising emerged with the practice of using commercial advertising techniques to promote a party, candidate or an idea. Justice and Development Party (JDP, has been ruling Turkey since 2002. The leader of the party is Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. It is a conservative party and has carried out some practices that could be regarded as negative. Anti-secular attitudes are also among these practices. Thus, analysing the political advertisements of JDP has proved to be interesting. Public sphere studies are mostly conducted through news stories and columns in media. In that sense, it is significant to analyse political advertisements in terms of public sphere. In this study, the political advertisements of the ruling Justice and Development Party (JDP in the process of Turkish General Parliamentary Election, 2011 have been analysed. The political advertisements in question have been analysed via Sabah newspaper. The reason for choosing Sabah is that it supports JDP as an example of partisan press. The samples have been taken from 2 weeks before the elections. Accordingly, as a full-page advertisement is published every day, 14 political advertisement analyses have been conducted in total. Political advertisements have been analysed using qualitative text analysis. As the study follows the path of public place-political advertising relationship, it finds meaning in itself.
As the changes underpinning the Coordinated Care Trials in South Australia have become more apparent, similarities have emerged between the rationalisation of public schooling in the mid 1980s and the transformation of public health in the 1990s. This article aims to discuss the evolution of health services in South Australia and help us answer the question of how best to manage our public and private health infrastructure in a changing economic and social context. Both strategies in education and health share common elements of cost cutting, attempts at improving efficiencies, a flirting with the private sector and the attendant risk of reduced quality of services to the public. This situation in both sectors is indicative of a shift in public policy and a growth in the belief that private management of public sector infrastructure can help resolve the funding crises around our education and health systems.
Pagliccia, Nino; Alvarez Pérez, Adolfo
The role of political will in public health has been largely ignored. In Cuba, however, for the past 50 years, political will has been the ultimate, encompassing intersectoral action in public health. The excellent achievements in population health in Cuba during these 50 years have been widely recognized. Researchers have sought to explain this "Cuban paradox" by focusing on a large array of public health factors, including health promotion, primary care activities, and intersectoral action on health determinants. These factors constitute necessary but not sufficient conditions to achieve good health outcomes. This article defines political will and uses the experience of Cuba to illustrate the potential role of political will in public health. The authors suggest a framework for the evaluation of political will aimed at achieving good health, examining the "Five R's of political will," five observable features that may provide systematic information on the direction and realization of political will: (1) renewal of commitment, (2) reform of the system, (3) resource development, (4) review of performance, and (5) responsible management. These five features focus the spotlight on the consistency between health goals and public discourse and action.
Lígia Helena Hahn Lüchmann
Full Text Available This work raises some hypotheses to explain the significant presence of women on public policy management councils, which are spaces for discussion and deliberation of policies that have been implemented in Brazil in recent decades. The data about the profile of representatives on these spaces indicates a situation inversely proportional to the low degree of political inclusion of women in traditional spaces of political representation – executive positions, city councils, and state legislatures. There is thus a need to develop new analytical tools to understand the phenomenon of political representation. The data also question a reductive perspective of action and politics, which concludes that there is a low degree of political inclusion of women.
Graham, Todd; Coleman, Stephen; Freelon, Deen
Ever since the advent of the Internet, political communication scholars have debated its potential to facilitate and support public deliberation as a means of revitalizing and extending the public sphere. Much of the debate has focused on the medium’s potential in offering communicative spaces that
The paper, however, cautions that the Public Protector is not an alternative dispute resolution institution parallel to courts. But that the Public Protector complements the role played by courts by offering another medium through which such right may be realised. Keywords: Right to access to adequate housing; political ...
A. E. Rudakova
Full Text Available The author examines the reputational characteristics of the formation of political actors at the expense of the state budget, the specificity of the mechanism of implementation of government procurement and modern Russian practice.
Full Text Available Kiosk, a lightly constructed edifice, exists in Belgrade for more than half of a century. Shapes and constructions of kiosks that used to sell newspapers and cigarettes have followed general change in building styles over the years, requiring little or no attention from the public. However, at the time when Milošević opposition parties took over local government/management large number of kiosks became positioned in the center of the city. At the same time, Milošević’s socialistic trading firms collapsed, and sales of many items transferred to kiosks. The change of government at the local level caused a different politics toward kiosks, and united state and local governments put an effort into removal of kiosks from the centre of Belgrade. This paper discusses the relationship between ideology and kiosk as architecture’ structure, and kiosks’ economic productivity.
Sager, Tore Øivin; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard
of interviews sheds light on the apparent paradox that parliamentarians accept delegation of highway investment decisions despite their profound scepticism to the cost-benefit analyses and impact calculations that are essential to management by objectives and results, which was to give them continued political...... by the Government. The political concentration on strategic steering, the concomitant delegation, and management by objectives and results are central components of New Public Management....
.... Covering important works from legal, moral, and political theory, public health, public health law and ethics, and bioethics, this is a foundational text for scholars, practitioners and policy bodies interested in freedoms, rights and responsibilities relating to health"--
Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis; Fors, Hanna
In this paper, we highlight and illustrate the inherent politics embedded in “quality” as a concept for managing public parks. Reflecting more generic quality concepts, contemporary quality models in park management include concepts for both operational, strategic and stakeholder management as well...... managing the park organisation itself. However, quality concepts and their application through various management models include as well as exclude the access, values and worldviews of particular interests. In this way, any particular quality concept and model embeds its own politics by inherent...... allocations of ‘who gets what, when and how’. We illustrate the inherent politics by providing a case study of a widely adopted quality model for operational management that has been adopted and implemented in Denmark as part of new public management reforms. In perspective, other quality concepts and models...
Dr. Jordi Xifra Triadú
Full Text Available The idea that political communication strategies are an application of marketing strategies to political field is today commonly shared by specialists. For them public relations is viewed like a set of techniques that serves political parties and other actors of the political scene, concentrated on media relations. This instrumental perspective is not in keeping with structural dimension of public relations in political activity and communication of his actors: political parties, pressure groups and political leaders. In this point of view, during managing periods of governance or opposition and during electoral campaigns, the most applied communication form by political parties is structured in accordance with the major public relations models: press agent model, public information model, two way asymmetrical model, and two way symmetrical model. This research prove hypothesis in Catalonia according the results of a quantitative survey focused on inside professionals who provide services for the seven main political parties in this Spanish Autonomous Community.RESUMEN:La idea de que las estrategias de comunicación política constituyen una aplicación de las estrategias del marketing al ámbito político es hoy comúnmente compartida por los analistas. Para éstos, las relaciones públicas son percibidas como un conjunto de técnicas al servicio de los partidos políticos y de otros actores de la escena política concentradas en las relaciones con la prensa. Esta perspectiva instrumental no concuerda con la dimensión estructural de las relaciones públicas en la actividad política y comunicativa de sus actores: partidos políticos, grupos de presión y líderes. Desde este punto de vista, tanto en los periodos de gestión u oposición como en los electorales, la forma comunicativa más aplicada por los partidos políticos se estructura de acuerdo con los modelos tradicionales de las relaciones públicas: agente de prensa, información p
Lott, Joe L., II.; Hernandez, Jose; King, Joe P.; Brown, Tiffany; Fajardo, Ismael
Using data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/03) of College Graduates, we use structural equation modeling to model the relationships between college major, values held in college, collegiate community service participation, and the post-college political participation of college graduates by public versus private…
This paper takes a critical look at the politics of teaching, funding and publication that seemingly dominate the academic context of anthropology in South Africa. The views that will be expressed are of an inherently personal nature as they will reflect the experiences that we have had as young academics in our institution ...
Sandra Duarte de Souza
Full Text Available The low representation of women in the Brazilian National Congress has been recurrently criticized by the feminist movements, international agencies and the parliament representatives themselves. From the 513 parliament representatives elected for the 55th legislation, 51 are women representatives, and only 10 of these are evangelical Christians. The acting of evangelical women in politics has not been a subject of interest by the academy in the field of religious and feminist studies. The present article addresses the acting of evangelical women representatives in the current Brazilian politics, taking in consideration the timid participation of women in political parties, the process of evangelical insertion into Brazilian politics and the invisible place of evangelical women on political acting in their parties, including on Legislative drafting related to the right of women. Such an approach has its theoretical basis in discussion of the public/private dichotomy, on the assumption that there is an interdependence between them, and that the social nuisance with the presence of women in the public sphere has to do with the genderization and subsequent hierarchization of such spheres. As a methodological resource, there was made a recollection of the drafts proposals of the 10 evangelical women representatives on their 6 first months of mandate during the current legislation, and also of the draft proposals during the former legislation of the reelected ones.
Roelofs, Ferry; Groot, Sander de
The world today faces a tremendous challenge in providing mankind with the energy required at affordable prices. Meanwhile 'no regret policy' enforces potential environmental impact by energy consumption to be avoided and energy for the coming generations to be secured. Many political statements concerning energy simplify the requirements towards sustainable energy supply by the identification of three main pillars for responsible future energy supply: Affordable, Reliable, and Clean (ARC). When the ARC pillars are put in a nuclear context, reliability and clean can be summarized by the general requirement for nuclear power generation of controlled containment of nuclear materials, in all phases of the nuclear (fuel) cycle. However, apart from finding and evaluating technical solutions, affordability of the technical solutions and the acceptability criteria considering ARC-items reliable and clean (potentially unconsciously) set by politics and the public are essential to the successful deployment of any nuclear system. Therefore, from the viewpoint of the authors, significant effort should be put in identifying and addressing the requirements set by public and politics in ARC-framework. Suggestions are given how the technical nuclear community could deal with affordability and acceptability and convert these into appropriate technical solutions. Other aspects should be treated professionally by experts in those fields, i.e. economics, finance, and communications, in close cooperation. Furthermore, appropriate methods and tools should be applied which respond to the needs of the non-nuclear specific experts and the public at large. In case safety and radiotoxic emissions are addressed satisfactorily, both from an affordability and acceptability point of view, nuclear power can meet all aspects of sustainable energy supply in the (near) future from a public and political perspective. Looking at nuclear deployment in this perspective, guidelines could be provided to
Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær
The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the Service Area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared to a more...
Nyiri, P.D.; Zhang, J.
This article examines China's cyber-activism in relation to the politics of making a transnational, Chinese public sphere in both the virtual world and real-life locations. By conceptualising Chinese cyber-activism as 'walled' activism, this article describes an invisible yet effective 'wall'
This article examines public education and the establishment of the nation-state in the first half of the nineteenth century in Switzerland. Textbooks, governmental decisions, and reports are analyzed in order to better understand how citizenship is depicted in school textbooks and whether (federal) political changes affected the image of the…
This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…
Kruikemeier, Sanne; de Vreese, Claes
Recent research suggests that more and more citizens select news and information that is congruent with their existing political preferences. This increase in political selective exposure (PSE) has allegedly led to an increase in polarization. The vast majority of studies stem from the US case with a particular media and political system. We contend that there are good reasons to believe PSE is less prevalent in other systems. We test this using latent profile analysis with national survey data from the Netherlands (n = 2,833). We identify four types of media use profiles and indeed only find partial evidence of PSE. In particular, we find that public broadcasting news cross-cuts all cleavages. This research note offers an important antidote in what is considered a universal phenomenon. We do find, however, a relatively large segment of citizens opting out of news consumption despite the readily available news in today’s media landscape. PMID:27218659
Fife, Brian L.
Public affairs instructors must routinely contend with the reality that stressing the importance of political knowledge is challenging in an era of declining student interest in politics and political institutions. Yet enhancing students' knowledge about public affairs can stimulate more interest and engagement in public affairs, particularly if…
Jessica J Neff
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In their 2005 study, Adamic and Glance coined the memorable phrase 'divided they blog', referring to a trend of cyberbalkanization in the political blogosphere, with liberal and conservative blogs tending to link to other blogs with a similar political slant, and not to one another. As political discussion and activity increasingly moves online, the power of framing political discourses is shifting from mass media to social media. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Continued examination of political interactions online is critical, and we extend this line of research by examining the activities of political users within the Wikipedia community. First, we examined how users in Wikipedia choose to display their political affiliation. Next, we analyzed the patterns of cross-party interaction and community participation among those users proclaiming a political affiliation. In contrast to previous analyses of other social media, we did not find strong trends indicating a preference to interact with members of the same political party within the Wikipedia community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that users who proclaim their political affiliation within the community tend to proclaim their identity as a 'Wikipedian' even more loudly. It seems that the shared identity of 'being Wikipedian' may be strong enough to triumph over other potentially divisive facets of personal identity, such as political affiliation.
Neff, Jessica J.; Laniado, David; Kappler, Karolin E.; Volkovich, Yana; Aragón, Pablo; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas
Background In their 2005 study, Adamic and Glance coined the memorable phrase ‘divided they blog’, referring to a trend of cyberbalkanization in the political blogosphere, with liberal and conservative blogs tending to link to other blogs with a similar political slant, and not to one another. As political discussion and activity increasingly moves online, the power of framing political discourses is shifting from mass media to social media. Methodology/Principal Findings Continued examination of political interactions online is critical, and we extend this line of research by examining the activities of political users within the Wikipedia community. First, we examined how users in Wikipedia choose to display their political affiliation. Next, we analyzed the patterns of cross-party interaction and community participation among those users proclaiming a political affiliation. In contrast to previous analyses of other social media, we did not find strong trends indicating a preference to interact with members of the same political party within the Wikipedia community. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that users who proclaim their political affiliation within the community tend to proclaim their identity as a ‘Wikipedian’ even more loudly. It seems that the shared identity of ‘being Wikipedian’ may be strong enough to triumph over other potentially divisive facets of personal identity, such as political affiliation. PMID:23573269
Crooks, Valorie A; Castleden, Heather; Hanlon, Neil; Schuurman, Nadine
Palliative care is delivered by a number of professional groups and informal providers across a range of settings. This arrangement works well in that it maximizes avenues for providing care, but may also bring about complicated 'politics' due to struggles over control and decision-making power. Thirty-one interviews conducted with formal and informal palliative care providers in a rural region of British Columbia, Canada, are drawn upon as a case study. Three types of politics impacting on palliative care provision are identified: inter-community, inter-site, and inter-professional. Three themes crosscut these politics: ownership, entitlement, and administration. The politics revealed by the interviews, and heretofore underexplored in the palliative literature, have implications for the delivery of palliative care. For example, the outcomes of the politics simultaneously facilitate (e.g. by promoting advocacy for local services) and serve as a barrier to (e.g. by privileging certain communities/care sites/provider) palliative care provision.
Vladislav S. Gerasimov
Full Text Available The article discusses political meritocracy phenomenon. The author examines political and economic backgrounds of the meritocracy concept occurrence within the political science discourse as well as distinctive features of that process. Special emphasis is put on economic situation of the early 1980s when the governments of various states were challenged with the necessity of overcoming the consequences of the global economic crisis of the preceding decade. The author focuses on similarities and distinctions within the policies which have been implemented by the various states at that period paying special attention to the form of the political regime in those countries. Also the author draws attention to the discussion on "Asian values" which played significant role in the political meritocracy coming-to-be process within Asian region. The article analyses origin and dissemination of the meritocratic approaches among public administration practices of some countries within Asian region (eg. China and Singapore. The author reveals main theoretical grounds of the political meritocracy and researches culturological backgrounds of those theoretical grounds. Specifically, he studies the significance of the Confucianism moral-ethic doctrine regarding theory and practice of meritocracy. Additionally the author traces the displays of the meritocratic principles within the views of the various representatives of the western political theory among which both classic (Plato, J.St. Mill and contemporary (Brennan J., Caplan B. thinkers are represented. In conclusion the author analyses the opportunities of the meritocratic theory and practice implementation in Russian reality. He compares Russia, China and Singapore via the list of criteria of political and economic importance, reveals similarities and distinctions in the political past and present of those states, estimates the significance of some culturological factors regarding the evolution of those
Full Text Available Many agree that PR and marketing are at their best when used together, when it comes to local public administration institutions there is the need for both an individual and symbiotic approach of the two. Taking into consideration that public interest organizations act within public space, PR represents a public communication strategy. Thus they present the role of generating a climate and state of social normality and, especially in democratic societies, PR plays the part of generator of communication flows between public institutions, citizens and stakeholders. In a social-political marketing context, envisaged as an aggregate of processes, with a multiple purpose, the generator which is PR must unfold coherently for each of the processes. It is our purpose in this paper to depict the PR role and management in the case of one local public administration institution (Bacau Prefect Institution, in a socio-political marketing context.
Hart, P. Sol; Nisbet, Erik C.; Myers, Teresa A.
We examine how attention to science and political news may influence public knowledge, perceived harm, and support for climate mitigation policies. Previous research examining these relationships has not fully accounted for how political ideology shapes the mental processes through which the public interprets media discourses about climate change. We incorporate political ideology and the concept of motivated cognition into our analysis to compare and contrast two prominent models of opinion formation, the scientific literacy model, which posits that disseminating scientific information will move public opinion towards the scientific consensus, and the motivated reasoning model, which posits that individuals will interpret information in a biased manner. Our analysis finds support for both models of opinion formation with key differences across ideological groups. Attention to science news was associated with greater perceptions of harm and knowledge for conservatives, but only additional knowledge for liberals. Supporting the literacy model, greater knowledge was associated with more support for climate mitigation for liberals. In contrast, consistent with motivated reasoning, more knowledgeable conservatives were less supportive of mitigation policy. In addition, attention to political news had a negative association with perceived harm for conservatives but not for liberals.
de Graaf, Gjalt; van der Wal, Z.
How and why are public values studied within public administration’s cognate disciplines? This question is addressed through a qualitative analysis of 50 public values (PVs) publications in political science, economics, and law published between 1969 and 2014. The findings show that political
Boutellier, C.; McCombie, C.; Mele, I.
Concepts for shared multinational repositories face a great challenge in achieving acceptance, despite the fact that they promise advantages in safety, security, environmental protection and costs. When considering advantages of shared multinational repositories, it is instructive to examine which are the ethical, legal and political issues that mostly affect the feasibility of implementing such facilities. This paper addresses the key questions from two opposite sides. The early part takes a 'top-down' view, looking at the international debate on ethical issues, summarising a wide range of national political attitudes and identifying relevant international legislation and treaties. The latter looks 'bottom-up' at the problem, by discussing the situation of a small country, Slovenia. Slovenia has limited financial resources for implementing disposal - but it has a firm commitment to fulfilling its responsibilities for safely managing all Radioactive Wastes (RAW) arising in the country. Strategies considered to do so are laid out in this paper. (author)
Carrillo, Ana María
The article examines the scientific, political, and economic elements that permitted the birth of modern public health in Mexico under the Porfirio Díaz administration (1876-1910). Firstly, a portion of Mexican physicians were open to the discoveries of microbiology, immunology, and epidemiology. Secondly, the State's growing concentration of power in public health matters ran parallel to its concentration of disciplinary political power and enabled this new knowledge to be placed at the service of collective health problem prevention. Lastly, both imperialism and the Porfirian elite needed to protect their business interests. The article evaluates public health achievements and limitations during the Porfirian period, abruptly interrupted by the revolution begun in 1910.
Jonathan K. Nelson
Full Text Available We introduce spatial patterns of Tweets visualization (SPoTvis, a web-based geovisual analytics tool for exploring messages on Twitter (or “tweets” collected about political discourse, and illustrate the potential of the approach with a case study focused on a set of linked political events in the United States. In October 2013, the U.S. Congressional debate over the allocation of funds to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (commonly known as the ACA or “Obamacare” culminated in a 16-day government shutdown. Meanwhile the online health insurance marketplace related to the ACA was making a public debut hampered by performance and functionality problems. Messages on Twitter during this time period included sharply divided opinions about these events, with many people angry about the shutdown and others supporting the delay of the ACA implementation. SPoTvis supports the analysis of these events using an interactive map connected dynamically to a term polarity plot; through the SPoTvis interface, users can compare the dominant subthemes of Tweets in any two states or congressional districts. Demographic attributes and political information on the display, coupled with functionality to show (dissimilar features, enrich users’ understandings of the units being compared. Relationships among places, politics and discourse on Twitter are quantified using statistical analyses and explored visually using SPoTvis. A two-part user study evaluates SPoTvis’ ability to enable insight discovery, as well as the tool’s design, functionality and applicability to other contexts.
Ortín, Ignacio Ortuño; Schultz, Christian
dependence on vote shares induces fur- ther moderation and improves welfare. If parties are asymmetric, vote share dependent public funding bene…ts the large party and makes it moderate its candidate, while the smaller party reacts by choosing a more extremist candidate. On balance, however, if the parties......The paper considers public funding of political parties when some voters are poorly informed about parties’ candidates and campaigns are informative. For symmetric equilibria, it is shown that more pub- lic funding leads parties to chose more moderate candidates, and that an increase in the funding’s...... are not too asymmetric, an increase in vote share dependent funding improves welfare and increases the likelihood that a moderate candidate wins the election...
The connection between the natural and social sciences has become stronger, and has increasingly been recognized as a vital component in the area of natural hazards research. Moving applied natural hazards research into the public policy or administration realm is not often easy, or effective. An improved understanding of the connection between the natural and social sciences can assist in this process and result in better public policy, acceptance from the public for these policies, and a safer and better educated public. This paper will present initial findings from a larger data set on natural hazards and social science research. Specifically we will review the current contribution of the formal academic disciplines of political science and public administration within recent natural hazards-related scholarship. The general characteristics of the contributions (e.g. coauthored, interdisciplinary, etc.), specific theories and methods being applied, and the types of natural hazards being scrutinized by these related fields will be assessed. In conclusion we will discuss future contributions and areas for potential collaboration between the natural and social sciences in the area of natural hazards research.
Full Text Available Objective - This study aims to explore the communication process within local public administration as a determinant of citizens` satisfaction. Prior work - Several authors had examined if having contact with certain service providers will affect people’s attitudes toward the service quality, but the researchers have not focused yet on the effect of citizens` contact to local authorities on satisfaction. Approach - This research seeks to address this field using an exploratory approach. Following a quantitative methodological approach, a survey was applied to a sample of 380 citizens within Western Romanian. Findings - By analyzing data it was possible to determine citizen satisfaction and to assess its relationship with costumer contact. In addition it was revealed that in Crisana Region city hall is the most frequented local public institution. Implications – The results showed a negative effect of frequency of access to local authorities on overall customer satisfaction. The effect of citizens` contact to local authorities received less attention from the academic researchers, as a need in the literature is to expand this field. Value - This research is the first to specifically examine the contact to local authorities and the effect of frequency of addressing on citizen satisfaction within Crisana Region.
Liverani, Marco; Hawkins, Benjamin; Parkhurst, Justin O
There is increasing recognition that the development of evidence-informed health policy is not only a technical problem of knowledge exchange or translation, but also a political challenge. Yet, while political scientists have long considered the nature of political systems, the role of institutional structures, and the political contestation of policy issues as central to understanding policy decisions, these issues remain largely unexplored by scholars of evidence-informed policy making. We conducted a systematic review of empirical studies that examined the influence of key features of political systems and institutional mechanisms on evidence use, and contextual factors that may contribute to the politicisation of health evidence. Eligible studies were identified through searches of seven health and social sciences databases, websites of relevant organisations, the British Library database, and manual searches of academic journals. Relevant findings were extracted using a uniform data extraction tool and synthesised by narrative review. 56 studies were selected for inclusion. Relevant political and institutional aspects affecting the use of health evidence included the level of state centralisation and democratisation, the influence of external donors and organisations, the organisation and function of bureaucracies, and the framing of evidence in relation to social norms and values. However, our understanding of such influences remains piecemeal given the limited number of empirical analyses on this subject, the paucity of comparative works, and the limited consideration of political and institutional theory in these studies. This review highlights the need for a more explicit engagement with the political and institutional factors affecting the use of health evidence in decision-making. A more nuanced understanding of evidence use in health policy making requires both additional empirical studies of evidence use, and an engagement with theories and approaches
Olson, Maria; Andersson, Erik
In this article we argue that young people’s political participation in the social media can be considered ‘public pedagogy’. The argument builds on a previous empirical analysis of a Swedish net community called Black Heart. Theoretically, the article is based on a particular notion of public pedagogy, education and Hannah Arendt’s expressive agonism. The political participation that takes place in the net community builds up an educational situation that involves central characteristics: co...
G. A. Borshevskiy
Full Text Available We define the civil service as a political and administrative institution established to meet the needs in the professional performance of political decisions and providing the daily contact between the society and the political power. The definition of civil service in the Russian legislation is not fit the features of public institution, that is why the institutionalization of the civil service in post-Soviet Russia face difficulties.We see ways to overcome this contradiction, which include the improvement of legislation and implementation to the strategic documents the goals, objectives and performance criteria of civil service institution-building. This goals and objectives should orientate the civil servants to ensure economic growth and improving the quality of citizen’s life.The architecture of the civil service institution was offered, including the legal, institutional and human components. We identified the institutional characteristics and location of this institution in the environment of society.The algorithm of civil service institutional change was clarified, which includes elements such as institutional selection, the definition of institutional norms and institutional effects.The requirements for the assessment of institutional effectiveness were formulated. We proved the necessity to describe the driving forces of civil service development not only by external influences, but also its internal environment.The comparison of this set of statistics with indicators of internal development of the civil service allows concluding about the correlation between the civil service performance on different stages of its institutional transformation and attainment the priorities of the economy and society.
Hansen, Anders; Gunter, Barrie
To examine the possibilities for research into news reporting and its role in reflecting and informing public and political beliefs and action in relation to alcohol and drinking practices. Studies on media and alcohol, focusing on the role of media in relation to alcohol consumption and drinking-related practices, policies and beliefs. Most research on alcohol and media has focused on either advertising or entertainment media content, rather than on news reporting and its wider social implications. The role of news reporting could usefully be widened. We offer a framework for analysing the role of news media in relation to public debate and practice with regard to alcohol and drinking.
Gonzalez, V.; Molina, M.
ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A.), is a State-owned company, founded in 1985 and is responsible for radioactive waste management in Spain. ENRESA's activities are carried out in accordance with a General Radioactive Waste Plant approved by the Spanish Government. In Spain, as in most countries, the public is concerned about many of the activities involving radioactive or rad-waste management; this concern arises for different reasons, but mainly due to lack of information on the matter. This situation leads to the information available being misused by certain politicians, green groups and media, which serves to increase the distrust with which the public sometimes views responsible companies and institutions. At the root of both these problems is a lack of political consensus regarding development of the activity. To gain public acceptance, it would be necessary to develop a long-term information policy, since in the field of communications results are only ever achieved in the long term. ENRESA is carrying out an on-going Communication Plan (CP), implemented successfully in the areas surrounding a low- and intermediate-level waste disposal site and a disused uranium mill in which remedial actions are currently being performed. Implementation of this plan at national level is being accomplished stepwise. This document deals with the most relevant issues relating to the radioactive waste situation in Spain and with the efforts made in communications
Cacciatore, Michael A; Binder, Andrew R; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R
Despite large-scale investments and government mandates to expand biofuels development and infrastructure in the United States, little is known about how the public conceives of this alternative fuel technology. This study examines public opinion of biofuels by focusing on citizen knowledge and the motivated processing of media information. Specifically, we explore the direct effects of biofuels knowledge and the moderating effect of partisanship on the relationship between media use and benefit vs. risk perceptions in the following four domains: environmental impacts, economic consequences, ethical/social implications, and political ramifications. Our results suggest that more knowledgeable respondents see fewer benefits of biofuels relative to risks, and that Democrats and Republicans are affected differently by media use when forming opinions about biofuels. Among Democrats, greater attention to political media content leads to a more favorable outlook toward the technology across several domains of interest, while among Republicans, an increase in attention to political content has the opposite effect. Possible reasons for these results, as well as implications of the findings at the intersection of politics and the life sciences, are discussed.
Full Text Available In some ways discussion of the political implications of Web 2.0 reinvigorates a debate about the democratising nature of the Internet that began in the 1990s. The concept of participation is at the heart of many current debates about politics and technology. There are two main reasons for saying this. On the one hand is an ongoing and increasing concern about public participation, or lack of it, in modern (predominantly Western democracies. This participatory deficit is to be seen in falling voter turnout at elections, public apathy on key political issues and scorn or indifference for elected political representatives. On the other hand, there is a wave of optimism concerning the potential of new technologies, particularly the web, to enable new forms of participation in economic and public life, to transform political debate and citizenship and to renew the ailing (or perceived to be ailing institutions of democracy. This optimism around participation and politics, while it has played a role in utopian visions of the internet more or less since its inception, has been reinvigorated recently by the discussion around the so-called Web 2.0. This article argues for a much more critical or sceptical approach to the political promise of Web 2.0. Focusing particularly on Yochai Benkler's The Wealth of Networks, it argues that current accounts of the participatory aspects of web culture tend to take a rather narrow view of what such participation might mean. However, aspects of the work of Bernard Stiegler, and that of others in the Ars Industrialis group co-founded by Stiegler, can help inform a more nuanced account of the relationship between politics and participation. It looks specifically at the arguments in Marc Crépon and Bernard Stiegler's book De la démocratie participative, written during the recent French presidential campaign, and will examine how the idea of participation articulates with key themes in Stiegler's philosophy of technics
Kerkhoff, Antoon Dirk Nicolaas
This book is about changing public values and perceptions of political corruption in an important period of Dutch history, between 1748 and 1813. It consists of three parts. Part one provides the research question and discusses public values and public value dynamics, political corruption and
Full Text Available Persons 'branded' as dangerous to the public's health often try to hide their status (as smokers, as HIV positive, etc. Yet, a small but growing subgroup has re-appropriated stigma symbols and voluntarily branded themselves as 'marked' individuals, rebellious, transgressive and refusing to be shamed by their status. In this article we examine voluntary branding as acts of resistance, paying particular attention to bodily practices that disrupt dominant aesthetic and moral/political sensibilities. We draw on our research and observations in the realms of smoking and bareback sex to illustrate and address broader issues of branding the self, aesthetics and the politics of resistance, surveillance, and transgression. Drawing on the work of Goffman, Bourdieu and Foucault, we examine the interpenetration of class, physical and social capital, and unequal social relations. While these works are often used to celebrate resistance, we argue, following Fiske, that it should not be romanticized as inherently liberating.
Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja
Public opinion research has sought to distinguish between ethnic and civic conceptions of citizenship and examined the differential associations of these conceptions with policy preferences in the realm of immigration. What has not been examined empirically is why exactly these conceptions are related to people's preferences. In two survey studies conducted among national samples of native Dutch we tested the proposition that the endorsement of ethnic citizenship is related to lower acceptance of Muslim immigrant rights (Study 1) and their political participation (Study 2) because of a weaker normative sense of common national belonging and higher adherence to autochthony (primo-occupancy) beliefs. In contrast, the endorsement of civic citizenship was expected to be associated with higher acceptance of Muslim immigrant rights and their political participation because of a stronger sense of common belonging and lower belief in autochthony. The findings of the two studies are similar and in support of these expectations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dornauer, Mark E
The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response within the US Department of Health and Human Services leads the nation in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from the adverse health effects of public health emergencies, in part through formal collaborations between hospitals, health systems, community health centers, public health departments, and community organizations via health care coalitions (HCCs). HCCs endeavor to meet the medical surge demands inherent to disasters and to improve health outcomes before, during, and after public health emergencies. Nevertheless, significant changes in health economics and policy can impact the operations, capabilities, and scope of HCCs. Specifically, hospital consolidation and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) are altering the national health care landscape, as well as the emergency preparedness sector, and are challenging HCCs to adapt to large-scale, industry-wide transformations. This article examines HCCs in the context of the developments of hospital consolidation and the ACA in order to facilitate future discourse regarding the strategy and policy of HCCs amid a changing economic and political landscape.
Full Text Available The paper debates the issue of the preventive procedural concept of politics versus the aspirational liberal concept of politics as discussed in Derek Edyvane's book Civic Virtue and the Sovereignty of Evil: Political Ethics in Uncertain Times. The author indicates the necessity to conceptually differentiate sovereign evils from universal evils, and offers a defense of the liberal concept of justice.
Andersson, Erik; Olson, Maria
In this article we argue that young people's political participation in the social media can be considered "public pedagogy". The argument builds on a previous empirical analysis of a Swedish net community called Black Heart. Theoretically, the article is based on a particular notion of public pedagogy, education and Hannah Arendt's…
Evans, Heather K.; Bucy, Erik P.
Scholarly publication in peer-reviewed journals is widely regarded as the road to scholarly success. However, in a diversity of fields such as sociology, economics, and political science, it has been shown that the rate of publication is much lower for women than for men. The question of whether a systematic relationship exists between gender and…
The political scandals that beset the Conservative Party during the 1980s and 1990s constitute a valuable lens for examining two interrelated areas of study: the changing power relationship between government and press, and the changing interface between public and private in contemporary discourse. Close discursive analysis of the press coverage of these scandals--and of the libel actions that resulted from them--highlights the extent to which the Thatcher administration and the tabloid press propagated a shared moral discourse, founded on the repudiation of 'permissiveness', and a return to the ideal of the patriarchal nuclear family. This alliance transformed the way in which the Conservative message was communicated, disseminated, and indeed constituted, yet ultimately proved to be a double-edged sword. By catalysing the disintegration of the boundary between public and private in political life, and investing the press with the power to mould and configure public expectations of sexual morality, Thatcher laid the groundwork for the eventual fall of the Major administration, in the wake of a long series of financial and sexual scandals. As such, this article offers insights into a hitherto unexamined aspect of Thatcher's legacy, and the unprecedented influence of the press in late twentieth-century politics.
Bigelow, B; Arndt, M; Stone, M M
Hospitals engage in a variety of strategies designed to anticipate, shape, and respond to public policy issues. This article describes corporate political strategy and argues for its need throughout a public policy issue's life cycle.
Samuel, Kari A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Williams, Rebecca S
Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) advertise low prices for tobacco products, subverting public health policy efforts to curtail smoking by raising prices. Many online retailers in the United States claim affiliation with Native American tribes and share in tribal tax-free status. Sales of discounted cigarettes from both online vendors and brick-and-mortar stores have angered non-Native retailers and triggered enforcement actions by state and federal governments in the United States concerned over lost cigarette excise tax revenue. Examination of the history and politics of cigarette sales on reservations and attempts to regulate Internet cigarette sales highlights the potential role for greater use of negotiated intergovernmental agreements to address reservation-based tobacco sales. Our review notes global parallels and explicates history and politics of such regulation in the United States, and offers background for collaborative efforts to regulate tobacco sales and decrease tobacco use.
