WorldWideScience

Sample records for publication cover western

  1. Mapping Snow Cover Loss Patterns in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C.; Kampf, S. K.; Richer, E.; Stone, B.

    2011-12-01

    Cara Moore, Stephanie Kampf, Eric Richer, Brandon Stone Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1499 The Western United States depends on snowmelt to provide water for industrial, municipal, and agricultural needs. Some areas in this region have observed an increase in the proportion of precipitation falling as rain rather than snow in response to climate warming, a trend that can alter the timing and magnitude of runoff. Transitional snow zones, which lie between lower elevation intermittent snowpack and higher elevation persistent snowpack, may be particularly sensitive to changing climate conditions. Snow covered area is an easily obtainable measurement that can help identify the locations and elevations of these transitional snow zones. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of snowpack characteristics in the Western U.S. by mapping snow cover loss patterns using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow covered area (SCA) product. Snow cover loss patterns can be difficult to compare objectively between regions because spring snow storms lead to abrupt increases and decreases in SCA. Therefore, we develop a curve-fitting snow cover depletion model (SCoDMod) used to derive standardized snow cover loss curves. We fit the model to snow cover patterns within 100m elevation zones from January 1st until July 19th for each USGS eight digit hydrologic unit in the Western US. We use the model to identify 11 year (2000-2010) average snow cover loss patterns and compare those patterns to snow cover loss behavior in wet and dry years. Model results give maps of average SCA in the Western United States on the first of the month from January to July, as well as maps of the date of SCA loss to 75% (Q75), 50% (Q50), and 25% (Q25) SCA. Results show that the Cascade, Sierra Nevada, and Rocky mountains from Colorado northward retain >90% SCA until March, whereas most parts of lower elevation

  2. Observational evidence for cloud cover enhancement over western European forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuling, Adriaan J.; Taylor, Christopher M.; Meirink, Jan Fokke; Melsen, Lieke A.; Miralles, Diego G.; van Heerwaarden, Chiel C.; Vautard, Robert; Stegehuis, Annemiek I.; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; de Arellano, Jordi Vilà-Guerau

    2017-01-01

    Forests impact regional hydrology and climate directly by regulating water and heat fluxes. Indirect effects through cloud formation and precipitation can be important in facilitating continental-scale moisture recycling but are poorly understood at regional scales. In particular, the impact of temperate forest on clouds is largely unknown. Here we provide observational evidence for a strong increase in cloud cover over large forest regions in western Europe based on analysis of 10 years of 15 min resolution data from geostationary satellites. In addition, we show that widespread windthrow by cyclone Klaus in the Landes forest led to a significant decrease in local cloud cover in subsequent years. Strong cloud development along the downwind edges of larger forest areas are consistent with a forest-breeze mesoscale circulation. Our results highlight the need to include impacts on cloud formation when evaluating the water and climate services of temperate forests, in particular around densely populated areas.

  3. Western Italian Alps Monthly Snowfall and Snow Cover Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of snow observations for 18 stations in the western Italian Alps. Two types of data are included: monthly snowfall amounts and monthly snow...

  4. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over the Western Himalayas (WH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dan; Juyal, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation in solid form, i.e., snow, during winter season over the Western Himalayas (WH) leads to the build-up of seasonal snow cover. Seasonal snow cover build-up (snow cover depth and duration) largely depends on atmospheric variables such as temperature, precipitation, radiation, wind, etc. Integrated (combined) influence of atmospheric variables on seasonal snow cover gets reflected in terms of spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow cover build-up pattern. Hence spatial and temporal variability of seasonal snow cover build-up can serve as a good indicator of climate change in high altitude mountainous regions like the WH. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration, delay days and early melt days of consistent seasonal snow cover at 11 stations spread across different mountain ranges over the WH were analyzed. Mean, maximum and percentiles (25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th) of consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration show decline over the WH in the recent past 2-3 decades. Consistent seasonal snow cover is found to melt early and snow cover build-up pattern is found to show changes over the WH. Decline in consistent seasonal snow cover depth, duration and changing snow cover build-up pattern over the WH in recent decades indicate that WH has undergone considerable climate change and winter weather patterns are changing in the WH.

  5. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over the Western Himalayas (WH)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dan Singh; Vikas Juyal; Vikas Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation in solid form, i.e., snow, during winter season over theWestern Himalayas (WH) leads to the build-up of seasonal snow cover. Seasonal snow cover build-up (snow cover depth and duration) largely depends on atmospheric variables such as temperature, precipitation, radiation, wind, etc. Integrated(combined) influence of atmospheric variables on seasonal snow cover gets reflected in terms of spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow cover build-up pattern. Hence spatial and temporal variability of seasonal snow cover build-up can serve as a good indicator of climate change in high altitude mountainousregions like the WH. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration, delay days and early melt days of consistent seasonal snow cover at 11 stations spread across different mountain ranges over the WH were analyzed. Mean, maximum and percentiles (25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th) of consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration show decline over the WH in the recent past 2–3 decades. Consistent seasonal snow cover is found to melt early and snow cover build-up pattern is found to show changes over the WH. Decline in consistent seasonal snow cover depth, duration and changing snow cover buildup pattern over the WH in recent decades indicate that WH has undergone considerable climate changeand winter weather patterns are changing in the WH.

  6. Temporal and spatial analysis of changes in snow cover in western Sichuan based on MODIS images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG CunJian; ZHAO ZiJian; NI Jing; REN XiaoLan; WANG Oin

    2012-01-01

    We developed a method for analyzing the change in snow cover using MODIS imagery.The method was applied to images of western Sichuan Province,China taken between 2002 and 2008.The model for extracting data on snow cover from MODIS images was created by spectral analysis.The multi-temporal snow layers were used to evaluate the temporal and spatial change in the area under snow cover between 2002 and 2008 using overlay and statistical analysis in ARCGIS.The majority (60.4%)of western Sichuan was rarely covered by snow and only 0.3% was covered by perennial snow in 2002.Snow cover was primarily distributed in Garz(e) and Aba.The area under snow cover was significantly and negatively correlated with the average monthly temperature and rainfall in 2002.The largest area under snow cover was measured in 2006 and the smallest was in 2007.Similarly,the area of snowmelt was the highest in 2006 and lowest in 2007.In general,the elevation of the snow line increased throughout the period 2002-2008; however,the elevation decreased in some years.Our results provide an important insight into the distribution of snow in this region,and may be useful for climate modeling and predicting the availability of water resources and the occurrence of floods and droughts.

  7. Demand of Rural Public Goods in Western Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the context of Development of the West Regions and the construction of new countryside,on the basis of defining the concept of public goods,this article analyzes the status quo and layers of demand of rural public goods in western ethnic minority areas:the demand of rural public goods in ethnic minority areas shows "pyramid" structure,that is,the most basic layer is production-based rural public goods,followed by life-based rural public goods and democratic-management-based rural public goods.Finally the countermeasures for achieving effective demand of rural public goods are put forward as follows:adhere to customers(farmers)-oriented principle;innovate upon the rural residents’ demand expression mechanism of public goods in ethnic minority areas;achieve diversification of supply subject of rural public goods in ethnic minority areas.

  8. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.

    2000-01-01

    The Western Earth Surfaces Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Division (USGS, GD), conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth- science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis currently include southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, and the Pacific Northwest. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 1999 as well as additional 1997 and 1998 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-file Report 99-302). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects.

  9. Publications of the Western Geologic Mapping Team 1997-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul; Powell, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Western Geologic Mapping Team (WGMT) of the U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Division (USGS, GD), conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth-science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis currently include southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, the Las Vegas urban corridor, and selected National Park lands. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WGMT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WGMT released in calendar years 1997 and 1998. Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WGMT staff. However, the list also includes some publications authored by formal non-USGS cooperators with the WGMT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WGMT in cooperation with WGMT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Most of these Web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information. For these, the bibliographic citation refers specifically to an explanatory pamphlet containing information about the content and accessibility of the database, not to the actual map or related information comprising the database itself.

  10. Analysis of soil moisture variation by forest cover structure in lower western Himalayas, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.v.Tyagi; Nuzhat Qazi; S.P.Rai; M.P.Singh

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture affects various hydrological processes,including evapotranspiration,infiltration,and runoff.Forested areas in the lower western Himalaya in India constitute the headwater catchments for many hill streams and have experienced degradation in forest cover due to grazing,deforestation and other human activities.This change in forest cover is likely to alter the soil moisture regime and,consequently,flow regimes in streams.The effect of change in forest cover on soil moisture regimes of this dry region has not been studied through long term field observations.We monitored soil matric potentials in two small watersheds in the lower western Himalaya of India.The watersheds consisted of homogeneous land covers of moderately dense oak forest and moderately degraded mixed oak forest.Observations were recorded at three sites at three depths in each watershed at fortnightly intervals for a period of three years.The soil moisture contents derived from soil potential measurements were analyzed to understand the spatial,temporal and profile variations under the two structures of forest cover.The analysis revealed large variations in soil moisture storage at different sites and depths and also during different seasons in each watershed.Mean soil moisture storage during monsoon,winter and summer seasons was higher under dense forest than under degraded forest.Highest soil moisture content occurred at shallow soil profiles,decreasing with depth in both watersheds.A high positive correlation was found between tree density and soil moisture content.Mean soil moisture content over the entire study period was higher under dense forest than under degraded forest.This indicated a potential for soil water storage under well managed oak forest.Because soil water storage is vital for sustenance of low flows,attention is needed on the management of oak forests in the Himalayan region.

  11. XXI Century Climatology of Snow Cover for the Western River Basins of the Indus River System

    CERN Document Server

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Under changing climate, freshwater resources of Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya (HKH) region can be affected by changes in temperature and in amount, type and distribution of precipitation. This can have serious implications for the water supply and in turn threaten the food security and economic wellbeing of Indus basin. Using MODIS daily snow products (Terra & Aqua), this study focuses on the assessment of the 2000-2010 snow cover dynamics on seasonal/annual basis against geophysical parameters (aspect, elevation and slope) for the so called western river basins of Indus River System (IRS), namely Indus, Kabul, Jhelum, Astore, Gilgit, Hunza, Swat, Shigar and Shyok basins. Results show that inputs from MODIS instrument provide unprecedented better opportunity to study by using GIS techniques the snow cover dynamics in the remote areas like HKH region at such hyper-temporal and finer planar resolution. Adapted non-spectral cloud filtering techniques have significantly reduced cloud coverage and improved sno...

  12. Automated mapping of persistent ice and snow cover across the western U.S. with Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, David J.; Forster, Richard R.

    2016-07-01

    We implemented an automated approach for mapping persistent ice and snow cover (PISC) across the conterminous western U.S. using all available Landsat TM and ETM+ scenes acquired during the late summer/early fall period between 2010 and 2014. Two separate validation approaches indicate this dataset provides a more accurate representation of glacial ice and perennial snow cover for the region than either the U.S. glacier database derived from US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Raster Graphics (DRG) maps (based on aerial photography primarily from the 1960s-1980s) or the National Land Cover Database 2011 perennial ice and snow cover class. Our 2010-2014 Landsat-derived dataset indicates 28% less glacier and perennial snow cover than the USGS DRG dataset. There are larger differences between the datasets in some regions, such as the Rocky Mountains of Northwest Wyoming and Southwest Montana, where the Landsat dataset indicates 54% less PISC area. Analysis of Landsat scenes from 1987-1988 and 2008-2010 for three regions using a more conventional, semi-automated approach indicates substantial decreases in glaciers and perennial snow cover that correlate with differences between PISC mapped by the USGS DRG dataset and the automated Landsat-derived dataset. This suggests that most of the differences in PISC between the USGS DRG and the Landsat-derived dataset can be attributed to decreases in PISC, as opposed to differences between mapping techniques. While the dataset produced by the automated Landsat mapping approach is not designed to serve as a conventional glacier inventory that provides glacier outlines and attribute information, it allows for an updated estimate of PISC for the conterminous U.S. as well as for smaller regions. Additionally, the new dataset highlights areas where decreases in PISC have been most significant over the past 25-50 years.

  13. Changing in glacier and snow cover of Karakorum and Western Himalaya and impacts on hydrologic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinsheng

    2015-04-01

    Glacierized river basins with insufficient summer precipitation (rain) but abundant in snow- and glacier-melt water, are highly suspected by reduction and seasonal alteration in the annual stream-flows owing to climate change. However, the glacio-hydrological observations and investigations to address the linkage between stream-flow fluctuations and glacier storage changes are still very weak, which also a consequent of controversies like 'Karakorum Anomaly' among the scientists concerning the behavior of glaciers in the changing climate. Therefore an investigation to determine the implications of climatic variability over the hydrological regimes of Karakorum and Western Himalayan basins is carried out by employing long term in-situ hydro-meteorological and as well as Remote sensing data. The study reveals that both the basins receives significant winter precipitation therefore the snow cover area reaches to 85% and 58% in Astore and Hunza basins respectively. The predominant contribution from snow and glacier melt to runoff was also estimated as 73% and 83% in Astore and Hunza basin respectively. Similarly, the observed persistent summer cooling and increased precipitation resulted in slightly positive glacier mass storage change of ~8.4-9.5mmyr-1 during the period of 1966-2010 in Hunza basin (Karakoram), whereas stability was observed in Astore basin's (Western Himalaya) glacier storage area at least since 1995. Although previous projections on the feedback of global climate change over glacierized basins suggested short-term increases followed by a sharp decrease in the stream-flows due to the persistent shrinkage of glacier cover area, however, our overall analysis revealed that phenomenon is yet to occurred in both the studied catchments from Karakoram and Western Himalaya, and the current behavior of climatic indicators seems to prolonged its occurrence at least for upcoming few decades particularly in these hydrological regimes.

  14. Impacts of changing climate and snow cover on the flow regime of Jhelum River, Western Himalayas

    KAUST Repository

    Azmat, Muhammad

    2016-11-17

    This study examines the change in climate variables and snow cover dynamics and their impact on the hydrological regime of the Jhelum River basin in Western Himalayas. This study utilized daily streamflow records from Mangla dam, spanning a time period of 19 years (1995–2013), along with precipitation and temperature data over 52 years (1961–2013) from 12 different climate stations in the catchment. Additionally, moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing product MOD10A2 was utilized to analyze the change in snow cover dynamics during 2000–2013. The Pearson and Kendall rank correlation tests were used to scrutinize snow cover trends and correlation between temperature, precipitation, snow cover area (SCA) and streamflows records. Basin-wide trend analysis showed a slightly increasing tendency in temperature (τ = 0.098) and precipitation (τ = 0.094), during the years 1961–2013. The changes in streamflow indicated a positive (r > 0.12) relationship with respect to temperature but variable trends (r = −0.45–0.41) with respect to precipitation during both the winter and monsoon seasons. This indicates that temperature has a significant impact on the hydrological regime of the basin. MODIS data-based investigations suggested an expansion in SCA during 2000–2013. The changes in SCA of high-altitude zones (>2000 m a.s.l.) depicted a stronger positive correlation with climate variables and streamflow compared with those obtained for low-altitude regions (<2000 m a.s.l.). Overall, these results signify that high-altitude areas contribute to the streamflow largely in the form of snow- and glacier-melt during the early summer season. The streamflow is then further augmented by monsoon rainfall in the low-elevation regions during late summer.

  15. Changes in sea-ice cover and temperature in the Western Ross Sea during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Sophie; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Gal, Jong-Ku; Mezgec, Karin; Belt, Simon; Smik, Lukas; Stenni, Barbara; Melis, Romana; Crosta, Xavier; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Although changes in sea-ice cover contribute to global climatic variations, they are poorly constrained for periods earlier than the last decades. More records are especially required around Antarctica, where the formation of Antarctic Bottom Waters participates to global thermohaline circulation. However, this region provided only a few marine sediment cores spanning the entire Holocene, especially because of generally low sedimentation rates. This study focuses on marine sediment core ANTA99-CJ5 (73°49'S; 175°39'E), located in the open sea ice zone (OSIZ) of the western Ross Sea. We analyzed several lipid biomarkers: highly branched isoprenoids (HBIs), sterols, diols and GDGTs. The combination of several biomarkers and the comparison of these results with a diatom record previously published on the same core enabled us to trace past changes in temperatures as well as in sea-ice condition over the last 11,600 years.

  16. Postfire management in forested public lands of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschta, R.L.; Rhodes, J.J.; Kauffman, J.B.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Minshall, G.W.; Frissell, C.A.; Perry, D.A.; Hauer, R.

    2004-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the western United States evolved over many millennia in response to disturbances such as wildfires. Land use and management practices have altered these ecosystems, however, including fire regimes in some areas. Forest ecosystems are especially vulnerable to postfire management practices because such practices may influence forest dynamics and aquatic systems for decades to centuries. Thus, there is an increasing need to evaluate the effect of postfire treatments from the perspective of ecosystem recovery. We examined, via the published literature and our collective experience, the ecological effects of some common postfire treatments. Based on this examination, promising postfire restoration measures include retention of large trees, rehabilitation of firelines and roads, and, in some cases, planting of native species. The following practices are generally inconsistent with efforts to restore ecosystem functions after fire: seeding exotic species, livestock grazing, placement of physical structures in and near stream channels, ground-based postfire logging, removal of large trees, and road construction. Practices that adversely affect soil integrity, persistence or recovery of native species, riparian functions, or water quality generally impede ecological recovery after fire. Although research provides a basis for evaluating the efficacy of postfire treatments, there is a continuing need to increase our understanding of the effects of such treatments within the context of societal and ecological goals for forested public lands of the western United States.

  17. Assessing impact of climate change on forest cover type shifts in Western Himalayan Eco-region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.K.Joshi; Asha Rawat; Sheena Narula; Vinay Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Climate is a critical factor affecting forest ecosystems and their capacity to produce goods and services.Effects of climate change on forests depend on ecosystem-specific factors including dimensions of climate (texture,precipitation,drought,wind etc.).Available information is not sufficient to support a quantitative assessment of the ecological,social and economic consequences.The present study assessed shifts in forest cover types of Western Himalayan Eco-region (700-4500 m).100 randomly selected samples (75 for training and 25 for testing the model),genetic algorithm of rule set parameters and climatic envelopes were used to assess the distribution of five prominent forest cover types (Temperate evergreen,Tropical semi-evergreen,Temperate conifer,Subtropical conifer,and Tropical moist deciduous forests).Modelling was conducted for four different scenarios,current scenario,changed precipitation (8% increase),changed temperature (1.07℃ increase),and both changed temperature and precipitation.On increasing precipitation a downward shift in the temperate evergreen and tropical semi-evergreen was observed,while sub-tropical conifer and tropical moist-deciduous forests showed a slight upward shift and temperate conifer showed no shift.On increasing temperature,an upward shift in all forest types was observed except sub-tropical conifer forests without significant changes.When both temperature and precipitation were changed,the actual distribution was maintained and slight upward shift was observed in all the forest types except sub-tropical conifer.It is important to understand the likely impacts of the projected climate change on the forest ecosystems,so that better management and conservation strategies can be adopted for the bindiversity and forest dependent community.Knowledge of impact mechanisms also enables identification and mitigation of some of the conditions that increase vulnerability to climate change in the forest sector.

  18. Land-use and land-cover change in Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Manish P; Chavan, Manoj; Pardeshi, Satish; Joshi, Chitiz; Verma, Prabhakar A; Roy, P S; Srivastav, S K; Srivastava, V K; Jha, A K; Chaudhari, Swapnil; Giri, Yogesh; Krishna Murthy, Y V N

    2016-07-01

    The Western Ghats (WG) of India, one of the hottest biodiversity hotspots in the world, has witnessed major land-use and land-cover (LULC) change in recent times. The present research was aimed at studying the patterns of LULC change in WG during 1985-1995-2005, understanding the major drivers that caused such change, and projecting the future (2025) spatial distribution of forest using coupled logistic regression and Markov model. The International Geosphere Biosphere Program (IGBP) classification scheme was mainly followed in LULC characterization and change analysis. The single-step Markov model was used to project the forest demand. The spatial allocation of such forest demand was based on the predicted probabilities derived through logistic regression model. The R statistical package was used to set the allocation rules. The projection model was selected based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) and area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The actual and projected areas of forest in 2005 were compared before making projection for 2025. It was observed that forest degradation has reduced from 1985-1995 to 1995-2005. The study obtained important insights about the drivers and their impacts on LULC simulations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt where projection of future state of forest in entire WG is made based on decadal LULC and socio-economic datasets at the Taluka (sub-district) level.

  19. Snow cover identification of saline-alkali land in the Western Jilin province of China based on MWRI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingbo; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Cao, Qiong

    2016-09-01

    Snow parameters are important physical quantities of climatology and hydrology research, improving the accuracy of snow parameters is important for climatology, hydrology and disaster prevention and reduction. The western Jilin Province of China has obvious salinization problem. Meanwhile, it belongs to a typical snow-covered area. In this paper, the western Jilin Province is selected as the study area and the main research focuses on analyzing the snow cover conditions. The FY3B-MWRI passive microwave remote sensing data from year 2011 to 2016 are selected as experimental data. Compared with optical remote sensing data, using MWRI data can better obtain snow information, and it is also the preliminary work to retrieve snow depth and snow water equivalent. Furthermore, a new decision tree algorithm for snow cover identification was built to distinguish different snow cover conditions. Compared with the existing three algorithms reported in other literatures, the proposed algorithm improves the identification accuracy of snow cover up to 95.06%. While the accuracy for Singh's algorithm, Pan's algorithm and Li's algorithm were about 80.19%, 78.79% and 90.13%, respectively. This study provides important information to the research of snow cover in saline-alkali land.

  20. Research of the Experience of Western Governments Procurement of Public Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宏全

    2014-01-01

    Government procurement of public services is developed from the market-oriented reform of public services in Western countries. Many Western countries have adopted the practice of reform and have gained success of this model. By analyzing the process of those in UK, the Netherlands, the United States and France, summing up experience, and I hope that’s useful for China's reform.

  1. 77 FR 14523 - Western Digital Corporation; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Western Digital Corporation; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment AGENCY... unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations... Comment part of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Write ``Western Digital, File No. 111...

  2. Geomorphology and dynamics of supraglacial debris covers in the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deline, P.; Gardent, M.; Kirkbride, M. P.; Le Roy, M.; Martin, B.

    2012-04-01

    In the alpine regions of France and NW Italy, many glaciers of a variety of sizes are at least partly debris-covered, but these have received less scientific research than clean glaciers. During the present period of glacier shrinkage - the area of glacier cover in France has reduced by 26% over the last 40 years -, growing debris cover needs to be understood as an influence on continuing retreat, with consequences for natural hazards, water resources and tourism. We present the results of a combined ongoing study of an inventory of debris-covered glaciers in France with site-specific studies of c. 12 glaciers of contrasting types, in order to understand spatial and temporal changes in supraglacial debris cover. Our specific aims are: 1. To understand the geomorphology of debris-covers and their formation, investigating the types of debris cover in relation to formative processes including extraglacial supply and development during transport. 2. To document the changing extents of supraglacial debris covers, using historical documents and aerial photographs. 3. To interpret areal changes in terms of glaciological and topographical controls on different glacier and debris cover types (catchment morphology, glacier structure, mass balance history, and rock wall collapse magnitude and frequency). 4. To understand the effect of debris cover on glacier dynamics and geomorphological evolution, related to insulation-related modifications to AAR, long profiles, and length changes on both short and long timescales. This includes investigation of the characteristics of debris-covered glacier depositional systems resulting from their modified dynamics.

  3. 76 FR 13604 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA286 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council... Management Council (Council) will hold a Western Pacific Stock Assessment Review (WPSAR). DATES: The meeting... will be held at the Ilima Room, Ala Moana Hotel, 410 Atkinson Drive, Honolulu, HI 96814, telephone...

  4. Analysis of spatio-temporal variations in snow cover over Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Vinay Kumar; Sharma, Parmanand; Patel, Lavkush K.; Meloth, Thamban; Singh, Ajit

    2016-05-01

    Snow cover plays an important role in many applications like runoff estimation, hydro-power generation, irrigation and disaster management. In Indian Himalaya, snow cover monitoring on daily basis is a difficult task due to presence of cloud cover and lack of high spatial resolution datasets. Therefore, for long term monitoring, the maximum snow cover products are much reliable and preferred for the studies on snow-melt runoff, hydropower etc. In this study, the maximum snow cover products (MOD 10A2) from MODIS Terra satellite were used to study the spatial and temporal variations in five river basins namely Chandra, Bhaga, Baspa, Beas and Parvati. In addition, MODIS LST (MOD 11A1) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (3B42) products were used to study the temperature and precipitation trends at basin level. Further, the obtained snow cover information can be used as inputs for the models like runoff and hydropower generation.

  5. Effects of Cropland Cover Changes on Regional Climate over Western China Based on Simulations with RegCM3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xue-Li; HE Hui-Juan; REN Hong-Chang

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of land cover changes on regional climate in Shaan-Gan-Ning (SGN) in western China were simulated with RegCM3. Sensitivity experiments were conducted by replacing crop grids with different new land cover types in the key area of SGN, where the returning cropland to tree/grass project has been carried out since 1999. The modified new land cover types include desert, forest, shrub and grass. They represent degraded, improved, and maintained vegetation cover with natural canopy in the key area. Results from three individual case studies show that the land cover change causes changes in temperature and terrestrial water variables especially within the key area, while changes in precipitation are found for a larger area. The strongest changes appear where the cropland is degraded to bare soil, leading to increasing temperature and decreases in rainfall, evaporation and soil water. Opposite changes occur when cropland changed into forests, especially with strong increases in soil water. When cropland changed to grass and shrub land, the climatic changes are closer to those with forest cover. This shows the importance of improving and maintaining the vegetation in SGN for the ecosystem and regional climate.

  6. Holocene vegetation cover in Qin'an area of western Chinese Loess Plateau revealed by n-alkane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG YanXia; CHEN FaHu; AN ChengBang; XIE ShuCheng; HUANG XianYu

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have found that wetlands prevailed in western Chinese Loess Plateau and pine pollen could reach up to 80% in Qin'an area of the plateau during middle Holocene.It was then deduced that forest vegetation covered Qin'an area in a warm and wet climate during middle Holocene.The proxies of molecule biomarkers from two Holocene sections,a swamp-alluvial loess section and a typical loess-paleosol section are used to reconstruct regional vegetation history.It is found that the heavy-molecular-weight(HMW)homologues of the n-alkanes in all samples exhibit a pronounced odd-over-even predominance,maximizing at C31 and the abundance of the nC27-alkanes is the lowest in nC27,nC29,nC31,i.e.C27<C29<C31,a typical grass n-alkanes model.The results are the same as those of model surface soil samples under grass cover but different from both forest cover and modern pine leaves,which yield preferentially nC29-alkanes peak.It could be jnferred that the area was dominated by grass cover but not forest cover during whole Holocene epoch.The study shows that combining both molecule biomarkers and pollen analysis can avoid the disadvantage of pollen analysis in reconstruction of regional vegetation cover.

  7. Detection and prediction of land cover changes using Markov chain model in semi-arid rangeland in western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathizad, Hassan; Rostami, Noredin; Faramarzi, Marzban

    2015-10-01

    The study of changes and destruction rate in the previous years as well as the possibility of prediction of these changes in the following years has a key role in optimal planning, controlling, and restricting non-normative changes in the future. This research was approached to detecting land use/cover changes (1985-2007) and to forecast the changes in the future (2021) use of multitemporal satellite imagery in semi-arid area in western Iran. A supervised classification of multilayer perceptron (MLP) was applied for detecting land use changes. The study area was classified into five classes, those of forest, rangeland, agriculture, residential, and barren lands. The change detection analysis indicated a decreasing trend in forest cover by 30.42%, while other land uses were increased during 1985 to 2007. The land use changes were predicted using Markov chain model for 2021. The model was calibrated by comparing the simulated map with the real detected classes of land cover in 2007. Then, for further model processing, an acceptable accuracy at 83% was achieved between them. Finally, land use changes were predicted by using transition matrix derived from calibrated approach. The findings of this study demonstrate a rapid change in land use/cover for the coming years. Transforming the forest into other land uses especially rangeland and cropland is the main land cover changes in the future. Therefore, the planning of protection and restoration of forest cover should be an essential program for decision-makers in the study area.

  8. TOWARD A DEFINITION OF MALE HEAD REGISTER, PASSAGGIO, AND COVER IN WESTERN OPERATIC SINGING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MILLER, DG; SCHUTTE, HK

    1994-01-01

    For male singers in the western operatic tradition the upper part of the frequency range contains a series of pitches called passaggio, the transition between 'chest' and 'head' registers. Although there is no generally accepted objective definition of the distinction between 'head' and 'chest', the

  9. 75 FR 8674 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Spatial Planning, coral reef ecosystem threats, truth in science, Western and Central Pacific Fisheries.... NOAA Draft Catch Shares Policy E. National Ocean Policy and Marine Spatial Planning F. Local, National... the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Director 5. Program Planning A. ACLs...

  10. 75 FR 6636 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council undertake the process to recommend definitions and.... March 12, 2010, Tinian, CNMI. From 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. at the Tinian Elementary School. San Jose Village... Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act), those issues may not be the subject of formal action during...

  11. 77 FR 6786 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA979 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) announces changes in the dates that the Merizo community and..., Guam and the Guam REAC will be held at the Guam Hilton Hotel, Tumon Bay, Guam. For specific times and...

  12. 78 FR 6810 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Management Council (Council) will hold the 112th meeting of its Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC473 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council..., 2013 7. Pelagic Fisheries. A. Action Item. 1. Management Options for American Samoa South...

  13. Spatiotemporal analysis of the effects of forest covers on water yield in the Western Ghats of peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunita; Mishra, Arabinda

    2012-06-01

    SummaryBiotic interference has greatly disturbed the forest cover, the forest soils and, therefore, the hydrological functioning of the forest (Bonell and Bruijnzeel, 2005). Though widely debated, reduction in water yield (Water Yield: Total quantity of surface water that can be expected in a given period from a stream at the outlet of its catchment (Subramanya, 2008)) appears to be one such consequence. Scientific understanding of how this contentious issue affects the benefits of forests for water is critical to avoid unintended consequences (IUFRO, 2007). Gaps in research exist for tropical forest areas that are now a general mix of primary forest and secondary vegetation interspersed with patches cleared for agriculture or other non-forest uses (Bruijnzeel, 2004; Giambelluca, 2002). For this reason, research on spatiotemporal variations in the effects of a mix of primary forest (Primary Forests: Old forests with no or inconsequential human disturbance), mature secondary forests (Secondary Forests: Forests regenerating largely through natural processes after significant human and/or natural disturbance of the original forest vegetation at a single point in time or over an extended period, and displaying a major difference in forest structure and/or canopy species composition with respect to nearby primary forests on similar sites (Chokkalingam and Jong, 2001)) and disturbed forests (Disturbed Forests: Forests that have been exploited on moderate to large scale for timber, fuel wood, fodder, shifting cultivation and other tangible benefits. Reforestation activities may or may not have been undertaken in them) on runoff coefficients was conducted in four watersheds in the Western Ghats of peninsular India. Forest cover (Forest Cover: All lands with tree cover of canopy density of 10% and above when projected vertically on the horizontal ground with minimum areal extent of one Ha) significantly (0.01 forest cover, the Tulsi Watershed having mainly primary forests

  14. 77 FR 33195 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ...) Review C. Acoustic Survey of Maui Bottomfish D. Action Items 1. Setting Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC.... Public Commenting G. Advisory Panel Tackle-Box H. Discussion on How Council Can Help the Advisory Panel...

  15. Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...

  16. Verification of cloud cover forecast with INSAT observation over western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shivani Shah; B M Rao; Prashant Kumar; P K Pal

    2010-12-01

    Since the beginning of the summer monsoon 2009, experimental mesoscale weather forecasts in real time are being generated using WRF model by the Meteorology and Oceanography Group at the Space Applications Centre (ISRO)and are disseminated through MOSDAC (www.mosdac.gov.in) to various users. To begin with, the 12 h, 24 h and 48 h forecasts for the western India region are made available. A study is undertaken to comprehensively assess the cloudiness prediction performance of WRF model. The evaluations have been made over the three months period during monsoon 2009. INSAT cloud imagery data has been used as a reference for these evaluations. The verification strategy includes computation of various skill scores. It is seen that probability of detection (POD)of cloud is 84% and the false alarm rate (FAR) is around 18%. It is hoped that this assessment will provide information on the use of these forecasts in various applications.

  17. A new paleotemperature record from Western Europe covering the last glacial/interglacial cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Céline; Ménot, Guillemette; Thouveny, Nicolas; Meulé, Samuel; Marguerite, Sébastien; Bard, Edouard

    2017-04-01

    Understanding Holocene global temperature regional patterns is still a matter of active research and debate (e.g. Liu et al. 2014 PNAS). Proper quantitative reconstructions are hampered by the diversity of archives and proxies considered, especially on the continental realm. We propose a tetraether-based quantitative temperature record from Lake St Front, a Maar crater lake located in the eastern Velay region, West Europe (long. 3°E, lat. 45°N, alt. 1230 m, 600 m diameter and 5.5 m water depth). A 65 m thick sedimentary sequence was recovered in 1991 covering the full glacial/interglacial cycle, i.e. since Marine Isotope Stage 6 (Vlag et al. 1997 G. J. Int). A new coring operation conducted in 2016 provided a 10 m thick sequence of organic gyttja covering the last deglaciation and the Holocene. As a first step, we will describe the modern tetraether distribution in lake surface sediments as well as its watershed in order to check the reliability of the proxy and to identify possible biases. The measured paleotemperatures will then be assessed and compared to nearby records in order to conclude on regional climatic patterns.

  18. 78 FR 29332 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Fisheries i. Offshore fisheries ii. Coastal fisheries 5. Break 6. Agency Perspectives on climate change and...; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Program 8. Status of Endangered Species Act (ESA) Listings 9. Marine Conservation Plan Updates...

  19. 75 FR 32372 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Longline Limited Entry Program Modifications (Action) D. Territory Fisheries Development (Action) E.... Protected Species A. False Killer Whale Take Reduction Team Meeting Report B. Cetacean Survey Methodology C... Killer Whale) D. American Samoa Longline Amendment Consultation E. Public Comment F. SSC Discussion...

  20. Assessment and monitoring of long-term forest cover changes (1920–2013) in Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Sudhakar Reddy; C S Jha; V K Dadhwal

    2016-02-01

    Western Ghats are considered as one of the global biodiversity hotspots. There is an information gap on conservation status of the biodiversity hotspots. This study has quantified estimates of deforestation in the Western Ghats over a period of past nine decades. The classified forest cover maps for 1920, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013 indicates 95,446 (73.1%), 63,123 (48.4%), 62,286 (47.7%), 61,551 (47.2%), 61,511 (47.1%) and 61,511 km2 (47.1%) of the forest area, respectively. The rates of deforestation have been analyzed in different time phases, i.e., 1920–1975, 1975–1985, 1985–1995, 1995–2005 and 2005–2013. The grid cells of 1 km2 have been generated for time series analysis and describing spatial changes in forests. The net rate of deforestation was found to be 0.75 during 1920–1975, 0.13 during 1975–1985, 0.12 during 1985–1995 and 0.01 during 1995–2005. Overall forest loss in Western Ghats was estimated as 33,579 km2 (35.3% of the total forest) from 1920's to 2013. Land use change analysis indicates highest transformation of forest to plantations, followed by agriculture and degradation to scrub. The dominant forest type is tropical semi-evergreen which comprises 21,678 km2 (35.2%) of the total forest area of Western Ghats, followed by wet evergreen forest (30.6%), moist deciduous forest (24.8%) and dry deciduous forest (8.1%) in 2013. Even though it has the highest population density among the hotspots, there is no quantifiable net rate of deforestation from 2005 to 2013 which indicates increased measures of conservation.

  1. Modelling soil moisture under different land covers in a sub-humid environment of Western Ghats, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Venkatesh; Lakshman Nandagiri; B K Purandara; V B Reddy

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study is to apply and test a simple parametric water balance model for prediction of soil moisture regime in the presence of vegetation. The intention was to evaluate the differences in model parameterization and performance when applied to small watersheds under three different types of land covers (Acacia, degraded forest and natural forest). The watersheds selected for this purpose are located in the sub-humid climate within the Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Model calibration and validation were performed using a dataset comprising depth-averaged soil moisture content measurements made at weekly time steps from October 2004 to December 2008. In addition to this, a sensitivity analysis was carried out with respect to the water-holding capacity of the soils with the aim of explaining the suitability and adaptation of exotic vegetation types under the prevailing climatic conditions. Results indicated reasonably good performance of the model in simulating the pattern and magnitude of weekly average soil moisture content in 150 cm deep soil layer under all three land covers. This study demonstrates that a simple, robust and parametrically parsimonious model is capable of simulating the temporal dynamics of soil moisture content under distinctly different land covers. Also, results of sensitivity analysis revealed that exotic plant species such as Acacia have adapted themselves effectively to the local climate.

  2. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, W.; Ali, R.; Varma, S.; Emelyanova, I.; Hodgson, G.; McFarlane, D.

    2012-05-01

    The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south west Western Australia, provides approximately 60% of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15%. There is expected to be a continuing reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia. Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A Vertical Flux Manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland), soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth. These recharge estimates were accumulated on a daily basis for both observed and projected climate scenarios and used in a MODFLOW simulation with monthly stress periods. In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In the Dandaragan Plateau to the north-east of Perth there has been groundwater level rise since the 1970s associated with land clearing, and with rainfall projected to reduce the least in this area the groundwater levels are estimated to continue to rise. Along the coastal zone north of Perth there is an interaction between projected rainfall decline and legislated removal to pine forests. This results in areas of increasing

  3. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dawes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south west Western Australia, provides approximately 60% of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15%. There is expected to be a continuing reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia.

    Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A Vertical Flux Manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland, soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth. These recharge estimates were accumulated on a daily basis for both observed and projected climate scenarios and used in a MODFLOW simulation with monthly stress periods.

    In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In the Dandaragan Plateau to the north-east of Perth there has been groundwater level rise since the 1970s associated with land clearing, and with rainfall projected to reduce the least in this area the groundwater levels are estimated to continue to rise. Along the coastal zone north of Perth there is an interaction between projected rainfall decline and legislated removal to pine forests. This

  4. Early 21st century snow cover state over the western river basins of the Indus River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River system (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. First, we validate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) against the Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (TM/ETM+) data set, and then improve them for clouds by applying a validated non-spectral cloud removal technique. The improved snow product has been analysed on a seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (upper Indus basin (UIB), Astore, Hunza, Shigar and Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Seasonal average snow cover decreases during winter and autumn, and increases during spring and summer, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitudes/altitudes show higher variability than basins at lower latitudes/middle altitudes. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature greater snow cover. The mean end-of-summer regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range from 3000 to 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a descending end-of-summer regional SLA zone for most of the studied basins, which is significant for the Shyok and Kabul basins, thus indicating a change in their water resources. Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climatic data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period within the UIB. Moreover, our analysis shows a significant correlation between winter season snow cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn

  5. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter

  6. Differences in health between Americans and Western Europeans: Effects on longevity and public finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Goldman, Dana; Lakdawalla, Darius; Gailey, Adam; Zheng, Yuhui

    2011-07-01

    In 1975, 50-year-old Americans could expect to live slightly longer than most of their Western European counterparts. By 2005, American life expectancy had fallen behind that of most Western European countries. We find that this growing longevity gap is primarily due to real declines in the health of near-elderly Americans, relative to their Western European peers. We use a microsimulation approach to project what US longevity would look like, if US health trends approximated those in Western Europe. The model implies that differences in health can explain most of the growing gap in remaining life expectancy. In addition, we quantify the public finance consequences of this deterioration in health. The model predicts that gradually moving American cohorts to the health status enjoyed by Western Europeans could save up to $1.1 trillion in discounted total health expenditures from 2004 to 2050.

  7. Morphometry and land cover based multi-criteria analysis for assessing the soil erosion susceptibility of the western Himalayan watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Sadaff; Meraj, Gowhar; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Complex mountainous environments such as Himalayas are highly susceptibility to natural hazards particular those that are triggered by the action of water such as floods, soil erosion, mass movements and siltation of the hydro-electric power dams. Among all the natural hazards, soil erosion is the most implicit and the devastating hazard affecting the life and property of the millions of people living in these regions. Hence to review and devise strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of soil erosion is of utmost importance to the planners of watershed management programs in these regions. This paper demonstrates the use of satellite based remote sensing data coupled with the observational field data in a multi-criteria analytical (MCA) framework to estimate the soil erosion susceptibility of the sub-watersheds of the Rembiara basin falling in the western Himalaya, using geographical information system (GIS). In this paper, watershed morphometry and land cover are used as an inputs to the MCA framework to prioritize the sub-watersheds of this basin on the basis of their different susceptibilities to soil erosion. Methodology included the derivation of a set of drainage and land cover parameters that act as the indicators of erosion susceptibility. Further the output from the MCA resulted in the categorization of the sub-watersheds into low, medium, high and very high erosion susceptibility classes. A detailed prioritization map for the susceptible sub-watersheds based on the combined role of land cover and morphometry is finally presented. Besides, maps identifying the susceptible sub-watersheds based on morphometry and land cover only are also presented. The results of this study are part of the watershed management program in the study area and are directed to instigate appropriate measures to alleviate the soil erosion in the study area.