Gollust, Sarah E; Baum, Nancy M; Jacobson, Peter D
As public health practitioners are no doubt aware, public health practice and politics are closely linked. Although theoretical discussion of the emerging field of public health ethics has been rich, scholars have paid little attention to the relationship between ethical issues and politics in public health practice. We conducted semistructured interviews with 45 public health practitioners across a range of occupations (eg, health officers, medical directors, sanitarians, nurses, educators, and commissioners) working at 12 local health departments across Michigan and the state health department. Practitioners were asked to describe the ethical issues they faced in their daily practice. Ethical issues that resulted from the political environment emerged as one major category of ethical issues our interviewees described. This article illustrates how political issues engender ethical challenges in 4 main areas: public health agenda-setting, political pressures, political conflicts with best practices, and the scope of public health practice. The findings suggest that politics and public health ethics intrinsically intersect, because political pressures and priorities often impose ethical challenges that practitioners negotiate in their daily work.
Kriukov O.; Pakhnin M.
The paper considers the main aspects of public authorities’ interaction with media in the modern political process. The specific features of interaction between public authorities and mass media in the modern political process are determined. A distinction is made between the concepts of “communication media” and “mass media”, the results of which is that the above concepts are not identical.
ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A.), is a State-owned company, founded in 1984 and is responsible for radioactive waste management in Spain. ENRESA's activities are carried out in accordance with a General Radioactive Waste Plan approved by the Spanish Government. In Spain, as in most countries, the public is concerned about many of the activities involving radioactivity or rad waste management; this concern arises for different reasons, being one of them the lack of information on the matter. This situation often leads to an information misuse by certain politicians, green groups and media, which can increase the distrust of the public to responsible companies and institutions. At the root of both these problems there is also a lack of political consensus regarding projects and related activities. To gain public acceptance, it is necessary to develop a long-term information policy since, in the field of communication, results can only be achieved in the long term. ENRESA is carrying out an on-going Communication Plan (CP), implemented successfully in the areas surrounding a low and intermediate level waste disposal site and a 500 MW nuclear power station (Vandellos 1) which is currently being dismantled. Implementation of this plan at national level is being accomplished stepwise. This document deals with the most relevant issues relating to the radioactive waste situation in Spain and with the efforts made in communications. From the very beginning the situation regarding public opinion was one of clear opposition. At regional level, and particularly in the area surrounding the El Cabril site, both the general public and the opinion leaders were opposed to any action by ENRESA. This opposition included some anti-ENRESA demonstrations right in front of the main entrance to El Cabril. At national level politicians, journalists, etc., did not show much confidence in ENRESA's activities, and the information published in the newspapers was always
In the social sciences, inquiry into the relationship between storytelling and politics is based on a notion of historical continuity. One problem is the possible trap of inevitability inherent in this notion--that something which happened "had to happen". Hannah Arendt's conception of political theory as storytelling overcomes this trap,…
Nir, Adam E.; Kafle, Bhojraj Sharma
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary analysis to evaluate the implications of political stability for educational quality, evident in the survival rate measure. Design/methodology/approach: Secondary analyses were conducted for data drawn from the Political Risk Service Report, the World Bank Report, the United Nations…
Herwartz, Helmut; Theilen, Bernd
In this article, we examined if partisan ideology and electoral motives influence public healthcare expenditure (HCE) in countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. We distinguished between the effects on the growth of the expenditures and its adjustment to violations of a long-run equilibrium linking HCE with macroeconomic and demographic trends. Regarding the influence of partisan ideology, we found that if governments are sufficiently long in power, right-wing governments spend less on public health than their left-wing counterparts. Furthermore, if a right-wing party governs without coalition partners, it responds more strongly to deviations from the long-run HCE equilibrium than left-wing governments. With regard to electoral motives, we found that health expenditure increases in years of elections. Independent of their partisan ideology, single-party (minority) governments induce higher (lower) growth of public HCE. Each of these political factors by its own may increase (decrease) HCE growth by approximately one percentage point. Given an average annual growth of HCE of approximately 4.1%, political factors turn out to be important determinants of trends in public HCE. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
O. A. Tretyak
Full Text Available Introduction. According to Jürgen Habermas, a contradiction between the system and the life-world signifies a need for a concept that would describe the projective space of a relaxed and undistorted human communicative activity. Communicative action as a societal basis of the public sphere links this concept to the pragmatic principles of human existence in modern society. The public sphere is important in the age of the cyber revolution and the rule of networking technologies and it gets an anthropological dimension in its definition of the modern individual. Reviewed from the view of the interdisciplinary scientific community the public sphere as a dimension of human identity that is manifested in standardized terms of communicative interactions. The paper suggests that the public sphere has lost its conflict mode in respect to power and the tech-savvy social system. Purpose. The paper aims to establish the specifics of the anthropological interpretation of the public sphere in the contemporary philosophical tradition. Methodology. General scientific and special methods of philosophical research are used for conducting this study. The author has used the descriptive method to define the subject area of the anthropic measurement of the public sphere of politics. The method of logical synthesis allows to combine the abstract and specific content of the anthropological dimension of publicity. A retrospective analysis allows to determine the temporal peculiarities of the anthropic meaning of the public sphere. The comparative method gives an opportunity to compare the empirical manifestations of social and political publicity and compare anthropological effects of the media and interpersonal communication activities of modern people. Theoretical basis and results. The article examines the anthropological content of the public sphere of politics as one of the key concepts of communicative theory paying attention to the modification of the nature
Full Text Available The article dealt with Rawlsian idea of public reason as a convergence point of his conception of political liberalism. The idea of public reason is taken as a norm of political justification a as well as a political ideal. Major lines of criticism of the Rawls' conception are also discussed in the article. The conclusion is that is possible to defend major elements of Rawls' conception against criticism along Rawlsian lines of argumentation. The thesis advocated through the text is that it is significant legacy of Rawls' conception of public reason that it discloses limitations of political ideal of liberal democracy. It is argued that one important consequence is that liberalism has to disclaim its own moral superiority in order to make political ideal viable. The other is that any particular society has to find its moral bases in public reason of particular society, that is burdened with peculiar culture and history. .
Full Text Available The article bears on the trajectories of General Rafael Uribe Uribe (1859-1914 and the political leader Jorge Eliecer Gaitán (1898-1948 by the examination of literary and biographic texts. Uribe inspired Gabriel García Márquez (1928- in his creation of the protagonist of the novel "One Hundred Years of Solitude". Márquez's career as a writer began in 1948, when Gaitán died. The assassination of this leader resulted in the so-called 'Violence', catalyzed with the impossibility, within the Colombian political field, of the social transformation from the 'bottom up', proposed by Gaitán. It is interesting to examine in the historicity of myths and practices of Colombian political culture, the singular circumstances of the assassination of these two leaders.
Stetson, Dorothy M; Githens, Marianne
" ... focuses on current abortion policy and practice in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan and aims to provide a comprehensive, stimulating, and balanced picture of current abortion politics...
Bel i Queralt, Germà, 1963-; González Gómez, Francisco; Picazo Tadeo, Andrés José
Political corruption is a type of market failure. One area of public policy where corruption is relatively common is the contracting out of public services. Private firms can improve their chances of obtaining contracts by bribing politicians or public servants and funding political parties. In the same vein, firms can gain access to policy makers by hiring influential former politicians –a practice commonly referred to as revolving-doors. In Spain, a number of corruption cases, involving all...
Spruyt, Bram; Kuppens, Toon
Education based thinking and behaving? Towards and identity perspective for studying education differentials in public opinion and political participation Abstract Ever since scholars started studying public opinion and political behaviour, they have reported substantial educational differences.
This article explores and discusses the ongoing attempt to reinstate an ethos of neutrality in public administration. It focuses on the political benefits and costs of contemporary strategies in public administration for using expertise based on an ethos of neutrality. On the one hand, expertise...... may serve to allow a particular form of value neutrality that curbs abuse of political office, questions received wisdom on the efficacy of policy interventions, and thereby holds the potential to minimize the waste of public resources employed to meet political goals. On the other hand, the use...
van der Heijden, H.A.
This book examines how the European environmental movement, as part of an emerging European civil society, has impinged on the problem definitions and solution strategies in the European politics of the environment. Examining core case studies in European environmental policy - biodiversity politics
Valverde, María Eugenia Rojas
This article shows the significance of the problems of political harassment and violence against women in positions of political responsibility in Bolivia. This phenomenon is seen in both rural and urban areas and transcends borders. It has been shown that these attacks constitute a violation of women's civil and political rights and a threat to the physical and mental health of women leaders in Bolivia. Furthermore, there is no punishment of guilty parties, reparation, or moral or material compensation for the women who are affected. In Bolivia, gender-based harassment and violence is a fundamental barrier to women's political participation. However, this phenomenon is still not addressed by government programs and is not part of the public discourse and debate. In spite of the measures taken to promote women's political participation, several different administrations have been unable to guarantee women the capacity to occupy positions of responsibility without being threatened or harassed. The results of our research led to a bill addressing this problem. Subsequently, Ecuador took this bill as an example and replicated it in a legislative initiative. These results show the importance of research by organizations that represent women in preventing unjust situations and health problems.
In recent years there has been a re-appraisal within political science of the characteristics of various kinds of public policy failure. At the same time, the political significance of education has grown in most liberal democracies. The present paper examines public policy in British education since the mid-1970s and asks: What goes wrong in…
Indeed, as ecological issues have moved to the top of the agenda of international politics, environmentalism appears in many cases to have lost the spirit of contention, limiting itself to the provision of survival strategies for the powers that be. As a result, in recent years a discourse of global ecology has developed that is ...
Bernier, Nicole F; Clavier, Carole
The past few years have seen the emergence of claims that the political determinants of health do not get due consideration and a growing demand for better insights into public policy analysis in the health research field. Several public health and health promotion researchers are calling for better training and a stronger research culture in health policy. The development of these studies tends to be more advanced in health promotion than in other areas of public health research, but researchers are still commonly caught in a naïve, idealistic and narrow view of public policy. This article argues that the political science discipline has developed a specific approach to public policy analysis that can help to open up unexplored levers of influence for public health research and practice and that can contribute to a better understanding of public policy as a determinant of health. It describes and critiques the public health model of policy analysis, analyzes political science's specific approach to public policy analysis, and discusses how the politics of research provides opportunities and barriers to the integration of political science's distinctive contributions to policy analysis in health promotion.
Shklovski, Irina; Valtysson, Bjarki
The proliferation of networked forms of communication has captured the attention of media and scholars alike. We have never had quite as many resources for communication as we have today, and such communicative potential has implications for social change. In this article we consider public spheres...... that emerge through communication in the digital realm, paying atten- tion to how networked publics operate within such spheres. We present results from a study of a popular local online discussion forum in Kazakhstan. Steeped in Habermas’s idea of the public sphere, this study focuses on cultural public...... spheres defined through engagement and participation of diverse publics. We consider a range of publics that might emerge, such as mundane-publics, issue-publics, and counter-publics and how these differ in their content and purpose. While the majority of work on networked publics has been situated...
This report examines the value of the public rail infrastructure of Groningen Seaports, the port authority of Delfzijl and Eemshaven. There is substantial strategic value of public rail infrastructure due to the public good character, the mission of Groningen Seaports, the image of full port
Janaina Xavier do Nascimento
Full Text Available The present text focuses on issues of gender inequality and public policy in Brazil today. My major goals are as follows: 1 to provide an analysis of gender inequality in Brazilian society through an examination of the three key arenas of labor, political representation and science and 2 to examine both the advances and the challenges that persist in confronting inequality through public policies on gender. To these ends, I employ secondary data, obtained from three different official sources (IBGE, TSE and CNPq. Lastly, I argue that while the policies that have been implemented can be linked to significant progress in the three above-mentioned arenas, we are still quite far from a real reversal of the current situation of deep inequality, persisting, above all, in the field of political representation.
Police brutality, a longstanding civil rights issue, has returned to the forefront of American public debate. A growing body of public health research shows that excessive use of force by police and racial profiling have adverse effects on health for African Americans and other marginalized groups. Yet, interventions to monitor unlawful policing have been met with fierce opposition at the federal, state, and local levels. On April 30, 2015, the mayor of Newark, New Jersey signed an executive order establishing a Civilian Complaint Review Board (CCRB) to monitor the Newark Police Department (NPD). Using a mixed-methods approach, this study examined how advocates and government actors accomplished this recent policy change in the face of police opposition and after a 50-year history of unsuccessful attempts in Newark. Drawing on official public documents, news media, and interviews conducted in April and May 2015, I propose that: (1) a Department of Justice investigation of the NPD, (2) the activist background of the Mayor and his relationships with community organizations, and (3) the momentum provided by the national Black Lives Matter movement were pivotal in overcoming political obstacles to reform. Examining the history of CCRB adoption in Newark suggests when and where advocates may intervene to promote policing reforms in other US cities.
Full Text Available The American sociologist Charles Horton Cooley defined public opinion "as a process of interaction and mutual influence rather than a state of broad agreement" in 1918. On the other hand, according to the American political scientist V.O. Key, public opinion was "opinions held by private persons which governments find it prudent to heed," in 1961. During the 1990s, advances in statistical and demographic analysis helped the development of an understanding of public opinion as the collective view of a defined population, such as a particular demographic or ethnic group. In this view, the influence of public opinion is not restricted to politics and elections. Public opinion is considered a powerful force in many other spheres, such as culture, fashion, literature and the arts, consumer spending, and marketing and public relations.1 Attitudes and values play a crucial role in the development of public opinion. Different variables embedded in the political, social and media structure of the country also have potential to make an impact on public opinion. These dynamics vary from the economics to the judicial system and democratic principles functioning in that country. On the other hand, public opinion has a power to shape politics and media's priorities in reporting. The interaction among politics, public opinion and media of one country can be better analyzed with the findings of public opinion research administered regularly. In Turkey, the research on and analysis of public opinion are most frequent during the election times. Therefore, it seems necessary to measure the public opinion more regularly to test the relationships among political, public and media agendas. Accordingly, the current study seeks to fill this gap. It is argued that in the absence of timely feedback from public surveys, decisions and policies for improving different services and institutions functioning in the country might not achieve their expected goal. The findings of
Smith, K E; Stewart, E A
The role of 'advocacy' within public health attracts considerable debate but is rarely the subject of empirical research. This paper reviews the available literature and presents data from qualitative research (interviews and focus groups conducted in the UK in 2011-2013) involving 147 professionals (working in academia, the public sector, the third sector and policy settings) concerned with public health in the UK. It seeks to address the following questions: (i) What is public health advocacy and how does it relate to research?; (ii) What role (if any) do professionals concerned with public health feel researchers ought to play in advocacy?; and (iii) For those researchers who do engage in advocacy, what are the risks and challenges and to what extent can these be managed/mitigated? In answering these questions, we argue that two deeply contrasting conceptualisations of 'advocacy' exist within public health, the most dominant of which ('representational') centres on strategies for 'selling' public health goals to decision-makers and the wider public. This contrasts with an alternative (less widely employed) conceptualisation of advocacy as 'facilitational'. This approach focuses on working with communities whose voices are often unheard/ignored in policy to enable their views to contribute to debates. We argue that these divergent ways of thinking about advocacy speak to a more fundamental challenge regarding the role of the public in research, policy and practice and the activities that connect these various strands of public health research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
The study of political legitimacy is divided between prescriptive and descriptive approaches. Political philosophy regards legitimacy as principled justification, sociology regards legitimacy as public support. However, all people can, and occasionally do engage in morally reasoning their political life. This paper thus submits that in studying socio-political legitimation - the legitimacy-making process - the philosophical ought and the sociological is can be bridged. I call this construct 'public political thought' (PPT), signifying the public's principled moral reasoning of politics, which need not be democratic or liberal. The paper lays PPT's foundations and identifies its 'builders' and 'building blocks'. I propose that the edifice of PPT is built by moral agents constructing and construing socio-moral order (nomization). PPT's building blocks are justificatory common beliefs (doxa) and the deliberative language of legitimation. I illustrate the merits of this groundwork through two empirical puzzles: the end of apartheid and the emergence of Québécois identity. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.
Michael C Horowitz
The possibility that today’s drones could become tomorrow’s killer robots has attracted the attention of people around the world. Scientists and business leaders, from Stephen Hawking to Elon Musk, recently signed a letter urging the world to ban autonomous weapons. Part of the argument against these systems is that they violate the public conscience provision of the Martens Clause due to public opposition, making them illegal under international law. What, however, does the US public think o...
Michael C Horowitz
Full Text Available The possibility that today’s drones could become tomorrow’s killer robots has attracted the attention of people around the world. Scientists and business leaders, from Stephen Hawking to Elon Musk, recently signed a letter urging the world to ban autonomous weapons. Part of the argument against these systems is that they violate the public conscience provision of the Martens Clause due to public opposition, making them illegal under international law. What, however, does the US public think of these systems? Existing research suggests widespread US public opposition, but focused on support for autonomous weapons in a vacuum. This paper uses two survey experiments to test the conditions in which public opposition rises and falls. The results demonstrate that public opposition to autonomous weapons is contextual. Fear of other countries or non-state actors developing these weapons makes the public significantly more supportive of developing them. The public also becomes much more willing to actually use autonomous weapons when their use would protect US forces. Beyond contributing to ongoing academic debates about casualty aversion, the microfoundations of foreign policy, and weapon systems, these results suggest the need for modesty when making claims about how the public views new, unknown technologies such as autonomous weapons.
Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda
Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship among gender, family, and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of "doing gender," we argue that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors, such as household decision-making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender.
Catalina Maria GEORGESCU
Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach which combines the theoretical, empirical andconceptual dimensions, the present study tries to offer a new workperspective on the assessment and modeling of the relation between themanagement of public organizations and the political environment. Thetheoretical research was centered on reviewing the literature on the relationbetween the management of public organizations and the politicalenvironment. The empirical research was materialized by modeling with theregression technique of several aspects integrated to the relations betweenthe management of human resources within public organizations in theeducation field and the external political environment.
Koopmans, R.; Erbe, J.
In this paper we address the alleged communication or public sphere deficit of the EU. We develop a systematic approach to the Europeanization of public spheres, which distinguishes three forms of Europeanized political communication: supranational, vertical and horizontal. We propose that the
O'Neill, Patrick B.; Harsell, Dana Michael
The authors describe the theoretical preparation provided to students in advance of a limited-duration experiential learning experience in Washington DC in a Master's level course for students in Business or Public Administration. The students consider theoretical perspectives from economics, political science, and public administration with…
Full Text Available The present study seeks to investigate the impact of organizational politics on employee performance in the public sector organizations. The study developed a framework on the basis of an extensive literature review which was then tested to provide an empirical insight about the proposed relationships. The data were collected from the employees of 15 public sector organizations in Pakistan. The data was statistically analyzed using regression analysis. The results revealed that organizational politics have a significant impact on employee performance. The findings of the study reinforce that the management needs to understand the perception of employees about the organizational politics prevailing in their organizations and have to adopt strategies that would minimize the perception of organizational politics and enhance employee performance. The present study has been conducted in a developing economy; therefore, the findings of the present study are partially generalized able to other developing economies as well. The future researchers can also perform the studies in other settings.
Jerez, Ariel; Maceiras, Sergio D'Antonio; Maestu, Enrique
The rise of the political party Podemos, within the context of a crisis in political representation, can be explained from a perspective of transformative interactions between public spheres, social movements and new technologies. The emergence of the 15M movement allowed Podemos to offer a new diagnosis of politics that has been actively promoted on social media, which represent a true campaign platform for low-budget parties. An analysis of Twitter and Facebook reveals the rapid growth of Podemos, its prominence on social networks, the profile of its followers and its most influential publications in these new discourses. Lastly, we analyze the challenges for this type of party in terms of incorporating into the political panorama in Spain and in Europe.
Gagnon, France; Bergeron, Pierre; Clavier, Carole; Fafard, Patrick; Martin, Elisabeth; Blouin, Chantal
Written by a group of political science researchers, this commentary focuses on the contributions of political science to public health and proposes research avenues to increase those contributions. Despite progress, the links between researchers from these two fields develop only slowly. Divergences between the approach of political science to public policy and the expectations that public health can have about the role of political science, are often seen as an obstacle to collaboration between experts in these two areas. Thus, promising and practical research avenues are proposed along with strategies to strengthen and develop them. Considering the interdisciplinary and intersectoral nature of population health, it is important to create a critical mass of researchers interested in the health of populations and in healthy public policy that can thrive working at the junction of political science and public health. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
In 31 August 2016, Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff was impeached and replaced by her vice president Michel Temer. Herein, we examine how the conservative agenda of Mr Temer and his supporters is influencing key decisions in the human rights and public health arena in Brazil. The government's austerity agenda includes severe cuts in critical areas such as health, education and science, jeopardising well-known strategies such as the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) and nationwide cash transfer program, 'Bolsa Familia' - both benefited millions and were the largest of their kind in the world. Mr Temer's decisions show not only severe cuts in critical areas but also a political agenda that clearly demonstrates a broad shift away from the progressivism and social agenda presented and supported by its predecessors. Most vulnerable groups such as the LGBTQ community, women, people who use drugs and disenfranchised communities have been severely affected. Mr Temer's administration is putting Brazil far from its once nationwide goal to foster free and universal health care access and social equity for all its citizens. The near future for Brazil is unknown, but both national and international communities anticipate severe problems within the national human rights arena, if nothing changes. CCT: Conditional Cash Transfer; LGBTQ: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer (and/or Questioning); SUS: Brazilian Public Health System.
Kronick, Robert F.
Examined effectiveness of methods used by public and private institutions' handling of incarcerated delinquents. Concluded that organizational culture is key concept in delivery of services to incarcerated children and youth; that private sector provides alternative to public in delivery of services; that alcohol and drug treatment programs are…
Protecting the public's health has always been an inherently political endeavor. The field of public health, however, is conspicuously and persistently absent from sustained, sophisticated engagement in political processes, particularly elections, that determine policy outcomes. This results, in large part, from widespread misunderstanding of rules governing how, and how much, public advocates working in tax-exempt organizations can participate in public policy development. This article briefly summarizes the rules governing public policy engagement by exempt organizations. It then describes different types of exempt organizations, and how they can work together to expand engagement. Next, it identifies several key mechanisms of policy development that public health advocates could influence. Finally, it suggests some methods of applying the tax rules to increase participation in these arenas.
Failure of high-level waste repository might impose high radiation doses on a few people, or very low doses on many people: no failure that has been identified can impose high doses on many people. Thus the public's perception of rad wastes posing a serious threat to human well-being is unjustified. Nevertheless, in democracies such as the U.S.A., public concern has risen to a point where the future of waste disposal, and therefore of nuclear energy, is in jeopardy. This paper argues that the waste dilemma might be resolved if skeptical elites can be convinced that rad wastes, if properly handled, do not pose the threat commonly perceived by the public. This may require development of inherently safe packaging, such as the copper canisters adopted in Sweden
Cullerton, Katherine; Donnet, Timothy; Lee, Amanda; Gallegos, Danielle
Poor dietary intake is the most important behavioural risk factor affecting health globally. Despite this, there has been little investment in public health nutrition policy actions. Policy process theories from the field of political science can aid understanding why policy decisions have occurred and identify how to influence ongoing or future initiatives. The present review aims to examine public health nutrition policy literature and identify whether a policy process theory has been used to analyse the process. Electronic databases were searched systematically for studies examining policy making in public health nutrition in high-income, democratic countries. International, national, state and local government jurisdictions within high-income, democratic countries. Individuals and organisations involved in the nutrition policy-making process. Sixty-three studies met the eligibility criteria, most were conducted in the USA and a majority focused on obesity. The analysis demonstrates an accelerating trend in the number of nutrition policy papers published annually and an increase in the diversity of nutrition topics examined. The use of policy process theory was observed from 2003; however, it was utilised by only 14 % of the reviewed papers. There is limited research into the nutrition policy process in high-income countries. While there has been a small increase in the use of policy process theory from 2003, an opportunity to expand its use is evident. We suggest that nutrition policy making would benefit from a pragmatic approach that ensures those trying to influence or understand the policy-making process are equipped with basic knowledge around these theories.
Roč. 4, č. 4 (2010), s. 52-61 ISSN 1671-4318 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : public reason * liberalism * John Rawls Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
. The article surveys issues of differential geographies of access, weighting of posts, value-creation, orality and gesture, algorithmic governmentality, and Big Data and knowledge production. It argues that social media constitute a public from a mass of individualized, private postings. It concludes...
Dorman, William A.
The media have a lot to do with how people think and what people think about. The line between popular culture and news has virtually disappeared, giving rise to what some have labeled "infotainment." At the same time, "fake news" in the form of publicity that promoters provide to media outlets under the guise of legitimate…
Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen
The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the actual street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the service area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared...
de Vreese, C.H.; Elenbaas, M.
News media often engage in strategy framing when covering politics, including strategic press and publicity coverage coined to express the focus on the media's role in the game of politics, as well as politicians’ calculated publicity and public relations efforts in relation to the media. This study
This paper presents a novel theory of corruption in public procurement. It considers an agency setting of contract execution where the principal is a politician who can commit to a contract auditing policy. It is found that a benevolent politician, by choosing a sufficiently strict auditing, deters the contracting firm from padding costs, conversely, a selfish politician chooses a relatively lax auditing in order to create an incentive for cost-padding, and engages in corruption with the firm...
Rafael Fernando dos Santos; Angelina Cortelazzi Bolzam
This article was elaborated in order to analyze issues relating to the judicialization of cases involving health, understanding health as a public policy aimed at to guarantee the fundamental right to it linked, that is, the concept of health that the authos intended to work is not far from that contained in the combined reading of Articles 6 and 196 of the Constitution, consecrators to be the health, universal right and duty of the state, guaranteed through social and economic policies aimed...
Vraga, Emily; Myers, Teresa; Kotcher, John; Beall, Lindsey; Maibach, Ed
Many scientists communicate with the public about risks associated with scientific issues, but such communication may have unintended consequences for how the public views the political orientations and the credibility of the communicating scientist. We explore this possibility using an experiment with a nationally representative sample of Americans in the fall of 2015. We find that risk communication on controversial scientific issues sometimes influences perceptions of the political orientations and credibility of the communicating scientist when the scientist addresses the risks of issues associated with conservative or liberal groups. This relationship is moderated by participant political ideology, with liberals adjusting their perceptions of the scientists' political beliefs more substantially when the scientist addressed the risks of marijuana use when compared with other issues. Conservatives' political perceptions were less impacted by the issue context of the scientific risk communication but indirectly influenced credibility perceptions. Our results support a contextual model of audience interpretation of scientific risk communication. Scientists should be cognizant that audience members may make inferences about the communicating scientist's political orientations and credibility when they engage in risk communication efforts about controversial issues.
Full Text Available The article discusses the skeptical view that on-line forms of politial participation have thus far had only little importance for democracy. Based on an analysis of the interplay between the supply of, and the demands for, e-tools for political informaiton and deliberation at the local level in Denmark, it is concluded that the skeptical view is con- firmed to some extent; however, It is also shown that something more - as well as something new - is added to the local political public, both in terms of the citizens involved and the topics discussed. Further- more, the case study indicates that online deliberations have had a number of minor effects on local political opinionformation and deci- sion-making. Thus, the overall conclusion is that a local forum of digital deliberations has the potential to form an alternative channel for raising issues and forming a vehicle for involving more citizens in politics, including citizens with weak resources.
Despite generations of research, political scientists have trouble pinpointing the influence of political parties on public opinion. Recently, scholars have made headway in exploring whether parties in fact shape policy preferences by relying on experimental designs. Yet, the evidence from...... this work is mixed. I argue that the typical experiment faces a design problem that likely minimizes the extent to which parties apparently matter. Because parties have policy reputations, experimental participants may already know from real-world exposure to political debate where the parties stand before...... they are told in the experiment—they are “pretreated.” This study investigates how real-world political context interferes with party cue stimulus in experiments. In two experiments I show that two types of “pretreatment” from outside the experiment—exposure-based and reputation-based—dramatically moderate...
In 2010, the political advocacy of undocumented immigrant students in support of the DREAM Act took a new and decisive direction when the public disclosure of undocumented status as political act was adopted. This new political strategy included the first case of civil disobedience practiced by a group of undocumented immigrant students now known…
In the area of public utilities, the member states of the European Union (EU) have agreed on ambitious policies to open up markets for competition and to regulate these markets. To have the expected effect, these policies have to be implemented effectively. In this book it is demonstrated that this is problematic; difficulties appear already in the first step of transposing the directives into national legislation. The analysis of an original quantitative data set including all public utilities directives and their transposition in five member states - the Netherlands, Germany, the United Kingdom, Spain, and Greece - shows that almost two thirds of all cases are transposed after the deadlines that are included in the directives. In order to explain problems with the implementation of EU policies, three main types of variables are used in the literature, namely political, administrative, and institutional variables. In recent literature on transposition the focus is on political explanations. However, despite a surge of attention for transposition there is no consensus regarding which type of variable is most important. In this book the focus on political variables is addressed. It is examined if such a focus is well founded, and whether and how different types of variables combine in order to produce the transposition outcome. To this end, a novel approach is taken by developing a theoretical framework that applies implementation theory to transposition. In this framework the three types of variables in the literature on transposition are combined in one coherent framework. The theoretical framework is applied mainly in a case study setting. The transposition of two packages of directives in the fields of telecommunications and energy in the Netherlands, Germany and Greece is studied in detail. The main conclusion is that political factors play an important role for the timeliness of transposition, but that a number of 'mediating' variables of institutional
Rafael Fernando dos Santos
Full Text Available This article was elaborated in order to analyze issues relating to the judicialization of cases involving health, understanding health as a public policy aimed at to guarantee the fundamental right to it linked, that is, the concept of health that the authos intended to work is not far from that contained in the combined reading of Articles 6 and 196 of the Constitution, consecrators to be the health, universal right and duty of the state, guaranteed through social and economic policies aimed at to reduce the risk of disease and other becomes, ensuring also the universal and equal access to actions and services for its promotion, protection and recovery. With this approach it is intended to analyze the feasibility and consequences of judicial control of social and economic policies of promotion, protection and recovery, access, anyway, the effective flow to the fundamental right. Relating to the methodological aspects employed in the analysis of the issue concerning to the health, it was searched in the interpretation of constitutional provisions that secure the subjective right the starting point of the analysis as well as the unwavering appreciation of inseparability of judicial control in the context of public policy, assessing possible limits of the judicial branch, and then to realize a brief analysis of previous trial in the Supreme Court and extract from this jurisprudencial context the minimum goals for aspects of health judicialization.
Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana
Key place in this paper takes the study of political speech in the Republic of Croatia and their impact on voters, or which keywords are in political speeches and public appearances of politicians in Croatia that their voting body wants to hear. Given listed below we will define the research topic in the form of a question - is there a discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia, and which keywords are specific to the two main regions in Croatia and that inhabitant these regions respond. Marcus Tullius Cicero, the most important Roman orator, he used a specific associative mnemonic technique that is called "technique room". He would talk expound on keywords and conceptual terms that he needed for the desired topic and join in these make them, according to the desired order, in a very creative and unique way, the premises of the house or palace, which he knew well. Then, while holding the speech intended to pass through rooms of the house or palace and then put keywords and concepts come to mind, again according to the desired order. Given that this is a specific kind of research political speech that is relatively recent in Croatia, it should be noted that there is still, this kind of political communication is not sufficiently explored. Particularly the emphasis on the impact and use of keywords specific to the Republic of Croatia, in everyday public and political communication. The paper will be analyzed the political, campaign speeches and promises several winning candidates, and now Croatian MEPs, specific keywords related to: economics, culture, science, education and health. The analysis is based on comparison of the survey results on the representation of key words in the speeches of politicians and qualitative analysis of the speeches of politicians on key words during the election campaign.
Mayer, Martin; Kenter, Robert; Morris, John C
States' policy decisions regarding the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 have often been explained as predominantly, if not solely, partisan. Might rival explanations also apply? Using a cross-sectional 50-state regression model, we studied standard political variables coupled with public-health indicators. This work differs from existing research by employing a dependent variable of five additive measures of ACA support, examining the impact of both political and socioeconomic indicators on state policy decisions. Expanding on recent empirical studies with our more nuanced additive index of support measures, we found that same-party control of a state's executive and legislative branches was indeed by far the single best predictor of policy decisions. Public-health indicators, overwhelmed by partisan effect, did not sufficiently explain state policy choice. This result does not allay the concerns that health policy has become synonymous with health politics and that health politics now has little to do with health itself.
Deemer, Danielle R.; Lobao, Linda M.
The welfare of farm animals has become a continuing source of controversy as states seek greater regulation over the livestock industry. However, empirical studies addressing the determinants of public concern for farm-animal welfare are limited. Religion and politics, two institutional bases of attitudes, are rarely explored. Nor have…
Harsman, Bjorn; Quigley, John M.
Studies of the "stated preferences" of households generally report public and political opposition by urban commuters to congestion pricing. It is thought that this opposition inhibits or precludes tolls and pricing systems that would enhance efficiency in the use of scarce roadways. This paper analyzes the only case in which road…
Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.
We explore the dynamics of public debt and optimal institutions in the presence of political shocks arising from electoral uncertainty. Under commitment, optimal stabilization is established by combining an inflation target with a debt target. The inflation target should be contingent on the
Schneider, Carsten Q; Bochsler, Daniel; Chiru, Mihail
This article offers a new empirical perspective on the state of Comparative Politics (CP) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). We present findings on the authors, methods, and epistemology of CP publications in the most relevant journals from eleven countries in the region. The major finding...
In many language policy and political theory discussions, there is an overt skepticism, and at times outright hostility, towards the ongoing maintenance of private and, especially, public multilingualism, particularly when these include/incorporate the languages of linguistic minorities. For linguistic minority individuals, ongoing multilingualism…
This article discusses three questions: what is the purpose of ‘democratic’ institutions and practices in Russia's authoritarian political system; how do these institutions and practices resonate with Russian public opinion; and how do they relate to the international democracy-promotion effort in
Clark, M P
Politicians in the US have made adolescent parents the scapegoat of changing cultural patterns by suggesting punitive solutions to nonmarital births rather than addressing underlying causes of premature child-bearing. It is known that the percentages of young people of all races and all social classes reporting early, nonmarital sexual intercourse have increased dramatically, while adolescent fertility rates peaked in the 1950s. Improved access to contraception and abortion caused a decline in teen pregnancy and birth rates from 1970 to 1986. During 1986-91, service providers could not match growing demand, and the birth rate increased 25%. Increased rates of sexual activity have also led to increases in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS among adolescents. This situation was exacerbated by Reagan and Bush policies, which reduced funding for services to adolescents and supported abstinence-only sex education courses. The concern voiced by policy-makers today centers on nonmarital childbearing by low-income adolescents who will rely on public assistance to survive. A proper response to this situation would involve the following policy actions: 1) mandating comprehensive sexuality education from kindergarten through high school, 2) funding mentoring programs, 3) improving economic and educational opportunities, 4) expanding STD and HIV/AIDS prevention programs, 5) increasing access to confidential health services (including mental health care and substance abuse treatment), 6) expanding child sexual abuse prevention and intervention programs, and 7) increasing access to and acceptability of teen contraceptive usage and abortion.
This article examines the emergence of the public university in Kenya as a key provider of private higher education, characterised mainly by the phenomenon of the "private public university student." It probes the broader socio-economic reforms circumscribing the privatisation of Kenya's public universities and the local and global…
Olson-Hazboun, Shawn K.
Increased use of renewable energy sources in the generation of electricity is a crucial component of transitioning to a less polluting energy system in the United States. Technologies like solar photovoltaic cells and wind turbines are being deployed at a rapid rate around the country, which means that an increasing portion of the public is becoming aware of renewable energy systems. The construction of these new industrial facilities has resulted in a variety of public reactions, positive and negative. Citizen opposition has been widely observed toward a variety of renewable energy facilities, and citizen groups can influence policy-making at the national, state, and local levels. Further research is needed to understand under what circumstances the public may take oppositional stances. To examine this topic, I analyze public perceptions of renewable energy using three different datasets. First, I used data from a survey conducted in 2014 in five communities in Utah, Wyoming, and Idaho experiencing renewable energy development (n=906). This dataset allowed me to untangle what factors help explain both individual as well as community-level variation in support for renewable energy. Second, I employed nationally representative survey data (n=13, 322) collected from 2008 to 2015 to examine the influence of a number of factors hypothesized to shape individuals' level of support for renewable energy policies including socio-demographic characteristics, political beliefs, belief in anthropogenic climate change, and nearby extractive industry activities. Last, I analyzed discourse about renewable energy in sixty-one semi-structured interviews with individuals representing various community sectors in three energy-producing rural communities in Utah. My research findings, on a whole, suggest that several place-based factors are significant in shaping public opinion about renewable energy, including community experience with renewable energy and local economic reliance on
This dissertation analyzes the relationship between the grass-roots antinuclear movement and nuclear energy policy in Japan. In particular, it seeks to explain the lack of impact of the grass-roots antinuclear movement on Japanese nuclear energy policymaking. To explain the lack of political pressure exerted, the author focuses on the lack of open-quotes political opportunitiesclose quotes for the movement. Past studies on antinuclear movements and nuclear energy policymaking of the Western countries indicate that such opportunities are provided in the processes of parliamentary politics, bureaucratic rivalries, central-local governmental conflicts, and judicial intervention in the resolution of political conflicts. The author's study argues that closed political opportunity structure of the Japanese political system has separated the grass-roots antinuclear movement from the national nuclear energy policymaking process by imposing constraints on the development and achievement of the movement. The research shows that: (1) the nature of party conflicts (balance of power and idealogy) in the Japanese parliament tends to discourage the representation of antinuclear interests by opposition parties; (2) the government has successfully prevented antinuclear groups from interfering with the licensing and regulatory processes; and (3) the local governments and courts have failed to intervene in the nuclear energy conflict on behalf of antinuclear groups. The closed opportunity structure has also led the movement to stress the mobilization of public opinion rather than manipulation of institutional access to the policymaking process as its strategy. In addition to well-publicized protest activities and mass demonstrations, electoral campaigns and litigation have also become activities primarily designed to appeal to the public, which has so far failed to indicate strong support for the antinuclear movement
Fátima de Souza Freire
Full Text Available With a view to standardizing the contents offered to future Accounting professionals, the Federal Accounting Council (CFC elaborated the National Proposal for Undergraduate Accountancy Program Contents. Thus, the curriculum that Higher Education Institutions (HEI adopt serves as an ally for students’ professional conquests. Stability and favorable job conditions attract many people to the dispute for a public function, with a growing Braz ilian public competitive examination market. According to the National Association for Protection and Support to Public Competitive Examinations (Anpac, between 2003 and 2009, the number of public servants in the executive power with a higher education degree in Brazil increased by 26%. The aim of this study was to confront the CFC’s suggested knowledge with the contents required during tests applied in public competitive examinations for Accountancy professionals. The intent is to identify what Public Accounting knowledge is demanded from candidates for the public career. Through a documentary research, 561 calls from public competitive examinations exclusively for Accountancy professionals were selected for the study sample. They were classified according to the proposed program contents, the test questions by the Center for Selection and Event Promotion (Cespe, between 2000 and 2009. In conclusion, the most frequent required Public Accounting areas are contents related to Public Equity and Budget. The results demonstrate that the CFC’s suggested content is in line with the knowledge required from candidates for public functions.
Clarke, Christopher E.; Hart, Philip S.; Schuldt, Jonathon P.; Evensen, Darrick T.N.; Boudet, Hilary S.; Jacquet, Jeffrey B.; Stedman, Richard C.
In this article, we examine framing effects regarding unconventional oil and gas extraction using hydraulic fracturing (or fracking): an issue involving considerable controversy over potential impacts as well as terminology used to describe it. Specifically, we explore how two commonly used terms to describe this issue – fracking or shale oil or gas development – serve as issue frames and influence public opinion. Extending existing research, we suggest that these frames elicit different top-of-mind associations that reflect positive or negative connotations and resonate with people's political ideology. These associations, in turn, help explain direct and indirect framing effects on support/opposition as well as whether these effects differ by political ideology. Results of a split-ballot, national U.S. survey (n=1000) reveal that people are more supportive of the energy extraction process when it is referred to as shale oil or gas development versus fracking, and this relationship is mediated by greater perceptions of benefit versus risk. Political ideology did not moderate these effects. Further analysis suggests that these findings are partly explained by the tendency to associate fracking more with negative thoughts and impacts and shale oil or gas development more with positive thoughts and impacts. However, these associations also did not vary by political ideology. We discuss implications for communicating risk regarding energy development. -- Highlights: •How an issue is presented (“framed”) influences how people perceive it. •We applied this premise to oil/gas extraction via hydraulic fracturing (fracking). •We examined two commonly used frames: fracking and shale oil or gas development. •People viewed the former less favorably irrespective of political ideology. •We discuss implications for communicating about energy development impacts
McNeill, Paul M
This paper is a case study in public health ethics. It considers whether there is a basis in ethics for political action by health professionals and their associations in response to inhumane treatment. The issue arises from Australia's treatment of asylum seekers and the charge that this treatment has been both immoral and inhumane. This judgement raises several questions of broader significance in bioethics and of significance to the emerging field of public health ethics. These questions relate to the role of health professionals in response to inhumane treatment of people in their charge; to the discipline of public health in light of a growing recognition of its ethical basis; and the role of public health and bioethical associations in response to ethical issues arising in a political context. It is argued that, in serious cases of humanitarian and human rights abuses affecting health and well-being, there is a case for political action by health professionals, academic and professional institutions, and associations of public health and ethics.
Kazım Özkan ERTÜRK
Public relations is the practice of managing a communication process that aims to build mutual goodwill and trust between organizations and their publics with the help of publicity, information and positive image building efforts. Public information is the public relations approach which aims for providing mutual goodwill and trust by sharing the organization-related information with target audience in complete openness and honesty. Public Information, firstly introduced by Ivy Ledbette...
Falomir-Pichastor, J.M.; Pereira, A.; Staerklé, C.; Butera, F.
This research examined the support for international military interventions as a function of the political system and the public opinion of the target country. In two experiments, we informed participants about a possible military intervention by the international community towards a sovereign
Clarke, Christopher E.; Bugden, Dylan; Hart, P. Sol; Stedman, Richard C.; Jacquet, Jeffrey B.; Evensen, Darrick T.N.; Boudet, Hilary S.
A growing area of research has addressed public perception of unconventional oil and natural gas development via hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”). We extend this research by examining how geographic proximity to such extraction interacts with political ideology to influence issue support. Regression analysis of data from a fall 2013 national telephone survey of United States residents reveals that as respondents’ geographic distance from areas experiencing significant development increases, political ideology becomes more strongly associated with issue support, with the liberal-partisan divide widening. Our findings support construal level theory's central premise: that people use more abstract considerations (like political ideology) the more geographically removed they are from an issue. We discuss implications for studying public opinion of energy development as well as for risk communication. - Highlights: • Conservatives support unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) more than liberals. • This divide widened as geographic distance from UOGD areas increased • Construal Level Theory may help explain this finding • We discuss implications for energy policy and risk communication
Gollust, Sarah E; Attanasio, Laura; Dempsey, Amanda; Benson, Allison M; Fowler, Erika Franklin
In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration licensed a vaccine for the human papillomavirus (HPV) that prevents the strains of HPV that cause 70% of cervical cancers. Within months, many states introduced legislation requiring the vaccine for girls, prompting controversy and heightened political and media attention to the issue. Previous research has shown differences in HPV vaccine awareness by individual-level characteristics such as race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. We examined how individual political orientation and exposure to media coverage can also shape awareness of the vaccine. Using data from a 2009 Internet survey of 1,216 nationally representative adult respondents linked to data on state-specific news coverage, we assessed how political orientation, media exposure, and state political context predicted HPV vaccine awareness. Younger people, women, and those with more education were significantly more likely to be aware of the vaccine. Even after controlling for these characteristics, we found that exposure to news media was associated with higher HPV vaccine awareness. Whereas liberals and conservatives were both more aware of the vaccine compared with moderates, the data are suggestive that liberals were more sensitive to news coverage. These findings suggest that individual-level political identities and their interaction with the informational environment may be important factors to consider in evaluating the determinants of individuals' attitudes and behaviors related to politically charged women's health issues. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quesnel, K.; Roby, N.; Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N.
In the midst of California's current drought, authorities have enacted widespread initiatives aimed at coping with water scarcity, for example the first mandatory statewide urban water use reductions in 2015. But to what extent have these measures resulted in decreased water consumption? To answer this question, our research examines the impact of political actions on water use by using media as a proxy. News media outlets have heavily covered the progression of the California drought, and this outreach has played an important role in disseminating information and raising public awareness. To our knowledge, the relationship between political action/media coverage and water use has yet to be examined. In this study, we extract the number of articles related to the term "California Drought" from six widely-read national and statewide newspapers from 2005 to 2015. We study the relationship between media and monthly urban water use at the utility level using multivariate panel regression and principal components analysis to examine how media interacts with other modes of influence such as climate, price, and the state of the economy and how populations of different socio-demographics are affected by media outreach. We also use daily household-level water use readings from recently installed Automated Meter Infrastructure (AMI) in one utility to examine the relationship on a finer spatiotemporal scale. Using a policy timeline, Google search rates, and newspaper article trends confirms the relationship between political actions, public awareness, and media outreach. Preliminary modeling indicates that media plays a significant role in altering water use patterns for residential customers and in utilities with specific local characteristics.
Gravelle, Timothy B.; Lachapelle, Erick
The politics of oil pipelines have become increasingly salient in American politics in recent years. In particular, debates about economic benefits, energy security and environmental impact have been provoked by the proposed Keystone XL pipeline expansion intended to take bitumen from northern Alberta in Canada to refineries on the Gulf Coast in Texas. Drawing on data from recent surveys conducted by the Pew Research Center, this article asks a series of questions. What levels of support for (and opposition to) the pipeline exist among the American public? What are the roles of political factors (such as party identification and ideology), economic attitudes, environmental attitudes and proximity to the proposed pipeline route in shaping attitudes toward the pipeline? And how do political factors and proximity to the pipeline interact? We find that partisanship and ideology drive attitudes toward the Keystone XL pipeline, and that the effect of ideology is attenuated by proximity to the proposed route. The policy implications of these findings for energy infrastructure siting controversies are discussed. -- Highlights: •Americans are divided on the Keystone XL energy pipeline. •Attitudes toward Keystone XL are driven by political party identification and ideology. •Attitudes toward the pipeline are also shaped by attitudes toward the economy and global warming. •The effect of proximity on attitudes toward Keystone XL is non-linear. •Spatial proximity to the pipeline attenuates the effect of ideology
Ulrich, Michael R
As Jacobson v. Massachusetts recognized in 1905, the basis of public health law, and its ability to limit constitutional rights, is the use of scientific data and empirical evidence. Far too often, this important fact is lost. Fear, misinformation, and politics frequently take center stage and drive the implementation of public health law. In the recent Ebola scare, political leaders passed unnecessary and unconstitutional quarantine measures that defied scientific understanding of the disease and caused many to have their rights needlessly constrained. Looking at HIV criminalization and exemptions to childhood vaccine requirements, it becomes clear that the blame cannot be placed on the hysteria that accompanies emergencies. Indeed, these examples merely illustrate an unfortunate array of examples where empirical evidence is ignored in the hopes of quelling paranoia. These policy approaches are not only constitutionally questionable, they generate their own risk to public health. The ability of the law to jeopardize public health approaches to infectious disease control can, and should, be limited through a renewed emphasis on science as the foundation of public health, coordination through all levels and branches of government, and through a serious commitment by the judiciary to provide oversight. Infectious disease creates public anxiety, but this cannot justify unwarranted dogmatic approaches as a response. If we as a society hope to ensure efficient, constitutional control over the spread of disease, it is imperative that science take its rightful place at the forefront of governmental decision-making and judicial review. Otherwise, the law becomes its own public health threat.
Gerber, Alan S; Patashnik, Eric M; Doherty, David; Dowling, Conor M
The Obama administration has made a major investment in comparative effectiveness research (CER) to learn what treatments work best for which patients. CER has the potential to reduce wasteful medical spending and improve patient outcomes, but the political sustainability of this initiative remains unclear because of concerns that it will threaten the doctor-patient relationship. An unresolved question is whether it is possible to boost public support for the use of CER as a cost-control strategy. We investigate one potential source of public support: Americans' trust in physicians as faithful agents of patient interests. We conducted two national surveys to explore the public's confidence in doctors compared to other groups. We find that doctors are viewed as harder workers, more trustworthy, and more caring than other professionals. Through survey experiments, we demonstrate that the support of doctors' groups for proposals to control costs and use CER have a greater influence on aggregate public opinion than do cues from political actors including congressional Democrats, Republicans, and a bipartisan commission. Our survey results suggest that the medical profession's stance will be an important factor in shaping the political viability of efforts to use CER as a tool for health care cost control.
Riccucci, Norma M.
Case studies of six high-level federal government administrators examined their political skills, management/leadership abilities, technical expertise, and personality. Among the ingredients of effective performance were good planning, organizational communication, goal orientation, good interpersonal skills, honesty, and high ethical standards.…
York, Richard; Bell, Shannon Elizabeth
Feminist scholars suggest that improving the quality of life of individuals living in nations around the world may be more readily achieved by increasing women's political power and by reorienting public-policy priorities, than by focusing primarily on economic growth. These considerations raise the question of which characteristics of societies are associated with the quality of life of the people in those societies. Here, we address this issue empirically by statistically analyzing cross-national data. We assess the effects of gender equality in the political sphere, as well as a variety of other factors, on the subjective well-being of nations, as indicated by average self-reported levels of life satisfaction. We find that people report the highest levels of life satisfaction in nations where women have greater political representation, where military spending is low, and where health care spending is high, controlling for a variety of other factors. GDP per capita, urbanization, and natural resource exploitation are not clearly associated with life satisfaction. These findings suggest that nations may be able to improve the subjective quality of life of people without increasing material wealth or natural resource consumption by increasing gender equality in politics and changing public spending priorities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hess, David J; Coley, Jonathan S
Wireless smart meters (WSMs) promise numerous environmental benefits, but they have been installed without full consideration of public acceptance issues. Although societal-implications research and regulatory policy have focused on privacy, security, and accuracy issues, our research indicates that health concerns have played an important role in the public policy debates that have emerged in California. Regulatory bodies do not recognize non-thermal health effects for non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation, but both homeowners and counter-experts have contested the official assurances that WSMs pose no health risks. Similarities and differences with the existing social science literature on mobile phone masts are discussed, as are the broader political implications of framing an alternative policy based on an opt-out choice. The research suggests conditions under which health-oriented precautionary politics can be particularly effective, namely, if there is a mandatory technology, a network of counter-experts, and a broader context of democratic contestation.
The communistic political system did not need any real public participation in the decision making process not only in nuclear field. Even decision attached directly the people interest was made without public participation. With the come back of freedom in Czechoslovakia, came a period of Greenpeace success but, however short lived because of their methods which were vehement and arrogant as did the communists for the defence of their interests. New public relations section was created in Czech Power Company headquarters in Prague. The goal was to create an atmosphere of confidence, opening and competence of information. Information centres were built, by visiting them, people can see nuclear power plant in operation. In the same time it is necessary to take into account the right of the public to participate in public issues decisions including big constructions. Among them nuclear power plants and other power industry investments are counted. 5 figs
Antonio Ugeda Sanches, Luiz
The present study shows the interdisciplinarity between Geosciences and Law as an inseparable element of the construction of public politics that presuppose the use of geotechnologies. There is a demonstration of how this interdisciplinarity is treated by the law throughout the history of Brazil, as well as its application in the electricity sector, especially in the monitoring and control process of the Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica (ANEEL).
Full Text Available Background: An established relationship exists between public transportation (PT use and physical activity. However, there is limited literature that examines the link between PT use and active commuting (AC behavior. This study examines this link to determine if PT users commute more by active modes. Methods: A volunteer, convenience sample of adults (n = 748 completed an online survey about AC/PT patterns, demographic, psychosocial, community and environmental factors. t-test compared differences between PT riders and non-PT riders. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effect of multiple factors on AC and a full logistic regression model was conducted to examine AC. Results: Non-PT riders (n = 596 reported less AC than PT riders. There were several significant relationships with AC for demographic, interpersonal, worksite, community and environmental factors when considering PT use. The logistic multivariate analysis for included age, number of children and perceived distance to work as negative predictors and PT use, feelings of bad weather and lack of on-street bike lanes as a barrier to AC, perceived behavioral control and spouse AC were positive predictors. Conclusions: This study revealed the complex relationship between AC and PT use. Further research should investigate how AC and public transit use are related.
Оксана Михайлівна Калужна
It is concluded that the model of judicial expert support of legal proceedings in Ukraine, that is established by «judicial reform» (Law No. 2147-VIII in the wording that will come into force on March 18, 2018 is a milestone in its historical development, which certainly should be modified depending on its effectiveness and the demand of the society, public, professional and state institutions. So public forensic expert monopoly is not an ideal model of forensic expert support of justice because of corporate and political interests, corruption component, abuse of forensic experts etc. Therefore, it will undergo a review and transformation.
Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.
This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…
Full Text Available The consolidation of the political dimension of the Councils of Rights is linked to its understanding as plural public spaces, divergence and the constant struggle of ideas. The political dimension becomes crucial, especially in the process of defining and managing the public budget for both planning and to expand the debate on the allocation of financial resources for the implementation of public policies. It is this space that the different interests manifest themselves, becoming a field of political struggle for the appropriation of public resources in ensuring the rights and social protection of the most disenfranchised segments of society. The public budget in the spaces of advice gained a political dimension, the prospect of mere instrument accounting
Jepsen, Kim Sune; Bertilsson, T Margareta
Cochlear Implantation is now regarded as the most successful medical technology. It carries promises to provide deaf/hearing impaired individuals with a technological sense of hearing and an access to participate on a more equal level in social life. In this article, we explore the adoption of cochlear implantations among Danish users in order to shed more light on their social and political implications. We situate cochlear implantation in a framework of new life science advances, politics, and user experiences. Analytically, we draw upon the notion of social imaginary and explore the social dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being "wired to freedom" that involves new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as "wired to freedom," we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear Implantation. As our empirical observations are largely based in the Scandinavian countries (notably Denmark), we also provide some reflections on the character of the technology-friendly Scandinavian welfare states and the unintended consequences that may follow in the wake of rapid technology implementation of life science in society.
Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl
In this experiment, voters select a leader who can either act in the public interest, i.e. make efficient and equitable policy choices, or act in a corrupt way, i.e. use public funds for private gain. Voters can observe candidates’ pro-social behavior and their score in a cognitive ability test...... prior to the election, and this fact is known to candidates. Therefore, self-interested candidates have incentives to act in a pro-social manner, i.e. to pretend to be public-spirited leaders. We find that both truly pro-social and egoistic leaders co-exist, but that political selection is ineffective...... in choosing public-spirited leaders. The main reason is that egoistic candidates strategically pretend to be pro-social to increase their chances of winning the election....
That public health policy and practice should be evidence based is a seemingly uncontroversial claim. Yet governments and citizens routinely reject the best available evidence and prefer policies that reflect other considerations and concerns. The most common explanations of this paradox emphasise scientific disagreement, the power of 'politics', or the belief that scientists and policymakers live in two separate communities that do not communicate. However, another explanation may lie in the limits of the very notion of evidence-based policy making. In fact, the social science discipline of political science offers a rich body of theory and empirical evidence to explain the apparent gap between evidence and policy. This essay introduces this literature with a particular emphasis on a recent book by Katherine Smith, Beyond evidence-based policy in public health: the interplay of ideas. As the title suggests, Smith argues that what matters for public health policy is less scientific evidence and much more a more complex set of ideas. Based on detailed case studies of UK tobacco and health inequality policy, Smith offers a richly textured alternative account of what matters for policy making. This excellent book is part of a small but growing body of political science research on public health policy that draws on contemporary theories of policy change and governance more generally. This essay provides a window on this research, describes some examples, but emphasises that public health scholars and practitioners too often retain a narrow if not naive view of the policy-making process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Saltman, Kenneth J.
This is a cutting edge book that not only maps and criticizes venture philanthropy, but also offers a new and different way of conceptualizing public education in response to the neoliberal climate affecting all aspects of public education. This book contains the following chapters: (1) The Trojan School: How Venture Philanthropy is Corporatizing…
Coles, Jeremy T.; Carstens, Brittany A.; Wright, Jennifer M.; Williams, Robert L.
The study determined whether or not a predominantly Caucasian sample (N = 187) attending a southeastern state's major public university embraced political policies consistent with their self-identified political ideology. The findings showed that the highest percentage of students identified with a conservative ideology and that a much lower…
Graham, T.S.; Brants, K.; Voltmer, K.
The aim of this chapter is to see whether online discussion forums dedicated to popular culture (reality TV) provide a communicative space, content and style for politics that extends the public sphere. Given their typically casual, chatty and frivolous nature, we might assume that political talk
McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David
In this commentary, we review the growth of populist politics, associated with exploitation of what has been termed fake news. We explore how certain words have been used in similar contexts historically, in particular the term "enemy of the people," especially with regard to public health. We then set out 6 principles for public health professionals faced with these situations. First, using their epidemiological skills, they can provide insights into the reasons underlying the growth of populist politics. Second using their expertise in modelling and health impact assessment, they can anticipate and warn about the consequences of populist policies. Third, they can support the institutions that are necessary for effective public health. Fourth they can reclaim the narrative, rejecting hatred and division, to promote social solidarity. Fifth, they can support fact checking and the use of evidence. Finally, they should always remember the lessons of history, and in particular, the way that public health has, on occasions, collaborated with totalitarian and genocidal regimes. PMID:29179293
Jorgensen, Paul D
Why, when confronted with policy alternatives that could improve patient care, public health, and the economy, does Congress neglect those goals and tailor legislation to suit the interests of pharmaceutical corporations? In brief, for generations, the pharmaceutical industry has convinced legislators to define policy problems in ways that protect its profit margin. It reinforces this framework by selectively providing information and by targeting campaign contributions to influential legislators and allies. In this way, the industry displaces the public's voice in developing pharmaceutical policy. Unless citizens mobilize to confront the political power of pharmaceutical firms, objectionable industry practices and public policy will not change. Yet we need to refine this analysis. I propose a research agenda to uncover pharmaceutical influence. It develops the theory of dependence corruption to explain how the pharmaceutical industry is able to deflect the broader interests of the general public. It includes empirical studies of lobbying and campaign finance to uncover the means drug firms use to: (1) shape the policy framework adopted and information used to analyze policy; (2) subsidize the work of political allies; and (3) influence congressional voting. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Taliadorou, Nikoletta; Pashiardis, Petros
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether emotional intelligence and political skill (PS) of school principals influence the way they exercise leadership and the job satisfaction of their teachers. Design/methodology/approach: As regards to the methodology, quantitative research methods were used to conduct the research.…
This dissertation examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy-making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular, and energy planning in general, constitute a critical policy issue which permits direct comparison of decision-making across regime change from the Franco dictatorship to the present constitutional monarchy. The research reveals that the nature of the political coalition underlying Spain's regime change accounts of the lack of significant change in policy-making processes in this particular policy issue. This thesis develops a two-pronged argument to explain the absence of significant policy change. The first is based on a general view of the Franco regime's and the democratic system's coalitional support. In each, three major political forces are seen as central: the military, business, and labor. One of these, business, is seen as being pivotal in the regime transition. Business' pivotal position, it is argued, has permitted a defence of a national energy policy beneficial to its economic interests in energy. The argument's second part focuses on the binding constraint on policy outcomes imposed by private interests in state planning and the generally non-binding nature of oppositional party policy proposals and public opinion.
The Federal Government's radioactive waste management concept and regulations governing formal public participation in licensing procedures for radioactive waste management facilities are presented. The paper focuses on public and political issues arising from widely diverging views in different social groups on nuclear energy and on radioactive waste management. The resulting conflict between Federal and Laender (Federal constituent states) authorities and the actual course of public participation in a licensing procedure are illustrated with the example of planned final disposal of radioactive waste in the Konrad mine. Major national efforts to overcome the unsatisfying present situation are presented and the role of international consensus is briefly touched. Concluding remarks will particularly justify admissibility and emphasize the need to discuss and eventually decide on radioactive waste management issues regardless of diverging views on nuclear energy
Phillips, Gemma; Green, Judith
The recent move of public health back to English local government has reignited debates about the role of a medicalised public health profession. The explicit policy rationale for the move was that local government is the arena in which the social determinants of health can be addressed, and that public health specialists could provide neutral evidence to support action on these. However, if a discourse of 'evidence-based' policy is in principle (if not practice) relatively unproblematic within the health arena, within the more overtly politicised local government space, rather different policy imperatives come to the fore. Responding to calls for research on evidence in practice, this article draws on ethnographic data of local authorities in the first year of the reorganised public health function. Focusing on alcohol policy, we explore how decisions that affect public health are rationalised and enacted through discourses of localism, empiricism and holism. These frame policy outcomes as inevitably plural and contingent: a framing which sits uneasily with normative discourses of evidence-based policy. We argue that locating public health in local government necessitates a refocusing of how evidence for public health is conceptualised, to incorporate multiple, and political, understandings of health and wellbeing. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus
This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....
De Cock, Barbara; González Arias, Cristian
In this paper, we analyze how a political blog author (Spanish Alejo Vidal-Quadras) establishes the reference to self and other in his blog entries. We furthermore look into how the commentators to this blog react and establish reference to self and other in the digital public sphere. More concretely, we show that they not only take up the references established by the main blog author but also create new references. These allow, on the one hand, for profiling themselves as part of a group and, on the other hand, identifying their interlocutor among the variety of possible interlocutors in the digital public sphere. By addressing different interlocutors, the commentators turn the comments section into a dialogic space, a dimension that is lacking in the main blog entries. However, the fact that they almost invariably identify interlocutors other than Vidal-Quadras but address Vidal-Quadras without explicitly identifying him, shows that Vidal-Quadras remains the main ratified interlocutor in view of his ownership of the blog. This paper shows then how participants in the digital public sphere create a complex relationship of self and other reference in political blogs.
Poland, B D
This paper examines the discourse of 'interactions' as applied to the interpersonal management of smoking in public places (and to accounts thereof). Empirical data from a qualitative study of smokers and non-smokers in metropolitan Toronto, Ontario (Canada) are used to illustrate how smokers and non-smokers define and claim to operationalize 'consideration' in their daily lives. Drawing on the work of Foucault, Rose, Castel, and Bourdieu, the paper explores the possible significance of 'consideration' as a discourse of risk management masked as 'common sense', as a marker of social competence. In particular, parallels with emergent forms of governmentality embedded in community participation and individual self-monitoring and self-restraint are noted. Further, the social control implications of 'consideration' as moral discourse are examined with respect to Bourdieu's analysis of class struggles for (social) distinction. In this light, it is suggested that legitimate health concerns raised by tobacco control advocates cannot be divorced from other implicit social agendas which also fuel the drive for the 'purification of public space'.
The recent successful certification and opening of a first-of-a-kind, deep geological repository for safe disposal of long-lived, transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, New Mexico, United States of America (USA), embody both long-standing local and wide-spread, gradually achieved, scientific, institutional, regulatory, political, and public acceptance. The related historical background and development are outlined and the main contributors to the successful siting, certification, and acceptance of the WIPP TRUW repository, which may also serve as a model to success for other radioactive waste disposal programs, are described. (author)
Felipe Alves da Silva
Full Text Available This paper proposes a critical analysis of the essential criteria to define the concept of the political as presented by German jurist and philosopher, Carl Schmitt. Based on the essence of the political —i.e. the friend-enemy duality—, the objective is to explore the practical implications resulting from the actual possibilities of confrontation, the key scope being the analysis of a totalitarian potential from a Schmittian´s perspective. In Schmitt´s thought, this distinction is the fundamental reason for the definition of the political. Not every opponent is necessarily the enemy –—the other one, the unknown— and likely to be physically destroyed and exterminated but only a public enemy (hostis. Given its indeterminate nature, the enemy may be prescribed according to the sovereign design or, in the context of Nazi Germany where Carl Schmitt lived, in accordance with the President of the Reich´s designs. A hypothetical-deductive methodology is used in this work based on bibliographical research, in particular regarding Carl Schmitt´s theoretical constructions.
Full Text Available The use of modern brain imaging techniques could be useful to understand what brain areas are involved in the observation of video clips related to commercial advertising, as well as for the support of political campaigns, and also the areas of Public Service Announcements (PSAs. In this paper we describe the capability of tracking brain activity during the observation of commercials, political spots, and PSAs with advanced high-resolution EEG statistical techniques in time and frequency domains in a group of normal subjects. We analyzed the statistically significant cortical spectral power activity in different frequency bands during the observation of a commercial video clip related to the use of a beer in a group of 13 normal subjects. In addition, a TV speech of the Prime Minister of Italy was analyzed in two groups of swing and “supporter” voters. Results suggested that the cortical activity during the observation of commercial spots could vary consistently across the spot. This fact suggest the possibility to remove the parts of the spot that are not particularly attractive by using those cerebral indexes. The cortical activity during the observation of the political speech indicated a major cortical activity in the supporters group when compared to the swing voters. In this case, it is possible to conclude that the communication proposed has failed to raise attention or interest on swing voters. In conclusions, high-resolution EEG statistical techniques have been proved to able to generate useful insights about the particular fruition of TV messages, related to both commercial as well as political fields.
Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; Tabarrini, Alessandro; Salinari, Serenella; Mattia, Donatella; Cincotti, Febo; Bianchi, Luigi; Sorrentino, Domenica; Aloise, Fabio; Soranzo, Ramon; Babiloni, Fabio
The use of modern brain imaging techniques could be useful to understand what brain areas are involved in the observation of video clips related to commercial advertising, as well as for the support of political campaigns, and also the areas of Public Service Announcements (PSAs). In this paper we describe the capability of tracking brain activity during the observation of commercials, political spots, and PSAs with advanced high-resolution EEG statistical techniques in time and frequency domains in a group of normal subjects. We analyzed the statistically significant cortical spectral power activity in different frequency bands during the observation of a commercial video clip related to the use of a beer in a group of 13 normal subjects. In addition, a TV speech of the Prime Minister of Italy was analyzed in two groups of swing and "supporter" voters. Results suggested that the cortical activity during the observation of commercial spots could vary consistently across the spot. This fact suggest the possibility to remove the parts of the spot that are not particularly attractive by using those cerebral indexes. The cortical activity during the observation of the political speech indicated a major cortical activity in the supporters group when compared to the swing voters. In this case, it is possible to conclude that the communication proposed has failed to raise attention or interest on swing voters. In conclusions, high-resolution EEG statistical techniques have been proved to able to generate useful insights about the particular fruition of TV messages, related to both commercial as well as political fields.
The aim of this study then is to move beyond politically oriented discussion forums by also examining the communicative practices of participants within fan-based forums. The focus is on how participants talk politics in online informal discussion forums. By informal discussion forums, I am
There are sound educational and examining reasons for the use of coursework assessment and practical assessment of student work by teachers in schools for purposes of reporting examination grades. Coursework and practical work test a range of different curriculum goals to final papers and increase the validity and reliability of the result.…
Wolling, Jens; Arlt, Dorothee
The study includes the following contributions: Introduction: An earth quake and its (political) consequences; Part 1: Nuclear energy in the historical-comparative perspective: The largest assumable reevaluation? Loss of confidence in nuclear power. Part 2: Reactions of the media in Germany: German nuclear phase-out made in Japan? Risk perception in case of accident. Part 3: International comparison of the media reactions: Framing Fukushima. The nuclear disaster as topic of the international communication. Emotionalized reporting? Energy sources in the media reporting. Changes due to Fukushima? Part 4: Reactions of the public on the nuclear disaster and the media reporting: Fukushima effects in Germany? Risk reporting and risk perception. The influence of the reactor accident on the nuclear risk perception and the general environmental awareness of the public. On the influence of the nuclear disaster of Fukushima and the appraisement of different energy sources in Germany.
Mialon, Melissa; Mialon, Jonathan
In the present study, we used a structured approach based on publicly available information to identify the corporate political activity (CPA) strategies of three major actors in the dairy industry in France. We collected publicly available information from the industry, government and other sources over a 6-month period, from March to August 2015. Data collection and analysis were informed by an existing framework for classifying the CPA of the food industry. Setting/Subjects Our study included three major actors in the dairy industry in France: Danone, Lactalis and the Centre National Interprofessionnel de l'Economie Laitière (CNIEL), a trade association. During the period of data collection, the dairy industry employed CPA practices on numerous occasions by using three strategies: the 'information and messaging', the 'constituency building' and the 'policy substitution' strategies. The most common practice was the shaping of evidence in ways that suited the industry. The industry also sought involvement in the community, establishing relationships with public health professionals, academics and the government. Our study shows that the dairy industry used several CPA practices, even during periods when there was no specific policy debate on the role of dairy products in dietary guidelines. The information provided here could inform public health advocates and policy makers and help them ensure that commercial interests of industry do not impede public health policies and programmes.
Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda
Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship between gender, family and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of “doing gender”, it argues that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors such as household decision making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender. PMID:25143018
Full Text Available Background Publication bias is a form of scientific misconduct. It threatens the validity of research results and the credibility of science. Although several tests on publication bias exist, no in-depth evaluations are available that examine which test performs best for different research settings. Methods Four tests on publication bias, Egger’s test (FAT, p-uniform, the test of excess significance (TES, as well as the caliper test, were evaluated in a Monte Carlo simulation. Two different types of publication bias and its degree (0%, 50%, 100% were simulated. The type of publication bias was defined either as file-drawer, meaning the repeated analysis of new datasets, or p-hacking, meaning the inclusion of covariates in order to obtain a significant result. In addition, the underlying effect (β = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, effect heterogeneity, the number of observations in the simulated primary studies (N = 100, 500, and the number of observations for the publication bias tests (K = 100, 1,000 were varied. Results All tests evaluated were able to identify publication bias both in the file-drawer and p-hacking condition. The false positive rates were, with the exception of the 15%- and 20%-caliper test, unbiased. The FAT had the largest statistical power in the file-drawer conditions, whereas under p-hacking the TES was, except under effect heterogeneity, slightly better. The CTs were, however, inferior to the other tests under effect homogeneity and had a decent statistical power only in conditions with 1,000 primary studies. Discussion The FAT is recommended as a test for publication bias in standard meta-analyses with no or only small effect heterogeneity. If two-sided publication bias is suspected as well as under p-hacking the TES is the first alternative to the FAT. The 5%-caliper test is recommended under conditions of effect heterogeneity and a large number of primary studies, which may be found if publication bias is examined in a
tension in many negotiations between the public and private sector in PPPs ... compensates for higher cost of capital used by private sector partners .... this study, both the public sector client and private sector contractor should share the risks.
Full Text Available This study combines interlanguage pragmatics and speech act research with computer-mediated communication and examines how native and non-native speakers of English formulate low- and high-imposition requests to faculty. While some research claims that email, due to absence of non-verbal cues, encourages informal language, other research has claimed the opposite. However, email technology also allows writers to plan and revise messages before sending them, thus affording the opportunity to edit not only for grammar and mechanics, but also for pragmatic clarity and politeness.The study examines email requests sent by native and non-native English speaking graduate students to faculty at a major American university over a period of several semesters and applies Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper’s (1989 speech act analysis framework – quantitatively to distinguish levels of directness, i.e. pragmatic clarity; and qualitatively to compare syntactic and lexical politeness devices, the request perspectives, and the specific linguistic request realization patterns preferred by native and non-native speakers. Results show that far more requests are realized through direct strategies as well as hints than conventionally indirect strategies typically found in comparative speech act studies. Politeness conventions in email, a text-only medium with little guidance in the academic institutional hierarchy, appear to be a work in progress, and native speakers demonstrate greater resources in creating e-polite messages to their professors than non-native speakers. A possible avenue for pedagogical intervention with regard to instruction in and acquisition of politeness routines in hierarchically upward email communication is presented.
Joseph Godwin; Daowei Zhang
Over the past 30 years the U.S.âCanadian softwood lumber trade dispute has resulted in three managed trade agreements that have not been voted on in the U.S. Congress. Nevertheless, U.S. Senators have played an important role in shaping the political environment that has nurtured these agreements. In this paper we construct a lumber influence index based on 14 known...
The main objective of this paper is to identify conditions which affect public concern (either increase or decrease) and political acceptance for developing and implementing programmes for geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. It also looks how citizens and relevant actors can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input is enriching the outcome towards a more socially robust and sustainable solution. Finally, it aims at learning from the interaction how to optimise risk management addressing needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders. In order to meet these objectives, factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified, described and analysed. Subsequently these factors are looked for in the real world of nuclear waste management through cases in several countries. The analysis is conducted for six stages of a repository programme and implementation process, from policy development to the realisation of the repository itself. The diversity of characteristics of such contexts increases insight in the way society and values of reference are influencing technological decision making. These interrelated factors need to be integrated in step by step decision making processes as emerging the last years in HLW disposal management. In the conclusions, the effect of each factor on acceptance is derived from the empirical record. In the course of carrying out this analysis, it became clear that acceptance had a different meaning in the first three stages of the process, more generic and therefore mainly discussed at policy level and the other stages, by nature more site-specific, and therefore requesting both public and political acceptance. Experience as clearly addressed in this report has shown that a feasible solution has its technical dimension but that 'an acceptable solution' always will have a combined technical and social dimension. If the paper provides tentative answers
Gasim, Gamal; Stevens, Tara; Zebidi, Amira
All undergraduate students are required by state law to take six credited hours in political science. This study will help us identify if differences exist in self-determination among students enrolled in American Public Policy and American Government at a large, Southwestern public university. Because some types of motivation are associated with…
Debora Alves Maciel
Full Text Available The article analyzes reconstruction dynamics of the Public Prosecutor’s Office, focusing on the mobilization of prosecutors and prosecuting attorney in the period from 1974 to 1985. We argue that the characteristics of Brazilian political transition were critical to the changing process of the institution, which gained constitutional status in 1988. Liberalization of the military regime changed the links between lawyers, opposition parties and pro-democracy movements. The connection of the institutional movement with dissident political elites and the dense activism network around new social conflicts allowed the Public Prosecutor’s Office to try new strategies of collective action, gain political visibility and thus become a viable alternative to political system to respond to social pressures for judiciary democratization.
Salazar, Timothy Ross
This study asks how government accountability reports are used to influence public education policy. Government accountability reports, called "audits" in Utah, prove to be useful tools for examining education policy. Using a collective case study design examining Utah's Class Size Reduction (CSR) policy, government accountability…
Альберт Илдусович Абдрахманов
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the study o/f political and legal terms for Public-Private Partnerships (PPP development while PPP becomes the issue of today for Russian political and social-economic life. The article covers particularly the analysis of the effective legislation of PPP at the federal and regional levels and appraisal of the current political trends regarding the development of legal partnership between the government and companies in the connection with the legislation. The author provides research especially of the prospects of the PPP federal Draft Law and reveals key specifics and problems of the legal environment of PPP in districts of the Russian Federation.
Tabvuma, Vurain; Bui, Hong T M; Homberg, Fabian
This article uses a quasi-natural experiment to investigate the adaptation of job satisfaction to externally driven political change in the public sector. This is important because democratic government bureaucracies often experience changes in leadership after elections. The analyses are based on data drawn from a large longitudinal data set, the British Household Panel Survey. Findings indicate that the impact of political elections is largely weak and temporary and is only present for men. For women, the internal processes of the organization tend to be more important. These findings suggest that changes in political leadership may not be associated with fundamental changes in policy. PMID:25598554
This publication identifies conditions which affect (either increase or decrease) public concern for and political acceptance of the development and implementation of programmes for geological disposal of long lived radioactive waste. It also looks at how interested citizens can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input enriches the outcome of a more socially robust and sustainable solution. The publication also considers how to optimize risk management, addressing the needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders. Factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified for the different stages of a repository programme and implementation process, from policy development to the realization of the repository itself. Further, they are described and analysed through case studies from several countries, illustrating the added value of broadening the technical dimension with social dialogue and insight into value judgements.This report focuses on a geological disposal approach that consists of isolating radioactive wastes deep underground in a mined repository. It is not suggested here that geological disposal is the sole strategy that may be chosen or carried out by a country for managing high level radioactive waste, long lived waste or spent nuclear fuel. However, the geological disposal approach is favoured in principle by many countries for it is seen to offer advantages in terms of safety and security of this category of radioactive materials, and as a way to address ethical concerns. This report is meant for decision makers and others with a role in bringing forward a national programme to manage radioactive waste. Through different case studies, this report describes how programme acceptance has been fostered or hindered in different countries. It reviews factors that may affect whether a programme to develop and implement geological disposal strategy gains (or does not gain) societal
Baum, Fran; Graycar, Adam; Delany-Crowe, Toni; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Bacchi, Carol; Popay, Jennie; Orchard, Lionel; Colebatch, Hal; Friel, Sharon; MacDougall, Colin; Harris, Elizabeth; Lawless, Angela; McDermott, Dennis; Fisher, Matthew; Harris, Patrick; Phillips, Clare; Fitzgerald, Jane
There is strong, and growing, evidence documenting health inequities across the world. However, most governments do not prioritize policies to encourage action on the social determinants of health and health equity. Furthermore, despite evidence concerning the benefits of joined-up, intersectoral policy to promote health and health equity, it is rare for such policy approaches to be applied systematically. To examine the usefulness of political and social science theory in understanding the reasons for this disjuncture between evidence and practice, researchers and public servants gathered in Adelaide for an Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia (ASSA) Workshop. This paper draws together the learnings that emerged from the Workshop, including key messages about the usefulness of various theories as well as insights drawn from policy practice. Discussions during the Workshop highlighted that applying multiple theories is particularly helpful in directing attention to, and understanding, the influence of all stages of the policy process; from the construction and framing of policy problems, to the implementation of policy and evaluation of outcomes, including those outcomes that may be unintended. In addition, the Workshop emphasized the value of collaborations among public health researchers, political and social scientists and public servants to open up critical discussion about the intersections between theory, research evidence and practice. Such critique is vital to render visible the processes through which particular sources of knowledge may be privileged over others and to examine how political and bureaucratic environments shape policy proposals and implementation action.
Mara Regina Lemes de Sordi
Full Text Available Describe the project of institutional Evaluation developed in municipal district educationemphasizing the guiding principles of the propose that values the local school actorsstrengthening for participate in the negotiation for a public school whose conception ofq u a l i t y i s s o c i a l l y r e l e v a n t . B y t h e a c t o r s v o i c e s e n g a g e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o fimplementation, the challenges, the capabilities and the vulnerabilities of the proposeare emphasized. Can be conclude that the institutional evaluation in elementary schoolsis an area under construction and needs a politic provision to try alternative modelswhere the regulation can occurs in a negotiated and participatory way.
Full Text Available As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.
Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M
As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.
Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M.
As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed. PMID:24558393
Wells, Rebecca; Cilenti, Dorothy; Issel, L Michele
Throughout the United States, public health leaders are experimenting with how best to integrate services for individuals with complex needs. To that end, North Carolina implemented a policy incorporating both local public health departments and other providers into medical homes for low income pregnant women and young children at risk of developmental delays. To understand how this transition occurred within local communities, a pre-post comparative case study was conducted. A total of 42 people in four local health departments across the state were interviewed immediately before the 2011 policy change and six months later: 32 professionals (24 twice) and 10 pregnant women receiving case management at the time of the policy implementation. We used constant comparative analysis of interview and supplemental data to identify three key consequences of the policy implementation. One, having medical homes increased the centrality of other providers relative to local health departments. Two, a shift from focusing on personal relationships toward medical efficiency diverged in some respects from both case managers' and mothers' goals. Three, health department staff re-interpreted state policies to fit their public health values. Using a political economy perspective, these changes are interpreted as reflecting shifts in public health's broader ideological environment. To a large extent, the state successfully induced more connection between health department-based case managers and external providers. However, limited provider engagement may constrain the implementation of the envisioned medical homes. The increased focus on medical risk may also undermine health departments' role in supporting health over time by attenuating staff relationships with mothers. This study helps clarify how state public health policy innovations unfold at local levels, and why front line practice may in some respects diverge from policy intent. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Надежда Викторовна Шуленина
Full Text Available Public-private partnership show great development in modern Russia. Since the technology of interaction between business and government came from abroad it requires detailed consideration of the successes and current practices in the modern world. It is particularly important to identify relationships between form of government and decision making, both for political and economic decisions, as in most cases, these factors have the strongest influence on the formation of public-private partnership as an institution of the modern political process in Russia.
are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....
Greaves, Z; McCafferty, S
Health and Wellbeing boards in England are uniquely constituted; embedded in the local authorities with membership drawn from a range of stakeholders and partner organizations. This raises the question of how decision making functions of the boards reflects wider public health decision making, if criteria are applied to decision making, and what prioritization processes, if any, are used. Qualitative research methods were employed and five local boards were approached, interview dyads were conducted with the boards Chair and Director of Public Health across four of these (n = 4). Three questions were addressed: how are decisions made? What are the criteria applied to decision making? And how are criteria then prioritized? A thematic approach was used to analyse data identifying codes and extracting key themes. Equity, effectiveness and consistency with strategies of board and partners were most consistently identified by participants as criteria influencing decisions. Prioritization was described as an engaged and collaborative process, but criteria were not explicitly referenced in the decision making of the boards which instead made unstructured prioritization of population sub-groups or interventions agreed by consensus. Criteria identified are broadly consistent with those used in wider public health practice but additionally incorporated criteria which recognizes the political siting of the boards. The study explored the variety in different board's approaches to prioritization and identified a lack of clarity and rigour in the identification and use of criteria in prioritization processes. Decision making may benefit from the explicit inclusion of criteria in the prioritization process. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bulkley, Katrina E.
Substantial policy and political changes have resulted from a 2001 state takeover of the Philadelphia School District and the subsequent hiring of Paul Vallas as the district's new CEO. Using the lens of urban regime analysis, which emphasizes the importance of public and private actors in forming a governing coalition, this article analyzes the…
Zhang, Chong; Fagan, Catherine
A long existing compulsive curriculum of ideological and political education is employed by the Chinese government to promote citizenship education among Chinese university students. This article builds on the findings of a mixed-methods research that examined the role of ideological and political education on university students' civic…
Norvell, Katrina Herndon
This study sought to broaden the understanding of the role that academic professions play in shaping the values and attitudes of faculty toward CES. This study explored faculty perceptions regarding the factors that encourage or dissuade them in the pursuit of CES within public administration programs. As a framework for research, a conceptual…
Catherine L Dumas
Full Text Available This study aims to reveal patterns of e-petition co-signing behavior that are indicative of the political mobilization of online “communities”. We discuss the case of We the People , a US national experiment in the use of social media technology to enable users to propose and solicit support for policy suggestions to the White House. We apply Baumgartner and Jones's work on agenda setting and punctuated equilibrium, which suggests that policy issues may lie dormant for periods of time until some event triggers attention from the media, interest groups, and elected representatives. In the case study presented, we focus on 21 petitions initiated during the week after the Sandy Hook shooting (14–21 December 2012 in opposition to gun control or in support of policy proposals that are alternatives to gun control, which we view as mobilized efforts to maintain stability and equilibrium in a policy system threatening to change. Using market basket analysis and social network analysis we found a core group of petitions in the “support law-abiding gun owners” theme that were highly connected and four “communities” of e-petitioners mobilizing in opposition to change in gun control policies and in favor of alternative proposals.
Sikiru Adeyemi Ogundokun
Full Text Available Considering the degree of resemblance between literature and human societies, one is convinced that literature is not just a social construct which is rooted in mere ideas, imaginations or imaginary situations. Instead, it is a social institution; a form of tradition, which has existed for a long time and is accepted as a vital component of a given society to perform certain functions. In this paper, we see literature as a social reality, which presents the state of things as they are, rather than as they are imagined to be. In the selected literary works for this study, the three writers expose and condemn the harsh and hostile social and political realities which confront the African society at different periods of its evolution. Premised on sociological approach to literary criticism, this paper justifies that literature can be employed in working out national reconstruction being a tool that can make people co-operate with one another through information sharing and dissemination.
Sen, Kasturi; Faisal, Waleed Al
Recent uprisings in the Arab world and a full-scale war in Syria are widely viewed as popular demand for political voice against repressive regimes. However, growing economic inequalities and serious economic dysfunction played a role as trigger for conflict than is commonly accepted. Tunisia, Egypt and Syria all implemented policies of liberalization over the past two decades, leading to the worsening of living standards for the majority. The various forms of liberalization played a significant role in embedding social division and discontent whose outcomes affected other countries of the region with the onset of market reforms in nascent welfare states. Egypt, for example, was viewed by the World Bank as an economic 'best performer', despite regular riots over food prices, job losses and land expropriation for tourism. Tunisia was praised by donors just prior to the uprising (in 2010), for 'weathering well' the global economic downturn through 'sound macroeconomic management'. In Syria, the market economy made its mark over the 90s, but macroeconomic adjustment policies were implemented in a bilateral agreement with the European Union and approved by the International Monetary Fund in 2003. The economic stabilization programme that followed had limited concern for social impacts such as jobs losses, price rises and national debt, which ultimately caused immense hardship for the population at large, acting as a trigger for the initial uprising in 2011, prior to its transformation into a fully blown conflict. This article focuses on reforms implemented in the health sector and sets these in the context of the current political economy of Syria. It suggests that a protective approach to public health services during and in the aftermath of conflict may increase the possibilities of reconstruction and reconciliation between warring sides. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...
Full Text Available To what extent is the New institutionalism capable of explaining why implementations of public policies in political institutions may engender resistance? The author believes that political institutions are endogenous and not exogenous entities. The author first tries to demonstrate what constitutes the autonomy of a political institution by recognizing the elements of a specific political culture which becomes source of formation of political identities to political actors. Subsequently, the author examines the assumption that a political institution and actors are not tolerant to public policies authoritatively imposed from the exterior. The result of this collision is the resistance of a political institution. In the end, the author analyzes certain possible forms of resistance and their effect on preventing the implementation of public policy.
The research explores the costs and impacts of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) and : addresses the rationale for designing transit-oriented neighborhoods. It also documents the : outcomes and the impacts of implementing such projects and examines ...
Desapriya, E B R; Iwase, Nobutada; Shimizu, Shinji
Tobacco use, particularly smoking, remains the number one cause of preventable disease and mortality in Japan. This review of the tobacco control policy and public health is the first to offer a composite review of the subject within Japan. This review attempts to evaluate the most important aspects of the current political economy of the tobacco control policy, and concludes that more effective control policies must be employed to minimize the impact of smoking on the public's health in Japan. Further the article attempts to place the approaches in the larger context of tobacco control, providing a vision for the future of tobacco prevention and control based on current knowledge. Tobacco use will remain the leading cause of preventable illness and death in Japan, until tobacco prevention and control efforts are commensurate with the harm caused by tobacco. Taken together, the results of various studies have clearly shown that control measures can influence tobacco smoking patterns, and in turn, the rate of tobacco-related problems. Government tobacco taxes have not kept pace with inflation for years. Availability of tobacco is virtually unlimited with easy access and the prices being very low due to the strong currency of Japan. Thus Japan must be one of the most tobacco accessible countries. It is important to ensure that people are not conditioned to smoke tobacco by an unduly favourable economic and commercial environment. For that reason, prevention advocates have called for substantial regulation of tobacco products and appeal for both tobacco tax increases and tobacco taxes to be indexed to inflation. In this review, present tobacco related public health policies in Japan are discussed with implication for prevention of tobacco related problems. Continued research in this area will be necessary to determine the most effective policies of reducing tobacco related problems in Japan.
Paulo T. Pereira,; Lara Wemans,
The aim of this paper is twofold. On the one hand to explain the institutional, economic and political foundations of the Portuguese bailout in April 2011. On the other hand, to clarify the impact of the global financial crisis (GFC) in Portuguese public finances, and the interaction between domestic fiscal policy and monitoring and recommendations from the European Commission (EC) and the European Council (ECo). A long run perspective (1974-2011) on management of public finances ...
Ghanadan, Rebecca Hansing
Since the 1990s, power sector reforms have become paramount in energy policy, catalyzing a debate in Africa about market-based service provision and the effects of reforms on access. My research seeks to move beyond the conceptual divide by grounding attention not in abstract 'market forces' but rather in how development institutions shape energy services and actually practice policy on the ground. Using the case of Tanzania, a country known for having instituted some of the most extensive reforms and a 'success story' in Africa, I find that reforms are creating large burdens and barriers for access and use of services, including: increasing costs, enforcement pressures, and measures to impose 'market' discipline. However, I also find that many of the most significant outcomes are not found in direct 'market' changes, but rather how reforms are selective, partial, and shaped by the wider needs and claims of the institutions driving reforms, so that questions of how reforms are implemented, how they are measured, and who tells the story become as important as the policies themselves. Using a multiple-arenas framework, including (i) a household and community level study of urban energy conditions, (ii) a study of service and management conditions at the national electric utility, (iii) an examination of the international policy process, and (iv) a study of the history of electricity services across colonial, post-independence, and reform periods, I show that African energy reforms are a technical and political project connecting energy to international investments, donor aid programs, and elite interests within national governments. Energy reforms also involve fundamental service changes that are reorganizing how the costs and benefits of energy systems are distributed, allocated, and managed. The effects of reform extend beyond formal services to have wide-reaching repercussions within natural resources, and uneven social dynamics on the ground. These features point
Fairchild, A L; Oppenheimer, G M
Tuberculosis (TB) began to decline in the Western world in the mid- to late 1800s. In the United States, the disease receded until the mid-1980s, when that trend was reversed. Although the TB epidemic in the United States subsided in response to public health interventions, it sparked a controversy regarding the relative value of targeted public health measures vs broad social reform. That controversy, which echoed earlier debates calling for structural reform over public health programs, was further strengthened by the historical and demographic studies of Thomas McKeown. His influential thesis maintains that clinical and primary prevention efforts had little effect on TB mortality. In this paper, the historical literature is used to examine whether public health had a significant impact on the decline of TB mortality rates in several countries. Specifically, the paper describes the arguments for and data affirming the efficacy of 2 major public health interventions over time: segregation of those infected with pulmonary TB and eradication of bovine TB. This review finds support for the hypothesis that public health measures, along with other factors, led to falling rates of TB mortality beginning in the late 19th century. Images FIGURE 3 p1112-a p1113-a PMID:9663166
Seiler, Vicky L.; Reisenwitz, Timothy H.; Schibrowsky, John A.
This study examines reviewer practices at 11 marketing journals. The results for the top three journals are compared to eight comparable journals that are typically considered to be non-top-tier journals. The results suggest that the reviewers and the review processes at the top journals differ significantly from those of the non-top-tier…
O. A. Zubchyk
Chronopolitics as methodology examines the role of the state in the political structure of the political entity in temporal conditions of political and administrative decisions. These issues have been discussed in the context of Chronopolitical study of historical forms of political organization. The study has proved that Chronopolitics functionally and structurally adds the conceptual and categorical apparatus of political sciences, science and public administration.
Segatti, Aurelia; Hoag, Colin Brewster; Vigneswaran, Darshan
This paper deals with the transformation of “institutional culture” in bureaucratic agencies. This is explored in the context of post-Apartheid South African public sector reform, and more particularly that of migration management within the Department of Home Affairs (DHA). The paper assesses...... the effects on staff’s perceptions and practices of a politically driven attempt at inculcating a new sense of “service delivery”. Structural factors are not found to have been prevalent determinants explaining the difficulties in implementing the reform. It is rather the failure of the political leadership...
Full Text Available Contemporary South African documentary photography is often framed in relation to the history of apartheid and the resistance movement. A number of well-known South African photographers came of age in the 1980s and many of them went on to receive critical acclaim locally and abroad. In comparison, Gisele Wulfsohn (19572011 has remained relatively unknown despite her involvement in the Afrapix collective and her important contribution to HIV/AIDS awareness and education. In focusing on Wulfsohn's extended engagement with the issue of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, this article aims to highlight the distinctive nature of Wulfsohn's visualisation of the epidemic. Wulfsohn photographed the epidemic long before there was major public interest in the issue and continued to do so for twenty years. Her approach is unique in a number of ways, most notably in her use of portraiture and her documentation of subjects from varied racial, cultural and socio-economic backgrounds in South Africa. The essay tracks the development of the different projects Wulfsohn embarked on and situates her photographs of HIV/AIDS in relation to her politically informed work of the late 1980s, her personal projects and the relationships she developed with non-governmental organisations.
Bray, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik; Storch, H. von
This paper presents the results of a survey of the perspectives of climate scientists on the topic of global warming. It addresses both internal and external elements of the science. A total of 412 responses from climate scientists in Canada. USA and Germany are analyzed. Differences among those groups with higher levels of involvement with policy makers, with the media, and the less vocal members of the scientific community are the focus of this paper. Statistically significant differences were found among these three groups on a number of pertinent issues. These differences were more often among those areas which were beyond the areas of the scientists` areas of expertise. More precisely differences were found in: The assessment that global warming is a process already underway, the nature of the impacts of climate change, the knowledge transfer process, and the conduct of the climate sciences. These perspectives are of considerable importance for they relate to the transfer of scientific knowledge to the public and political realms. In short, this paper contributes to the discussion of the socio-scientific construction of the climate change issue. (orig.) 11 refs.
Besley, John C; Nisbet, Matthew
We review past studies on how scientists view the public, the goals of communication, the performance and impacts of the media, and the role of the public in policy decision-making. We add to these past findings by analyzing two recent large-scale surveys of scientists in the UK and US. These analyses show that scientists believe the public is uninformed about science and therefore prone to errors in judgment and policy preferences. Scientists are critical of media coverage generally, yet they also tend to rate favorably their own experience dealing with journalists, believing that such interactions are important both for promoting science literacy and for career advancement. Scientists believe strongly that they should have a role in public debates and view policy-makers as the most important group with which to engage. Few scientists view their role as an enabler of direct public participation in decision-making through formats such as deliberative meetings, and do not believe there are personal benefits for investing in these activities. Implications for future research are discussed, in particular the need to examine how ideology and selective information sources shape scientists' views.
Crath, Rory; Rangel, Cristian
Canadian media discourses on gay men's sexuality and political inclusion serve as a rich site for understanding current tensions in debates on sexual citizenship under biopolitical regimes. This paper addresses how public health reporting in one health news media source, Canada's leading newspaper The Globe and Mail, discursively produced contiguous understandings of the moral, social and biological dimensions of gay male subjectivity and sexuality within the context of HIV risk discourses. Specifically, we critically examine the newspaper's coverage of what constitutes the public good when national blood supplies are at stake. Our analysis reveals a profound dichotomy in which gay men - as sexual subjects and subjects of rights - are recalibrated following the political and economic investments of bourgeoisie communities of interest. However encompassing the securing of legal social rights might be, gay men's sexuality is resistant to a reformatting under a heteronormative regulatory regime, as the social traumas caused by HIV continue to cast a shadow on sexual behaviours that purportedly risk leakage of contamination into the body politic.
Hmielowski, Jay D; Wang, Meredith Y; Donaway, Rebecca R
This article attempts to connect literatures from the Risk Information Seeking and Processing (RISP) model and cultural cognition theory. We do this by assessing the relationship between the two prominent cultural cognition variables (i.e., group and grid) and risk perceptions. We then examine whether these risk perceptions are associated with three outcomes important to the RISP model: information seeking, systematic processing, and heuristic processing, through a serial mediation model. We used 2015 data collected from 10 communities across the United States to test our hypotheses. Our results show that people high on group and low on grid (egalitarian communitarians) show greater risk perceptions regarding water quality issues. Moreover, these higher levels of perceived risk translate into increased information seeking, systematic processing of information, and lower heuristic processing through intervening variables from the RISP model (e.g., negative emotions and information insufficiency). These results extend the extant literature by expanding on the treatment of political ideology within the RISP model literature and taking a more nuanced approach to political beliefs in accordance with the cultural cognitions literature. Our article also expands on the RISP literature by looking at information-processing variables. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.
Mialon, M; Swinburn, B; Sacks, G
Unhealthy diets represent one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There is currently a risk that the political influence of the food industry results in public health policies that do not adequately balance public and commercial interests. This paper aims to develop a framework for categorizing the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health and proposes an approach to systematically identify and monitor it. The proposed framework includes six strategies used by the food industry to influence public health policies and outcomes: information and messaging; financial incentive; constituency building; legal; policy substitution; opposition fragmentation and destabilization. The corporate political activity of the food industry could be identified and monitored through publicly available data sourced from the industry itself, governments, the media and other sources. Steps for country-level monitoring include identification of key food industry actors and related sources of information, followed by systematic data collection and analysis of relevant documents, using the proposed framework as a basis for classification of results. The proposed monitoring approach should be pilot tested in different countries as part of efforts to increase the transparency and accountability of the food industry. This approach has the potential to help redress any imbalance of interests and thereby contribute to the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. © 2015 World Obesity.
Full Text Available We examine the creation of dôjinshi works critiquing the passage of the metropolitan Tokyo ordinance Bill 156 in December 2010 as a case of fan-driven political activism. Bill 156 aims to limit artistic freedom and is specifically targeted at anime, manga, and other works of visual pop culture. Fans who participate in dôjin production perform both a love for this media and an active form of citizenship that is historically fannish but transformative beyond the mere appropriation and remix of media texts. We argue that dôjin fans and works constitute a recursive public, wherein participants actively create discourse around artistic and ideological issues while engaging in added layers of discourse regarding the maintenance of their existence as a public. We examine fan discourse and dôjin works engaging Bill 156 as an object for political activism, as anime and manga otaku perform their citizenship in the wider society of Japan for their local public and for a global audience of like-minded fans.
The mutual shaping of technology and society, including all kinds of conflicts and power differences, reveals an important political dimension of innovation processes. This thesis aims at understanding and evaluating this dimension. Because the politics of innovation takes place in a variety of
Kozhikode, R.K.; Li, J.T.
Data on the expansion of 94 commercial banks in India from 1948 to 2003 were analyzed to test the proposition that political pluralism-wherein competing parties control the state and national governments of a nation-can promote business expansion. The results confirm that such political pluralism
Diorio, Joseph A.
Citizenship education programs promote political participation by young people. These programs risk misrepresenting politics to students by encouraging them to believe that there are universally accepted principles which govern the definition of citizenship and who is entitled to participate in its various dimensions. The article argues that…
Weninger, Csilla; Kho, Ee Moi
This article provides a historical overview of civic educational policy and political discourse in Singapore from 1959 to 2011, focusing on changes in the role attributed to students in the education process. A review of educational programmes and analysis of political speeches reveals that an earlier transmissionist approach that focused on value…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to think about the elements of exercising citizenship, of political culture and of subjective values that influence political phenomena. The relationship between cultural values and political dynamics still constitutes a controversial issue among political scientists, yet, increasing links between the variables can be perceived. Authors such as Putnam (2000 and Moses (2010 emphasize the importance of the attitudes of the citizenry. The analysis is based on data collected by a survey (2010 conducted with the population of three cities that constitute the so-called urban sprawl of the Metropolitan Region of Maringá: Sarandi, Paiçandu and Maringá. Classical themes were presented in researches on political culture, as well as controversial issues such as the decriminalization of marijuana, the legalization of abortion, among others.
Full Text Available This is a qualitative study which described the existence of political dynasties in Cebu, Philippines. The prevailing issues on political equality and perennial rule of political families were also investigated unfolding the Cebuanos’ perceptions of political dynasty and its impact on Cebuano bureaucracy. The method of data analysis used in the study was narrative inquiry where storytelling among the selected key informants served as data collection technique. Purposive sampling was used in the selection of key informant politicians while random sampling for key informant voters was determined. The instruments used in data gathering were interviews and observations. The study revealed the true meaning of political dynasty, its advantages and drawbacks to its constituents. Varied rejoinders and call for democracy motivated the selected key informant politicians to continue serving the citizenry. This study recommends that an anti-individualistic voting preferences campaign be promoted by the government, education and youth sectors in transforming intelligent Filipino voters.
Dyck, V.A.; Regidor Fernandez, E.E.; Reyes Flores, J.; Teruya, T.; Barnes, B.; Gomez Riera, P.; Lindquist, D.; Reuben, R.
The public relations component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) has a large impact on programme success. Full-time professionals should direct public relations activities and secure vital political support from governments and community organizations. Good communication among programme staff, and between programme staff and the public, is required to maintain participation and support, and to keep the work goal-oriented even when some programme activities are controversial. The media can be valuable and effective partners by informing the public about the real facts and activities of a programme, especially if this is done in a non-technical and straightforward way. Ongoing research support improves the programme technology, provides technical credibility on contentious issues, and solves operational problems. Programme failure can result from poor public relations and inadequate public support. (author)
De Jong, Joop T V M
Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A public health framework was designed to address these risk factors and protective factors. The framework resulted in a matrix that combined primary, secondary and tertiary interventions with their implementation on the levels of the society-at-large, the community, and the family and individual. Subsequently, the risk and protective factors were translated into multi-sectoral, multi-modal and multi-level preventive interventions involving the economy, governance, diplomacy, the military, human rights, agriculture, health, and education. Then the interventions were slotted in their appropriate place in the matrix. The interventions can be applied in an integrative form by international agencies, governments and non-governmental organizations, and molded to meet the requirements of the historic, political-economic and socio-cultural context. The framework maps the complementary fit among the different actors while engaging themselves in preventive, rehabilitative and reconstructive interventions. The framework shows how the economic, diplomatic, political, criminal justice, human rights, military, health and rural development sectors can collaborate to promote peace or prevent the aggravation or continuation of violence. A deeper understanding of the association between risk and protective factors and the developmental pathways of generic, country-specific and culture-specific factors leading to political violence is needed.
Selway, Joel Sawat
How do changes in electoral rules affect the nature of public policy outcomes? The current evidence supporting institutional theories that answer this question stems almost entirely from quantitative cross-country studies, the data of which contain very little within-unit variation. Indeed, while there are many country-level accounts of how changes in electoral rules affect such phenomena as the number of parties or voter turnout, there are few studies of how electoral reform affects public policy outcomes. This article contributes to this latter endeavor by providing a detailed analysis of electoral reform and the public policy process in Thailand through an examination of the 1997 electoral reforms. Specifically, the author examines four aspects of policy-making: policy formulation, policy platforms, policy content, and policy outcomes. The article finds that candidates in the pre-1997 era campaigned on broad, generic platforms; parties had no independent means of technical policy expertise; the government targeted health resources to narrow geographic areas; and health was underprovided in Thai society. Conversely, candidates in the post-1997 era relied more on a strong, detailed national health policy; parties created mechanisms to formulate health policy independently; the government allocated health resources broadly to the entire nation through the introduction of a universal health care system, and health outcomes improved. The author attributes these changes in the policy process to the 1997 electoral reform, which increased both constituency breadth (the proportion of the population to which politicians were accountable) and majoritarianism.
Troy R. E. Paddock
Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.