  8. Geospatial assessment and monitoring of historical forest cover changes (1920-2012) in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, K V; Saranya, K R L; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Krishna, P Hari; Jha, C S; Rao, P V V Prasada

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation in the biosphere reserves, which are key Protected Areas has negative impacts on biodiversity, climate, carbon fluxes and livelihoods. Comprehensive study of deforestation in biosphere reserves is required to assess the impact of the management effectiveness. This article assesses the changes in forest cover in various zones and protected areas of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, the first declared biosphere reserve in India which forms part of Western Ghats-a global biodiversity hotspot. In this study, we have mapped the forests from earliest available topographical maps and multi-temporal satellite data spanning from 1920's to 2012 period. Mapping of spatial extent of forest cover, vegetation types and land cover was carried out using visual interpretation technique. A grid cell of 1 km × 1 km was generated for time series change analysis to understand the patterns in spatial distribution of forest cover (1920-1973-1989-1999-2006-2012). The total forest area of biosphere reserve was found to be 5,806.5 km(2) (93.8 % of total geographical area) in 1920. Overall loss of forest cover was estimated as 1,423.6 km(2) (24.5 % of the total forest) with reference to 1920. Among the six Protected Areas, annual deforestation rate of >0.5 was found in Wayanad wildlife sanctuary during 1920-1973. The deforestation in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is mainly attributed to conversion of forests to plantations and agriculture along with submergence due to construction of dams during 1920 to 1989. Grid wise analysis indicates that 851 grids have undergone large-scale negative changes of >75 ha of forest loss during 1920-1973 while, only 15 grids have shown >75 ha loss during 1973-1989. Annual net rate of deforestation for the period of 1920 to 1973 was calculated as 0.5 followed by 0.1 for 1973 to 1989. Our analysis shows that there was large-scale deforestation before the declaration of area as biosphere reserve in 1986; however, the deforestation has drastically

  9. Analyses of changes in vegetation cover in the South and Sub-Taiga of Western Siberia using Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyukarev, Egor; Pologova, Nina; Golovatskaya, Eugenia

    2010-05-01

    Understanding human impact on vegetation composition and structure, at scales from the patch to the globe, and capacity to monitor change over time is fundamental research problem to address Global Change and ensure sustainable development. Natural ecosystems at the South and Sob-Taiga zone of Western Siberia are characterized by development of an early successional states, given the projected increase in disturbance, or will be converted into human-dominated terrestrial production systems. Disturbances (e.g., fire, dieback due to insect attacks) appear to be increasing in some regions, leading to fragmentation of natural ecosystems and to a generally "weedier," structurally simpler biosphere with fewer systems in a more ecologically complex old-growth state. The analysis of structure of vegetation cover at two test sites located at the south-west part of the West-Siberian Plain in the South and Sub-Taiga zone was made using LANDSAT space images and ground data. The studied area of the first test site ("Bakchar") is occupied by bogs, paludificated forests and cultivated lands. Test site "Tomsk" covered by cultivated lands in the south, dark coniferous forest complexes an early and old-growth state in the north part. Mire types at the test sites are presented by open fens, ridge-hollow / ridge-lake complexes and pine-shrub-sphagnum communities with different tree height and layer density. During the XX century the vegetation cover was exposed to natural and anthropogenic changes. Comparison of space images from different years (1990, 1999 and 2007) allowed revealing dynamics in vegetation cover. Forest change was calculated using the Disturbance Index (Healey, 2006). Decrease of forest area in 1990-1999 are primary occurs due to intense forest cutting for timber industry and local use. A strong wind have damaged forests between 1990 and 1999 in stripes oriented from south-west to north -east in the prevailing wind direction. Strong winds were registered in 2003

  10. Resiliency of the western Chesapeake Bay to total suspended solid concentrations following storms and accounting for land-cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mejs; Benninger, Larry

    2017-05-01

    The effect of storms on water quality in the Chesapeake Bay has been studied in a patchwork fashion at various sites for short periods of time. In this paper, we use a relationship between MODIS-Terra red light reflectance and total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations in order to develop a fourteen-year time period of TSS estimates during which effects of storms and land cover can be studied over a large portion of the Bay. Exponential fits were most appropriate, resulting in viable reflectance-TSS relationships for the five major Western Shore rivers and the Mainstem of the Bay. Other tributaries were less well-disposed for such relationships due to lack of a large range of TSS concentrations, shallow river beds, or low number of data points. Treating the entire Chesapeake as a single entity and modeling a single reflectance-TSS relationship for the entire estuary produced poorer models with less significance compared to treating each channel separately. Over 2800 rain events were studied in the Lower Western Shore between 2000 and 2014. We found some evidence that higher rainfall amounts correspond to a lower distribution of TSS concentrations 1 day following the event in forested watersheds. At rainfall events of <50 mm, maximum TSS within one day of the storm was highly variable, suggesting that rainfall amounts alone cannot explain variation in TSS levels. Finally, we found value in the use of prediction intervals around TSS estimates, a statistical procedure uncommonly used heretofore with satellite-based estimates but which can help to determine if results are significant or not.

  11. Agro-pastoral expansion and land use/land cover (LU/LC) change dynamics in Central-western Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga-Ngoie, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Brazil, large-scale land cover changes following extensive deforestations are expected to generate big impacts onto the climate and the environment over this area, with eventually many negative feedbacks on the global scale. Mato Grosso State, located in the central western Brazil, is known to be the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate. Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in this state due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. In this study, we specifically aim at doing more detailed analysis for the causes of deforestation and savannization in this area, with special attention to agriculture and cattle ranching industry at the municipal district level in this state. Using GIS techniques and remotely-sensed NOAA/AVHRR data, we created 5-year Digital Vegetation Model Maps characterizing LU/LC features for every five years during the 1981-2001 periods using the PCA first components of the NOAA/AVHRR multi-spectral data. Our results make it clear that: (1) LU/LC changes among the phases are of the following 3 major types: degradation, recovery or transition; (2) The changes in LU/LC features are concomitant with the advance of cattle ranching and corn production activities toward the northern parts of the state, and with the expansion of soybean production in the central and western Mato Grosso; (3) Most of the agro-pastoral business are found in the southern Mato Grosso where about 46% of the state's deforestation during the 1981-2001 period occurred; (4) Rates of vegetation change are larger over non-inhabited areas (56%), especially in the north, than over the populated zones in the south (42%). Moreover, this work sheds some new light on the patterns of the changes in LU/LC features (deforestation and savannization) for each municipal district of Mato Grosso. In general, the following activities

  12. A synthesis of terrestrial mercury in the western United States: Spatial distribution defined by land cover and plant productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Pearson, Christopher; Webster, Jackson; Kane, Tyler J.; Lin, Che-Jen; Aiken, George R.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    A synthesis of published vegetation mercury (Hg) data across 11 contiguous states in the western United States showed that aboveground biomass concentrations followed the order: leaves (26 μg kg− 1) ~ branches (26 μg kg− 1) > bark (16 μg kg− 1) > bole wood (1 μg kg− 1). No spatial trends of Hg in aboveground biomass distribution were detected, which likely is due to very sparse data coverage and different sampling protocols. Vegetation data are largely lacking for important functional vegetation types such as shrubs, herbaceous species, and grasses.Soil concentrations collected from the published literature were high in the western United States, with 12% of observations exceeding 100 μg kg− 1, reflecting a bias toward investigations in Hg-enriched sites. In contrast, soil Hg concentrations from a randomly distributed data set (1911 sampling points; Smith et al., 2013a) averaged 24 μg kg− 1 (A-horizon) and 22 μg kg− 1 (C-horizon), and only 2.6% of data exceeded 100 μg kg− 1. Soil Hg concentrations significantly differed among land covers, following the order: forested upland > planted/cultivated > herbaceous upland/shrubland > barren soils. Concentrations in forests were on average 2.5 times higher than in barren locations. Principal component analyses showed that soil Hg concentrations were not or weakly related to modeled dry and wet Hg deposition and proximity to mining, geothermal areas, and coal-fired power plants. Soil Hg distribution also was not closely related to other trace metals, but strongly associated with organic carbon, precipitation, canopy greenness, and foliar Hg pools of overlying vegetation. These patterns indicate that soil Hg concentrations are related to atmospheric deposition and reflect an overwhelming influence of plant productivity — driven by water availability — with productive landscapes showing high soil Hg accumulation and unproductive barren soils and shrublands

  13. A synthesis of terrestrial mercury in the western United States: Spatial distribution defined by land cover and plant productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Pearson, Christopher; Webster, Jackson; Kane, Tyler; Lin, Che-Jen; Aiken, George R; Alpers, Charles N

    2016-10-15

    A synthesis of published vegetation mercury (Hg) data across 11 contiguous states in the western United States showed that aboveground biomass concentrations followed the order: leaves (26μgkg(-1))~branches (26μgkg(-1))>bark (16μgkg(-1))>bole wood (1μgkg(-1)). No spatial trends of Hg in aboveground biomass distribution were detected, which likely is due to very sparse data coverage and different sampling protocols. Vegetation data are largely lacking for important functional vegetation types such as shrubs, herbaceous species, and grasses. Soil concentrations collected from the published literature were high in the western United States, with 12% of observations exceeding 100μgkg(-1), reflecting a bias toward investigations in Hg-enriched sites. In contrast, soil Hg concentrations from a randomly distributed data set (1911 sampling points; Smith et al., 2013a) averaged 24μgkg(-1) (A-horizon) and 22μgkg(-1) (C-horizon), and only 2.6% of data exceeded 100μgkg(-1). Soil Hg concentrations significantly differed among land covers, following the order: forested upland>planted/cultivated>herbaceous upland/shrubland>barren soils. Concentrations in forests were on average 2.5 times higher than in barren locations. Principal component analyses showed that soil Hg concentrations were not or weakly related to modeled dry and wet Hg deposition and proximity to mining, geothermal areas, and coal-fired power plants. Soil Hg distribution also was not closely related to other trace metals, but strongly associated with organic carbon, precipitation, canopy greenness, and foliar Hg pools of overlying vegetation. These patterns indicate that soil Hg concentrations are related to atmospheric deposition and reflect an overwhelming influence of plant productivity - driven by water availability - with productive landscapes showing high soil Hg accumulation and unproductive barren soils and shrublands showing low soil Hg values. Large expanses of low-productivity, arid ecosystems

  14. Social inclusion and the City of Swan public libraries in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer-Benzie, Maureena

    2004-09-01

    The focus of this paper is on an understanding of social exclusion/inclusion: the concept and how a specific public library service, namely the City of Swan Public Library service, has responded to this social issue. The terms social inclusion/exclusion are explored and clarified from an international, Western Australian State Government, and public library perspective. This is followed by a brief overview of Western Australia as an Australian state, and how public libraries operate based on a partnership with the State Library of Western Australia and Local Government. The City of Swan Public Libraries are described in some depth and also portrayed in their local setting namely the City of Swan, a city of extensive growth that offers a unique environment of both rural and urban areas. The concept of social inclusion is then applied to the City of Swan Public Library service and how the library service addresses social inclusion within its physical environment, policies, operations, future planning, programmes and services. This includes the results of a Library Non-user Survey that was conducted in 2001. The aims of this survey were to: ascertain why non-users within the City of Swan do not make use of the library facilities; explore why past members were not using the library services; examine the effectiveness of library promotions; and investigate the access to and usage of the Internet. The paper concludes with a list of the potential social conditions of which public libraries need to be aware in their strategic planning activities so that community members are not excluded from participating and accessing the public library service.

  15. Geochemical study of urban soils in public areas of an industrialized town (Ajka, western Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacháry, D.; Jordán, Gy.; Szabó, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    Soil is one of the most essential parts of urban ecosystem contributing to the biogeochemical cycles along the rock-soil-plant-animal and human pathway. Soil plays a fundamental role in plant nutrient uptake and groundwater filtration, too. Urban soils differ from non-urban soils in many aspects, including their origin, and they may also concentrate contaminants in large quantities due to intensive human activities. The pollution sources are industry, traffic, fertilizer, tailing and waste. In addition to the increasing rate of urban areas, urban soils are under growing interest and their pollution have received significant attention in the past few decades. This work focuses on the toxic element (As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni) content of soils and their spatial distribution in order to find a link between contamination sources and the receiving urban soils at sensitive receptor locations such as children's playgrounds and parks. Ajka town is located in western Hungary. It has an old-established industrial history with multiple contamination sources of heavy alumina industry and coal-based power plants supplied by the nearby bauxite and coal mines. At 44 locations 46 soil samples have been collected at a depth of 0-10 cm along a 1x1 km grid. The whole grid covers an area of 48 km2. In each grid cell a sampling site was selected at public areas. Sample preparation included drying at 40 C°, thorough homogenization and sieving to 2 mm fine earth before chemical analysis. Grain size distribution and soil pH were also determined. Samples were analyzed with ICP-OES and SEM methods. The As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni concentrations range from 2.07 ppm to 9.48 ppm, 0.02 ppm to 2.84 ppm, 5.08 ppm to 35.74 ppm, 2.55 ppm to 47.78 ppm, 17.00 ppm to 91.00 ppm, 0.07 ppm to 0.61 ppm and 5.57 ppm to 32.09 ppm, respectively. The results revealed the contaminated areas associated with past industrial sites. This study also identified locations with considerable contamination at

  16. Possible association of the western Tibetan Plateau snow cover with the decadal to interdecadal variations of northern China heatwave frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhiwei [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Jiang, Zhihong; Zhong, Shanshan; Wang, Lijuan [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China); Li, Jianping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China)

    2012-11-15

    Northern China has been subject to increased heatwave frequency (HWF) in recent decades, which deteriorates the local droughts and desertification. More than half a billion people face drinking water shortages and worsening ecological environment. In this study, the variability in the western Tibetan Plateau snow cover (TPSC) is observed to have an intimate linkage with the first empirical orthogonal function mode of the summer HWF across China. This distinct leading mode is dominated by the decadal to inter-decadal variability and features a mono-sign pattern with the extreme value center prevailing over northern China and high pressure anomalies at mid- and upper troposphere over Mongolia and the adjacent regions. A simplified general circulation model is utilized to examine the possible physical mechanism. A reduced TPSC anomaly can induce a positive geopotential height anomaly at the mid- and upper troposphere and subsequently enhance the climatological high pressure ridge over Mongolia and the adjacent regions. The subsidence associated with the high pressure anomalies tends to suppress the local cloud formation, which increases the net radiation budget, heats the surface, and favors more heatwaves. On the other hand, the surface heating can excite high pressure anomalies at mid- and upper troposphere. The latter further strengthens the upper troposphere high pressure anomalies over Mongolia and the adjacent regions. Through such positive feedback effect, the TPSC is tied to the interdecadal variations of the northern China HWF. (orig.)

  17. The thickness of cover sequences in the Western Desert of Iraq from a power spectrum analysis of gravity and magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Ahmed; Mickus, Kevin; Al-Rahim, Ali

    2017-05-01

    The Western Desert of Iraq is part of the stable shelf region on the Arabian Plate where the subsurface structural makeup is relatively unknown due to the lack of cropping out rocks, deep drill holes and deep seismic refraction and reflection profiles. To remedy this situation, magnetic and gravity data were analyzed to determine the thickness of the Phanerozoic cover sequences. The 2-D power spectrum method was used to estimate the depth to density and magnetic susceptibility interfaces by using 0.5° square windows. Additionally, the gravity data were analyzed using isostatic residual and decompensative methods to isolate gravity anomalies due to upper crustal density sources. The decompensative gravity anomaly and the differentially reduced to the pole magnetic map indicate a series of mainly north-south and northwest-southeast trending maxima and minima anomalies related to Proterozoic basement lithologies and the varying thickness of cover sequences. The magnetic and gravity derived thickness of cover sequences maps indicate that these thicknesses range from 4.5 to 11.5 km. Both maps in general are in agreement but more detail in the cover thicknesses was determined by the gravity analysis. The gravity-based cover thickness maps indicates regions with shallower depths than the magnetic-based cover thickness t map which may be due to density differences between limestone and shale units within the Paleozoic sediments. The final thickness maps indicate that the Western Desert is a complicated region of basins and uplifts that are more complex than have been shown on previous structural maps of the Western Desert. These basins and uplifts may be related to Paleozoic compressional tectonic events and possibly to the opening of the Tethys Ocean. In addition, petroleum exploration could be extended to three basins outlined by our analysis within the relatively unexplored western portions of the Western Desert.

  18. Life science-based neuroscience education at large Western Public Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Volkan; Carpenter, Ellen M

    2016-12-01

    The last 40 years have seen a remarkable increase in the teaching of neuroscience at the undergraduate level. From its origins as a component of anatomy or physiology departments to its current status as an independent interdisciplinary field, neuroscience has become the chosen field of study for many undergraduate students, particularly for those interested in medical school or graduate school in neuroscience or related fields. We examined how life science-based neuroscience education is offered at large public universities in the Western United States. By examining publicly available materials posted online, we found that neuroscience education may be offered as an independent program, or as a component of biological or physiological sciences at many institutions. Neuroscience programs offer a course of study involving a core series of courses and a collection of topical electives. Many programs provide the opportunity for independent research, or for laboratory-based training in neuroscience. Features of neuroscience programs at Western universities closely matched those seen at the top 25 public universities, as identified by U.S. News & World Report. While neuroscience programs were identified in many Western states, there were several states in which public universities appeared not to provide opportunities to major in neuroscience. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Monitoring Urban Tree Cover Using Object-Based Image Analysis and Public Domain Remotely Sensed Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Halabisky

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban forest ecosystems provide a range of social and ecological services, but due to the heterogeneity of these canopies their spatial extent is difficult to quantify and monitor. Traditional per-pixel classification methods have been used to map urban canopies, however, such techniques are not generally appropriate for assessing these highly variable landscapes. Landsat imagery has historically been used for per-pixel driven land use/land cover (LULC classifications, but the spatial resolution limits our ability to map small urban features. In such cases, hyperspatial resolution imagery such as aerial or satellite imagery with a resolution of 1 meter or below is preferred. Object-based image analysis (OBIA allows for use of additional variables such as texture, shape, context, and other cognitive information provided by the image analyst to segment and classify image features, and thus, improve classifications. As part of this research we created LULC classifications for a pilot study area in Seattle, WA, USA, using OBIA techniques and freely available public aerial photography. We analyzed the differences in accuracies which can be achieved with OBIA using multispectral and true-color imagery. We also compared our results to a satellite based OBIA LULC and discussed the implications of per-pixel driven vs. OBIA-driven field sampling campaigns. We demonstrated that the OBIA approach can generate good and repeatable LULC classifications suitable for tree cover assessment in urban areas. Another important finding is that spectral content appeared to be more important than spatial detail of hyperspatial data when it comes to an OBIA-driven LULC.

  20. Affects of Changes in Sea Ice Cover on Bowhead Whales and Subsistence Whaling in the Western Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S.; Suydam, R.; Overland, J.; Laidre, K.; George, J.; Demaster, D.

    2004-12-01

    Global warming may disproportionately affect Arctic marine mammals and disrupt traditional subsistence hunting activities. Based upon analyses of a 24-year time series (1979-2002) of satellite-derived sea ice cover, we identified significant positive trends in the amount of open-water in three large and five small-scale regions in the western Arctic, including habitats where bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) feed or are suspected to feed. Bowheads are the only mysticete whale endemic to the Arctic and a cultural keystone species for Native peoples from northwestern Alaska and Chukotka, Russia. While copepods (Calanus spp.) are a mainstay of the bowhead diet, prey sampling conducted in the offshore region of northern Chukotka and stomach contents from whales harvested offshore of the northern Alaskan coast indicate that euphausiids (Thysanoessa spp.) advected from the Bering Sea are also common prey in autumn. Early departure of sea ice has been posited to control availability of zooplankton in the southeastern Bering Sea and in the Cape Bathurst polynya in the southeastern Canadian Beaufort Sea, with maximum secondary production associated with a late phytoplankton bloom in insolatoin-stratified open water. While it is unclear if declining sea-ice has directly affected production or advection of bowhead prey, an extension of the open-water season increases opportunities for Native subsistence whaling in autumn. Therefore, bowhead whales may provide a nexus for simultaneous exploration of the effects sea ice reduction on pagophillic marine mammals and on the social systems of the subsistence hunting community in the western Arctic. The NOAA/Alaska Fisheries Science Center and NSB/Department of Wildlife Management will investigate bowhead whale stock identity, seasonal distribution and subsistence use patterns during the International Polar Year, as an extension of research planned for 2005-06. This research is in response to recommendations from the Scientific

  1. Changes in vegetative cover on Western Arctic Herd winter range from 1981 to 2005: potential effects of grazing and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joly

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The population of the Western Arctic Herd, estimated at 490 000 caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti in 2003, is at its highest level in 30 years. Twenty permanent range transects were established in the winter range of the Western Arctic Herd in 1981 to assess the impacts of grazing. These transects were revisited in 1995 and 1996 (1995/96. Only 18 of the transects were re-located, so an additional 7 transects were established in 1996. In 2005, all 25 remaining transects were revisited. Lichen coverage dropped by a relative 45.1% between 1981 and 1995/96 and by an additional relative 25.6% between 1995/96 and 2005. There was a significant decline in primary forage lichens between 1995/96 and 2005. Caribou use was greater in areas with high lichen abundance. Graminoid cover increased by a relative 118.4% from 1981 to 1995/96 and again by a relative 26.1% from 1995/96 to 2005. Shrub cover increased during the study whereas forb cover declined. The decline in lichen abundance on the winter range of the Western Arctic Herd over 24 years is an index of caribou habitat condition. The observed changes in vegetation cover can be attributed to caribou grazing, fire, and possibly global climate change. Continued declines in lichen cover could lead to population declines within the herd, range shifts, or both.

  2. Forest dynamics in the U.S. indicate disproportionate attrition in western forests, rural areas and public lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Mountrakis, Giorgos

    2017-01-01

    Forests are experiencing significant changes; studying geographic patterns in forests is critical in understanding the impact of forest dynamics to biodiversity, soil erosion, water chemistry and climate. Few studies have examined forest geographic pattern changes other than fragmentation; however, other spatial processes of forest dynamics are of equal importance. Here, we study forest attrition, the complete removal of forest patches, that can result in complete habitat loss, severe decline of population sizes and species richness, and shifts of local and regional environmental conditions. We aim to develop a simple yet insightful proximity-based spatial indicator capturing forest attrition that is independent of spatial scale and boundaries with worldwide application potential. Using this proximity indicator, we evaluate forest attrition across ecoregions, land ownership and urbanization stratifications across continental United States of America. Nationally, the total forest cover loss was approximately 90,400 km2, roughly the size of the state of Maine, constituting a decline of 2.96%. Examining the spatial arrangement of this change the average FAD was 3674m in 1992 and increased by 514m or 14.0% in 2001. Simulations of forest cover loss indicate only a 10m FAD increase suggesting that the observed FAD increase was more than an order of magnitude higher than expected. Furthermore, forest attrition is considerably higher in the western United States, in rural areas and in public lands. Our mathematical model (R2 = 0.93) supports estimation of attrition for a given forest cover. The FAD metric quantifies forest attrition across spatial scales and geographic boundaries and assesses unambiguously changes over time. The metric is applicable to any landscape and offers a new complementary insight on forest landscape patterns from local to global scales, improving future exploration of drivers and repercussions of forest cover changes and supporting more informative

  3. Reflections on the public interpretation of regional environmental history in western Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoc, Chris J

    2014-08-01

    This essay attempts to counter the scarcity of efforts to address issues of natural resource extraction and environmental exploitation in public history forums. Focused on western Pennsylvania, it argues that the history of industrial development and its deleterious environmental impacts demands a regional vision that not only frames these stories within the ideological and economic context of the past, but also challenges residents and visitors to consider this history in light of the related environmental concerns of our own time. The essay explores some of the difficult issues faced by public historians and practitioners as they seek to produce public environmental histories that do not elude opportunities to link past and present in meaningful ways.

  4. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawes, W; Ali, R; Varma, S; Emelyanova, I; Hodgson, G; McFarlane, D

    2012-01-01

      The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south-west Western Australia, provides approximately 60 percent of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth...

  5. Non formal mechanisms for public water allocation and the ineffectiveness of law in arid western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liber Martin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the informal mechanisms of public water allocation and reallocation in western Argentina from a holistic conception of law. The paper refers to informal uses, its logical but ineffective repression and the continuous regularization processes from a non experimental observational method based on the use of qualitative strategies. The research work focused on the operation of water allocation mechanisms and management practices developed in the absence of law and against the law, at both the delivery and regulatory levels. The findings highlight the tensions and contradictions of these mechanisms under the formal legal system, demonstrating the crisis of both effectiveness and legitimacy of the law and the State in managing public waters.

  6. Spatial models for the rational allocation of routinely distributed bed nets to public health facilities in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Peter M; Odera, Patroba A; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2017-09-12

    In high to moderate malaria transmission areas of Kenya, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are provided free of charge to pregnant women and infants during routine antenatal care (ANC) and immunization respectively. Quantities of LLINs distributed to clinics are quantified based on a combination of monthly consumption data and population size of target counties. However, this approach has been shown to lead to stock-outs in targeted clinics. In this study, a novel LLINs need quantification approach for clinics in the routine distribution system was developed. The estimated need was then compared to the actual allocation to identify potential areas of LLIN over- or under-allocation in the high malaria transmission areas of Western Kenya. A geocoded database of public health facilities was developed and linked to monthly LLIN allocation. A network analysis approach was implemented using the location of all public clinics and topographic layers to model travel time. Estimated travel time, socio-economic and ANC attendance data were used to model clinic catchment areas and the probability of ANC service use within these catchments. These were used to define the number of catchment population who were likely to use these clinics for the year 2015 equivalent to LLIN need. Actual LLIN allocation was compared with the estimated need. Clinics were then classified based on whether allocation matched with the need, and if not, whether they were over or under-allocated. 888 (70%) public health facilities were allocated 591,880 LLINs in 2015. Approximately 682,377 (93%) pregnant women and infants were likely to have attended an LLIN clinic. 36% of the clinics had more LLIN than was needed (over-allocated) while 43% had received less (under-allocated). Increasing efficiency of allocation by diverting over supply of LLIN to clinics with less stock and fully covering 43 clinics that did not receive nets in 2015 would allow for complete matching of need with distribution. The

  7. Analysis of vegetation and land cover dynamics in north-western Morocco during the last decade using MODIS NDVI time series data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Höpfner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation phenology as well as the current variability and dynamics of vegetation and land cover, including its climatic and human drivers, are examined in a region in north-western Morocco that is nearly 22 700 km2 big. A gapless time series of Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI composite raster data from 29 September 2000 to 29 September 2009 is utilised. The data have a spatial resolution of 250 m and were acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor.

    The presented approach allows to compose and to analyse yearly land cover maps in a widely unknown region with scarce validated ground truth data by deriving phenological parameters. Results show that the high temporal resolution of 16 d is sufficient for (a determining local land cover better than global land cover classifications of Plant Functional Types (PFT and Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC2000 and (b for drawing conclusions on vegetation dynamics and its drivers. Areas of stably classified land cover types (i.e. areas that did not change their land cover type show climatically driven inter- and intra-annual variability with indicated influence of droughts. The presented approach to determine human-driven influence on vegetation dynamics caused by agriculture results in a more than ten times larger area compared with stably classified areas. Change detection based on yearly land cover maps shows a gain of high-productive vegetation (cropland of about 259.3 km2. Statistically significant inter-annual trends in vegetation dynamics during the last decade could however not be discovered. A sequence of correlations was respectively carried out to extract the most important periods of rainfall responsible for the production of green biomass and for the extent of land cover types. Results show that mean daily precipitation from 1 October to 15 December has high correlation results (max. r2=0.85 on an intra

  8. Integrating land cover and terrain characteristics to explain plague risks in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania: a geospatial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronimo, Proches; Meliyo, Joel; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Mulungu, Loth S; Kihupi, Nganga I; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Literature suggests that higher resolution remote sensing data integrated in Geographic Information System (GIS) can provide greater possibility to refine the analysis of land cover and terrain characteristics for explanation of abundance and distribution of plague hosts and vectors and hence of health risk hazards to humans. These technologies are not widely used in East Africa for studies on diseases including plague. The objective of this study was to refine the analysis of single and combined land cover and terrain characteristics in order to gain an insight into localized plague infection risks in the West Usambara Mountains in north-eastern Tanzania. The study used a geospatial approach to assess the influence of land cover and terrain factors on the abundance and spatial distribution of plague hosts (small mammals) and plague vectors (fleas). It considered different levels of scale and resolution. Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) statistical method was used to clarify the relationships between land cover and terrain variables with small mammals and fleas. Results indicate that elevation positively influenced the presence of small mammals. The presence of fleas was clearly influenced by land management features such as miraba. Medium to high resolution remotely sensed data integrated in a GIS have been found to be quite useful in this type of analysis. These findings contribute to efforts on plague surveillance and awareness creation among communities on the probable risks associated with various landscape factors during epidemics.

  9. Sea ice cover variability and river run-off in the western Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean) since the last 18 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, T.; Stein, R.; Fahl, K.; Birgel, D.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-proxy biomarker measurements were performed on two sediment cores (PS51/154, PS51/159) with the objective reconstructing sea ice cover (IP25, brassicasterol, dinosterol) and river-runoff (campesterol, β-sitosterol) in the western Laptev Sea over the last 18 ka with unprecedented temporal resolution. The sea ice cover varies distinctly during the whole time period. The absence of IP25 during 18 and 16 ka indicate that the western Laptev Sea was mostly covered with permanent sea ice (pack ice). However, a period of temporary break-up of the permanent ice coverage occurred at c. 17.2 ka (presence of IP25). Very little river-runoff occurred during this interval. Decreasing terrigenous (riverine) input and synchronous increase of marine produced organic matter around 16 ka until 7.5 ka indicate the gradual establishment of a marine environment in the western Laptev Sea related to the onset of the post-glacial transgression of the shelf. Strong river run-off and reduced sea ice cover characterized the time interval between 15.2 and 12.9 ka, including the Bølling/Allerød warm period (14.7 - 12.9 ka). Moreover, the DIP25 Index (ratio of HBI-dienes and IP25) might document the presence of Atlantic derived water at the western Laptev Sea shelf area. A sudden return to severe sea ice conditions occurred during the Younger Dryas (12.9 - 11.6 ka). This abrupt climate change was observed in the whole circum-Arctic realm (Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Fram Strait and Laptev Sea). At the onset of the Younger Dryas, a distinct alteration of the ecosystem (deep drop in terrigenous and phytoplankton biomarkers) may document the entry of a giant freshwater plume, possibly relating to the Lake Agassiz outburst at 13 ka. IP25 concentrations increase and higher values of the PIP25 Index during the last 7 ka reflect a cooling of the Laptev Sea spring season. Moreover, a short-term variability of c. 1.5 thousand years occurred during the last 12 ka, most probably following Bond Cycles.

  10. STUDY ON INDEX SYSTEM OF ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC DISASTER PERCEPTION IN THE WESTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi; LI Jing-yi; ZHAO Jing-bo

    2003-01-01

    The study on humanity response to global environment change is a new direction in the research of global change science, of which an important aspect is to study the adaptation strategies of human being to environ-mental changes in different regions. One reasonable and scientific adaptation strategy is based on not only scientific assessment of the impact of environmental change on society, but also correct estimation of the public perception of environmental change, whereas the research on the latter is terriibly weak. This paper intends to understand the per-sonality difference in public perception of environment in the western China primarily by establishing the assessment index system of nation environmental perception and analyzing the results of questionnaire survey in some regions of Shaanxi Province. The conclusions are as follows: 1) The state of public perception of disaster is one of the founda-tions of constituting and enforcing reasonable adaptation strategy to environmental change. 2) The personality differ-ences of public perception of disaster appear as follows: female disaster perception is stronger than male; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of age characteristics is 20-30, 0-20, 40-50, 30-40, 50-60,60 year old or over in turns; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of educational char-acteristics is senior high school, college, illiterate, junior high school, primary school, in turns; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of occupation characteristics is student, farmer, teacher, worker and functionary, in tums; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of habitat characteristics is city, countryside, towns, and metropolis in turns.

  11. Snow cover trend and hydrological characteristics of the Astore River basin (Western Himalayas) and its comparison to the Hunza basin (Karakoram region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Chevallier, Pierre; Arnaud, Yves; Ashraf, Muhammad; Bhatti, Muhammad Tousif

    2015-02-01

    A large proportion of Pakistan's irrigation water supply is taken from the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB) in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush range. More than half of the annual flow in the UIB is contributed by five of its snow and glacier-fed sub-basins including the Astore (Western Himalaya - south latitude of the UIB) and Hunza (Central Karakoram - north latitude of the UIB) River basins. Studying the snow cover, its spatio-temporal change and the hydrological response of these sub-basins is important so as to better manage water resources. This paper compares new data from the Astore River basin (mean catchment elevation, 4100 m above sea level; m asl afterwards), obtained using MODIS satellite snow cover images, with data from a previously-studied high-altitude basin, the Hunza (mean catchment elevation, 4650 m asl). The hydrological regime of this sub-catchment was analyzed using the hydrological and climate data available at different altitudes from the basin area. The results suggest that the UIB is a region undergoing a stable or slightly increasing trend of snow cover in the southern (Western Himalayas) and northern (Central Karakoram) parts. Discharge from the UIB is a combination of snow and glacier melt with rainfall-runoff at southern part, but snow and glacier melt are dominant at the northern part of the catchment. Similar snow cover trends (stable or slightly increasing) but different river flow trends (increasing in Astore and decreasing in Hunza) suggest a sub-catchment level study of the UIB to understand thoroughly its hydrological behavior for better flood forecasting and water resources management.

  12. Study of seasonal snow cover influencing the ground thermal regime on western flank of Da Xing'anling Mountains, northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoLi Chang; HuiJun Jin; YanLin Zhang; HaiBin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies relevant to snow cover and permafrost have focused on alpine, arctic, and subarctic areas, there is still a lack of understanding of the influences of seasonal snow cover on the thermal regime of the soils in permafrost regions in the mid-latitudes and boreal regions, such as that on the western flank of the Da Xing'anling (Hinggan) Mountains, northeastern China. This paper gives a detailed analysis on meteorological data series from 2001 to 2010 provided by the Gen'he Weather Station, which is located in a talik of discontinuous permafrost zone and with sparse meadow on the observation field. It is inferred that snow cover is important for the ground thermal regime in the middle Da Xing'anling Mountains. Snow cover of 10-cm in thickness and five to six months in duration (generally November to next March) can reduce the heat loss from the ground to the atmosphere by 28%, and by 71% if the snow depth increases to 36 cm. Moreover, the occurrence of snow cover resulted in mean annual ground surface temperatures 4.7–8.2°C higher than the mean annual air temperatures recorded at the Gen'he Weather Station. The beginning date for stable snow cover establishment (SE date) and the initial snow depth (SDi) also had a great influences on the ground freezing process. Heavy snowfall before ground surface freeze-up could postpone and retard the freezing process in Gen'he. As a result, the duration of ground freezing was shortened by at least 20 days and the maximum depth of frost penetration was as much as 90 cm shallower.

  13. Aspects of public opinion research in risk perception studies covering the nuclear field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro, E-mail: ktanimoto@ipen.b, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A project for site selection and construction of a national radioactive waste repository is underway at the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Public acceptance is determinant to the deployment of an undertaking of this size. A major concern regarding the use of nuclear energy are the problems related to safe management of the radioactive waste. For effective communication between decision makers and the public, a mutual understanding of views, as well as attitudes towards risk, is needed. The use of opinions polls is necessary in order to achieve it. This work aims to point out the major aspects to be approached by an opinion poll for the study of risk perception on the candidate regions for repository construction. A risk perception research model is presented, to be applied to the case of radioactive waste disposal, along with theoretical support to the organization and implementation of its structure. (author)

  14. Parasites, politics and public science: the promotion of biological control in Western Australia, 1900-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveson, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Biological control of arthropods emerged as a scientific enterprise in the late nineteenth century and the orchard industry of California was an early centre of expertise. In 1900, as the Australian colonies prepared for federation, each had a government entomologist attached to its agriculture department. The hiring of George Compere from California by the Western Australian Department of Agriculture began a controversial chapter in the early history of biological control that was linked to a late, local popularization of acclimatization. Compere became known as the 'travelling entomologist' and for a decade brought 'parasites' of pest insects from overseas and released them in Perth. His antagonistic disciplinary rhetoric and inflated claims for the 'parasite theory' created conflict with his counterparts in the eastern states. The resulting inter-state entomological controversy was played out in the press, revealing the political use of science for institutional and even state identity. It is a story of transnational exchanges, chance discoveries and popular public science: popular because of the promise of a simple, natural solution to agricultural insect pests and because of the public nature of the disputes it generated between the experts. This microcosm contributes to the global historiography of acclimatization, biological control, scientific exposition and the professionalization of agricultural science.

  15. Post-glacial variability of sea ice cover, river run-off and biological production in the western Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean) - A high-resolution biomarker study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, T.; Stein, R.; Fahl, K.; Birgel, D.

    2016-07-01

    Multi-proxy biomarker measurements were applied on two sediment cores (PS51/154, PS51/159) to reconstruct sea ice cover (IP25), biological production (brassicasterol, dinosterol) and river run-off (campesterol, β-sitosterol) in the western Laptev Sea over the last ∼17 ka with unprecedented temporal resolution. The absence of IP25 from 17.2 to 15.5 ka, in combination with minimum concentration of phytoplankton biomarkers, suggests that the western Laptev Sea shelf was mostly covered with permanent sea ice. Very minor river run-off and restricted biological production occurred during this cold interval. From ∼16 ka until 7.5 ka, a long-term decrease of terrigenous (riverine) organic matter and a coeval increase of marine organic matter reflect the gradual establishment of fully marine conditions in the western Laptev Sea, caused by the onset of the post-glacial transgression. Intensified river run-off and reduced sea ice cover characterized the time interval between 15.2 and 12.9 ka, including the Bølling/Allerød warm period (14.7-12.9 ka). Prominent peaks of the DIP25 Index coinciding with maximum abundances of subpolar foraminifers, are interpreted as pulses of Atlantic water inflow on the western Laptev Sea shelf. After the warm period, a sudden return to severe sea ice conditions with strongest ice-coverage between 11.9 and 11 ka coincided with the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.6 ka). At the onset of the Younger Dryas, a distinct alteration of the ecosystem (reflected in a distinct drop in terrigenous and phytoplankton biomarkers) was detected. During the last 7 ka, the sea ice proxies reflect a cooling of the Laptev Sea spring/summer season. This cooling trend was superimposed by a short-term variability in sea ice coverage, probably representing Bond cycles (1500 ± 500 ka) that are related to solar activity changes. Hence, atmospheric circulation changes were apparently able to affect the sea ice conditions on the Laptev Sea shelf under modern sea level

  16. Land Use and Land Cover Changes under Climate Uncertainty: Modelling the Impacts on Hydropower Production in Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Obahoundje

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bui hydropower plant plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. This paper attempt to explore the combined effects of climate-land use land cover change on power production using the (WEAP model: Water Evaluation and Planning system. The historical analysis of rainfall and stream flow variability showed that the annual coefficient of variation of rainfall and stream flow are, respectively, 8.6% and 60.85%. The stream flow varied greatly than the rainfall, due to land use land cover changes (LULC. In fact, the LULC analysis revealed important changes in vegetative areas and water bodies. The WEAP model evaluation showed that combined effects of LULC and climate change reduce water availability for all of demand sectors, including hydropower generation at the Bui hydropower plant. However, it was projected that Bui power production will increase by 40.7% and 24.93%, respectively, under wet and adaptation conditions, and decrease by 46% and 2.5%, respectively, under dry and current conditions. The wet condition is defined as an increase in rainfall by 14%, the dry condition as the decrease in rainfall by 15%; current account is business as usual, and the adaptation is as the efficient use of water for the period 2012–2040.

  17. School health services and its practice among public and private primary schools in Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuponiyi, Olugbenga Temitope; Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel; Kuponiyi, Opeyemi Temitola

    2016-04-06

    Globally the number of children reaching school age is estimated to be 1.2 billion children (18% of the world's population) and rising. This study was therefore designed to determine the school health services available and its practices in primary schools in Ogun state, Western Nigeria. The study was a comparative cross-sectional survey of private and public primary schools in Ogun state using a multi-stage sampling technique. Participants were interviewed using a structured, interviewer administered questionnaire and a checklist. Data collected was analyzed using the SPSS version 15.0. A total of 360 head teachers served as respondents for the study with the overall mean age of 45.7 ± 9.9 years. More than three quarters of the respondents in both groups could not correctly define the school health programme. There were no health personnel or a trained first aider in 86 (47.8%) public and 110 (61.1%) private schools but a nurse/midwife was present in 57 (31.7%) and 27 (15.0%) public and private schools. (χ(2) = 17.122, P = 0.002). In about 95% of the schools, the teacher carried out routine inspection of the pupils while periodic medical examination for staff and pupils was carried out in only 13 (7.2%) public and 31 (17.2%) private schools (χ(2) = 8.398, P = 0.004). A sick bay/clinic was present in 26 (14.4%) and 67 (37.2%) public and private schools respectively (χ(2) = 24.371, P = 0.001). The practice of school health programme was dependent on the age (χ(2) = 12.53, P = 0.006) and the ethnicity of the respondents (χ(2) = 6.330, P = 0.042). Using multivariate analysis only one variable (type of school) was found to be a predictor of school health programme. (OR 4.55, CI 1.918-10.79). The study concludes that the practice of the various components of school health services was poor but better in private primary schools in Nigeria. Routine inspection by teachers was the commonest form of health appraisal. This may suggest that more health personnel need to

  18. Local topographic wetness indices predict household malaria risk better than land-use and land-cover in the western Kenya highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulule John M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of high-risk malaria foci can help enhance surveillance or control activities in regions where they are most needed. Associations between malaria risk and land-use/land-cover are well-recognized, but these environmental characteristics are closely interrelated with the land's topography (e.g., hills, valleys, elevation, which also influences malaria risk strongly. Parsing the individual contributions of land-cover/land-use variables to malaria risk requires examining these associations in the context of their topographic landscape. This study examined whether environmental factors like land-cover, land-use, and urban density improved malaria risk prediction based solely on the topographically-determined context, as measured by the topographic wetness index. Methods The topographic wetness index, an estimate of predicted water accumulation in a defined area, was generated from a digital terrain model of the landscape surrounding households in two neighbouring western Kenyan highland communities. Variables determined to best encompass the variance in this topographic wetness surface were calculated at a household level. Land-cover/land-use information was extracted from a high-resolution satellite image using an object-based classification method. Topographic and land-cover variables were used individually and in combination to predict household-level malaria in the communities through an iterative split-sample model fitting and testing procedure. Models with only topographic variables were compared to those with additional predictive factors related to land-cover/land-use to investigate whether these environmental factors improved prediction of malaria based on the shape of the land alone. Results Variables related to topographic wetness proved most useful in predicting the households of individuals contracting malaria in this region of rugged terrain. Other variables related to human modification of the

  19. LOCATING PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN FAST EXPANDING AREAS: APPLICATION OF THE CAPACITATED p-MEDIAN AND MAXIMAL COVERING LOCATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cezar Menezes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The area of Guaratiba, in Rio de Janeiro, presents extraordinary population growth rates that exceed all other districts of the city. Moreover, the public investments underway, in view of the 2106 Olympic Games, are making the region even more attractive. Therefore, it is appropriate to suggest proactive measures to avoid the predicted collapse of several public systems among them the education system. This paper considers the projected population for the years 2015 and 2020 and, using various computing resources, specially the ArcGIS Network Analyst tool for measuring traveled distances, proposes locating new facilities with the Capacitated p-Median Model and with the Maximum Covering Location Problem, considering an ideal maximal home-school distance of 1,500 meters, but also evaluating longer distances. Both problems have been solved with AIMMS. The consideration of both models provides a constructive insight that certainly improves the implemented solution and favors the local community.

  20. Unprotected karst resources in western Iran: the environmental impacts of intensive agricultural pumping on the covered karstic aquifer, a case in Kermanshah province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Kamal; Taheri, Milad; Parise, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Bare and covered karst areas, with developed karstic aquifers, cover 35 percent of the Kermanshah province in western Iran. These aquifers are the vital sources for drinking and agricultural water supplies. Over the past decade, intensive groundwater use (exploitation) for irrigation imposed a significant impact on the carbonate environments. The huge amount of groundwater over-exploitations has been carried out and still goes on by local farmers in the absence of appropriate governance monitoring control. Increasing in water demands, for more intense crop production, is an important driving force toward groundwater depletion in alluvial aquifers. Progressive groundwater over-exploitations from underlying carbonate rocks have led to dramatic drawdown in alluvial aquifers and deep karst water tables. Detecting new sources of groundwater extractions and prohibiting the karst water utilization for agricultural use could be the most effective strategy to manage the sustainability of covered karst aquifers. Anthropogenic pressures on covered karst aquifers have magnified the drought impacts and caused dryness of most of the karst springs and deep wells. In this study, the combination of geophysical and geological studies was used to estimate the most intensively exploited agricultural zones of Islam Abad plain in the southwestern Kermanshah province using GIS. The results show that in the past decade a great number of deep wells were drilled through the overburden alluvial aquifer and reached the deep karst water resources. However, the difficulties involved in monitoring deep wells in covered karst aquifer were the main cause of karst water depletion. Overexploitation from both alluvial and karst aquifers is the main reason for drying out the Arkawazi, Sharafshah, Gawrawani karst springs, and the karst drinking water wells 1, 3 and 5 of Islam Abad city. Karst spring landscape destructions, fresh water supply deficit for inhabitants, decreasing of tourism and

  1. Mangrove Forest Cover Extraction of the Coastal Areas of Negros Occidental, Western Visayas, Philippines Using LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pada, A. V.; Silapan, J.; Cabanlit, M. A.; Campomanes, F.; Garcia, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24%) while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat (solipeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A risk ranking process identified Trichinella spp. as the most relevant biological hazard in the context of meat inspection of domestic solipeds. Without a full and reliable soliped traceability system, it is considered that either testing all slaughtered solipeds for Trichinella spp., or inactivation meat treatments (heat or irradiation should be used to maintain the current level of safety. With regard to general aspects of current meat inspection practices, the use of manual techniques during current post-mortem soliped meat inspection may increase microbial cross-contamination, and is considered to have a detrimental effect on the microbiological status of soliped carcass meat. Therefore, the use of visual-only inspection is suggested for “non-suspect” solipeds. For chemical hazards, phenylbutazone and cadmium were ranked as being of high potential concern. Monitoring programmes for chemical hazards should be more flexible and based on the risk of occurrence, taking into account Food Chain Information (FCI, covering the specific on-farm environmental conditions and individual animal treatments, and the ranking of chemical substances, which should be regularly updated and include new hazards. Sampling, testing and intervention protocols for chemical hazards should be better integrated and should focus particularly on cadmium, phenylbutazone and priority “essential substances” approved for treatment of equine animals. Implementation and enforcement of a more robust and reliable identification system throughout the European Union is needed to improve traceability of domestic solipeds. Meat inspection is recognised as a valuable tool for surveillance and monitoring of animal health and welfare conditions. If visual only post-mortem inspection is implemented for routine slaughter, a reduction in the detection of strangles and mild cases of rhodococcosis would occur. However, this was considered unlikely to affect the overall surveillance

  3. Assisted vaginal deliveries in mothers admitted as public or private patients in Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjana Einarsdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mothers delivering as private patients in Australia have a high rate of assisted deliveries, which could lead to adverse infant outcomes in this group of patients. We investigated whether the risk of adverse infant outcomes after assisted deliveries was different for mothers admitted as public or private patients for delivery, when compared with unassisted deliveries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included 158,241 vaginal, singleton, term birth admissions in our study where the infant was live born and without birth defects. The study population was identified from statutory birth and hospital data collections held by the Western Australian (WA Department of Health. We estimated odds ratios and confidence intervals using logistic regression models adjusted for a range of maternal demographic, pregnancy and birth characteristics. Interaction was assessed by including interaction terms in the models. Outcomes included low Apgar scores at five minutes (< 7, neonatal resuscitation and special care admission. Mothers delivering as private patients had an increased risk of assisted vaginal delivery compared with public patients (adjusted OR 1.74, 95% CI  =  1.68-1.80. Compared with unassisted vaginal deliveries, assisted deliveries were associated with increased risk of Apgar scores at five minutes below 7 (OR 1.25, 1.08-1.45, neonatal resuscitation (OR  =  1.69, 1.42-2.00 and admission to special care nursery (OR  =  1.64, 1.53-1.76. The increased risk of neonatal resuscitation was higher for mothers admitted as private patients for delivery (OR  =  2.13 than public patients (OR  = 1 .55, p(interaction  =  0.03. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that the high risk of neonatal resuscitation following assisted vaginal deliveries compared to unassisted is higher in private patients than public patients. Whether this phenomenon is due to the twofold higher rate of assisted vaginal deliveries in this group of patients or a

  4. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System: effects of changes on hydrological balance and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Shabeh; Lucarini, Valerio; Riaz Khan, Mobushir; Petitta, Marcello; Bolch, Tobias; Gioli, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    In this study we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter

  5. Spatio-temporal robustness of fractional cover upscaling: a case study in semi-arid Savannah's of Namibia and Western Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Julian; Wegmann, Martin; Dech, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    Vegetation cover is a key parameter in analyzing the state and dynamics of ecosystems. Africa's semi-arid savanna's are particularly prone to degradation, due to increasing population pressure as well as ongoing climatic changes. In most global land cover classifications inhomogeneous areas are aggregated into few discrete classes, delivering unsatisfying results in highly variable biomes, especially savanna's with their small scale patches of woody and herbaceous vegetation and bare soil. Fractional cover(FC) classifications, which provide an estimate of sub-pixel continuous cover percentages of underlying land cover classes, and are therefore an improved thematic representation, can deliver additional information for monitoring and decision making. Prior research demonstrated that multi-scale approaches are suitable for transferring en-detail information from a small subset to a larger study area via statistical up-scaling (e.g. Random Forest). In this case study the robustness of this up-scaling approach and the limits of the spatial and temporal transferability at the very high and intermediate resolution were analysed in the Caprivi Strip in Namibia and the adjacent Western Province of Zambia. The key research questions were to quantify i) the robustness of the upscaling, ii) the loss of accuracy depending on the lag in image acquisitions, iii) the loss of accuracy dependent on the time of image acquisition in the phenological cycle. To this end 12 Worldview(WV) and all usable Landsat TM and ETM+ images, covering all phases of the vegetation cycle were obtained. The analysis showed that continuous FC mapping is a highly suitable concept for semi-arid ecosystems with gradual transitions. The optimal time for WV acquisition was at the beginning of the dry season. The RMSE was unusable for LS images recorded in the rainy season between November and March, but otherwise it was usable even for larger lags up to a month, with deviations below 15%. As long as the

  6. MANGROVE FOREST COVER EXTRACTION OF THE COASTAL AREAS OF NEGROS OCCIDENTAL, WESTERN VISAYAS, PHILIPPINES USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24% while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  7. Western Australian Public Opinions of a Minimum Pricing Policy for Alcohol: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, David A; Carragher, Natacha; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Daube, Mike; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Hagger, Martin S

    2015-11-18

    Excessive alcohol consumption has significant adverse economic, social, and health outcomes. Recent estimates suggest that the annual economic costs of alcohol in Australia are up to AUD $36 billion. Policies influencing price have been demonstrated to be very effective in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms. Interest in minimum pricing has gained traction in recent years. However, there has been little research investigating the level of support for the public interest case of minimum pricing in Australia. This article describes protocol for a study exploring Western Australian (WA) public knowledge, understanding, and reaction to a proposed minimum price policy per standard drink. The study will employ a qualitative methodological design. Participants will be recruited from a wide variety of backgrounds, including ethnic minorities, blue and white collar workers, unemployed, students, and elderly/retired populations to participate in focus groups. Focus group participants will be asked about their knowledge of, and initial reactions to, the proposed policy and encouraged to discuss how such a proposal may affect their own alcohol use and alcohol consumption at the population level. Participants will also be asked to discuss potential avenues for increasing acceptability of the policy. The focus groups will adopt a semi-structured, open-ended approach guided by a question schedule. The schedule will be based on feedback from pilot samples, previous research, and a steering group comprising experts in alcohol policy and pricing. The study is expected to take approximately 14 months to complete. The findings will be of considerable interest and relevance to government officials, policy makers, researchers, advocacy groups, alcohol retail and licensed establishments and organizations, city and town planners, police, and other stakeholder organizations.

  8. Soil carbon storage as influenced by tree cover in the Dehesa cork oak silvopasture of central-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, David Scott; Moreno, Gerardo; Mosquera Losada, Maria Rosa; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D

    2011-07-01

    The extent of carbon (C) stored in soils depends on a number of factors including soil characteristics, climatic and other environmental conditions, and management practices. Such information, however, is lacking for silvopastoral systems in Spain. This study quantified the amounts of soil C stored at various depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 cm) under a Dehesa cork oak (Quercus suber L.) silvopasture at varying distances (2, 5, and 15 m) to trees. Soil C in the whole soil and three soil fractions (cork oak was 50.2, 37, and 26.5 Mg ha(-1), respectively. Taking into account proportions of land surface area containing these C stocks at varying distances to trees to 1 m depth, with a tree density of 35 stems ha(-1), estimated landscape soil C is 29.9 Mg ha(-1). Greater soil C stocks directly underneath the tree canopy suggest that maintaining or increasing tree cover, where lost from disease or management, may increase long term storage of soil C in Mediterranean silvopastoral systems. The results also demonstrate the use of soil aggregate characteristics as better indicators of soil C sequestration potential and thus a tool for environmental monitoring.

  9. Impacts of a measles outbreak in Western Sydney on public health resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flego, Kristina L; Belshaw, Daniel A; Sheppeard, Vicky; Weston, Kathryn M

    2013-09-30

    During February and March 2011, an outbreak of 26 confirmed cases of measles was reported to the Parramatta Public Health Unit (PHU) in western Sydney. This paper describes the impact of the outbreak on PHU resources. A retrospective review of information obtained from case notification forms and associated contact tracing records was carried out for each of the confirmed cases. Seven cases (27%) required hospital admission for more than 1 day and 10 (38%) cases required management within a hospital emergency department. There were no cases of encephalitis or death. The number of contacts was determined for each case as well as the number who required post-exposure prophylaxis. In total, 1,395 contacts were identified in this outbreak. Of these, 79 (5.7%) required normal human immunoglobulin and 90 (6.5%) were recommended to receive the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. A case study detailing the PHU costs associated with the contact management of a hospitalised measles case with 75 identified contacts is also included and the estimated total cost to the PHU of containing this particular case of measles was A$2,433, with staff time comprising the major cost component. Considerable effort and resources are required to manage measles outbreaks. The total cost of this outbreak to the PHU alone is likely to have exceeded A$48,000.

  10. Land Use Land Cover Impact on Probable Maximum Flood and Sedimentation for Artificial Reservoirs: A Case Study in Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigzaw, W. Y.; Hossain, F.

    2014-12-01

    Unanticipated peak inflows that can exceed the inflow design flood (IDF) for spillways and result in possible storage loss in reservoirs from increased sedimentation rates lead to a greater risk for downstream floods. Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and probable maximum flood (PMF) are mostly used to determine IDF. Any possible change of PMP and PMF due to future land use and land cover (LULC) change therefore requires a methodical investigation. However, the consequential sediment yield, due to altered precipitation and flow patterns into the reservoir has not been addressed in literature. Thus, this study answers the following question: "What is the combined impact of a modified PMP on PMF and sediment yield for an artificial reservoir? The Owyhee dam of Owyhee River watershed (ORW) in Oregon is selected as a case study area for understanding the impact of LULC change on PMF and sedimentation rates. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) is used for simulating stream flow (PMF) and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to estimate sediment yield over ORW as a result of change in precipitation intensity and LULC. Scenarios that represent pre-Owyhee dam (Pre-Dam) and post Owyhee dam (Non-Irrigation, Control, 1992, 2001, 2006) are used to simulate PMF's and consequential sediment yield. Peak PMF result for Pre-Dam scenarios is found to increase by 26m3s-1 (1%) and 81m3s-1 (3%) from Non-Irrigation and Control scenario, respectively. Considering only LULC change, sediment yield decreased over ORW due to the transformation of LULC from grassland to shrubland (from Pre-Dam period to the post-Dam years). However, increase in precipitation intensity caused a significant (0.1% storage loss over 21days storm period) increase in sediment yield resulting in largely reservoir sedimentation. This study underscores the need to consider future impact of LULC change on IDF calculation as well as sedimentation rates for more robust reservoir operations and planning.

  11. Working conditions and public health risks in slaughterhouses in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jessie; de Glanville, William Anson; Thomas, Lian Francesca; Kariuki, Samuel; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark de Clare; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2017-01-05

    Inadequate facilities and hygiene at slaughterhouses can result in contamination of meat and occupational hazards to workers. The objectives of this study were to assess current conditions in slaughterhouses in western Kenya and the knowledge, and practices of the slaughterhouse workers toward hygiene and sanitation. Between February and October 2012 all consenting slaughterhouses in the study area were recruited. A standardised questionnaire relating to facilities and practices in the slaughterhouse was administered to the foreperson at each site. A second questionnaire was used to capture individual slaughterhouse workers' knowledge, practices and recent health events. A total of 738 slaughterhouse workers from 142 slaughterhouses completed questionnaires. Many slaughterhouses had poor infrastructure, 65% (95% CI 63-67%) had a roof, cement floor and walls, 60% (95% CI 57-62%) had a toilet and 20% (95% CI 18-22%) had hand-washing facilities. The meat inspector visited 90% (95% CI 92-95%) of slaughterhouses but antemortem inspection was practiced at only 7% (95% CI 6-8%). Nine percent (95% CI 7-10%) of slaughterhouses slaughtered sick animals. Only half of workers wore personal protective clothing - 53% (95% CI 51-55%) wore protective coats and 49% (95% CI 46-51%) wore rubber boots. Knowledge of zoonotic disease was low with only 31% (95% CI 29-33%) of workers aware that disease could be transmitted from animals. The current working conditions in slaughterhouses in western Kenya are not in line with the recommendations of the Meat Control Act of Kenya. Current facilities and practices may increase occupational exposure to disease or injury and contaminated meat may enter the consumer market. The findings of this study could enable the development of appropriate interventions to minimise public health risks. Initially, improvements need to be made to facilities and practices to improve worker safety and reduce the risk of food contamination. Simultaneously, training

  12. Epidemiological, laboratory, diagnostic and public health aspects of human brucellosis in western Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Hamid Amani; Massoud Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine brucellosis's epidemiologic, laboratory, diagnostic and public health features considering brucellosis is endemic in Azna County, western Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was investigated on 43 patients with brucellosis in Azna County. The subjects were the patients with symptoms correspondent with brucellosis and positive Wright and 2ME tests. A questionnaire about demographic, epidemiological and laboratory findings was filled in. Afterwards, patients were treated using usual antimicrobial drugs regimen. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Results:Forty-three subjects were found to be positive in laboratory tests. Incidence of Brucellosis was 59.31 per hundred thousand population. About 34.9% of patients were female and 65.1% male. Nearly 95.2 % of human cases were living in rural and 4.8 % in urban areas. Around 20.9% of patients had history of animal contact. The commonest transmission was unpasteurized dairy products (79.1%). The most contagious seasons were summer and spring (60.3%). The most common age group was 15-24 (27.9%), and about 60.5% of the patients were between 15-44 years old. Disease was more common among housewives (30.2%) and farmers (20.9%). The majority of the patients had Wright test titre=1:320 (54.1%) and 2ME test titre=1:160 (56.1%) in serological titration. Doxycycline with Rifampin was used for treatment of the greatest of patients (60.4%). Conclusions:In order to control this zoonotic disease, close cooperation of health and veterinary organizations is necessary.

  13. Comparative analysis of land use/cover change trajectories and their driving forces in two small watersheds in the western Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongchuan; Gong, Jianhua; Chen, Liding; Zhang, Lihui; Song, Yiquan; Yue, Yujuan

    2013-04-01

    To prevent soil loss and achieve better ecological environments, soil conservation measures have been taken during the past decades in the western Loess Plateau of China. In this paper, a case study was taken in Luoyu valley and Lver valley, two sub-watersheds of Xihe watershed and comparison was carried out between them. The main object of this study is to monitor land use/cover changes in the two similar small watersheds utilizing SPOT5 imageries by object-oriented human-computer interactive classification method, further develop the method of spatio-temporal analysis of land use/cover change by using pattern metrics of change trajectories and relative land use suitability index (R) in smaller watersheds, and make comparisons between the two similar small watersheds, taking water and soil conservation measures into consideration. Results show that combining GIS and RS, this method can be perfectly applied to make comparisons between different small watersheds with similar geographical backgrounds. And land use/cover spatiotemporal dynamic change characteristics can be preferably expressed by pattern metrics of change trajectories and R values based on topographical data. Different emphases have been laid according to their own geological backgrounds in the two watersheds and human activities have different effects on the landscapes of the two watersheds. The main change pattern is from slope farmland to terrace (322, the largest in Luoyu valley) or to economic fruit forest (344, the largest in Lver valley). R value of every slope grade in both of the two watersheds drops with the rising of slope degree on the whole and it shows that there is still much to do for people in the two watersheds in consideration that all the R values are still lower than 0.7.

  14. Psychiatric inpatient expenditures and public health insurance programmes: analysis of a national database covering the entire South Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Woojin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical spending on psychiatric hospitalization has been reported to impose a tremendous socio-economic burden on many developed countries with public health insurance programmes. However, there has been no in-depth study of the factors affecting psychiatric inpatient medical expenditures and differentiated these factors across different types of public health insurance programmes. In view of this, this study attempted to explore factors affecting medical expenditures for psychiatric inpatients between two public health insurance programmes covering the entire South Korean population: National Health Insurance (NHI and National Medical Care Aid (AID. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a nationwide, population-based reimbursement claims dataset consisting of 1,131,346 claims of all 160,465 citizens institutionalized due to psychiatric diagnosis between January 2005 and June 2006 in South Korea. To adjust for possible correlation of patients characteristics within the same medical institution and a non-linearity structure, a Box-Cox transformed, multilevel regression analysis was performed. Results Compared with inpatients 19 years old or younger, the medical expenditures of inpatients between 50 and 64 years old were 10% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 40% higher among AID beneficiaries. Males showed higher medical expenditures than did females. Expenditures on inpatients with schizophrenia as compared to expenditures on those with neurotic disorders were 120% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 83% higher among AID beneficiaries. Expenditures on inpatients of psychiatric hospitals were greater on average than expenditures on inpatients of general hospitals. Among AID beneficiaries, institutions owned by private groups treated inpatients with 32% higher costs than did government institutions. Among NHI beneficiaries, inpatients medical expenditures were positively associated with the proportion of

  15. What the public think about hypnosis and hypnotherapy: A narrative review of literature covering opinions and attitudes of the general public 1996-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouwel, Matthew; Jolly, Kate; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-06-01

    To describe the public's understanding of hypnosis and openness to hypnotherapy. A comprehensive search of English language peer reviewed journal articles from 1st January 1996-11th March 2016 was performed over 9 databases (Medline, PubMed, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, Embase (excerpta medica), PsychInfo, Cochrane, Science citation index-expanded, Conference citation index) and a title-only search of Google scholar. 39 keyword combinations were employed: hypnosis, hypnotherapy, hypnotic, perception, beliefs, knowledge, view, opinion and understanding, in singular and plural where appropriate. A search of the bibliographies of eligible articles was undertaken. Inclusion criteria - Articles containing original data regarding the general public's attitudes towards hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Exclusion criteria - Non-therapy hypnosis (forensic, entertainment) materials and those concerned with groups likely to possess prior or professional knowledge of hypnosis, (hypnotists, clinicians and psychologists). Analysis was conducted in line with the questions. 31 articles were identified, covering diverse populations. Most people believe that: hypnosis is an altered state which requires collaboration to enter; once hypnotized perception changes; hypnotherapy is beneficial for psychological issues and is supportive of medical interventions; hypnosis can also enhance abilities especially memory. People are open to hypnotherapy subject to validation from the psychological or medical establishment. Similarity of opinion is more apparent than difference. Most people are positive towards hypnotherapy, and would consider its use under the right circumstances. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Western Monarch and Milkweed Habitat Suitability Assessment Project- Public Share Version of Species Occurence Records Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data is a compilation of milkweed (genus Asclepias) and monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) occurrences and specimen records across the western United States...

  17. The Influence of Snow Cover Changes on Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L. Migrations in the Western Part of Gorski Kotar Region in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Malnar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Animal migrations are a direct result of reproduction, behaviour characteristics, predators, population density, disturbance, loss of habitat, climatic, vegetational and nutritional factors. The availability and accessibility of natural food in winter months is dependent on snow cover. The main objective of this study was to determine the migrational activities of red deer and to examine the dependency between migrations and climatic factors. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the northwest Dinarid mountains, i.e. in the western part of Gorski Kotar region, which represents a large integral forest complex, distinctive due to its significant vertical drops, diverse relief characteristics and habitat conditions. Data on red deer migrations was collected over a 12 year period from hunting records, gamekeeper logs and records from game counting and monitoring. Results and Conclusions: The results of the macroclimatic analysis show a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between the monitored weather stations in the study area. The Klana site stood out as the most appropriate red deer winter habitat, based on climatic conditions. Climatic conditions play a key role in seasonal red deer migrations or non-migrations. The Crni Lug site was assessed to be the least favourable due to macroclimatic conditions (snow depth.

  18. Beyond the "general public": implications of audience characteristics for promoting species conservation in the Western Ghats hotspot, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagavel, Arun; Raghavan, Rajeev; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2014-03-01

    Understanding how different audience groups perceive wildlife is crucial for the promotion of biodiversity conservation, especially given the key role of flagship species in conservation campaigns. Although the heterogeneity in preferences reinforces the need for campaigns tailored to specific target audiences, many conservation education and awareness campaigns still claim to target the "general public". Audiences can be segmented according to social, economic, and cultural criteria across which species perceptions are known to vary. Different studies have investigated the preferences of different groups towards certain wildlife species, but these are largely confined to a single conservation stakeholder group, such as tourists, local communities, or potential donors in western countries. In this study, we seek to determine from a multi-stakeholder perspective, audience characteristics that influence perceptions towards wildlife at Valparai, a fragmented plateau in the Western Ghats region of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka Hotspot. We found that stakeholder group membership was the most important characteristic followed by gender. While some characteristics had a wide-scale effect others were restricted to a few species. Our results emphasize the need to design conservation campaigns with specific audiences in mind, instead of the very often referred to "general public".

  19. Exhibiting Western Desert Aboriginal painting in Australia’s public galleries: an institutional analysis, 1981-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Berryman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents and analyses the exhibition history of Aboriginal painting in Australia’s public art galleries over a two-decade period. It concentrates on Western Desert acrylics but is not confined to this movement or region alone. Based on a review of catalogues from key exhibitions, it identifies three interpretative frameworks used by curators to validate the presence of Aboriginal painting in the contemporary art realm. These modes of interpretation are called the aesthetic, ethnographic and the ownership discourses. Despite being a problematic art at odds with conventional art-historical classifications, Aboriginal painting was elevated to a position of prominence in Australian art history. Institutionally, Western Desert painting found legitimacy in the dominant aesthetic legacy of modernism. This modernist art historiography overrode the minority interests of cultural pluralism and critical postmodernism.

  20. Veterinary public health in a problem-based learning curriculum at the Western University of Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peggy L; Trevejo, Rosalie T; Tkalcic, Suzana

    2008-01-01

    As detailed in the Association of Schools of Public Health / Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges 2007 Joint Symposium on Veterinary Public Health, veterinary public health (VPH) can no longer be viewed as a unique sub-specialty of veterinary medicine. Rather, its practice pervades nearly every aspect of the veterinary profession, regardless of whether the practitioner is engaged in small-animal, large-animal, research, corporate, or military practice. In congruence with the practice of VPH, the teaching of VPH should also pervade nearly every aspect of veterinary education. Accordingly, at Western University of Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (WU-CVM), public health is not simply taught as an individual course but, rather, is interwoven into almost every aspect of the curriculum, continually emphasizing the relevance of this discipline to the practice of veterinary medicine. This article outlines the teaching philosophy of WU-CVM, provides an overview of the curriculum, and describes the integral nature of public health throughout all four years of the educational program.

  1. Motives underlying food consumption in the Western Balkans: consumers' profiles and public health strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, Julie; Thiel, Elise; Laniau, Martine; Sijtsema, Siet; Zimmermann, Karin; Barjolle, Dominique

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to identify subgroups of consumers based on the health motives underlying their food choice in Western Balkan Countries. The survey (n = 2943) was based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and elicited information on socio-demographic characteristics, consumption frequency of healthy food products, nutrition knowledge and impulsiveness. Analysis of the FCQ data focused on items of "health and natural content" and "weight control" factors to identify clusters. The biggest group of the sample was weight control and health-concerned individuals (34 %), mainly urban women older than 50. The second group of respondents (31 %) was moderately motivated about health and weight. A third group was health concerned but paid less attention to weight control (21 %), mainly comprising men and people living with children. The last group consisted of unconcerned young men (14 %) eating less fruit and showing higher impulsiveness. Western Balkan consumers differ in the importance they attach to health and natural content and weight control. This insight is needed to target interventions.

  2. Impact of climate and land cover changes on tropospheric ozone air quality and public health in East Asia between 1980 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how historical climate and land cover changes have affected tropospheric ozone in East Asia would help constrain the large uncertainties associated with future East Asian air quality projections. We perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data to examine the public health effects associated with changes in climate, land cover, land use, and anthropogenic emissions between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in East Asia. We find that between these two periods land cover change alone could lead to a decrease in summertime surface ozone by up to 4 ppbv in East Asia and ~ 2000 fewer ozone-related premature deaths per year, driven mostly by enhanced dry deposition resulting from climate- and CO2-induced increase in vegetation density, which more than offsets the effect of reduced isoprene emission arising from cropland expansion. Climate change alone could lead to an increase in summertime ozone by 2-10 ppbv in most regions of East Asia and ~ 6000 more premature deaths annually, mostly attributable to warming. The combined impacts (-2 to +12 ppbv) show that while the effect of climate change is more pronounced, land cover change could offset part of the climate effect and lead to a previously unknown public health benefit. While the changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating ozone air quality in East Asia over the past 30 years, we show that climate change and land cover changes could lead to a substantial modification of ozone levels, and thus should come into consideration when formulating future air quality management strategies. We also show that the sensitivity of surface ozone to land cover change is more dependent on dry deposition than on isoprene emission in most of East Asia, leading to ozone responses that are quite distinct from that in North America, where most ozone

  3. Public meeting: Western New York Nuclear Service Center options study. [Problem of West Valley plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This document is a transcript of the meeting, with additional written comments. The main topic is the West Valley Processing Plant and how to dispose of it and its high-level wastes. Objective is to get public input on this topic. (DLC)

  4. 78 FR 73144 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Western Interior Alaska Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... Councils, which represent 10 subsistence resource regions in Alaska. The Councils provide a forum for rural... address subsistence issues concerning the region. To participate, call toll free 1-877-638-8165. When... review policies and management plans, and to provide a public forum for subsistence issues. DATES:...

  5. Identification of traditional foods with public health potential for complementary feeding in Western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinyuru, John N,; Konyole, Silvenus O.; Kenji, Glaston M.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of traditional foods in Kisumu West District of Western Kenya was assessed with an aim to identify the foods with a potential for complementary feeding. Leaves were the most consumed plant part amongst vegetables, while a few fruits were consumed together with their seeds. Amaranthus...... cruentus L. was found to be consumed as a leafy vegetable while another variety, Amaranthus hybridus L. was found to be consumed as a grain. Four species of winged termites, a grasshopper, black ant and dagaa fish were also identified. Twelve of the traditional foods were found to be associated...... with nutritional and health benefits as perceived by the locals. Traditional food processing methods such as boiling, fermentation and sun drying were identified. Thus exploitation of the species possessing nutrient, health and processing benefits needs to be explored in complementary feeding....

  6. Identification of traditional foods with public health potential for complementary feeding in Western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinyuru, John N,; Konyole, Silvenus O.; Kenji, Glaston M.

    2012-01-01

    with nutritional and health benefits as perceived by the locals. Traditional food processing methods such as boiling, fermentation and sun drying were identified. Thus exploitation of the species possessing nutrient, health and processing benefits needs to be explored in complementary feeding.......The diversity of traditional foods in Kisumu West District of Western Kenya was assessed with an aim to identify the foods with a potential for complementary feeding. Leaves were the most consumed plant part amongst vegetables, while a few fruits were consumed together with their seeds. Amaranthus...... cruentus L. was found to be consumed as a leafy vegetable while another variety, Amaranthus hybridus L. was found to be consumed as a grain. Four species of winged termites, a grasshopper, black ant and dagaa fish were also identified. Twelve of the traditional foods were found to be associated...

  7. The Public Presence of Religion in Western Europe: its social significance among religious constituencies lying between the secular and churchgoing Christians?

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Glendinning

    2014-01-01

    The study examines attitudes about public religion in the Netherlands, Britain, France and Denmark using ISSP survey data for 1998 and 2008. The context is de-privatization of religion in secular Western Europe due to Christian cultural defence. The majority of Dutch and British participants hold moderate opinions about mixing religion and politics. The majority of French and Danish participants are against public religion. Comparing 2008 to 1998, anti-public-religion attitudes are more evide...

  8. The lived experience of being a speech-language therapist in the Western Cape public health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Jocelyn A; Mayers, Patricia; Kathard, Harsha

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the lived experience of being a Speech-Language Therapist (S-L Therapist) in the South African Western Cape public health service. The lived experience of seven S-L Therapists with varied clinical experience was illuminated using a qualitative phenomenological research design. S-L Therapists, working in the three Western Cape tertiary hospitals, provided an in-depth account of their experiences as S-L Therapists. The audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an adaptation of Colaizzi's (1978) method of analysis. The rigour and trustworthiness of the research process was informed by consideration of issues of credibility, applicability, confirmability and dependability as they relate to phenomenological design. Five main themes emerged from data analysis: expectations of practice and practice realities; being part of the "underdog" profession: role definition and status; being connected; the holistic nature of the S-L Therapist's practice; and erosion or promotion.The implications for training and support of S-L Therapists by managers and policymakers and peers are highlighted.

  9. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  10. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  11. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  12. Building Sustainable Capacity for Cardiovascular Care at a Public Hospital in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binanay, Cynthia A; Akwanalo, Constantine O; Aruasa, Wilson; Barasa, Felix A; Corey, G Ralph; Crowe, Susie; Esamai, Fabian; Einterz, Robert; Foster, Michael C; Gardner, Adrian; Kibosia, John; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Koech, Myra; Korir, Belinda; Lawrence, John E; Lukas, Stephanie; Manji, Imran; Maritim, Peris; Ogaro, Francis; Park, Peter; Pastakia, Sonak D; Sugut, Wilson; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Yanoh, Reuben; Velazquez, Eric J; Bloomfield, Gerald S

    2015-12-08

    Cardiovascular disease deaths are increasing in low- and middle-income countries and are exacerbated by health care systems that are ill-equipped to manage chronic diseases. Global health partnerships, which have stemmed the tide of infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries, can be similarly applied to address cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we present the experiences of an academic partnership between North American and Kenyan medical centers to improve cardiovascular health in a national public referral hospital. We highlight our stepwise approach to developing sustainable cardiovascular services using the health system strengthening World Health Organization Framework for Action. The building blocks of this framework (leadership and governance, health workforce, health service delivery, health financing, access to essential medicines, and health information system) guided our comprehensive and sustainable approach to delivering subspecialty care in a resource-limited setting. Our experiences may guide the development of similar collaborations in other settings.

  13. THEORETICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE NEW OFFENSE COVERED BY ART. 246 OF THE CRIMINAL CODE MISSAPPROPRIATION OF PUBLIC AUCTIONS AND OFFENCES COVERED BY ART. 65 OF LAW NO. 21/1996 REPUBLISHED. COMPETITION LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Aida POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to bring to the attention of the legal law specialists the theoretical aspects related to a new incrimination as the one covered by art. 246 of the Penal Code, the misappropriation of public auctions, as well as aspects of yet another incrimination, that is the one covered by art. 65 of Law no. 21/1996 republished-competition law, trying thus to prevent certain different interpretations about the typicality of the two incriminations and encourage the possibility of highlighting other arguments that will lead to an application as accurate as possible of the two incriminations. Presently there is no case law for the two incriminations therefore the theoretical analysis has to present interpretation arguments which will help the judicial bodies to easily classify the factual basis of the content of the two constitutive laws offering the possibility of a more detailed and contextual interpretation in relation to the reality. The way the public auctions take place is a constant preoccupation not only for the participants who are involved in the procedure and directly interested in abiding the under law and ensuring a fair competitive climate but also for the public opinion which is as equally interested in ensuring fair social-economical relationships based on the market principles. Simultaneously, the way the legal conditions of the second incriminations-that is the one from art.65 Law no.21/1996 republished - are interpreted in relation with the competition practices will lead to the clarification of the norm and its correct enforcement.

  14. The Alternative School: Alachua County (Florida) Public Schools. Descriptive Materials Covering the Secondary Center for Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachua County Schools, Gainesville, FL.

    Compiled are materials which describe the Alternative School of the Alachua County, Florida, Public School District, which serves a severely emotionally disturbed population of about 75-85 adolescents. The following materials are included: an introductory letter, which includes information on staff operations and the curriculum framework, given…

  15. Public health strategies for western Bangladesh that address arsenic, manganese, uranium, and other toxic elements in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbie, Seth H; Mitchell, Erika J; Mastera, Lawrence J; Maynard, Donald M; Yusuf, Ahmad Zaki; Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf; Ortega, Richard; Dunn, Richard K; Westerman, David S; Bacquart, Thomas; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2009-03-01

    More than 60,000,000 Bangladeshis are drinking water with unsafe concentrations of one or more elements. Our aims in this study were to evaluate and improve the drinking water testing and treatment plans for western Bangladesh. We sampled groundwater from four neighborhoods in western Bangladesh to determine the distributions of arsenic, boron, barium, chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, uranium, and zinc, and to determine pH. The percentages of tube wells that had concentrations exceeding World Health Organization (WHO) health-based drinking water guidelines were 78% for Mn, 48% for U, 33% for As, 1% for Pb, 1% for Ni, and 1% for Cr. Individual tube wells often had unsafe concentrations of both Mn and As or both Mn and U. They seldom had unsafe concentrations of both As and U. These results suggest that the ongoing program of identifying safe drinking water supplies by testing every tube well for As only will not ensure safe concentrations of Mn, U, Pb, Ni, Cr, and possibly other elements. To maximize efficiency, drinking water testing in Bangladesh should be completed in three steps: 1) all tube wells must be sampled and tested for As; 2) if a sample meets the WHO guideline for As, then it should be retested for Mn and U; 3) if a sample meets the WHO guidelines for As, Mn, and U, then it should be retested for B, Ba, Cr, Mo, Ni, and Pb. All safe tube wells should be considered for use as public drinking water supplies.

  16. Remote sensing and GIS-based integrated analysis of land cover change in Duzce plain and its surroundings (north western Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikiel, Cercis; Ustaoglu, Beyza; Dutucu, Ayse Atalay; Kilic, Derya Evrim

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to research natural land cover change caused by the permanent effects of human activities in Duzce plain and its surroundings, and to determine the current status of the land cover. For this purpose, two Landsat TM images were used in the study for the years 1987 and 2010. These images are analysed by using data image processing techniques in ERDAS Imagine©10.0 and ArcGIS©10.0 software. Land cover change nomenclature is classified according to the Coordination of Information on the Environment Level 2 Classification (1--urban fabric, 2--industrial, commercial and transport units, 3--heterogeneous agricultural areas, 4--forests, and 5--inland wetlands). Furthermore, the image analysis results are confirmed by the field research. According to the results, a decrease of 33.5 % was recorded in forest areas from 24,840.7 to 16,529.0 ha; an increase of 11.2 % was recorded in heterogeneous agricultural areas from 47,702.7 to 53,051.7 ha. Natural vegetation, which is the large part of land cover in the research area, has been changing rapidly because of rapid urbanisation and agricultural activities. As a result, it is concluded that significant changes have occurred on the natural land cover between the years 1987 and 2010 in the Duzce plain and its surroundings.

  17. Mapping of debris-covered glaciers in parts of the Greater Himalaya Range, Ladakh, western Himalaya, using remote sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Swagata; Pandey, Arvind C.; Nathawat, Mahendra S.

    2014-01-01

    Glacier inventories based on visual interpretation and manual delineation of glacier boundaries are time consuming. Supraglacial debris (debris accumulated on glacier terrain) of Himalayan glaciers creates difficulty with automated glacier mapping when using satellite images. In the present study, a combination of band ratio using the TM image and slope parameter was proven to be useful for delineating glaciers' debris-covered areas. Compared to original TM bands, supervised classification using a combination of principal components two, three, and six of debris and nonglacierized areas facilitated identification of various types of supraglacial debris. Use of principal components four, three, and two of snow- and ice-covered areas as input bands for supervised classification was helpful in classifying different types of snow and ice. Results corresponded well with manually delineated glacier outlines and field observations. Error matrix revealed that the accuracy of classification of the snow- and ice-covered parts of glaciers was 86.29%. Although manual editing was required to differentiate supraglacial debris from periglacial debris (debris outside the glacier boundary), the approach using the ability of morphometric parameter combined with band ratio for delineation of debris-covered parts of glaciers and supervised classification with principal component analysis for mapping of supraglacial covers is observed to be faster than manual delineation.