Kohler, Jillian Clare; Mitsakakis, Nicholas; Saadat, Faridah; Byng, Danalyn; Martinez, Martha Gabriela
We review procurement and pricing transparency practices for pharmaceutical products. We specifically focus on Brazil and examine its approach to increasing pricing transparency, with the aim of determining the level of effectiveness in lower prices using a tool (Banco de Preços em Saúde, BPS) that only reveals purchase prices as compared to other tools (in other countries) that establish a greater degree of price transparency. A general report of Preços em Saúde (BPS) and Sistema Integrado de Administração de Serviços Gerais (SIASG) pricing data was created for 25 drugs that met specific criteria. To explore the linear time trend of each of the drugs, separate regression models were fitted for each drug, resulting in a total of 19 models. Each model controlled for the state variable and the interaction between state and time, in order to accommodate expected heterogeneity in the data. Additionally, the models controlled for procurement quantities and the effect they have on the unit price. Secondary analysis using mixed effects models was also carried out to account for the impact that institutions and suppliers may have upon the unit price. Adjusting for these predictor variables (procurement quantities, supplier, purchasing institution) was important to determine the sole effect that time has had on unit prices. A total of 2 x 19 = 38 models were estimated to explore the overall effect of time on changes in unit price. All statistical analyses were performed using the R statistical software, while the linear mixed effects models were fitted using the lme4 R package. The findings from our analysis suggest that there is no pattern of consistent price decreases within the two Brazilian states during the five-year period for which the prices were analyzed. While the BPS does allow for an increase in transparency and information on drug purchase prices in Brazil, it has not shown to lead to consistent reductions in drug purchase prices for some of the most
Stevens, Richard G.
The meaning and understanding of conscience in political thought are examined. The problem of distinguishing apparent and real conscience and private and public judgment is illustrated by contrasting the acts of conscience of Socrates and Thomas More with the rejection of private judgment against the state in Hobbes and Locke. (RM)
Petrik Valeriy V.
Full Text Available Basing on rich documentary, the article studies the activity of the trade union organization in Krasnoyarsk Polytechnic Institute and the impact the trade union had on the cultural, public and political life of the Institute in the second half of the 1950s-1980s. The activity is stated to be held in different forms and areas: amateur arts, propaganda, wall-newspaper and house magazine, vigilant groups, University of Culture, student club, lecturing agitation group, student construction brigades, department, groups and hostels competitions. The authors come to the conclusion that involving students and faculty members into cultural, public and political life added greatly to fostering the future engineers as it took them less time to adapt to the team-spirited workforce after graduating from the higher educational establishment. The article is intended for the people interested in history of higher education in Siberia and Russia.
Full Text Available Between 1976 and 1989, about 60,000 East German citizens were in political detention in the former GDR, a fact which was disclaimed by the GDR government. In this article, I focus on the auto-biographies which were collected by the use of narrative interviews. How do people who were politically persecuted and imprisoned remember their detainment now? Are they able to integrate this event in their life history and talk about it in their social environment? On the basis of biographical case-reconstructions and global analysis, I present four types of memory and biographical work. The analysis shows that the limited reprocessing prior to 1989 as well as the political discourse after 1990 about the GDR past produced a politicization of their imprisonment by the biographers, for example, in the construction of their identity as a political opponent. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110218
The growth of social media use in Jamaica has changed how people communicate with each other and how they participate in the democratic process. To date, minimal research has been done to ascertain the relationship between social media use and the political process, specifically with younger members of the population. Through a survey and focus group interviews, this dissertation seeks to identify whether Jamaican university students are using social media to participate in the political proc...
Van Hiel, Alain; Pattyn, Sven; Onraet, Emma; Severens, Els
The present study investigates patterns of event-related brain potentials following the presentation of attitudinal stimuli among political moderates (N = 12) and anarchists (N = 11). We used a modified oddball paradigm to investigate the evaluative inconsistency effect elicited by stimuli embedded in a sequence of contextual stimuli with an opposite valence. Increased late positive potentials (LPPs) of extreme political attitudes were observed. Moreover, this LPP enhancement was larger among anarchists than among moderates, indicating that an extreme political attitude of a moderate differs from an extreme political attitude of an anarchist. The discussion elaborates on the meaning of attitude extremity for moderates and extremists. PMID:21421734
Soo Young Bae
Full Text Available This study explores the potential of online social media to serve as a sphere for political discourse and investigates the extent to which everyday uses of online social networking sites can expose citizens to politically diverse viewpoints. In addition, this study asks whether such crosscutting exposure in online social networks will act as a trigger or a muffler for political expression – that is, whether exposure political difference will stimulate or discourage political discussions. With analyses of a sample of online social networking site users in the context of the 2012 presidential election in South Korea, this study explicates the link between crosscutting exposure and citizens’ political expressions in social media. Results reveal that contrary to the predictions in previous literature, exposure to politically incongruent viewpoints in online social networking sites does not seem to undermine users’ expressive behaviors but instead positively contribute to political expression. In addition, this study shows the significant role of citizens’ perceptions of candidate support in their own networks, and illustrates that the dynamics of political expression differ significantly depending on the users’ age.
Edmiston-Strasser, Dawn M.
This research examined the strategic process of integrated marketing communication and its application in U.S. public institutions of higher education. A quantitative survey analyzed 42 leading U.S. public colleges and universities as ranked by "U.S. News & World Report." To further examine the findings of the survey, qualitative interviews were…
Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard
The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term...
Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi
Publication of the research outputs is a vital step of the research processes and a gateway between the laboratory and the global society. Open Access is revolutionizing the dissemination of scientific ideas, particularly in the field of public health pharmacogenomics that examines the ways in which pharmacogenomics impacts health systems and services at a societal level, rather than a narrow bench to bedside model of translation science. This manuscript argues that despite some limitations and drawbacks, open access has profound ethical, political and societal implications especially on underdeveloped and developing countries, and that it provides opportunities for science to grow in these resource-limited countries, particularly in the era of a severe economic and financial crisis that is imposing cuts and restrictions to research.
McFadden, Brandon R
There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods and human involvement in global warming (GW). Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual) or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community.
McFadden, Brandon R.
There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods and human involvement in global warming (GW). Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual) or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community. PMID:27829008
Brandon R McFadden
Full Text Available There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM foods and human involvement in global warming (GW. Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community.
Jaeger, Audrey J.; Grantham, Ashley; Lynch, Terry
Mixing political appointments and university operations can prove challenging and, in this case, caused the resignation of three senior officials at State University. Bolman and Deal's four frames provide a structure for analyzing this complex case. The political frame and issues of power and coalitions offer a particularly useful lens to…
Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.
Charlene Maria C. de Ávila Plaza
Full Text Available The present article aims at discussing the importance of the technological innovations as propellers of the economic development of the nations as well as the role of the public politics directed toward the socioeconomics and institutional agents who are a part of the productive and innovative chain of the country. We try to analyze the sugar-ethanol sector and its consequences concerning the environmental aspects, being emphasized the State of Goiás and the “Cerrado” bioma. In the social aspects, we demonstrate the necessity to conciliate economic development with social-environmental sustainability, to propitiate a healthy environment and improvement of the working conditions and life for the citizens who perform the functions of sugar cane cutters of this sector. It is important to emphasize that the article does not intend to underestimate the economic practices of the sugar-ethanol companies, but to analyze certain aspects concerning the environment and the social factor, so that consistent politics is implemented in order to promote sustainability, balanced with enterprise and governmental responsibilities and commitments allied to the tripod: economy, environment and society. Key-words: Technological innovation; Public Politics; Sustainable Development; Sugar-ethanol Sector; Biofuels
D. Y. Arabadjyiev
Based on classical and modern views on democracy, the generalization that democratic political system, citizens participate in elections to prove its direct expression, and the government is aware of the need for fair and transparent elections as proof of the legitimacy of his power. It is concluded that the political system of modern Ukraine NGOs play a triple role, providing a steady realization of citizens’ rights, preventing any attempt to influence the process by the government and at the same time guaranteeing the fairness and transparency of the electoral process.
Mccurdy, Howard E.
The lack of consensus that dominates the conception of major scientific and technological programs is demonstrated via a comparison of the decisions to build the Space Station and the Space Transportation System, and the decision to go to the moon. It is argued that the way political reality conditions administrative behavior in NASA is shown by the decision to promote international cooperation prior to program approval. It is concluded that so long as NASA remains a government agency, its officials will struggle to learn how to balance professional accountability with political reality.
Hoss, Aila; Menon, Akshara; Corso, Liza
Context Public health enabling authorities establish the legal foundation for financing, organizing, and delivering public health services. State laws vary in terms of the content, depth, and breadth of these fundamental public health activities. Given this variance, the Institute of Medicine has identified state public health laws as an area that requires further examination. To respond to this call for further examination, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Public Health Law Program conducted a fundamental activities legal assessment on state public health laws. Objective The goal of the legal assessment was to examine state laws referencing frameworks representing public health department fundamental activities (ie, core and essential services) in an effort to identify, catalog, and describe enabling authorities of state governmental public health systems. Design In 2013, Public Health Law Program staff compiled a list of state statutes and regulations referencing different commonly-recognized public health frameworks of fundamental activities. The legal assessment included state fundamental activities laws available on WestlawNext as of July 2013. The results related to the 10 essential public health services and the 3 core public health functions were confirmed and updated in June 2016. Results Eighteen states reference commonly-recognized frameworks of fundamental activities in their laws. Thirteen states have listed the 10 essential public health services in their laws. Eight of these states have also referenced the 3 core public health functions in their laws. Five states reference only the core public health functions. Conclusions Several states reference fundamental activities in their state laws, particularly through use of the essential services framework. Further work is needed to capture the public health laws and practices of states that may be performing fundamental activities but without reference to a common framework. PMID
Hoss, Aila; Menon, Akshara; Corso, Liza
Public health enabling authorities establish the legal foundation for financing, organizing, and delivering public health services. State laws vary in terms of the content, depth, and breadth of these fundamental public health activities. Given this variance, the Institute of Medicine has identified state public health laws as an area that requires further examination. To respond to this call for further examination, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Law Program conducted a fundamental activities legal assessment on state public health laws. The goal of the legal assessment was to examine state laws referencing frameworks representing public health department fundamental activities (ie, core and essential services) in an effort to identify, catalog, and describe enabling authorities of state governmental public health systems. In 2013, Public Health Law Program staff compiled a list of state statutes and regulations referencing different commonly-recognized public health frameworks of fundamental activities. The legal assessment included state fundamental activities laws available on WestlawNext as of July 2013. The results related to the 10 essential public health services and the 3 core public health functions were confirmed and updated in June 2016. Eighteen states reference commonly-recognized frameworks of fundamental activities in their laws. Thirteen states have listed the 10 essential public health services in their laws. Eight of these states have also referenced the 3 core public health functions in their laws. Five states reference only the core public health functions. Several states reference fundamental activities in their state laws, particularly through use of the essential services framework. Further work is needed to capture the public health laws and practices of states that may be performing fundamental activities but without reference to a common framework.
Willian Alfredo Chapman Quevedo
Full Text Available This article analyzes the incidences caused by printings and written texts during the public’s opinion creation between 1832 and 1853 at Popayan province. Thus, the public opinion was linked to the newspaper’s circulation, rags, scandal sheets and printed images. Likewise, it evidences that these printings and images were not exclusively design for a qualified audience but, the intention also was to reach the common people who were illiterate most of them. But, through orality and images, these people constructed an idea about the politic reality at that time. Hence, we conclude that writing and printed images, along with orality, were essential items to the intention of building a different reality. This last idea does not suggest that this experience was not mediated by comments but, it did influence the society of Popayan, and also interceding on the individual’s perception, a politic party and even the State.
Full Text Available This paper will examine the phenomenon of political spectacle in BiH. Our goal is to recognize the structure of political spectacle in BiH political scene and point out the functions and objectives of this relatively new term in the media and the political sphere. In this regard, we have observed a political spectacle as a method of political communication of the rulers to the ruled. A very important element of the political spectacle is the media. With the media promotion of this method of political communication achieves its full capacity. The final outcome of the political spectacle is reflected in manipulating the public. In this way the politicians try to remain in power as long as they can.
This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633
O'Brien, David M.
Federalism is sometimes a metaphor for states' sovereignty, rather than appreciated as part of the political structure and process created by the Constitution of the United States. The author argues that "federalism" was redefined during the founding period to disassociate it from the discredited idea of states' sovereignty. (Author/JOW)
A M Rodriges
Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the development of the political ideology and the collision of it's national models («nationalism», «socialism», «national interpretations of capitalism» in the modern eastern societies.
Figee, Edward Leopold
The research in this dissertation is focused on the question what processes decentralized governments (i.e., municipalities and provinces) have to overcome in order to intervene in the Dutch and European political arena and to acquire attention for their interests. In the introduction (ch. 1) PA is
Giroux, Henry A.
Analyzes the narrative structure of the film "Fight Club," addressing its critique of consumerism and its celebration of masculinity. Addresses the representational politics that structure the movie, especially its deeply conventional views of violence, gender relations, and masculinity. Considers the role that "Fight Club" and other cultural…
Sachs, Steven Mark
Information from printed sources, legal documents, and interviews with community college administrators formed the basis of an investigation of the legal, policy, and political implications of the use of formal hypnosis as an instructional augmentation in the community college classroom. Study findings included the following: (1) no formal policy…
Graham, T.S.; Hajru, A.
It is news journalism that is commonly considered the practice that reports on the political and invites us to act as citizens. However, there are other media genres, forms and content that may provoke the citizen in us. They not only provide talking points but also facilitate communicative spaces
The public space often conveys a notion of res publica, owned by all members of the public, with equal access and participation. In reality, however, there are several publics, as indeed spaces at the local, state, national and international levels. Irrespective of levels, the public space is where decisions binding on all are ...
Talking politics online is not bound to spaces dedicated to politics, particularly the everyday political talk crucial to the public sphere. The aim of this article is to move beyond such spaces by examining political talk within a space dedicated to popular culture. The purpose is to see whether a
Dhont, Kristof; Van Hiel, Alain; Pattyn, Sven; Onraet, Emma; Severens, Els
The present study investigates patterns of event-related brain potentials following the presentation of attitudinal stimuli among political moderates (N=12) and anarchists (N=11). We used a modified oddball paradigm to investigate the evaluative inconsistency effect elicited by stimuli embedded in a sequence of contextual stimuli with an opposite valence. Increased late positive potentials (LPPs) of extreme political attitudes were observed. Moreover, this LPP enhancement was larger among anarchists than among moderates, indicating that an extreme political attitude of a moderate differs from an extreme political attitude of an anarchist. The discussion elaborates on the meaning of attitude extremity for moderates and extremists. © The Author (2011). Published by Oxford University Press.
Sanjaya, Lovegi David; M.Si, Agus Naryoso; M.Si, Much Yulianto; Gono, Joyo M S; Ayun, Primada Qurrota
Public relations, as one of the strategies are quite effective for building the image, as well as long-term relationship with the community or public. This strategy is often combined with a political strategy to win a pair of political party candidates, which is the background of the writing of this scientific work ; the intention to won Irzal Ilyas and Alfauzi Bote as pair of political candidates to become mayor and deputy mayor of Solok period 2016-2021. There need to be applied various eff...
Renowned practicians and theoreticians engaged in the power economy and energy politics get to grips with the critical issues in this branch of industry such as the deregularisation of the markets; new concepts for companies and politics; altered framework conditions for power companies; and innovations in the power economy. The contributions and discussions point out ways and perspectives for adapting to the new market situation and new framework conditions governing the whole energy sector. The ideas, initiatives and experiences they present stood in the focus of the interdisciplinary exchange of views that took place at the Wissenschaftszentrum in Bonn/Bad Godesberg during the annual meeting of the Gesellschaft fuer Energiewissenschaft und Energiepolitik e.V. (GEE) from 7 to 8 June 1993. (orig.) [de
Hervik uses the new concept of “fractal logic” as a way to explain how scaling takes place in Danish exclusionary reasoning, in news articles, web commentaries, blogs, and Facebook about Muslims. Through two incidents in Denmark, an amusement park controversy and a missing handshake panic, he shows...... how participants and other commentators move from small-scale particularity to a generalizable pattern that is understood to. This leads to the argument that the reproduction of a specific fractal logic called “the nation in danger” and works as an exclusionary reasoning that reinforces the political...... subjectivity of Danish neonationalism. In addition, the argument opens up for a refiguring of the public–private in both psychological and political anthropology....
Luciana Nunes de Oliveira
Full Text Available The professional with a bachelor in Secretarial Science is increasingly placed on the labor market, both in the private and the public sector. However, recent public service entrance examination, on several occasions, offer positions for executive secretary – in which, neither the undergraduate degree in Secretarial Science nor the professional registry is mandatory, allowing undergraduates in different areas enter the public sector as executive secretaries. On the above, this article aims at identifying and introduce the public service entrance examinations for executive secretary, specifically in the Federal Institutions of Higher Education (IFES, from 2009 to 2015. It was identified 110 public service entrance examination rules which provided 531 positions. Of these, only 308 positions (from 57 public service entrance examination rules were exclusively intended for applicants professionally qualified according to the Law No 7.377 of September 30th, 1985. It was noted that some IFES did not demand, in their public service entrance examination rules, the professional qualification required by the Circular Letter No 015/2005 from MEC, causing a loss to the professionals with the professional qualification.
The United States continues to need forward-thinking and revised public policy to assure safe nuclear waste disposal. Both the high- and low-level disposal plans enacted by Congress in the 1980's have been frustrated by practical and political interventions. In the interim, ad hoc solutions and temporary fixes have emerged as de facto policy. Future statutory, regulatory, and administrative guidance will likely be less bold, more narrowly focused, and adopted at lower levels of government, more informally, in contrast to the top-down, statutory policies of the 1980's.
This paper approaches in/equality theorising through the lens of social nudism. Its starting point is a left conception of inequality where systemic power and the politics of oppression displace liberal concerns with immutability, offence, and the removal of impediments. But if undoing inequality involves more than clearing away obstacles, what else is at stake? Refracted through nudist subordination, response takes two forms. The first addresses the criteria through which discrimination gets...
Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Martinez-Alier, Joan
This article proposes to focus contributions from political ecology and ecological economics to the field of collective health with a view towards integrating the discussions around health promotion, socio-environmental sustainability, and development. Ecological economics is a recent interdisciplinary field that combines economists and other professionals from the social, human, and life sciences. The field has developed new concepts and methodologies that seek to grasp the relationship between the economy and ecological and social processes such as social metabolism and metabolic profile, thereby interrelating economic, material, and energy flows and producing indicators and indexes for (un)sustainability. Meanwhile, political ecology approaches ecological issues and socio-environmental conflicts based on the economic and power dynamics characterizing modern societies. Collective health and the discussions on health promotion can expand our understanding of territory, communities, and the role of science and institutions based on the contributions of political ecology and ecological economics in analyzing development models and the distributive and socio-environmental conflicts generated by them.
Frewer, L.J.; Salter, B.
There has been much recent debate about the declining public trust in science, scientific institutions and the regulation of science. Negative attitudes towards genetic modification on the part of the public politicised the processes associated with its governance. It is argued that public trust in
Kurz, Richard S; Yager, Christopher; Yager, James D; Foster, Allison; Breidenbach, Daniel H; Irwin, Zachary
In 2014, the National Board of Public Health Examiners performed a job task analysis (JTA) to revise the Certified in Public Health (CPH) examination. The objectives of this study were to describe the development, administration, and results of the JTA survey; to present an analysis of the survey results; and to review the implications of this first-ever public health JTA. An advisory committee of public health professionals developed a list of 200 public health job tasks categorized into 10 work domains. The list of tasks was incorporated into a web-based survey, and a snowball sample of public health professionals provided 4850 usable responses. Respondents rated job tasks as essential (4), very important (3), important (2), not very important (1), and never performed (0). The mean task importance ratings ranged from 2.61 to 3.01 (important to very important). The highest mean ratings were for tasks in the ethics domain (mean rating, 3.01). Respondents ranked 10 of the 200 tasks as the most important, with mean task rankings ranging from 2.98 to 3.39. We found subtle differences between male and female respondents and between master of public health and doctor of public health respondents in their rankings. The JTA established a set of job tasks in 10 public health work domains, and the results provided a foundation for refining the CPH examination. Additional steps are needed to further modify the content outline of the examination. An empirical assessment of public health job tasks, using methods such as principal components analysis, may provide additional insight.
Wolling, Jens; Arlt, Dorothee (eds.)
The study includes the following contributions: Introduction: An earth quake and its (political) consequences; Part 1: Nuclear energy in the historical-comparative perspective: The largest assumable reevaluation? Loss of confidence in nuclear power. Part 2: Reactions of the media in Germany: German nuclear phase-out made in Japan? Risk perception in case of accident. Part 3: International comparison of the media reactions: Framing Fukushima. The nuclear disaster as topic of the international communication. Emotionalized reporting? Energy sources in the media reporting. Changes due to Fukushima? Part 4: Reactions of the public on the nuclear disaster and the media reporting: Fukushima effects in Germany? Risk reporting and risk perception. The influence of the reactor accident on the nuclear risk perception and the general environmental awareness of the public. On the influence of the nuclear disaster of Fukushima and the appraisement of different energy sources in Germany.
Sheafer, T.; Shenhav, S.R.; Takens, J.H.; van Atteveldt, W.H.
This article applies the homophily thesis to public diplomacy and offers an empirical examination of a country's success in its mediated public diplomacy efforts. It analyzes international frame building, the process of creating or changing media frames in the international communications arena, by
Camden, Carl; Martin, Janet
A study of the different perceptual frameworks of the major parties involved in strategic nuclear policy was conducted by examining the interaction between the Executive Branch, Congress, and the informed public. Public political communication data were gathered from public documents generated by Congress and the Executive branch, and by examining…
Anderson, Sarah E.; Hodges, Heather E.; Anderson, Terry L.
Modern bureaucracy faces trade-offs between public and congressional input and agency expertise. The U.S. Forest Service offers an opportunity to quantitatively analyze whether an agency that is required to be more open to the public and congressional input will be forced to ignore its technical expertise in managing resources. This study uses…
Heidenreich, Stefan; Puck, Jonas F.; Nell, Phillip Christopher
pressures from public stakeholders are more influencing compared to pressures from private stakeholders. We use ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis to test our hypotheses with data from 157 subsidiaries in Brazil, Russia, Turkey, India, China and South Africa. We found that the higher external...... differentiates the general concept of external stakeholder pressures into pressures from national public and national private stakeholders....
Because of an absence of dialogue, a tense relationship appears to exist between Wisconsin's gay men's book discussion groups and their local public libraries. Public library directors express interest in accommodating these groups if approached but face budget restrictions and local communities that may oppose these gatherings; gay men's book…
Rowe, Emma E.
Research points to sections of the middle-class repopulating the "ordinary" urban public school and whilst there are key differences in how they are navigating public school choices, from "seeking a critical mass" to resisting traditional methods of choice and going "against-the-grain", or collectively campaigning for…
Pennell, Christopher; McCulloch, Peter
The purpose of this study was to determine whether American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination (CE) performance is improved among residents who prepare using simulated oral examinations (SOEs). EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched using predefined search terms. No language restrictions were imposed and the latest search date was in November 2014. Included studies must have reported on residents training in a general surgery residency in the United States who used SOEs to prepare for the CE and have measured their performance against those without exposure to SOEs. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and a fixed effects meta-analysis was performed to determine the net effect of SOEs on CE performance. Overall, 4 of 25 abstracts reviewed met inclusion criteria and are included in this review. The most common simulation format included public examinations in front of resident peers during scheduled education sessions. All 4 included studies trended toward improved performance with SOEs and in 2 of these studies the improvement was statistically significant. Overall, 3 studies were of adequate quality to perform a meta-analysis and demonstrated a relative risk for first-attempt CE success of 1.22 (95% CI: 1.07-1.39, p = 0.003) for residents preparing with SOEs compared to those without SOEs. The published literature evaluating SOEs is limited and generally of fair quality. A modest improvement in CE performance was identified when public SOEs were used as an educational tool aimed to improve professionalism and communication skills, encourage reading at home, and provide a regular review of clinically relevant topics. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This thesis explores politicians’ perceptions of the public library and public library development. While many call for a redefined vision for public libraries, eye-catching libraries are built in major cities around the world. What library visions are expressed through such projects? I attempt...... to discern how local politicians view the role of the public library, and how do they want to develop it in their local context, using concepts from institutional theory in the analysis. The research questions include issues concerning norms politicians connect with public libraries compared with those...... and document analysis of local and national policy documents. One important premise for this study has been to find cases where there are on-going developments; in the shape of main library construction. The findings show that politicians have extensive knowledge about the norms and values found...
Mrig, Emily Hammad; Spencer, Karen Lutfey
A growing body of social science literature is devoted to describing processes of biomedicalization. The issue of biomedicalization is especially relevant for individuals suffering from end-stage cancer and hoping that aggressive end-of-life interventions, which are riddled with uncertainty around quantity or quality of life, will produce a 'cure'. To examine hospice underutilization among end-stage cancer patients, we apply the anthropological concept 'political economy of hope,' which describes how personal and collective 'hope' is associated with the political and economic structures that produce biomedicalization processes. Previous studies have examined hospice underutilization among end-stage cancer patients and have identified barriers stemming from patient and physician characteristics or health insurance reimbursement policies. Yet, these studies do not provide an organized synthesis of how barriers articulate, how they are part of the longitudinal decision-making process, or describe the sociocultural context surrounding hospice care enrollment decisions. This paper focuses on US-specific mechanisms and is based on qualitative, in-depth, interviews with physicians at an academic hospital (N = 24). We find that hospice underutilization results from a web of interconnected constraints surrounding end-stage cancer patients. Our research reveals how hospice care contradicts the political and economic structures associated with end-stage cancer care and illustrates how end-stage cancer patients are transformed into a form of biovalue, a fundamental commodity sustaining the political economy of hope. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Colmers, John M; Fox, Daniel M
The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act became a contentious document in more than 30 states in 2001 and 2002. Controversy has focused on recommendations by the authors of the Model Act that seemed to accord higher priority to collective action in emergencies than to protecting privacy and property. This situation has several causes that derive from the characteristics of public health emergencies during the past half century and the relative isolation of public health officials from both their colleagues in government and many members of the public.
Full Text Available Can an industrial organisation simultaneously fulfil economic and social functions, that is to say successfully reconcile its own priorities of optimal resource utilisation and productive efficiency with the larger objectives of social justice defined for it by public authorities? This is the central question this paper whose compass is restricted to the 1980s asks, and seeks to answer on the basis of a study of locational and technology choices at a big public sector manufacturing firm, Indian Telephone Industries. It will show how decisions pertaining both to the implantation of new state-owned factories and the sourcing of technology were shaped not by an economic rationale but a political one where employment generation took precedence over all other considerations. This was a consequence, on the one hand, of the paradigm of state-initiated industrial development embraced by India after Independence in 1947 and which held out the promise of future prosperity for the population at large; on the other, of the mode of governance prevailing in public enterprises where state interventionism rhymed with the complete loss of autonomy for managements. The paper concludes by pointing out that however justified the redistributive goals allocated to public enterprises from the standpoint of improving living standards, they proved highly detrimental to their efficient working as well as onerous for the exchequer.
Barnes, Priscilla A; Curtis, Amy B; Hall-Downey, Laura; Moonesinghe, Ramal
This study examines whether partnership-related measures in the second version of the National Public Health Performance Standards (NPHPS) are useful in evaluating level of activity as well as identifying latent constructs that exist among local public health systems (LPHSs). In a sample of 110 LPHSs, descriptive analysis was conducted to determine frequency and percentage of 18 partnership-related NPHPS measures. Principal components factor analysis was conducted to identify unobserved characteristics that promote effective partnerships among LPHSs. Results revealed that 13 of the 18 measures were most frequently reported at the minimal-moderate level (conducted 1%-49% of the time). Coordination of personal health and social services to optimize access (74.6%) was the most frequently reported measure at minimal-moderate levels. Optimal levels (conducted >75% of the time) were reported most frequently in 2 activities: participation in emergency preparedness coalitions and local health departments ensuring service provision by working with state health departments (67% and 61% of respondents, respectively) and the least optimally reported activity was review partnership effectiveness (4% of respondents). Factor analysis revealed categories of partnership-related measures in 4 domains: resources and activities contributing to relationship building, evaluating community leadership activities, research, and state and local linkages to support public health activities. System-oriented public health assessments may have questions that serve as proxy measures to examine levels of interorganizational partnerships. Several measures from the NPHPS were useful in establishing a national baseline of minimal and optimal activity levels as well as identifying factors to enhance the delivery of the 10 essential public health services among organizations and individuals in public health systems.
Schwartz, Sander Andreas
This paper is a qualitative study that examines how and why some citizens use their Facebook network as a personal public. The concept of the personal public in this study is defined by a relative sense of privacy in the closed individual Facebook network, together with a sense of publicness based...... public political communication that have so far been understudied in research on political debates on Facebook....
Full Text Available Russian slash practices are much more than a protest subculture—a reductionist term that implies an unchanging isolation from other public realms. The political significance of slash practices on the Russian-language Internet, Runet, is more effectively understood by examining how slash and slashers travel from fannish to other public spaces to shape everyday political conversations about sexual politics in Russia.
Shambhu Prasad Kattel
Full Text Available The Kisan is an ethnic group of Nepal lived in Jhapa district only. It is a Tarai origin group with 773 populations which is traditionally organized under its own political organization, the Mahato system. The Mahato is a hereditary community head which is supported by Wokil (minister and Sipahi (Police. These traditional authorities run a well functional community court which maintains peace and harmony in the community and works for the preservation of cultural practices. Along with the establishment of multiparty democracy, the community is exposed to external situations: political parties and economic organizations, advocacy groups, donor agencies and so on. A few literate Kisans seeking employment opportunities interfaced with the advocates of National Federations of Indigenous Nationalities and Action Aid Nepal after multiparty democracy. As a result, they had motivated and established a non-governmental organization for ethnic welfare. After establishment of the Kisan Community Development Academy (club in the Kisan language, the community is formally divided into two groups: the illiterate Kisans involved in community court under their traditional authorities and the literate Kisans involved in the newly established club. The club ran literacy and sanitation programs and constructed toilets and water taps. Mainly, it was involved in socio-cultural change and identity politics by the support of the above mentioned organizations. On the contrary, the traditional authorities involve in the preservation of community culture and maintain peace and harmony. The literate Kisans involved in identity politics are motivated for salaried jobs, not for cultural preservation for Kisan identity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10441 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 157-172
José Aparecido de
Full Text Available This essay analyses the asymmetrical relationship between the time of scientific research and the time of the different segments interested in their results, focusing mainly on necessity to establish technical consensus about the fields of science that require rigorous investigations and texts. In the last years, civil society sectors - mainly scientific journalism, legislative power, and public opinion - has shown growing interest in participating of the decision making process that regulates science routes. In this study, we analyzed the decision making process of the Biosafety Law, as it allows research with embryonic stem cells in Brazil. The results allow us to conclude that this asymmetrical relationship between the different times (of science, scientific disclosure, public opinion, and public power contribute to the maturing of the dialog on scientific policies, as well as to the establishment of a consensus concerning science routes, which aims at the democratization of scientific work.
Johannessen, Marius Rohde
Submitted version of a paper from the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Science (HICSS), 2012. Published version available from IEEE: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/hicss.2012.535 This paper presents a theoretical lens for research on social media use in eParticipation, along with an example case study. The idea of the public sphere and how it can be applied to eParticipation research is presented. The public sphere is discussed in relation to Castell's notion of the network societ...
that the European Union (EU) approach to gender equality has strengthened the transnational space of mobilization and given actors new possibilities to negotiate about multiple inequalities and direct their claims at different levels. This has at the same time led to a diversification of women’s claims...... and conflicts about the meanings and framings of gender equality and diversity within the EPS. This is illustrated by case studies of the framing of gender equality and ethno-national diversity by political actors in the European Women’s Lobby and the European Parliament. The article proposes......This article addresses conflicts and negotiations about gender equality and diversity within the European public sphere (EPS). It aims to explore the specific constraints and possibilities for realizing gender equality and justice from the transnational European context. Research illustrates...
M.P.M. Bekker (Marleen)
textabstractPublic health issues, such as obesity, lung disease from air pollution or mental health complaints from living in an unsafe neighbourhood, are complex, intractable policy problems. The causes are dispersed at the individual and the collective level among different societal
China's healthcare system is experiencing significant growth from expanded government-backed insurance, greater public-sector spending on hospitals, and the introduction of private insurance and for-profit clinics. An incremental reform process has sought to develop market incentives for medical innovation and liberalize physician compensation and hospital finance while continuing to keep basic care affordable to a large population that pays for many components of care out-of-pocket. Additional changes presently under consideration by policymakers are likely to further restructure insurance and the delivery of care and will alter competitive dynamics in major healthcare industries, notably pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and diagnostic testing. This article describes the institutional history of China's healthcare system and identifies dilemmas emerging as the country negotiates divisions between public and private in healthcare. Building on this analysis, the article considers opportunities for public-private partnerships and greater systems integration to reconcile otherwise incommensurable approaches to rewarding innovation and improving access. The article concludes with observations on the public function of health insurance and its significance to further development of China's healthcare system.
Shabani, Omid Payrow
The argument of this article is that the recent writing of Jurgen Habermas concerning the boundary of public reason offers the following advantages over the classic "liberal proviso": (1) It releases religious citizens from an undue cognitive burden; (2) It distributes the cognitive burden of justification symmetrically across the citizenry; and…
Huzar, Timothy Jozef
Introduction: This paper applies the thought of Jacques Rancière to the concept of democracy as it is traditionally understood in library studies literature. Methods: The paper reviews a cross-section of instances of the link between democracy and the public library in library studies literature. It offers a close textual analysis of Michael…
Engbers, Trent A
The teaching of research methods has been at the core of public administration education for almost 30 years. But since 1990, this journal has published only two articles on the teaching of research methods. Given the increasing emphasis on data driven decision-making, greater insight is needed into the best practices for teaching public…
New marketplaces pop up every day in cities around the world. As catalysts for gentrification, however, these new marketplaces are often celebrated at the expense of the public markets that they replace. This replacement is symptomatic of today's urban governance, which is characterised by what I
Huang, Teng; Ou, Yung-Sheng
The rise of reflexivity and neoliberalism has led to a change in the nature of the public sphere and policy management. Thus, focusing only on analyses of state-initiated policy and the actions of central government is not conducive to understanding the complex process of policy implementation today. Hence, this study aims to analyse the politics…
Schutz, Aaron; Sandy, Marie G.
Hannah Arendt's essays about the 1957 crisis over efforts of a group of youth, the "Little Rock Nine," to desegregate a high school in Little Rock, Arkansas, reveal a tension in her vision of the "public." In this article Aaron Schutz and Marie Sandy look closely at the experiences of the youth desegregating the school,…
This paper focuses on the Arabic Study Circle and the role of its most influential member Joseph Perdu. It shows how the public life of the organization could not continue to bear the ambiguity of the identity of Perdu. Ultimately, there were attempts to 'expose' the 'real' Perdu and therefore the 'real' Arabic Study Circle.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse speeches and commemorative practices in Barcelona during the Second Republic (1931-1936. For this purpose, it uses a wide range of contemporary newspaper and administrative sources as well as national and international bibliography. The author understands that the «public memory» forms part of the «public sphere» in the Habermassian sense, that is to say of the area in which the community discovers and defines itself. With this aim in mind, the author dissects commemorative narratives and praxis so as to identify the ideologically implicit concepts that underlie or are made explicit within them. The concept of «public memory» is defined as a category of sociohistorical analysis. The text analyses the dominant speeches of memory and their links with the prevailing liberal-working class nationalism. It studies the coincidences and differences between these verbal and visual accounts and renaixentista Catalan historiography. At the same time, it is argued that the fundamental tenets of the Catalan historical mind-set, as well as the wish to «redeem the past», enable us to interpret the political behaviour of leaders in this period. The article also makes reference to the importance of citizen-led initiatives for the symbolic configuration of the new tapestry of urban memory.
Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Bech, Mickael; Lauridsen, Jørgen
Both professionals and politicians may affect expenditures for highly professional services provided in the public and private sector. We investigated Danish publicly financed child dental care with a special focus on the influence of politicians and dentists on the expenditure level. By studying spatial patterns in expenditure levels across municipalities, we are able to test the influences of these two main actors and the networks through which learning is achieved. Four hypotheses on the existence of different spatial spillover effects are tested. The empirical analysis is based on annual data from 1996 to 2001 for 226 Danish municipalities, thus allowing for the control for heterogeneity between municipalities and for intra-municipal correlations across time. The results point to differences in expenditures between municipalities with privately and publicly produced dental care. Furthermore, dentists appear to be the most important actors for the spatial spillover effects, and these effects are especially strong for municipalities situated in the same county that use private dental clinics. There is no evidence of political spatial spillover effects between municipalities.
The stage managers of ritual and the media transformed the British monarchy in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century, consolidating its image as splendid and popular and also as more accessible and quasi-democratic. Historians have emphasized that these processes of modernization largely began in Britain. This article locates the origins of democratized royal ritual in the white dominions, especially after 1918. Canada, Australia and New Zealand were political and cultural laboratories where royal advisors and British and dominion politicians launched experiments in the practice of progressive empire and innovatory styles of informal ceremonial, which had a long-term impact on imperial and later Commonwealth relations. Focusing on the Prince of Wales's early dominion tours, the article argues that though royal diplomacy followed earlier itineraries in efforts to consolidate the racialized British world, it also threw up new and unintended consequences. These registered the rapidly changing international order after the collapse of the European monarchies, together with the demands of the prince's own modernist personality. Faced with republican and socialist opposition in Australia and Canada, the touring prince was drawn into competing forms of nationalism, as dominion politicians and journalists embraced him as representing domestic aspirations for self-government and cultural recognition. It is argued that modern royalty personified by the Prince of Wales problematizes the history of twentieth-century public reputations defined by the culture of celebrity. The British monarchy was forced to confront both the constitutional claims of empire and the politics of dominion nationalism, as well as the pressures of international publicity.
F. Loizides; B. Diallo; A. Pollard; A. Mavri
In this work we present findings on non-patent literature use, and specifically scientific publications such as academic articles. We interview patent examiners and observe their prior art searching in order to provide insights into the perceived usage of non-patent literature and produce high level requirements for advancing non-patent literature search tools.
Simpson Steele, Jamie
El Sistema is a Venezuelan program of social change that has inspired a worldwide movement in music education. El Sistema inspires social transformation and musical excellence to occur simultaneously and symbiotically. This study examines: What does El Sistema look like within the context of a public school partnership in the United States? How do…
Linick, Matthew A.
This project focuses on the competitive pressure, or the threat of competitive pressure, generated by charter school policy. This paper uses longitudinal district-level data and multiple quasi-experimental designs to examine the relationship between two Ohio charter school policies and changes in public school district instructional resource…
He, Qingping; Opposs, Dennis
National tests, public examinations, and vocational qualifications in England are used for a variety of purposes, including the certification of individual learners in different subject areas and the accountability of individual professionals and institutions. However, there has been ongoing debate about the reliability and validity of their…
A model of political conflict based on the components of scope, intensity and visibility is used to rank the degree of conflict for states hosting a low-level radioactive waste facility in the US. Data were gathered from sixty-five telephone interviews and comparisons made with ten national experts. Public involvement and compensation packages (reviewed in Chapter IV) to be potential conflict management tools for practitioners. The role of the governor and the complexity of the siting process are two additional factors that are important in escalating a conflict. Technical factors of complexity and source of the waste along with the past performance of the company handling the facility have no link to conflict. Conflict escalation is proposed as a means towards understanding the agenda-building process
Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…
Honoré, Peggy A; Clarke, Richard L; Mead, Dean Michael; Menditto, Susan M
Financial transparency is based on concepts for valid, standardized information that is readily accessible and routinely disseminated to stakeholders. While Congress and others continuously ask for an accounting of public health investments, transparency remains an ignored concept. The objective of this study was to examine financial transparency practices in other industries considered as part of the public health system. Key informants, regarded as financial experts on the operations of hospitals, school systems, and higher education, were a primary source of information. Principal findings were that system partners have espoused some concepts for financial transparency beginning in the early 20th century--signifying an 80-year implementation gap for public health. Critical features that promote accountability included standardized data collection methods and infrastructures, uniform practices for quantitative analysis of financial performance, and credentialing of the financial management workforce. Recommendations are offered on the basis of these findings to aid public health to close this gap by framing a movement toward transparency.
Camelo, Ana Paula
This research aims to investigate the Brazilian Nuclear Program (PNB) stating as reference the Fukushima nuclear accident. Its main purpose is to analyze how the Japanese accident impacted the PNB. Therefore, the program will be analyzed within 10-years (2004-2014) in order to answer this question. The discussion launched in this thesis is based on the framework of the Social Studies of Science and Technology, which enables the understanding of socio-technical controversies beyond the social or technological determinism. Through the discussion of the concepts of framing, socio-technical imaginary, risk and governance of science and technology, the research shows how the controversy in focus has resulted in the opportunity to consider not only economic, technological, environmental issues about nuclear energy, but also its political dimensions and challenges. Among these challenges, and from very different perspectives, arise questions about the role nuclear energy plays in the Brazilian context, the future of the program and the decision making process on these issues. Despite the central purpose of this study is essentially on risks, PNB and on the Brazilian context, it should be pointed that it is impossible to consider it in isolation of what is happening internationally (considering interests, tensions, relations between actors, etc.) The research thereby identifies key implications of Fukushima in the international context, but focuses on the disputes regarding possible review of the PNB. It also highlights how the socio-technical controversies, such as the nuclear energy, demand or impose a discussion on the governance of science and technology, risk and on the engagement of different sectors and actors in decision-making on issues, that are at the same time about energy, technology and nationality relevance. All this reflection is made from multi-sited analysis, which allowed following the controversy surrounding nuclear energy, reheated by the Fukushima
This paper reviews the meaning of the Rural Health Bureau (1910-1918) for the history of Spanish public health, thanks to a wealth of previously unknown sources found through a systematic search through medical journals of the time and the Bulletin of the national department of Agriculture. The Bureau was dependent of the Ministry of Development, in the same way as the competences on animal health. It aimed to provide a public health rationale for a plan of agrarian infrastructures, a goal resolved into a huge task of surveillance on hookworm disease, malaria, water supplies, and diet. Thus it becomes a perfect paradigm of the Spanish Liberal tradition of promoting information instead than actual changes into society, as well as a needed complement to the hydraulic policy sponsored by Rafael Gasset.
non-peer-reviewed The ambition of my thesis project is to design civic space, space for civic engagement. Taking inspiration from the various voices who have identified a democratic crisis and who are themselves more civilly engaged, I am designing for a society that has revolutionised itself to be more active in its own governance. I propose an alternative local government whose public face is dissolved into the street into an aggregation of rooms rather than on...
Hjorth, Frederik Georg
, but also why it is more likely for some issues (such as European integration or crime) than others (such as welfare). The dissertation includes four stand-alone articles illustrating the influence of group identities in political cognition. Compared to the existing literature, they suggest...... is to a significant extent shaped by studies of American public opinion, where public opinion on some issues is widely considered 'racialized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward racial outgroups. The dissertation examines whether by the same token, political attitudes in universal welfare states can become...... 'ethnicized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward ethnic outgroups. The existing literature has tended to focus on the issue of welfare, where the expectation is that ethnic diversity will diminish public support. I outline a theoretical framework which explains why political attitudes can be ethnicized...
Podobnik, Boris; Vukovic, Vuk; Stanley, H Eugene
We present a dynamic network model of corrupt and noncorrupt employees representing two states in the public and private sector. Corrupt employees are more connected to one another and are less willing to change their attitudes regarding corruption than noncorrupt employees. This behavior enables them to prevail and become the majority in the workforce through a first-order phase transition even though they initially represented a minority. In the model, democracy-understood as the principle of majority rule-does not create corruption, but it serves as a mechanism that preserves corruption in the long run. The motivation for our network model is a paradox that exists on the labor market. Although economic theory indicates that higher risk investments should lead to larger rewards, in many developed and developing countries workers in lower-risk public sector jobs are paid more than workers in higher-risk private sector jobs. To determine the long-run sustainability of this economic paradox, we study data from 28 EU countries and find that the public sector wage premium increases with the level of corruption.
Podobnik, Boris; Vukovic, Vuk; Stanley, H. Eugene
We present a dynamic network model of corrupt and noncorrupt employees representing two states in the public and private sector. Corrupt employees are more connected to one another and are less willing to change their attitudes regarding corruption than noncorrupt employees. This behavior enables them to prevail and become the majority in the workforce through a first-order phase transition even though they initially represented a minority. In the model, democracy—understood as the principle of majority rule—does not create corruption, but it serves as a mechanism that preserves corruption in the long run. The motivation for our network model is a paradox that exists on the labor market. Although economic theory indicates that higher risk investments should lead to larger rewards, in many developed and developing countries workers in lower-risk public sector jobs are paid more than workers in higher-risk private sector jobs. To determine the long-run sustainability of this economic paradox, we study data from 28 EU countries and find that the public sector wage premium increases with the level of corruption. PMID:26495847
Full Text Available We present a dynamic network model of corrupt and noncorrupt employees representing two states in the public and private sector. Corrupt employees are more connected to one another and are less willing to change their attitudes regarding corruption than noncorrupt employees. This behavior enables them to prevail and become the majority in the workforce through a first-order phase transition even though they initially represented a minority. In the model, democracy-understood as the principle of majority rule-does not create corruption, but it serves as a mechanism that preserves corruption in the long run. The motivation for our network model is a paradox that exists on the labor market. Although economic theory indicates that higher risk investments should lead to larger rewards, in many developed and developing countries workers in lower-risk public sector jobs are paid more than workers in higher-risk private sector jobs. To determine the long-run sustainability of this economic paradox, we study data from 28 EU countries and find that the public sector wage premium increases with the level of corruption.
This paper argues that the South Korean scholarship on modem Chinese history since 1945 can be characterized as apolitical with its objectivism,positivism,liberalism,and anti-communist nationalism.This characteristic is a product of not only the Cold War and the military regimes of South Korea but also the political orientation and stance of the senior historians who played an initial and decisive role in determining the goal,direc tion,and research methods of South Korean studies concerning modem China.The SouthKorean perspective they promoted usually meant the study of liberal,apolitical topics in Chinese history from a nationalist perspective without any political/ideological influences.The utility of modern Chinese history has mainly lain in helping to construct an anti-socialist,modern Korean nation-state through modernization.South Korean historians of modem China,the paper argues,have not been able to induce a meaningful,broad discussion of critical historical issues in modem China as they might pertain to South Korean society,thus failing to utilize them to help challenge and transform the undemocratic South Korean society and regimes.Hence,the future success of new academic undertakings since the 1990s by South Korean historians will be determined by whether or not they are able to make a radical break from the previous scholarship,in particular,from its objectivism and nationalism.
The author reminds us briefly of the general aims of an energy policy, and shows for the nuclear energy, how the public valued this kind of energy very differently in the course of approximately three decades: The evaluation shifted from the phase of 'euphoria', via the phase of 'scepticism, ideology and agitation' and the phase of 'realism' to the phase of 'renewed controversy'. It is about time to return to appropriate criteria of evaluation for all kinds of energy, which requires intensive and differentiated persuasion of all involved in the energy field. The author presents the areas of such persuasion activities. (orig.).
Brown, Bryan A.
This review examines twenty years of research (1985-2005) on African-American students in science education. This analysis identified three types of research studies on African-Americans. First, a series of studies provided status reports of African-American students' performance in science. Second, a series of studies highlighted cultural…
Joo, Ji-eun; Yim, Man-Sung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
According to a recent survey, 63.8% of Koreans responded that nuclear power is important but unsafe. Along with this trend, there is a growing anti-nuclear movement in the ROK as a post-Fukushima development enlarging the gap between the government policy and social acceptance. In this research, we examined the prospects of public acceptance of nuclear power in the ROK. For this purpose, the history of nuclear power development and public acceptance changes in the ROK is reviewed and salient factors that affected the historical development are identified. Results are compared with what was observed among other major nuclear power countries such as the U.S., Sweden, Germany and Japan. Some lessons can be learned from other states' experiences to help ROK develop positive nuclear public acceptance. Improving nuclear safety and solving nuclear waste management problem along with enhancing information sharing with the public were found important. Building the culture of trust between government and the public was also very important. As a future work, this study will attempt to perform quantitative analysis of the historical data to identify major factors that might significantly affect public acceptance trend.
This article examines the participation of "third-sector" organisations in public education in England. These organisations act as a cross-sectoral policy network made up of new kinds of policy experts: mediators and brokers with entrepreneurial careers in ideas. They have sought to make education reform thinkable, intelligible and…
Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Devastation of the Indies: A Brief Account. BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS CASAS. Translated by Herma Briffault. Introduction by Bill M. Donovan. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. 138 pp. (Paper US$ 11.95 The 1992 Johns Hopkins University Press publication of Bartolom? de las Casas's The Devastation of the Indies: A Brief Account has been, I am told, a commercial success. Regrettably, it is a scholarly failure. The translation - a reprint of a 1974 version - is so inaccurate that it barely deserves to go by the name, and the introductory essay that accompanies it repeats the old clich?s and familiar misunderstandings that one commonly reads about Las Casas's life and work. The shortcomings of both the translation and the introduction could have been overcome by a deeper engagement with Las Casas's works and greater attention to basic information about sixteenth-century Spanish history.
Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Tsinovoi, Alexei
Recognition, or the lack of it, is a central concern in International Relations. However, how states cope with international misrecognition has so far not been thoroughly explored in International Relations scholarship. To address this, the article presents a theoretical framework for understanding...... international misrecognition by drawing on discursive and psychoanalytical theories of collective identity formation and humour studies. The article conceptualises international misrecognition as a gap between the dominant narrative of a national Self and the way in which this national Self is reflected...... in the ‘mirror’ of the international Other. We argue that humour offers an important way of coping with misrecognition by ridiculing and thereby downplaying international criticism. The significance for international relations is illustrated through an analysis of the public diplomacy campaign ‘Presenting Israel...
Full Text Available Political crowdfunding is analyzed as a new concept of political science. The justification of use of crowdfunding technologies not only in business but also in the political sphere is argued. The efficiency, availability, low cost of the new forms of political investment through the development of information and communication technologies are noted. The typology of political crowdfunding is proposed. Political projects promoting domestic crowdfunding platforms are analyzed. Attention is drawn to the problem of legal gaps in the regulation of crowdfunding is studied. The foreign experience of organizing public support (mikroinvestment political projects. It is emphasized that in terms of political theory crowdfunding is based on solidarity. The crowdfunding properties of transforming social capital accumulated by social networks into financial capital are mentioned.
Full Text Available This paper reviews the meaning of the Rural Health Bureau (1910-1918 for the history of Spanish public health, thanks to a wealth of previously unknown sources found through a systematic search through medical journals of the time and the Bulletin of the national department of Agriculture. The Bureau was dependent of the Ministry of Development, in the same way as the competences on animal health. It aimed to provide a public health rationale for a plan of agrarian infrastructures, a goal resolved into a huge task of surveillance on hookworm disease, malaria, water supplies and diet. Thus it becomes a perfect paradigm of the Spanish Liberal tradition of promoting information instead than actual changes into society, as well as a needed complement to the hydraulic policy sponsored by Rafael Gasset.
Abordo el significado en la historia de la Salud pública española de la Inspección de Sanidad del Campo (1910-1918 partiendo de fuentes escasamente conocidas producto de una búsqueda sistemática en las revistas médicas de la época y en el Boletín de Agricultura técnica y económica, órgano de la Dirección general de Agricultura. La Inspección dependió del Ministerio de Fomento, al igual que la higiene veterinaria, y su objetivo era proporcionar bases higiénicas para un plan de infraestructuras agrarias, lo que se tradujo en una ingente tarea de vigilancia epidemiológica sobre anquilostomiasis, paludismo, aguas y alimentación. En este sentido resulta un perfecto epítome de la tradición informativa liberal, así como un complemento de la política hidráulica impulsada por Rafael Gasset.
Victalice Ngimanang ACHAMOH
Full Text Available The study adopts the inter-temporal model of Rodríguez (1989 and Edward (1989 extended in Elbadawi and Soto (1997 to empirically examine the effect of public expenditure and trade openness on the real exchange rate using Cameroon data from 1977 to 2010. After exploring some issues on exchange rate and reviewing the relevant literature, the study employs residual based-cointegration technique. All the variables were stationary at level form or first differences. Public spending significantly appreciates the real exchange likewise the trade openness variable in the longrun. The results of the study suggests that appreciation of real exchange rate could be prevented by contracting public spending or adopting restrictive trade measures especially in the long run.
O. O. Ratsyk
The author concludes that three main approaches were formed and fixed in the political and legal documents: depoliticization, political neutrality and political impartiality. For the first time the principle of depoliticization was mentioned in official documents from the beginning of the modern independent Ukrainian state. It means the prohibition for political parties to create its offices in government bodies and organizations. The principle of political neutrality was mentioned in «The Conception of Administrative Reform in Ukraine» (1996. It means the need to restrict some political rights and freedoms for civil servants, that interfere perform their professional duties. The principle of political impartiality mentioned in official documents in 2000. It means the need to restrict, above all, the right to freedom of speech and information for civil servants.
... qualified public accountant for employee benefit plans with fewer than 100 participants. 2520.104-46 Section... Requirements § 2520.104-46 Waiver of examination and report of an independent qualified public accountant for... public accountant to conduct an examination of the financial statements of the plan; (2) Include within...
Herrero de Miñón, Miguel
Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.
Quay, Richard H.
A bibliography of Joel S. Berke, James W. Guthrie, and Michael W. Kirst on politics and educational finance is presented. Specific topics include the following: whether financial support of public schools should be assumed completely by states, school finance policies and practices, school finance reform versus the spending and tax limitation…
Full Text Available In the wake of the 2007–2008 financial crisis, long-term tendencies to enhance public sector structures, mechanisms, and methods of accountability seemed to increase, at least within the EU. This crisis afflict- ed Poland to a lesser degree, and the changes occurring in the Polish public sector didn’t come from it directly. Their causes have their roots in the need to reduce public debt and further adapt to the systems and standards of the Eurosphere. These changes have taken place in the context of unique historical transformations from the political regime of a market economy before World War II to the post World War II political regime of a centrally planned economy, and then from this political regime of centrally planned economy to the 21st century market economy. Historical and theoretical perspectives have been adopted. The results of our deliberations point out that the public finance sector change is of an evolu- tionary character rather than a revolutionary one. In addition, the evolution determinants and tempos come from the socio-political environment. The issue undertaken in this paper is of the character of pri- mary research, but the form of the paper is closer to a scientific essay than a research paper.
Beccaria, Franca; Rolando, Sara
Political concern with alcohol as a social problem arose in Italy only at the end of last century, when consumption and the death rate from alcohol-related causes had both been trending down for decades. The main aim of this case study is to investigate - applying Wiener's theoretical framework - the role of different stakeholders in the process that led to the approval of the first alcohol framework law in 2001. Fourteen individual interviews with stakeholders were conducted, covering all the main topics involved in Italian alcohol policies. In addition, 19 bills introduced in the Italian parliament were analysed to reconstruct the legislative process. Stakeholders' role was analysed, assessing their positions, contrasts and coalitions. The rhetoric employed in the course of public debate was also deciphered. All three of the main processes used by Wiener to describe the building of a public arena around alcohol - animating the problem, legitimizing it and demonstrating it - were found. The Club of Alcoholics in Treatment and professionals working with alcoholics in Local Addiction Services appeared to be the most active groups in supporting the law. They did so by establishing a strong alliance, even if their visions about the problem and how to solve it differed. The study showed that a shared vision is not as essential as 'combining for strength' in order to create a public arena around a social problem. Furthermore, not even scientific data are essential for demonstrating a problem, as the use of rhetoric seems to be more effective in building ideologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liesen, Laurette T; Walsh, Mary Barbara
The term "biopolitics" carries multiple, sometimes competing, meanings in political science. When the term was first used in the United States in the late 1970s, it referred to an emerging subdiscipline that incorporated the theories and data of the life sciences into the study of political behavior and public policy. But by the mid-1990s, biopolitics was adopted by postmodernist scholars at the American Political Science Association's annual meeting who followed Foucault's work in examining the power of the state on individuals. Michel Foucault first used the term biopolitics in the 1970s to denote social and political power over life. Since then, two groups of political scientists have been using this term in very different ways. This paper examines the parallel developments of the term "biopolitics," how two subdisciplines gained (and one lost) control of the term, and what the future holds for its meaning in political science.
Full Text Available This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together with the more pervasive "live" coverage of politics and politicians, this expands media coverage to both the backstage of political processes and the private and personal backstage of politicians, changing the form of democracy and public debate.
Marks, S P
The impact of economic sanctions on civilians has frequently been studied by public health specialists and specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN). This commentary explores some of the difficulties of the claim that sanctions constitute violations of human rights. The deprivation suffered by civilian populations under sanctions regimes often are violations of economic, social, and cultural human rights; however, the attribution of responsibility for those violations to the "senders" of sanctions (the UN Security Council or the US government, for example) is difficult to sustain, particularly in light of the efforts made by these entities to provide for humanitarian exemptions and humanitarian aid. A more productive approach to avoiding civilian harm is to prefer, as a matter of policy, arms embargoes, severing of communications, and international criminal prosecutions over trade embargoes. Promising recommendations have been formulated regarding "smart sanctions," which target regimes rather than people, and "positive sanctions" in the form of incentives. Health and human rights professionals have specific and important tasks in implementing such a restructured approach to sanctions.
Corrie Rebecca Block
Full Text Available In order to succeed in the current school assessment and accountability era, a public Montessori school is expected to achieve high student scores on standardized assessments. A problem for a public Montessori elementary school is how to make sense of the school’s high-stakes assessment scores in terms of its unique educational approach. This case study examined a public Montessori elementary school’s efforts as the school implemented the Montessori Method within the accountability era. The research revealed the ways the principal, teachers, and parents on the school council modified Montessori practices, curriculum, and assessment procedures based on test scores. A quality Montessori education is designed to offer children opportunities to develop both cognitive skills and affective components such as student motivation and socio-emotional skills that will serve them beyond their public school experiences. Sadly, the high-stakes testing environment influences so much of public education today. When quality education was measured through only one narrow measure of success the result in this school was clearly a restriction of priorities to areas that were easily assessed.
Full Text Available Examining the interrelationships among critical success factors (CSFs for public private partnership (PPP projects is of importance for improving PPP project performance and maintaining the sustainability of PPP project implementation. Previous studies mostly focused on the identification of the CSFs for PPP projects; limited studies investigated the interrelationships among CSFs. Hence, the research objectives are (a to determine the interrelationships among CSFs of PPP projects taking into account the public and (b to identify influence paths contributing to take advantage of CSFs in the process of PPP implementation. A literature review and expert interviews were adopted to construct the CSFs framework; nine hypotheses were constructed and tested by the structural equation modelling (SEM based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey. This research reveals that the relationship between public and private partners is the leader-follower relationship, not the partnership relationship, in PPP projects, indicating that the responsibilities, power or resources existing among partners are very unequal. It also highlights that public involvement has a negative effect on the process of service provisions, and costs and risks exist in the process of public involvement in PPP projects. The determined interrelationships among CSFs will contribute to the sustainability and success of a PPP project.
Reich, M R
This paper examines the political dynamics of health sector reform in poor countries, through a comparative study of pharmaceutical policy reform in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. The paper first reviews five reasons why policy reform is political. It then presents three political economic models of the policy reform process: the political will, political factions, and political survival models. Next, the paper describes the three cases of national pharmaceutical policy reform, and identifies common conditions that made these reforms politically feasible. The paper's analysis suggests that health sector reform is feasible at certain definable, and perhaps predictable, political moments, especially in the early periods of new regimes. The most important and manipulable political factors are: political timing, which provides opportunities for policy entrepreneurs to introduce their ideas into public debate, and political management of group competition, which allows leaders to control the political effects of distributional consequences and protect the regime's stability. A strong and narrow political coalition improves the capacity of political leaders to resist the pressures of concentrated economic costs (both inside and outside national boundaries). The paper argues that for reform to succeed, policy-makers need effective methods to analyze relevant political conditions and shape key political factors in favor of policy reform. The method of Political Mapping is briefly introduced as a technique that can help policy-makers in analyzing and managing the political dimensions of policy reform and in improving the political feasibility of reform.
Full Text Available Ethnographic exercises are discussed - as proposed by the Metuia Project/ USP between 2007 and 2013 - as an activity able to enhance the recognition of the compound, plural and sometimes contradictory knowledge, but produced creatively in the intellectual and social do, in the interaction among students, occupational therapists, researchers and homeless people. It starts from the need to develop an understanding of the significant activities of artists working in the public spaces in São Paulo, as it persists as a plurality of meanings that the street acquires amid disputes of interests and cultural tensions, but also interconnections and creativity. The itinerant life and social areas’ characteristics, combined with reflections of urban anthropology and ethnographic research favored the theoretical and practical teaching in dialogic territorial shares of social occupational therapy. This article is the result of reflections built from the research Circuits and religious practices in life trajectories of adult homeless people in city of São Paulo, associated with university extension project linked to Metuia Project/USP, called Point meeting and culture: social networks, culture and social occupational therapy. In conclusion, on the one hand, there is need for renewed reflection about the occupational therapist’s place, considering the asymmetries of the relations in the construction of knowledge. On the other hand, it indicates that the produced activities, necessarily, in dialogical relations, only share meanings when inserted into the experience of the difference in consistent proposals with its own plasticity and in the middle of specific social and cultural contexts.
Full Text Available Canada’s security interests and the mission of our Armed Forces – that is to defend Canada, defend North America and to promote peace and security abroad – may largely remain unchanged and timeless. The nature of the security environment, however, has not – nor will it be in the years to come. An effective and relevant Canadian Armed Forces will continue to require capable, wellequipped and operationally-ready maritime, air and land forces who are largely raised and trained within our Army, Navy and Air Force. But in order for Defence to remain relevant and effective in an era of increased instability, volatility and unpredictability, our Armed Forces need the ability and capacity to match these with an increased understanding of what is going on, and preparedness for what is to come. This is the business of our military’s Joint Forces – those beyond the tactical units that the services provide. It is the joint organizations and networks within the institution that generate intelligence, provide understanding and lead the partnering, planning, force posturing and practicing so essential to the anticipation of, preparation for, and conduct of, operations – in particular in a world of unrelenting complexity. A decade after General Rick Hillier’s extraordinary initiatives to transform our Armed Forces from a service-centric machine-age force to one focused on the business of operations, one that thinks and acts Canadian Forces (joint first, we do see evidence of real progress in the approach to joint operations and improved appreciation of our military’s joint functions and capabilities. Unlike the political and public calls for strong services and the modernization of their major platforms, however, this progress has been realized largely through efforts internal to the Armed Forces themselves. The initiative has been without political leadership and external policy topcover, rendering this progress and its future vulnerable and
Full Text Available This article examines the risk-mitigation in public-private partnership. Today Ukraine is ranked as "CRT-5 country" and has high levels of economic and political risk. Political risk grows steadily because of financial and political instability in Ukraine. We conclude that investors continue to rank political risk as a key obstacle to long-term investing. The tools for cover many types of political risks such as war, terrorism, civil disturbance, breach of contract, export or operating license cancellation, currency inconvertibility and transfer restriction, change of laws and regulations etc. are described by authors. We focus on the advantages of World Bank Group Guarantee products. The guarantee instruments of the three WBG institutions for cover political risks under different circumstances are the most suitable for public-private partnership in Ukraine. In this article the political risk-mitigation with IBRD Partial Risk Guarantee put forward by authors for PPP projects in Ukraine.
Menachemi, Nir; Yeager, Valerie A; Duncan, W Jack; Katholi, Charles R; Ginter, Peter M
State public health preparedness units (SPHPUs) were developed in response to federal funding to improve response to disasters: a responsibility that had not traditionally been within the purview of public health. The SPHPUs were created within the existing public health organizational structure, and their placement may have implications for how the unit functions, how communication takes place, and ultimately how well the key responsibilities are performed. This study empirically identifies a taxonomy of similarly structured SPHPUs and examines whether this structure is associated with state geographic, demographic, and threat-vulnerability characteristics. Data representing each SPHPU were extracted from publically available sources, including organizational charts and emergency preparedness plans for 2009. A cross-sectional segmentation analysis was conducted of variables representing structural attributes. Fifty state public health departments. Variables representing "span of control" and "hierarchal levels" were extracted from organizational charts. Structural "complexity" and "centralization" were extracted from state emergency preparedness documents and other secondary sources. On average, 6.6 people report to the same manager as the SPHPU director; 2.1 levels separate the SPHPU director from the state health officer; and a mean of 13.5 agencies collaborate with SPHPU during a disaster. Despite considerable variability in how SPHPUs had been structured, results of the cluster and principal component analysis identified 7 similarly structured groups. Neither the taxonomic groups nor the individual variables representing structure were found to be associated with state characteristics, including threat vulnerabilities. Our finding supports the hypothesis that SPHPUs are seemingly inadvertently (eg, not strategically) organized. This taxonomy provides the basis for which future research can examine how SPHPU structure relates to performance measures and
Gallego Carrera, Diana; Hampel, Juergen
When nuclear power was introduced for electricity production in the mid-1950s, the access to nearly unlimited energy reserves it promised was expected to make the scarcity of energy supply a problem of the past. In the light of such expectations, the first nuclear reactors for electricity generation were built in Germany in the 1960s and in Switzerland in the late 1960s. Only a few years later, as early as in the 1970s, nuclear power developed into one of the present technologies discussed most controversially. While nuclear proponents considered the risks associated with the use of nuclear power low, nuclear opponents insisted mainly on debating the extent to which the risks of nuclear power were acceptable even if the probability of occurrence was low. History shows that there is no straight path in the development of nuclear power. While France made nuclear power the backbone of electricity production, other countries were much more reluctant to use nuclear power. After quite dramatic discussions in the 1970s and 1980s nuclear power seemed to develop into an unpopular but necessary evil to be accepted temporarily - whatever the definition of temporarily may be - until alternative sources of energy would replace it. Also in the social sciences, attention from the 1990s on concentrated on other topics, moving nuclear power into the background of interest. At present, the future of nuclear power looks rather bleak, at least in Germany and in Switzerland. The probability of change in the near future is discussed in this article. Attitudes towards nuclear power are analyzed first. A number of opinion polls, some of them permitting international comparison, allow public attitudes towards nuclear power in Europe, Germany, and Switzerland to be assessed. A next step deals with the cognitive background to attitudes, looking at risks and risk perception from a scientific perspective of risk studies. Another point considered is the identity of societally visible players
Farmer, P.R.; Dunnicliffe, C.J.
Issues on PWR safety transient analysis that were discussed at the Sizewell B Public Inquiry are presented. The Public Inquiry was set up by the UK Government under an Inspector, Sir Frank Layfield, to examine all aspects of the construction, safety and operation of a 1200 MW(e) PWR on the Sizewell site. The terms of reference were broad ranging, and the constitution of the Inquiry was to make a recommendation under three Acts of Parliament which apply to the construction and operation of nuclear electrical plant. The Inquiry also covered local planning aspects, which are the responsibility of the Local Authority - in this case the Suffolk County Council. The Inspector examined and made recommendations on the safety of the Station, but consideration by Public Inquiry is outside the formal safety and licensing process, which is the business of the Utility (the CEGB) and the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (the NII). The paper therefore takes a broader look at the question of safety, dealing with the licensing process, the requirements of the safety case and the forward strategies adopted by the CEGB in terms of research and development. This is considered for transient analysis, and the aim is to set the discussions and conclusions of the Public Inquiry into their proper context with regard to nuclear safety in the UK. The Inquiry went into some depth on the topic of LOCA, as an example of safety analysis. In the summary of the evidence and cross-examination the Inspector accepted the adequacy of the LOCA safety case without major reservations, and was satisfied further work in progress would resolve any residual criticisms. In particular support was given for the CEGB commitment to the development and use of more physically realistic calculational methods
Iton, Anthony; Shrimali, Bina Patel
Purpose Understanding the WHY, WHAT, and HOW of place-based work in maternal and child health (MCH) is critical to examining the components of the environment that shape health opportunity through the relationship between life expectancy and neighborhood residence. Description On September 18, 2014, during the CityMatCH Leadership and MCH Epidemiology Conference, Dr. Anthony Iton provided the Keynote Address focused on the root causes of health inequities. Assessment The address focused on issues of equity in California and initiatives designed to mitigate and prevent disparities, including the Bay Area Regional Health Equities Initiative framework. Dr. Iton presented information on how the framework translated into investment strategies and a policy and systems change approach to place-based work. Conclusion The field of MCH, because of its focus on supporting health during critical periods of development, is poised to play a significant role in reducing health inequities. Recognizing that human health suffers when low income communities are passive, disenfranchised and disorganized, in order to change this status quo, understanding that human capital is the greatest asset is the urgent challenge to the field of MCH.