  18. Effects of post-fire salvage logging and a skid trail treatment on ground cover, soils, and sediment production in the interior western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Lee H. MacDonald; Robert N. Coats; Peter R. Robichaud; Robert E. Brown

    2015-01-01

    Post-fire salvage logging adds another set of environmental effects to recently burned areas, and previous studies have reported varying impacts on vegetation, soil disturbance, and sediment production with limited data on the underlying processes. Our objectives were to determine how: (1) ground-based post-fire logging affects surface cover, soil water repellency,...

  19. Quality or quantity? Exploring the relationship between Public Open Space attributes and mental health in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jacinta; Wood, Lisa J; Knuiman, Matthew; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2012-05-01

    Mental health is a public health priority globally. Public Open Space (POS) may enhance mental health by facilitating contact with nature and the development of supportive relationships. Despite growing interest in the influence of the built environment on mental health, associations between POS attributes and mental health remain relatively unexplored. In particular, few studies have examined the relative effects of the quantity and quality of POS within a neighbourhood on mental health. Guided by a social-ecological framework, this study investigated the relationship between POS attributes (i.e., quantity and quality) and better mental health (i.e., low risk of psychological distress) in residents of new housing developments in the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia. The extent to which relationships between POS attributes and mental health were confounded by psychosocial factors (e.g., social support, sense of community) and frequent use of POS was also explored. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey (n = 911), a POS audit, and Geographical Information Systems, and was analysed using logistic regression. Approximately 80% of survey participants were at low risk of psychological distress. Residents of neighbourhoods with high quality POS had higher odds of low psychosocial distress than residents of neighbourhoods with low quality POS. This appeared to be irrespective of whether or not they used POS. However, the quantity of neighbourhood POS was not associated with low psychological distress. From a mental health perspective, POS quality within a neighbourhood appears to be more important than POS quantity. This finding has policy implications and warrants further investigation.

  20. Covering Risks in the Public Administration – an In-Depth Analysis of the Regulatory Changes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Cocosatu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing in a trans-disciplinary manner the institutional and functional changesof the public administration under crisis. The current analysis looks in depth of the financial, economic, and,more importantly, social crisis in relation to the reforms imposed by both the internal and externalstakeholders. The decision-makers have not taken into account the risk factors, triggering legislativeincoherence and instability due to the challenging and approval as non-constitutional of many such normativeacts by the Romanian Constitutional Court. The research objectives search to clear up the measures’coherence in the context of a declining public budget and a negative growth period, when the shrunk publicfunds need to be properly allocated. Therefore, the answer that our research is looking for should pertain tothe following concern: can the government’s actions be considered solutions to the problems raised by thecurrent context? The answers shall aim at both restoring the legal and economic balance, as defined in theworking hypothesis. The lax fiscal policy of the expenditures brings about an involuntary fiscal contraction inthe event of an economic downturn (Rosen and Gayer, 2010, as it was the case in Romania. Those lack ofprudence shall be addressed in our analysis, with specific reference to the already established literatureexplanations involving the decision-makers trust in the „good days shall be around forever”, which triggers abelief that the expenditures’ expansion can be permanent. Regarding the paper methodology, this study isproceeding via bibliographical research, so that the reasoning behind the paper is clearly underlined as thisresearch is actually triggered by the radical changes made by both legislatures and practitioners as a responseto crisis. Further, the manuscript makes use of direct observation and legislative analysis and extensivedocumentary research of national tax policy and statistics relevant

  1. Effectiveness of imidacloprid (ProAgro 100 SL) in the control of glasshouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) and western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) on tomato under cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkiewicz Jodki, J; Nawrocka, B; Swietosławski, J

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 a glasshouse experiments were carried out on the effectiveness of ProAgro 100 SL in the control of glasshouse whitefly and western flower thrips on tomato cv. Perkoz. Strict observation of the basic prophylactic rules such as introducing in to glasshouse only healthy seedlings, uninfected by whitefly and thrips as well as isolation of tomato plants, especially the seedlings from ornamental plants are important to the limit of the pest population. During the vegetation period the population of whitefly and thrips may be limited by the insecticide application. The glasshouse experiments on the performance of ProAgro 100 SL in the control of mentioned above pest species were carried out at the Research Institute of Vegetable Crops in Skierniewice. The ProAgro 100 SL was applied in the concentration of 0,1%. The standard treatment was Juventox 040 SL (acetamiprid) in the concentration of 0.05%. The obtained results allow to find that ProAgro 100 SL in the rates of 0.1% performed well in the limiting population of whitefly and western flower thrips on glasshouse tomato.

  2. Environmental factors and public health policy associated with human and rodent infection by leptospirosis: a land cover-based study in Nan province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rossa, P; Tantrakarnapa, K; Sutdan, D; Kasetsinsombat, K; Cosson, J-F; Supputamongkol, Y; Chaisiri, K; Tran, A; Supputamongkol, S; Binot, A; Lajaunie, C; Morand, S

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis incidence has increased markedly since 1995 in Thailand, with the eastern and northern parts being the most affected regions, particularly during flooding events. Here, we attempt to overview the evolution of human prevalence during the past decade and identify the environmental factors that correlate with the incidence of leptospirosis and the clinical incidence in humans. We used an extensive survey of Leptospira infection in rodents conducted in 2008 and 2009 and the human incidence of the disease from 2003 to 2012 in 168 villages of two districts of Nan province in Northern Thailand. Using an ad-hoc developed land-use cover implemented in a geographical information system we showed that humans and rodents were not infected in the same environment/habitat in the land-use cover. High village prevalence was observed in open habitat near rivers for the whole decade, or in 2008-2009 mostly in rice fields prone to flooding, whereas infected rodents (2008-2009) were observed in patchy habitat with high forest cover, mostly situated on sloping ground areas. We also investigated the potential effects of public health campaigns conducted after the dramatic flood event of 2006. We showed that, before 2006, human incidence in villages was explained by the population size of the village according to the environmental source of infection of this disease, while as a result of the campaigns, human incidence in villages after 2006 appeared independent of their population size. This study confirms the role of the environment and particularly land use, in the transmission of bacteria, emphasized by the effects of the provincial public health campaigns on the epidemiological pattern of incidence, and questions the role of rodents as reservoirs.

  3. Public Health Strategies for Western Bangladesh That Address Arsenic, Manganese, Uranium, and Other Toxic Elements in Drinking Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seth H. Frisbie; Erika J. Mitchell; Lawrence J. Mastera; Donald M. Maynard; Ahmad Zaki Yusuf; Mohammad Yusuf Siddiq; Richard Ortega; Richard K. Dunn; David S. Westerman; Thomas Bacquart; Bibudhendra Sarkar

    2009-01-01

    ...: We sampled groundwater from four neighborhoods in western Bangladesh to determine the distributions of arsenic, boron, barium, chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium...

  4. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from farmed game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. in farmed wild boar and Toxoplasma gondii in farmed deer and farmed wild boar were ranked as a high priority for meat inspection. Trichinella spp. in wild boar was ranked as low priority due to current controls, which should be continued. For chemical hazards, all substances were ranked as medium or lower potential concern. More effective control of biological hazards could be achieved using an integrated farm to chilled carcass approach, including improved food chain information (FCI and risk-based controls. Further studies are required on Salmonella spp. in farmed wild boar and T. gondii in farmed wild boar and farmed deer. If new information confirms a high risk to public health from meat from these species, setting targets at carcass level should be considered. Palpation and incision should be omitted, as it will not detect biological hazards considered to be a high priority for meat inspection while increasing the potential spread and cross-contamination of the carcasses with Salmonella. Palpation and/or incision may be applied where abnormalities have been detected but away from the slaughter line. However the elimination of routine palpation and incision would be detrimental for detecting tuberculosis. As farmed deer and farmed wild boar can act as tuberculosis reservoirs, any reduction in the detection, due to changes in the post-mortem inspection procedures, will have consequences for the overall surveillance of tuberculosis. Monitoring programmes for chemical hazards should be more flexible and based on the risk of occurrence, taking into account FCI, which should be expanded to reflect the specific environmental conditions of the farms where the animals are reared, and the ranking of chemical substances, which should be regularly updated and include new hazards. Control programmes across the food chain, national residue control programmes, feed control and monitoring of environmental contaminants should be better

  5. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A risk ranking process identified Toxoplasma gondii and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC as the most relevant biological hazards for meat inspection of sheep and goats. As these are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system using risk-based interventions was proposed. Further studies are required on T. gondii and pathogenic VTEC. If new information confirms these hazards as a high risk to public health from meat from sheep or goats, setting targets at carcass level should be considered. Other elements of the system are risk-categorisation of flocks/herds based on improved Food Chain Information (FCI, classification of abattoirs according to their capability to reduce faecal contamination, and use of improved process hygiene criteria. It is proposed to omit palpation and incision from post-mortem inspection in animals subjected to routine slaughter. For chemical hazards, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were ranked as being of high potential concern. Monitoring programmes for chemical hazards should be more flexible and based on the risk of occurrence, taking into account FCI, which should be expanded to reflect the extensive production systems used, and the ranking of chemical substances, which should be regularly updated and include new hazards. Control programmes across the food chain, national residue control plans, feed control and monitoring of environmental contaminants should be better integrated. Meat inspection is a valuable tool for surveillance and monitoring of animal health and welfare conditions. Omission of palpation and incision would reduce detection effectiveness for tuberculosis and fasciolosis at animal level. Surveillance of tuberculosis at the slaughterhouse in small ruminants should be improved and encouraged, as this is in practice the only surveillance system available. Extended use of FCI could compensate for some, but not all, the information

  6. Reconstructing C3 and C4 vegetation cover using n-alkane carbon isotope ratios in recent lake sediments from Cameroon, Western Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Yannick; Schefuß, Enno; Schwab, Valérie F.; Garreta, Vincent; Gleixner, Gerd; Vincens, Annie; Todou, Gilbert; Séné, Olivier; Onana, Jean-Michel; Achoundong, Gaston; Sachse, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Trees and shrubs in tropical Africa use the C3 cycle as a carbon fixation pathway during photosynthesis, while grasses and sedges mostly use the C4 cycle. Leaf-wax lipids from sedimentary archives such as the long-chain n-alkanes (e.g., n-C27 to n-C33) inherit carbon isotope ratios that are representative of the carbon fixation pathway. Therefore, n-alkane δ13C values are often used to reconstruct past C3/C4 composition of vegetation, assuming that the relative proportions of C3 and C4 leaf waxes reflect the relative proportions of C3 and C4 plants. We have compared the δ13C values of n-alkanes from modern C3 and C4 plants with previously published values from recent lake sediments and provide a framework for estimating the fractional contribution (areal-based) of C3 vegetation cover (fC3) represented by these sedimentary archives. Samples were collected in Cameroon, across a latitudinal transect that accommodates a wide range of climate zones and vegetation types, as reflected in the progressive northward replacement of C3-dominated rain forest by C4-dominated savanna. The C3 plants analysed were characterised by substantially higher abundances of n-C29 alkanes and by substantially lower abundances of n-C33 alkanes than the C4 plants. Furthermore, the sedimentary δ13C values of n-C29 and n-C31 alkanes from recent lake sediments in Cameroon (-37.4‰ to -26.5‰) were generally within the range of δ13C values for C3 plants, even when from sites where C4 plants dominated the catchment vegetation. In such cases simple linear mixing models fail to accurately reconstruct the relative proportions of C3 and C4 vegetation cover when using the δ13C values of sedimentary n-alkanes, overestimating the proportion of C3 vegetation, likely as a consequence of the differences in plant wax production, preservation, transport, and/or deposition between C3 and C4 plants. We therefore tested a set of non-linear binary mixing models using δ13C values from both C3 and C4

  7. Public Health Strategies for Western Bangladesh That Address Arsenic, Manganese, Uranium, and Other Toxic Elements in Drinking Water

    OpenAIRE

    Frisbie, Seth H.; Mitchell, Erika J.; Mastera, Lawrence J.; Maynard, Donald M.; Yusuf, Ahmad Zaki; Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf; Ortega, Richard; Dunn, Richard K.; Westerman, David S.; Bacquart, Thomas; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2008-01-01

    Background More than 60,000,000 Bangladeshis are drinking water with unsafe concentrations of one or more elements. Objectives Our aims in this study were to evaluate and improve the drinking water testing and treatment plans for western Bangladesh. Methods We sampled groundwater from four neighborhoods in western Bangladesh to determine the distributions of arsenic, boron, barium, chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, uranium, and zinc, and to determine pH....

  8. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  9. Extracting land cover types in western Jilin based on multi-temporal remote sensing data%基于多时相遥感数据的吉林西部土地覆被分类提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓东; 姜琦刚

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it’s still difficult to entirely replace the artificial visual interpretation for the computer automatic classification, which is used to extract land cover types' information from the remote sensing imagery, because the automatic method needs more efforts to improve the precision of the classification results. Furthermore, this problem has become the key joint of the automatic classification extraction. How to extract land cover types’ information in western area of Jilin, is one of the important problems, and the confused land cover types needs to be distinguished. The aim of this study is to deepen the application of remote sensing classification method that is used to extract land cover information automatically and quickly from the satellite imagery. The western area of Jilin is selected as the main research area. A new total solution to extract land cover information, based on the spatial variation theory, has been designed for the convenient automatic classification with the remote sensing technology. The remote sensing classification scheme is carried out by coding the R language algorithm and operating the remote sensing software ERDAS platform. The land cover types in Zhenlai County in the western area of Jilin, have been extracted and monitored through the combined utilization of 4 indices, including semivariance value of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset, local variance of image texture, modified soil-adjusted vegetation index and normalized difference water index, which have significant meaning for the land cover types in the transition zone between cropping area and nomadic area. These variances have definite physical meaning (including vegetation, water, and soil drought conditions), so that the phenological information was used to build a multi-dimensional feature space classification data set. The results indicated that: 1) A total of 11 land cover types are extracted, using the multi-temporal remote sensing

  10. Self-induction of abortion among women accessing second-trimester abortion services in the public sector, Western Cape Province, South Africa: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, D; Grossman, D; Lince, N; Harries, J

    2014-04-01

    Despite South Africa's liberal abortion law permitting abortion on request in the first trimester and under restricted conditions for second-trimester pregnancies, the practice of unsafe self-induced abortion persists. However, the prevalence of this practice, the methods used and the reasons behind it are relatively under-researched. As part of a larger study seeking to improve abortion services in the Western Cape Province, we explored reports of prior attempts to self-induce abortion among women undergoing legal second-trimester abortion. To describe the prevalence and methods of and factors related to unsuccessful attempts at self-induction of abortion by women presenting without complications and seeking second-trimester abortion at public health facilities in the Western Cape. In a cross-sectional study from April to August 2010, 194 consenting women undergoing second-trimester abortion were interviewed by trained fieldworkers using structured questionnaires at four public sector facilities near Cape Town. Thirty-four women (17.5%; 95% confidence interval 12.7 - 23.4) reported an unsuccessful attempt to self-induce abortion during the current pregnancy before going to a facility for second-trimester abortion. No factors were significantly associated with self-induction, but a relatively high proportion of this small sample were unemployed and spoke an indigenous African language at home. A readily available herbal product called Stametta was most commonly used; other methods included taking tablets bought from unlicensed providers and using other herbal remedies. No use of physical methods was reported. The prevalence of unsafe self-induction of abortion is relatively high in the Western Cape. Efforts to inform women in the community about the availability of free services in the public sector and to educate them about the dangers of self-induction and unsafe providers should be strengthened to help address this public health issue.

  11. 77 FR 55496 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Public Lands in Eastern Lassen County, California, and Western...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    .... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that BLM-managed public lands in the area affected by the Rush Fire in... with fire suppression and resource protection and State, local and Federal officials involved with enforcement. This closure is necessary to protect public health and safety. DATES: The temporary closure...

  12. Public awareness of colon cancer screening among the general population: A study from the Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Khayyat, Yasir Mohammed; Ibrahim, Ezzeldin Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Screening for colon cancer aims at early detection and prompt treatment of the disease. Prior knowledge of the disease will contribute to increased participation. However, barriers to performing screening are not known. Methods: A survey using a questionnaire was presented to patients attending the Outpatient Department of a tertiary hospital in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia, to evaluate the background knowledge of colon cancer screening, the diagnostic methods used for that ...

  13. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  14. Climate Change and Western Public Lands: a Survey of U.S. Federal Land Managers on the Status of Adaptation Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli M. Archie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and its associated consequences pose an increasing risk to public lands in the western United States. High-level mandates currently require federal agencies to begin planning for adaptation, but the extent to which these mandates have resulted in policies being implemented that affect on the ground practices is unclear. To examine the status of adaptation efforts, we conducted an original survey and semistructured interviews with land managers from the four major federal land management agencies in the U.S. states of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. The survey was designed to examine current planning for adaptation on public lands and how it differs from prior planning, the major challenges facing land managers in this region, the major barriers preventing managers from planning for adaptation, and the major hurdles associated with implementing adaptation plans. Our results show that some adaptation planning is currently taking place, but that few adaptation projects have made it to the implementation phase. Overall, respondents considered lack of information at relevant scales, budget constraints, lack of specific agency direction, and lack of useful information to be the most common barriers to adaption planning. Budget constraints, lack of perceived importance to the public, and lack of public awareness or demand to take action were reported to be the biggest hurdles to implementation of adaptation projects. Agencies showed differing levels of adaptation activity, and reported different barriers to adaptation and hurdles to implementation. Reasons for the differences and implications for future research and policy are discussed.

  15. Building multi-country collaboration on watershed management: lessons on linking environment and public health from the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community-based watershed resilience programs that bridge public health and environmental outcomes often require cross-boundary, multi-country collaboration. The CRESSIDA project, led by the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC) and supported by the U...

  16. Cover Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Monopoly Cause of Unsafe Mining Conditions;Disputes Cloud Public Servants Law;Four Tried in Wenzhou Corruption Probe;Chinese Banks Get Foreign Investment;Harbin Pharmaceutical Buyout to Help Nanfang Securities;

  17. Opportunities and Challenges in Public Health Data Collection in Southern Asia: Examples from Western India and Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta Nori-Sarma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale local data resources may serve to provide a highly resolved estimate of health effects, which can be spatially heterogeneous in highly populated urban centers in developing countries. We aim to highlight the challenges and opportunities of health data registries in a developing world context. In western India, government-collected daily mortality registry data were obtained from five cities, along with daily hospital admissions data from three government hospitals in Ahmedabad. In Nepal, individual-level data on hospital admissions were collected from six major hospitals in Kathmandu Valley. Our process illustrates many challenges for researchers, governments, and record keepers inherent to data collection in developing countries: creating and maintaining a centralized record-keeping system; standardizing the data collected; obtaining data from some local agencies; assuring data completeness and availability of back-ups to the datasets; as well as translating, cleaning, and comparing data within and across localities. We suggest that these “small-data” resources may better serve the analysis of health outcomes than exposure-response functions extrapolated from data collected in other areas of the world.

  18. Cloud Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    This article features a major statewide initiative in North Carolina that is showing how a consortium model can minimize risks for districts and help them exploit the advantages of cloud computing. Edgecombe County Public Schools in Tarboro, North Carolina, intends to exploit a major cloud initiative being refined in the state and involving every…

  19. TRANSFORMATION OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN WESTERN SIBERIA WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE “THAW” DURING LATE 1950s-EARLY 1960s BASED ON MATERIALS OF REGIONAL TRADE UNIONS, PUBLIC ENGINEERING ORGANIZATIONS, AND TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Николаевич Першиков

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the changes in the structure, personnel, and areas of practical activity of the trade unions, public engineering organizations and technical and scientific societies in the West Siberian region during late 1950s – early 1960s. The impact of national and regional factors on the transformation content, character, and results is investigated.Objective Analyze the transformation process of public organizations in Western Siberia during late 1950s-early 1960s, revel the characteristic trends and regional specific features.Method or methodology of the study: problem and chronological method, historical-and-systematic method, statistical method.Results: it was established that public organizations experienced certain changes, lost the dependence on government  institutions,  enlarged the area of  activity, but they complementely remained in the field of the party control and operations, did not aquire the proper self-reliance and independence of practical actions.Results application scope: scientific research and preparation of training in the field of historical knowledge.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-29

  20. Students’ perspectives on online and face-to-face components of a blended course design in Health and Kinesiology at a South Western Public University in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wycliffe W. Njororai Simiyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current higher education environment in the United States of America (USA and worldwide is focused on providing people an opportunity to access a quality education at a competitive price and one that is flexible enough to meet the needs of a diverse student demographic. It is therefore necessary for course delivery methods to accommodate these diverse needs without sacrificing rigor necessary for accreditation due to the diverse backgrounds, occupations, and time constraints of students in today’s environment Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish the students’ perception of the online and face-to-face components of a blended course design at a South Western Public University in the USA. Methods and material: The sample of this study consisted of 200 students drawn from four different blended courses in the Department of health and Kinesiology at a medium sized public university in South West of USA. A modified questionnaire from Sitter et al., (2009 with 19 questions was used to collect responses from students. The survey instrument employed a 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree (5, to strongly disagree (1.  Results: Majority of the students have a positive view of the blended learning including the online and face-to-face components. A consistent minority of the students expressed disagreement especially pertaining to technology-based communication, preferred mode of delivery, online discussion participation and grade scores. Discussion: Although the majority of students perceived blended learning and its components positively, there is need for instructors to address the communication, technology, and online learning facilitation challenges if all learners are to learn effectively. Conclusions and recommendations: It is clear that the majority of students are ready and have accepted blended learning course designs at this medium sized public university in south west of the United States of

  1. Evaluation of Different MODIS AOD Retrieval Algorithms for PM2.5 Estimation in the Western, Midwestern and Southeastern United States with Implications for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Burrows, E. C.; Coffield, S.; Crane, B.

    2016-12-01

    This study was part of the research activities of the Center for Applied Atmospheric Research and Education (CAARE) funded by the NASA MUREP Institutional Research Opportunity (MIRO) Program. Satellite measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) have been shown to be correlated with ground measurements of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), which in turn has been linked to respiratory and heart diseases. The strength of the correlation between AOD and PM2.5 varies for different AOD retrieval algorithms and geographic regions. We evaluated several Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) AOD products from different satellites (Aqua vs. Terra), retrieval algorithms (Dark Target vs. Deep Blue), Collections (5.1 vs. 6) and spatial resolutions (10-km vs. 3-km) for cities in the Western, Midwestern and Southeastern United States. We developed and validated PM2.5 prediction models using remotely sensed AOD data, which were improved by incorporating meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, and wind direction) from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 (NLDAS-2). Adding these meteorological data significantly improved the predictive power of all the PM2.5 models, and especially in the Western U.S. Temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were the most significant meteorological variables throughout the year in the Western U.S. Wind speed was the most significant meteorological variable for the cold season while temperature was the most significant variable for the warm season in the Midwestern and Southeastern U.S. Finally, our study re-establishes the connection between PM2.5 and public health concerns including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases (asthma, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, heart attack, and stroke). Using PM2.5 data and health data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), our

  2. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2014v19n1p158 Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  3. Cover Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuning; Ruben; Lehn; Renz; Garcia; Ksenofontov; Gütlich; Wegelius; Rissanen

    2000-07-17

    The cover picture shows how both, fine arts and science, avail themselves of a system of intertwined symbolic and iconic languages. They make use of a common set of abstracted signs to report on their results. Thus, already in 1925, Wassily Kandinsky painted a masterpiece (bottom), which now, 75 years later, might be regarded as a blueprint for a scientific project. In his painting, Kandinsky pictured a grid-shaped sign that resembles in effect an actual molecular switch. Apparently following an enigmatic protocol, the groups of Lehn and Gütlich (see p. 2504 ff. for more details) constructed a grid-type inorganic architecture that operates as a three-level magnetic switch (center) triggered by three external perturbations (p, T, hnu). The switching principle is based on the spin-crossover phenomenon of Fe(II) ions and can be monitored by Mössbauer spectroscopy (left) and magnetic measurements (rear). Maybe not by chance, the English translation of the title of the painting "signs" is a homonym of "science", since both presented works are a product of the insatiable curiosity of man and his untiring desire to recognize his existence.

  4. The Optimal Ethnic-Specific Waist-Circumference Cut-Off Points of Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Ma, Rulin; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Mei; Ding, Yusong; Guo, Heng; Mu, Lati; Zhang, Jingyu; Wei, Bin; Yan, Yizhong; Ma, Jiaolong; Pang, Hongrui; Li, Shugang; Guo, Shuxia

    2017-02-08

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is pandemic; however, the cut-off values for waist circumference (WC) vary widely depending on the ethnic groups studied and the criteria applied for WC measurement. Previous studies for defining optimal WC cut-off points included high-income and urban settings, and did not cover low-income, rural settings, especially for ethnic minorities. This study aimed at defining optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off points in a low-income, rural population comprising the largest inhabitant minority group residing in far Western China. Methods: Questionnaire-based surveys, physical examinations, and blood testing of 3542 individuals were conducted in 2010, using a stratified cluster random sampling method in rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old) from 12 villages in Xinjiang, China, approximately 4407 km away from the capital city, Beijing. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Optimal, ethnic-specific WC cut-off values for diagnosing metabolic syndrome were determined using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: As WC increased, there was a significant, increasing trend of detection and risk in rural Uyghur adults, regardless of the presence of ≥1 or ≥2 components of metabolic syndrome by IDF criteria. The optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off point to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome was 85 cm for men and 82 cm for women. With these cut-off points, the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome among men, women, and overall population in Uyghur adults were 19.5%, 23.0%, and 21.3%, respectively. Conclusions: We report a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in women, among rural Uyghurs in Western China. A WC cut-off of 85 cm in men and 82 cm in women was the best predictor of metabolic syndrome in this population. Because of the cost-effectiveness in measuring WC, we recommend that these WC cut-off points be integrated into local preventive

  5. The Optimal Ethnic-Specific Waist-Circumference Cut-Off Points of Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is pandemic; however, the cut-off values for waist circumference (WC vary widely depending on the ethnic groups studied and the criteria applied for WC measurement. Previous studies for defining optimal WC cut-off points included high-income and urban settings, and did not cover low-income, rural settings, especially for ethnic minorities. This study aimed at defining optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off points in a low-income, rural population comprising the largest inhabitant minority group residing in far Western China. Methods: Questionnaire-based surveys, physical examinations, and blood testing of 3542 individuals were conducted in 2010, using a stratified cluster random sampling method in rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old from 12 villages in Xinjiang, China, approximately 4407 km away from the capital city, Beijing. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. Optimal, ethnic-specific WC cut-off values for diagnosing metabolic syndrome were determined using receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results: As WC increased, there was a significant, increasing trend of detection and risk in rural Uyghur adults, regardless of the presence of ≥1 or ≥2 components of metabolic syndrome by IDF criteria. The optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off point to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome was 85 cm for men and 82 cm for women. With these cut-off points, the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome among men, women, and overall population in Uyghur adults were 19.5%, 23.0%, and 21.3%, respectively. Conclusions: We report a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in women, among rural Uyghurs in Western China. A WC cut-off of 85 cm in men and 82 cm in women was the best predictor of metabolic syndrome in this population. Because of the cost-effectiveness in measuring WC, we recommend that these WC cut-off points be integrated into

  6. Constancy and cover of plants in the Petersburg and Wrangell Districts, Tongass National Forest and associated private and other public lands, southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    2002-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive and inclusive description and inventory of the vegetation within the Stikine area of southeast Alaska. Private and other public lands were included as well as Tongass National Forest lands contained in the Petersburg and Wrangell Ranger Districts. Previous inventories have concentrated almost exclusively on tree species within forest...

  7. Balancing authority, deference and trust across the public-private divide in health care: tuberculosis health visitors in western Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielmann, Karina; Datye, Vinita; Pradhan, Anagha; Rangan, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    While concepts such as 'partnership' are central to the terminology of private-public mix (PPM), little attention has been paid to how social relations are negotiated among the diverse actors responsible for implementing these inter-sectoral arrangements. India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) has used intermediary agents to facilitate the involvement of private providers in the expansion of Directly Observed Therapy, Short-Course (DOTS). We examine the roles of tuberculosis health visitors (TB HVs) in mediating working relationships among private providers, programme staff and patients that underpin a PPM-DOTS launched by the RNTCP in western Maharashtra. In addition to observations and informal interactions with the programme and participating health providers, researchers conducted in-depth interviews with senior programme officers and eight TB HVs. Framed by a political discourse of clinical governance, working relationships within the PPM are structured by the pluralistic context, social and professional hierarchies and paternalism of health care in India. TB HVs are at the nexus of these relationships, yet remain undervalued partly because accountability is measured through technical rather than social outcomes of the 'partnership'. Close attention to the dynamics of power relations in working practices within the health system can improve accountability and sustainability of partnerships.

  8. Ethnic differences in prevalence of general obesity and abdominal obesity among low-income rural Kazakh and Uyghur adults in far western China and implications in preventive public health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia He

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity has become a disastrous public health issue that needs urgent attention. Previous studies have concentrated in high-income urban settings and few cover low-income rural settings especially nomadic residents in mountain areas. This study focused on low-income rural and nomadic minority people residing in China's far west and investigated their prevalence and ethnic differences of obesity.A questionnaire-based survey and physical examination of 8,036 individuals were conducted during 2009-2010, using stratified cluster random sampling method in nomadic Kazakhs and rural Uyghur residents (≥ 18 years old in 18 villages, Xinjiang, China, about 4,407 km away from capital Beijing. Obesity was defined by BMI and WC.The overall prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in Kazakh adults were 18.3% and 60.0%, respectively and in Uyghur, 7.6% and 54.5%, respectively. Female's prevalence of obesity was higher than male's for general obesity (45-54 age group in Uyghur, P = 0.041 and abdominal obesity (≥ 55 years in Kazakhs, P(55 ∼ = 0.010, P(65 ∼ = 0.001; and ≥ 18 years in Uyghurs, P<0.001. Kazakh's prevalence of obesity was higher than Uyghur's (general obesity: ≥ 35 years, P<0.001; abdominal obesity: ≥ 25 years in males and ≥ 65 years in females, P<0.01. The prevalence of obesity increased after 18 years old and subsequently decreased after 55 years old. Meat consumption, older age, and female gender had a higher risk of obesity in these two minorities.Both general and abdominal obesity were common in rural ethnic Kazakhs and Uyghurs. The prevalence rates were different in these two minorities depending on ethnicity, gender, and age. Kazakhs, females and elderly people may be prioritized in prevention of obesity in western China. Because of cost-effectiveness in measuring BMI and WC, we recommend that BMI and WC be integrated into local preventive policies in public health toward screening obesity and related

  9. Scale-dependent effects of land cover on water physico-chemistry and diatom-based metrics in a major river system, the Adour-Garonne basin (South Western France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudesque, Loïc, E-mail: loic.tudesque@univ-tlse3.fr [CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, ENFA, UMR5174 EDB (Laboratoire Évolution and Diversité Biologique), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, CNRS, UMR5174 EDB, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Tisseuil, Clément [CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, ENFA, UMR5174 EDB (Laboratoire Évolution and Diversité Biologique), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, CNRS, UMR5174 EDB, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Lek, Sovan, E-mail: sovan.lek@univ-tlse3.fr [CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, ENFA, UMR5174 EDB (Laboratoire Évolution and Diversité Biologique), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, CNRS, UMR5174 EDB, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2014-01-01

    The scale dependence of ecological phenomena remains a central issue in ecology. Particularly in aquatic ecology, the consideration of the accurate spatial scale in assessing the effects of landscape factors on stream condition is critical. In this context, our study aimed at assessing the relationships between multi-spatial scale land cover patterns and a variety of water quality and diatom metrics measured at the stream reach level. This investigation was conducted in a major European river system, the Adour-Garonne river basin, characterized by a wide range of ecological conditions. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and variance partitioning techniques were used to disentangle the different relationships between land cover, water-chemistry and diatom metrics. Our results revealed a top-down “cascade effect” indirectly linking diatom metrics to land cover patterns through water physico-chemistry, which occurred at the largest spatial scales. In general, the strength of the relationships between land cover, physico-chemistry, and diatoms was shown to increase with the spatial scale, from the local to the basin scale, emphasizing the importance of continuous processes of accumulation throughout the river gradient. Unexpectedly, we established that the influence of land cover on the diatom metric was of primary importance both at the basin and local scale, as a result of discontinuous but not necessarily antagonist processes. The most detailed spatial grain of the Corine land cover classification appeared as the most relevant spatial grain to relate land cover to water chemistry and diatoms. Our findings provide suitable information to improve the implementation of effective diatom-based monitoring programs, especially within the scope of the European Water Framework Directive. - Highlights: •The spatial scale dependence of the “cascade effect” in a river system has been demonstrated. •The strength of the relationships between land cover and diatoms through

  10. Deriving Snow Cover Metrics for Alaska from MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuck Lindsay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS daily snow cover products provide an opportunity for determining snow onset and melt dates across broad geographic regions; however, cloud cover and polar darkness are limiting factors at higher latitudes. This study presents snow onset and melt dates for Alaska, portions of western Canada and the Russian Far East derived from Terra MODIS snow cover daily 500 m grid data (MOD10A1 and evaluates our method for filling data gaps caused by clouds or polar darkness. Pixels classified as cloud or no data were reclassified by: spatial filtering using neighboring pixel values; temporal filtering using pixel values for days before/after cloud cover; and snow-cycle filtering based on a time series assessment of a pixel’s position within snow accumulation, cover or melt periods. During the 2012 snow year, these gap-filling methods reduced cloud pixels from 27.7% to 3.1%. A total of 12 metrics (e.g., date of first and last snow, date of persistent snow cover and periods of intermittence for each pixel were calculated by snow year. A comparison of MODIS-derived snow onset and melt dates with in situ observations from 244 weather stations generally showed an early bias in MODIS-derived dates and an effect of increasing cloudiness exacerbating bias. Our results show that mean regional duration of seasonal snow cover is 179–311 days/year and that snow cover is often intermittent, with 41% of the area experiencing ≥2 snow-covered periods during a snow season. Other regional-scale patterns in the timing of snow onset and melt are evident in the yearly 500 m gridded products publically available at http://static.gina.alaska.edu/NPS_products/MODIS_snow/.

  11. Scale-dependent effects of land cover on water physico-chemistry and diatom-based metrics in a major river system, the Adour-Garonne basin (South Western France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudesque, Loïc; Tisseuil, Clément; Lek, Sovan

    2014-01-01

    The scale dependence of ecological phenomena remains a central issue in ecology. Particularly in aquatic ecology, the consideration of the accurate spatial scale in assessing the effects of landscape factors on stream condition is critical. In this context, our study aimed at assessing the relationships between multi-spatial scale land cover patterns and a variety of water quality and diatom metrics measured at the stream reach level. This investigation was conducted in a major European river system, the Adour-Garonne river basin, characterized by a wide range of ecological conditions. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and variance partitioning techniques were used to disentangle the different relationships between land cover, water-chemistry and diatom metrics. Our results revealed a top-down "cascade effect" indirectly linking diatom metrics to land cover patterns through water physico-chemistry, which occurred at the largest spatial scales. In general, the strength of the relationships between land cover, physico-chemistry, and diatoms was shown to increase with the spatial scale, from the local to the basin scale, emphasizing the importance of continuous processes of accumulation throughout the river gradient. Unexpectedly, we established that the influence of land cover on the diatom metric was of primary importance both at the basin and local scale, as a result of discontinuous but not necessarily antagonist processes. The most detailed spatial grain of the Corine land cover classification appeared as the most relevant spatial grain to relate land cover to water chemistry and diatoms. Our findings provide suitable information to improve the implementation of effective diatom-based monitoring programs, especially within the scope of the European Water Framework Directive. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated ecosystem assessment for western development of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of Integrated Ecosystem Assessment for Western Development of China includes: (1) providing scientific basis for ecosystem protection, ecosystem management and ecological construction in the western development; (2) developing complete database and analytical tools and strengthening decision-making support capacity; and (3) improving ecosystem management in China, spreading ecological knowledge to the public, serving decision-making of local and central governments, and promoting socio-economic sustainable development. The design and implementation of the project are of significance under the macro background of western development of China. By the integrated assessment of western China, we can get the first-hand data covering all the environmental factors as well as disclose the situations and their changing trends of ecosystem in the western part of China, which will benefit the decision-making for the central and local governments in the implementation of the western development strategy. In other words, the implementation of the project, to a certain extent, can guarantee the regional sustainable development of western China.

  13. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later...

  14. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.; Pete, C.

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

  15. Research collaboration 2009-2010: A joint publication highlighting the research partnerships between Stellenbosch University, the University of the Western Cape, and the CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research report showcases some of the outcomes of the research partnerships between the CSIR and Stellenbosch University, and the CSIR and the University of the Western Cape between July 2009 and December 2010. The collaborations under...

  16. Defining the Epidemiology and Burden of Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Among Infants and Children in Western Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, Louis; Checchia, Paul A; Fauroux, Brigitte; Figueras-Aloy, Josep; Manzoni, Paolo; Paes, Bosco; Simões, Eric A F; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The REGAL (RSV [respiratory syncytial virus] Evidence-a Geographical Archive of the Literature) series provides a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of RSV in Western countries over the last 20 years. This first of seven publications covers the epidemiology and

  17. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  18. Carbon, nitrogen cycling and land cover changes during regrowth in African dry tropical forests: integrating perspectives from field and satellite data across a chronosequence in the Miombo Woodlands of western Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. T.; Melillo, J. M.; Mustard, J. F.; Neill, C.; Nyadzi, G.

    2015-12-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests in Africa (SDTFs), such as forests in Miombo Woodlands, are experiencing high rates of deforestation, degradation and regrowth. Increasing proportions of forest are disturbed or composed of young regrowth stands (soil mineral N availability with regrowth; (2) How does N demand for tree leaf production compare to indicators of available mineral N in surface soils from young to mature forest sites; (3) How does canopy structure vary with regrowth and disturbance and scale to Landsat-style satellite data? We established a chronosequence of 18 sites with ages 3 to >40 years since abandonment. At each, we inventoried trees to quantify aboveground tree C stocks, sampled soils to 100 cm to measure C, total and mineral N (NH4+, NO3-), and surveyed canopy cover with point-line transects, spherical densiometer and photometric leaf area measures. We also conducted soil incubations to determine nitrogen mineralization potentials. Tree C stocks ranged from 0.4 ± 0.1 Mg C ha-1 for 3-4 year sites to 27.2 ± 5.2 Mg C ha-1 for 30-40 year sites, and were 44.5 ± 7.4 Mg C ha-1 for mature forest sites. Rates of aboveground tree C stock changes (0.78 - 0.89 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) were comparable to the few published for Miombo forests. However, tree C stocks at 10 - 24 year sites (5.2 ± 1.1 Mg C ha -1) were much lower than those reported in comparable studies. Only sites > 30-40 years had C stocks approaching mature forests. Further analyses will compare N dynamics from leaves and soil across the chronosequence, and relate them to the trends in tree C stocks. We use ground and canopy cover data to test remote sensing characterizations of land cover across disturbed and regrowth sites. Such scaling relationships will allow us to improve remote sensing characterization of land cover in African SDTFs and develop landscape-scale estimates of how forest cover changes affect C, N and water cycling regionally.

  19. From The Perspective of the Western Public Space to See the Current Situation and Problems of Chinese Public Space%从西方公共空间的视角看中国公共空间现状及问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赢月

    2014-01-01

    本文通过对西方城市公共空间的演变研究,反省和思考中国城市公共空间发展过程与前景。并跳出对西方研究理论的过分依赖,寻找适合中国公共空间自身的发展道路。%This article bases on the research on the evolution of western urban public space to introspect and considerate the development process and prospect of Chinese urban public space, and get rid ofthe excessive dependence to the study of western theories and find a suitable development path of Ch-inese own public space.

  20. Does Citizenship Always Further Immigrants' Feeling of Belonging to the Host Nation? A Study of Policies and Public Attitudes in 14 Western Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær

    2017-01-01

    citizenship is approached in Western democracies. In the literature, these differences are typically understood to reflect varying degrees of openness to seeing immigrants as part of the host national community. Motivated by this observation, the article examines whether the degree to which immigrants...

  1. 试析西方公共外交的实施策略及对我国的启示%Analysis of the Current Implementation Situation of Western Public Diplomacy and its Implication for the Development of China' s Public Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林逢春

    2012-01-01

    英美等西方国家历来重视公共外交在国家对外战略中的功能意义。得益于智库等非政府组织和成熟的市民社会的支持,使得西方国家公共外交的理论研究与实践相得益彰;此外,进入信息时代之后,西方国家开始运用网络技术平台进行网络公共外交。在这些因素的推动下,西方国家的公共外交成效显著,并成为实现其国家战略的重要一环。基于此,西方国家的成熟经验无疑为我国刚起步的公共外交提供了重要的借鉴:一是加强相关理论研究,构建中国特色公共外交理论体系;二是整合文化资源,构筑一个弹性、高效的管理体系;三是加强信息技术建设,推动网络公共外交;四是培育非政府组织,深入开展整合营销传播。%Western countries such as Britain and America have always attached great importance to the func-tion that public diplomacy performs in the foreign strategy. Thanks to the support of such non-governmental organizations as think-tank and mature civil society, the theory research and practice of western countries' public diplomacy bring out the best in each other. Besides, western countries have started to use network technology platform for network public diplomacy since the information age began. Pushed by these factors, western public diplomacy has achieved remarkable results and become an important part in achieving their national strategy. Based on this, the mature experience of western countries undoubtedly provides important reference for China whose public diplomacy just started: first, strengthen the relevant theories and construct public diplomacy theory system with Chinese characteristics; second, integrate cultural resources and build a flexible, efficient management system; third, strengthen the construction of information technology and pro- mote network public diplomacy; and last, foster non-governmental organizations and further integrated

  2. Does Citizenship Always Further Immigrants' Feeling of Belonging to the Host Nation? A Study of Policies and Public Attitudes in 14 Western Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær

    2016-01-01

    Immigrants' access to citizenship in their country of residence is increasingly debated in Western democracies. It is an underlying premise of these debates that citizenship and national belonging are closely linked, but at the same time there is considerable cross-country variation in how...... citizenship is approached in Western democracies. In the literature, these differences are typically understood to reflect varying degrees of openness to seeing immigrants as part of the host national community. Motivated by this observation, the article examines whether the degree to which immigrants...... citizenship less important. Interestingly, citizenship policy does not have a moderating effect on the association between citizenship and national belonging. Implications for future studies of the subjective experience of citizenship are discussed....

  3. An analysis of investment and management models of enterprises for public utilities in western countries%西方国家公用事业企业投资及管理模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李心丹

    2000-01-01

    Public utilities are the foundation of a national economy. The products of public utilities are merit goods and have the characteristics of huge investment and long return terms. So it is a worldwide hot issue to probe ways to establish effective investment and management systems and models for the enterprises of public utilities. This article introduces some advanced invest ment and management models of public utilities enterprises in some western countries. According to the theory of comparative analysis and considering the Chinese situation, the author puts forward some suggestions on how to reform the investment and management system for public utilities enterprises.%公用事业是一国经济发展的基础。由于公用事业企业产品具有公益性,而且投资额巨大、投资回收期长,因而对该类企业的管理及投资模式一直是各个国家积极探索的问题。本文介绍了西方国家管理、投资公用事业企业的先进模式,通过比较分析,结合国情,笔者提出我国公用事业企业管理和投资改革方向及几点有益的启示。

  4. What Medicare Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Part A covers Medicare Part A hospital insurance covers inpatient hospital care, skilled nursing facility, hospice, lab tests, surgery, ... Medicare Covers Drug Coverage (Part D) Supplements & Other Insurance Claims & ... doctors, providers, hospitals & plans Where can I get covered medical items? ...

  5. Excitement, Tinged with Jingoism: British Public Opinion and the Falklands in Four News Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Ulf Jonas

    A study examined how four news magazines in North America and Western Europe covered British public reaction to the 1982 Falklands War. The news magazines--similar in format--represented four nations with varying degrees of closeness to Great Britain: the United States ("Time"), Canada ("Macleans"), West Germany ("Spiegel"), and Austria…

  6. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locations 36 (914) 24 (610) Drainage ditches of public roads and railroad crossings 36 (914) 24 (610) (b... least 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover. (c) Where an underground structure prevents the installation...

  7. Regional dynamics of grassland change in the western Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the contemporary land-cover changes in two western Great Plains ecoregions between 1973 and 2000. Agriculture and other land uses can have a substantial effect on grassland cover that varies regionally depending on the primary driving forces of change. In order to better understand change, the rates, types, and causes of land conversion were examined for 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000 using Landsat satellite data and a statistical sampling strategy. The overall estimated rate of land-cover change between 1973 and 2000 was 7.4% in the Northwestern Great Plains and 11.5% in the Western High Plains. Trends in both ecoregions have similarities, although the dynamics of change differ temporally depending on driving forces. Between 1973 and 1986, grassland cover declined when economic opportunity drove an expansion of agriculture. Between 1986 and 2000, grassland expanded as public policy and a combination of socioeconomic factors drove a conversion from agriculture to grassland. ?? 2007 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  8. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  9. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  10. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  11. Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering David A. Tonn et al Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St...NUWC 300055 Distribution A An antenna includes a tubular, conductive radiator having a longitudinal slot formed therein from a first end of the...conductive radiator to a second end of the conductive radiator. An antenna feed can be joined to the conductive radiator adjacent to and across the slot

  12. Challenges of socio-economically evaluating wildfire management on non-industrial private and public forestland in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyron J. Venn; David E. Calkin

    2009-01-01

    Non-industrial private forests (NIPFs) and public forests in the United States generate many non-market benefits for landholders and society generally. These values can be both enhanced and diminished by wildfire management. This paper considers the challenges of supporting economically efficient allocation of wildfire suppression resources in a social cost-benefit...

  13. Agricultural Land in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  14. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  15. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  16. 西方城市公共空间发展对我国创意城市营造的启示%THE DEVELOPMENT OF WESTERN URBAN PUBLIC SPACE'S REVELATION TO CHINA CREATING A CREATIVE CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄阳; 吕庆华

    2011-01-01

    应用文献归纳和整合对比等方法,从公共空间的定义与特征以及创意城市的含义和形成要素入手,在回顾西方城市公共空间发展历程的基础上,归纳了公共空间发展趋势,并针对我国实际情况,以构建创意城市为目的,认为应该丰富公共空间的文化内涵、提升社会影响力,重视细节,更开放更具宽容性以及充分发挥应有的经济服务作用等三个方面来进行把握。%Entering into the era of creative economy,urban public space plays a significant part in cultivating an atmosphere of creativity as well as constructing a creative city.This article applications integration and contradistinction methods,it begins with the definition of public space,and the summary of its characteristics,and of the creative city,and its component.Then followed by a systematic review of the course of development of western urban public places and an analysis of the trend of public space development.In view of the actual situation of China,the article provides suggestions for how to construct a creative city,as enriching culture of public space and enhancing the social influence,attention to detail and more tolerant,playing its due role in economic.

  17. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kansiime

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda.This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method.All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process.The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such as wildlife authorities

  18. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... such as lowpermeability clay soils and geomembranes are required. The avoidance of water input to organic waste may impede the microbial stabilization processes including gas generation. Therefore watertight top covers may be in conflict with the purposes of reactor landfills (see Chapter 10.6). At some sites covers...... sometimes are made to include components for recirculation of landfill leachate (see Section 10.9.2 for more details). The top cover is an important factor in the water management of landfills. Details about water infiltration through top covers and its influence on the hydrology of the landfill is covered...

  19. On Differences between Marxism and Western Public Product Theory%马克思主义公共产品理论与西方公共产品理论的差异思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒星; 胡碧玉

    2011-01-01

    There are so many differences between the Marxist public product theory and the Western public product theory. The theo- ries and the practical experiences are different. We compare the differences of two hypotheses precondition, research methods, assess- ment standards, research emphases, government supply status and market supply status. And we hope to perfect the Marxist public product theory.%马克思主义公共产品理论与西方公共产品理论对公共产品本质的理解存在巨大差异,从而基于不同本质的两种理论及其实践经验也有很大不同。通过对比两者的假设前提、研究方法、评价标准、研究侧重点、政府供给和市场供给的地位等五个方面的差异,有助于完善马克思主义公共产品理论。

  20. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...... the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... however, top covers may be the only environmental protection measure. In some landfill regulations (for instance the Subtitle D landfills receiving municipal solid waste in the USA) it is required to minimize infiltration into the waste layers. Therefore top covers containing liner components...

  1. Observational evidence for cloud cover enhancement over western European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuling, A.J.; Taylor, C.; Meirink, J.F.; Melsen, L.A.; Miralles, D.G.; Heerwaarden, van C.C.; Vautard, R.; Stegehuis, A.I.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.

    2017-01-01

    Forests impact regional hydrology and climate directly by regulating water and heat fluxes. Indirect effects through cloud formation and precipitation can be important in facilitating continental-scale moisture recycling but are poorly understood at regional scales. In particular, the impact of

  2. 当代西方公共服务社会化的民主政治理据探析%Analysis of Democracy Motivation to the Socialization of Public Services in Contemporary Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩东

    2011-01-01

    The socialization of public services(SPS) is main target of public management innovation in contemporary western countries.The democracy motivation to the SPS includes pluralist democracy,as well as participatory democracy.Corresponding to each democracy motivation,there are two different patterns of the SPS.The pattern corresponding to pluralist democracy is called bourgeois-socialization,in which participate to public services is only regarded as tool for keeping self-concern.The pattern corresponding to participatory democracy is called citizen socialization,in which participate to public services is regarded as a training for enhancing virtue.%公共服务社会化是当代西方国家公共管理改革的重要目标模式。推动公共服务社会化发展的民主政治理据既包括多元民主理论,又包括参与民主理论。与两种民主政治理据分别对应的公共服务社会化其实具有不同的内涵。与多元民主相对应的是公共服务的市民社会化,这种模式中的人是利己的原子化个体,对公共服务的参与被视为保持自私自利的工具;与参与民主对应的是公共服务的公民社会化,这种模式中的人是具有合群天性的"政治人",对公共服务的参与则被视为提升公民美德的教育训练。

  3. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  4. Saturated Domino Coverings

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Andrew; Ryba, Alex

    2011-01-01

    A domino covering of a board is saturated if no domino is redundant. We introduce the concept of a fragment tiling and show that a minimal fragment tiling always corresponds to a maximal saturated domino covering. The size of a minimal fragment tiling is the domination number of the board. We define a class of regular boards and show that for these boards the domination number gives the size of a minimal X-pentomino covering. Natural sequences that count maximal saturated domino coverings of square and rectangular boards are obtained. These include the new sequences A193764, A193765, A193766, A193767, and A193768 of OEIS.

  5. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  6. Effects of snow cover on the decomposition and nutrient dynamics of Sibiraea angustata leaf litter in western Sichuan plateau, Southwest China%川西高原季节性雪被覆盖对窄叶鲜卑花凋落物分解和养分动态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡霞; 吴宁; 吴彦; 左万庆; 郭海霞; 王金牛

    2012-01-01

    Soil-borne bag method was adopted to study the decomposition and nutrient dynamics of Sibiraea angustata leaf litter under different depths (0, 30 and 100 cm) of snow cover in western Sichuan plateau in January-May, 2010. In snow-free plot, the mass loss rate of the litter over the five months was 29. 9% ; in the plots with 30 and 100 cm snow cover, the litter mass loss rate was 33.8% and 35.2%, respectively. During the decomposition, definite N enrichment in the litter was observed, while the P enrichment fluctuated. The C content and C/N ratio of the litter decreased sharply at the early stage of decomposition, but increased gradually after then. Snow cover greatly contributed to the rapid decomposition of litter and the N enrichment in the litter, but had little effects on the litter C and P contents. In western Sichuan plateau, durable snow cover with a depth of >30 cm could alter the litter decomposition pattern, and substantially affect the soil nutrient turnover and plant community composition.%2010年1-5月在川西高原采用人工雪厚度梯度试验(0、30和100 cm),应用网袋分解法对窄叶鲜卑花叶片凋落物进行分解试验,测定了凋落物的分解速率及其养分动态.结果表明:在无雪被覆盖的样地上分解5个月后的凋落物质量损失率为29.9%,而中雪和深雪样地的凋落物质量损失率分别为33.8%和35.2%.分解过程中,凋落物氮存在一定的富集现象,磷处于波动的富集状态,碳质量分数和碳氮比均呈现前期急剧下降后期逐渐上升的趋势.雪被覆盖显著增加了凋落物的质量损失率和氮含量,而对碳和磷含量无显著影响.在川西高原地区,30 cm以上的持续雪被覆盖能够改变凋落物的分解过程,从而可能对土壤营养物质转化和植物群落构建产生实质性的影响.

  7. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Listeria monocytogenes contamination of chicken flocks and meat in Oyo State, south-western Nigeria: Public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, O O; Mosugu, J I; Adesokan, H K

    2016-09-01

    Food contamination with Listeria monocytogenes is on the increase posing threats to public health with growing trends in food products recalls due to suspected Listeria contamination. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) among 71 randomly selected poultry farms in Oyo State, Nigeria. A total of 450 samples comprising cloacal swabs (426) and randomly selected dressed chicken meat (24) were cultured for Lm isolation using BrillianceTM Selective Listeria Agar with antibiotics and microbial load count with Nutrient Agar. Further identification was done using microscopic, biochemical characterization and antibiotic sensitivity tests. Data were analysed using bivariate analysis and student t-test. An overall prevalence of 91.8% Lm contamination was obtained comprising 91.5% (390/426) in cloacal swabs and 95.8% (23/24) in meat. The prevalence of Lm in cloacal samples was significantly associated with poultry type (p = 0.008) and breed (p = 0.000. In addition, all the flocks had at least one positive sample yielding 100% flock prevalence. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that most of the isolates were resistant to common antibiotics like Ampicillin-cloxacillin and cefuroxime. The results revealed a high level of contamination with Lm in the poultry flock and meat and the observed resistance to most common antibiotics has implications for future disease control as well as public health. There is need to step up routine screening of food animal products for Listeria contamination as well as measures towards reducing such contaminations.

  8. Oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues in cattle slaughtered in south-western Nigeria: Implications for livestock disease management and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in south-western Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA. The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 µ/kg ± 3.24 µ/kg; liver: 12.73 µ/kg ± 4.39 µ/kg; muscle: 16.17 µ/kg ± 5.52 µ/kg and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 µ/kg ± 2.46 µ/kg; liver: 8.5 µ/kg ± 2.80 µ/kg; muscle: 11.67 µ/kg ± 2.94 µ/kg in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38 were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney – findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline and 0.017% (penicillin-G of the acceptable daily intake (ADI. Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised.

  9. Oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues in cattle slaughtered in south-western Nigeria: implications for livestock disease management and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Agada, Charity A; Adetunji, Victoria O; Akanbi, Ibikunle M

    2013-01-01

    After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in south-western Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 µ/kg ± 3.24 µ/kg; liver: 12.73 µ/kg ± 4.39 µ/kg; muscle: 16.17 µ/kg ± 5.52 µ/kg) and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 µ/kg ± 2.46 µ/kg; liver: 8.5 µ/kg ± 2.80 µ/kg; muscle: 11.67 µ/kg ± 2.94 µ/kg) in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38) were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney – findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline) and 0.017% (penicillin-G) of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised.

  10. Land Cover Characterization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover mapping. The USGS Anderson system defined the principles for land use and land cover mapping that have been the model both nationally and internationally for more than 20 years. The Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP) is founded on the premise that the Nation's needs for land cover and land use data are diverse and increasingly sophisticated. The range of projects, programs, and organizations that use land cover data to meet their planning, management, development, and assessment objectives has expanded significantly. The reasons for this are numerous, and include the improved capabilities provided by geographic information systems, better and more data-intensive analytic models, and increasing requirements for improved information for decision making. The overall goals of the LCCP are to:

  11. Land Cover Trends Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  12. Flat covers of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinzhong

    1996-01-01

    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  13. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  14. Biomassa, decomposição e cobertura do solo ocasionada por resíduos culturais de três espécies vegetais na região centro-oeste do Brasil Biomass, decomposition and soil cover by residues of three plant species in central- western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Adriano Boer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a crescente adoção da semeadura direta na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, faz-se necessário maior conhecimento sobre as plantas de cobertura para produção de palha. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de biomassa verde e seca, a percentagem de cobertura do solo, bem como a dinâmica da decomposição da palhada de três espécies de plantas de cobertura em safrinha: amaranto (Amaranthus cruentus L. BRS Alegria, milheto (Pennisetum glaucum L. var. ADR500 e capim-pé-de-galinha [Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn.]. O trabalho foi conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico textura argilosa. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram alocadas as espécies, subdivididas em nove épocas de avaliação (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 e 240 dias após dessecação química das espécies em estudo. Amostras proporcionais da biomassa seca de cada espécie foram acondicionadas em bolsas de decomposição, que foram dispostas sobre o solo, sendo coletadas a cada 30 dias e pesadas até 240 dias após a instalação, para avaliar a dinâmica de decomposição, após o manejo das plantas de cobertura. O milheto ADR500 e o capim-pé-de-galinha proporcionaram maior produção de biomassa verde e seca, maior cobertura do solo e menores taxas de decomposição da palhada, não diferindo entre si. O milheto ADR500 apresentou maior relação C/N, seguido pelo capim-pé-de-galinha e amaranto. Ajustaram-se, para a percentagem de cobertura do solo e a decomposição de palhadas com o tempo, os modelos sigmoidal e exponencial decrescente, respectivamente. O milheto ADR500 e o capim-pé-de-galinha apresentaram comportamentos semelhantes, não diferindo na comparação dos modelos de cobertura do solo e decomposição de palhadas.With the prevalence of no-till systems in Central-Western Brazil, a more in-depth knowledge

  15. Western Dilemma

    CERN Multimedia

    Sampson,A

    1977-01-01

    L'association du personnel présente Anthony Sampson, écrivain connu dans le monde entier par ses nombreux ouvrages et publications (International Harold Tribune, Observer, News Week). Il nous parle du commerce des armes et du Moyen Orient.

  16. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  17. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  18. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  19. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  20. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  1. Projected 2020 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Projected 2020 land cover was developed to provide one scenario of development in the year 2020. It was used to generate several metrics to compare to 1992 metrics...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3121(j)-1 - Covered transportation service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Covered transportation service. 31.3121(j)-1... § 31.3121(j)-1 Covered transportation service. (a) Transportation systems acquired in whole or in part... operation of a public transportation system constitutes covered transportation service if any part of...

  3. On Some Issues in Network Public Opinion Guidance in China' s Western Minority Regions%我国西部少数民族地区网络舆情引导中值得注意的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀丽

    2015-01-01

    我国西部少数民族地区网络舆情受到意识形态和文化因素的影响,面临着诸多困境。由于境外舆论场中大量虚假和带有煽动性的不良信息的影响,加之宗教极端势力利用网络媒体的隐蔽性进行渗透,增加了舆情引导的难度。做好我国西部少数民族地区网络舆情引导,应高度重视网络意识形态主导权,增强马克思主义意识形态网络建设,通过提升主流媒体的舆论引导能力和重点增强媒体对西部少数民族地区群体性事件的舆论引导,来加强民族地区网络媒体对网络舆情的引导能力;通过加强政府网站建设力度和舆论引导人才队伍建设,增强政府对网络舆情的引导和管理;通过高度重视少数民族语言网站的舆情引导,并做好民族政策,宗教政策的网络舆情引导工作,压缩境外敌对势力的舆论空间。%The network public opinion guidance in China' s western minority regions is confronted with many complex problems under the influence of their ideology and culture. Overseas consensus is full of false, demagogic and wicked information, which makes it more difficult to guide network public opinion. To do the work well, we should pay more attention to the network ideology dominance, strengthen network Marxism construction, and enhance the network pub⁃lic opinion guidance by network media in minority regions, reinforce the government webs construction and media tal⁃ents, enhance the guidance and management of government on public opinions, focus on minority web sites, carry out minority policies, and compress the public opinions space from hostile forces.

  4. Combining top-down and bottom-up modelling approaches of land use/cover change to support public policies: Application to sustainable management of natural resources in northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castella, J.C.; Suan Pheng Kam,; Dang Dinh Quang,; Verburg, P.H.; Chu Thai Hoanh,

    2007-01-01

    Over recent years, the scientific community has developed different modelling methodologies of land use/cover change (LUCC) depending on their intended use, and also on the scale of investigation, disciplinary background and scientific tradition of the research teams. Consequently, each LUCC model h

  5. Public Libraries in Norway Help Non-Western Immigrant Women to Integrate into Society. A Review of: Audunson, R., Essmat, S., & Aabø, S. (2011. Public libraries: A meeting place for immigrant women? Library & Information Science Research, 33(3, 220-227. doi: 10.1016/j.lisr.2011.01.003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Oxborrow

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – To discover the ways in which the public library was used by immigrant women, with a particular focus on the library as a meeting place.Design – Semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted in the participants’ native languages.Setting – Public libraries in Norway. Participants lived in one of two cities both with a population of approximately 40,000 and a somewhat lower number of immigrants than the national average.Subjects – Nine non-western women who had immigrated to Norway between 8 months and 17 years prior to the study. Three women were from Iran, Kurdistan and Afghanistan respectively. All identified themselves as public library users.Methods – Participants were interviewed in their native languages and the qualitative results were analyzed in accordance with the theoretical framework set out by the authors. The main areas of focus were the role of the library in the generation of social capital, and the library as a high intensive versus low intensive meeting place.Main Results – Participants used public libraries in various ways. In the initial stages of life in a new country they were used to observe and learn about the majority culture and language. They were also used as a safe place to openly grieve and provide comfort among close friends without fear of being seen by other fellow countrymen. Over time, participants came to use the library space in more traditional ways such as for information, social, and professional needs. The study also revealed that using public libraries built trust in the institution of libraries and librarians as employees.Conclusions – The public library plays a key role in the generation of social capital, both in terms of integrating into the majority culture through observation and spontaneous interactions (bridging social capital and connecting with others from participants’ home cultures (bonding social capital for example through the provision of social space and

  6. 歐美公共圖書館地方文獻之徵集及其服務型態探討 | Acquisition and Services of Local Documents in Public Libraries of Western Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳昭珍 Chao-Chen Chen

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:57-64

    本文主要在介紹歐美公共圖書館地方文獻收集的範圍、方法、居民使用情形及網站服務現況,以供國內公共圖書館之參考。

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce acquisition method, usage and web services of local document in public libraries of western countries.

  7. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  8. Reusable pipe flange covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, James Elliott (Simpsonville, SC); Perez, Julieta (Houston, TX)

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  9. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  10. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  11. Covering All Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The day a school opens its doors for the first time, the flooring will be new and untarnished. When the flooring is in such pristine condition, many flooring materials--carpeting, vinyl, terrazzo, wood or some other surface--will look good. But school and university planners who decide what kind of material covers the floors of their facilities…

  12. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  13. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  14. 22 CFR 171.41 - Covered employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC Ethics in Government Act Provisions § 171.41 Covered employees. (a) Officers and employees (including special Government employees as defined in 18 U.S.C. 202) whose positions are classified at...

  15. ACS Magazine Cover Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    New cockpit displays make use of cathode-ray-tube (CRT) technology, the method used to create images on TVs and computer screens. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 113), by James Schultz.

  16. Singular coverings of toposes

    CERN Document Server

    Bunge, Marta

    2006-01-01

    The self-contained theory of certain singular coverings of toposes called complete spreads, that is presented in this volume, is a field of interest to topologists working in knot theory, as well as to various categorists. It extends the complete spreads in topology due to R. H. Fox (1957) but, unlike the classical theory, it emphasizes an unexpected connection with topos distributions in the sense of F. W. Lawvere (1983). The constructions, though often motivated by classical theories, are sometimes quite different from them. Special classes of distributions and of complete spreads, inspired respectively by functional analysis and topology, are studied. Among the former are the probability distributions; the branched coverings are singled out amongst the latter. This volume may also be used as a textbook for an advanced one-year graduate course introducing topos theory with an emphasis on geometric applications. Throughout the authors emphasize open problems. Several routine proofs are left as exercises, but...

  17. On directed coverings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    In [1], we study coverings in the setting of directed topology. Unfortunately, there is a condition missing in the definition of a directed covering. Some of the results in [1] require this extra condition and in fact it was claimed to follow from the original definition. It is the purpose...... of this note to give the right definition and point out how this affects the statements in that paper. Moreover, we give an example of a dicovering in the sense of [1], which does not satisfy the extra condition. Fortunately, with the extra condition, the subsequent results are now correct. [1] L. Fajstrup......, Dicovering spaces, Homology Homotopy Appl. 5 (2003), no. 2, 1-17....

  18. Covering R-trees

    CERN Document Server

    Berestovskii, V N

    2007-01-01

    We show that every inner metric space X is the metric quotient of a complete R-tree via a free isometric action, which we call the covering R-tree of X. The quotient mapping is a weak submetry (hence, open) and light. In the case of compact 1-dimensional geodesic space X, the free isometric action is via a subgroup of the fundamental group of X. In particular, the Sierpin'ski gasket and carpet, and the Menger sponge all have the same covering R-tree, which is complete and has at each point valency equal to the continuum. This latter R-tree is of particular interest because it is "universal" in at least two senses: First, every R-tree of valency at most the continuum can be isometrically embedded in it. Second, every Peano continuum is the image of it via an open light mapping. We provide a sketch of our previous construction of the uniform universal cover in the special case of inner metric spaces, the properties of which are used in the proof.

  19. ‘Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials’: Discordant discourses between western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE JESUS, Maria; CARRETE, Claudia; MAINE, Cathleen; NALLS, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the United States and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than U.S.-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women’s HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington DC Metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one’s spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one’s family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one’s spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  20. "Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials": discordant discourses between Western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC, has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the USA, and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than US-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women's HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to Western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one's spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one's family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one's spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed.

  1. 45 CFR 309.55 - What does this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does this subpart cover? 309.55 Section 309.55 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD... SERVICES TRIBAL CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (IV-D) PROGRAM Tribal IV-D Plan Requirements § 309.55 What does...

  2. Land Use Patterns and Fecal Contamination of Coastal Waters in Western Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norat, Jose

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Environmental Health of the Graduate School of Public Health of the Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico (UPR-RCM) conducted this research project on how different patterns of land use affect the microbiological quality of rivers flowing into Mayaguez Bay in Western Puerto Rico. Coastal shellfish growing areas, stream and ocean bathing beaches, and pristine marine sites in the Bay are affected by the discharge of the three study rivers. Satellite imagery was used to study watershed land uses which serve as point and nonpoint sources of pathogens affecting stream and coastal water users. The study rivers drain watersheds of different size and type of human activity (including different human waste treatment and disposal facilities). Land use and land cover in the study watersheds were interpreted, classified and mapped using remotely sensed images from NASA's Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). This study found there is a significant relationship between watershed land cover and microbiological water quality of rivers flowing into Mayaguez Bay in Western Puerto Rico. Land covers in the Guanajibo, Anasco, and Yaguez watersheds were classified into forested areas, pastures, agricultural zones and urban areas so as to determine relative contributions to fecal water contamination. The land cover classification was made processing TM images with IDRISI and ERDAS software.

  3. Corporate actors in Western European television news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    News about corporations can be understood as an interdependent relationship among the public relations function, organizational logic and the logic of the media. This research addresses the visibility and role of corporate actors in Western European public television news. A quantitative content ana

  4. Corporate actors in Western European television news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    News about corporations can be understood as an interdependent relationship among the public relations function, organizational logic and the logic of the media. This research addresses the visibility and role of corporate actors in Western European public television news. A quantitative content

  5. Cover of tall trees best predicts California spotted owl habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm P. North; Jonathan T. Kane; Van R. Kane; Gregory P. Asner; William Berigan; Derek J. Churchill; Scott Conway; R.J. Gutiérrez; Sean Jeronimo; John Keane; Alexander Koltunov; Tina Mark; Monika Moskal; Thomas Munton; Zachary Peery; Carlos Ramirez; Rahel Sollmann; Angela White; Sheila Whitmore

    2017-01-01

    Restoration of western dry forests in the USA often focuses on reducing fuel loads. In the range of the spotted owl, these treatments may reduce canopy cover and tree density, which could reduce preferred habitat conditions for the owl and other sensitive species. In particular, high canopy cover (≥70%) has been widely reported to be an important feature of spotted owl...

  6. Covered Clause Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  7. Going public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem...... deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific...... conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand...

  8. Going public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem...... deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific...... conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand...

  9. Covering walks in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fujie, Futaba

    2014-01-01

    Covering Walks  in Graphs is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the graph theory community and provides a comprehensive treatment on measures of two well studied graphical properties, namely Hamiltonicity and traversability in graphs. This text looks into the famous Kӧnigsberg Bridge Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, the Icosian Game and the Traveling Salesman Problem as well as well-known mathematicians who were involved in these problems. The concepts of different spanning walks with examples and present classical results on Hamiltonian numbers and upper Hamiltonian numbers of graphs are described; in some cases, the authors provide proofs of these results to illustrate the beauty and complexity of this area of research. Two new concepts of traceable numbers of graphs and traceable numbers of vertices of a graph which were inspired by and closely related to Hamiltonian numbers are introduced. Results are illustrated on these two concepts and the relationship between traceable concepts and...

  10. Western Slope of Andes, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Along the western flank of the Andes, 400 km SE of Lima Peru, erosion has carved the mountain slopes into long, narrow serpentine ridges. The gently-sloping sediments have been turned into a plate of worms wiggling their way downhill to the ocean. The image was acquired September 28, 2004, covers an area of 38 x 31.6 km, and is located near 14.7 degrees south latitude, 74.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  12. The exclusion of 'public undertakings' from the re-use of public sector information regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricolfi, M.; Drexl, J.; van Eechoud, M.; Salmeron, M.; Sappa, C.; Tziavos, P.; Valero, J.; Pavoni, F.; Patrito, P.

    2011-01-01

    Should public undertakings be covered by the PSI Directive? The definitions of public sector bodies and bodies governed by public law, to which the PSI Directive applies, are currently taken from the public procurement Directives and public undertakings are not covered by these definitions. Should p

  13. Transferability of decision trees for land cover classification in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GChandler

    1Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Stellenbosch ... 2School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia ... results, a normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) threshold was applied to each scene. This ... The value of multi-temporal imagery for land cover classification was also.

  14. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements, 30 September 1995 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1995 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided.

  15. Space Constrained Dynamic Covering

    CERN Document Server

    Antonellis, Ioannis; Dughmi, Shaddin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we identify a fundamental algorithmic problem that we term space-constrained dynamic covering (SCDC), arising in many modern-day web applications, including ad-serving and online recommendation systems in eBay and Netflix. Roughly speaking, SCDC applies two restrictions to the well-studied Max-Coverage problem: Given an integer k, X={1,2,...,n} and I={S_1, ..., S_m}, S_i a subset of X, find a subset J of I, such that |J| <= k and the union of S in J is as large as possible. The two restrictions applied by SCDC are: (1) Dynamic: At query-time, we are given a query Q, a subset of X, and our goal is to find J such that the intersection of Q with the union of S in J is as large as possible; (2) Space-constrained: We don't have enough space to store (and process) the entire input; specifically, we have o(mn), sometimes even as little as O((m+n)polylog(mn)) space. The goal of SCDC is to maintain a small data structure so as to answer most dynamic queries with high accuracy. We present algorithms a...

  16. Public Artopia: Art in Public Space in Question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zebracki, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis provides further insight into the interrelationships between artwork, public space and beholder. Public art has been a burgeoning phenomenon across cities in the Western world since the late 1940s. Various claims have been produced about what public art ‘does’ to people in certa

  17. Cover crops and N credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  18. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  19. On L-injective Covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德旭

    2004-01-01

    We use the class of L-injective modules to define L-injective covers, and provide the characterizations of L-injective covers by the properties of kernels of homomorphisms. We prove that the right L-noetherian right L-hereditary ring is just such that every right R-module has an L-injective cover which is monic. We also use kernels of homomorphisms to investigate L-simple L-injective covers and give some constructions ofL-simple L-iniective covers.

  20. Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of High Homocysteine Levels Among Low-Income Rural Kazakh and Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Its Implications for Preventive Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Homocysteine (Hcy is a relevant biomarker of vascular disease: serum Hcy concentrations will increase the risk of systolic hypertension, whereas hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy has a synergistic effect with hypertension and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, information has primarily been gathered from high-income and urban settings, and little is known regarding low-income rural settings. This study focused on a low-income rural and nomadic minority residing in far western China. Hcy levels were tested, and the prevalences of HHcy and H-type hypertension were investigated in this population. Methods: This study used a stratified cluster random sampling method, selecting 2,180 individuals as subjects from Kazakh and Uyghur inhabitants (≥25 years old of 18 villages in Xinjiang, China, which is approximately 4407 km from the capital, Beijing. Hcy levels were determined using a double reagent enzymatic cycling method. HHcy (Hcy > 10 μmol/L was defined by the criteria of the American Heart Association. Results: The Kazakh geometrical mean of Hcy was 13.34 μmol/L, and the Uyghur mean was 13.75 μmol/L; the mean values were higher in males than in females of both ethnicities (15.99 μmol/L vs. 11.63 μmol/L; 15.71 μmol/L vs. 11.91 μmol/L, respectively, p < 0.01. The serum levels of Hcy increased with increasing age in both ethnicities, and except for Kazakh individuals >65 years old, Hcy serum levels were higher in males than in females in all age groups of both ethnicities, with a p value less than 0.01. The Kazakh prevalence of HHcy was 80.0%, and the Uyghur prevalence was 78.2%; the male prevalence was higher than that in females for both ethnicities (93.5% vs. 69.6%; 90.8% vs. 64.6%, respectively, p < 0.05. Among the Kazakh, the prevalence of hypertension was 35.1%, and the prevalence was higher in males than in females (44.3% vs. 28.1%, p < 0.001; 87.6% of the Kazakh individuals had H-type hypertension, and the

  1. Evaluación del estudio de contactos de tuberculosis: Servicio de Salud Metropolitano Occidente. 1994-2008 Evaluation of the study of tuberculosis contacts in Western Public Health Service of Santiago de Chile: 1994-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Pickett S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la evaluación de 15 anos del estudio de contactos de tuberculosis (TBC del Servicio de Salud Metropolitano Occidente de la Región Metropolitana, correspondiente alperíodo 1994-2008, en el que se observa una mejoría creciente de la cobertura de estos estudios, la que incluso superó la meta propuesta por el Ministerio de Salud. El método utilizado para esta investigación consistió en el análisis retrospectivo de los casos ingresados en el período. Para la definición de contacto sano o enfermo se tomó como referencia el Manual de Organización y Normas Técnicas y el Manual de Procedimientos para la Atención Primaria del Programa Nacional de Control de la Tuberculosis de Chile. Se analizó 9.344 contactos intra-domiciliarios y habituales extra-domiciliarios, que correspondieron a 2.129 casos indices de adultos con TBC pulmonar con bacteriología positiva y casos indices infantiles de TBC en todas sus formas. Se evaluó la cobertura, morbilidad, diagnóstico de casos TBC y quimioprofilaxis efectuadas. El estudio de contactos es probablemente la actividad de pesquisa tuberculosa focalizada de mayor rendimiento del Programa de Control. En el menor de 15 anos de edad, este estudio permite pesquisar infecciones recientes, que tratadas adecuadamente con quimioprofilaxis, evitan la aparición de nuevos enfermos y la mantención de la cadena de transmisión de la enfermedad.The evaluation of 15 years of study of TB contacts done in the western area of the Public Health Service of Santiago de Chile, 1994-2008, is presented. During this period an improvement on the coverage of this studies -even beyond the Ministry of Health aims- was observed. For this purpose the retrospective analysis of cases incorporated during the period was used. For definitions of healthy or diseased contact we followed the Manual of Tuberculosis of the National Tuberculosis Control Program of Chile. 9,344 intra-domicilliary and extra-domicilliary contacts

  2. Public Accountancy Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern public accountancy practice in New York State is presented. In addition to identifying licensing requirements/procedures for certified public accountants, general provisions of Title VIII of the Education Law are covered, along with state management, professional misconduct, and…

  3. Public Accountancy Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern public accountancy practice in New York State is presented. In addition to identifying licensing requirements/procedures for certified public accountants, general provisions of Title VIII of the Education Law are covered, along with state management, professional misconduct, and…

  4. 西方公共管理理论比较研究——兼论其在我国的适用性价值%A Comparative Research into Theory of the Western Public Management and its Feasible Value in our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑞

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of development framework of the theory of the Western public management is researched into from conventional public administration,to modern public management,and to full governance,intending to explore general principle and value in the field of public management.Considering present developing state of our country,the rational bureaucracy of the traditional public administration,the key part of market-orientate of the modern public management,cooperation of full governance and the integrative concept combine to make the system reform of the administrative management of our country with the function of reference and revelation.%对西方公共管理理论的发展脉络从传统公共行政到新公共管理再到整体性治理进行了比较分析,寻找公共管理领域的一般性原则与价值。结合我国的发展现状,传统公共行政的理性官僚制、新公共管理的市场导向核心、整体性治理的协同与整合理念都对我国的行政管理体制改革具有借鉴与启示作用。

  5. Long-term aridity changes in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Edward R; Woodhouse, Connie A; Eakin, C Mark; Meko, David M; Stahle, David W

    2004-11-01

    The western United States is experiencing a severe multiyear drought that is unprecedented in some hydroclimatic records. Using gridded drought reconstructions that cover most of the western United States over the past 1200 years, we show that this drought pales in comparison to an earlier period of elevated aridity and epic drought in AD 900 to 1300, an interval broadly consistent with the Medieval Warm Period. If elevated aridity in the western United States is a natural response to climate warming, then any trend toward warmer temperatures in the future could lead to a serious long-term increase in aridity over western North America.

  6. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  7. Migrant Farmworkers in Western New York, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ruth C.; And Others

    To provide current demographic and needs assessment information for public and private agencies serving migrants, a survey was conducted among farmers and the migrant workers they employed. Of 228 migrant labor camps in western and central New York, 57 were selected for study by a stratified random sampling procedure which assured adequate…

  8. Dualities in Covering Rough Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Rough set theory is a technique of granular computing. In this paper, we study a type of generalized rough sets based on covering. There are several literatures[ 1,40-43 ] exploring covering-based rough sets. Our focus of this paper is on the dualities in rough operations.

  9. High plains cover crop research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some recent statements have been made about the benefits of growing cover crops in mixtures as compared with single-species plantings of cover crops. Those stated benefits have included greatly reduced water use, enhanced soil microbiological activity, increased biomass productivity, and enhanced wa...

  10. Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect/maintain the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops. Cover crops are effective tools for reducing soil erosion and increasing nutrient recycling on farmlands, ...

  11. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  12. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  13. Is Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom

    2016-03-31

    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia.Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel.Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery.Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the training

  14. Precipitation Frequency Atlas of the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Precipitation Frequency of the Western United States publication is an eleven volume set held in the archives. It was the culmination of many years of...

  15. Western Retrospections and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the 10-year anniversary of the strategy on development of China’s western region. With a land area of 6.85 million square km, accounting for 71.4 percent of the country’s total, the western region has been an indispensable part in achieving China’s overall prosperity and

  16. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAOLianying; LIUGuizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G).S E(G)is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S.The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xc(G),is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G.It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ,δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xcf(G),is the fractional matiching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hypereges the edge covers of G.In this paper,we study the relation between Xc(G) and δfor any graph G,and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ by the technique of graph coloring.For any graph G,we give an exact formula o Xcf(G),that is,Xcf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)},where λ(G)=minCS/S/2 and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.δ

  17. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Lianying; LIU Guizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G). S _C E(G) is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S. The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'c(G) , is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G. It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ, δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'cf(G), is the fractional matching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hyperedges the edge covers of G. In this paper, we study the relation between X'c(G) and δ for any graph G, and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ by the technique of graph coloring. For any graph G, we give an exact formula of X'cf(G), that is, X'cf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)}, where λ(G)=min |C[S]|/[|S|/2]and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.

  18. Determining Covers in Combinational Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Cvetkovic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a procedure for determining 0- or 1-cover of an arbitrary line in a combinational circuit. When determining a cover we do not need Boolean expression for the line; only the circuit structure is used. Within the proposed procedure we use the tools of the cube theory, in particular, some operations defined on cubes. The procedure can be applied for determining 0- and 1- covers of output lines in programmable logic devices. Basically, this procedure is a method for the analysis of a combinational circuit.

  19. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of hepatic B virus(HBV)infection is the result of complex interactions between replicating HBV and the innate/adaptive immune system.As an important lectin complement pathway activator,human ficolin-2 is secreted from liver cells and contributes to the clearance of viral infections and lysis of enveloped virions,which has been implicated as an anti-infection innate immune molecule.In this issue,a research group lead by Drs.XiaoLian Zhang and Fengling Luo,investigated the serum and liver tissue ficolin-2

  20. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>This issue of Virologica Sinica is to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of "filterable lytic factor" or "bacteriophage"(1915-2015).During the past 100 years,both basic knowledge and applications of bacteriophages have been substantially explored and developed.In recent years,bacteriophage research is booming and holding the hope

  1. Cover

    OpenAIRE

    Frontiers of Biogeography, Editorial Office

    2017-01-01

    Frontiers of Biogeography new logo. This logo feeds on the theme created for the new IBS corporate image, and represents four overlapping hypervolumes in the form of a butterfly’s wings, flying over four niche response curves in the form of hills, mountains and the sea (see Dawson et al. in this issue for details).