The 50/50 Campaign as a tool for enhancing women's political participation has gained currency in recent time. Its call for equal participation of women and men in politics and public office has reinvigorated various activisms globally. This paper examines the Campaign within the context of Ghanaian women's political ...
Harris, Jenine K; B Wondmeneh, Sarah; Zhao, Yiqiang; Leider, Jonathon P
Research replication, or repeating a study de novo, is the scientific standard for building evidence and identifying spurious results. While replication is ideal, it is often expensive and time consuming. Reproducibility, or reanalysis of data to verify published findings, is one proposed minimum alternative standard. While a lack of research reproducibility has been identified as a serious and prevalent problem in biomedical research and a few other fields, little work has been done to examine the reproducibility of public health research. We examined reproducibility in 6 studies from the public health services and systems research subfield of public health research. Following the methods described in each of the 6 papers, we computed the descriptive and inferential statistics for each study. We compared our results with the original study results and examined the percentage differences in descriptive statistics and differences in effect size, significance, and precision of inferential statistics. All project work was completed in 2017. We found consistency between original and reproduced results for each paper in at least 1 of the 4 areas examined. However, we also found some inconsistency. We identified incorrect transcription of results and omitting detail about data management and analyses as the primary contributors to the inconsistencies. Increasing reproducibility, or reanalysis of data to verify published results, can improve the quality of science. Researchers, journals, employers, and funders can all play a role in improving the reproducibility of science through several strategies including publishing data and statistical code, using guidelines to write clear and complete methods sections, conducting reproducibility reviews, and incentivizing reproducible science.
Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer
The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...
Himmelweit, Hilde T.
Described are two longitudinal studies, one British, the other American, which examined the influences of varied socializing agents--e.g., family, school, peer groups--on voting behavior. The studies emphasized the hitherto unappreciated importance of the political, social, and economic climate of society and its changes on socialization. (CS)
Евгений Викторович Смолянинов
Full Text Available The following study is dedicated to the process of political fundraising as a subject of political science. Through the article one can find the definition of political fundraising and American political scientists' approaches to the analysis of this process. Comparative analysis of political fundraising in the U.S.A. and Russian Federation demonstrates that its' transparency has an important impact on public's control of lobby groups and other shadow political entities.
de Jong, J.T.V.M.
Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A
Ifanti, Amalia A.; Argyriou, Andreas A.; Kalofonos, Haralabos P.
This paper seeks to explore the politics of health promotion as a continual process of public health globally and locally. Our main objective in this study is to present the health promotion education initiatives taken by the World Health Organization (WHO) at an international level and also to examine the politics of health promotion in Greece,…
Fatás, Enrique; Neugebauer, Tibor; Tamborero, Pilar
The present paper reports on a political choice experiment with elected real-world politicians. A questionnaire on political and public issues is taken to examine whether prospect theory predicts the responses of experts from the field better than rational choice theory. The results indicate that framing effects exist but that expertise may weaken the deviation from rational choice.
Evans, Jocelyn Jones; Lindrum, David
While previous scholarship suggests that "American government textbooks are more alike than they are different," an examination of the market's most frequently adopted texts suggests that this consistency does not extend much further than the subjects of major chapters. We explore the degree to which four major introductory American…
This study combines interlanguage pragmatics and speech act research with computer-mediated communication and examines how native and non-native speakers of English formulate low- and high-imposition requests to faculty. While some research claims that email, due to absence of non-verbal cues, encourages informal language, other research has…
Political communication on social media is the topic of this dissertation. The Internet and social media platforms have provided participants in the public sphere with new ways to connect, communicate and distribute information. This study examines how and why the three main actor groups within political communication – political actors, media actors and citizens – connect and interact on social media during the electoral process in Norway in 2013. This hybrid media landscape is characterized...
Lau, Joseph T F; Kim, Yoona; Wu, Anise M S; Wang, Zixin; Huang, Bishan; Mo, Phoenix K H
Political tension, as expressed by mass movements such as the Occupy Central movement (2014) in Hong Kong, is a potential but understudied structural factor of population mental health. A random population-based telephone survey anonymously interviewed 344 Hong Kong Chinese adults aged 18-65 years during the 2 weeks since the termination date of the 2-month-long Occupy Central movement (15/12/2014). Linear regression models were fit using mental distress (depression, anxiety and negative mood) and self-perceived changes in mood/sleeping quality as dependent variables. Prevalence of participation in the movement was 10.5% (self), 17.7% (family members/relatives), and 34.0% (peers); 8.5% had participated for ≥2 days. Young age, but not participation, was associated with mental distress. In adjusted analysis, three types of responses to the movement (worry about safety, negative emotional responses to media reports, and conflicts with peers about the movement) and emotional responses to local political situations were significantly associated with all/some of the dependent variables related to mental distress. The variable on emotions toward local political situations was correlated with the three responses to the movement; it fully mediated the associations between such responses and mental distress. Many citizens participated in the movement, which was led by youths and might have increased the general public's mental distress. Negative personal responses to the movement and emotions toward political situations were potential risk factors. As the political tension would last and political pessimism is globally found, politics may have become a regular and persistent structural risk factor negatively affecting population mental health.
Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI
Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a scale to evaluate teacher candidates' level of being affected from the public personnel selection examination. The participants of the study consisted of the final year students at Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The participants were 207 teacher candidates, of whom 143 were female and 64 were male. The validity and reliability study of the scale was conducted on the data gathered from teacher candidates studying at Art Teaching, Music Teaching, Turkish Language Teaching, Social Studies Education, Science Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance Education, Elementary Education and Preschool Education departments of Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The Lawshe technique was used in the evaluation of the scale by experts. To determine the construct validity, factor analysis was performed on the data, and two sub-scales were identified. The factor loading values of the items in the first sub-scale ranged between 0,65 and 0,35, and those in the second sub-scale between 0,75 and 0,39. As a result of the analyses, the "Teacher Candidates' Level of Being Affected From Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale" (TCLBAPPSES including 33 items, 23 negative and 10 positive, and two sub-scales was produced. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was found as 0,86 for the first sub-dimension, 0,73 for the second sub-dimension, and 0,91 for the whole scale. As a result, it can be argued that the scale is reliable
facing both private and public sector organisations (Nidhi & Prerna, 2015;. Gotsis & Kortezi ... These studies suggest that organisational politics often interfere with normal ..... Rawls's (1971) theory of justice provides a theoretical foundation for the relationship between ..... Ethical considerations in organisational politics: ...
Rowe, David E; Schulmann, Robert
The most famous scientist of the twentieth century, Albert Einstein was also one of the century's most outspoken political activists. Deeply engaged with the events of his tumultuous times, from the two world wars and the Holocaust, to the atomic bomb and the Cold War, to the effort to establish a Jewish homeland, Einstein was a remarkably prolific political writer, someone who took courageous and often unpopular stands against nationalism, militarism, anti-Semitism, racism, and McCarthyism. In Einstein on Politics, leading Einstein scholars David Rowe and Robert Schulmann gather Einstein's m
Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. (DK)
Andersen, John; Siim, Birte
The book examines the political and academic debates about the interplay between political, civil and social citizenship in US and Europe......The book examines the political and academic debates about the interplay between political, civil and social citizenship in US and Europe...
If Twitter started as a device for reporting one’s everyday comings and goings, it has in recent years come to be seen also as a resource for understanding and problematizing things like revolutions, disasters and politics (Rogers 2013). In this paper, I raise the question of whether a similar...... broadening of the avenues of possible inquiry could be timely in relation to Facebook. What can we learn from Facebook as a venue for organizing in emergencies or around public issues? In order start answering this question I examine a recent controversy over plans to build a new road-pricing infrastructure...
Berzak Hopkins, Laura
Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to
Manetta, Christopher T; Gentile, Julie P; Gillig, Paulette Marie
Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective for a variety of mental health symptoms. This form of psychotherapy uses patient self reflection and self examination, as well as the therapeutic relationship between the patient and psychiatrist, to explore maladaptive coping strategies and relationship patterns of the patient. A thorough understanding of resistance and the core conflictual relationship theme afford the psychiatrist the ability to facilitate this work. In this article, the composite case illustrates some of the psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be employed in a psychotherapy case. In this example, the case is about a certified public accountant that came to treatment because of an acute stressor that put her career goals at risk. An acute episode or event can bring to light chronic and ongoing symptoms, which have had a remitting and relapsing course, and leave the patient unable to compensate on his or her own.
Stewart, Joshua M.
The current study sought to examine how the cultural settings of Colorado, United States, and Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, influenced perspectives, understandings, and acceptance of college students who want to become teachers (i.e., prospective teachers) in regard to the theory of evolution, creationism, and intelligent design with both quantitative and qualitative components. The quantitative sample for the study consisted of 221 German prospective teachers from Baden-Wurttemberg and 231 United States prospective teachers from Colorado. The quantitative component consisted of a 42-item survey with both Likert and true/false items to examine how (1) country of origin, (2) religious participation, and (3) educational background influence students' views and understandings of the theory of evolution and alternative conceptions. Additionally, in a Likert 6-item motivated reasoning task (a theoretical construct), prospective teachers were asked to read and critique arguments supporting and opposing the theory of evolution; differences in how students critiqued arguments were hypothesized to demonstrate biases. For a separate sample from the same locations (8 German and 11 United States students), a qualitative component examined prospective teachers' positions on teaching the theory of evolution in public schools. Prospective teachers were asked to provide support for their position, anticipate opposing arguments, and implications that both positions would have for students. Lastly, prospective teachers were also asked to explain and define the theory of evolution. The current study aided in examining how teachers' perspectives, understandings, and acceptance impacted what was taught in the science classroom. The researcher found that country of origin, religious behavior, and educational background predicted prospective teachers' responses to numerous criterion variables used in the current study. Further, qualitative results expressed major differences between
Papaioannou, K.I.; Dalrymple-Smith, A.E.
This article explores the relative importance of pre-colonial institutional capacity and the effects of periods of peace and stability on long-term development outcomes in Nigeria. We use data on education, health, and public works at a provincial level from a variety of colonial and Nigerian state
Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane
Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...... infrastructural "underground" consisting of assemblages of technologies, activists, immigrants without papers, texts and emails, homes, smart phones and computers. Investigating the embedded politics of contested spatial arrangements as characteristic of specific societies one can discover not only the uses...
Luijten, Anton J. M., Ed.
This collection of 18 papers (selected from a total of 57 presented at a conference of the International Association for Educational Assessment) represents efforts by examining bodies and institutes to: improve the examination system and testing techniques; develop reliable instruments; and establish standards for public examinations. The papers…
Iván Facundo Rubinstein
Full Text Available This paper aims to formalize a matrix for the semiotic analysis of political communication, in order to allow an empirical test of the convergence hypothesis between propaganda and publicity, taking Argentinean case between 1983 and 2011. To that proposal, we embrace the task of integrating marketing and political science perspectives, so that the concepts to be used became formally comparable.
Ashong, Ashong C; Batta, Herbert E
We live in a society where beauty and sensations are important. Advances in medical technologies have brought on waves of new notions of beauty where commercial interests both in the media and the health industry spurred by fashion, advertising and celebrity promotion have tended to popularise body modifications and enhancements. In recent times, through offerings on cable television channels and glossy consumer magazines, medical procedures hitherto only in the precincts of medical schools, gyneacological clinics and medical journals have now pervaded the population. More seriously, on the Internet particularly, medical experts now offer services and graphic details of labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction or enhancement, vaginal rejuvenation, etc. Here, we examine the public communication of the phenomenon of aesthetic genital surgery and interrogate thus; is it decent, honest, balanced and ethical? Relying on textual analysis, personal observation and literature review for data gathering, we observe that besides tending to commercialise and medicalise the female genitalia, a coalescence of medical, advertising and fashion interests as played out in the media sensationalises the benign science of plastic surgery and robs it of its truthfulness, genuineness, and purposefulness. The conclusion is that in Africa, where the effect of the development crises is telling, the hype surrounding cosmetic or aesthetic genital surgery is a damaging distraction particularly when the continent is waging a battle against female genital mutilation. The recommendations are that media and medical regulatory bodies should impress it upon media and medical industry operators that glaring commercial promotions of cosmetic genital surgery in the public media be checked, and that such communication should bear equal weight of facts related to risks, short comings, complications, and threats; in physical, social, and psychological terms.
The combined effects of federalism and interest group pluralism pose particularly difficult problems for hazardous waste siting and cleanup decisions. Most national environmental groups have only limited involvement in local hazardous waste politics, while local grass-roots advocates have very different interests and sometimes are pitted against one another. Both the Environmental protection Agency and the Department of energy recently have begun to use site-specific citizen advisory boards at cleanup sites. This approach appears to improve communications at some sites, but does not address the issues of ``not in my back yard`` politics and alleged inequitable exposure to hazardous wastes.
Ashworth, Peta; Gardner, John; Littleboy, Anna
Full text: We present the results of a survey of an Australian public opinion survey in the area of climate change and energy technologies and compare the results with similar studies conducted in the other major non-Kyoto-adherent party, the United States, as well as to Kyoto-adherent countries including the UK, Japan, Sweden and Spain. We explore some of the differences and similarities in attitudes and understandings. In our survey, Australians place environment, health care and petrol prices as the most important issues facing their country, while in America it is terrorism, health care and the economy and in the UK it is asylum seekers, crime and health care. In many other areas, the differences are considerably smaller and there are some remarkable similarities. Whereas climate change is increasingly cited as the leading environmental issue in most countries surveyed, in Australia, climate change is second to water availability as the top environmental concern. The study examines where climate change and energy technologies fit within these broader national and environmental priorities and identifies the general public's preferred solutions. We find clear support in Australia and the other countries surveyed for renewable energy technologies, particularly solar energy and to a lesser extent wind and biomass energy. We also find considerable disagreement in all countries regarding the future of nuclear power as well as with regard to carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (albeit the latter with much larger uncertainty). The paper also explores the current knowledge levels of the general public in a number of countries about carbon dioxide emissions and how much as individuals, they are prepared to pay to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. We find that, in general, at a more detailed level in terms of both attitudes and understandings of energy and climate issues there is considerable agreement across disparate countries Gudged on their national
Jones, Deborah; Cook, Ryan; Cecchini, Diego; Sued, Omar; Bofill, Lina; Weiss, Stephen; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Lopez, Maria R; Spence, Andrew
Treatment engagement, retention and adherence to care are required for optimal HIV outcomes. Yet, patients may fall below the treatment recommendations for achieving undetectable viral load or not be retained in care. This study examined the most challenging patients in Buenos Aires, Argentina, those non-adherent to HIV care. Men (n = 61) and women (n = 59) prescribed antiretrovirals (ARVs) and non-adherent to treatment in the prior 3 to 6 months were enrolled and assessed regarding adherence, knowledge, motivation and attitudes regarding treatment. Private clinic patients had lower viral load and higher self-reported adherence than public clinic patients. Motivations to be adherent and positive beliefs regarding ARVs were associated with increased adherence in public clinic participants. Increased self-efficacy was associated with increased adherence among participants from both clinics. Results support patient and provider interventions that strengthen the characteristics supporting adherence, engagement and retention in public and private clinic settings. Resumen El compromiso, la retención en el cuidado y adherencia al tratamiento son esenciales para el manejo óptimo del paciente con VIH. Sin embargo, muchos pacientes con VIH no siguen las el tratamiento para lograr tener una carga viral indetectable, o no permanecen bajo cuidado médico. Este estudio examina los pacientes más difíciles de retener en el cuidado médico en Buenos Aires, Argentina. Hombres (n = 61) y mujeres (n = 59) a los que se les habían recetado antiretrovirales pero seguían el tratamiento en los últimos 3 - 6 meses participaron en el estudio. Adherencia, conocimiento, motivación y actitudes frente al tratamiento fueron evaluados. Los pacientes en la clínica privada tenían menor carga viral y mejor adherencia que los de la clínica pública. Motivación y pensamientos positivos con respecto a antiretrovirales estaban asociados con mejor adherencia en los pacientes de la clínica p
Koskimaa, Vesa; Rapeli, Lauri
There is a growing concern about the lack of political interest and engagement among Western youth. This has led to a revival of political socialization studies. One recent finding is that (late) adolescence is key to understanding the development of interest for politics. This study builds on this finding by examining political interest among…
The paper discusses political apology in the 4th republic of Ghanaian contemporary politics from 2013 to 2015. It taps its data from apologetic speeches by political officials and from apologies rendered to politicians. The paper discusses the semantics and pragmatics of political apology. It examines the use of the language ...
Roč. 45, č. 3 (2009), s. 487-517 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/08/0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : political participation * political behaviour * social inequality Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2009 http://sreview.soc.cas.cz/uploads/991dd273469237168227df0d6590358f13cbd3ba_SMITHsoccas2009-3.pdf
The value of political science in information culture of society reveals; the main indicators of the public status of political science are investigated; the main functions of political science in the activity of actors of society are characterised.
Liu, Leping; Aberasturi, Suzanne M.; Axtell, Kulwadee; Richmond, Aaron
Publication bias refers to a tendency to publish articles with significant results over publications with nonsignificant results. In this article we first review the literature of publication bias focusing on the three major determinants (file drawer significance, file drawer effect size, and file drawer sample size) and two interrelated sources…
Lagerwerf, L.; Boeynaems, A.; van Egmond-Brussee, C.; Burgers, C.F.
Political campaign speeches are deemed influential in winning people’s minds and votes. While the language used in such speeches has often been credited with their impact, empirical research in this area is scarce. We report on two experiments investigating how language variables such as rhetorical
Full Text Available This article studies the focus studies of geographically connected and geographically not connected countries, i.e. regional and comparative regional studies. In the first part of the article, a description of the role and development of this type of studies as a subdiscipline of comparative politics is provided. In the second part, I present the results of quantitative analysis of the content of articles published in the academic journals published or co-published by the Faculty of Political Science, University of Zagreb. The objects of analysis are regional studies of South-East Europe published in the journals. The main goal of this article is to determine which countries in their regional surroundings are researched the most by Croatian political scientists (and other authors who publish such articles in Croatian or English language in those journals, and which countries Croatia is most often compared to. This research has shown that, with regard to studies of the region, Croatian political scientists mostly focus on the countries of the former Yugoslavia.
Slaton, Adriane McNamara
One of the great challenges to teachers both historically and contemporarily is to facilitate a classroom as a group of students, while concurrently attending to each individual student. As the profession becomes increasingly aware and sensitive to student (dis)abilities, academic giftedness, pressures of athletics and extra-curricular events, and acknowledges the racial, cultural, sexual, economic, gendered identities of students--- the complexity of each individual student becomes ever more apparent. It is a seemingly insurmountable challenge. This dissertation examines how stem cell unit guided group learning while also attending to the individual learning needs of each student. What makes classroom study unusual in research is that it is completely "usual". This study was not part of a university partnership nor did it take place in an affluent school district. Instead, this unit took place in a large, Midwestern urban high school that was/is often written off as a failing---underscoring that powerful science teaching and learning is occurring in schools society simultaneously portrays as victim and villain in the media. Using a sociocultural lens, this ethnographic study draws upon two frameworks, Wenger's communities of practice (1998) and Hayes and Gee's (2011) public pedagogy, to examine how participation in a debate individualizes and personalizes student knowledge and participation in science. The primary use of a community of practice framework allowed for analysis of the norms, rules, practices, and routines of Classroom 507---to establish the nature of the community of learners in the study. A secondary framework, public pedagogy, allowed for deeper understanding of the practices drawn upon in the classroom through consideration of the design, resources, and an emergent "affinity space". This hybridized analysis led to further understanding of how students and teacher stand to learn, participate, engage and use a classroom lesson, the debate, to serve
After 72 days of public hearings and testimony from more than 100 witnesses, the first commission of its kind in the US found that politics--not science and engineering--led to the selection of Martinsville, Ill. as the host site for a nuclear-waste-disposal facility. This article examines how the plan to dispose of nuclear waste in Martinsville ultimately unraveled
Alabdulmenem, Fahad Mohammed
Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that allot substantial amount of government resources for education. Thus, it is important to measure how these resources are used to generate favorable academic outcomes for its nationals. In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to measure the relative efficiency of 25 public universities in…
Hogarth Wood, G P
This study looks at the case of the Ontario government and Inco Limited in order to explain political responses to the acid rain issue and to generalize about the dynamics of environmental regulation. Existing accounts of the acid rain situation neglect a systematic explanation of the political processes that guide the selection of policy. This reflects a tendency in Canadian public policy analysis generally. Most literature in this field is both apolitical and atheoretical. In addition, most models of public policy focus attention on a narrow range of policy determinants, making the models inappropriate as exclusive guides for public policy analysis. This study follows an approach that assumes that no variable can, a priori, be viewed as the primary determinant of a policy choice. Instead, relevant features of the economic, social, and political environment surrounding the policy process have to be examined in addition to that process itself. Accordingly, a number of potential influences on the acid rain policy outcome in Ontario are explored: the economic structure of Ontario, political-geographic factors, the role of science and technology, political power in the province, political values and attitudes, the institutional structure of Ontario politics, and finally, the policy process itself. This exercise points to the overriding influence of the political system environment, particularly the economic structure of the province, in explaining the policy choice. The findings of this study can be extended to explain regulatory responses to the issue in other political jurisdictions.
Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in “politics...... of happiness”. This article presents a critique of the project of promoting happiness through public policies....
Mulcahy, Helen; Phelan, Agnes; Corcoran, Paul; Leahy-Warren, Patricia
The aim of the study was to review breastfeeding support provided by Public Health Nurses in Ireland. The objectives were to identify the availability of appropriate guiding policies, educational preparation, attitude of Public Health Nurses and the availability and use of other supportive services. Breastfeeding rates in Ireland are among the lowest in Europe. The main source of formal support for breastfeeding mothers in the community in Ireland is from Public Health Nurses who can make referral to other non-statutory resources. The nature of this support is determined by policies guiding clinical practice and education that increases breastfeeding confidence and competence of all personnel. Consequently, an assessment of breastfeeding resources requires an analysis of all these variables. A large quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted, involving Public Health Nurses and mothers. This paper represents the results from the perspective of Public Health Nurses. Directors of Public Health Nursing (n = 24) and Public Health Nurses (n = 204) completed self-report questionnaires by mail and online. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences and reported using descriptive and inferential statistics. Public Health Nurses are well educated to support breastfeeding and have a positive attitude and a high degree of self-assessed confidence and competence. A wide variety of non-statutory support exists for breastfeeding but is not always used to their full potential. Standardising educational requirements for Public Health Nurses in supporting breastfeeding is an area that requires attention. Ultimately, service delivery in relation to supporting breastfeeding mothers would benefit from being more timely and responsive. Awareness of support resources is necessary for Public Health Nurses to make appropriate referrals for breastfeeding mothers. Furthermore, Directors of Public Health Nursing need to encourage the breastfeeding supportive
This book is a non-technical exploration of the political and policy issues that have influenced the development of nuclear power. Part One describes the successes, failures, horse-trading, and infighting that make up nuclear power's history, taking nine counties as examples. Part Two reviews the main problems that now confront us, as seen in mid-June 1990; like all contemporary accounts, the book is unavoidably incomplete. However, by then it was possible to make provisional judgements about two very important recent influences: the political consequences of Chernobyl, and concerns about the greenhouse effect. The story that emerges is of a nuclear industry that has rarely been guilty of dereliction of duty, though it was undeniably complacent in not addressing sooner the causes of the public's entirely reasonable anxieties. The anti-nuclear lobby has been skilled in debate, and sometimes extraordinarily percipient; but less than fair in failing to acknowledge the industry's achievements and its willingness to learn from past mistakes. As for the politicians, the book contains many examples that show how the flames of controversy can be deliberately fanned when there are votes to be gained. The story has few heroes, but within the industry fewer villains than the public has been led to believe. (author)
Frawley, Patsie; Bigby, Christine
Civil and political participation lies at the core of citizenship. Increasingly, people with intellectual disability are members of disability advisory bodies. This study investigated the political orientations of advisory body members with intellectual disability, their participatory experiences, and the types of support they received. The 9 people with intellectual disability who in 2005 were members of disability advisory bodies at a state, national, and Victorian local government level were interviewed, together with 12 other members or secretariat staff of these bodies. Observations were also conducted of advisory body meetings. The political perspective of members with intellectual disability varied, but all had a background in self-advocacy. They found the work hard but rewarding and encountered both practical and intangible obstacles to participation. Members received varying types of practical support, but a supportive collegial milieu was characteristic among members who felt most confident about their participation. The milieu, structures, and processes of advisory bodies must all be adjusted to accommodate people with intellectual disability if they are to participate meaningfully.
Full Text Available This econometric study contributes to the ongoing debate about the costs and benefits of urban form by employing interdisciplinary means—urban planning, econometrics and public administration—to explore the relationship between urban form and urban public services expenditure. In China, particularly, rapid urbanization is accompanied by an increase of urban public services expenditure and a difference in efficiency, which undermines the promotion of urban public service development. The Chinese government has paid great attention to urban sustainable development and promoting urban public services performance; however, until recently there has been a lack of empirical studies exploring the relationship between urban public services expenditure and urban form. Thus, the present research aims to analyze this issue by using relevant indicators based on an econometric model. The results provide a promising basis for improving urban public services expenditure efficiency. Based on the urban area interpreted by remote sensing data and geographic information system, two urban form metrics, the compactness ratio and the elongation ratio, are selected and quantified to describe urban compactness and urban sprawl accurately. Panel data analyses are performed using a cross-sectional dataset of the 30 cities for the years 2007, 2010 and 2013 to assess the likelihood of association between indicators of urban form and urban public services expenditure, while controlling for other determinants, such as educational level, income per capita, degree of industrialization, and unemployment rate. The results indicate that urban elongation is positively correlated to per capita urban public services expenditure and urban compactness is insignificantly correlated to it. Thus, it is recommended that policymakers consider the relationship between urban form and public services expenditure as part of urban planning and on-going strategies to promote public service
Apr 14, 2015 ... the Era of Terrorism: Nigeria's Public Order Act and the ... Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and other international laws. But owing to the .... little sense to limit analysis of political participation to voting and electoral.
This research analyzes the strategic process of integrated marketing communication (IMC) and its current application in US public institutions of higher education (IHEs). The basis for this research was a survey questionnaire that analyzed the impact of IMC on 42 leading US public colleges and universities (as ranked by "U.S. News & World…
The demands of high-stakes testing, tenure reform, and teacher accountability have dominated the landscape of education for almost two decades. The expectations placed on public schools require leadership that supports and motivates teachers to perform at extremely high levels. Public schools therefore must fill their institutions with principals…
Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for School Leaving Certificate Exam, this paper analyzes public and private school performance in Nepal. The ordinary least square estimates suggest that private school students perform better than public school students. However, the problem of self-selection bias arises, as…
Wynne-Jones, Gwenllian; Varnava, Alice; Buck, Rhiannon; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Griffiths, Amanda; Phillips, Ceri; Cox, Tom; Kahn, Sayeed; Main, Chris J
To investigate the utility of the Work and Organization Assessment Questionnaire (WOAQ) for public sector data. A cross-sectional survey was performed in public sector organizations measuring demographics, work characteristics, work perceptions (WOAQ), sickness absence, and work performance. Confirmatory factor analysis of the WOAQ showed that factor structure derived for the manufacturing sector, for which the questionnaire was developed, could be replicated moderately well with public sector data. The study then considered whether a better more specific fit for public sector data was possible. Principal components analysis of the public sector data identified a two-factor structure linked to four of the five scales of the WOAQ assessing Management and Work Design, and Work Culture. These two factors may offer a context-sensitive scoring method for the WOAQ in public sector populations. These two factors were found to have good internal consistency, and correlated with the full WOAQ scales and the measures of performance and absence. The WOAQ is a useful and potentially transferable tool. The modified scoring may be used to assess work and organizational factors in the public sector.
Burchardt, Marian; Patterson, Amy S.; Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise
's poverty. Religious HIV/AIDS activities must be analysed in a conceptual space between a civil society/politics approach and a service-provider/anti-politics framework. That is, religious mobilisation may at times seek to engage the public realm to shape policies, while at other times it may shun politics...
Kenderes, Amanda M.
In this dissertation I aim to advance political narrative theory by exploring the use of political narrative on Facebook and the possibility for Facebook to be used among Palestinian youth for political change. To examine the concepts of political narrative and political change, I developed a model for political change based on the changing…
Tavakol, Parvin; Labruto, Fausto; Bergstrand, Lott; Blomqvist, Lennart
Sometimes the measures taken to make a radiology department more effective, such as prioritizing the workload and keeping equipment running for as many hours as staffing permits, are not enough. In such cases, outsourcing radiological examinations is a potential solution for reducing waiting times. To investigate differences in waiting time, quality and costs between magnetic resonance (MR) examinations performed in a university hospital and examinations outsourced to private service. We retrospectively selected a group of consecutive, outsourced MR examinations (n=97) and a control group of in-house MR examinations, matched for type of examination. In each group there were referrals that had a specified preferred timeframe for completion. We measured the percentage of cases in which this timeframe was met and if it was not met, how many days exceeded the preferred time. In referrals without a specified preferred timeframe, we also calculated the waiting time. Quality standards were measured by the percentage of examinations that had to be re-done and re-assessed. Finally, we calculated the cumulative costs, taking into account the costs for re-doing and re-assessing examinations. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups, in either the number of examinations that were not performed within the preferred time or the number of days that exceeded the preferred timeframe. For referrals without a preferred timeframe, the waiting time was shorter for outsourced examinations than those not outsourced. There were no differences in the number of examinations that had to be re-done, but more examinations needed to be re-assessed in the outsourced group than in the in-house group. The calculated costs for outsourced examinations were lower than the costs for internally performed examinations. Outsourcing magnetic resonance examinations may be an effective way of reducing a radiology department's workload. Ways in which to reduce the additional costs
Full Text Available Australian Faunal Directory data were used to create a new, publicly available dataset, nai50, which lists 18318 species and subspecies names for Australian insects described in the period 1961–2010, together with associated publishing data. The number of taxonomic publications introducing the new names varied little around a long-term average of 70 per year, with ca 420 new names published per year during the 30-year period 1981–2010. Within this stable pattern there were steady increases in multi-authored and 'Smith in Jones and Smith' names, and a decline in publication of names in entomology journals and books. For taxonomic works published in Australia, a publications peak around 1990 reflected increases in museum, scientific society and government agency publishing, but a subsequent decline is largely explained by a steep drop in the number of papers on insect taxonomy published by Australia's national science agency, CSIRO.
The slogan "taking the problem to the people" nicely summarizes U.S. traffic safety campaigns of the 1950s. It refers to the goal of awareness and self-discipline for drivers through education and law enforcement. A detailed analysis of the campaigns, however, shows a subtler objective of the motor interests that promoted it. They wanted to overcome political indifference through a civic mobilization of drivers as citizens, persuading drivers to lobby for traffic control. The analysis of their efforts leads us to question the role-or lack of role-of politicians in scientific and technological controversies.
Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI
Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a scale to evaluate teacher candidates' level of being affected from the public personnel selection examination. The participants of the study consisted of the final year students at Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The participants were 207 teacher candidates, of whom 143 were female and 64 were male. The validity and reliability study of the scale was conducted on the data gathered from teacher candidates studying at Art Teaching, Music Teaching, Turkish Language Teaching, Social Studies Education, Science Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance Education, Elementary Education and Preschool Education departments of Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The Lawshe technique was used in the evaluation of the scale by experts. To determine the construct validity, factor analysis was performed on the data, and two sub-scales were identified. The factor loading values of the items in the first sub-scale ranged between 0,65 and 0,35, and those in the second sub-scale between 0,75 and 0,39. As a result of the analyses, the "Teacher Candidates' Level of Being Affected From Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale" (TCLBAPPSES including 33 items, 23 negative and 10 positive, and two sub-scales was produced. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was found as 0,86 for the first sub-dimension, 0,73 for the second sub-dimension, and 0,91 for the whole scale. As a result, it can be argued that the scale is reliable.-------------Öğretmen Adaylarının Kamu Personeli Seçme Sınavından Etkilenme Düzeyi Ölçeğinin GeliştirilmesiÖzet:Bu çalışmada, öğretmen adaylarının kamu personeli seçme sınavından etkilenme düzeylerini değerlendirmek için bir ölçek geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi son sınıf öğrencileri oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada 143 kız, 64 erkek olmak üzere toplam 207 öğretmen adayına ula
In this dissertation I aim to advance political narrative theory by exploring the use of political narrative on Facebook and the possibility for Facebook to be used among Palestinian youth for political change. To examine the concepts of political narrative and political change, I developed a model for political change based on the changing political narratives which in part prompted the 2011 Egyptian revolution. The model, Political Narrative Perspectives (PNPs), identifies individual and re...
Ana María Carrillo
Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda el nacimiento de la salud pública moderna en México durante el gobierno de Porfirio Díaz (1876-1910 y examina los elementos científicos, políticos y económicos que lo hicieron posible: en primer término, la recepción por parte de los médicos mexicanos de los descubrimientos de la microbiología, la inmunología y la epidemiología; en segundo lugar, la concentración creciente del poder del Estado en asuntos sanitarios que fue paralela a su concentración de poder político disciplinador y permitió poner los nuevos conocimientos al servicio de la prevención de los problemas colectivos de salud; finalmente, la necesidad del imperialismo y la elite porfiriana de proteger sus intereses comerciales. El artículo hace un balance de los alcances y limitaciones de la salud pública del porfiriato, la cual se vio interrumpida de manera abrupta por la revolución iniciada en 1910.The article examines the scientific, political, and economic elements that permitted the birth of modern public health in Mexico under the Porfirio Díaz administration (1876-1910. Firstly, a portion of Mexican physicians were open to the discoveries of microbiology, immunology, and epidemiology. Secondly, the State's growing concentration of power in public health matters ran parallel to its concentration of disciplinary political power and enabled this new knowledge to be placed at the service of collective health problem prevention. Lastly, both imperialism and the Porfirian elite needed to protect their business interests. The article evaluates public health achievements and limitations during the Porfirian period, abruptly interrupted by the revolution begun in 1910.
Todosijevic, B.; Enyedi, Zsolt
Since the publication of Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford's (1950) classic study, considerable debate has developed concerning the political and ideological correlates of authoritarianism. This paper examines relationships between authoritarianism, on the one hand, and
J.C. Herbert Emery
Full Text Available Surprisingly little attention has been paid to how we pay for health care affects how much we spend on health care. In this paper, the author discusses how non-contributory finance and effective subsidization of public health care spending with federal cost sharing crowded out demand for private insurance as voters opted for high levels of public health spending.
Vasu, Michael L.; Garson, G. David
General information utilities and specialized networks, such as PoliNet, provide educators and researchers in public administration and allied fields with a diversity of new tools which include: (1) bibliographic searching; (2) international teleconferencing; (3) electronic news clipping services; (4) electronic mail; and (5) free public domain…
O'Byrne, Patrick; Bryan, Alyssa; Roy, Marie
To review the extant literature on HIV criminal laws, and to determine the impact of these laws on public health practice. The available research on this topic was obtained and reviewed. The extant literature addressed three main topics: people's awareness of HIV criminal laws; people's perceptions of HIV criminal laws; and the potential effects of HIV criminal laws on people's sexual, HIV-status disclosure and healthcare-seeking practices. Within these categories, the literature demonstrated a high level of awareness of HIV criminal laws, but a poor comprehension of these laws. For perceptions, on the whole, the quantitative research identified support for, while the qualitative literature indicated opposition to, these laws. Lastly, the behavioural effects of HIV criminal laws appear to be complex and non-linear. A review of the extant literature from a public health perspective leads to the conclusion that HIV criminal laws undermine public health.
Tucker, James Cory
This study examines the extent to which databases support student and faculty research in the area of public administration. A list of journals in public administration, public policy, political science, public budgeting and finance, and other related areas was compared to the journal content list of six business databases. These databases…
Sides, Scott M.
The purpose of the current research was to comparatively explore and document similarities and differences in POS, POP, and teacher commitment within the two school settings (public and non-public) by analyzing the perceptions of teachers within secondary school settings within a mid-south state. Surveys were sent to teachers for completion. After…
Vandenhouten, Christine L; Malakar, Crystalmichelle L; Kubsch, Sylvia; Block, Derryl E; Gallagher-Lepak, Susan
Level of political participation and factors contributing to participation were measured among Midwest RNs (n = 468) via an online survey (Cronbach's α = .95). Respondents reported engaging in primarily "low cost" activities (e.g., voting, discussing politics, and contacting elected officials), with fewer reporting speaking at public gatherings, participating in demonstrations, and membership in nursing organizations. Psychological engagement was most predictive (p political participation with the dimensions of political interest, political efficacy, and political information/knowledge highly significant (p political participation (p political content and did not prepare them for political participation. Findings showed that nurse educators and leaders of professional nursing organizations need to model and cultivate greater psychological engagement among students and nurses.
Lloyd George Waller
Full Text Available Youth participation through political talk appears to be shifting to the online public sphere in many parts of the world. Many attribute this shift to online social networks such as Facebook. Emerging research seem to suggest that this may be a cure for the problem of political apathy among the youth. This study explores such a possibility in Jamaica. In all, 752 youth ages 15 to 24 were surveyed to ascertain whether Facebook encourages political talk among this age cohort, and what if any are the primary factors that discourage this practice. The findings suggest that (a Facebook is an extension of offline political talk among the civically engaged and politically charged youth of Jamaica; (b Facebook does not substantively encourage political talk among the politically apathetic Jamaican youth; and (c fear of political victimization is the primary factor that discourages many Jamaican youth to engage in political talk on Facebook.
Burke, Matthew; Devore, Richard; Stopek, Josh
This paper describes efforts to bring principled assessment design to a large-scale, high-stakes licensure examination by employing the frameworks of Assessment Engineering (AE), the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy (RBT), and Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA). The Uniform CPA Examination is practice-oriented and focuses on the skills of accounting. In…
Dunn, Peggy Jane Mattson
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the impact of "Servant Leadership" in an organization using the following variables: valuing people, developing people, building community, displaying authenticity, providing leadership and sharing leadership. The study also examined whether or not a correlation existed between years of…
Emiloju, Arijesuyo A.; Adeyoju, C. A.
The qualitative merit of examination or test-taking for diagnostic, placement and quality control is usually measured in terms of its appropriateness and the quality assurance of its outcomes. Consequently, it becomes inevitable that for any examination to be credible, it must possess key elements which are validity and reliability. These key…
Sladeček Michal M.
Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.
Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Schrodt, Paul
Increased public speaking confidence is often cited as a major benefit for undergraduates taking the basic communication course. Several scholars have reported that the state anxiety of novice speakers declines progressively during performance, a phenomenon called within-session habituation. However, the contributions of these short-term…
Schmidt, Stephen J.
In this article, the author presents an asymmetric version of the familiar public goods classroom experiment, in which some players are given more tokens to invest than others, and players collectively decide whether to divide the return to the group investment asymmetrically as well. The asymmetry between players raises normative issues about…
Ask for a definition of the word public-private partnership in a room filled with people from different cultures, and their answers may differ remarkably. The American of the group might refer to privatization and contracting out of traditional government services. A Dutch person might think of a
Governments use sustainable public procurement to reduce the negative aspects of production and consumption. The more sustainable the goods and services that the government buys are, the greater the impact on the market and the environment. However, studies show that the degree of sustainable
Anderson, Denise M.; Shinew, Kimberly J.
Explored men's and women's perceptions of workplace equity in public parks and recreation. Surveys of American Parks and Recreation Society members highlighted significant differences between men and women in their perceptions of equity and in levels of organizational citizenship. Perceptions of inequity appeared to be precursors to lower levels…
Hoffman, Adam H.
In this quasi-experimental design, I examine the impact of a political engagement program on students, looking at traditional measures of internal efficacy, as well as other areas of political engagement including levels of political knowledge, the development of political skills, and interest in media coverage of politics.
Catherine McLean Pirkle
Full Text Available In 2003 mean cord blood mercury concentrations in pregnant Bermudian women exceeded levels associated with adverse health outcomes in children. The principal mercury source was local fish species. Public health messages were developed suggesting pregnant women reduce consumption of fish species with higher mercury concentrations (e.g. swordfish, substituting species containing lower mercury concentrations, and elevated omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. anchovies. Recent evidence indicates mercury concentrations in Bermuda's pregnant women have fallen five- fold.Assess whether changes in women's fish eating patterns during pregnancy are consistent with the public health messaging. Determine who is making changes to their diet during pregnancy and why.Mixed methods study with a cross-sectional survey of 121 pregnant women, including 13 opened-ended interviews. Health system, social vulnerability, public health messaging, and socio-demographic variables were characterized and related to changes in fish consumption during pregnancy. Qualitative data were coded according to nutritional advice messages, comprehension of communication strategies, and sources of information.95% of women surveyed encountered recommendations about fish consumption during pregnancy. 75% reported modifying fish eating behaviors because of recommendations. Principal sources of information about fish consumption in pregnancy were health care providers and the Internet. 71% of women reported reducing consumption of large fish species with greater mercury levels, but 60% reported reduced consumption of smaller, low mercury fish. No participant mentioned hearing about the benefits of fish consumption. More frequent exposure to public health messages during pregnancy was associated with lower reported consumption. Bermudian born women were less likely to reduce consumption of large fish species during pregnancy.In Bermuda, public health messages advocating reduced consumption of larger
Conrad, Tracey L.; Rosser, Vicki J.
This statewide study examined selected demographic characteristics, worklife experiences, and personal issues that influence the satisfaction of administrators (assistant principals, principals, assistant superintendents) and their intent to leave their positions and careers or pursue career advancement in public school administration. The results…
Christian Ulrik Andersen
Full Text Available This article proposes and introduces the concept of ‘scripted space’ as a new perspective on ubiquitous computing in urban environments. Drawing on urban history, computer games, and a workshop study of the city of Lund the article discusses the experience of digitally scripted spaces, and their relation to the history of public spaces. In conclusion, the article discusses the potential for employing scripted spaces as a reinvigoration of urban public space.
This paper critically assesses microfinance’s expansion into the provision of public goods. It focuses on the problem of public goods and collective action and refers to the specific example of water and sanitation. The microfinancing of water and sanitation is a private business model which requires households to recognise, internalise and capitalise the benefits from improved water and sanitation. This requirement is not assured. Water and sanitation, being closely linked to underlying c...
Gordana Škaljac Narančić
Ratings of the television programs as well as commercial effects become crucial measures of the media success and journalists’ efficiency neglecting minimal ethical standards. The profit maximisation logic and mere survival in times of the economic crisis also has the impact on preserving the sensitive ethical standards. In this respect, the television, as the most influential medium, especially public television, has the biggest responsibility. Violation of the ethical norms on public televi...
Nelson, T.E.; Lecheler, S.; Schuck, A.R.T.; de Vreese, C.H.
Previous research has established that rival issue frames that target competing values can lead public opinion in different directions. This article examines rival frames that target the same values but for competing political ends. We report on an experiment (N = 503) that examines the framing of a
Full Text Available This article seeks to analyze the principles of constitution review in the constitution stipulating gender leadership. Despite the prevailing view in the tradition Sex for leadership, as the highest political office, but none of the principles of the constitution refers to this. Silence constitution on the grounds that the conditions necessary for leadership means to be unnecessary of gender for this position. Although this issue is still in the fields of culture and society does not provide executive. Theoretically and legally, there is no limit to the enterprises led by women and constitution has enough capacity to fill all of the women's political authorities.
S. K. Lioukas; D. J. Chambers
This paper is a study within the field of public budgeting. It focuses on the capital budget, and it attempts to model and analyze the capital budgeting process using a framework previously developed in the literature of incremental budgeting. Within this framework the paper seeks to determine empirically whether the movement of capital expenditure budgets can be represented as the routine application of incremental adjustments over an existing base of allocations and whether further, forward...
Haskell, Mark R.
Maine PUC and Morgan Stanley have resolved some of the key issues facing the energy industry. The Supreme Court has plainly and directly in both cases reaffirmed the central role that private contracts play in the energy industry and set terms to balance the need to secure long-term investment with the public interest that lies at the heart of the Federal Power Act. (author)
Schemm Dwyer, Katherine; Misner, Heather; Chang, Sara; Fajardo, Neyling
From the summer of 2014 to the spring of 2016, the United States was involved in the Ebola response on both the national and international levels. The United States received 2 imported cases from West Africa and had 2 locally hospital-acquired cases, which spurred a massive and unprecedented public health response. As the domestic response stabilized and the epidemic in West Africa slowed, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) and the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), led an in-progress review to assess the national public health response to Ebola. The goal was to identify opportunities to improve the Ebola response and best practices to inform future responses. To inform the review, NACCHO and ASTHO relied on feedback collected from several sources, including a stakeholder meeting held in August 2015, a series of key informant interviews, ASTHO's and NACCHO's internal response assessments, and perspectives shared by state and local health department members and workgroups and national partner organizations. ASTHO and NACCHO engaged experts and practitioners in public health, health care, emergency management, laboratory sciences, environmental health, occupational health, homeland security, communications, and public works from US federal, state, and local governments, the nonprofit community, and private industry. This article summarizes feedback and lessons learned as shared by these sources. Additionally, this article presents recommendations for federal, state, local, and nongovernment partners to improve current and future preparedness and response efforts to infectious disease threats.
Oliveira, J.S.; Silva, K.R.; Gomes, A.S.
Ionizing radiations are used in areas such as health, industry and safety, not only in the private sector, but also in the public. Thus, it is necessary the radiological protection, a set of studies and practices that increases the safety in these applications, where the professional involved is the technologist in radiology. The objective was to analyze the contents effectively required by the Brazilian public agencies in their competitions for radiology technologist, regarding the area of radiological protection, identifying their profile of requirement. It consisted of three stages: first, a survey of all the public competitions already carried out in the country up to the end of 2016, that requested a diploma of graduation in Technology in Radiology; second, all the specific questions were collected and grouped in an electronic text file; third, issues involving radiological protection were segregated, using as reference the 2017 edition of the National Nuclear Energy Commission's General Proof of Radioprotection Supervision. The results showed that almost 40% of the competition questions were about radiation protection. From this sampling, the topics most covered were: radiological safety (36%), fundamentals of atomic and nuclear physics (24%) and biological effects of radiation (16%). It is concluded that the competitions for radiologist technologist have the profile of concentration of exigency in radiological safety, fundamentals of atomic and nuclear physics and biological effects of the radiations
Net-based public sphere researchers have examined online deliberation in numerous ways. However, most studies have focused exclusively on political discussion forums. This article moves beyond such spaces by analyzing political talk from an online forum dedicated to reality television. The purpose
Thomas, Robert G.
This paper describes the use of tuition tax credits and vouchers as political alternatives of choice and competition in a progressive society. School and public administration theorists identify two distinct finance models: the rational and the political. The first part of this paper examines and describes these two models. The next part…
Gilat, Eliyau Zeev
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the effectiveness of the Arab Boycott of Israel from an economic and a political perspective. This study covers the Arab boycott from 1946 until 1990. It demonstrates that economically and politically, the Arab boycott had three distinct phases. The first of these was the period from the declaration of the Arab boycott in 1946 until the 1973 War. The second phase took place between the 1973 War...
Kurahassi, Luiz Fernando
Electricity is an input whose impact on the costs of the municipal public services varies according to the manner it is used and to the way it is obtained from the supplying company. The management of its use results in savings and in greater efficiency and quality of the delivered services - including the public lighting - besides, it softens environmental impacts and develops actions to orientate society towards energy-efficient consumption habits. The public sector has a significant share in the electricity final consumption in Brazil, trending to increase, but a room for consumption reduction and increase in energy efficiency can be seen in the municipalities. The purpose of this thesis is to identify concepts and set parameters that can be the basis of a public policy on electrical power management at the ambit of municipality. This paper reports a series of theoretical studies and empirical researches concerning the efficient use of electrical power in public services in cities of different countries and analyses the results reached from the application of models that successively work in the reality of cities from the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. It concludes that the municipality must play a role much more relevant than being a simple institutional electricity consumer, by proposing the basis for an intervention in the municipal reality. (author)
In present-day debates regarding telecommunication policy, one frequently hears the terms natural monopoly and public utility. This article investigates the origins of these ideas, finding that Richard T. Ely-a celebrated American economist of the late nineteenth century-embedded in the term "natural monopoly" a narrative of technological determinism. By arguing that certain services had monopolizing tendencies hardwired into them, Ely argued for their regulation. Ely's theory of natural monopoly formed the basis of Wisconsin's 1907 public utilities law, which served as a model for many other states' regulatory policies. The modern notion of public utility thus carries with it the technological determinism of Ely's natural monopoly idea. By tracing the lineage of these two terms, this article recaptures the influence that activists and progressive politicians exercised over the formation of large technological systems during the Second Industrial Revolution.
Andersen, L. B.; Bech, M.; Lauridsen, J.
Both professionals and politicians may affect expenditures for highly professional services provided in the public and private sector. We investigated Danish publicly financed child dental care with a special focus on the influence of politicians and dentists on the expenditure level. By studying...... from 1996 to 2001 for 226 Danish municipalities, thus allowing for the control for heterogeneity between municipalities and for intra-municipal correlations across time. The results point to differences in expenditures between municipalities with privately and publicly produced dental care. Furthermore...... spatial patterns in expenditure levels across municipalities, we are able to test the influences of these two main actors and the networks through which learning is achieved. Four hypotheses on the existence of different spatial spillover effects are tested. The empirical analysis is based on annual data...
Jewell, Tony; Wilkinson, Jane
Wales is developing a unique integrated system of governance to improve public health, which is diverging from some recent developments in the rest of the UK but shares many common features. There is a focus on strengthening collaborative working and co-ordination between bodies inspecting, regulating and auditing health and social care. Systems are being developed that are proportionate to the level of risk, eliminate unnecessary burdens of external review and support the improvement of services for patients, service users and carers. This is consistent with the Assembly Government's aim to improve the way that public services are delivered in Wales, including strengthening input from the public in the planning, delivery and reporting of regulation and inspection work. The test in the future will be how far we can demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively the added value from our uniquely Welsh approach, built as it is on devolution and the aspirations for small-country governance.
Gordana Škaljac Narančić
Full Text Available Ratings of the television programs as well as commercial effects become crucial measures of the media success and journalists’ efficiency neglecting minimal ethical standards. The profit maximisation logic and mere survival in times of the economic crisis also has the impact on preserving the sensitive ethical standards. In this respect, the television, as the most influential medium, especially public television, has the biggest responsibility. Violation of the ethical norms on public television means that it does not fulfil its key role – the role of public service. In important cases of the violation of ethical rules, the lack of clear responses of the regulators is the other side of the problem. The case study in this text shows us how easy it is to turn to the contempt of the professional journalistic standards and, consequently, ethical norms. This leads us to think how difficult is today to remain professional and ethical in times of the tangible commercialism and sensationalism.
Henry A. A. Ugboma
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although testicular cancer is the most common cancer among 18- to 50-year-old males, healthcare providers seldom teach testicular self-examination techniques to clients, thus potentially missing opportunities for early detection. This form of cancer is easily diagnosable by testicular self-examination and is 96% curable if detected early. Periodic self-examination must be performed for early detection. Knowledge deficits and sociocultural norms contribute to low levels of health-related knowledge in most patients, resulting in undue delays before seeking medical advice. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to assess the level of awareness of testicular cancer and the prevalence of the practice of testicular self-examination in academic environments to enable appropriate interventions. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 750 consecutive males aged 18-50 years in three tertiary institutions in Port Harcourt from October 2008 to April 2009. RESULT: Knowledge or awareness of testicular cancer was poor. Almost all of the respondents were unaware that testicular lumps may be signs of cancer. A lump was typically construed as a benign carbuncle or something that could resolve spontaneously. The main factor contributing to respondents' lack of knowledge of testicular cancer was that few reported that they were "ever taught about testicular self-examination." CONCLUSION: Young adult men are unaware of their risk for testicular cancer, which is the most common neoplasm in this age group. Healthcare providers are not informing them of this risk, nor are they teaching them the simple early detection technique of self-examination of the testes.
Full Text Available Improving employee and organizational performance has been the main concern of many organizations for decades and several factors have also been studied as predictors of employee performance in organizations. However, studies that comprehensively measured all the dimensions of employee performance that enhance organizational effectiveness are limited. This paper explored the influence of HRM practices on the employee performance in the Nigerian public sector. Using cross sectional method on 265 participants from local government areas, the findings revealed that HRM practices such as job rotation, job autonomy and career planning had a significant and positive influence on all the three dimensions of employee performance (task, contextual and adaptive performance.
Telles, Pedro; Sanchez Graells, Albert
The United Kingdom has formally begun leaving the European Union (so-called Brexit). This has immersed the UK Government and EU Institutions in negotiations to disentangle the UK from EU law by the end of March 2019, and to devise a new legal framework for UK-EU trade. The UK will also have to adjust its trading arrangements with the rest of the world. In this context, public procurement regulation is broadly seen as an area where, ‘unshackled by EU law’, the UK would be able to turn to a lig...
Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann
People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…
Glick, Shimon; Clarfield, A Mark; Strous, Rael D; Horton, Richard
This paper presents the full debate held on October 1, 2014, which focused on the following resolution: "Publications which promote political agendas have no place in scientific and medical journals, and academics should refrain from publishing in such journals." The debate moderator was Professor Shimon Glick. Taking the pro stance was Professor A. Mark Clarfield; the con stance was held by Professor Rael D. Strous. Following the first part of the debate, Dr Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief of The Lancet, gave his thoughts on the topic. This was followed by the opportunity for rebuttal by Professors Clarfield and Strous. The debate was summarized and closed by Professor Glick. This paper provides a slightly edited text of the debate, for ease of reading.
Ellsworth, Phoebe C.; Ross, Lee
Examined the attitudinal and informational bases of people's (N=500) opinions about the death penalty. Results showed 58.8 percent were proponents of capital punishment, 30.8 percent were opponents, and 10.4 percent were undecided. Respondents were generally ignorant on factual issues. Opponents favored due process guarantees more than did…
Kemp, R.; O' Riordan, T.; Purdue, M.
In this paper we consider the underlying significance of the way in which major energy projects are subjected to public scrutiny in the United Kingdom. In particular, we will focus on reforms in the procedures at big public inquiries which have been introduced following the Sizewell B Pressurised Water Reactor Inquiry, and on the efficacy of alternative, Parliamentary-based procedures for dealing with major projects. Setting these thoughts into greater relief, we turn to the identifiable problems associated with both radioactive waste disposal and more briefly the River Severn Tidal Barrage proposals. We outline some possible ways in which the public examination of these proposals might better proceed. In general, we argue that there is a great need to co-ordinate the roles of Parliamentary Select Committees and public inquiries in order to provide a more thorough-going and ultimately publicly acceptable scrutiny of the major energy projects. A balance needs to be struck between the need for fairness on the one hand and efficient use of public and private funds on the other. (author).
Badland, Hannah M; Keam, Rosanna; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin
Public open spaces (POS) are recognized as important to promote physical activity engagement. However, it is unclear how POS attributes, such as activities available, environmental quality, amenities present, and safety, are associated with neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation. Twelve neighborhoods were selected within 1 constituent city of Auckland, New Zealand based on higher (n = 6) or lower (n = 6) walkability characteristics. Neighborhoods were dichotomized as more (n = 7) or less (n = 5) socioeconomically deprived. POS (n = 69) were identified within these neighborhoods and audited using the New Zealand-Public Open Space Tool. Unpaired 1-way analysis of variance tests were applied to compare differences in attributes and overall score of POS by neighborhood walkability and deprivation. POS located in more walkable neighborhoods have significantly higher overall scores when compared with less walkable neighborhoods. Deprivation comparisons identified POS located in less deprived communities have better quality environments, but fewer activities and safety features present when compared with more deprived neighborhoods. A positive relationship existed between presence of POS attributes and neighborhood walkability, but the relationship between POS and neighborhood-level deprivation was less clear. Variation in neighborhood POS quality alone is unlikely to explain poorer health outcomes for residents in more deprived areas.
Stewart, Ellen; Smith, Katherine E.
Concerns about the limited influence of research on decision making have prompted the development of tools intended to mediate evidence for policy audiences. This article focuses on three examples, prominent in public health: impact assessments; systematic reviews; and economic decision-making tools (cost-benefit analysis and scenario modelling).…
Segatti, A.; Hoag, C.; Vigneswaran, D.
This paper deals with the transformation of "institutional culture" in bureaucratic agencies. This is explored in the context of post-Apartheid South African public sector reform, and more particularly that of migration management within the Department of Home Affairs (DHA). The paper assesses the
Giroux, Henry A.
This article provides a case study of how a business culture imposes modes of educational leadership on a public school system in New York City that has little if any concerns for empowering children, teachers, and the communities. The article provides a counter-narrative that serves to dispel the notion that the culture of educational empowerment…
Full Text Available The influence of employees’ challenges on productivity at a provincial department in KwaZulu-Natal has been notably affecting the overall provision of houses and sanitation (service delivery. According to the Annual Performance Plan 2013/14 – 2015/16, the improvement of efficiency and quality of human settlements’ services is one of the strategic goals which focuses on the overall organisational productivity; however, it fails to consider employees’ day-to-day challenges. Thus, the primary purpose of this paper is to investigate challenges at an operational level and determine the impact they have on productivity. Using a quantitative approach, a questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of 180 employees within the department. Applying factor analysis, the findings indicate Leadership as having the highest impact while Work-Life Balance displayed the least impact on Organisational Productivity. The results of this study are beneficial to other local, provincial and national public entities.
Brauen, Marsha; Harmon, Kathryn Newcomer
Identifies four major areas of recent investigations: cross-cultural studies of political socialization, the focus on the interactive nature of the individual in the process of learning about politics, the need to examine the comparative impacts of the various agencies of political socialization, and methodological and conceptual refinements.…
This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…
MacQuillan, E L; Curtis, A B; Baker, K M; Paul, R; Back, Y O
With advances in spatial analysis techniques, there has been a trend in recent public health research to assess the contribution of area-level factors to health disparity for a number of outcomes, including births. Although it is widely accepted that health disparity is best addressed by targeted, evidence-based and data-driven community efforts, and despite national and local focus in the U.S. to reduce infant mortality and improve maternal-child health, there is little work exploring how choice of scale and specific GIS visualization technique may alter the perception of analyses focused on health disparity in birth outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Spatial analysis of individual-level vital records data for low birthweight and preterm births born to black women from 2007 to 2012 in one mid-sized Midwest city using different geographic information systems (GIS) visualization techniques [geocoded address records were aggregated at two levels of scale and additionally mapped using kernel density estimation (KDE)]. GIS analyses in this study support our hypothesis that choice of geographic scale (neighborhood or census tract) for aggregated birth data can alter programmatic decision-making. Results indicate that the relative merits of aggregated visualization or the use of KDE technique depend on the scale of intervention. The KDE map proved useful in targeting specific areas for interventions in cities with smaller populations and larger census tracts, where they allow for greater specificity in identifying intervention areas. When public health programmers seek to inform intervention placement in highly populated areas, however, aggregated data at the census tract level may be preferred, since it requires lower investments in terms of time and cartographic skill and, unlike neighborhood, census tracts are standardized in that they become smaller as the population density of an area increases.
dikec , mustafa
International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...
Quentin Skinner, Staten og friheten. Oslo: Res Publica, 2011. José Luis Martí and Philip Pettit, A Political Philosophy in Public Life. Civic Republicanism in Zapatero's Spain. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010 (Simon Laumann Jørgensen)
Jørgensen, Simon Laumann
Anmeldelse af Quentin Skinner, Staten og friheten, Oslo: Res Publica 2011, 199 NOK & José Luis Martí & Philip Pettit, A Political Philosophy in Public Life. Civic Republicanism in Zapatero’s Spain, Princeton: Princeton University Press 2010, $ 24.95......Anmeldelse af Quentin Skinner, Staten og friheten, Oslo: Res Publica 2011, 199 NOK & José Luis Martí & Philip Pettit, A Political Philosophy in Public Life. Civic Republicanism in Zapatero’s Spain, Princeton: Princeton University Press 2010, $ 24.95...
evaluating the costs associated with natural and man-made disasters and events. In this era of fiscal conservatism , one of the biggest challenges in...associated with natural and man-made disasters and events. In this era of fiscal conservatism , one of the biggest challenges in designing and funding...In this era of fiscal conservatism , one of the biggest challenges in designing and funding public health preparedness is deciding exactly how much
Надежда Викторовна Шуленина
Full Text Available Public-private partnership is a new institute of collaboration between business and government for Russia. Formulated in 2004, the position of top officials on this matter gave a significant acceleration to the process of launching projects using the PPP. But due to lack of necessary experience and knowledge there is often a substitution of notions. This entails the disruption of important projects for the national economy.
This article examines the local socio-political causes behind a sudden wave of starvation deaths that swept across the West Bengali village of Amlashol during the summer of 2004. Following the new paradigm of famine analysis where focus is placed on political failures, the article addresses three...... of chronic food insecurity into an acute hunger crisis, which was not mitigated by effective public policies at the local level due to extensive political patronage and a politicisation of the bureaucracy. Amlashol suffered disproportionally from this due to the village’s affiliation with a weak...
Sznitman, Sharon R.; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line
Background Debate about medical cannabis legalization are typically informed by three beliefs: (1) cannabis has medical effects, (2) medical cannabis is addictive and (3) medical cannabis legalization leads to increased used of cannabis for recreational purposes (spillover effects). We examined how strongly these beliefs are associated with public support for medical cannabis legalization and whether this association differs across divergent medical cannabis policy regimes. Methods Robust reg...
Colglazier, E.W. Jr.
In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments
Colglazier, E.W. Jr. (eds.)
In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)
, during the storage. There is a powerful scientific and technical consensus according to which a well placed final repository must be provided with some barriers, including the geological and engineered ones. The wide-spread and accepted concept of final repository for spent fuel and high level waste is the so-called geological disposal which means the solid radioactive waste storage in underground repositories in a stable geological structure (ordinary at some hundreds of meters deep) so ensuring the isolation of radionuclides from biosphere on long term. The types of radioactive waste (high level and long life waste) which will be placed in geological repository are established by the national strategy and politics for the safe management of the radioactive waste. The development and implementation process of a repository can be achieved in the next non compulsory steps: - Developing the national politics in the field of safe management of the radioactive waste - Developing the legislative and institutional framework - Developing the technical concept of geological repository - Initiation of underground and surface investigations for the characterization of the host rock - Selecting the suitable site for an underground repository - Design, licensing for construction (which takes into account the environmental impact, nuclear safety and so on), operation and shut down. The decision to construct a geological repository must be taken by the Government or by the producers of waste. The steps for the establishing the legal framework, regulation and licensing are prerogatives of the Government, all the others steps could be achieved by non governmental organizations. The achievement of a geological repository, from the technical concept to the operation may last even more than 50 years and its operation some hundreds years. The paper contains the following sections: 1. Introduction; 2. Public and political acceptance; 3. Factors which affect the public and political
This article seeks to analyze the principles of constitution review in the constitution stipulating gender leadership. Despite the prevailing view in the tradition Sex for leadership, as the highest political office, but none of the principles of the constitution refers to this. Silence constitution on the grounds that the conditions necessary for leadership means to be unnecessary of gender for this position. Although this issue is still in the fields of culture and society does not provide ...
Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene
As evidenced by research in evolutionary psychology, humans have evolved sophisticated psychological mechanisms tailored to solve enduring adaptive problems of social life. Many of these social problems are political in nature and relate to the distribution of costs and benefits within and between groups. In that sense, evolutionary psychology suggests that humans are, by nature, political animals. By implication, a straightforward application of evolutionary psychology to the study of public opinion seems to entail that modern individuals find politics intrinsically interesting. Yet, as documented by more than fifty years of research in political science, people lack knowledge of basic features of the political process and the ability to form consistent political attitudes. By reviewing and integrating research in evolutionary psychology and public opinion, we describe (1) why modern mass politics often fail to activate evolved mechanisms and (2) the conditions in which these mechanisms are in fact triggered.
Manners, Ian James
The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...
Debbie Laliberte Rudman
Full Text Available Background: Solutions for the problem of long-term unemployment are increasingly shaped by neoliberally-informed logics of activation and austerity. Because the implications of these governing frameworks for everyday life are not well understood, this pilot study applied a critical occupational science perspective to understand how long-term unemployment is negotiated within contemporary North American socio-political contexts. This perspective highlights the implications of policy and employment service re-configurations for the range of activities that constitute everyday life. Methods: Using a collaborative ethnographic community-engaged research approach, we recruited eight people in Canada and the United States who self-identified as experiencing long-term unemployment. We analyzed interviews and observation notes concerning four participants in each context using open coding, critical discourse analysis, and situational analysis. Results: This pilot study revealed a key contradiction in participants’ lives: being “activated, but stuck”. This contradiction resulted from the tension between individualizing, homogenizing frames of unemployment and complex, socio-politically shaped lived experiences. Analysis of this tension revealed how participants saw themselves “doing all the right things” to become re-employed, yet still remained stuck across occupational arenas. Conclusion: This pilot study illustrates the importance of understanding how socio-political solutions to long-term unemployment impact daily life and occupational engagement beyond the realm of job seeking and job acquisition.
Kanematsu, Seiko [Okayama Prefectural Inst. for Environmental Science and Public Health (Japan)
We evaluated the environment around Ningyotoge in the northern part of Okayama Prefecture. Environmental gamma ray measurement results were evaluated by TLD at the time of confirming an investigation using a continuous gamma ray monitor. Doses during that time span for passing persons and individuals in the area were lower than 89 nGy/h. We observed Fading for TLD. The result was that the Fading revision coefficient for the Tenno district in Ningyotoge between October 10, 1997 to December 18, 1997 was 1.02. That for the premises of the Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental Science and Public Health was 1.05. The Tenno district in Ningyotoge during the period between June 29, 1998 to October 6, 1998 was 1.04. A relationship between the height from the ground and gamma ray dose was found. A straight line was shown by both logarithm graphs. We evaluated radioactive wastewater. When considering the processing of wastewater that flows into rivers, a discharge of zero release is desirable. We evaluated the BOD, COD, etc, as well as the radioactive materials that are processed by microbes such as Bacillus and Arthrobacter. (author)
Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay; Batra, Bipin
A trained and adequate heath workforce forms the crux in designing, implementing and monitoring health programs and delivering quality health services. Education is recognized as a critical instrument for creating such trained health professionals who can effectively address the 21 st century health challenges. At present, the Public Health Education in India is offered through medical colleges and also outside the corridors of medical colleges which was not the scenario earlier. Traditionally, Public Health Education has been a domain of medical colleges and was open for medical graduates only. In order to standardize the Postgraduate Medical Education in India, the National Board of Examinations (NBE) was set up as an independent autonomous body of its kind in the country in the field of medical sciences with the prime objective of improving the quality of the medical education. NBE has also played a significant role in enhancing Public Health Education in India through its Diplomat of National Board (DNB) Programs in Social and Preventive Medicine, Health and Hospital Administration, Maternal and Child Health, Family Medicine and Field Epidemiology. It envisions creating a cadre of skilled and motivated public health professionals and also developing a roadmap for postgraduate career pathways. However, there still exists gamut of opportunities for it to engage in expanding the scope of Public Health Education. It can play a key role in accreditation of public health programs and institutions which can transform the present landscape of education of health professionals. It also needs to revisit and re-initiate programs like DNB in Tropical Medicine and Occupational Health which were discontinued. The time is imperative for NBE to seize these opportunities and take necessary actions in strengthening and expanding the scope of Public Health Education in India.
Huijts, T.H.M.; Perkins, J.M.; Subramanian, S.V.
Background Studies on political ideology and health have found associations between individual ideology and health as well as between ecological measures of political ideology and health. Individual ideology and aggregate measures such as political regimes, however, were never examined
Huijts, T.; Perkins, J.M; Subramanian, S.V.
Background: Studies on political ideology and health have found associations between individual ideology and health as well as between ecological measures of political ideology and health. Individual ideology and aggregate measures such as political regimes, however, were never examined
Zerpa, Mildred de
Nueva Casarapa is an integral urban complex conceived under the concept of city. This complex has open spaces, shopping malls, green and public spaces, that are under the care of the owners, and a central natural park known as La Laguna. In 2009, starts a controversy that could become in a political environmental conflict with implications on the Municipio Plaza's government, because of the resolution of using the green areas of the park for a low price grocery market. This resolution was taken unilaterally by the Mayors' Office, not consulting the actors living in the complex. Besides the conflict for the use of this public space located inside of a private urban complex, there are discussions about which should be the institution to manage the resources obtained for the rent of the meeting spaces and who should be responsible of the maintenance staff. In function of this, it is possible to observe the rising of some conflicts between the different organizations and the users of the park that could lead to its damage.