  2. Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Soybean growth habit is an important agronomic trait,and related genes have been cloned recently,while the variation of the major gene and how this gene was selected during the soybean breeding in China remain unknown.In the diverse soybean germplasm,it is hard to distinguish the determinate from the semi‐determinate phenotype.The development of functional Indel and CAPS markers from the Gm Tfl1 gene of the Dt1 locus makes it possible to evaluate genotype of the germplasm.The different allele

  3. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV)infection remains a major global health problem because current therapies rarely eliminate the replicative template of HBV,which is the covalently closed circular DNA(ccc DNA).As an accurate and efficient genome editing tool,clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat(CRISPR)-associated(Cas)9 system represents a very promising potential

  4. 42 CFR 50.404 - What disputes are covered by these procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What disputes are covered by these procedures? 50.404 Section 50.404 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Public Health Service Grant Appeals Procedure § 50.404 What disputes are...

  5. GAP Land Cover - Tiled Raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  6. Forest Cover Types - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays general forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images...

  7. Land-cover change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  8. Good covers are algorithmically unrecognizable

    CERN Document Server

    Tancer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A good cover in R^d is a collection of open contractible sets in R^d such that the intersection of any subcollection is either contractible or empty. Motivated by an analogy with convex sets, intersection patterns of good covers were studied intensively. Our main result is that intersection patterns of good covers are algorithmically unrecognizable. More precisely, the intersection pattern of a good cover can be stored in a simplicial complex called nerve which records which subfamilies of the good cover intersect. A simplicial complex is topologically d-representable if it is isomorphic to the nerve of a good cover in R^d. We prove that it is algorithmically undecidable whether a given simplicial complex is topologically d-representable for any fixed d \\geq 5. As an auxiliary result we prove that if a simplicial complex is PL embeddable into R^d, then it is topologically d-representable. We also supply this result with showing that if a "sufficiently fine" subdivision of a k-dimensional complex is d-represen...

  9. Assessing canopy cover over streets and sidewalks in street tree populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.E. Maco; E.G. McPherson

    2002-01-01

    Total canopy cover and canopy cover over street and sidewalk surfaces were estimated for street trees in Davis, California, U.S. Calculations were made using simple trigonometric equations based on the results of a sample inventory. Canopy cover from public trees over streets and sidewalks varied between 4% and 46% by city zone, averaging 14% citywide. Consideration of...

  10. New Public Management in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ch. Pollitt (Christopher); S. van Thiel (Sandra); V.M.F. Homburg (Vincent)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractNew Public Management (NPM) is the label which many academics have given to a series of reforms from the 1980s onwards, to improve the efficiency and performance of western governments and/or public sector organizations. Examples are the development of performance indicators and benchmar

  11. Western Food in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    AS the Chinese saying goes, "Ask for local custom when you enter a foreign country." Western food’s first introduction to China in the 17th century was accompanied with its adoption to Chinese dining habits. Western food was introduced into China in large scale during the mid-19th and early 20th centuries. However, as early as the 17th century Western missionaries and envoys were introducing food from their homeland to upper-class Chinese as a means of paying tribute or

  12. Violence the Western way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  13. 41 CFR 102-3.45 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.45 Section 102-3.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-3.45 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? Requirements for establishing...

  14. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  15. 41 CFR 102-3.135 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.135 Section 102-3.135 Public Contracts and Property Management... this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart establishes policies and procedures relating...

  16. 41 CFR 102-3.180 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.180 Section 102-3.180 Public Contracts and Property Management... What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides guidance to agencies...

  17. Diseases of Ornamental and Shade Trees, Shrubs, Vines, and Ground Covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lester P.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University covers the identification and control of common ornamental trees, shrubs, and ground cover diseases. The publication is divided into sections. The first section discusses the diseases of ornamental and shade trees, including general diseases and diseases of specific…

  18. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  19. Intercultural communication: Differences between Western and Asian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Linh

    2016-01-01

    The thesis focused differences in intercultural communication from Western and Asian perspective. The goal of this thesis was to find the differences and similarities in business communication between Western and Asian culture. The theoretical part of this thesis was titled as intercultural communication. Definition of intercultural communication, culture’s influence on perception, obstacles in intercultural communication and inter-cultural communication competences were covered in this...

  20. Covering Numbers for Convex Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Guntuboyina, Adityanand

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the covering numbers of the space of convex and uniformly bounded functions in multi-dimension. We find optimal upper and lower bounds for the $\\epsilon$-covering number of $\\C([a, b]^d, B)$, in the $L_p$-metric, $1 \\le p 0$, and $\\C([a,b]^d, B)$ denotes the set of all convex functions on $[a, b]^d$ that are uniformly bounded by $B$. We summarize previously known results on covering numbers for convex functions and also provide alternate proofs of some known results. Our results have direct implications in the study of rates of convergence of empirical minimization procedures as well as optimal convergence rates in the numerous convexity constrained function estimation problems.

  1. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  2. Development of 2010 national land cover database for the Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Kabir; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta; Gilani, Hammad; Pradhan, Sudip; Dangol, Bikash

    2015-01-15

    Land cover and its change analysis across the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is realized as an urgent need to support diverse issues of environmental conservation. This study presents the first and most complete national land cover database of Nepal prepared using public domain Landsat TM data of 2010 and replicable methodology. The study estimated that 39.1% of Nepal is covered by forests and 29.83% by agriculture. Patch and edge forests constituting 23.4% of national forest cover revealed proximate biotic interferences over the forests. Core forests constituted 79.3% of forests of Protected areas where as 63% of area was under core forests in the outside protected area. Physiographic regions wise forest fragmentation analysis revealed specific conservation requirements for productive hill and mid mountain regions. Comparative analysis with Landsat TM based global land cover product showed difference of the order of 30-60% among different land cover classes stressing the need for significant improvements for national level adoption. The online web based land cover validation tool is developed for continual improvement of land cover product. The potential use of the data set for national and regional level sustainable land use planning strategies and meeting several global commitments also highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Kummer covers and braid monodromy

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Enrique Artal; Ortigas-Galindo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In this work we describe a method to reconstruct the braid monodromy of the preimage of a curve by a Kummer cover. This method is interesting, since it combines two techniques, namely, the reconstruction of a highly non-generic braid monodromy with a systematic method to go from a non-generic to a generic braid monodromy. This "generification" method is independent from Kummer covers and can be applied in more general circumstances since non generic braid monodromies appear more naturally and are oftentimes much easier to compute. Explicit examples are computed using these techniques.

  4. Challenging Assumptions of International Public Relations: When Government Is the Most Important Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maureen; Kent, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores assumptions underlying Malaysia's and the United States' public-relations practice. Finds many assumptions guiding Western theories and practices are not applicable to other countries. Examines the assumption that the practice of public relations targets a variety of key organizational publics. Advances international public-relations…

  5. 西汉京师长安的社会治安问题%The Public Security Problem in the Capital of Chang'an in the Western Han Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤谷香; 谢彦明

    2012-01-01

    "京师难理"是历代封建政府的共识。西汉京师是政府治安管理的重点地区,但偷盗、劫持、杀人等刑事案件与主守自盗、贪汙营私、受赇枉法等经济犯罪却比地方高。探其原因,不仅与京师的特殊社会结构有关,而且与长安管理体制漏洞、政府迁豪政策以及现行秩序不公平(特别是财富分配不均)等因素密切相关。%It was the common sense that "It is difficult to govern the capital".The capital of Changan was the key area for governing in the Western Han Dynasty.But the crimes of stealing,robbing,killing,corruptions and bribing in the capital were more serious than the other areas.The reasons for this were not only the special social relationships of the area,but also the shortcomings in the governing system,inequality in distribution of wealth and some other factors.

  6. Gambia Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  7. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  8. Covering Numbers for Semicontinuous Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    di Matematica pura ed applicata, CLX:303–320, 1991. [3] H. Attouch and R. J-B Wets. A convergence theory for saddle functions. Transactions of the...P. L. Bartlett, J. Shawe-Taylor, and R. C. Williamson. Covering numbers for support vector machines. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 48(1

  9. 31 CFR 370.0 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this part cover? 370.0 Section 370.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS AND FUNDS...

  10. Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-01-01

    Electrophoresis and the following western blot analysis are indispensable to investigate biochemical changes in cells and tissues exposed to nanoparticles or nanomaterials. Proteins should be extracted from the cells and tissues using a proper method, especially when phosphorylated proteins are to be detected. It is important to select a good blocking agent and an appropriate pair of primary and peroxidase-tagged secondary antibodies to obtain good results in western blot analysis. One thing that may be specific to nanomaterials, and that you should keep in mind, is that some proteins may be adsorbed on the surface of particulate nanomaterials. In this chapter the whole process of western blot analysis, from sample preparation to quantitative measurement of target proteins, is described.

  11. Rings dominate western Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  12. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  13. 农村党组织创新公共服务职能:背景、路径与经验——基于豫西Z村的个案分析%Research on the Innovative Construction of Public Service Functions of Rural Party Organization:Background,Path and Experience——Case Study of Village Z in Western Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付建军

    2012-01-01

    农村社区化建设和公共服务下沉要求农村党组织进行功能转型,创新公共服务职能。豫西Z村党组织在公共服务职能建设中进行了创新实践,表现为建立"民事村办"服务体制、实施"金喇叭"和"金钥匙"工程三个方面,并形成了以服务为导向、党员为主体、村民为动力三位一体的公共服务建设的个案经验。总体来看,Z村党组织创新实践的个案经验属于自我生长型的草根经验,这种草根经验不同于政府主导型经验,它来源于农村和农民,在实践中更具有生命力和适用性。%The rural communities construction and public service down to the grassroots level require the rural party organization to innovate its public service functions.On the innovative practices of public service function,Village Z in western Henan province has set up service system of "solving villagers' problems at the village level","golden loudspeaker" project and "golden keys" project,which form a trinity of service-oriented rural public service,Communist Party member guidance and villagers as motivation.In general,the innovative practice of Village Z is a grass-roots experience from rural areas and villagers rather than government-leading experience,so it has greater vitality and applicability in practice.

  14. 36 CFR 222.51 - National Forests in 16 Western States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forests in 16 Western States. 222.51 Section 222.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing Fees § 222.51 National Forests in 16 Western States. (a) Grazing fees...

  15. Managed Clearings: an Unaccounted Land-cover in Urbanizing Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. K.; Madden, M.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2016-12-01

    Managed clearings (MC), such as lawns, public parks and grassy transportation medians, are a common and ecologically important land cover type in urbanizing regions, especially those characterized by sprawl. We hypothesize that MC is underrepresented in land cover classification schemes and data products such as NLCD (National Land Cover Database) data, which may impact environmental assessments and models of urban ecosystems. We visually interpreted and mapped fine scale land cover with special attention to MC using 2012 NAIP (National Agriculture Imagery Program) images and compared the output with NLCD data. Areas sampled were 50 randomly distributed 1*1km blocks of land in three cities of the Char-lanta mega-region (Atlanta, Charlotte, and Raleigh). We estimated the abundance of MC relative to other land cover types, and the proportion of land-cover types in NLCD data that are similar to MC. We also assessed if the designations of recreation, transportation, and utility in MC inform the problem differently than simply tallying MC as a whole. 610 ground points, collected using the Google Earth, were used to evaluate accuracy of NLCD data and visual interpretation for consistency. Overall accuracy of visual interpretation and NLCD data was 78% and 58%, respectively. NLCD data underestimated forest and MC by 14.4km2 and 6.4km2, respectively, while overestimated impervious surfaces by 10.2km2 compared to visual interpretation. MC was the second most dominant land cover after forest (40.5%) as it covered about 28% of the total area and about 13% higher than impervious surfaces. Results also suggested that recreation in MC constitutes up to 90% of area followed by transportation and utility. Due to the prevalence of MC in urbanizing regions, the addition of MC to the synthesis of land-cover data can help delineate realistic cover types and area proportions that could inform ecologic/hydrologic models, and allow for accurate prediction of ecological phenomena.

  16. Thresholds for soil cover and weathering in mountainous landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jean; Benjaram, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    The patterns of soil formation, weathering, and erosion shape terrestrial landscapes, forming the foundation on which ecosystems and human civilizations are built. Several fundamental questions remain regarding how soils evolve, especially in mountainous landscapes where tectonics and climate exert complex forcings on erosion and weathering. In these systems, quantifying weathering is made difficult by the fact that soil cover is discontinuous and heterogeneous. Therefore, studies that attempt to measure soil weathering in such systems face a difficult bias in measurements towards more weathered portions of the landscape. Here, we explore current understanding of erosion-weathering feedbacks, and present new data from mountain systems in Western Montana. Using field mapping, analysis of LiDAR and remotely sensed land-cover data, and soil chemical analyses, we measure soil cover and surface weathering intensity across multiple spatial scales, from the individual soil profile to a landscape perspective. Our data suggest that local emergence of bedrock cover at the surface marks a landscape transition from supply to kinetic weathering regimes in these systems, and highlights the importance of characterizing complex critical zone architecture in mountain landscapes. This work provides new insight into how landscape morphology and erosion may drive important thresholds for soil cover and weathering.

  17. 构建西部铁路发展的政府企业合作框架探讨%Discussion on Constructing the Public-Private Partnership for the Development of Western Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尔玲春

    2001-01-01

    政府企业合作框架,即PPP(Public-Private Partnership),又称公私合营,是适合铁路等准公共物品性质项目的融资及建设经营范式,这是被国际成功经验所证实的.政府企业合作框架在中国西部铁路运营管理和投融资体制创新中能发挥不同的作用,并设计出不同的运营管理方案和融资体制创新思路,提出合作中政府应给予西部地区铁路发展的支持政策.

  18. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  19. Northern goshawk monitoring in the western Great Lakes bioregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Jason E.; Andersen, David E.; Woodford, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainties about factors affecting Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) ecology and the status of populations have added to the challenge of managing this species. To address data needs for determining the status of goshawk populations, Hargis and Woodbridge (2006) developed a bioregional monitoring protocol based on estimating occupancy. The goal of our study was to implement this protocol and collect data to determine goshawk population status in the western Great Lakes (WGL) bioregion, which encompasses portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan, and is a mixture of private and public property. We used 366 goshawk nest locations obtained between 1979 and 2006 throughout the WGL bioregion to develop a model of landscape use consisting of forest canopy cover and land-cover covariates. We then used the model to develop a stratified sampling design for selecting 600-ha Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) to survey for goshawks. Project collaborators surveyed 86 PSUs for goshawk presence using broadcasted calls twice between mid-May and mid-August 2008, and recorded 30 goshawk detections in 21 different PSUs. Seventy-four percent of detections occurred at call stations with canopy closure >75%. Goshawk detection probabilities were 0.549 ± 0.118 (standard error) for the first visit to PSUs and 0.750 ± 0.126 for the second visit. We estimated the proportion of PSUs occupied by goshawks as 0.266 ± 0.047, which corresponded to 5184 ± 914 PSUs occupied by goshawks in our study area and suggested that goshawks are widely, but sparsely, distributed throughout the WGL bioregion.

  20. Prym varieties of spectral covers

    CERN Document Server

    Hausel, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    Given a possibly reducible and non-reduced spectral cover X over a smooth projective complex curve C we determine the group of connected components of the Prym variety Prym(X/C). We also describe the sublocus of characteristics a for which the Prym variety Prym(X_a/C) is connected. These results extend special cases of work of Ng\\^o who considered integral spectral curves.

  1. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of...

  2. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant recharge values for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of approximately...

  3. 2005 St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) Lidar: Western Seminole County, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of a bare earth data set of 498 files covering a geographic area of 175 square miles in western Seminole County, Florida and includes small...

  4. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of approximately 193,000...

  5. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized aquifer boundaries for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of approximately 193,000 acres and...

  6. 2005 St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) Lidar: Western Seminole County, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of a bare earth data set of 498 files covering a geographic area of 175 square miles in western Seminole County, Florida and includes small...

  7. 45 CFR 2522.720 - How many years must my evaluation cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How many years must my evaluation cover? 2522.720 Section 2522.720 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE AMERICORPS PARTICIPANTS, PROGRAMS, AND APPLICANTS Evaluation Requirements Evaluating Programs: Requirements...

  8. Language Use in Classrooms in Western Samoan Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Bianco, Joseph; Liddicoat, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    To inform discussions of revising the curriculum of junior secondary schools in Western Samoa, a series of structured observations of classrooms was conducted. Data from 145 classes, covering Business/Commercial Studies, English Home Economics, Manual Arts, Mathematics, Samoan Studies, Science and Social Science, were analyzed. With the exception…

  9. PEACE CORPS PRIMER FOR THE WESTERN VISAYAS, PHILIPPINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZORC, R. DAVID; AND OTHERS

    THIS TEXT WAS WRITTEN FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS WORKING IN AREAS OF PANAY AND THE ROMBLON ISLANDS IN THE PHILIPPINES. COVERED IN THIS SHORT TEXT ARE "ALL THE DIALECTS OF THE WESTERN VISAYAS" (EXCEPT THE DIALECTS SPOKEN BY THE NEGRITOS)--AKLANON, KINARAY-A, CAPIZNON, ILONGO, LOOCNON, ODIONGANON, AND ROMBLOMANON. IN SPITE OF DIFFERENCES AMONG THESE…

  10. The western blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  11. China's Western Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Western Development" has become a buzzword in China over the past decade. It has appeared almost everywhere: in government docu-ments, media reports and even ordinary people's conversations. It has become a national campaign in the new century, with a wide variety of resources--human, financial and material-- flowing to the westem part of the country.

  12. Publication of the bulletin

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The final edition (Nos 51-52/2008 and 1-2/2009) of the last Weekly Bulletin of the year will be published on Friday 12 December and will cover events at CERN from 15 December 2008 to 12 January 2009. Announcements for publication in this issue should reach the Publication Section (Communication group) or the Staff Association, as appropriate by noon, on Tuesday 9 December. Bulletin publication 2009 The table below lists the 2009 publication dates for the paper version of the Bulletin and the corresponding deadlines for the submission of announcements. Please note that all announcements must be submitted by 12.00 midday on Tuesdays at the latest. Bulletin No. Week number Submission of announcements (before 12.00 midday) Publication date 3-4 Tuesday 6 January Monday 12 January 5-6 Tuesday 20 January Monday 26 January 7-8 Tuesday 3 February Monday 9 February 9-10 Tuesday 17 Februar...

  13. From forest to farmland: pollen-inferred land cover change across Europe using the pseudobiomization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Ralph M; Woodbridge, Jessie; Roberts, Neil

    2015-03-01

    Maps of continental-scale land cover are utilized by a range of diverse users but whilst a range of products exist that describe present and recent land cover in Europe, there are currently no datasets that describe past variations over long time-scales. User groups with an interest in past land cover include the climate modelling community, socio-ecological historians and earth system scientists. Europe is one of the continents with the longest histories of land conversion from forest to farmland, thus understanding land cover change in this area is globally significant. This study applies the pseudobiomization method (PBM) to 982 pollen records from across Europe, taken from the European Pollen Database (EPD) to produce a first synthesis of pan-European land cover change for the period 9000 bp to present, in contiguous 200 year time intervals. The PBM transforms pollen proportions from each site to one of eight land cover classes (LCCs) that are directly comparable to the CORINE land cover classification. The proportion of LCCs represented in each time window provides a spatially aggregated record of land cover change for temperate and northern Europe, and for a series of case study regions (western France, the western Alps, and the Czech Republic and Slovakia). At the European scale, the impact of Neolithic food producing economies appear to be detectable from 6000 bp through reduction in broad-leaf forests resulting from human land use activities such as forest clearance. Total forest cover at a pan-European scale moved outside the range of previous background variability from 4000 bp onwards. From 2200 bp land cover change intensified, and the broad pattern of land cover for preindustrial Europe was established by 1000 bp. Recognizing the timing of anthropogenic land cover change in Europe will further the understanding of land cover-climate interactions, and the origins of the modern cultural landscape.

  14. Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanda, Allan; Embleton, Lonnie; Ayuku, David; Atwoli, Lukoye; Gisore, Peter; Ayaya, Samuel; Vreeman, Rachel; Braitstein, Paula

    2013-01-31

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children's Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR) project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR's Health and Well-being Project's corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1) community engagement, 2) sampling and recruitment, 3) retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4) analysis, interpretation and dissemination. To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while ensuring cultural and community relevance and equity in the

  15. Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamanda Allan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children’s Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. Methods The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR’s Health and Well-being Project’s corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1 community engagement, 2 sampling and recruitment, 3 retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4 analysis, interpretation and dissemination. Results To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while

  16. Western Monarch and Milkweed Habitat Suitability Modeling Project- Environmental Covariate Rasters for the Western U.S.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Each set of these three sets of rasters cover the Western 11 conterminous U.S. states. They share the same extent, cell size, and projection so that they can easily...

  17. Variability of snow line elevation, snow cover area and depletion in the main Slovak basins in winters 2001–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčí Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variability of snow line (SL elevation, snow cover area (SCA and depletion (SCD in winters 2001–2014 is investigated in ten main Slovak river basins (the Western Carpathians. Daily satellite snow cover maps from MODIS Terra (MOD10A1, V005 and Aqua (MYD10A1, V005 with resolution 500 m are used.

  18. Estimating sagebrush cover in semi-arid environments using Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanpillai, Ramesh; Prager, Steven D.; Storey, Thomas O.

    2009-04-01

    Sagebrush ecosystems of the western US provide important habitat for several ungulate and vertebrate species. As a consequence of energy development, these ecosystems in Wyoming have been subjected to a variety of anthropogenic disturbances. Land managers require methodology that will allow them to consistently catalog sagebrush ecosystems and evaluate potential impact of proposed anthropogenic activities. This study addresses the utility of remotely sensed and ancillary geospatial data to estimate sagebrush cover using ordinal logistic regression. We demonstrate statistically significant prediction of ordinal sagebrush cover categories using spectral ( χ2 = 113; p < 0.0001) and transformed indices ( χ2 = 117; p < 0.0001). Both Landsat spectral bands ( c-value = 0.88) and transformed indices ( c-value = 0.89) can distinguish sites with closed, moderate and open cover sagebrush cover categories from no cover. The techniques described in this study can be used for estimating categories of sagebrush cover in arid ecosystems.

  19. Warriors for Civilisation: Naguib Mahfouz, Andrei Tarkovsky, Tu Weiming and their Western Counterparts

    OpenAIRE

    Keir, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis covers the decline and fall of the civilisation narrative in 20th Century Western humanities before exploring the work of three non-Western figures - Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz, Russian film director Andrei Tarkovsky and Chinese philosopher Tu Weiming - who defend the concept of civilisation in their work. The views of Mahfouz, Tarkovsky and Tu can be viewed as consistent with each other and with those of contemporary Western intellectuals including John Armstrong, Martha Nu...

  20. The African Public Space of Dangarembga's Neria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\376\\377\\000s\\000e\\000r\\000i\\000a\\000n\\000e\\000.\\000c\\000a\\000m\\000a\\000r\\000a

    2011-03-09

    Mar 9, 2011 ... Abstract. The public space is a place where anybody has a right to occupy without ... any of the major Western broadcasting stations does not help. ...... Politics of (re) Presentation', International Journal of the Study of Southern.

  1. EXACT ALGORITHM FOR BIN COVERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new arc flow model for the one-dimensional bin covering problem and an algorithm to solve the problem exactly through a branch-and-bound procedure and the technique of column generation. The subproblems occuring in the procedure of branch-and-bound have the same structure and therefore can be solved by the same algorithm. In order to solve effectively the subproblems which are generally large scale, a column generation algorithm is employed. Many rules found in this paper can improve the performance of the methods.

  2. Green's conjecture for general covers

    CERN Document Server

    Aprodu, Marian

    2011-01-01

    We establish Green's syzygy conjecture for classes of covers of curves of higher Clifford dimension. These curves have an infinite number of minimal pencils, in particular they do not verify a well-known Brill-Noether theoretic sufficient condition that implies Green's conjecture. Secondly, we study syzygies of curves with a fixed point free involution and prove that sections of Nikulin surfaces of minimal Picard number 9, verify the classical Green Conjecture but fail the Prym-Green Conjecture on syzygies of Prym-canonical curves. This provides an explicit locus in the moduli space R_g where Green's Conjecture is known to hold.

  3. 西方公共产品理论回顾、反思与前瞻--兼论我国公共产品民营化与政府监管改革%The Review, Reflection and Prospect of Western Public Goods Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳丽; 谢地

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing the development history of western public goods theory, it can be seen that the study of public goods originates from the concept itself to the controversy on the public goods supply mode, and extends to the controversy of supply mode of public product and extend to the theoretical speculation and practical exploration of public goods supply efficiency and supervision effectiveness. Whether it is government monopoly supply mode in view of market failure, dual supply mode of government and market which is based on government failure, or multi-interactive supply mode which gives consideration to market and government failure. The selection of public goods supplier is obviously a passive selection process to re-search and re-try the supplier when the original one causes failure namely efficiency loss, thus the social welfare loss is self-evident. Therefore, reshaping the relationship between government and market, clearing the selection criteria of public goods supplier, strengthening and improving the supervision policies of the supplier and promoting the public goods supply efficiency and supervision quality deserve attention, which are also the further research emphases of public goods theory and government supervision reform.%回顾西方公共产品理论发展历程可见,对公共产品的研究,始于公共产品概念本身,发展到对公共产品供给模式的争论,延伸至围绕公共产品供给效率和监管效果展开的理论思辨与实践探索。不论是基于市场失灵考量的公共产品政府垄断供给模式,还是基于政府失灵考量的公共产品政府与市场的二元供给模式,亦或兼顾政府失灵和市场失灵建立的公共产品多元互动供给模式。显然,公共产品供给主体的选择,是一个当原有供给主体产生失灵问题即效率损失之后再对供给主体重新寻找和尝试的被动选择过程,因而造成的社会福利损失不言自明。因此

  4. A new patch antenna with metamaterial cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; YAN Chun-sheng; LIN Qing-chun

    2006-01-01

    A metamaterial was introduced into the cover of a patch antenna and its band structure was analyzed. The metamaterial cover with correct selection of the working frequency increases by 9.14 dB the patch antenna's directivity. The mechanism of metamaterial cover is completely different from that of a photonic bandgap cover. The mechanism of the metamaterial cover,the number of the cover's layers, and the distance between the layers, were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the metamaterial cover, which works like a lens, could effectively improve the patch antenna's directivity. The physical reasons for the improvement are also given.

  5. Commutator coverings of Siegel threefolds

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, V

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the existence and non-existence of modular forms of low weight with a character with respect to the paramodular group $\\Gamma_t$ and discuss the resulting geometric consequences. Using an advanced version of Maa\\ss\\ lifting one can construct many examples of such modular forms and in particular examples of weight 3 cusp forms. Consequently we find many abelian coverings of low degree of the moduli space ${\\Cal A}_t$ of (1,t)-polarized abelian surfaces which are not unirational. We also determine the commutator subgroups of the paramodular group $\\Gamma_t$ and its degree 2 extension $\\Gamma^+_t$. This has applications for the Picard group of the moduli stack ${\\underline{\\Cal A}}_t$. Finally we prove non-existence theorems for low weight modular forms. As one of our main results we obtain the theorem that the maximal abelian cover ${\\Cal A}_t^{com}$ of ${\\Cal A}_t$ has geometric genus 0 if and only if t=1, 2, 4 or 5. We also prove that ${\\Cal A}_t^{com}$ has geometric genus 1 for t=3 and 7.

  6. Communicating with Westerners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah; Callicott

    2007-01-01

    <正>The majority response from my students when asked "what do you want to learn from my class?" is "How do I communicate better with westerners?" My students also have other questions such as "How do I improve my oral English?" and "How is America different from China?" These questions can be answered in many different ways, but hopefully I will give you a couple of ideas to get you started.

  7. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  8. Covering Climate Change in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arritt, R. W.; Connolley, W.; Ramjohn, I.; Schulz, S.; Wickert, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    The first hit in an internet search for "global warming" using any of the three leading search engines (Google, Bing, or Yahoo) is the article "Global warming" in the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. The article garners about half a million page views per month. In addition to the site's visibility with the public, Wikipedia's articles on climate-related topics are widely referenced by policymakers, media outlets, and academia. Despite the site's strong influence on public understanding of science, few geoscientists actively participate in Wikipedia, with the result that the community that edits these articles is mostly composed of individuals with little or no expertise in the topic at hand. In this presentation we discuss how geoscientists can help shape public understanding of science by contributing to Wikipedia. Although Wikipedia prides itself on being "the encyclopedia that anyone can edit," the site has policies regarding contributions and behavior that can be pitfalls for newcomers. This presentation is intended as a guide for the geoscience community in contributing to information about climate change in this widely-used reference.

  9. Publication of the Bulletin

    CERN Multimedia

    The final edition (Nos 51-52/2009 and 1-2/2010) of the last Weekly Bulletin of the year will be published on Friday 11 December and will cover events at CERN from 14 December 2009 to 8 January 2010. Announcements for publication in this issue should reach the Publication Section (Communications group) or the Staff Association, as appropriate, by noon on Tuesday 8 December. Bulletin publication 2010 The table below lists the 2010 publication dates for the paper version of the Bulletin and the corresponding deadlines for the submission of announcements. Please note that all announcements must be submitted by 12.00 midday on Tuesdays at the latest. Bulletin No. Week number Submission of announcements (before 12.00 midday) Bulletin Web version Bulletin Paper version 2-3 Tuesday 5 January Friday 8 and 15 January Wednesday 13 J...

  10. MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Component Global Albedo product covering a day V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Component Global Albedo publicly available product covering a day to be used starting with MISR Release V4.2. (Suggested Usage: This file...

  11. THE FINANCIAL TOOLS FOR COVER POLITICAL RISKS IN PROJECT FINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naumenkova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the risk-mitigation in public-private partnership. Today Ukraine is ranked as "CRT-5 country" and has high levels of economic and political risk. Political risk grows steadily because of financial and political instability in Ukraine. We conclude that investors continue to rank political risk as a key obstacle to long-term investing. The tools for cover many types of political risks such as war, terrorism, civil disturbance, breach of contract, export or operating license cancellation, currency inconvertibility and transfer restriction, change of laws and regulations etc. are described by authors. We focus on the advantages of World Bank Group Guarantee products. The guarantee instruments of the three WBG institutions for cover political risks under different circumstances are the most suitable for public-private partnership in Ukraine. In this article the political risk-mitigation with IBRD Partial Risk Guarantee put forward by authors for PPP projects in Ukraine.

  12. Nuremberg Counting Jetons of XVI–XIX centuries: from Western Europe to Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Pushkarev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of Western counting jetons, which have spread over a vast area from Western Europe to Siberia. The history of jetons is very dynamic. For more than three centuries in Western Europe tokens were used as a tool for calculation in trading shops, government offices, etc. In the second half of the XVI century because the spread of the written account the functions of jetons fundamentally changed. They are being used as chips in card games, they were presented as souvenirs, scattered among the crowd at weddings and festivals, etc. At the same time, jetons became the translation tool for public information about the government, in the form of images of the reigning monarch, as well as key political events. Through trade exchange jetons penetrate into the territory of Western Siberia, where their function changed again. All counting tokens from burial graves in Western Siberia, have holes for hanging or sewing, which indicate their use as ornaments. However, in the culture of the indigenous population decorations had not only aesthetic but also a sacred, religious meaning.

  13. The covering number of $M_{24}$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Epstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A  finite cover $\\mathcal{C}$ of a group $G$ is a finite collection of proper subgroups of $G$ such that $G$ is equal to the union of all of the members of $\\mathcal{C}$. Such a cover is called {\\em minimal} if it has the smallest cardinality among all finite covers of $G$. The  covering number of $G$, denoted by $\\sigma(G$, is the number of subgroups in a minimal cover of $G$. In this paper the covering number of the Mathieu group $M_{24}$ is shown to be 3336.

  14. Public Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshan, Harry M.; Arnheim, Louise

    This paper, the second in a series exploring future options for public policy in the communications and information arenas, examines some of the issues underlying public broadcasting, primarily public television. It advances two reasons why quality local public television programming is scarce: funds for the original production of programming have…

  15. 42 CFR 435.322 - Medically needy coverage of the blind in States that cover individuals receiving SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the blind in States that cover individuals receiving SSI. 435.322 Section 435.322 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... individuals receiving SSI. If the agency provides Medicaid to individuals receiving SSI and elects to cover...

  16. 42 CFR 435.320 - Medically needy coverage of the aged in States that cover individuals receiving SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the aged in States that cover individuals receiving SSI. 435.320 Section 435.320 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... individuals receiving SSI. If the agency provides Medicaid to individuals receiving SSI and elects to cover...

  17. 42 CFR 435.324 - Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States that cover individuals receiving SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States that cover individuals receiving SSI. 435.324 Section 435.324 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... individuals receiving SSI. If the agency provides Medicaid to individuals receiving SSI and elects to cover...

  18. Western Blot Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brianna

    2017-01-01

    The Western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. Here, we describe the transfer and detection of Outer surface protein A (OspA), a protein only found on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease.

  19. Western Opera in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    “ALTHOUGH the road islong and leads far,I’llsearch hard for truth.″Ithink these lines by Qu Yuan(c.340-278 B.C.)are most appropriatein describing Western opera inChina.Opera originated from musicaldrama in Italy.From Dafne by Flo-rentine composer Jacopo Peri in1597,opera has a history of nearly400 years,if we do not count folk,church or court music and danceor song dramas in Europe.Afterspreading from Italy to Austria,France,Germany,Britain,northernEuropean countries and Russia,op-era has developed many national

  20. The value of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  1. A Comparative Study of Chinese and Western Public Service Advertising from Intercultural Perspective and Their Differences in Value Orientations%中西公益广告交际语中的价值取向及跨文化比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颜伟; 邹倩

    2016-01-01

    公益广告不以商品推广为目的,而是肩负着呼唤公众意识,弘扬公序良俗的社会使命,并因此而承载了更加丰富的民族文化内涵。中西方语言文化在高低语境、文化维度、价值取向等方面的异同直接影响了以中英语言为载体的公益广告的内容设计和理念传达方式。中西公益广告虽然不乏强调责任感、道德性和人本主义等某些共性内容,但更多则体现为异性文化特征。中国公益广告普遍渗透着集体主义、过去时间取向、重视做人、与自然和睦相处、间接交流等特点;而英语广告则相对具有个人主义、未来时间取向、重视行动、征服自然、直接交流等特点。就跨文化交际的角度讲,中西公益广告信息传递与争取认同的成功,在很大程度上便取决于中西文化因素的有效调动与参与。%Public service advertising( PSA) is a special type of advertising whose main purpose is to promote public aware-ness other than for commerce. For this sake, PSAs always contain abundant ethnic cultural property. Based on modern cul-tural theories such as Florence Kluckhohn and Fred Strodtbeck’ s value orientations, Geert Hofstede’ s value dimensions and Edward Hall’ s high and low context orientations, the authors of this article do a comparative study of Chinese and Western PSAs from intercultural perspective so as to find the similarities and differences between them. The authors find that Chinese PSAs reflect these value orientations and opinions: harmony with nature, past-orientation, being orientation, collectivism and implication, while Western PSAs reflect mastery of nature, future orientation, doing orientation, individu-alism and directness. From both of them, the senses of responsibility, morality and human-centeredness have been found. To a large extent, the successful communication of Chinese and Western PSAs depends on the effective participation of cul

  2. National Land Cover Database: 1986-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 92 (National Land Cover Dataset 1992) is a 21-category land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently over the conterminous U.S. It is...

  3. 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — In 2008, an update of the 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) database was undertaken. The 1990 KLCP database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State...

  4. VT National Land Cover Dataset - 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The NLCD2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 land cover layer for mapping zone 65 was produced...

  5. National Land Cover Database: 1986-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 92 (National Land Cover Dataset 1992) is a 21-category land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently over the conterminous U.S. It is...

  6. A Citizen's Guide to Evapotranspiration Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide explains Evapotranspiration Covers which are Evapotranspiration (ET) covers are a type of cap placed over contaminated material, such as soil, landfill waste, or mining tailings, to prevent water from reaching it.

  7. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 247 - CE Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CE Publications B Appendix B to Part 247... Appendix B to Part 247—CE Publications A. Purpose. CE publications consist of DoD newspapers, magazines... publication. CE publishers sell advertising to cover costs and secure earnings, print the publications, and...

  9. Challenges of Public Health Education in the former Soviet Union: Example of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Piekkala

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many former Soviet Union (fSU countries face a high burden of disease and a much lower life expectancy compared to western countries. Many of the underlying causes are amenable to public health interventions, but the prevailing Soviet approach to prevention has largely failed to address the new and more complex public health issues these countries face. This study looks at public health challenges in Ukraine, in particular at those related to public health education. METHODS: The research is based on a small-scale, qualitative analysis of information collected through i review of literature related to public health and public health education in the former Soviet Union and Ukraine, as well as curricula and training material for epidemiology students in Ukrainian medical schools, ii observations during workshops for epidemiology students and teachers from Ukrainian medical schools and iii semi-structured interviews with epidemiology students and teachers from Ukrainian medical schools. The collected data was interpreted using the method of thematic discourse analysis, which allowed identifying major areas challenging public health education in the country. RESULTS: The main challenges identified were seen in the outdated conceptual understanding of public health, particularly in epidemiology. These challenges underlie further problems including limited hours and narrow content of epidemiology training, lack of training in research skills, inadequate training material and conservative attitudes among teachers and students towards prevailing ideas and development. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: There is urgent need for a wider definition of public health, moving towards the “New Public Health” approach and subsequently a series of changes to education curricula and materials. Curricula reform should provide additional hours for covering non-communicable diseases, non-medical topics such as health policy and health promotion and ensure

  10. Thermodestruction of components of anticorrosion polymer cover

    OpenAIRE

    Тихомирова, Татьяна Сергеевна

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns the processes of thermodestruction of multilayer polymer cover, which is widely used to protect the external surface of steel pipelines. The main purpose of the work is to prove the possibility of combination of various polymer components in one cover preserving the thermostability of the cover. The behavior of the separate modified components of the cover at high temperatures was analyzed using the differential-thermal analysis and the derivative thermogravimetry...

  11. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  12. Publication of the bulletin

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The final edition (Nos 51-52/2007 and 1-2-3/2008) of the last Bulletin of the year will appear on Friday 14 December and will cover events at CERN from 17 December 2007 to 18 January 2008. Announcements for publication in this issue should reach the Publication Section (Communication group) or the Staff Association, as appropriate, by noon on Tuesday 11 December. The table below lists the 2008 publication dates for the paper version of the Bulletin and the corresponding deadlines for the submission of announcements. Please note that all announcements must be submitted by 12.00 midday on Tuesdays at the latest. Bulletin publication 2008 Bulletin N° 4-5 Publication: Monday 21 january Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 15 January Bulletin N° 6-7 Publication: Monday 4 february Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 29 January Bulletin N° 8-9 Publication: Monday 18 february Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 12 February Bulletin N° 10-11 P...

  13. Estimating mean plant cover from different types of cover data: a coherent statistical framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damgaard, C

    2014-01-01

    Plant cover is measured by different methods and it is important to be able to estimate mean cover and to compare estimates of plant cover across different sampling methods in a coherent statistical framework...

  14. Managing cover crops: an economic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common reasons given by producers as to why they do not adopt cover crops are related to economics: time, labor, and cost required for planting and managing cover crops. While many of the agronomic benefits of cover crops directly relate to economics, there are costs associated with adopting the pra...

  15. Reducibility of Covers of AFT shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, Teresa; Eilers, Søren; Pask, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that the reducibility structure of several covers of sofic shifts is a flow invariant. In addition, we prove that for an irreducible subshift of almost finite type the left Krieger cover and the past set cover are reducible. We provide an example which shows that there are n...

  16. National land-cover pattern data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; James E. Vogelmann; K. Bruce Jones

    2000-01-01

    Land cover and its spatial patterns are key ingredients in ecological studies that consider large regions and the impacts of human activities. Because humanity is a principal driver of land-cover change over large regions (Turner et al. 1990), land-cover data provide direct measures of human activity, and both direct and indirect measures of ecological conditions...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2167 - Covered systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered systems. 193.2167 Section 193.2167...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2167 Covered systems. A covered impounding system is prohibited except for concrete wall designed tanks where the concrete wall is an outer...

  18. Role of the State in Developing Countries: Public Choice versus Schumpeterian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirbas,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available : It is obvious that even though modern public choice theories, which were first developed for Western pluralistic societies (society-centred, might have highlighted many hidden subjects in developing countries such as rent-seeking, corruption, strong state tradition, undemocratic decision mechanisms, etc, however, they still cannot hold and explain all the dynamics of these countries since they need to adopt a state-centre approach. In that sense, we propose that the Schumpeterian approach can help us in understanding the dynamics of developing countries even better. Therefore, our main objective in this paper is to provide a synthesis of public choice approach and the Schumpeterian approach to understand the role of the state in developing countries. We know the fact that this study still remains incomplete and not enough to cover all the needs of the subject, but at least it highlights some hidden issues for developing countries and starts a new discussion on this path.

  19. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  20. Western Australian Food Security Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Alexandra; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce

    2007-08-23

    The aim of the Western Australian (WA) Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets). The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%). The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets) followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets). Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets), salads (n- = 50 outlets), fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets), seafood (n = 27 outlets), meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets). The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28%) offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77%) as were carbonated drinks (n = 88%) and flavoured milks (n = 46%). These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of access to quality, healthy foods at reasonable cost (food

  1. town, Western Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV/AIDS is the major public health problem in our country. Studies need to ... Eighty six percent practiced sex at a mean age of first sexual contact of 16.6 and 18.4 years ... Health Dev. prevention and control of the disease mainly.

  2. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum seedings in Western Colorado: What can we learn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dollerschell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species have been widely transported, becoming components of ecosystems worldwide. In some cases this can change thestructure and function of an ecosystem. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum, Agropyron spp. was introduced into the Western U.S. inthe late 18th and early 19th centuries. Since introduction, it has been planted in western rangelands currently occupying millions of acres.Crested wheatgrass causes significant changes in areas where it dominates the vegetation, and restoring rangelands planted with crested wheatgrass to higher plant diversity and ecosystem function has been met with limited success. Here we revisit historical frequency monitoring data collected in western Colorado on public lands that were planted with crested wheatgrass between 1940 and 1980. We also monitored vegetation before and after mechanical treatment (removal of vegetation with the use of a dixie harrow pulled behind a tractor and re-seeding of desirable species in three areas dominated by crested wheatgrass. We looked for increasing or decreasing trends in plant species, and for plant species that persist with crested wheatgrass. We found that crested wheatgrass increased significantly (p=0.09 over time, we also found five species of grasses, two shrub species, and one forb species that were persistent in areas planted with crested wheatgrass. We found that in mechanically treated areas, the only significant trend was a reduction of native grasses (p<0.05. Our findings suggest that in areas planted with crested wheatgrass, frequency of crested wheatgrass can increase over time. Further, mechanical treatments coupled with seeding were not effective at reducing crested wheatgrass cover, or at increasing native and desirable species. These sites may have experienced a shift to a stable state.

  3. 75 FR 19942 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... rank MET proposals 6. Discussion and wrap-up Wednesday, May 5, 2010, 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. 7. Review CDPP... proposals 9. Discussion and wrap-up ] 10. Advisor Discussion and Recommendations 11. Other business The... Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-S...

  4. 78 FR 11628 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Agenda for 156th Council Meeting 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m., Tuesday, March 12, 2013 1. Opening Ceremony 2... College Rose Atoll Study H. Cook Islands Satellite Fisheries Office I. Education and Outreach...

  5. 78 FR 32624 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... A. Age-Structured Model of False Killer Whales B. Papahanaumokuakea Associated Cetacean Ecology... Nation's Fisheries 3rd Meeting K. Recreational Fisheries Update L. Education and Outreach M. Asian...

  6. 76 FR 16618 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Mandates A. Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) i. Overview of CMSP ii. Community CMSP Workshop... A. Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) i. Overview of CMSP ii. Community CMSP Workshop Plans... Initiatives A. Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning i. Pacific Islands Regional Office ii. Pacific...

  7. 75 FR 81586 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... following items: A. Report on previous REAC recommendations and actions B. Coastal Marine Spatial Planning C. Overview of traditional access and spatial planning D. Panel presentations and discussion on traditional... Marine Spatial Planning 1. Shoreline access restrictions in relation to fishermen deaths 2....

  8. 76 FR 60004 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Spatial Planning. 1. Regional Initiatives. 2. Report on Coastal Marine Spatial Planning Workshop. ] 3... Islands Fisheries Science Center Director. 5. Program Planning. A. Specification of Acceptable Biological... a.m.-1 p.m. 6. Program Planning and Research. A. Specification of Acceptable Biological...

  9. 77 FR 19647 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ...., May 2, 2012 from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. and on May 3, 2012 from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. For specific times and... Hotel Ballroom, 68-1400 Mauna Lani Drive, Big Island, HI 96743; telephone: (808) 885-6622. FOR FURTHER... Remarks. 3. Remarks from the Governor. 4. Council Reports on Status of Implementing Magnuson-Stevens...

  10. 77 FR 5775 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Forum on March 5 will be held at the Fiesta Hotel, Garapan, Saipan; the Council Meeting on March 8 and 9...: (671) 646-1835. Fiesta Hotel, Saipan Beach, Garapan, CNMI 96950; telephone: (670) 234-6412. In addition...

  11. 75 FR 14571 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... of Marine and Wildlife Resources (DMWR) Conference Room, Pago Pago, American Samoa. The American... Commerce Government of American Samoa, Pago Pago, American Samoa. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kitty...

  12. 75 FR 56507 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Species A. False Killer Whale Issues 1. Longline Mitigation 2. Take Reduction Plan Proposed Rule 3. Stock Assessment Cruise 4. Insular False Killer Whale Status Review and 12-month Finding B. Biological Opinion.... Community Monitoring Workshop Report 3. MPA impacts on fishermen drowning 4. Economic Development...

  13. 78 FR 57841 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Endangered or Threatened under the ESA 2. Green Turtle Status Review 3. North Pacific Humpback Whale Petition.... Draft 2013 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports F. False Killer Whale Take Reduction Plan Research... Projects, Activities and Issues 1. Community Development Program Multi-fishery Proposal 2. Report on...

  14. 76 FR 30107 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Enforcement 3. NOAA General Counsel for Enforcement and Litigation E. NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program F... Catch (ABC) Analysis for Coral Reef Fin-fish Fisheries Annual Catch Limits (ACLs) a. Hawaii b. American... Catch Limit Analysis for Coral Reef Fin-Fish Fisheries (Action Item) B. Offshore Aquaculture 1....

  15. 75 FR 7443 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Management Council (Council) will hold a half day meeting of its Pelagics Plan Team (PPT) in Honolulu, HI to... Director; telephone: (808) 522-8220. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Pelagic Plan Team will be convened at... deep-set longline swordfish trip catch limit 4. Regulatory definition of shortline fishing gear 5....

  16. 77 FR 59902 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    .... Report on First Stewarts Meeting. a. Video Flyover. 2. Third Managing Our Nations Fisheries Conference.... Legislative Report. 1. CNMI. 2. Guam. C. Enforcement Issues. 1. CNMI. 2. Guam. D. Status of Guam Indigenous... meetings are physically accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for sign language...

  17. 77 FR 19230 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    .... Approval of the Agenda. 3. Assignment of Rapporteurs. 4. Guiding Principles for Development of Effective.... Coral reef EFH Project. 11. Status of the territorial bottomfish assessment. 12. The Council Five-Year Research Priorities. 13. Development and Review of Cooperative Research Priorities and Projects. 14....

  18. 78 FR 20616 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ...) Annual Catch Target (ACT) Monitoring ii. Market Delay Amendment E. National Marine Fisheries Service... Sustainable Yield (MSY) B. New black coral research to support ACL re-specification C. Discussions 6. Data..., and Hawaii. 31. Age and growth of tropical boney fishes. Age at length relationship (e.g.,...

  19. 76 FR 6403 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... and AP meetings will be held at Sadie's by the Sea Hotel, Pago Pago, American Samoa; telephone: (684... Fishery Circle Hook Study ] D. Mariana Archipelago Green Turtle Workshop Report E. Better science needed... American Samoa Longline Circle-hook Study C. Mariana Archipelago Green Sea Turtle Workshop Report D. SSC...

  20. Land Cover and Landscape Diversity Analysis in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Szymon; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.; Tompalski, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to present the land cover structure and landscape diversity in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve. The land cover classification was performed using Object Based Image Analysis in Trimble eCognition Developer 8 software. The retrospective land cover changes analysis in 3 lake catchments (Kleszczów, Moszne, Bia³eW³odawskie Lakes)was performed on the basis of archival aerial photos taken in 1952, 1971, 1984, 1992, 2007 and one satellite scene from 2003 (IKONOS).On the basis of land cover map structure, Shannon diversity index was estimated with the moving window approach enabled in Fragstats software. The conducted research has shown that the land cover structure of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve is diverse and can be simply described by selected landscape metrics. The highest level of land cover diversity, as showed by Shannon Diversity Index, was identified in the western part of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve, which is closely related to the agricultural character of land cover structure in those regions. The examples of three regional retrospective land cover analyses demonstrated that the character of land cover structure has changed dramatically over the last 40 years.

  1. Mapping Asbestos-Cement Roofing with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing over a Large Mountain Region of the Italian Western Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Frassy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d’Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification’s accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified.

  2. MONITORING OF SNOW COVER VARIATION USING MODIS SNOW PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fayaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Snow is one of the integral components of hydrological and climatic systems. Needless to say, snow cover areas (SCA are considered as indispensable input of hydrological and general circulation models. Studying the spatial and temporal variability of SCA is of the paramount importance for tremendous variety of research such as climate change, water supply and properly managing water resources. In this study by means of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS snow cover product, the variation of snow cover extent (SCE in Karoun basin located in western part of Iran is evaluated for twelve years' duration; since 2000 to 2012. The results show that the paramount occurrence of SCE is observed during February months of 2003, 2010 and 2011 as well as during December months of 2006 and 2009.The utmost occurrence of SCE is considered during January months of the other remaining years. Annual average shows that SCE varies from 11% in 2011 to 22% in 2006. According to Mann-Kendal trend test, throughout twelve years; 2000 to 2012, a majority of the pixels in the study area have no considerable trend although there is a decreasing trend on a small portion of the pixels located in the eastern part the study domain.

  3. Changes of snow cover in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, Małgorzata; Pińskwar, Iwona; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Graczyk, Dariusz; Mezghani, Abdelkader

    2017-02-01

    The present paper examines variability of characteristics of snow cover (snow cover depth, number of days with snow cover and dates of beginning and end of snow cover) in Poland. The study makes use of a set of 43 long time series of observation records from the stations in Poland, from 1952 to 2013. To describe temporal changes in snow cover characteristics, the intervals of 1952-1990 and of 1991-2013 are compared and trends in analysed data are sought (e.g., using the Mann-Kendall test). Observed behaviour of time series of snow-related variables is complex and not easy to interpret, for instance because of the location of the research area in the zone of transitional moderate climate, where strong variability of climate events is one of the main attributes. A statistical link between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and the snow cover depth, as well as the number of snow cover days is found.

  4. Western Parenting: A Personal Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Ward

    2011-01-01

    Bonding: Western fathers are keen to take an equal role in parenting. They recognise their responsibility as a new dad, and are committed early to sharing every family task with the mother. It is common to see a proud western father walking outside, on their own, with their tiny baby. Western dad's know that this time is special, and the mother needs to relax and feel confident to trust the dad with the baby.

  5. Islamic and Western perspectives on applied media ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Izzeldin Malik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the compatibility of Islamic theories of ethics with Western theories of ethics regarding the ethics of global journalism. The study examines Western and Islamic approaches and perspectives on ethics and applied ethics in the field of journalism. Central to the discussion are global journalism values of freedom of expression, individual right for privacy, public right to know, and the global clashing values of media ownership vs. freedom, and consumerism values vs. media values of social responsibility. These clashing media values are part of the broader practices of newsgathering and news reporting that encompass many ethical dilemmas in the field of media and journalism. The study concludes by discussing Western perspectives on character education. It also provides an Islamic moral perspective based on character education as an approach compatible with the Western perspective on moral education. This perspective will help reconcile global clashing media values.

  6. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  7. Heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean (a review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamboya, F. A.; Pratap, H. B.; Björk, M.

    2003-05-01

    Western Indian Ocean Coast has many potential marine ecosystems such as mangrove, seagrass meadows, macroalgae, and coral reefs. It is largely unspoiled environment however, tourism and population growth in coastal urban centres, industrialization, are presenting a risk of pollutants input to the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. Mining, shipping and agricultural activities also input contaminants into the marine environment via runoff, vessel operations and accidental spillage. Heavy metals are among the pollutants that are expected to increase in the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. The increase in heavy metal pollution can pose a serious health problem to marine organism and human through food chain. This paper reviews studies on heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean. It covers heavy metal studies in the sediments, biota, particulates and seawater collected in different sites. In comparison to other regions, only few studies have been conducted in the Western Indian Ocean and are localized in some certain areas. Most of these studies were conducted in Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts while few of them were conducted in Mauritius, Somalia and Reunion. No standard or common method has been reported for the analysis or monitoring of heavy metals in the Western Indian Ocean.

  8. Western Area Power Administration. Combined power system financial statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-26

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Westerns internal control structure disclosed three new reportable conditions concerning the lack of: (1) a reconciliation of stores inventory from subsidiary ledgers to summary financial information, (2) communication of interest during construction and related adjustments to interest on Federal investment, and (3) a system to prevent and detect power billing errors. None of the conditions were considered to be material weaknesses. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations also disclosed two new instances of noncompliance. Western failed to calculate nonreimbursable expenses in accordance with the Grand Canyon Protection Act and had an unexplained difference in gross Federal investment balances used to calculate interest on Federal investment. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for the instances.

  9. 41 CFR 102-3.90 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.90 Section 102-3.90 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... does it apply? This subpart outlines specific responsibilities and functions to be carried out by...

  10. 41 CFR 102-192.5 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this part cover? 102-192.5 Section 102-192.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT...

  11. 24 CFR 943.140 - What programs and activities are covered by this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES Subsidiaries, Affiliates, Joint Ventures in Public Housing § 943.140 What programs and activities are covered by this... requirements of part 941, subpart F, of this title. (b) For purposes of this subpart, the term “joint...

  12. Findings of 4-H Impact Studies in Six Western States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevers, Brenda S.; Hodnett, Frank; Van Leeuwen, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2007, six western states conducted individual impact studies using public school youth in grades five, seven, and nine. Common areas of study included: risk behaviors, leadership positions held, helping others, close relationships with adults, self-identity, character, self-confidence, and empowerment. The purpose of the study was…

  13. Publication of the bulletin

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2010-01-01

    The final edition (Nos 50-51-52/2010 and 1-2/2011) of the last Weekly Bulletin of the year will be published on Friday 10 December and will cover events at CERN from 13 December 2010 to 14 January 2011. Announcements for publication in this issue should reach the Publication Section (Communication group) or the Staff Association, as appropriate by noon, on Tuesday 7 December. The table below lists the 2011 publication dates for the paper version of the Bulletin and the corresponding deadlines for the submission of announcements. Please note that all announcements must be submitted by 12.00 midday on Tuesdays at the latest. Bulletin No. Week number Submission of announcements (before 12.00 midday) Bulletin Web version Bulletin Printed version 3-4   Tuesday 11 January Fridays 14 and 21 January Wednes...

  14. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Visual perception is very important for road users and in the dark it can be facilitated by public lighting. Public lighting has a mostly positive road safety effect. Installing public lighting on roads that were previously unlit generally results in fewer and less serious crashes. This effect seems

  15. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  16. Hg concentrations in fish from coastal waters of California and Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jay; Ross, John; Bezalel, Shira; Sim, Lawrence; Bonnema, Autumn; Ichikawa, Gary; Heim, Wes; Schiff, Kenneth C; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Josh

    2016-01-01

    The State of California conducted an extensive and systematic survey of mercury (Hg) in fish from the California coast in 2009 and 2010. The California survey sampled 3483 fish representing 46 species at 68 locations, and demonstrated that methylHg in fish presents a widespread exposure risk to fish consumers. Most of the locations sampled (37 of 68) had a species with an average concentration above 0.3 μg/g wet weight (ww), and 10 locations an average above 1.0 μg/g ww. The recent and robust dataset from California provided a basis for a broader examination of spatial and temporal patterns in fish Hg in coastal waters of Western North America. There is a striking lack of data in publicly accessible databases on Hg and other contaminants in coastal fish. An assessment of the raw data from these databases suggested the presence of relatively high concentrations along the California coast and in Puget Sound, and relatively low concentrations along the coasts of Alaska and Oregon, and the outer coast of Washington. The dataset suggests that Hg concentrations of public health concern can be observed at any location on the coast of Western North America where long-lived predator species are sampled. Output from a linear mixed-effects model resembled the spatial pattern observed for the raw data and suggested, based on the limited dataset, a lack of trend in fish Hg over the nearly 30-year period covered by the dataset. Expanded and continued monitoring, accompanied by rigorous data management procedures, would be of great value in characterizing methylHg exposure, and tracking changes in contamination of coastal fish in response to possible increases in atmospheric Hg emissions in Asia, climate change, and terrestrial Hg control efforts in coastal watersheds.

  17. GIS and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bertazzon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue on GIS and public health is the result of a highly selective process, which saw the participation of some 20 expert peer-reviewers and led to the acceptance of one half of the high-quality submissions received over the past year. Many threads link these papers to each other and, indeed, to our original call for papers, but the element that most clearly emerges from these works is the inextricable connection between public health and the environment. Indeed, GIS analysis of public health simply cannot disregard the geospatial dimension of environmental resources and risks. What consistently emerges from these analyses is that current geospatial research can only scratch the surface of the complex interactions of spatial resources, risks, and public health. In today’s world, or at least in the developed world, researchers and practitioners can count on virtually endless data, on inexpensive computational power, and on seamless connectivity. In this research environment, these papers point to the need for improved analytical tools, covering concepts, representation, modeling and reliability. These works are important contributions that help us to identify what advances in geospatial analysis can better address the complex interactions of public health with our physical and cultural environment, and bridge research and practice, so that geospatial analyses can inform public health policy making. [...

  18. Physiological functions of plant cell coverings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki

    2002-08-01

    The cell coverings of plants have two important functions in plant life. Plant cell coverings are deeply involved in the regulation of the life cycle of plants: each stage of the life cycle, such as germination, vegetative growth, reproductive growth, and senescence, is strongly influenced by the nature of the cell coverings. Also, the apoplast, which consists of the cell coverings, is the field where plant cells first encounter the outer environment, and so becomes the major site of plant responses to the environment. In the regulation of each stage of the life cycle and the response to each environmental signal, some specific constituents of the cell coverings, such as xyloglucans in dicotyledons and 1,3,1,4-beta-glucans in Gramineae, act as the key component. The physiological functions of plant cell coverings are sustained by the metabolic turnover of these components. The components of the cell coverings are supplied from the symplast, but then they are modified or degraded in the apoplast. Thus, the metabolism of the cell coverings is regulated through the cross-talk between the symplast and the apoplast. The understanding of physiological functions of plant cell coverings will be greatly advanced by the use of genomic approaches. At the same time, we need to introduce nanobiological techniques for clarifying the minute changes in the cell coverings that occur in a small part within each cell.

  19. Public Safety Transmitter Towers, Civil Service emergency siren locations within Sedgwick County. Cover is maintained interactively by GIS staff. Primary attributes include siren ID, class, range, model, description, ownership, control, address, city, and GPS verification status. Publi, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Safety Transmitter Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described...

  20. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  1. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  2. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Magaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  3. Impacts of Snow Cover on Vegetation Phenology in the Arctic from Satellite Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Heqing; JIA Gensuo

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of snow cover is considered an essential factor in phenological changes in Arctic tundra and other northern biomes.The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Terra satellite data were selected to monitor the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of vegetation phenology and the timing of snow cover in western Arctic Russia (the Yamal Peninsula) during the period 2000-10.The magnitude of changes in vegetation phenology and the timing of snow cover were highly heterogeneous across latitudinal gradients and vegetation types in western Arctic Russia.There were identical latitudinal gradients for "start of season" (SOS) (r2 =0.982,p<0.0001),"end of season" (EOS) (r2 =0.938,p<0.0001),and "last day of snow cover" (LSC) (r2 =0.984,p<0.0001),while slightly weaker relationships between latitudinal gradients and "first day of snow cover" (FSC) were observed (r2 =0.48,p<0.0042).Delayed SOS and FSC,and advanced EOS and LSC were found in the south of the region,while there were completely different shifts in the north.SOS for the various land cover features responded to snow cover differently,while EOS among different vegetation types responded to snowfall almost the same.The timing of snow cover is likely a key driving factor behind the dynamics of vegetation phenology over the Arctic tundra.The present study suggests that snow cover urgently needs more attention to advance understanding of vegetation phenology in the future.

  4. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements September 30, 1994 and 1993 and management overview and performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwick, P.

    1994-12-31

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1994 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided. Western was established in December 1977, and has the responsibility for the Federal electric power marketing and transmission functions in 15 central and western states. Western markets power, as required by existing law, at the lowest possible rates consistent with sound business principles to recover the costs of operation and capital invested in power facilities.

  5. Barbara Kingsolver's Anti-Western: "Unraveling the Myths" in Animal Dreams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naomi Jacobs

    2003-01-01

      A critique of a myth that underlies both militarist public policy and corporate depredations on the environment, Animal Dreams unravels the Western's conventional approach to heroism, to violence...

  6. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  7. Afro-alpine forest cover change on Mt. Guna (Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Adugnaw; Frankl, Amaury; Jacob, Miro; Lanckriet, Sil; Hendrickx, Hanne; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    High mountain forests, such as the afro-alpine Erica arborea L. forests in Ethiopia, are very important for the livelihood of local communities, in relation to their impacts on the water balance of mountain ecosystems and surrounding agricultural areas. On volcanoes, the dominance of volcanic tuffs on the slopes, as well as that of gelifracts near the top further enhances infiltration, making it recharge areas. Earlier forest cover change studies in the Ethiopian highlands mainly deal with the lower vegetation belts. In this study, 3.37 km² on the western slopes of Mount Guna (one of the dozens of Miocene shield volcanoes that exist on top of the Ethiopian plateau) was mapped. The slope has an elevation between 3200 at its base and 4113 m a.s.l. at the peak. The present forest cover was recorded from high-resolution georeferenced satellite imagery from Google Maps and field data (2015), while historical forest cover was studied from georeferenced aerial photographs of 1982. In addition, key informant interviews were conducted to identify the trend of forest cover change and management practices. Whereas burning of the Erica forest for sake of land clearance (a typical practice on all Ethiopian mountains until the 1980s) most strikingly took place for three consecutive days in 1975, large-scale deforestation resulting from agricultural expansion and livestock pressure continued thereafter. However, between 2000 and 2014, due to active involvement of local and governmental institutions there was a slight regeneration of the vegetation and the Erica forest. Protection and regeneration of the forest was particularly efficient after it was given into custody of an orthodox church established in 1999 at the lower side of the forest. Overall, the study revealed that human and livestock pressures are the strongest drivers of deforestation. Furthermore, the study indicated that integrating the actions of local and governmental institutions is key for the protection of the

  8. The Basis of Good Government: Human Nature or Virtues? --Comments on Western Value Theories about Legal Regulation of Public Finance%善政的依据:人性抑或德性?——西方公共财政法律规制的价值标准理论述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉杰

    2012-01-01

    在西方法律思想史上,解决公共财政法律规制的价值标准问题的路径主要有两条。其一是以人性为依据的路径。一般而言,这一路径的困难是:我们应该以哪种人性为依据?符合人性事实的标准就一定是正确的吗?对此,人们充满争议。这一缺陷以不同的方式存在于这一路径的不同形态中,包括自由主义、功利主义和罗尔斯的理论等。其二是德性伦理理论的路径,包括亚里士多德所代表的古典理论、斯洛特所代表的基于主体的理论和阿奎那及菲尼斯所代表的基于善的理论。但是亚里士多德、斯洛特和阿奎那确立其价值标准的依据缺乏公共性,而菲尼斯没有对他赖以建立价值标准的共同善作出清楚的界定。%In the western history of law, there are mainly two approaches to the value criteria of legal regula- tion of public finance. The first is based on human nature. The general difficulties of this method include what kind of human nature we should depend on, and whether a standard confirming with the facts of human nature will surely be right. There are controversial answers to these questions. This controversy exists in different forms in the first ap- proach, including liberalism, utilitarianism, Rawles' theory, etc. The second approach is established according to the virtue ethics theories, including the classical theory represented by Aristotle, agent -based theory represented by Slote, and goodness -based theory represented by Aquina and Finnis. But the base on which Aristotle, Slote and Aquina tried to establish the value criteria lacks publiceness, and Finnis failed to clearly define the common goodness which formed the base of his value criteria.

  9. Globalisation and western music historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Katy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation of musicology and music history aims to fuse the divisions created during Western music’s acme, and is referred to as “post-European historical thinking”. Therefore, “post” and “pre” European historical thinking have much in common. One aspect of this process of fragmentation was that music history was separated from theory and that Western Music Histories succeeded General Music Histories (a development described in some detail in the article. Connecting global music history with “post-European” historical thinking is one among numerous indications of Western awareness that European culture has reached some sort of a terminal phase. Concurrently, countries that have been developing by following Western Europe as a prototype, are leading today some past phase of Western development, which, with the ideas of cultural relativism prevailing, are not considered inferior.

  10. Clique Cover Width and Clique Sum

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrokhi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    For a clique cover $C$ in the undirected graph $G$, the clique cover graph of $C$ is the graph obtained by contracting the vertices of each clique in $C$ into a single vertex. The clique cover width of G, denoted by $CCW(G)$, is the minimum value of the bandwidth of all clique cover graphs of $G$. When $G$ is the clique sum of $G_1$ and $G_2$, we prove that $CCW(G) \\le 3/2(CCW(G_1) + CCW(G_2))$.

  11. Western values and the Russian energy weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Bennett K.

    This thesis explores the competition between Russia and the West for the oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea region, an area where far more is at stake than simply acquisition of new energy supplies. Ultimately, the "winner" of the competition for Caspian Sea energy resources will determine whether Russia will become the primary energy supplier for Europe in the future, or whether there will be alternative, non-Russian energy routes from East to West. The thesis uses a qualitative approach, drawing on scholarly books and articles, current affairs publications, energy firm websites, and other sources to compare the ethical aspects of the strategies used by Russia and the West, to determine whose strategy has been more successful, and to analyze what this means for the political, economic, and security future of Europe. As this thesis demonstrates, Russia recognizes the importance of energy as both an economic and foreign policy tool. To secure access to the resources of the Caspian Sea region, Russia has used bribery and strongman tactics to secure arrangements and contracts favorable to Russian interests. When a country does not capitulate to these tactics, Russia applies other measures to influence these countries' policies. This thesis draws on two recent examples, Ukraine and Georgia, to demonstrate how Russia has used its position as a supplier of energy resources to influence countries to adopt policies complementary to Russian interests, or to punish them for failing to do so. The effectiveness of these Russian tactics is an important precedent for the countries of the Caspian Sea region to keep in mind as they make decisions that will determine their economic and political future for decades to come. In contrast, the western strategy of promoting quality products and services, while ensuring safety and conducting business according to western ethical norms, has been less successful than western firms originally envisioned. Undoubtedly western firms have

  12. Western Disturbances: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, A. P.; Niyogi, D.; Barros, A. P.; Ridley, J.; Mohanty, U. C.; Yasunari, T.; Sikka, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    Cyclonic storms associated with the midlatitude Subtropical Westerly Jet (SWJ), referred to as Western Disturbances (WDs), play a critical role in the meteorology of the Indian subcontinent. WDs embedded in the southward propagating SWJ produce extreme precipitation over northern India and are further enhanced over the Himalayas due to orographic land-atmosphere interactions. During December, January, and February, WD snowfall is the dominant precipitation input to establish and sustain regional snowpack, replenishing regional water resources. Spring melt is the major source of runoff to northern Indian rivers and can be linked to important hydrologic processes from aquifer recharge to flashfloods. Understanding the dynamical structure, evolution-decay, and interaction of WDs with the Himalayas is therefore necessary to improve knowledge which has wide ranging socioeconomic implications beyond short-term disaster response including cold season agricultural activities, management of water resources, and development of vulnerability-adaptive measures. In addition, WD wintertime precipitation provides critical mass input to existing glaciers and modulates the albedo characteristics of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, affecting large-scale circulation and the onset of the succeeding Indian Summer Monsoon. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and change on the Indian subcontinent requires fundamental understanding of the dynamics of WDs. In particular, projected changes in the structure of the SWJ will influence evolution-decay processes of the WDs and impact Himalayan regional water availability. This review synthesizes past research on WDs with a perspective to provide a comprehensive assessment of the state of knowledge to assist both researchers and policymakers, and context for future research.

  13. IN WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizhikov Il'ja Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    along the oil transportation route that connected three Salym oil fields in Western Siberia.

  14. Publication of the bulletin

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The final edition (Nos. 51-52/2006 and 1-2-3/2007) of the last Bulletin of the year will appear on Friday 15 December and will cover events at CERN from 18 December 2006 to 19 January 2006. Announcements for publication in this issue should reach the Publication Section (Communication group) or the Staff Association, as appropriate, by noon on Tuesday 12 December. The table below lists the 2007 publication dates for the paper version of the Bulletin and the corresponding deadlines for the submission of announcements. Please note that all announcements must be submitted by 12.00 noon on Tuesdays at the latest. Bulletin publication 2007 Bulletin No. (week No.) Publication date Submission of announcements (before 12:00 noon) 4-5 Monday 22 January Tuesday 16 January 6-7 Monday 5 February Tuesday 30 January 8-9 Monday 19 February Tuesday 13 February 10-11 Monday 5 March Tuesday 27 February 12-13 Monday 19 March Tuesday 13 March 14-15 Monday 2 April Tuesday 27 March 16-17 Monday 1...

  15. Proposed framework for the Western Area Power Administration Environmental Risk Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; DiMassa, F.V.; Pelto, P.J.; Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Roybal, A.L. [Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) views environmental protection and compliance as a top priority as it manages the construction, operation, and maintenance of its vast network of transmission lines, substations, and other facilities. A recent Department of Energy audit of Western`s environmental management activities recommends that Western adopt a formal environmental risk program. To accomplish this goal, Western, in conjunction with Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is in the process of developing a centrally coordinated environmental risk program. This report presents the results of this design effort, and indicates the direction in which Western`s environmental risk program is heading. Western`s environmental risk program will consist of three main components: risk communication, risk assessment, and risk management/decision making. Risk communication is defined as an exchange of information on the potential for threats to human health, public safety, or the environment. This information exchange provides a mechanism for public involvement, and also for the participation in the risk assessment and management process by diverse groups or offices within Western. The objective of risk assessment is to evaluate and rank the relative magnitude of risks associated with specific environmental issues that are facing Western. The evaluation and ranking is based on the best available scientific information and judgment and serves as input to the risk management process. Risk management takes risk information and combines it with relevant non-risk factors (e.g., legal mandates, public opinion, costs) to generate risk management options. A risk management tool, such as decision analysis, can be used to help make risk management choices.

  16. FUNDING PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Constantin, DIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of this article started from the fact that in the field of public institutions accounting there have been many changes and it aims to capture the essential aspects of their financing. Thus the article covers a series of issues related to the credit officers, to employment, to settlement and payment of public institutions expenditure, to the budgeting and budgetary credits accounting. It also presents a brief classification of the public institutions according to several criteria, as well as their financing sources. The paper also practically presents the accounting of the budgetary credits and their sharing mechanism between the principal, secondary and tertiary budgetary credits officers.

  17. Use of Cover Crops in Hardwood Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Rentz

    2005-01-01

    Cover crops are as essential a practice in hardwood production as in pine production or any other nursery operation. Without proper cover crop rotation in a nursery plan, we open ourselves up to an array of problems: more diseases, wrong pH, more weeds, reduced fertility, and less downward percolation of soil moisture due, in part, to compaction....

  18. AsMA journal covers, a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Pamela C

    2014-01-01

    The cover of our journal has changed quite often over the years. As we look forward to changing the name and design of the journal, it seems appropriate to reflect on the previous journal titles and covers. A brief history follows.

  19. Winter cover crops influence Amaranthus palmeri establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crops were evaluated for their effect on Palmer amaranth (PA) suppression in cotton production. Cover crops examined included rye and four winter legumes: narrow-leaf lupine, crimson clover, Austrian winter pea, and cahaba vetch. Each legume was evaluated alone and in a mixture with rye...

  20. Managing cover crops on strawberry furrow bottoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare furrows in strawberry fields with plastic mulch covered beds can lead to lots of soil erosion and runoff during winter rainy periods. This article describes how growers can plant and manage cover crops in these furrows to minimize runoff and soil erosion. This is based on on-going research at...

  1. Well-covered graphs and factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randerath, Bert; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    2006-01-01

    A maximum independent set of vertices in a graph is a set of pairwise nonadjacent vertices of largest cardinality α. Plummer defined a graph to be well-covered, if every independent set is contained in a maximum independent set of G. Every well-covered graph G without isolated vertices has a perf...

  2. 29 CFR 1904.31 - Covered employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered employees. 1904.31 Section 1904.31 Labor... Requirements § 1904.31 Covered employees. (a) Basic requirement. You must record on the OSHA 300 Log the recordable injuries and illnesses of all employees on your payroll, whether they are labor, executive,...

  3. 14 CFR 120.215 - Covered employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered employees. 120.215 Section 120.215... Alcohol Testing Program Requirements § 120.215 Covered employees. (a) Each employee, including any... accordance with this subpart. This includes full-time, part-time, temporary, and intermittent...

  4. Mapping Deforestation and Forest Degradation Patterns in Western Himalaya, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mueen Qamer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan mountain forest ecosystem has been degrading since the British ruled the area in the 1850s. Local understanding of the patterns and processes of degradation is desperately required to devise management strategies to halt this degradation and provide long-term sustainability. This work comprises a satellite image based study in combination with national expert validation to generate sub-district level statistics for forest cover over the Western Himalaya, Pakistan, which accounts for approximately 67% of the total forest cover of the country. The time series of forest cover maps (1990, 2000, 2010 reveal extensive deforestation in the area. Indeed, approximately 170,684 ha of forest has been lost, which amounts to 0.38% per year clear cut or severely degraded during the last 20 years. A significant increase in the rate of deforestation is observed in the second half of the study period, where much of the loss occurs at the western borders along with Afghanistan. The current study is the first systematic and comprehensive effort to map changes to forest cover in Northern Pakistan. Deforestation hotspots identified at the sub-district level provide important insight into deforestation patterns, which may facilitate the development of appropriate forest conservation and management strategies in the country.

  5. [Public health education in Austria. An overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Günter; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2014-04-01

    The future challenges for the Austrian health care system require an increasing number of public health experts of different professions in all fields of public health. In this article the offer of public health education in Austrian universities and universities for applied sciences was searched based on the predominantly online available information on web platforms of the schools. Currently (2013), there are three postgraduate public health university courses and two public health doctoral programs in Austria. Additionally, 34 degree programmes could be identified, in which parts of public health are covered. But also in medical curricula at Austrian medical schools, public health contents have found their place. In Austria, there is already a multifaceted offer for public health education. However, to build an appropriate public health work force, capable to manage the public health challenges in all its dimensions in terms of health in all policies, this offer should still be intensified.

  6. 42 CFR 124.513 - Public facility compliance alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facility which is owned and operated by a unit of State or local government or a quasi-public corporation...-public corporation as defined at 42 CFR 124.2(m), to cover operating deficits attributable to the... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public facility compliance alternative....

  7. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...... in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity...

  8. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity......We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...

  9. Un/covering: Making Disability Identity Legible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Dawn Evans

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines one aspect of disability identity among people with non-apparent or "invisible" disabilities: the decision to emphasize, remind others about, or openly acknowledge impairment in social settings. I call this process "un/covering," and situate this concept in the sociological and Disability Studies literature on disability stigma, passing, and covering. Drawing on interviews with people who have acquired a non-apparent impairment through chronic illness or injury, I argue that decisions to un/cover (after a disability disclosure has already been made play a pivotal role for this group in developing a strong, positive disability identity and making that identity legible to others. Decisions to pass, cover, or un/cover are ongoing decisions that stitch together the fabric of each person's daily life experiences, thus serving as primary mechanisms for identity negotiation and management.

  10. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.;

    surveys of seabird colonies are needed, due to a lack of information or because the present information probably is outdated. The most immediate threats to the colonial seabirds in western Greenland during the breeding time is hunting and egging. Oil pollution is a minor threat to-day, but will increase...... if offshore areas with oil potential are explored and developed. Tab. 6 gives an overview of each species sensitivity to oil spills and the capacity to recover, as well as a comparison of the western Greenland population numbers to the North Atlantic population numbers. The most significant western Greenland...

  11. Pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of Holocene regional vegetation cover (plant-functional types and land-cover types) in Europe suitable for climate modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trondman, A-K; Gaillard, M-J; Mazier, F; Sugita, S; Fyfe, R; Nielsen, A B; Twiddle, C; Barratt, P; Birks, H J B; Bjune, A E; Björkman, L; Broström, A; Caseldine, C; David, R; Dodson, J; Dörfler, W; Fischer, E; van Geel, B; Giesecke, T; Hultberg, T; Kalnina, L; Kangur, M; van der Knaap, P; Koff, T; Kuneš, P; Lagerås, P; Latałowa, M; Lechterbeck, J; Leroyer, C; Leydet, M; Lindbladh, M; Marquer, L; Mitchell, F J G; Odgaard, B V; Peglar, S M; Persson, T; Poska, A; Rösch, M; Seppä, H; Veski, S; Wick, L

    2015-02-01

    We present quantitative reconstructions of regional vegetation cover in north-western Europe, western Europe north of the Alps, and eastern Europe for five time windows in the Holocene [around 6k, 3k, 0.5k, 0.2k, and 0.05k calendar years before present (bp)] at a 1° × 1° spatial scale with the objective of producing vegetation descriptions suitable for climate modelling. The REVEALS model was applied on 636 pollen records from lakes and bogs to reconstruct the past cover of 25 plant taxa grouped into 10 plant-functional types and three land-cover types [evergreen trees, summer-green (deciduous) trees, and open land]. The model corrects for some of the biases in pollen percentages by using pollen productivity estimates and fall speeds of pollen, and by applying simple but robust models of pollen dispersal and deposition. The emerging patterns of tree migration and deforestation between 6k bp and modern time in the REVEALS estimates agree with our general understanding of the vegetation history of Europe based on pollen percentages. However, the degree of anthropogenic deforestation (i.e. cover of cultivated and grazing land) at 3k, 0.5k, and 0.2k bp is significantly higher than deduced from pollen percentages. This is also the case at 6k in some parts of Europe, in particular Britain and Ireland. Furthermore, the relationship between summer-green and evergreen trees, and between individual tree taxa, differs significantly when expressed as pollen percentages or as REVEALS estimates of tree cover. For instance, when Pinus is dominant over Picea as pollen percentages, Picea is dominant over Pinus as REVEALS estimates. These differences play a major role in the reconstruction of European landscapes and for the study of land cover-climate interactions, biodiversity and human resources. © 2014 The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Experiencias en Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pérez Fernández

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Décadas de uso inadecuado de los recursos naturales en Australia han llevado a la extinción de numerosas especies autóctonas. Aprendiendo de sus propios errores, se han inicido recientemente diferentes proyectos de conservación en los que participan diversos agentes interesados. La Región de los Central Ranges, en el Desierto de Gibson, pertenece al pueblo aborigen Ngaanyatjarra. En los años 90 se llevó a cabo una campaña de recolección de organismos, patrocinada por el Museo de Western Australia y el Departamento de Conservación Ambiental (DEC, en la que participaron miembros de la comunidad Ngaanyatjarra, conocedores y cuidadores del territorio. El resultado científico se tradujo en la identificación de dos nuevas especies, así como numerosas nuevas citas de plantas y animales para el territorio. La minería es una de las actividades más impactantes en Australia, pero la concienciación social ha llevado a que las compañías desarrollen importantes campañas de protección de especies. El mulgara (Dasycercus cristicaula ocupaba zonas que hoy en día se dedican a la minería, y de las que prácticamente ha desaparecido. Un programa de investigación financiado por la empresa Resolute Resources y dirigido por el Departamento de Conservación y Manejo del Territorio (CALM ha permitido identificar poblaciones de este marsupial carnívoro y diseñar un programa de manejo cuyo objetivo es evitar actuaciones incompatibles con su actividad biológica. El resultado más relevante en ambas iniciativas ha sido la colaboración entre diferentes agentes implicados, con intercambio de conocimientos y experiencias. Especialmente importante ha sido la posibilidad de diseñar planes de manejo y actuación sobre el territorio, orientados a la preservación de valores naturales y culturales antiguos.

  13. 108 WESTERN INFLUENCE ON CHINESE AND NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    western cultures and globalization; and as a result of these, ... In Nigeria, westernization is seen as the effects of western invasion and colonization on some native societies of the world which had both positive and negative impacts. Nigerians.

  14. Impacts of Potential Aircraft Observations on Forecasts of Tropical Cyclones Over the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    OBSERVATIONS ON FORECASTS OF TROPICAL CYCLONES OVER THE WESTERN NORTH PACIFIC by Mark C. Mitchell December 2014 Thesis Co-Advisors: Patrick A. Harr...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IMPACTS OF POTENTIAL AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS ON FORECASTS OF TROPICAL CYCLONES OVER THE WESTERN NORTH...of the storm inner core. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Global Hawk, Tropical Cyclone Reconnaissance, Observations, Data Assimilation, Numerical Weather

  15. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francois

    large-scale battles using massive force.4 According to well-known military ... a conflict, he could therefore take advantage of all elements of Western military .... development of industrial total warfare had led to a rigid attitude towards conflicts.

  16. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  17. EASE-Grid Land Cover Classifications Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data provide land cover classifications derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product (Friedl et al. 2002). The data are...

  18. Public knowledge and public trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    As health care applications derived from human genetics research are likely to move increasingly from 'clinic to community', there is growing interest not just in how patients understand and take up health-related genetic information but also in the views of the wider population, as well as a range of professional groups. In this paper, issues relating public knowledge and public trust are raised and discussed in an attempt to move forward debates about public involvement in genomic research and the role of sociologists within interdisciplinary teams. As the field of public understanding of science has developed, we have seen a shift from a focus on the lack of scientific literacy as problem to a recognition of the range of different knowledges that people have and use as they confront science and technology in their everyday lives. As a mood for dialogue pervades many institutions in their relations with 'publics', attention must now be paid to the way in which knowledge and expertise is expressed, heard and acted upon in dialogic encounters. There is increasing concern about public trust in science and calls to increase public confidence, particularly through more open engagement with a range of publics. However, lack of trust or loss of confidence may be constructed as problems rather than reflecting empirical reality, where more complex relationships and attitudes prevail. Lack of trust is often privatized, deeply rooted in lived experience and routinely managed. Trust relations are generally characterized by ambivalence, uncertainty and risk, and are always provisional. Drawing on selected literature and empirical research to review and illustrate this field, this paper argues that scepticism or ambivalence on the part of publics are not necessarily problems to be overcome in the interest of scientific progress, but rather should be mobilized to enhance open and public debates about the nature and direction of genomics research, medicine, and the related

  19. Himalayan glacier retreat delayed by debris cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherler, D.; Bookhagen, B.; Strecker, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Variable retreat rates and paucity of mass-balance data complicate a coherent picture of the current state and future fate of Himalayan glaciers. We report frontal changes and remotely-sensed surface velocities from >250 glaciers in the greater Himalayan realm (Hindu Kush, Karakoram, Himalaya, West Kunlun Shan) between 2000 and 2008 that provide evidence for widespread meltdown, which is obscured by debris cover. While debris-free glaciers in Tibet and other low-relief areas have been mainly retreating, debris-covered glaciers in high-relief areas, such as the central Himalaya, were mostly stagnating and in-situ down wasting but not retreating. Only Karakoram glaciers show no signs of stagnation or appreciable retreat, despite high debris cover, suggesting no recent mass loss. Our study shows that regional differences in topographic relief account for substantial differences in debris cover and thus retreat behaviour that need to be considered when comparing glacier retreat rates. The combination of melt rates lowered by debris cover and healthier glaciers in the strongly glaciated Karakoram slows down current glacier wastage in High Asia. Predictions of future water availability and global sea level have so far neglected the effect of debris cover on glacier melt rates and thus likely overestimate the speed of glacier meltdown in the Himalaya and other steep mountain ranges where debris covered glaciers are common.

  20. Assessing uncertainties in land cover projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter; Prestele, Reinhard; Verburg, Peter H; Arneth, Almut; Baranzelli, Claudia; Batista E Silva, Filipe; Brown, Calum; Butler, Adam; Calvin, Katherine; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Doelman, Jonathan C; Dunford, Robert; Engström, Kerstin; Eitelberg, David; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harrison, Paula A; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Holzhauer, Sascha; Humpenöder, Florian; Jacobs-Crisioni, Chris; Jain, Atul K; Krisztin, Tamás; Kyle, Page; Lavalle, Carlo; Lenton, Tim; Liu, Jiayi; Meiyappan, Prasanth; Popp, Alexander; Powell, Tom; Sands, Ronald D; Schaldach, Rüdiger; Stehfest, Elke; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Tabeau, Andrzej; van Meijl, Hans; Wise, Marshall A; Rounsevell, Mark D A

    2017-02-01

    Understanding uncertainties in land cover projections is critical to investigating land-based climate mitigation policies, assessing the potential of climate adaptation strategies and quantifying the impacts of land cover change on the climate system. Here, we identify and quantify uncertainties in global and European land cover projections over a diverse range of model types and scenarios, extending the analysis beyond the agro-economic models included in previous comparisons. The results from 75 simulations over 18 models are analysed and show a large range in land cover area projections, with the highest variability occurring in future cropland areas. We demonstrate systematic differences in land cover areas associated with the characteristics of the modelling approach, which is at least as great as the differences attributed to the scenario variations. The results lead us to conclude that a higher degree of uncertainty exists in land use projections than currently included in climate or earth system projections. To account for land use uncertainty, it is recommended to use a diverse set of models and approaches when assessing the potential impacts of land cover change on future climate. Additionally, further work is needed to better understand the assumptions driving land use model results and reveal the causes of uncertainty in more depth, to help reduce model uncertainty and improve the projections of land cover. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Assessment of Performance for Alternative Cover Systems on a Waste Rock Storage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argunhan, C.; Yazicigil, H.

    2015-12-01

    A cover is usually applied to the top of the mining wastes to prevent exposure of sulphide minerals in the waste to water and oxygen ingress in order to mitigate the unwanted consequences such as acid rock drainage. Hence, the selection and design of the appropriate cover system by considering the climatic conditions, local unsaturated and saturated properties and the availability of the cover materials become an important issue. This study aims to investigate the performance of various cover systems and designs for the North Waste Rock Storage Area in Kışladağ Gold Mine located in Uşak in Western Turkey. SEEP/W and VADOSE/W softwares are used to model the flow in unsaturated and saturated zones and to assess the performance of various cover systems. The soil water characteristics and parameters used in the model for saturated and unsaturated conditions were taken from field tests and literature. Accuracy of input data is checked during calibration for steady state conditions with SEEP/W. Then, bedrock, waste rock and cover alternatives are modeled under transient conditions for 20 years using daily climatic data. The effectiveness of the various cover systems for minimizing the ingress of water and air that cause acid rock drainage is evaluated and recommendations are made so that the impacts to groundwater from the waste rock storage areas during closure period are minimized.

  2. 170 years of debris covered glacier surface evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölg, Nico; Bolch, Tobias; Vieli, Andreas; Bauder, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The local effect of debris layer thickness on ice melt can be studied considering short time periods and is quite well known to date. How the reduced melt, the additional weight of the debris, and the formation of ice cliffs and lakes are linked with the flow behaviour of the glacier is less well understood and much longer time periods are required for such investigations, typically in the order of the response time of the respective glacier, if possible even longer. For this reason we selected to study Zmuttgletscher in the Western Swiss Alps, which today is a heavily debris covered valley glacier. We produced a time series of glacier area, debris cover and surface elevation changes on the basis of 14 old maps and aerial images, 11 orthoimages and additional terrestrial photographs starting at the end of the little ice age (LIA) in 1859. During these 170 years the glacier lost a volume of 52.9*106 m3 (mean thickness change of -89 m) at its tongue while its debris covered area increased from about 14 to 20%. Several periods of variable retreat rates can be discerned and spatially varying change patterns become visible. Commonly the glacier has been retreating, but we can discern locally different elevation change, and also stable to positive periods in the 1980s become visible on different dynamical section of the glacier. Surface features that are commonly linked to debris cover and ice flow have emerged after the end of the LIA. For example, supraglacial thermokarst features become visible in 1880 and are widespread in the lower area of the glacier tongue in 1946. Considering big ice cliffs that are typically related to a realtively high, steep elevation difference and a large surface area, their number has increased somewhat from zero in 1859 to about 15 today. However, its the small ice cliffs, lakes and surface water channels that have emerged and also contribute to stronger melt through either exposed clean ice or ice in contact with water. Elevation

  3. Take Good Care of Public Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰; 金业祥

    2004-01-01

    However,it is a great pity that in many places,some of the public facilities have been purposely damaged.Some electric bulbs were smashed; some traffic signs were damaged beyond recognition,some public telephones cannot work; some statues stand there without an arm or a leg.What's worse,some people even stole the covers of the sewers.

  4. Estimating juniper cover from NAIP imagery and evaluating relationships between potential cover and environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper management is constrained by limited tools to estimate juniper cover and potential cover at stand closure across landscapes. We evaluated if remotely sensed imagery (NAIP) could be used to estimate juniper cover and if environmental characteristic could be used to determine potential junipe...

  5. Orbifold groups, quasi-projectivity and covers

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Enrique Artal; Matei, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We discuss properties of complex algebraic orbifold groups, their characteristic varieties, and their abelian covers. In particular, we deal with the question of (quasi)-projectivity of orbifold groups. We also prove a structure theorem for the variety of characters of normal-crossing quasi-projective orbifold groups. Finally, we extend Sakuma's formula for the first Betti number of abelian covers of orbifold fundamental groups. Several examples are presented, including a compact orbifold group which is not projective and a Zariski pair of plane projective curves that can be told by considering an unbranched cover of the projective plane with an orbifold structure.

  6. Dicycle Cover of Hamiltonian Oriented Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid A. Alsatami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A dicycle cover of a digraph D is a family F of dicycles of D such that each arc of D lies in at least one dicycle in F. We investigate the problem of determining the upper bounds for the minimum number of dicycles which cover all arcs in a strong digraph. Best possible upper bounds of dicycle covers are obtained in a number of classes of digraphs including strong tournaments, Hamiltonian oriented graphs, Hamiltonian oriented complete bipartite graphs, and families of possibly non-Hamiltonian digraphs obtained from these digraphs via a sequence of 2-sum operations.

  7. Public opinion on public services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evelien Eggink; Debbie Verbeek-Oudijk; Evert Pommer

    2013-01-01

    Original titel: Burgers over de kwaliteit van publieke diensten Most citizens come into contact with public services, for example as a patient, as a student or pupil, as a passenger on public transport or as a museum visitor. More and more importance is being attached to the quality of those service

  8. Hydrocarbon- Generating Model of the Area Covered With Volcanic Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhanqian; Zhang Yuwei

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of Oil & gas fields shows their close relationship with the most active tectonic regions. This is not a coincidence but having a scientific reasons. The crustal active regions, refer to the places where the active natural earthquake, volcanic activities, underground water happened, and the areas of the leaking off of natural gas to the surface of the crust. The magma of volcanic activities brings the organic "kitchen range body" hydrocarbon- generating model and inorganic genetic hydrocarbon to the regions covered by volcanic rock. Underground water brings a catalytic hydrocarbongenerating model for organic matter, and the leaking- off of H2 and CO2 contributes a synthetic hydrocarbon - generating model. Volcanic activities bring the assemblage of Source, Reservoir and Seal formed by the sediments and magma the sedimentary basins, and the hydrocarbon - generating system with a "water - volcano" binary structure is formed. All these conditions are favorable and excellent for the formation of oil & gas fields. The distribution of American oil & gas fields have very close relationship with the mines of Fe, Mn, Ct, Mo, W and V, deposits of Zn, Cu, V, Pb, Al and Hg, and the deposits of fluorite, sulfur, potassium salt, phosphate and halite, and the distribution of sulfate- chloride of river water. The reason why few oil & gas fields discovered in the regions covered by volcanic rock in western America maybe because of the view of "inconsistency between petroleum and volcano". Further more, It's very difficult to carry out a geophysical exploration in such kinds of regions.This paper examined a few hydrocarbon-generating models (systems) mentioned above and came up with some fresh ideas on the exploration in the areas covered with volcanic rocks.

  9. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  10. Environmental conditions for alternative tree-cover states in high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abis, Beniamino; Brovkin, Victor

    2017-02-01

    Previous analysis of the vegetation cover from remote sensing revealed the existence of three alternative modes in the frequency distribution of boreal tree cover: a sparsely vegetated treeless state, an open woodland state, and a forest state. Identifying which are the regions subject to multimodality, and assessing which are the main factors underlying their existence, is important to project future change of natural vegetation cover and its effect on climate.We study the link between the tree-cover fraction distribution and eight globally observed environmental factors: mean annual rainfall, mean minimum temperature, growing degree days above 0 °C, permafrost distribution, mean spring soil moisture, wildfire occurrence frequency, soil texture, and mean thawing depth. Through the use of generalised additive models, conditional histograms, and phase-space analysis, we find that environmental conditions exert a strong control over the tree-cover distribution, uniquely determining its state among the three dominant modes in ˜ 95 % of the cases. Additionally, we find that the link between individual environmental variables and tree cover is different within the four boreal regions considered here, namely eastern North Eurasia, western North Eurasia, eastern North America, and western North America. Furthermore, using a classification based on rainfall, minimum temperatures, permafrost distribution, soil moisture, wildfire frequency, and soil texture, we show the location of areas with potentially alternative tree-cover states under the same environmental conditions in the boreal region. These areas, although encompassing a minor fraction of the boreal area ( ˜ 5 %), correspond to possible transition zones with a reduced resilience to disturbances. Hence, they are of interest for a more detailed analysis of land-atmosphere interactions.

  11. The Performance of Western Australian Ports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malcolm Tull; Fred Affleck

    2008-01-01

    <正>The aim of this paper is to undertake an analysis of the performance of Western Australia’s port authorities.The context for this research is the report released in February 2006 by Access Economics (A scorecard of the design of economic regulation of infrastructure) for the Australian Council for Infrastructure Development.This report was critical of the regime for economic regulation of Western Australia’s ports,and by implication of the potential quality and efficiency of service delivery to their principal stakeholders.However,a reading of the Access Economics report and supporting data suggests that its analysis takes no account of the regulatory frameworks for port authorities in Western Austral ia(WA) contained in the Port Authorities Act 1999(WA) and elsewhere,or of the actual economic and physical performance of WA port authorities.In the light of this apparently flawed analysis of the effectiveness of port regulation in WA,it is timely to review the performance of ports under the current governance structures,and to place the Access Economics report in a broader empirical performance-based context. While there is no regime for direct regulation of access to WA’s port infrastructure,it is argued that provisions in WA’s legislation governing the management of ports provide much of the focus,transparency and accountability required of an adequate regulatory framework.The current dominant Australian model of public ownership,with ports acting as strategic managers subject to statutory and governmental oversight,offers a viable alternative to complete privatisation and specialised regulatory controls.Efficient ports arguably can emerge from a variety of institutional frameworks-there is no single ownership or administrative structure that fits all circumstances.

  12. Public Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the role of sociology in society? How can - and should - sociology contribute with insights relevant and useful to the outside world? Is sociology attuned to accommodate the demands of the wider public and of surrounding society? Who benefits from the knowledge produced and provided...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...... irrelevance and introversion and the Charybdis of public relevancy and extroversion. But what does it mean to be a ‘public sociologist' in contemporary society and are there really any other ways of doing sociology? What are the requirements of sociologists in a social world increasingly informed and shaped...

  13. Miscellaneous Publications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Late 19th century Weather Bureau publications and Congressional reports pertaining to weather. Set of Weather Bureau Snowfall Bulletins for Rocky Mountain states...

  14. Public Airports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a vector point digital data structure that contains the locations of General Public Use Airports in the State of New Mexico. It only contains those...

  15. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  16. 45 CFR 152.19 - Covered benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... offered by a PCIP shall not cover the following services: (1) Cosmetic surgery or other treatment for cosmetic purposes except to restore bodily function or correct deformity resulting from disease....

  17. Global Land Cover Characterization: 1992-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long history of involvement in multi-scale, and multi-temporal land cover characterization and mapping of the world. During...

  18. 5 CFR 890.903 - Covered services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Limit on Inpatient Hospital Charges, Physician Charges, and FEHB Benefit... inpatient hospital services apply to inpatient hospital services which are: (1) Covered under both...

  19. The Results: WLB's Cover Contest for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnofsky, Ruth

    1970-01-01

    Lists winners of a contest for a cover design among elementary school children, with entries submitted by school librarians from all over the country. Includes reproductions of some winning entries. (JS)

  20. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  1. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sankaran, M

    2005-12-08

    Full Text Available Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties (1...

  2. C-CAP Niihau 2005 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution imagery according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol. This data set utilized 1...

  3. Covering radii are not matroid invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Thomas Johann; Rutherford, Carrie G.

    We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P. J. Cameron (ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469--478)....

  4. Orbifoldization, covering surfaces and uniformization theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bántay, P

    1998-01-01

    The connection between the theory of permutation orbifolds, covering surfaces and uniformization is investigated, and the higher genus partition functions of an arbitrary permutation orbifold are expressed in terms of those of the original theory.

  5. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Do you have questions about the elections to the Staff Council, 2017 MERIT exercise, EVE and School, LD to IC exercise, CHIS, the Pension Fund… Come get informed and ask your questions at our public meetings. These public meetings are also an opportunity to get the more information on current issues. Benefit from this occasion to get the latest news and to discuss with the representatives of the statutory body that is the Staff Association!

  6. 7 CFR 1.183 - Proceedings covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards Act (7 U.S.C. 79(g)(3), 85, 86) U.S. Warehouse Act (7 U.S.C. 246, 253) Virus-Serum-Toxin Act (21 U... the filing of an application by a party who believes the proceeding is covered by EAJA; whether the proceeding is covered will then be an issue for resolution in proceedings on the application. (c) If a...

  7. Covering radii are not matroid invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Thomas Johann; Rutherford, Carrie G.

    We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P. J. Cameron (ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469--478).......We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P. J. Cameron (ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469--478)....

  8. Regulatory guidance on soil cover systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, J.D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in September 1991, completed revisions to 14 sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. The major purposes of the SRP are to ensure the quality and uniformity of the NRC staff`s safety reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate the acceptability of information and data provided in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) portion of the license application. SRP 3.2, entitled, Design Considerations for Normal and Abnormal/Accident Conditions, was one of the sections that was revised by the NRC staff. This revision was completed to provide additional regulatory guidance on the important considerations that need to be addressed for the proper design and construction of soil cover systems that are to be placed over the LLW. The cover system over the waste is acknowledged to be one of the most important engineered barriers for the long-term stable performance of the disposal facility. The guidance in revised SRP 3.2 summarizes the previous efforts and recommendations of the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and a peer review panel on the placement of soil cover systems. NRC published these efforts in NUREG/CR-5432. The discussions in this paper highlight selected recommendations on soil cover issues that the NRC staff considers important for ensuring the safe, long-term performance of the soil cover systems. The development phases to be discussed include: (1) cover design; (2) cover material selection; (3) laboratory and field testing; (4) field placement control and acceptance; and (5) penetrations through the constructed covers.

  9. Edge covers and independence: Algebraic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, E. A.; Khitrov, G. M.; Pogozhev, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, linear algebra methods are applied to solve some problems of graph theory. For ordinary connected graphs, edge coverings and independent sets are considered. Some results concerning minimum edge covers and maximum matchings are proved with the help of linear algebraic approach. The problem of finding a maximum matching of a graph is fundamental both practically and theoretically, and has numerous applications, e.g., in computational chemistry and mathematical chemistry.

  10. Deficiência de ferro, prevalência de anemia e fatores associados em crianças de creches públicas do oeste do Paraná, Brasil Iron deficiency and prevalence of anemia and associated factors in children attending public daycare centers in western Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Carreira Rodrigues

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional de ferro, a prevalência de anemia e fatores associados, em crianças de 6 a 24 meses frequentadoras de creche pública em Cascavel, Região Oeste do Paraná, Brasil. MÉTODOS: O estudo transversal foi realizado com amostra aleatória de 256 crianças. A coleta de dados (questionário, medidas antropométricas e amostras de sangue ocorreu de julho a setembro de 2007. A deficiência de ferro foi avaliada em termos de transferrina, hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio, ferro sérico e eosinófilos. Na análise estatística dos dados foram obtidas as odds ratio bruta e ajustada (regressão logística, bem como os respectivos níveis de significância (p-valor. Para identificar diferenças significativas entre as medidas quantitativas, adotou-se a Análise de Variância e o teste de comparação múltipla de Tukey. RESULTADOS: A prevalência da anemia foi de 29,7%, sendo que 77,3% das amostras apresentaram baixa concentração de ferro. A antropometria não apontou deficiência de macronutrientes, porém mostrou obesidade acima dos índices médios. Os fatores associados à anemia e à deficiência de ferro foram: doenças frequentes na família (OR=10,02, condições de moradia (OR=5,05, tempo de creche (OR=3,05, número de moradores na residência (OR=2,83 e falta de saneamento (OR=2,20. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de anemia e a elevada deficiência de ferro detectada evidenciam um grave problema de saúde pública entre os pré-escolares do município de Cascavel, Paraná. Apesar da amplitude do problema, a anemia não está sendo reconhecida, prevenida e tratada adequadamente. Neste estudo são sugeridas algumas possíveis intervenções.OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the iron levels and prevalence of anemia and associated factors in children aged 6 to 24 months attending public daycare centers in Cascavel, Western Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 256 randomly sampled children

  11. Spatial Accuracy Assessment and Integration of Global Land Cover Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Tsendbazar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Along with the creation of new maps, current efforts for improving global land cover (GLC maps focus on integrating maps by accounting for their relative merits, e.g., agreement amongst maps or map accuracy. Such integration efforts may benefit from the use of multiple GLC reference datasets. Using available reference datasets, this study assesses spatial accuracy of recent GLC maps and compares methods for creating an improved land cover (LC map. Spatial correspondence with reference dataset was modeled for Globcover-2009, Land Cover-CCI-2010, MODIS-2010 and Globeland30 maps for Africa. Using different scenarios concerning the used input data, five integration methods for an improved LC map were tested and cross-validated. Comparison of the spatial correspondences showed that the preferences for GLC maps varied spatially. Integration methods using both the GLC maps and reference data at their locations resulted in 4.5%–13% higher correspondence with the reference LC than any of the input GLC maps. An integrated LC map and LC class probability maps were computed using regression kriging, which produced the highest correspondence (76%. Our results demonstrate the added value of using reference datasets and geostatistics for improving GLC maps. This approach is useful as more GLC reference datasets are becoming publicly available and their reuse is being encouraged.

  12. Allegheny County Public Swimming Pool, Hot Tub, and Spa Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Public swimming pool, hot tub, and spa facilities are licensed and inspected once each year to assure proper water quality, sanitation, lifeguard coverage and...

  13. The Many Crises of Western Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    trade publications and other media, the chapter reveals how answers to these questions differs from country to country, how the forms of argument are combined in distinctive ways, and how different kinds of evidence are mobilized. Particular constructions of the crisis range from economically...... journalists, media executives, and media policymakers in six different Western democracies (Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the UK, and the US) employ three distinctive frameworks to interpret the state of professional journalism in their country. The first is an economic frame that defines the crisis...... for journalists, media executives, and media policymakers. The economic question is “Will journalism survive?” The professional question is “What is journalism?” The symbolic question is “What is the status of journalism in society?” On the basis of almost one hundred interviews, as well as secondary sources from...

  14. Western Area Power Administration annual site environmental report for calendar year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-12-31

    This document outlines the accomplishments and status of the environmental program of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) for calendar year 2005. In 2005, Western submitted 190 reports to state and local emergency response personnel and had 60 California Hazardous Materials Business Plans in place as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. These reports identify the hazardous substances contained at these sites. At sites where potential oil spills could harm surrounding ecosystems and waterways, Western prepares Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) plans. These plans identify measures to prevent spills from harming the environment, such as identifying the need for secondary containment at facilities. Western currently has SPCC plans for 154 facilities in 13 states. In 2005, Western updated 19 SPCC plans and prepared one new plan. Western operated under 107 environmental permits in 2005. Western evaluates the impact of its planned actions on the environment by preparing National Environmental Policy Act documentation. In 2005, Western completed or was working on 60 categorical exclusions, 18 environmental assessments and eight environmental impact statements, issued six Findings of No Significant Impact, and prepared four Mitigation Action Plans. Western held several public workshops/meetings and consulted with 70 American Indian Tribes for various projects. In 2005, Western was working on or had completed 11 Section 7 consultations under the Endangered Species Act. In 2005, Western recycled more than 3,600 metric tons of electrical equipment, mineral oil dielectric fluid, asphalt, fluorescent and metal halide light bulbs, wood poles and crossarms, and other items as well as office waste. Western made $437,816 worth of purchases containing recovered content materials. Western met the requirement of Executive Order 13148, Greening the Government through Leadership in Environmental Management to have its

  15. Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement Jonathan Barnes KPMG Corporate Finance Report Documentation Page Report Date...25SEP2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) 25SEP2001 - 27SEP2001 Title and Subtitle Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence...unclassified Classification of Abstract unclassified Limitation of Abstract UU Number of Pages 6 kpmg Aim Provide an appreciation of: n Public Private Partnerships

  16. The Partnership of Public Health and Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Jelenc, Marjetka

    2016-01-01

    Public health focuses on health of the population and it is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. Anthropology covers most aspects that concern human beings. Both sciences converge on community and this fact represents a foundation for the partnership between public health and anthropology. Biological/medical anthropology is one of the highly developed fields of anthropology and the most important for public health.

  17. Selected DOE headquarters publications, October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The publication provides cumulative listings of and an index to DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979. Publications issued during October 1977 to September 1979 are covered in DOE/AD-0010/6. Publications from 26 headquarters offices are presented and consist of three types: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations; reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department under 01-type contracts; and environmental development plans, impact statements, and readiness documents. Availability of the documents is described.

  18. 41 CFR 105-68.325 - What happens if I do business with an excluded person in a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Participants Regarding Transactions Doing Business with Other Persons § 105-68.325 What happens if I do business with an excluded person in a covered transaction? If as a... business with an excluded person in a covered transaction? 105-68.325 Section 105-68.325 Public...

  19. 45 CFR 90.3 - What programs or activities does the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Discrimination Act of 1975 cover? 90.3 Section 90.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 90.3 What programs or activities does the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 cover? (a) The Age Discrimination Act of 1975 applies to any program or activity receiving...

  20. 41 CFR 301-73.106 - What are the basic services that should be covered by a TMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... services that should be covered by a TMS? 301-73.106 Section 301-73.106 Public Contracts and Property... that should be covered by a TMS? The TMS must, at a minimum— (a) Include a Travel Management Center... the basic services of a TMS. You have the option to use the contracted travel agent service(s) of...

  1. 42 CFR 137.302 - Are Federal funds available to cover start-up costs associated with initial Tribal assumption of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... funds available to cover start-up costs associated with initial Tribal assumption of environmental... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Federal funds available to cover start-up costs associated with initial Tribal assumption of environmental responsibilities? 137.302 Section 137.302 Public...

  2. Exploring risk perception and attitudes to miscarriage and congenital anomaly in rural Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Dellicour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the socio-cultural context and perceptions of adverse pregnancy outcomes is important for informing the best approaches for public health programs. This article describes the perceptions, beliefs and health-seeking behaviours of women from rural western Kenya regarding congenital anomalies and miscarriages. METHODS: Ten focus group discussions (FGDs were undertaken in a rural district in western Kenya in September 2010. The FGDs included separate groups consisting of adult women of childbearing age, adolescent girls, recently pregnant women, traditional birth attendants and mothers of children with a birth defect. Participants were selected purposively. A deductive thematic framework approach using the questions from the FGD guides was used to analyse the transcripts. RESULTS: There was substantial overlap between perceived causes of miscarriages and congenital anomalies and these were broadly categorized into two groups: biomedical and cultural. The biomedical causes included medications, illnesses, physical and emotional stresses, as well as hereditary causes. Cultural beliefs mostly related to the breaking of a taboo or not following cultural norms. Mothers were often stigmatised and blamed following miscarriage, or the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly. Often, women did not seek care following miscarriage unless there was a complication. Most reported that children with a congenital anomaly were neglected either because of lack of knowledge of where care could be sought or because these children brought shame to the family and were hidden from society. CONCLUSION: The local explanatory model of miscarriage and congenital anomalies covered many perceived causes within biomedical and cultural beliefs. Some of these fuelled stigmatisation and blame of the mother. Understanding of these beliefs, improving access to information about the possible causes of adverse outcomes, and greater collaboration between

  3. An Assessment of Differences in Tree Cover Measurements between Landsat and Lidar-derived Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H.; Song, X. P.; Armston, J.; Hancock, S.; Duncanson, L.; Zhao, F. A.; Schaaf, C.; Strahler, A. H.; Huang, C.; Hansen, M.; Goetz, S. J.; Dubayah, R.

    2016-12-01

    Tree cover is one of the most important canopy structural variables describe interactions between atmosphere and biosphere, and is also linked to the function and quality of ecosystem services. Large-area tree cover measurements are traditionally based on multispectral satellite imagery, and there are several global products available at high to medium spatial resolution (30m-1km). Recent developments in lidar remote sensing, including the upcoming Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) lidar, offers an alternative means to map tree cover over broad geographical extents. However, differences in the definition of tree cover and the retrieval method can result in large discrepancies between products derived from multispectral imagery and lidar data, and can potentially impact their further use in ecosystem modelling and above-ground biomass mapping. To separate the effects of cover definition and retrieval method, we first conducted a meta-analysis of several tree cover data sets across different biogeographic regions using three publicly available Landsat-based tree cover products (GLCF, NLCD and GLAD), and two waveform and discrete return airborne lidar products. We found that, whereas Landsat products had low-moderate agreements (up to 40% mean difference) on tree cover estimates particularly at the high end (e.g. >80%), airborne lidar can provide more accurate and consistent measurements (mean difference definitions of tree cover (e.g. crown cover vs. fractional cover). We further recommended the use of lidar data as a complement or alternative to ultra-fine resolution images in training/validating Landsat-class images for large-area tree cover mapping.

  4. Cholesterol and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRosa, J C

    1994-08-01

    Cholesterol lowering in both primary and secondary prevention has been clearly demonstrated to lower coronary morbidity and, in secondary prevention, to lower coronary mortality as well. Putative dangers of cholesterol lowering remain unproven. Population studies linking low cholesterol to noncoronary mortalities do not demonstrate cause-and-effect relations. In fact, based on current studies, the opposite is more likely to be the case. Neither gender nor age should automatically exclude persons from cholesterol screening. Drug intervention, however, should be used conservatively, particularly in young adults and the elderly. Drugs should be used only after diet and lifestyle interventions have failed. The evidence linking high blood cholesterol to coronary atherosclerosis and cholesterol lowering to its prevention is broad-based and definitive. Concerns about cholesterol lowering and spontaneously low cholesterols should be pursued but should not interfere with the implementation of current public policies to reduce the still heavy burden of atherosclerosis in Western society.

  5. 从封面杂志看大众审美变迁--基于人脸面部特征及视觉风格变化的研究%Study of Public Aesthetic Changes Based on Magazine with Covers---Based on Study of Changes of FaciaI Features and VisuaI StyIe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敏; 佐斌

    2015-01-01

    Beauty is a kind of feeling that people has for things .However ,beautiful things are not always constant .The feeling of beauty always changes with time and environment .It is especially true for judgment on the beauties .Nowadays ,in the changes of diversified era ,the aesthetic standard of beauty is being re -construc‐ted .Either facial features or visual styles are changing .Based on beauties in the magazine covers over the past 30 years of reform and opening up ,this paper makes a thorough analysis on the changing trend of cover figures ’ fa‐cial features .Through contrast between magazines ,it analyzes different elements of trend .And combining char‐acteristics of the times ,it discusses the internal mechanism of changes and the characteristics of evolution and de‐velopment .When conforming to contemporary cultural connotation ,this paper also looks into the mass culture’ s guidance to the trend of aesthetic value in different times .%美是人们对某种事物的一种感觉,但美的事物并非一成不变,因为美的感觉总会随着时间环境的变化而发生改变,对美女的判断更是如此。在如今多元化时代的变迁中,女性的审美标准正在重新构建中,无论是人脸的面部特征还是视觉风格都在发生变化。本文以改革开放三十年来的杂志封面中的女性为素材,细致地分析封面人物面部特征的变化趋势,并通过杂志对比,从中分析出不同的潮流因素,结合时代特征探讨其变化的内部机制及其演变与发展特征。在顺应当今时代的文化内涵的同时,深入了解不同时代的大众文化对审美价值的引导趋势。

  6. Adding structure to land cover - using fractional cover to study animal habitat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevanda, Mirjana; Horning, Ned; Reineking, Bjoern; Heurich, Marco; Wegmann, Martin; Mueller, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Linking animal movements to landscape features is critical to identify factors that shape the spatial behaviour of animals. Habitat selection is led by behavioural decisions and is shaped by the environment, therefore the landscape is crucial for the analysis. Land cover classification based on ground survey and remote sensing data sets are an established approach to define landscapes for habitat selection analysis. We investigate an approach for analysing habitat use using continuous land cover information and spatial metrics. This approach uses a continuous representation of the landscape using percentage cover of a chosen land cover type instead of discrete classes. This approach, fractional cover, captures spatial heterogeneity within classes and is therefore capable to provide a more distinct representation of the landscape. The variation in home range sizes is analysed using fractional cover and spatial metrics in conjunction with mixed effect models on red deer position data in the Bohemian Forest, compared over multiple spatio-temporal scales. We analysed forest fractional cover and a texture metric within each home range showing that variance of fractional cover values and texture explain much of variation in home range sizes. The results show a hump-shaped relationship, leading to smaller home ranges when forest fractional cover is very homogeneous or highly heterogeneous, while intermediate stages lead to larger home ranges. The application of continuous land cover information in conjunction with spatial metrics proved to be valuable for the explanation of home-range sizes of red deer.

  7. France, Western Europe and Palestine 1799-1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Trimbur

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organized by the Centre de recherche français de Jérusalem, the “France, Western Europe and Palestine 1799-1917” conference was the first concrete outcome of the Gallia Palestina project. This encounter demonstrated that beyond apparently well-known points, the unexplored areas of analysis remain enormous. This observation was made possible through the contributions of speakers, participants and the public from France, Israel and the Palestinian autonomous area. This diversity multiplied pers...

  8. Prenatal substance use in a Western urban community.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchi, K F; Varner, M W

    1994-01-01

    To assess the extent of prenatal substance use in a predominantly white population in an urban area of the western United States and to develop a risk profile for this population, a cross-sectional prevalence study was done. Prenatal clinics (10 public and 10 private) anonymously recorded demographic information about and collected aliquots of routinely obtained urine specimens from women during prenatal visits. Urine specimens were screened by enzyme immunoassay for amphetamines, marijuana, ...

  9. Groundwater quality in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Western San Joaquin Valley is one of the study units being evaluated. 

  10. [Endemic situation and control progress of taeniasis in western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chang-Ping; Qian, Ying-Jun; Li, Tiao-Ying; Fu, Qing; Wang, Qiang; Xiao, Ning

    2014-06-01

    Taeniasis, caused by Taenia species, is one of the common zoonoses in China, particularly in the western region of China. Up to now, not enough attention has been given in the high prevalence and high burden of the diseases. In order to study the endemic patterns and control strategies of taeniasis, a series of epidemiological investigations, molecular researches and pilot control activities have been conducted in recent years. This paper reviews the relevant publications in taeniasis research over the last 10 years.

  11. Urban landscapes and the western drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Cities in the western U.S. are heavily irrigated and have increasingly been the focus of water conservation measures. Even cities that previously relied only on voluntary reductions in outdoor water use have been employing stricter mandates to limit irrigation. These cities are in a period of transition and the outcomes are far from certain. There are many tradeoffs in the environmental and social consequences of different urban water management strategies. Here we review recent work studying these tradeoffs in cities of southern California and Utah. We have measured the water use of different types of landscapes ranging from turfgrass to urban trees to xeriscapes. Unshaded turfgrass shows evapotranspiration (ET) rates close to potential ET; however, shaded turfgrass uses substantially less water. On the other hand, plants used in xeriscapes may have surprisingly high transpiration rates if they are heavily watered. In addition, unshaded xeriscapes may substantially alter surface energy balance and have unintended consequences for urban climate. Through whole tree sap flux measurements and scaling of ET estimates, we have found that urban trees generally use less water than turfgrass, and provide additional cooling benefits through interception of radiation. Current measures to reduce outdoor water use through irrigation restrictions and turfgrass removal programs do not include safeguards to ensure that urban trees receive adequate irrigation, and the future of urban tree canopies in western cities is highly uncertain. Although trees and other deep-rooted vegetation may require less irrigation than turfgrass and better withstand periods of drought, this vegetation must still be appropriate managed with water inputs informed by an understanding of plant water relations and urban subsurface hydrology. On the current trajectory, cities may see a substantial loss of vegetative cover and leaf area unless an understanding of ecohydrology is better integrated into

  12. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically......In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....

  13. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....... of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically...

  14. COVERS Neonatal Pain Scale: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Hand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborns and infants are often exposed to painful procedures during hospitalization. Several different scales have been validated to assess pain in specific populations of pediatric patients, but no single scale can easily and accurately assess pain in all newborns and infants regardless of gestational age and disease state. A new pain scale was developed, the COVERS scale, which incorporates 6 physiological and behavioral measures for scoring. Newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit or Well Baby Nursery were evaluated for pain/discomfort during two procedures, a heel prick and a diaper change. Pain was assessed using indicators from three previously established scales (CRIES, the Premature Infant Pain Profile, and the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale, as well as the COVERS Scale, depending upon gestational age. Premature infant testing resulted in similar pain assessments using the COVERS and PIPP scales with an r=0.84. For the full-term infants, the COVERS scale and NIPS scale resulted in similar pain assessments with an r=0.95. The COVERS scale is a valid pain scale that can be used in the clinical setting to assess pain in newborns and infants and is universally applicable to all neonates, regardless of their age or physiological state.

  15. Floating geomembrane cover improves biogas collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, J.

    2009-07-15

    Canadian corn products refiner, Casco Inc., recently upgraded a wastewater anaerobic digester at its automated corn wet milling facility on the St. Lawrence River, in Cardinal Ontario. The upgrade includes an improved floating and insulated geomembrane cover, designed and installed by Geomembrane Technologies Inc. The cover effectively streamlines biogas collection, improves biogas odour control and optimizes bioreactor heat retention. Casco's bulk volume fermenter (BVF) was designed and built in 1988 by ADI Systems Inc. It is limited to receiving 641,000 gallons of wastewater per day from several areas of the plant. Wastewater sludge is usually treated by anaerobic digestion. At Casco, raw solids are added directly to the BVF bioreactor, where they are digested, minimizing waste sludge handling. In essence, anaerobic digestion is a renewable energy source which converts wastewater to a methane- and carbon dioxide-rich biogas suitable for energy production, replacing fossil fuels. The insulated geomembrane cover captures and reclaims all the biogas from the treatment process that is going on inside the tank. Without a cover, the biogas would be released to the atmosphere. The new geomembrane cover collects an average of 236,000 cubic feet of biogas per day, at a 65 per cent methane concentration, from the BVF bioreactor. 2 figs.

  16. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  17. Land cover change impacts on surface ozone: an observation-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Lin, Jintai

    2016-04-01

    Ozone air quality is a critical global environmental issue. Although it is clear that industrialization and urbanization has increased surface ozone through enhanced emissions of its precursors, much less is known about the role of changes in land cover and land use. Human activities have substantially altered the global land cover and land use through agriculture, urbanization, deforestation, and afforestation. Changes in Land cover and land use affect the ozone levels by altering soil emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and dry deposition of ozone itself. This study performs a series of experiments with a chemical transport model based on satellite observation of land types to analyze the influences of changes in land cover/land use and their impact on surface ozone concentration. Our results indicate that land cover change explains 1-2 ppbv of summertime surface ozone increase in the Western United States and 1-6 ppbv of increase in Southern China between 2001 and 2012. This is largely driven by enhanced isoprene emissions and soil NOx emissions. It is also found that land cover change itself elevates summertime surface zone in Canadian coniferous forests by up to 4 ppbv mainly through substantial decreases in ozone dry deposition associated with increased vegetation density in a warmer climate.

  18. Future of oil and gas development in the western Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Babbitt, Bruce; Novoa, Sidney; Ferrarese, Francesco; Eugenio Pappalardo, Salvatore; De Marchi, Massimo; Saucedo, Maria; Kumar, Anjali

    2015-02-01

    The western Amazon is one of the world’s last high-biodiversity wilderness areas, characterized by extraordinary species richness and large tracts of roadless humid tropical forest. It is also home to an active hydrocarbon (oil and gas) sector, characterized by operations in extremely remote areas that require new access routes. Here, we present the first integrated analysis of the hydrocarbon sector and its associated road-building in the western Amazon. Specifically, we document the (a) current panorama, including location and development status of all oil and gas discoveries, of the sector, and (b) current and future scenario of access (i.e. access road versus roadless access) to discoveries. We present an updated 2014 western Amazon hydrocarbon map illustrating that oil and gas blocks now cover 733 414 km2, an area much larger than the US state of Texas, and have been expanding since the last assessment in 2008. In terms of access, we documented 11 examples of the access road model and six examples of roadless access across the region. Finally, we documented 35 confirmed and/or suspected untapped hydrocarbon discoveries across the western Amazon. In the Discussion, we argue that if these reserves must be developed, use of the offshore inland model—a method that strategically avoids the construction of access roads—is crucial to minimizing ecological impacts in one of the most globally important conservation regions.

  19. Emotional affective states (depression, anxiety and stress of nursing in a mexican public health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca García-Rivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive correlational cross-sectional approach with a non-experimental design about emotional affective states related dissorders in Mexican public health workers. It´s goal was to identify the existence of significant differences between gender and emotional affective state (depression, anxiety and stress for workers in a hospital located in Ensenada, Baja California in north-western Mexico. The work covers a sample of 130 employees. To collection of data used a DASS-21 scale. The results identified an emotional affective state within a normal range. No statistically differences in gender were identified. Positive and significant correlations between subscales of the DASS-21 were found.

  20. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent