WorldWideScience

Sample records for publication comprises general

  1. Mathematical Articles for the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2003-01-01

    Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society.......Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society....

  2. Mathematical Articles for the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2003-01-01

    Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society.......Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society....

  3. The Division of Libraries Serving the General Public--A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glashoff, Ilona

    This paper provides an overview of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Division III, a forum for the IFLA sections and round tables comprising libraries serving the general public, as well as special library services directed to specific groups of the general public, such as children, linguistic minorities,…

  4. Explaining the LHC to the general public

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    We’re looking for volunteers for the "Big Science" exhibition, to be set up for a limited time at the Balexert shopping centre.To get even closer to the general public, CERN is moving its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre for a limited time only, from 19 to 31 May 2008. All members of the CERN personnel are warmly invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcome and guide members of the general public around the exhibition. From 11.30 a.m. to 6.30 p.m., Monday to Friday, and 10.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. on the Saturdays. For information and to sign up, please call +41 22 767 9288, or e-mail mailto:genevieve.choukroun@cern.ch

  5. Mixed strategy under generalized public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Wu, Te; Chen, Xiaojie; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

    2013-10-07

    The relationship between group's contribution and public goods produced often exhibits nonlinearity, which constitutes the generalized public goods game. Far less attention has been paid to how the mixed strategy evolves in such generalized games. Here, we study the effects of nonlinear production functions on the evolution of the mixed strategy in finite populations for the first time. When the group size and the population size are comparable, cooperation is doomed irrespective of the production function. Otherwise, nonlinear production functions may induce a convergent evolutionary stable strategy (CESS) or a repeller, but cannot yield the evolutionary branching. Moreover, we particularly consider three representative families of production functions, intriguingly which all display the hysteresis effect. For two families of production functions including concave and convex curves, a unique CESS or a unique repeller may occur even if the group size is two. Whereas for the third class encompassing symmetrically sigmoidal and inverse sigmoidal curves, the coexistence of a CESS and a repeller only occurs if group size is above two, and two saddle-node bifurcations appear. Our work includes some evidently different results by comparing with the evolution of continuous investment or binary strategy.

  6. Quantum physics reimagined for the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobroff, Julien

    2015-03-01

    Quantum Physics has always been a challenging issue for outreach. It is invisible, non-intuitive and written in sophisticated mathematics. In our ``Physics Reimagined'' research group, we explore new ways to present that field to the general public. Our approach is to develop close collaborations between physicists and designers or graphic artists. By developing this new kind of dialogue, we seek to find new ways to present complex phenomena and recent research topics to the public at large. For example, we created with web-illustrators a series of 3D animations about basic quantum laws and research topics (graphene, Bose-Einstein condensation, decoherence, pump-probe techniques, ARPES...). We collaborated with designers to develop original setups, from quantum wave animated models or foldings to a superconducting circus with levitating animals. With illustrators, we produced exhibits, comic strips or postcards displaying the physicists in their labs, either famous ones or even our own colleagues in their daily life as researchers. With artists, we recently made a stop-motion picture to explain in an esthetic way the process of discovery and scientific publication. We will discuss how these new types of outreach projects allowed us to engage the public with modern physics both on a scientific and cultural level and how the concepts and process can easily be replicated and expanded by other physicists. We are at the precise time when creative tools, interfaces, and ways of sharing and learning are rapidly evolving (wikipedia, MOOCs, smartphones...). If scientists don't step forward to employ these tools and develop new resources, other people will, and the integrity of the science and underlying character of research risks being compromised. All our productions are free to use and can be downloaded at www.PhysicsReimagined.com (for 3D quantum videos, specific link: www.QuantumMadeSimple.com) This work benefited from the support of the Chair ``Physics Reimagined

  7. A novel approach to population-based risk stratification, comprising individualized lifestyle intervention in Danish general practice to prevent chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Larsen, Lars; Søndergaard, Jens; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    ) identification of patients already diagnosed with a lifestyle-related chronic disease, and (4) risk estimation and stratification of apparently healthy patients using questionnaire and electronic patient record data on validated risk estimation models. We show that it is feasible to implement a novel......Early detection of patients at risk seems to be effective for reducing the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases. We aim to test the feasibility of a novel intervention for early detection of lifestyle-related chronic diseases based on a population-based stratification using...... a combination of questionnaire and electronic patient record data. The intervention comprises four elements: (1) collection of information on lifestyle risk factors using a short 15-item questionnaire, (2) electronic transfer of questionnaire data to the general practitioners’ electronic patient records, (3...

  8. A general model of the public goods dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven A

    2010-06-01

    An individually costly act that benefits all group members is a public good. Natural selection favours individual contribution to public good [corrected] only when some benefit to the individual offsets the cost of contribution. Problems of sex ratio, parasite virulence, microbial metabolism, punishment of noncooperators, and nearly all aspects of sociality have been analysed as public goods shaped by kin and group selection. Here, I develop two general aspects of the public goods problem that have received relatively little attention. First, variation in individual resources favours selfish individuals to vary their allocation to public goods. Those individuals better endowed contribute their excess resources to public benefit, whereas those individuals with fewer resources contribute less to the public good. Thus, purely selfish behaviour causes individuals to stratify into upper classes that contribute greatly to public benefit and social cohesion and to lower classes that contribute little to the public good. Second, if group success absolutely requires production of the public good, then the pressure favouring production is relatively high. By contrast, if group success depends weakly on the public good, then the pressure favouring production is relatively weak. Stated in this way, it is obvious that the role of baseline success is important. However, discussions of public goods problems sometimes fail to emphasize this point sufficiently. The models here suggest simple tests for the roles of resource variation and baseline success. Given the widespread importance of public goods, better models and tests would greatly deepen our understanding of many processes in biology and sociality.

  9. Alternate Level of Care Patients in Public General Hospital Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Luis R.; Gil, Rosa M.

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the interaction between psychiatric services in public general hospitals and in other institutional settings. A one-day census of patients in a New York general hospital showed the hospital was providing care to a large number of patients in need of other, less intensive institutional settings. (BH)

  10. Should smallpox vaccine be made available to the general public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas; Silverman, Ross D

    2003-06-01

    In June 2002, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved draft recommendations concerning preparation for potential biological terror attacks that utilize the smallpox virus. ACIP recommends against both mandatory and voluntary vaccination of the general public. The present paper examines the moral and political considerations both for and against each of the general public vaccination options considered by the ACIP in the context of the state's authority over vaccination for the purposes of protecting public health. Although it is clear that compulsory mass vaccination is not justified at this time, the issues surrounding voluntary vaccination are more complex. Should smallpox vaccination prior to an outbreak be made available to the general public? The paper concludes that the vaccine should not be made available at this time. This conclusion, however, is based upon contingent features of current circumstances, which would change once an outbreak occurred. In the even of a terror-related outbreak of smallpox, the general public's access to voluntary vaccination would become justified, even in areas beyond where the outbreak has occurred.

  11. GENERAL GOVERNMENT DEFICIT AND PUBLIC DEBT IN EU MEMBER STATES

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is the presentation and the attempt to analyse such phenomena as: an excessive general government deficit and public debt in EU Member States over the past 3 years. For the European Union the years 2008-2010 were the time when public finances of most member countries worsened dramatically. The average budget deficit in the EU increased during that period to a value of almost 7% compared to gross domestic product and public debt reached almost 80% of GDP. Referring the ...

  12. Publicly Owned Treatment Works General Permit (POTW GP) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    The Notice of Availability of the final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permits for the Discharge of Wastewater from Certain Publicly Owned Treatment Works Treatment Plants (POTW Treatment Plants) and Other Treatment Works Treating Domestic Sewage in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the State of New Hampshire was published in the Federal Register on July 6, 2011.

  13. Collaboration and interaction of first responders with the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, M. van; Dinesen, C.; Rijk, R. van; Bird, M.; Wester, M.; Hansen, L.J.; Vinther-Larsen, L.; Padron, C.; Boswinkel, R.; Ven, J. van de

    2016-01-01

    There is an increased focus on the need for collaboration between first responders and the general public. This type of collaboration requires soft skills that are not necessarily included in more traditional command and control trainings for first responders. Learning to collaborate with the genera

  14. Collaboration and interaction of first responders with the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, M. van; Dinesen, C.; Rijk, R. van; Bird, M.; Wester, M.; Hansen, L.J.; Vinther-Larsen, L.; Padron, C.; Boswinkel, R.; Ven, J. van de

    2016-01-01

    There is an increased focus on the need for collaboration between first responders and the general public. This type of collaboration requires soft skills that are not necessarily included in more traditional command and control trainings for first responders. Learning to collaborate with the

  15. General Public Space Travel and Tourism. Volume 2; Workshop Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, D. (Compiler); Mankins, J. (Editor); Bekey, I. (Editor); Rogers, T. (Editor); Stallmer, E. (Editor); Piland, W. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Space Transportation Association and NASA conducted a General Public Space Travel study between 1996 and 1998. During the study, a workshop was held at Georgetown University. Participants included representatives from the travel, aerospace, and construction industries. This report is the proceedings from that workshop. Sections include infrastructure needs, travel packages, policy related issues, and potential near-term activities.

  16. Presenting the science of the Sun to the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai

    2016-07-01

    Although the science behind the Sun is so fascinating, there has not been sufficient worldwide effort in presenting this science to the general public. My recently published popular science book "Nature's Third Cycle: A Story of Sunspots" (Oxford University Press, 2015) is probably the first popular science book introducing the phenomenology of the solar cycle along with a non-technical account of dynamo theory. I shall discuss my perspective of the challenges involved in presenting the science of the Sun to the public. The Amazon link of my book is: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Natures-Third-Cycle-Story-Sunspots/dp/0199674752/

  17. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Attitudes towards bariatric surgery in the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Dame, Katrin; Brähler, Elmar; Schütz, Tatjana; Shang, Edward; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2013-03-01

    Prevalence rates of obesity are still rising. Weight loss surgery (WLS) is the most invasive but also most effective treatment option when behavioral modification has failed. Research indicates that health care professionals hold ambivalent views on bariatric surgery, while views of the general public have not yet been investigated. In a German representative sample of n = 3,003 respondents in a computer-assisted telephone interview, n = 1,008 persons were interviewed on their views of the effectiveness of bariatric surgery and other interventions for obesity. Also, willingness to recommend a treatment was assessed. Lifestyle-based interventions were viewed as most effective in terms of weight loss. About 50 % of the population stated that WLS is "very effective" while still a quarter of respondents did not ascribe effectiveness to WLS. Higher age was associated with lower expectations of effectiveness while higher stigmatizing attitudes and genetic attributes for obesity were associated with higher expectations of effectiveness. Seventy-two percent would not recommend WLS or undergo it, if applicable, themselves. Higher educated respondents and those that viewed WLS as effective were more likely to recommend WLS. The German general public seems to be rather cautious regarding bariatric surgery. It may be assumed that false beliefs on the effectiveness and risk patterns of bariatric surgery are still very common, despite rising surgery numbers. Our results further emphasize the need for providing evidence-based information on bariatric surgery to the general public.

  19. 21 CFR 880.6260 - Filtering facepiece respirator for use by the general public in public health medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filtering facepiece respirator for use by the... Filtering facepiece respirator for use by the general public in public health medical emergencies. (a) Identification. A filtering facepiece respirator for use by the general public in public health...

  20. Stakeholders Involvement in Performance Management in Public General Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi Ploom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to increasing concerns with the legitimacy and efficiency of public spending, performance management as a part of world-wide public sector reform, called New Public Management (NPM has taken place. This is also the case of educational sector. In Estonian education system, legislation formally enables to design an integrated performance management system. But there is few research done to investigate how these policies and regulations ought to be put into force in order to gain the benefits considering the schools' and pupils' better performance. This study investigates how different stakeholders are involved into the performance management in Estonian general schools. The study is based on empirical survey data gathered from 303 schools providing secondary education in Estonia. The research findings have three main implications. Firstly, the paper contributes to the scarce knowledge about implementation of performance management issues in public schools. Our analysis revealed that compilation of school development plans in Estonian schools is rather a formal obligation. Therefore we propose that the analysis and discussion of the school development plans is needed to organize on regional level, involving all main stakeholders of a school. Secondly, we suggest that in the circumstances of a decentralised education system, like in Estonia, it is needed to implement, central practical performance assessment principles and guidance for the schools. Thirdly, it is highly necessary to improve schools’ cooperation with different stakeholder groups. Also the framework involving different stakeholder groups in the decentralized schools management system should be built up.

  1. Medicines use among general public in Taif, KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasem M. A. Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Patient practice toward medication including the extent of self-medication has an important impact on therapeutic outcome. Therefore, this study aimed to assess general public practice toward the usage of medicines in Taif city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional research design using nonprobability convenience sampling technique was used in this study. Data were collected face-to-face from literate adults in public areas such as malls, shopping centers, and health centers. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and significant values of difference were determined using the Chi-square and Fisher Exact tests. Results: Nine hundred questionnaires were successfully collected from literate adults in Taif city over 8 weeks. Eighty percent of respondents tend to stop taking their medications once they feel good. In addition, only 62% of respondents refer to pharmacists or doctors once they feel unwell. On the other hand, one-fifth of respondents store their medications as directed by the pharmacist or as written in the drug leaflet. Furthermore, as little as 12% of respondents consult a doctor or a pharmacist once they miss their medication dose. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that public in Taif city has, to a certain extent, improper practice toward medicine. Thus, it is of urge for healthcare and policymakers to develop healthcare programs aiming to enhance practice of public toward medicines.

  2. Presenting particle physics and quantum mechanics to the general public

    CERN Document Server

    Strauss, J

    2015-01-01

    The job of a physicist is to describe Nature. General features, hypotheses and theories help to describe physics phenomena at a more abstract, fundamental level, and are sometimes tacitly assigned some sort of real existence; doing so appears to be of little harm in most of classical physics. However, missing any tangible connection to everyday experience, one better always bears in mind the descriptive nature of any efforts to grasp the quantum. And elementary particles interact in the quantum world, of course. When communicating the world of elementary particles to the general public, the Bayesian approach of an ever ongoing updating of the depiction of reality turns out to be virtually indispensable. The human experience of providing a series of increasingly better descriptions generates plenty of personal pleasures, for researchers as well as for amateurs. A suggestive analogy for improving our understanding of the world, even the seemingly paradoxical quantum world, may be found in recent insight into ho...

  3. 78 FR 10174 - Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2012 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2012 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2012 Service Contract... Appropriations Act Public Law 111-117, GSA is publishing this notice to advise the public of the availability...

  4. 77 FR 5253 - Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Office of Acquisition Policy (MV); General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of public... Act Public Law 111-117, GSA is publishing this notice to advise the public of the availability of...

  5. BALLISTIC RESISTANT ARTICLES COMPRISING TAPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAN DER EEM, JORIS; HARINGS, JULES; JANSE, GERARDUS; TJADEN, HENDRIK

    2015-01-01

    The invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant moulded article comprising a compressed stack of sheets comprising reinforcing tapes having a tensile strength of at least 1.0 GPa, a tensile modulus of at least 40 GPa, and a tensile energy-to-break of at least 15 J/g, the direction of the tapes withi

  6. BALLISTIC RESISTANT ARTICLES COMPRISING TAPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAN DER EEM, JORIS; HARINGS, JULES; JANSE, GERARDUS; TJADEN, HENDRIK

    2015-01-01

    The invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant moulded article comprising a compressed stack of sheets comprising reinforcing tapes having a tensile strength of at least 1.0 GPa, a tensile modulus of at least 40 GPa, and a tensile energy-to-break of at least 15 J/g, the direction of the tapes

  7. Utilisation of community pharmacists by the general public in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Siew Siang; Lim, Kien Ping; Lee, Hong Gee

    2013-02-01

    The study was conducted to assess how the general public in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, utilised community pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study which documented interactions between community pharmacists and their customers. A researcher was stationed in 10 participating community pharmacies around the Klang Valley to observe and record all the interactions, using a structured data-collection form. KEYS FINDINGS: Interactions between 1914 customers and the pharmacists of the 10 community pharmacies were recorded. A total of 2199 requests were made by these customers. The main types of request were for medications by brand name (32.2%), advice on minor health problems (25.9%) and for health supplements (11.7%). Only 65 prescriptions were received by the community pharmacies; that is, fewer than two prescriptions per pharmacy per day. The pharmacists provided counselling for only 54.4% of the requests where a medication or health supplement was dispensed. Counselling by pharmacist was significantly associated with the type of request (P Malaysia was to purchase a particular medication. Few prescriptions were filled at community pharmacies in Malaysia, indicating the under-utilisation of community pharmacists as a safety net for prescribed medications in primary care. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. General Issues Concerning Needs Analysis in Local Public Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica JUNJAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Needs assessment in local public institutions was not very present so far in a systematic manner in Romanian specialized literature on administrative reform. Current study uses interviews with candidates for a public administration master program to investigate civil servants motivation of pursuing graduatelevel studies and their perception on current needs of the work in local public institutions. Motivation for pursuing graduate studies is located mainly on the need to update and diversify their professional knowledge, and not as much on promotion-related reasons. The perceived needs are related to management of public institutions, structure of information system, legislation and European integration, human resource management and public relations.

  9. Public Governance Principles in General Education School Management of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Rečs, Normunds

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary world the effect of globalisation and information technologies cause transformational processes of states` public management that promote the application of new managament approaches and principles in public institution management.The changes in the public managament have effected and still effects processes of management also in education. The increase of school autonomy, a stronger focus on the process of education and its results created the need to expand the application o...

  10. 78 FR 73863 - Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2013 Federal Activities Inventory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2013 Federal Activities Inventory Reform (FAIR) Act Inventory AGENCY: General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of public... the Federal Activities Inventory Reform (FAIR) Act of 1998, Public Law 105-270, and Office...

  11. 77 FR 54917 - Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2012 Federal Activities Inventory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2012 Federal Activities Inventory Reform (FAIR) Act Inventory AGENCY: General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of Public... accordance with the FAIR Act of 1998, Public Law 105-270, and Office of Management and Budget (OMB)...

  12. Quantitative study evaluating perception of general public towards role of pharmacist in health care system of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xianglan; Azhar, Saira; Murtaza, Ghulam; Xue, Feiran; Mumtaz, Amara; Niu, Huanmin; Taha, Asia; Zhang, Yunling

    2014-01-01

    To investigate general public perception towards the role of pharmacist in developing countries' healthcare system was the main aim of this study, which would be the basic foundation for researching the treatment pattern of cognitive disorder after stroke in communities. The study population (sample size = 385) consisted of general public from Islamabad, Faisalabad and Lahore, Pakistan. Main sections of the questionnaire comprised of series of statements pertaining to consumer's perception and experience with the pharmacists. The response rate of study was 77.1%. A majority (80.1%) of the consumers knows who is pharmacist; 49.8% (n = 148) of the respondents found the pharmacist working in the pharmacies; 74.1% (n = 220) believed that pharmacist can guide them regarding their medicine. With respect to government efforts to improve services provided by community pharmacies, less percentage (31.0%) of the consumers were satisfied. Half of the respondents (59.9%) were expecting from the pharmacists to be knowledgeable drug therapy experts, whereas 61.3% (n = 182) expect from the pharmacists to educate them regarding safe and appropriate use of medication. The findings of this study conclude that the quality of pharmaceutical services provided is very low in Pakistan. There is a gap between the public and the pharmacist, which can only be filled by creating awareness among public regarding the pharmacist's role in healthcare system and by focusing on how services provided by the pharmacists can add improvement to general public health.

  13. General Public Space Travel and Tourism. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, Daniel (Compiler); Bekey, Ivan; Mankins, John; Rogers, Thomas F.; Stallmer, Eric W.

    1998-01-01

    Travel and tourism is one of the world's largest businesses. Its gross revenues exceed $400 billion per year in the U.S. alone, and it is our second largest employer. U.S. private sector business revenues in the space information area now approximate $10 billion per year, and are increasing rapidly. Not so in the human spaceflight area. After spending $100s of billions (1998 dollars) in public funds thereon, and continuing to spend over $5 billion per year, the government is still the only customer for human spaceflight goods and services. Serious and detailed consideration was first given to the possibility of space being opened up to trips by the general public three decades ago, and some initial attempts to do so were made a dozen years ago. But the difficulties were great and the Challenger disaster put an end to them. In recent years professional space tourism studies have been conducted in the United Kingdom, Germany and, especially, Japan. In the U.S., technological progress has been pronounced; we have had nearly a decade's experience in seeing our astronauts travel to-from low Earth orbit (LEO) safely, and we expect to commence assembly of a LEO space station housing a half-dozen people this year. Too, NASA and our space industry now have new and promising space transportation development programs underway, especially the X-33 and X-34 programs, and some related, further generation, basic technology development programs. And five private companies are also working on the design of new surface - LEO vehicles. The first professional space tourism market studies have been conducted in several countries in the past few years, especially in Japan and here. The U.S. study makes it clear that, conceptually, tens of millions of us would like to take a trip to space if we could do so with reasonable safety, comfort and reliability, and at an acceptable price. Initial businesses will address the desires of those willing to pay a greater price and accept a greater

  14. Assessment of general public satisfaction with public healthcare services in Kedah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Alrasheedy, Alian A; Ab Razak, Basyirah Afifah; Al-Tamimi, Saleh Karamah; Saleem, Fahad; Ul Haq, Noman; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Patient satisfaction is considered an essential component of healthcare services evaluation and an additional indicator of the quality of healthcare. Moreover, patient satisfaction may also predict health-related behaviours of patients such as adherence to treatment and recommendations. The study aimed to assess patients' level of satisfaction with public healthcare services and to explore the association between socio-demographic and other study variables and patient satisfaction level. A cross-sectional study was conducted using selfadministered questionnaires distributed to a convenience sample of the general public in Kedah, Malaysia. A total of 435 out of 500 people invited to participate in the study agreed to take part, giving a response rate of 87 per cent. In this study, only approximately half of the participants (n=198, 45.5 per cent) were fully satisfied with the current healthcare services. The majority of the participants agreed that doctors had given enough information about their state of health (n=222, 51 per cent) and were competent and sympathetic (n=231, 53.1 per cent). Almost half of the participants (n=215, 49.5 per cent) agreed that the doctors took their problems seriously. Only 174 (40 per cent) participants agreed that doctors had spent enough time on their consultation session. Some respondents (n=266, 61.2 per cent) agreed that healthcare professionals in the public health sector were highly skilled. The majority of the respondents described amenities, accessibility and facilities available in the public healthcare sector as good or better. In this study, waiting time was significantly associated with patient satisfaction as the results showed that those who waited longer than two hours were less satisfied with the services than those who waited under two hours. The study findings showed that approximately half of the respondents were fully satisfied with current healthcare services. In this study, waiting time was the main factor that

  15. Biocatalytic material comprising multilayer enzyme coated fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    The present invention relates generally to high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials and processes for using the same. The materials comprise enzyme aggregate coatings having high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environment. These new materials provide a new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  16. Crowdsourcing the General Public for Large Scale Molecular Pathology Studies in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Candido dos Reis

    2015-07-01

    Interpretation: Crowdsourcing of the general public to classify cancer pathology data for research is viable, engages the public and provides accurate ER data. Crowdsourced classification of research data may offer a valid solution to problems of throughput requiring human input.

  17. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  18. Physiotherapy in the eyes of the general public

    OpenAIRE

    ZACHOVÁ, Pavla

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor degree thesis offers an analysis of the views of the lay public, i.e., non-medical persons, about physiotherapy. Physiotherapy forms a part of the complex process of rehabilitation, and plays an important role in preventive, diagnostic and medical care. This thesis consists of two sections: theory and practical. The theory section deals with the history of physiotherapy, complex rehabilitation and the International Classification of Functioning, Disabilities and Health. The chap...

  19. Wildlife value orientations among hunters, landowners and the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    . Significant differences in wildlife value orientations were found. Mutualists and distanced dominated in the public; most landowners and hunters were utilitarian followed by pluralist. Male hunters were more utilitarian than female. More active hunters were more utilitarian; hunters belonging to a hunting...... association were more utilitarian than those who did not belong to associations. Full-time farmers were more utilitarian than part-time farmers, and conventional farmers were more utilitarian than organic farmers. No significant difference with regard to residence for all three groups was found. Future...

  20. Communicating airport noise emission data to the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, Luis; Asensio, Cesar; de Arcas, Guillermo

    2017-05-15

    Despite the efforts that the aviation industry has undertaken during the last few decades, noise annoyance remains high, partly because of the continuous transport demands of modern societies and partly because of changes in citizen expectations and their growing environmental concerns. Although modern aircraft are considerably quieter than their predecessors, the number of complaints has not decreased as much as expected. Therefore, the aeronautical sector has tried more sociological and/or psychological strategies to gain acceptance through awareness and community engagement. In this regard, noise communication to the public is crucial for managers and policy makers. Noise information is a difficult technical topic for non-experts, which is an issue that must first be addressed to take advantage of the new possibilities that have recently been opened by the internet and information and communication technologies. In this review paper, we have compiled the literature that shows the increasing importance of communicating noise information from aircraft and the variety of indicators used to communicate with the public. We also examined the methods of representing noise data, using visualization strategies, and new tools airports are currently using to address this communication problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Compositions comprising enhanced graphene oxide structures and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Priyank Vijaya; Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Belcher, Angela; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2016-12-27

    Embodiments described herein generally relate to compositions comprising a graphene oxide species. In some embodiments, the compositions advantageously have relatively high oxygen content, even after annealing.

  2. Compositions comprising enhanced graphene oxide structures and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Priyank Vijaya; Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Belcher, Angela; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2016-12-27

    Embodiments described herein generally relate to compositions comprising a graphene oxide species. In some embodiments, the compositions advantageously have relatively high oxygen content, even after annealing.

  3. ROMANIA'S PUBLIC DEBT AND GENERAL FRAMEWORK FISCAL-BUDGETARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We appreciate that a developing country cannot build a solid democracy, based on a competitive economy and a system of social and economic infrastructure upgraded, rather than calling on foreign funding, generating external debt. At the basis of capitalist economies development credit is widely used at macro-economic level. Its role is to provide the opportunity to spend now and pay in a period to come, when the investment start to bring profit. For Romania, as well, for any State that resort to foreign loans, it is important that they be used for the development and modernization of the economy and infrastructure services and consumption, not only because it creates the potential for achieving sustainable growth, including by stimulating exports, creating the necessary resources as public foreign debt service to be honored.

  4. [Relevant publications in ambulatory general internal medicine in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstutz, R; Humair, J P; Junod Perron, N; Malacarne, S; Nyffenegger, L; Rieder, J P; Steiner, A S; Motamed, S

    2008-01-30

    Screening procedures for genital Chlamydia infection, cancer risks linked to oral contraceptives, indications and efficacy of HPV vaccination, and diagnostic tools for celiac disease in adults; these are just a few of the general practice themes that were reviewed and analysed in 2007 by residents and chief residents at the Community medicine and primary care Service of the Geneva University Hospitals. These commented summaries, intended for all our colleagues, constitute Geneva's contribution to the literature data base initiated in 2005 by chief residents in Lausanne.

  5. Public Health Aspects of Paediatric Dental Treatment under General Anaesthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Murray Thomson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries (ECC has negative psychosocial effects on children, with chronic pain, changed eating habits, disrupted sleep and altered growth very common, and it disrupts the day-to-day lives of their families. The treatment of young children with ECC places a considerable burden on health systems, with a considerable amount having to be provided under general anaesthesia (GA, which is resource-intensive. Justifying its use requires evidence of the efficacy of treatment in improving the lives of affected children and their families. This paper discusses the available evidence and then makes some suggestions for a research agenda.

  6. Using science centers to expose the general public to the microworld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Science and Technology Interactive Center, Aurora, IL (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Despite the remarkable progress in the past decades in understanding our Universe, we particle physicists have failed to communicate the wonder, excitement, and beauty of these discoveries to the general public. I am sure all agree there is a need, if our support from public funds is to continue at anywhere approximating the present level, for us collectively to educate and inform the general public of what we are doing and why. Informal science education and especially science and technology centers can play an important role in efforts to raise public awareness of particle physics in particular and of basic research in general. Science Centers are a natural avenue for particle physicists to use to communicate with and gain support from the general public.

  7. A General Construction of IND-CCA2 Secure Public Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiltz, Eike; Malone-Lee, John

    2003-01-01

    We propose a general construction for public key encryption schemes that are IND-CCA2 secure in the random oracle model. We show that the scheme proposed in [1, 2] fits our general framework and moreover that our method of analysis leads to a more efficient security reduction.......We propose a general construction for public key encryption schemes that are IND-CCA2 secure in the random oracle model. We show that the scheme proposed in [1, 2] fits our general framework and moreover that our method of analysis leads to a more efficient security reduction....

  8. A General Construction of IND-CCA2 Secure Public Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiltz, Eike; Malone-Lee, John

    2003-01-01

    We propose a general construction for public key encryption schemes that are IND-CCA2 secure in the random oracle model. We show that the scheme proposed in [1, 2] fits our general framework and moreover that our method of analysis leads to a more efficient security reduction.......We propose a general construction for public key encryption schemes that are IND-CCA2 secure in the random oracle model. We show that the scheme proposed in [1, 2] fits our general framework and moreover that our method of analysis leads to a more efficient security reduction....

  9. Training programs in remote sensing for professionals, students and the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, R.

    1987-01-01

    What remote sensing is, how and why it is used, and why more people should be trained in the field is discussed. Suggestions are offered concerning differences in teaching technicians, the general public, and children in schools.

  10. Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases: Risk perception and behaviour of the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bults (Marloes)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis focuses on risk perception and behaviour of the public during the outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases. It consists of studies on Influenza A (H1N1), Q fever and Lyme disease. These studies were conducted among both the general public and specific

  11. Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases: Risk perception and behaviour of the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bults (Marloes)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis focuses on risk perception and behaviour of the public during the outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases. It consists of studies on Influenza A (H1N1), Q fever and Lyme disease. These studies were conducted among both the general public and specific risk

  12. Attitudes toward Euthanasia in Hong Kong--A Comparison between Physicians and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-lin; Fok, Shiu-yeu

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that compared the attitudes of 618 respondents of a general household survey and a random sample of 1,197 physicians toward different types of euthanasia in Hong Kong. The general public was found to agree with active euthanasia and non-voluntary euthanasia and was neutral about passive…

  13. Attitudes toward Euthanasia in Hong Kong--A Comparison between Physicians and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-lin; Fok, Shiu-yeu

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that compared the attitudes of 618 respondents of a general household survey and a random sample of 1,197 physicians toward different types of euthanasia in Hong Kong. The general public was found to agree with active euthanasia and non-voluntary euthanasia and was neutral about passive…

  14. 76 FR 5375 - Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Office of Acquisition Policy; General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice... Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-117), GSA is publishing this notice to advise the...

  15. Different goods, different effects: Exploring the roles of generalized trust in public goods provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim

    This paper tests the hypothesis that generalized trust helps solve large-n collective action problems in a rationalistic framework. A rigors test is employed in that the hypothesis is tested in two different choice situations; a pure public good situation (whether to recycle or not) and a joint...... week positive effect on organic food consumption. Hence, generalized trust only affects public good provision when a collective action problem is present. The analyses thus sustain the hypothesis. It is furthermore concluded that the effect of generalized trust is due to strategic behavior...

  16. Science, the public, and social elites: how the general public, scientists, top politicians and managers perceive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpić, Katarina

    2011-11-01

    This paper finds that the Croatian public's and the social elites' perceptions of science are a mixture of scientific and technological optimism, of the tendency to absolve science of social responsibility, of skepticism about the social effects of science, and of cognitive optimism and skepticism. However, perceptions differ significantly according to the different social roles and the wider value system of the observed groups. The survey data show some key similarities, as well as certain specificities in the configuration of the types of views of the four groups--the public, scientists, politicians and managers. The results suggest that the well-known typology of the four cultures reveals some of the ideologies of the key actors of scientific and technological policy. The greatest social, primarily educational and socio-spatial, differentiation of the perceptions of science was found in the general public.

  17. Public Knowledge and Behaviours Regarding Antibiotics Use: A Survey among the General Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Y Abujheisha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance is associated with increased number of illness, mortality, and health care costs. The incorrect use, excessive prescription and prolonged administration of antibiotics are some factors which allow the growth of resistant bacteria leading to the emergence and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Several studies about antibiotic use have shown that behaviour towards antibiotics differs among countries, depending on culture, habits, education, and health care organization. The aim of this pilot study was to inspect the attitudes and knowledge regarding antibiotics among the public in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a validated questionnaire was carried out from January to February 2017 within the public, including hospital attendees and patients come for a consultation at the Prince Sattam university hospital. A total of 670 participants were included in this study. They have been chosen using a suitable sampling method. Persons incorporated in this survey who were above 18 years old and familiar with the term “antibiotics”. Results: The majority of respondents get informed about the use of antibiotics from Pharmacists (79.94%, and Physicians (76.14% and 50.3% (n=331 of the respondents reported using antibiotics six months before the survey. Regarding the source of antibiotics, (42.55% of the respondents usually gets the antibiotics after a consultation with the doctor, while 53.8% declared that their antibiotics were acquired from a retail pharmacy and a few of them (3.65% get the antibiotics from family and friends. The justification of participants for having antibiotics was mostly due to fever (41.34% or respiratory infections (22.19%. About 33.5% stated that they did not complete the treatment course and the reason was they felt better. Almost 57% indicated that they had ever kept an antibiotic at home for emergency need while 28.57% use leftover antibiotics in case they

  18. A generalization of Paillier's public-key system with applications to electronic voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Jurik, Mads Johan; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2010-01-01

    We propose a generalization of Paillier's probabilistic public-key system, in which the expansion factor is reduced and which allows to adjust the block length of the scheme even after the public key has been fixed, without losing the homomorphic property. We show that the generalization is as se......We propose a generalization of Paillier's probabilistic public-key system, in which the expansion factor is reduced and which allows to adjust the block length of the scheme even after the public key has been fixed, without losing the homomorphic property. We show that the generalization...... is as secure as Paillier's original system and propose several ways to optimize implementations of both the generalized and the original scheme. We construct a threshold variant of the generalized scheme as well as zero-knowledge protocols to show that a given ciphertext encrypts one of a set of given...... schemes. We show how the basic scheme for a yes/no vote can be easily adapted to casting a vote for up to t out of L candidates. The same basic building blocks can also be adapted to provide receipt-free elections, under appropriate physical assumptions. The scheme for 1 out of L elections can...

  19. Algal eating habits of phycologists attending the ISAP Halifax Conference and members of the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Maeve D.; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Hynes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    by ‘other’ (undefined) reasons, whereas the main reason for not eating algae in both groups was a ‘lack of availability’. Phycologists also ate algae for the perceived ‘health benefits’ (36%), whereas few members of the general public chose this option (13%). Consumption of red seaweeds was most popular (60......A short questionnaire was devised during the 4th ISAP Conference in Halifax (2011) to gather some information on the algal eating habits of the participants. Responses were also collected from random members of the general public in Galway and Copenhagen. Most phycologists had eaten algae before...... (93%), but few conference participants ate it more regularly than per month. Responses of the general public were similar. A probability model tested the likelihood of a participant eating algae. Neither age nor nationality significantly influenced this probability, although gender increased...

  20. The Internet and Generalized Functions of the Public Sphere: Transformative Potentials From a Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Rauchfleisch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost since the advent of the Internet, there has been great interest in analyzing and understanding online communication from the perspective of public sphere theory. The question of whether the properties of the Internet and, specifically, social media actually contribute to the public sphere is the matter of ongoing and somewhat heated scientific debate. The aim of the article is twofold. First, we propose a hierarchical model of generalized functions of public sphere. On a theoretical level, we interweave different strands of thought on the public sphere, and the resulting model is more inclusive and less rigid than each of those strands on their own. We identify four generalized functions: identity building, agenda-setting, control and criticism, and deliberation. The Internet does not contribute equally to these functions and we evaluate the impact of the Internet on each of these functions as a diminishing marginal utility. Second, we empirically explore the plausibility of our model in a global comparative analysis with focus on the Internet. With the help of macro-level variables which indicate the structural preconditions for a public sphere, we identify the highest possible function of the public sphere for each country to which the Internet can potentially contribute. Based on this approach, future research can be contextualized: case-study-based research can plausibly articulate expectations regarding the impact of the Internet on the public sphere.

  1. Comparable Measures of Accessibility to Public Transport Using the General Transit Feed Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjoo Bok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Public transport plays a critical role in the sustainability of urban settings. The mass mobility and quality of urban lives can be improved by establishing public transport networks that are accessible to pedestrians within a reasonable walking distance. Accessibility to public transport is characterized by the ease with which inhabitants can reach means of transportation such as buses or metros. By measuring the degree of accessibility to public transport networks using a common data format, a comparative study can be conducted between different cities or metropolitan areas with different public transit systems. The General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS by Google Developers allows this by offering a common format based on text files and sharing the data set voluntarily produced and contributed by the public transit agencies of many participating cities around the world. This paper suggests a method to assess and compare public transit accessibility in different urban areas using the GTFS feed and demographic data. To demonstrate the value of the new method, six examples of metropolitan areas and their public transit accessibility are presented and compared.

  2. Influence of public alcohol and tobacco use on general practitioners' advice: an international comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, L.; Boerma, W.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Saunders, J.B.; Zee, J. van der

    2002-01-01

    Background: Efficacy of advice for substance use is proven in general practice. Studies show high variability of perfomance. Especially intercountry variability has rarely been taken into account. Aim: To study the influence of public tobacco and alcohol use and health service characteristics on the

  3. Disaster Managers’ Perception of Effective Visual Risk Communication for General Public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charriere, M.K.M.; Bogaard, T.A.; Mostert, E.

    2012-01-01

    Risk communication is one of the measures that should be implemented to increase the awareness and preparedness of the general public in order to attain disaster risk reduction. Among the various forms that can be used in communication campaigns, visualizations are appropriate to disseminate

  4. Research data supporting "Crowdsourcing the General Public for Large Scale Molecular Pathology Studies in Cancer"

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Complete data set for the manuscript "Crowdsourcing the general public for large scale molecular pathology studies in cancer". Published at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2015.05.009 This work was supported by the Cancer Research UK [C490/A10124, C490/A16561

  5. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  6. 44 CFR 5.20 - Publication of rules and general policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication of rules and general policies. 5.20 Section 5.20 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT... currently published, or from time to time there will be published, in the Federal Register for the...

  7. Disaster Managers’ Perception of Effective Visual Risk Communication for General Public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charriere, M.K.M.; Bogaard, T.A.; Mostert, E.

    2012-01-01

    Risk communication is one of the measures that should be implemented to increase the awareness and preparedness of the general public in order to attain disaster risk reduction. Among the various forms that can be used in communication campaigns, visualizations are appropriate to disseminate informa

  8. Acceptance of online audio-visual cultural heritage archive services: a study of the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, G.; Wijngaert, van de L.A.L.; Huizer, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study examines the antecedents of user acceptance of an audio-visual heritage archive for a wider audience (i.e., the general public) by extending the technology acceptance model with the concepts of perceived enjoyment, nostalgia proneness and personal innovativeness. Method. A W

  9. How can a research library support the communication of science to the general public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, F.; Gasperini, A.

    2008-06-01

    How can an observatory library support the communication of science to the general public? We will describe how a highly specialised astronomical library can also play a key role in disseminating astronomical knowledge, making scientific results available across a wide range of levels, from professional to public to educational. This outreach activity requires several steps, ranging from the preliminary identification and scrutiny of sources to the production of new information material (e.g. maps, brochures, and DVDs). In particular, we will describe some recent experiences in the dissemination of astronomical information to the general public, especially teachers and children, analysing some results of this activity, such as a bibliography of Italian Astronomical Books for Children, a review of scientific books and other multimedia products.

  10. Knowledge of and attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy among medical students, psychology students, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Ozlem Erden; Ak, Sertac; Sonmez, Yunus Emre; Demir, Basaran

    2013-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is safe and effective for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Despite being a well-known treatment method among health care professionals, lay people generally have a negative opinion of ECT. The present study aimed to examine knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among medical students, psychology students, and the general public. Psychology students were included because they are among the important groups in mental health care in Turkey. A Likert-type questionnaire was administered to fifth-year medical students (n = 28), master of science and doctor of philosophy clinical psychology students (n = 35), and a sample of the general public (n = 26). The questionnaire included questions about the general principles of and indications for ECT, and sources of knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. The medical students were the most knowledgeable about ECT, as expected. The medical students also had a more positive attitude toward ECT than the other 2 groups. More psychology students had negative attitudes on some aspects than general public sample, despite being more knowledgeable. Medical school theoretical and practical training in ECT played an important role in increasing the level of knowledge of and decreasing the prevalence of negative attitudes toward ECT among the medical students; similar training for psychology students is required to achieve similar results.

  11. The impact of changes in county public health expenditures on general health in the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T; Martinez-Gutierrez, Maria S; Navab, Bahar

    2014-07-01

    We estimate the effect of changes in the per capita expenditures of county departments of public health on county-level general health status. Using panel data on 40 counties in California (2001-2009), dynamic panel estimation techniques are combined with the Lewbel instrumental variable technique to estimate an aggregate demand for health function that measures the causal cumulative impact that per capita public health expenditures have on county-level general health status. We find that a $10 long-term increase in per capita public health expenditures would increase the percentage of the population reporting good, very good or excellent health by 0.065 percentage points. Each year expenditures were increased would result in ∼24,000 individuals moving from the 'poor or fair health' category to the 'good, very good or excellent health' category across these 40 counties. In terms of the overall impact of county public health departments on general health status, at current funding levels, each annual expenditure cycle results in over 207,000 individuals being in the 'good, very good or excellent' categories of health status rather than the 'poor or fair' categories.

  12. ISSUES OF INFORMING THE GENERAL PUBLIC ABOUT CONSEQUENCES OF PEACEFUL NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Arkhangelskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the results of a study of the local public attitude to the problem of peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE which were carried out in the Ivanovo, Murmansk and Perm regions and in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia in the last century. An estimate of the mass media information regarding consequences of the PNEs is given. The study shows that the local citizens are ready to deal with reliable sources of objective information about consequences of the PNEs. The recommendations on information of the general public about PNE are presented.

  13. Myths and misconceptions in general public toward ocular complications followed by the removal of upper teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujwala Rohan Newadkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The upper jaw forms the floor of the maxillary sinus and the upper teeth are continuous with the whole midface and cranium, therefore while treating these teeth, it is important for the practitioner to consider the possibility of ocular complications. Ocular disturbances such as blurring of vision, mydriasis, ptosis, diplopia, enophthalmos, miosis, and blindness are rare complications due to intraoral local anesthesia. So far at present, the general population is having myths and misconceptions regarding the extraction of teeth and vision loss; hence, we evaluated the same. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective survey targeting the general public was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 300 standardized self-administered questionnaires were given and the data were analyzed. Results: Out of 300 patients, 148 were educated and 152 were uneducated. The study population was analyzed based on their age, sex, and literacy, i.e. the level of education. Seventy-six percent of uneducated and 48% of educated groups had false belief of ocular complications followed by the removal of upper teeth and among them uneducated females of older age group showed higher prevalence. Conclusion: The general public's knowledge about ocular complications due to tooth extraction in our study group is not adequate and needs improvement. Although the practice of informing by dentists is satisfactory, there is a need for creating awareness in the general public against such complications.

  14. Spirituality and Religion among the General Public: Implications for Social Work Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R

    2015-07-01

    Conceptualizations play a central role in social work discourse, shaping actions in the areas of practice, research, and education. Although many formulations of spirituality and religion have been advanced by social work scholars, the views of members of the general public have been largely absent from the professional conversation. The present article adds to the profession's evolving discussion on spirituality and religion by describing common understandings of spirituality and religion among the general population and by discussing the implication of these views for social work discourse on spirituality and religion. By understanding common views among the public, the social work profession is better positioned to provide ethical and professional services that respect clients' spiritual beliefs and values.

  15. Consent for use of clinical leftover biosample: a survey among Chinese patients and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Dai, HuiLi; Wang, LiMin; Zhu, LiJun; Zou, HanBing; Kong, XianMing

    2012-01-01

    Storage of leftover biosamples generates rich biobanks for future studies, saving time and money and limiting physical impact to sample donors. To investigate the attitudes of Chinese patients and the general public on providing consent for storage and use of leftover biosamples. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected patients admitted to a Shanghai city hospital (n = 648) and members of the general public (n = 492) from May 2010 to July 2010. Face-to-face interviews collected respondents-report of their willingness to donate residual biosample, trust in medical institutions, motivation for donation, concerns of donated sample use, expectations for research results return, and so on. The response rate was 83.0%. Of the respondents, 89.1% stated that they completely understood or understood most of questions. Willingness to donate residual sample was stated by 64.7%, of which 16.7% desired the option to withdraw their donations anytime afterwards. Only 42.3% of respondents stated they "trust" or "strongly trust" medical institutions, the attitude of trusting or strongly trusting medical institutions were significantly associated with willingness to donate in the general public group.(p<0.05) The overall assent rate for future research without specific consents was also low (12.1%). Hepatitis B virus carriers were significantly less willing than non-carriers to donate biosamples (32.1% vs. 64.7%, p<0.001). Low levels of public trust in medical institutions become serious obstacle for biosample donation and biobanking in China. Efforts to increase public understanding of human medical research and biosample usage and trust in the ethical purposes of biobanking are urgently needed. These efforts will be greatly advanced by the impending legislation on biobanking procedures and intent, and our results may help guide the structure of such law.

  16. Consent for use of clinical leftover biosample: a survey among Chinese patients and the general public.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Storage of leftover biosamples generates rich biobanks for future studies, saving time and money and limiting physical impact to sample donors. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the attitudes of Chinese patients and the general public on providing consent for storage and use of leftover biosamples. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected patients admitted to a Shanghai city hospital (n = 648 and members of the general public (n = 492 from May 2010 to July 2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Face-to-face interviews collected respondents-report of their willingness to donate residual biosample, trust in medical institutions, motivation for donation, concerns of donated sample use, expectations for research results return, and so on. RESULTS: The response rate was 83.0%. Of the respondents, 89.1% stated that they completely understood or understood most of questions. Willingness to donate residual sample was stated by 64.7%, of which 16.7% desired the option to withdraw their donations anytime afterwards. Only 42.3% of respondents stated they "trust" or "strongly trust" medical institutions, the attitude of trusting or strongly trusting medical institutions were significantly associated with willingness to donate in the general public group.(p<0.05 The overall assent rate for future research without specific consents was also low (12.1%. Hepatitis B virus carriers were significantly less willing than non-carriers to donate biosamples (32.1% vs. 64.7%, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of public trust in medical institutions become serious obstacle for biosample donation and biobanking in China. Efforts to increase public understanding of human medical research and biosample usage and trust in the ethical purposes of biobanking are urgently needed. These efforts will be greatly advanced by the impending legislation on biobanking procedures and intent, and our results may help guide the structure

  17. Incidence of Symptoms and Accidents During Baths and Showers Among the Japanese General Public

    OpenAIRE

    Hayasaka, Shinya; Shibata, Yosuke; Noda, Tatsuya; Goto, Yasuaki; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Background Bathing is a deeply ingrained custom among Japanese; however, data on the incidence rate of symptoms and accidents during bathing have not yet been reported for the Japanese general public. Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 617 Japanese adults who attended a specialized health checkup. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess weekly frequencies of bathtub bathing and showering and the frequency of symptoms/accidents (falling,...

  18. A bibliometric analysis of Australian general practice publications from 1980 to 2007 using PubMed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara Mendis

    2010-12-01

    Discussion Australian GP publications have shown an impressive growth from 1980 to 2007 with a 15- fold increase. This increase may be due in part to the actions of the Australian government over the past decade to financially support research in primary care, as well as the maturing of academic general practice. This analysis can assist governments, researchers, policy makers and others to target resources so that further developments can be encouraged, supported and monitored.

  19. Barriers to Curricular Change in General Education Mathematics at a Large Public Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study looked for barriers to curricular change in general education mathematics at a large public university (LPU) in the Western United States. The literature showed that a number of national organizations dealing in math education have recommended alternatives to the traditional algebra-intensive curriculum. LPU still relies predominantly on traditional College Algebra as its quantitative literacy (QL) course. With such an algebra-heavy emphasis, students may be missing mor...

  20. Knowledge and Perception about Clinical Research Shapes Behavior: Face to Face Survey in Korean General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jung; Beck, Sung-Ho; Kang, Woon Yong; Yoo, Soyoung; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Lee, Ji Sung; Burt, Tal; Kim, Tae Won

    2016-05-01

    Considering general public as potential patients, identifying factors that hinder public participation poses great importance, especially in a research environment where demands for clinical trial participants outpace the supply. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and perception about clinical research in general public. A total of 400 Seoul residents with no previous experience of clinical trial participation were selected, as representative of population in Seoul in terms of age and sex. To minimize selection bias, every fifth passer-by was invited to interview, and if in a cluster, person on the very right side was asked. To ensure the uniform use of survey, written instructions have been added to the questionnaire. Followed by pilot test in 40 subjects, the survey was administered face-to-face in December 2014. To investigate how perception shapes behavior, we compared perception scores in those who expressed willingness to participate and those who did not. Remarkably higher percentage of responders stated that they have heard of clinical research, and knew someone who participated (both, P perceptions and lack of knowledge will be effective in enhancing public engaged in clinical research.

  1. Bringing climate sciences to the general public with the Climanosco initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourqui, Michel; Bolduc, Cassandra; Charbonneau, Paul; Charrière, Marie; Hill, Daniel; Lòpez Gladko, Angélica; Loubet, Enrique; Roy, Philippe; Winter, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the first months of operation of the scientists-initiated Climanosco.org platform. The goal of this initiative is to bridge climate sciences with the general public by building a network of climate scientists and citizens around the world, by stimulating the writing of quality climate science articles in non-scientific language, and by publishing these articles in an open-access, multilingual format. For the climate scientist, this platform will offer a simple and reliable channel to disseminate research results to the general public. High standards are enforced by: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. Direct participation of non-scientists is allowed through co-authoring, peer-reviewing, language translation. Furthermore, public engagement is stimulated by allowing non-scientists to invite manuscripts to be written by scientists on topics of their concern. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local politicians, economists, members of the agriculture sector, and any other citizens from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. The initiative is now several months into operations. In this paper, I will discuss what we have achieved so far and what we plan for the next future.

  2. Energy system comprising an electrochemical energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Notten, P.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to an energy system comprising an electrochemical energy source, wherein said electrochemical energy source comprises at least one assembly of a first electrode, a second electrode, and an intermediate solid-state electrolyte separating said first electrode and said second elec

  3. Pressurizable structures comprising different surface sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koussios, S.; Bergsma, O.K.; Beukers, A.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to composite pressurizable structures which are overwound with fibres or are braided. The pressurizable structures comprise axial sections which in turn comprise both concave and convex surfaces. The shape characteristics are related to geodesic as well as non-geodesic trajecto

  4. Organizational values in general practice and public involvement: case studies in an urban district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I

    2001-05-01

    A multiple case study design was used to explore dimensions of organizational values in general practice with respect to developing public involvement. The study was undertaken in an urban district in England with data collected through in-depth individual and focus group interviews with service providers and service users. Four general practice organizations were randomly selected for study after sorting all in the district according to their record of developing involvement activities. The case studies provide evidence of how organizational values can differ markedly in general practice in relation to ideas of public involvement, with consequences for the quantity and quality of activities for involving local people and service users. The differences manifest themselves in the beliefs and attitudes of service providers about the purpose of the organization and the types of relationships that are appropriate with service users and local people. Service users appear to be very perceptive to the underlying ethos and purpose to their practice organization and this affects their responsiveness to initiatives for their involvement. The dimensions of the different values found in the study appear to be essentially the same as a number of established empirical findings of variations in values in general practice: an orientation to a narrow medical role and to general practice as a business are associated with a low valuation of involvement; an orientation to teamwork and to a broader social role appear more congruent with the development of involvement. Power is a critical issue in this setting with evidence in the study of the dominance of the medical practitioners in establishing organizational values and the nature of public involvement activities.

  5. Podcasting as an Effective Medium for Direct Science Communication and Outreach to the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, R. J.; Padilla, A. J.; Wheatley, P.; Barnhart, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    A podcast is an audio program distributed online typically freely available through an RSS feed (essentially an on-demand internet radio show). This medium has grown steadily in listenership and popularity since its inception in the early 2000s, especially thanks to popular distribution platforms such as iTunes, and web-enabled listening devices (i.e. smart phones). In terms of science reporting, many high impact journals now produce podcasts to supplement their publications (e.g. Nature, Science, etc.). However, smaller and/or more specialized journals often can't afford to promote their content via podcasts, thus limiting their authors to rely on traditional media and press releases supplied by their colleges and universities. This is where independent or unaffiliated podcasts can fill an open niche: providing a platform for scientists to discuss their research in their own words aimed at a general audience. Traditional press releases often follow a similar pattern, and many science news outlets essentially report the press releases verbatim with little additional content or reporting from primary sources. Podcasts suffer from no such restrictions, and they can be as long and in-depth as the subject matter necessitates. Furthermore, many news outlets no longer employ dedicated science reporters. Science is covered, if at all, by reporters without specialized scientific knowledge or training. This deficit leads to a much higher potential for science news stories to be incorrectly reported, or misinterpreted by the general public. A podcast allows a lab group or department the opportunity to edit the content for brevity and clarity, affording scientists a better chance of getting their research presented to the public in an accurate and representative way. Finally, podcasts allow the public to hear the voice of the scientist, humanizing the hard work they do, and potentially positively influencing the way the public reacts to science as a discipline.

  6. Perspectives on Obesity and Its Treatment: Health Care Providers and the General Public in Rural West Virginia and Urban Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menez, Steven; Cheskin, Lawrence; Geller, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine and compare the perspectives of the general public and health care providers (HCPs) on obesity and its treatment in rural West Virginia (WV) and Baltimore, MD. Method: Surveys were completed in both locations by the general public (WV: "n" = 200; Baltimore: "n" = 171) and HCPs (WV: "n" = 25;…

  7. Query transformations and their role in Web searching by the members of the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Whittle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper reports preliminary research in a primarily experimental study of how the general public search for information on the Web. The focus is on the query transformation patterns that characterise searching. Method. In this work, we have used transaction logs from the Excite search engine to develop methods for analysing query transformations that should aid the analysis of our ongoing experimental work. Our methods involve the use of similarity techniques to link queries with the most similar previous query in a train. The resulting query transformations are represented as a list of codes representing a whole search. Analysis. It is shown how query transformation sequences can be represented as graphical networks and some basic statistical results are shown. A correlation analysis is performed to examine the co-occurrence of Boolean and quotation mark changes with the syntactic changes. Results. A frequency analysis of the occurrence of query transformation codes is presented. The connectivity of graphs obtained from the query transformation is investigated and found to follow an exponential scaling law. The correlation analysis reveals a number of patterns that provide some interesting insights into Web searching by the general public. Conclusion. We have developed analytical methods based on query similarity that can be applied to our current experimental work with volunteer subjects. The results of these will form part of a database with the aim of developing an improved understanding of how the public search the Web.

  8. Awareness and attitude of general public about clinical trials from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Sridharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and awareness about clinical trials amongst general public is essential to improve the recruitment rate of patients. The present study was conducted to assess such aspects in semi-urban and rural India. A cross-sectional pre-validated questionnaire based assessment of views of public regarding the various aspects of clinical trials ranging from general, ethical, confidentiality and publication was conducted. Descriptive statistics was used to represent the responses in the form of proportions. A total of 400 participants were recruited for the study and 92% of the study participants opined that clinical trials benefit society while 9.7% opined that it harms the society. Nearly three-fourth (285/336, 73.8% considered clinical research as an essential step for the development of new drugs. Surprisingly, only 118/261 (45.2% of the study participants felt that the confidentiality of the study participants were adequately protected. Also, only 79/247 (32% and 86/234 (36.8% study participants were aware of compensation in case of participation in clinical trials and adverse effects respectively. To conclude, we observed an optimistic trend towards increasing awareness about clinical trials. However, more robust studies in larger groups of individuals from various strata need to be conducted to assess the attributing factors for the difference in knowledge and awareness about clinical trials.

  9. [Drug advertising to the general public: conceptual parameters of a risk producer practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Alvaro César

    2010-11-01

    This article analyzes some concepts relating to marketing, advertising, medications, regulation and manipulation. It discusses ethical and health surveillance parameters of drugs advertising for the general public. The focus of this work is the analysis of contradictions from a conceptual point of view between the practice of pharmaceutical advertising as a tool for the increase of sales and the conquest of markets versus the policy of rational use of medicines. Academic studies and monitoring of drugs advertising conducted by the National Health Surveillance Agency show that the contents of the advertising pieces oriented towards the general public overestimate the - sometimes dubious - qualities of their medication, focusing almost exclusively on the benefits and put them in a central position in the therapeutic process. They also fail to mention the risks inherent in their use. Rather than focusing on regulatory proposals aimed at creating constraints to this practice, this article discusses the impossibility, considering the interests of public health, of the coexistence of marketing with the policies for the correct, rational and safe use of drugs.

  10. Composition comprising lignin and antidi arrheal component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising lignin and at least one compound selected from the group consisting of bromelain, papain, tannin, carvacrol, thymol, alliin, allicin, fenugreek seed, egg, poppy, poppy seeds, humic acid, roots, kaolin, catechu, cellulase, flavonoid...

  11. Attitudes of Research Participants and the General Public Regarding Disclosure of Alzheimer Disease Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooblar, Jonathan; Roe, Catherine M.; Selsor, Natalie J.; Gabel, Matthew J.; Morris, John C.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Results of Alzheimer disease (AD) research assessments typically are not disclosed to participants. Recent research has suggested interest in disclosure, but, to our knowledge, few studies have accounted for awareness of potential benefits and limitations of disclosure. OBJECTIVE To determine the attitudes of cognitively normal research participants and members of the general public regarding disclosure of AD research results. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Participants in a longitudinal aging study (Alzheimer Disease Research Center [ADRC]) were given preintervention and postintervention surveys about disclosure attitudes. In a general public sample (The American Panel Survey), participants responded to a similar survey about disclosure attitudes. INTERVENTIONS Participants in the ADRC sample were randomly assigned to a group (n = 119) that read an education intervention about the usefulness of AD biomarkers or to a placebo group (n = 100) that read as its intervention general information about the ADRC. Participants in the general public sample read a brief vignette describing participation in a longitudinal AD study. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Interest in disclosure of AD research results. RESULTS Cognitively normal ADRC participants (n = 219) were 60.7% (n = 133) female, 83.6% (n = 183) of white race, and reported a mean of 15.91 years of education. Twenty-nine individuals refused participation. The American Panel Survey participants (n = 1418) indicated they did not have AD and were 50.5% (n = 716) female, 76.7% (n = 1087) of white race, and reported a mean of 13.85 years of education. Overall, 77.6% of eligible participants (1583 of 2041) completed the survey in July 2014. Interest in disclosure was high among the ADRC participants (55.1% [119 of 216] were “extremely interested”). Viewing the education intervention predicted lower interest in disclosure (odds ratio, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.15–3.53; P = .02). High subjective risk of AD, a family

  12. Cancer-related false knowledge in relatives of cancer patients and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhal, N S; Dane, F; Ulus, C; Sari, S; Senturk, N; Bingol, D

    2010-01-01

    Although there are many myths about cancer in Turkey, there is no study evaluating Turkish public's knowledge about cancer. The goals of our research were to: 1) measure the extent of knowledge of cancer among the Turkish public; 2) determine the differences in extent of cancer-related knowledge between participants who have relatives with cancer and those who do not; and 3) determine the sources of knowledge possessed. Data were obtained from a total of 415 participants (244 female, 171 male), all of them sitting at the Marmara University Faculty of Medicine Hospital (MUFMH) outpatient clinic waiting area for non-cancer-related reasons. Each participant completed a 3-part questionnaire. Appropriate statistical tests were used for comparison. The mean age was 41 years. Of 415 participants, 65.3% stated that they had one or more cancer patient in their immediate family; 70.1% of the participants had a high-school education or greater. The questionnaire showed that, depending on the question, anywhere from 1.7% to 88.5% of the general public possesses some false information; furthermore, the difference in accuracy between relatives of cancer patients and non-relatives was marginal. Only 3 specific questions, related to the following ideas, rendered answers that were statistically significantly different between these 2 groups: breast cancer is only seen in females (p cancer (p cancer is always very painful (p knowledge about cancer was unacceptably high in our cohort. Broader efforts should be made to inform the Turkish public about cancer.

  13. Occupations and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: are jobs exposed to the general public at higher risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, F; d'Errico, A; Calvo, A; Costa, G; Chiò, A

    2017-02-14

    Aim of this study was to assess whether previous employment in certain occupations could be a risk factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) incidence. This topic has been explored by several studies, but no risk factor has been firmly identified. The study population consisted of all subjects over 30 years old resident in Turin in 1996 who worked or were unemployed at 1991 Italian census ( n = 284 406), followed up for ALS occurrence from 1996 to 2014. The risk of ALS was estimated in relation to the occupation held in 1991, using the Italian classification of occupations at the greatest detail. The association between occupations and ALS risk was estimated through Huber-White sandwich multivariate Poisson regression models adjusted for age, gender, education and marital status. During the follow-up, 208 subjects developed ALS. ALS risk was significantly associated with previous employment as bank teller (IRR = 7.33), general practitioner (IRR = 4.61) and sales representative (IRR = 3.06). Categorizing all occupations as exposed or unexposed to direct contact with general public, it was found that previous employment in this group of occupations increased significantly ALS risk (IRR = 1.51), mainly driven by occupations in direct contact with customers (IRR = 1.79). The study results indicate that ALS risk may be increased by previous employment in occupations implying direct contact with the general public, in particular customers. A possible explanation of this finding, partly supported by the literature, is that workers in contact with the public could be more exposed to certain infections, which would increase their ALS risk.

  14. Awareness and utilization of peer support programs in Singapore public general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angelina O M; Kee, Jass P C; Chan, Yiong Huak

    2012-01-01

    To address the effects of acute, chronic and cumulative stress in the healthcare environment in Singapore, the Ministry of Health provided funding to develop a comprehensive crisis response management system (peer support programs/PSPs) that increases mental health awareness, provides emotional support to affected staff during work-related critical incidents and assists hospital management to better understand the emotional needs of the employees. This paper reports the awareness and utilization of PSPs in Singapore public general hospitals about one year after they were set up.

  15. [Involving patients, the insured and the general public in healthcare decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Juhnke, Christin

    2016-01-01

    No doubt, the public should be involved in healthcare decision making, especially when decision makers from politics and self-government agencies are faced with the difficult task of setting priorities. There is a general consensus on the need for a stronger patient centeredness, even in HTA processes, and internationally different ways of public participation are discussed and tested in decision making processes. This paper describes how the public can be involved in different decision situations, and it shows how preference measurement methods are currently being used in an international context to support decision making. It distinguishes between different levels of decision making on health technologies: approval, assessment, pricing, and finally utilization. The range of participation efforts extends from qualitative surveys of patients' needs (Citizen Councils of NICE in the UK) to science-based documentation of quantitative patient preferences, such as in the current pilot projects of the FDA in the US and the EMA at the European level. Possible approaches for the elicitation and documentation of preference structures and trade-offs in relation to alternate health technologies are decision aids, such as multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), that provide the necessary information for weighting and prioritizing decision criteria.

  16. A Citizen Empowered Online Platform for Communicating Climate Science to the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourqui, Michel

    2014-05-01

    This presentation introduces a project, currently in development, of a new online platform for the interaction between climate scientists and citizen. It consists of an open-access, multi-lingual, and peer-reviewed journal publishing climate articles in non-scientific language. It follows three main long-term objectives. The first objective is to establish an ever-growing, multi-lingual library of climate articles providing a knowledge base on climate sciences accessible for free to everyone. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local actors (e.g. in politics, economy, agriculture), and any other citizen from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. The second goal is to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is enforced through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The third objective is to engage citizen into the climate science. To this aim, the journal proposes three channels. Firstly, citizens are invited to contribute to the dissemination of climate knowledge to the general public by co-authoring, peer-reviewing or translating articles. Secondly, they are offered the capacity to stimulate scientific enquiry by posting invitations for manuscripts to be written on a citizen-inspired topic. Thirdly, a match-up tool is being developed for scientists to gather non-scientists teams for conducting citizen-involving research projects. This platform is scientist-initiated and is meant to be ruled and managed by the participating individuals themselves (scientists and non-scientists) as an international association. It will be financed through country-varying flat memberships. The project is now starting. The basic ideas are drawn; a prototype internet platform has been developed and is

  17. An optically guided microdevice comprising a nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a microdevice (100) for emitting electromagnetic radiation onto an associated object. Simultaneous non-contact spatial control over the microdevice in terms of translational movement in three dimensions, and rotational movement around at least two axes, preferably...... three axes, is possible. The microdevice further comprises a nanowire (150) being arranged for emitting electromagnetic radiation onto said associated object. This is advantageous for obtaining better spatial control of the microdevice comprising the nanowire, and this enables that light could more...

  18. MRSA model of learning and adaptation: a qualitative study among the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Rodney E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More people in the US now die from Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections than from HIV/AIDS. Often acquired in healthcare facilities or during healthcare procedures, the extremely high incidence of MRSA infections and the dangerously low levels of literacy regarding antibiotic resistance in the general public are on a collision course. Traditional medical approaches to infection control and the conventional attitude healthcare practitioners adopt toward public education are no longer adequate to avoid this collision. This study helps us understand how people acquire and process new information and then adapt behaviours based on learning. Methods Using constructivist theory, semi-structured face-to-face and phone interviews were conducted to gather pertinent data. This allowed participants to tell their stories so their experiences could deepen our understanding of this crucial health issue. Interview transcripts were analysed using grounded theory and sensitizing concepts. Results Our findings were classified into two main categories, each of which in turn included three subthemes. First, in the category of Learning, we identified how individuals used their Experiences with MRSA, to answer the questions: What was learned? and, How did learning occur? The second category, Adaptation gave us insights into Self-reliance, Reliance on others, and Reflections on the MRSA journey. Conclusions This study underscores the critical importance of educational programs for patients, and improved continuing education for healthcare providers. Five specific results of this study can reduce the vacuum that currently exists between the knowledge and information available to healthcare professionals, and how that information is conveyed to the public. These points include: 1 a common model of MRSA learning and adaptation; 2 the self-directed nature of adult learning; 3 the focus on general MRSA information, care and

  19. Providing health information to the general public: a survey of current practices in academic health sciences libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, S M

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to 148 publicly and privately supported academic health sciences libraries affiliated with Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC-accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada to determine level of access and services provided to the general public. For purposes of this study, "general public" was defined as nonaffiliated students or health care professionals, attorneys and other nonhealth-related professionals, patients from affiliated or other hospitals or clinics, and general consumers. One hundred five (71%) libraries responded. Results showed 98% of publicly supported libraries and 88% of privately supported libraries provided access to some or all of the general public. Publicly supported libraries saw greater numbers of public patrons, often provided more services, and were more likely to circulate materials from their collections than were privately supported libraries. A significant number of academic health sciences libraries housed a collection of consumer-oriented materials and many provided some level of document delivery service, usually for a fee. Most allowed the public to use some or all library computers. Results of this study indicated that academic health sciences libraries played a significant role in serving the information-seeking public and suggested a need to develop written policies or guidelines covering the services that will be provided to minimize the impact of this service on primary clientele.

  20. Public Sphere - Political Advertisement Relationship in Turkey: Analysing Political Advertisements of JDP in General Elections 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Dağtaş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Public sphere is a social space, open to active individual access and free discussion, rescued from state intervention, where communicative action free from violence and individual benefits is undertaken; and rational-critical discourse is built. Political advertisement is the type advertising which aims at directing voters or the government to a particular action, having them adopt a certain view or approach. The concept of political advertising emerged with the practice of using commercial advertising techniques to promote a party, candidate or an idea. Justice and Development Party (JDP, has been ruling Turkey since 2002. The leader of the party is Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. It is a conservative party and has carried out some practices that could be regarded as negative. Anti-secular attitudes are also among these practices. Thus, analysing the political advertisements of JDP has proved to be interesting. Public sphere studies are mostly conducted through news stories and columns in media. In that sense, it is significant to analyse political advertisements in terms of public sphere. In this study, the political advertisements of the ruling Justice and Development Party (JDP in the process of Turkish General Parliamentary Election, 2011 have been analysed. The political advertisements in question have been analysed via Sabah newspaper. The reason for choosing Sabah is that it supports JDP as an example of partisan press. The samples have been taken from 2 weeks before the elections. Accordingly, as a full-page advertisement is published every day, 14 political advertisement analyses have been conducted in total. Political advertisements have been analysed using qualitative text analysis. As the study follows the path of public place-political advertising relationship, it finds meaning in itself.

  1. Valuation of scleroderma and psoriatic arthritis health states by the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hays Ron D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Psoriatic arthritis (PsA and scleroderma (SSc are chronic rheumatic disorders with detrimental effects on health-related quality of life. Our objective was to assess health values (utilities from the general public for health states common to people with PsA and SSc for economic evaluations. Methods Adult subjects from the general population in a Midwestern city (N = 218 completed the SF-12 Health Survey and computer-assisted 0-100 rating scale (RS, time trade-off (TTO, range: 0.0-1.0 and standard gamble (SG, range: 0.0-1.0 utility assessments for several hypothetical PsA and SSc health states. Results Subjects included 135 (62% females, 143 (66% Caucasians, and 62 (28% African-Americans. The mean (SD scores for the SF-12 Physical Component Summary scale were 52.9 (8.3 and for the SF-12 Mental Component Summary scale were 49.0 (9.1, close to population norms. The mean RS, TTO, and SG scores for PsA health states varied with severity, ranging from 20.2 to 63.7 (14.4-20.3 for the RS 0.29 to 0.78 (0.24-0.31 for the TTO, and 0.48 to 0.82 (0.24-0.34 for the SG. The mean RS, TTO, and SG scores for SSc health states were 25.3-69.7 (15.2-16.3 for the RS, 0.36-0.80 (0.25-0.31 for the TTO, and 0.50-0.81 (0.26-0.32 for the SG, depending on disease severity. Conclusion Health utilities for PsA and SSc health states as assessed from the general public reflect the severity of the diseases. These descriptive findings could have implications regarding comparative effectiveness research for tests and treatments for PsA and SSc.

  2. Hearing aid comprising an array of microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, M.M.; Berkhout, A.J.; Merks, I.L.D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Hearing aid for improving the hearing ability of the hard of hearing, comprising an array of microphones, the electrical output signals of which are fed to at least one transmission path belonging to an ear. Means are provided for deriving two array output signals from the output signals of the micr

  3. Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

    2013-08-13

    Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

  4. Green-E general program and public information support program report, August 1, 1999 - September 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kirk

    2000-09-30

    Green-E Program support from the Dept. of Energy augmented the costs of implementing the objectives of the Green-E Renewable Electricity Project; general program implementation; regional adaptation; developing strategic partnerships; and public information/education/outreach.

  5. A pilot study exploring awareness among general public toward issues related to medication safety in the state of Penang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Azmi Hassali; Shafie, Asrul A.; Fahad Saleem; Harith Al-Qazaz; Imran Masood; Muhammad Atif; Hisham Aljadhey

    2012-01-01

    Context: A better understanding of medication safety ensures better health state among healthcare consumers. Aim: The study aims to assess general public awareness toward issues related to medication safety. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among general public selected conveniently in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Materials and methods: A total of 500 respondents were approached and 476 consumers participated in the survey giving a response rate of 95.2%. Statistic...

  6. A comparison of attitudes towards end-of-life decisions: survey among the Dutch general public and physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, J.A.C.; Heide, van der J.A.; Philipsen, B.D.; Maas, van der P.J.; Wal, van der G.

    2005-01-01

    In The Netherlands, there has been a continuing public debate about the acceptability and regulatory system for medical decision-making concerning the end of life. We studied attitudes of the Dutch general public towards different types of end-of-life decisions in various situations and compared the

  7. Providing health information to the general public: a survey of current practices in academic health sciences libraries*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Sue M.

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to 148 publicly and privately supported academic health sciences libraries affiliated with Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)–accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada to determine level of access and services provided to the general public. For purposes of this study, “general public” was defined as nonaffiliated students or health care professionals, attorneys and other nonhealth-related professionals, patients from affiliated or other hospitals or clinics, and general consumers. One hundred five (71%) libraries responded. Results showed 98% of publicly supported libraries and 88% of privately supported libraries provided access to some or all of the general public. Publicly supported libraries saw greater numbers of public patrons, often provided more services, and were more likely to circulate materials from their collections than were privately supported libraries. A significant number of academic health sciences libraries housed a collection of consumer-oriented materials and many provided some level of document delivery service, usually for a fee. Most allowed the public to use some or all library computers. Results of this study indicated that academic health sciences libraries played a significant role in serving the information-seeking public and suggested a need to develop written policies or guidelines covering the services that will be provided to minimize the impact of this service on primary clientele. PMID:10658965

  8. Compositions, methods, and systems comprising fluorous-soluble polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Timothy M.; Lim, Jeewoo; Takeda, Yohei

    2015-10-13

    The present invention generally relates to compositions, methods, and systems comprising polymers that are fluorous-soluble and/or organize at interfaces between a fluorous phase and a non-fluorous phase. In some embodiments, emulsions or films are provided comprising a polymer. The polymers, emulsions, and films can be used in many applications, including for determining, treating, and/or imaging a condition and/or disease in a subject. The polymer may also be incorporated into various optoelectronic device such as photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors, or the like. In some embodiments, the polymers comprise pi-conjugated backbones, and in some cases, are highly emissive.

  9. Assessment of general public exposure to LTE and RF sources present in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

    2010-10-01

    For the first time, in situ electromagnetic field exposure of the general public to fields from long term evolution (LTE) cellular base stations is assessed. Exposure contributions due to different radiofrequency (RF) sources are compared with LTE exposure at 30 locations in Stockholm, Sweden. Total exposures (0.2-2.6 V/m) satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels (from 28 V/m for frequency modulation (FM), up to 61 V/m for LTE) at all locations. LTE exposure levels up to 0.8 V/m were measured, and the average contribution of the LTE signal to the total RF exposure equals 4%.

  10. Bedside rationing by general practitioners: a postal survey in the Danish public healthcare system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Sigurd; Norup, Michael; Rossel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is ethically controversial whether medical doctors are morally permitted to ration the care of their patients at the bedside. To explore whether general practitioners in fact do ration in this manner we conducted a study within primary care in the Danish public healthcare...... of the study were twofold: an assessment of the proportion of GPs who, in a mainly hypothetical setting, would consider cost-quality trade-offs relevant to their clinical decision-making given their economic impact on the healthcare system; and a measure of the extent to which they would disclose...... this information to patients. RESULTS: In the hypothetical setting 95% of GPs considered cost-quality trade-offs relevant to their clinical decision-making given the economic impact of such trade-offs on the healthcare system. In all 90% stated that this consideration had been relevant in clinical decision...

  11. Health communication, information technology and the public's attitude toward periodic general health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periodic general health examinations (GHEs) are gradually becoming more popular as they employ subclinical screenings, as a means of early detection. This study considers the effect of information technology (IT), health communications and the public's attitude towards GHEs in Vietnam. Methods: A total of 2,068 valid observations were obtained from a survey in Hanoi and its surrounding areas. Results: In total, 42.12% of participants stated that they were willing to use IT applications to recognise illness symptoms, and nearly 2/3 of them rated the healthcare quality at average level or below. Discussion: The data, which was processed by the BCL model, showed that IT applications (apps) reduce hesitation toward GHEs; however, older people seem to have less confidence in using these apps. Health communications and government's subsidy also increased the likelihood of people attending periodic GHEs. The probability of early check-ups where there is a cash subsidy could reach approximately 80%.

  12. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  13. Control costs, enhance quality, and increase revenue in three top general public hospitals in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lue-Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With market-oriented economic and health-care reform, public hospitals in China have received unprecedented pressures from governmental regulations, public opinions, and financial demands. To adapt the changing environment and keep pace of modernizing healthcare delivery system, public hospitals in China are expanding clinical services and improving delivery efficiency, while controlling costs. Recent experiences are valuable lessons for guiding future healthcare reform. Here we carefully study three teaching hospitals, to exemplify their experiences during this period. METHODS: We performed a systematic analysis on hospitalization costs, health-care quality and delivery efficiencies from 2006 to 2010 in three teaching hospitals in Beijing, China. The analysis measured temporal changes of inpatient cost per stay (CPS, cost per day (CPD, inpatient mortality rate (IMR, and length of stay (LOS, using a generalized additive model. FINDINGS: There were 651,559 hospitalizations during the period analyzed. Averaged CPS was stable over time, while averaged CPD steadily increased by 41.7% (P<0.001, from CNY 1,531 in 2006 to CNY 2,169 in 2010. The increasing CPD seemed synchronous with the steady rising of the national annual income per capita. Surgical cost was the main contributor to the temporal change of CPD, while medicine and examination costs tended to be stable over time. From 2006 and 2010, IMR decreased by 36%, while LOS reduced by 25%. Increasing hospitalizations with higher costs, along with an overall stable CPS, reduced IMR, and shorter LOS, appear to be the major characteristics of these three hospitals at present. INTERPRETATIONS: These three teaching hospitals have gained some success in controlling costs, improving cares, adopting modern medical technologies, and increasing hospital revenues. Effective hospital governance and physicians' professional capacity plus government regulations and supervisions may have played a role

  14. Measurements of ELF electromagnetic exposure of the general public from Belgian power distribution substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the exposure of the general public due to distribution substations of 11/0.22-0.4 kV is investigated. The substations are categorized according to their location (substations in buildings, detached substations, substations between two houses, and underground substations in the pavement), and eight relevant substations are selected to perform measurements of the electromagnetic fields. The purpose of this paper is to determine the "minimum distances" for the general public--defined as the distances outside which the field levels do not exceed a certain field value--of these substations. In total, 637 field measurements were performed: 358 measurements of the magnetic field and 279 measurements of the electric field in different locations. Measured momentary magnetic field values are within the range of 0.025 to 47.39 microT. Electric fields are within the range 0.1 to 536 V m(-1). Also, magnetic field measurements as a function of the height above the ground were performed. The maximal magnetic (values over one day) and electric fields for all the investigated substations were below 100 microT and 5 kV m(-1), respectively. For exposure over a year, all substations except one delivered values below 100 microT. For the substation producing a magnetic field above 100 microT, a minimum distance of about 0.5 m was obtained. When comparing the average exposure with the value of 0.4 microT, minimum distances of maximally 5.4 m (average day) and 7.2 m (average year) were obtained.

  15. International training programs on eating disorders for professionals, caregivers, and the general public: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piat, Myra; Pearson, Alexis; Sabetti, Judith; Steiger, Howard; Israel, Mimi; Lal, Shalini

    2015-01-01

    This review identified and synthesized published training programs on eating disorders (ED) (anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa) for professionals, natural supporters of people with ED, or the public. A scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley (2005) framework was conducted. Four data bases were searched, for all years, and manual searches from three additional sources were also conducted. Experts on ED were consulted for validation of the identified studies. A narrative synthesis was performed. A total of 20 evaluation studies from five countries were identified, and reviewed in relation to 14 ED training programs. Characteristics of the training programs, and study characteristics, were highly diverse, as shown on Table 1 which compiles results from the charted data. Evaluations were equally divided between training for healthcare and education professionals (9), and training for families or other carers of people with ED (10). One study evaluated ED training for the general public. We found that training orientation varies with the interests and needs of different trainee groups. While most studies assessed trainee outcomes, future research needs to give greater consideration to patient perspectives, and to the relationship between training and evaluation approaches, improved knowledge, and better care.

  16. How accurate is patients' anatomical knowledge: a cross-sectional, questionnaire study of six patient groups and a general public sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinman John

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older studies have shown that patients often do not understand the terms used by doctors and many do not even have a rudimentary understanding of anatomy. The present study was designed to investigate the levels of anatomical knowledge of different patient groups and the general public in order to see whether this has improved over time and whether patients with a specific organ pathology (e.g. liver disease have a relatively better understanding of the location of that organ. Methods Level of anatomical knowledge was assessed on a multiple-choice questionnaire, in a sample of 722 participants, comprising approximately 100 patients in each of 6 different diagnostic groups and 133 in the general population, using a between-groups, cross-sectional design. Comparisons of relative accuracy of anatomical knowledge between the present and earlier results, and across the clinical and general public groups were evaluated using Chi square tests. Associations with age and education were assessed with the Pearson correlation test and one-way analysis of variance, respectively. Results Across groups knowledge of the location of body organs was poor and has not significantly improved since an earlier equivalent study over 30 years ago (χ2 = 0.04, df = 1, ns. Diagnostic groups did not differ in their overall scores but those with liver disease and diabetes were more accurate regarding the location of their respective affected organs (χ2 = 18.10, p 2 = 10.75, p Conclusion Many patients and general public do not know the location of key body organs, even those in which their medical problem is located, which could have important consequences for doctor-patient communication. These results indicate that healthcare professionals still need to take care in providing organ specific information to patients and should not assume that patients have this information, even for those organs in which their medical problem is located.

  17. Crowdsourcing the General Public for Large Scale Molecular Pathology Studies in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido dos Reis, Francisco J.; Lynn, Stuart; Ali, H. Raza; Eccles, Diana; Hanby, Andrew; Provenzano, Elena; Caldas, Carlos; Howat, William J.; McDuffus, Leigh-Anne; Liu, Bin; Daley, Frances; Coulson, Penny; Vyas, Rupesh J.; Harris, Leslie M.; Owens, Joanna M.; Carton, Amy F.M.; McQuillan, Janette P.; Paterson, Andy M.; Hirji, Zohra; Christie, Sarah K.; Holmes, Amber R.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Easton, Douglas F.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Benitez, Javier; Milne, Roger L.; Mannermaa, Arto; Couch, Fergus; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Blows, Fiona M.; Sanders, Joyce; de Groot, Renate; Figueroa, Jonine; Sherman, Mark; Hooning, Maartje; Brenner, Hermann; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Lintott, Chris; Pharoah, Paul D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Citizen science, scientific research conducted by non-specialists, has the potential to facilitate biomedical research using available large-scale data, however validating the results is challenging. The Cell Slider is a citizen science project that intends to share images from tumors with the general public, enabling them to score tumor markers independently through an internet-based interface. Methods From October 2012 to June 2014, 98,293 Citizen Scientists accessed the Cell Slider web page and scored 180,172 sub-images derived from images of 12,326 tissue microarray cores labeled for estrogen receptor (ER). We evaluated the accuracy of Citizen Scientist's ER classification, and the association between ER status and prognosis by comparing their test performance against trained pathologists. Findings The area under ROC curve was 0.95 (95% CI 0.94 to 0.96) for cancer cell identification and 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.97) for ER status. ER positive tumors scored by Citizen Scientists were associated with survival in a similar way to that scored by trained pathologists. Survival probability at 15 years were 0.78 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.80) for ER-positive and 0.72 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.77) for ER-negative tumors based on Citizen Scientists classification. Based on pathologist classification, survival probability was 0.79 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.81) for ER-positive and 0.71 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.74) for ER-negative tumors. The hazard ratio for death was 0.26 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.37) at diagnosis and became greater than one after 6.5 years of follow-up for ER scored by Citizen Scientists, and 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.33) at diagnosis increasing thereafter to one after 6.7 (95% CI 4.1 to 10.9) years of follow-up for ER scored by pathologists. Interpretation Crowdsourcing of the general public to classify cancer pathology data for research is viable, engages the public and provides accurate ER data. Crowdsourced classification of research data may offer a valid solution to problems of

  18. Dental care and treatments provided under general anaesthesia in the Helsinki Public Dental Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savanheimo Nora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental general anaesthesia (DGA is a very efficient treatment modality, but is considered only in the last resort because of the risks posed by general anaesthesia to patients’ overall health. Health services and their treatment policies regarding DGA vary from country to country. The aims of this work were to determine the reasons for DGA in the Helsinki Public Dental Service (PDS and to assess the role of patient characteristics in the variation in reasons and in the treatments given with special focus on preventive care. Methods The data covered all DGA patients treated in the PDS in Helsinki in 2010. The data were collected from patient documents and included personal background: age ( Results The DGA patients (n=349 were aged 2.3 to 67.2 years. Immigrants predominated in the youngest age group (p Conclusions Extreme non-cooperation, dental fear and an excessive need for treatment were the main reasons for the use of comprehensive, conservative DGA in the Helsinki PDS. The reasons for the use of DGA and the treatments provided varied according to personal and medical background, and immigration status with no gender-differences. Preventive measures formed only a minor part of the dental care given under DGA.

  19. [Information quality in general public French-speaking websites dedicated to oral cancer detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivien, A; Kowalski, V; Chatellier, A; Babin, E; Bénateau, H; Veyssière, A

    2017-02-01

    The goal set by the French highest national authorities in the 2014-2019 Cancer Plan is to "heal more sick persons by promoting early diagnosis through screening". Screening requires information. Nowadays, Internet allows for access to information "in one click". The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of information found on the Internet. Several sites dedicated to oral cavity cancer screening were selected on Google. The quality of health information found in these sites was evaluated by the DISCERN questionnaire. The quality of decision support provided by the sites was evaluated by the IPDAS checklist. Twenty-seven sites were selected. The average DISCERN score was 25.1/75 (15/75 to 40/75). Eighteen sites (66.6%) had very poor, 8 sites (29.6%) had poor and 1 site had average information quality. IPDAS scores ranged from 11.1 to 38.1. Eight sites (29.6%) had less than 20%, 14 sites (51.9%) had between 20 and 30% and 5 sites (18.5%) had 30% or more validated criteria. No site achieved the pass mark. The quality of general public French-speaking website dedicated to oral cancer detection is very bad. The role of health professionals such as general practitioners and head and neck surgeons, remains essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The Difference in the Online Medical Information Searching Behaviors of Hospital Patients and Their Relatives versus the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hung-Yuan; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: to explore the differences in online medical information searching behaviors, including evaluative standards and search strategies, of the general public (general group) and those of hospital patients and their relatives (hospital group); and to compare the predictive relationship between the evaluative…

  1. Mechanisms for water allocation and water rights in Europe and the Netherlands : lessons from a general public law perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswick, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the allocation and regulation of water rights. Although there is a general concern about the allocation and restriction of the right to use scarce water resources, there is also a debate regarding the implementation of a public right to water in general and, in particular, th

  2. 78 FR 63974 - Student Assistance General Provisions-Subpart K-Cash Management; Extension of Public Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management; Extension of Public Comment Period..., ``Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management''. ED is extending the comment period...

  3. Method of forming a nanocluster-comprising dielectric layer and device comprising such a layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kochupurackal, J.B.P.; Besling, W.F.A.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Wolters, A.M.; Roozeboom, F.

    2012-01-01

    A method of forming a dielectric layer on a further layer of a semiconductor device is disclosed. The method comprises depositing a dielectric precursor compound and a further precursor compound over the further layer, the dielectric precursor compound comprising a metal ion from the group consistin

  4. Reflections on fifty years of publications on the history of general biology and special embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, J M

    1975-12-01

    The publications of fifty years (1925-1974) of the histroy of biology and embryology are surveyed. In America, the earliest background for work during this period was provided by the collectors, mainly physicians, of books into extensive private libraries. The collectors, for instance Osler, Cushing, and Fulton in this country and Geoffrey Keynes abroad, became expert technical bibliographers during the early part of the half-century under consideration. High standards for medical, thus biological history, insofar as these fields overlap, were also set earlier by Sudhoff's Institut für Geschichte der Medizin in Leipzig, and American historical studies benefited when Sigerist came from Leipzig to Baltimore in the early 1930's. Textbooks of medical history are omitted from discussion here, but a number of more or less general histories of biology published within the specified period are briefly evaluated. The discussion next turns to histories of embryology, general and special. Recent monographs on the classical embryologists, Wolff and von Baer, are enumerated, as are a number of biographies and autobiographies of important embryologists published here or abroad during our half-century. Then general histories of embryology are discussed, and finally some specialized ones. Needham, Roger, and Adelmann are singled out as the most important contributors to the history of embryology, in the West, during the period covered. Few of the contributors to the history of biology and medicine during the years of 1925 through 1974 were trained as historians while students. It is concluded that the History of Science Society has performed an important contribution in professionalizing the history of biology and embryology, but it is pointed out that a great new challenge faces it in the necessity to counteract anti-historical and anti-intellectual moods and movements of today.

  5. IFLA General Conference, 1989. Division of Libraries Serving the General Public. Section on Children's Libraries; Section of School Libraries; Section of Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons. Booklet 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Fifteen papers from the Division of Libraries Serving the General Public are included in this collection: "When the Children's Library Meets the Museum" (French and English versions; Annie Pissard); "Value of Library Service for Children Literature in France" (Aline Eisenegger); "The Latin American Literature in France" (Aline Eisenegger); "The…

  6. Min-max optimization and the radial approach to the public service system design with generalized utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Janáček

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the min-max public service system design, where the generalized utility is considered. In contrast to the formulations presented in the literature, the generalized utility defined for a public service system assumes that the user’s utility comes generally from more than one located service center and the individual contributions from relevant centers are weighted by reduction coefficients depending on a center order. Given that commercial IP-solvers often fail due to enormous computational times or extreme memory demands when resolving this issue, we suggested and compared several approaches based on a bisection process with the purpose of developing an effective max-min approach to the public service system design with a generalized utility.

  7. Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Underhill, Kristen; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Magnus, Manya; Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-07-01

    Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts.

  8. Study on public perceptions and protective behaviors regarding Lyme disease among the general public in the Netherlands: Implications for prevention programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.M.A. Beaujean (Desirée); M. Bults (Marloes); J.E. van Steenbergen (Jim); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Lyme disease (LD) is the most common tick-borne disease in the United States and in Europe. The aim of this study was to examine knowledge, perceived risk, feelings of anxiety, and behavioral responses of the general public in relation to tick bites and LD in the Netherlands.

  9. The stigma of obesity in the general public and its implications for public health - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schomerus Georg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to this date, prevalence rates of obesity are still rising. Aside from co-morbid diseases, perceived discrimination and stigmatization leads to worsen outcomes in obese individuals. Higher stigmatizing attitudes towards obese individuals may also result in less support of preventive and interventive measures. In light of the immense burden of obesity on health care systems and also on the individuals' quality of life, accepted and subsidized preventive measures are needed. Policy support might be determined by views of the lay public on causes of obesity and resulting weight stigma. This study seeks to answer how representative samples of the lay public perceive people with obesity or overweight status (stigmatizing attitudes; what these samples attribute obesity to (causal attribution and what types of interventions are supported by the lay public and which factors determine that support (prevention support. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted. All studies of representative samples reporting results on (a stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obese individuals, (b causal beliefs and (c prevention support were included. Results Only 7 articles were found. One study reported prevalence rates of stigmatizing attitudes. About a quarter of the population in Germany displayed definite stigmatizing attitudes. Other studies reported causal attributions. While external influences on weight are considered as well, it seems that internal factors are rated to be of higher importance. Across the studies found, regulative prevention is supported by about half of the population, while childhood prevention has highest approval rates. Results on sociodemographic determinants differ substantially. Conclusions Further research on public attitudes toward and perception of overweight and obesity is urgently needed to depict the prevailing degree of stigmatization. Introducing a multidimensional concept of the etiology

  10. Pit and fissure sealants in dental public health – application criteria and general policy in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurman Jukka H

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pit and fissure sealants (sealants are widely used as a non-operative preventive method in public dental health in Finland. Most children under 19 years of age attend the community-organized dental health services free of charge. The aims of this study were to find out to what extent sealants were applied, what the attitudes of dental professionals towards sealant application were, and whether any existing sealant policies could be detected among the health centres or among the respondents in general. The study evaluated changes that had taken place in the policies used during a ten year period (1991–2001. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to each chief dental officer (CDO of the 265 public dental health centres in Finland, and to a group of general dentists (GDP applying sealants in these health centres, giving a total of 434 questionnaires with 22 questions. The response rate was 80% (N = 342. Results A majority of the respondents reported to application of sealants on a systematic basis for children with increased caries risk. The criteria for applying sealants and the actual strategies seemed to vary locally between the dentists within the health centres and between the health centres nationwide. The majority of respondents believed sealants had short- and long-term effects. The overall use of sealants decreased towards the end of the ten year period. The health centres (N = 28 choosing criteria to seal over detected or suspected enamel caries lesion had a DMFT value of 1.0 (SD ± 0.49 at age 12 (year 2000 compared to a value of 1.2 (SD ± 0.47 for those health centres (N = 177 applying sealants by alternative criteria (t-test, p Conclusion There seems to be a need for defined guidelines for sealant application criteria and policy both locally and nationwide. Occlusal caries management may be improved by shifting the sealant policy from the traditional approach of prevention to interception, i.e. applying the sealants

  11. Seeking Medical Information Using Mobile Apps and the Internet: Are Family Caregivers Different from the General Public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunmin; Paige Powell, M; Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Bhuyan, Soumitra Sudip

    2017-03-01

    Family caregivers play an important role to care cancer patients since they exchange medical information with health care providers. However, relatively little is known about how family caregivers seek medical information using mobile apps and the Internet. We examined factors associated with medical information seeking by using mobile apps and the Internet among family caregivers and the general public using data from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 1. The study sample consisted of 2425 family caregivers and 1252 non-family caregivers (the general public). Guided by Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking (CMIS), we examined related factors' impact on two outcome variables for medical information seeking: mobile apps use and Internet use with multivariate logistic regression analyses. We found that online medical information seeking is different between family caregivers and the general public. Overall, the use of the Internet for medical information seeking is more common among family caregivers, while the use of mobile apps is less common among family caregivers compared with the general public. Married family caregivers were less likely to use mobile apps, while family caregivers who would trust cancer information were more likely to use the Internet for medical information seeking as compared to the general public. Medical information seeking behavior among family caregivers can be an important predictor of both their health and the health of their cancer patients. Future research should explore the low usage of mobile health applications among family caregiver population.

  12. Presenting Numerical Modelling of Explosive Volcanic Eruption to a General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, C.; Todesco, M.; Neri, A.; Blasi, G.

    2001-12-01

    Numerical modeling of explosive volcanic eruptions has been widely applied, during the last decades, to study pyroclastic flows dispersion along volcano's flanks and to evaluate their impact on urban areas. Results from these transient multi-phase and multi-component simulations are often reproduced in form of computer animations, representing the spatial and temporal evolution of relevant flow variables (such as temperature, or particle concentration). Despite being a sophisticated, technical tool to analyze and share modeling results within the scientific community, these animations truly look like colorful cartoons showing an erupting volcano and are especially suited to be shown to a general public. Thanks to their particular appeal, and to the large interest usually risen by exploding volcanoes, these animations have been presented several times on television and magazines and are currently displayed in a permanent exposition, at the Vesuvius Observatory in Naples. This work represents an effort to produce an accompanying tool for these animations, capable of explaining to a large audience the scientific meaning of what can otherwise look as a graphical exercise. Dealing with research aimed at the study of dangerous, explosive volcanoes, improving the general understanding of these scientific results plays an important role as far as risk perception is concerned. An educated population has better chances to follow an appropriate behavior, i.e.: one that could lead, on the long period, to a reduction of the potential risk. In this sense, a correct divulgation of scientific results, while improving the confidence of the population in the scientific community, should belong to the strategies adopted to mitigate volcanic risk. Due to the relevance of the long term final goal of such divulgation experiment, this work represents an interdisciplinary effort, combining scientific expertise and specific competence from the modern communication science and risk

  13. Insulating Materials Comprising Polysilazane, Methods of Forming Such Insulating Materials, and Precursor Formulations Comprising Polysilazane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert S. (Inventor); Fuller, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods of forming an insulating material comprising combining a polysilazane, a cross-linking compound, and a gas-generating compound to form a reaction mixture, and curing the reaction mixture to form a modified polysilazane. The gas-generating compound may be water, an alcohol, an amine, or combinations thereof. The cross-linking compound may be an isocyanate, an epoxy resin, or combinations thereof. The insulating material may include a matrix comprising one of a reaction product of a polysilazane and an isocyanate and a reaction product of a polysilazane and an epoxy resin. The matrix also comprises a plurality of interconnected pores produced from one of reaction of the polysilazane and the isocyanate and from reaction of the polysilazane and the epoxy resin. A precursor formulation that comprises a polysilazane, a cross-linking compound, and a gas-generating compound is also disclosed.

  14. General public perceptions towards medicines in the state of penang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Sa′di Al-Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Results of this study urge for a national awareness program to the public regarding medicines. Decision makers have to consider these findings since high proportion of the public perceive and consume medicines irrationally.

  15. The death of public knowledge ? how free markets destroy the general intellect

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The Death of Public Knowledge argues for the value and importance of shared, publicly accessible knowledge, and suggests that the erosion of its most visible forms, including public service broadcasting, education, and the network of public libraries, has worrying outcomes for democracy.With contributions from both activists and academics, this collection of short, sharp essays focuses on different aspects of public knowledge, from libraries and education to news media and public policy. Together, the contributors record the stresses and strains placed upon public knowledge by funding cuts and austerity, the new digital economy, quantification and target-setting, neoliberal politics, and inequality. These pressures, the authors contend, not only hinder democracies, but also undermine markets, economies, and social institutions and spaces everywhere. Covering areas of international public concern, these polemical, accessible texts include reflections on the fate of schools and education, the takeover of publi...

  16. Is mass media beneficial or not for the information of the general public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.; Mosoia, C.

    2005-11-01

    The International Year of Physics reminds us, among other things, of the way in which Einstein became famous. In spite of all his remarkable scientific results, without the contribution of the press he would not have become so well known in the entire world as he was and continues to be after a century. And he is not the unique example of celebrity due to mass media (see Carl Sagan or Stephen Hawking). In 1969 the first man stepped on the Moon. It was maybe the first cosmic event, which became famous due to a live TV broadcast. Others followed, if we are to mention only the total solar eclipse of 1999 or Venus's transit of last year. Consequently, mass media can make a scientist famous, can also make an event understood and admired and can attract hundreds or maybe millions of people to science. The same mass media can also destroy a personality or an event. We shall give only two examples: the distrust of many people concerning the same Moon landing or the manipulation of millions of people by means of astrology. All this urges us to make a very thorough analysis of the way in which scientific information is communicated to the general public: well done, it can be beneficial; otherwise it may drive the new generations away from research, the understanding of the phenomena, the neglect of the environment and finally from the neglect and the destruction of our own planet.

  17. The effect of visible facial difference on personal space during encounters with the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R M; Gierasch, A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found that people with visible differences are granted more physical space than people without visible differences during encounters with the general public. This study aimed to examine whether given significant sociocultural changes, this remains the case in contemporary Australia. The personal space afforded to a person with a visible difference (with a temporary difference--a scar and a permanent difference--a strawberry hemangioma) or a person without a visible difference by 408 pedestrians on a busy pedestrian walkway in the central business district of Adelaide, Australia, was measured. This was a replication and extension of a study by N. Rumsey, R. Bull, and D. Gahagan (1982). Pedestrians stood no further away from the model in the visibly different conditions than in the nonvisibly different conditions. Pedestrians stood an average of 128 cm away in the control condition, 120 cm away in the scar condition, and 140 cm away in the birthmark condition. People did not stand to the nonvisibly different (left) side of the model more frequently in the visibly different conditions than in the nonvisibly different conditions. As the original research by N. Rumsey et al. is frequently cited as representing the current situation for people with visible differences, failing to replicate the result is significant. Changes may be due to either recent sociocultural changes promoting inclusion of disability or increasing social taboo against expressing overt prejudice.

  18. Odyssey: A Public GPU-Based Code for General-Relativistic Radiative Transfer in Kerr Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Younsi, Ziri; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2016-01-01

    General-relativistic radiative transfer (GRRT) calculations coupled with the calculation of geodesics in the Kerr spacetime are an essential tool for determining the images, spectra and light curves from matter in the vicinity of black holes. Such studies are especially important for ongoing and upcoming millimeter/submillimeter (mm/sub-mm) Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of the supermassive black holes at the centres of Sgr A^{*} and M87. To this end we introduce Odyssey, a Graphics Processing Unit(GPU)-based code for ray tracing and radiative transfer in the Kerr spacetime. On a single GPU, the performance of Odyssey can exceed 1 nanosecond per photon, per Runge-Kutta integration step. Odyssey is publicly available, fast, accurate, and flexible enough to be modified to suit the specific needs of new users. Along with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) powered by a video-accelerated display architecture, we also present an educational software tool, Odyssey_Edu, for showing in real time h...

  19. Odyssey: A Public GPU-based Code for General Relativistic Radiative Transfer in Kerr Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Yun, Kiyun; Younsi, Ziri; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2016-04-01

    General relativistic radiative transfer calculations coupled with the calculation of geodesics in the Kerr spacetime are an essential tool for determining the images, spectra, and light curves from matter in the vicinity of black holes. Such studies are especially important for ongoing and upcoming millimeter/submillimeter very long baseline interferometry observations of the supermassive black holes at the centers of Sgr A* and M87. To this end we introduce Odyssey, a graphics processing unit (GPU) based code for ray tracing and radiative transfer in the Kerr spacetime. On a single GPU, the performance of Odyssey can exceed 1 ns per photon, per Runge-Kutta integration step. Odyssey is publicly available, fast, accurate, and flexible enough to be modified to suit the specific needs of new users. Along with a Graphical User Interface powered by a video-accelerated display architecture, we also present an educational software tool, Odyssey_Edu, for showing in real time how null geodesics around a Kerr black hole vary as a function of black hole spin and angle of incidence onto the black hole.

  20. A comparative study of worker and general public risks from nuclear facility operation using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.M.; O`Kula, K.R.

    1994-10-01

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has attempted to establish quantitative risk indices as minimum acceptance criteria for assurance of safe operation of its nuclear facilities. The risk indices serve as aiming points or targets to include consideration of all aspects of operation including normal conditions as well as abnormal, design basis events, and beyond-design basis events. Although initial focus of the application of these safety targets had been on DOE`s reactors, more recent assessments have also considered non-reactor facilities including those encompassing storage and nuclear processing activities. Regardless of the facility`s primary function, accident progression, event tree/fault tree logic models, and probabilistic (dose) consequence assessment model must be implemented to yield a fully integrated analysis of facility operation. The primary tool for probabilistic consequence assessment in the US is the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). In this study, two version of MACCS are applied to representative source terms developed in the safety analysis associated with a waste processing facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC`s) Savannah River Site (SRS). The MACCS versions are used to estimate population dose and subsequent health effects to workers and the general public from the SRS referenced facility operation. When combined with the frequency of occurrence evaluation, the margin of compliance with the safety targets may be quantified.

  1. Performance Analysis of Foreign Loans in Directorate General of Highways Ministry of Public Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunik Eva Sarlina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Provision of road infrastructure does, efficiently and effectively, have an effect on economy increase in a region. The limited ability of the government in the provision of funding for the road infrastructure requires the handling on the organizers of the roads, it also needs efforts to look for funding resources outside the APBN as a resource of funds for foreign loans. This study aims to know the process of foreign loans, the characteristics of each foreign loan, and the loan implementation performance in Directorate General of Highways, Ministry of Public Works. The research was using the qualitative descriptive methods focusing on thorough depiction of form, function, and meaning of prohibition; data collection was done by collecting the entire loan process from the preparation phase to the implementation phase through interviewing and documentation literature. The document consists of the loan agreement document, documents monthly reports and annual reports, lender regulations, legal regulations of the Republic of Indonesia, photo documentation and archives. The result showed that the scoring of performance, multilateral loan is better than bilateral loan. This is evidenced by higher score for multilateral loan than bilateral loan. Particularly in terms of regulations, the multilateral loan having score 15, it was because the lender adjusts by existing regulations in Indonesia, while bilateral loan having score 13. Furthermore, from the aspect of financial benefits, bilateral loan have score of 41 and is more advantageous than the multilateral loan which score is 29.

  2. Footprint and imprint: an ecologic time-trend analysis of cardiovascular publications in general and specialty journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Abigail S; Huffman, Mark D; Bloomfield, Gerald S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2014-06-01

    Studies have demonstrated strong associations between publication source and citations, as well as investigatory analysis of collaboration effects, in general and medical literature, but are limited to specific journals or short duration of time. This study sought to analyze time trends in cardiovascular research publications in leading general and specialty journals and to determine the association between collaboration and citation index. Cardiovascular publications were retrieved from Web of Knowledge by a cardiovascular bibliometric filter, and annual publication volumes in 8 general and specialty journals were compared. Univariable linear regression models were used to determine global and journal-specific trends for overall publication, cardiovascular publication, proportion of cardiovascular publication, collaboration, and citations. Cardiovascular publications increased (1999 to 2008) by 36% and number of sources by 74%. Volume increased in European Heart Journal (beta: 18.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.6 to 26.3) and decreased in Circulation (beta: -42.9, 95% CI: -79.3 to -6.5), Annals of Internal Medicine (beta: -1.9, 95% CI: -3.5 to -0.3), and Lancet (beta: -11.2, 95% CI: -14.7 to -7.8). Number of contributing countries increased in 3 journals: BMJ (beta: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.2 to 1.5), European Heart Journal (beta: -1.2, 95% CI: 0.8 to 1.7), and New England Journal of Medicine (beta: 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6 to 2.7). Fraction of collaborative publications increased (beta: 1.1 to 2.9) in all but Annals of Internal Medicine. Collaboration was associated with a higher median actual citation index (p journals. Contribution by country in selected journals was disproportionate and under-represents total cardiovascular research in low- and middle-income countries.

  3. Public Relations in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    of the Excellence Project in Public Relations and thus applies a research instrument similar to that used in other international scholarly investigations in public relations. The population comprises civil servants working in information and communication activities for Italian public administrations. Findings...... relations. Research limitations: Due to a lack of information on the exact number of public communication officers working in the Italian public administration and a too small number of respondents in one of the respondent groups, it is not possible to draw inferences or general conclusions from...... knowledge on strategic public relations and public communication by offering a specific analysis of the strategic management of information and communication programs in the Italian public administration....

  4. Live Bird Exposure among the General Public, Guangzhou, China, May 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyan Liao

    Full Text Available A novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9 caused a major outbreak in Mainland China in early 2013. Exposure to live poultry was believed to be the major route of infection. There are limited data on how the general public changes their practices regarding live poultry exposure in response to the early outbreak of this novel influenza and the frequency of population exposure to live poultry in different areas of China.This study investigated population exposures to live birds from various sources during the outbreak of H7N9 in Guangzhou city, China in 2013 and compared them with those observed during the 2006 influenza A(H5N1 outbreak. Adults were telephone-interviewed using two-stage sampling, stratified by three residential areas of Guangzhou: urban areas and two semi-rural areas in one of which (Zengcheng A(H7N9 virus was detected in a chicken from wet markets. Logistic regression models were built to describe practices protecting against avian influenza, weighted by age and gender, and then compare these practices across residential areas in 2013 with those from a comparable 2006 survey.Of 1196 respondents, 45% visited wet markets at least daily and 22.0% reported buying live birds from wet markets at least weekly in April-May, 2013, after the H7N9 epidemic was officially declared in late March 2013. Of those buying live birds, 32.3% reported touching birds when buying and 13.7% would slaughter the poultry at home. Although only 10.1% of the respondents reported raising backyard birds, 92.1% of those who did so had physical contact with the birds they raised. Zengcheng respondents were less likely to report buying live birds from wet markets, but more likely to buy from other sources when compared to urban respondents. Compared with the 2006 survey, the prevalence of buying live birds from wet markets, touching when buying and slaughtering birds at home had substantially declined in the 2013 survey.Although population exposures to live poultry

  5. A comparative study of worker and general public risks from nuclear facility operation using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.M.; O`Kula, K.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has attempted to establish quantitative risk indices as minimum acceptance criteria for assurance of safe operation of its nuclear facilities. The risk indices serve as aiming points or targets to include consideration of all aspects of operation including normal conditions as well as abnormal, design basis events, and beyond-design basis events. Although initial focus of the application of these safety targets had been on DOE`s reactors, more recent assessments have also considered non-reactor facilities including those encompassing storage and nuclear processing activities. Regardless of the facility`s primary function, accident progression, event tree/fault tree logic models, and probabilistic (dose) consequence assessment model must be implemented to yield a fully integrated analysis of facility operation. The primary tool for probabilistic consequence assessment in the U.S. is the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). In this study, two version of MACCS are applied to representative source terms developed in the safety analysis associated with a waste processing facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC`s) Savannah River Site (SRS). The MACCS versions are used to estimate population dose and subsequent health effects to workers and the general public from the SRS referenced facility operation. When combined with the frequency of occurrence evaluation, the margin of compliance with the safety targets may be quantified. Additionally, numerical evaluation of the safety targets with the two code versions will serve as an indicator of the impact of the enhancements made to MACCS relative to earlier baseline software.

  6. Status of the public debate on the general options of management of high and intermediate activity and long-lived radioactive wastes; Bilan du debat public sur les options generales en matiere de gestion des dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprised 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is a status of the general organisation and progress of the debate from its preparing to its end in mid-January 2006. It shows the challenges the CNDP had to take up to treat the scientifical and technical questions in an accessible way, allowing the participation and the hearing of the large public. A status is made of the deception and satisfaction of the public. A lack of confidence in public authorities and scientists has been expressed several times. No pro-nuclear/anti-nuclear shock has occurred and the debate has revealed a remarkable richness in its content. One contribution of the debate to the future project of law is its enlargement to the overall nuclear wastes and valorizable materials and not only to the high/intermediate-level and long-lived wastes. (J.S.)

  7. The Science of Pizza: The Molecular Origins of Cheese, Bread, and Digestion Using Interactive Activities for the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Amy C.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a presentation on the science of pizza, which is designed for the general public including children ages 6 and older. The presentation focuses on the science of making and digesting cheese and bread. We highlight 4 major scientific themes: (1) how macromolecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are composed of atoms and small…

  8. The Science of Pizza: The Molecular Origins of Cheese, Bread, and Digestion Using Interactive Activities for the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Amy C.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a presentation on the science of pizza, which is designed for the general public including children ages 6 and older. The presentation focuses on the science of making and digesting cheese and bread. We highlight 4 major scientific themes: (1) how macromolecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are composed of atoms and small…

  9. Governmental control of public expenditure in the constitutional State: thoughts regarding General Comptroller sanctioning powers approval on functional administrative responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika García Cobián Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional doctrine has little addressed on the General Comptroller of the Republic and its controlling function of public resources execution and management. Efforts have been made to explain this situation in other realities, regarding high budgetary, accounting and auditing content needed to carry out auditing activities constitutionally assigned to this kind of entities. Nevertheless, identifying competences of the General Comptroller of the Republic and its nature of autonomous constitutional body shapes an important expression of Constitutional State and the principle of powers division. This entity controls State’s Public Budget execution contributing to constitutional property protection, legality of budget implementation and the appropriate management of public resources, also the «efficiency» of social needs, proper functioning of public administration and prevention of corruption, among others duties. This article analyzes the constitutional mission of the General Comptroller in a Constitutional State promoting the process of given a constitutional status to the legal system in its area of influence, also optimizing constitutional properties protected. For such purpose, the 29622 recent law («Law that modifies the 27785 Organic Law of National Control System and the General Comptroller of the Republic extending powers in order to sanction in accordance of functional administrative responsibility» shall be used as object of constitutional analysis.

  10. "Everybody knows psychology is not a real science": Public perceptions of psychology and how we can improve our relationship with policymakers, the scientific community, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF COLLECTING ECONOMIC AND OTHER GENERAL FACTORS’ INFLUENCE ON THE VALUE OF PUBLIC COMPANIES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODAN POPOVIĆ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To make the right decision in regard to the expression of the value of property, equipment or something else, first for appraiser it is necessary to examine the general economic and other factors that may affect the expression of the value of the company. Especially there is a need to pay attention to devote to the expression value of a public company, because the public companies manage property that stems in part by funds from the budget. This is especially important in the case of a country that aspires to become an EU member. The Republic of Serbia signed the first two chapters with the EU in December 2015. Chapter 32 imperatively requires that the Republic of Serbia begins important application of fair expression of value of the property of public enterprises, because it is a section that requires audit activities of the entire public users, and therefore the company.

  12. Involving the public in general practice in an urban district: levels and type of activity and perceptions of obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ian

    2000-07-01

    This paper reports on a study of the level and type of activity used to involve the public in general practice in a city district in the north of England. The association of these activities with features of the general practice organisation and environment were studied. Service providers' perceptions of obstacles were also studied. Data were collected in a survey of all general practice organisations in the district using a postal questionnaire completed by a practice manager. Interviews were conducted with health service managers responsible for primary care development in the district. The study showed that the district had a good track record for innovation in primary care development and in giving emphasis to developing public involvement. However, it also showed that it was difficult to translate policy rhetoric into practical initiatives at the general practice level without evidence of models of best practice, and with limited resources. The survey had a high response of over 84%. It showed that levels of activity were low across the district and only a small minority of general practice teams had undertaken a range of activities to involve the public. The socio-economic environment did not appear to be a factor, but small practices (one or two partners and/or practice population under 3000) were much less likely to develop activities. Pressures of existing workload, lack of resources and public apathy were given as among the main obstacles by survey respondents. The study indicates the challenges faced by Primary Care Groups in developing strands of public involvement. Primary care teams need a clear strategic framework, models of best practice, and adequate resources to manage, change and develop initiatives.

  13. Constructs and concepts comprising the stigma of mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Michaels

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available People with mental illness frequently confront public stigma andmay experience self-stigma. This review discusses the concepts of mental illness stigma and its consequences for those with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma prominent consequences pertaining to public stigma (i.e.,employment, health care quality and self-stigma (i.e., self-confidence, quality of life, “why try” effect are reviewed. We discuss the three main public stigma change strategies - protest, education, and contact – as well as current selfstigma change strategies (e.g., psychoeducation, cognitive-behavioral therapy.We conclude by noting that anti-stigma initiatives with more tailored content for specific groups (e.g., police officers vs. general public may diminish the negative consequences of mental illness stigma by providing more concrete ways to help stigmatized people.

  14. 76 FR 62396 - Martha Coakley, Attorney General of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Connecticut Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Martha Coakley, Attorney General of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts... Power Company, et al.; Notice of Complaint Martha Coakley, Attorney General of the Commonwealth of... (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206 (2011), Martha Coakley, Attorney General of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts...

  15. Full journal publication of abstracts presented at the Nordic Congress of General Practice in 2009 and 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert; Andersen, John Sahl

    2017-01-01

    identified full journal publications within a 36-month follow-up from both congresses. In cases of doubt, the first author was contacted directly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Full journal publication within 36 months after the congress. RESULTS: A total of 200 abstracts were analyzed. Of these, 85 (42.5%) were...... as full text articles within 36 months. Key points Congress abstracts accepted for Nordic Congress of General Practice are not indexed in international search databases. Less than half of the abstracts accepted for oral or poster presentation at two consecutive Nordic Congresses of General Practice were...... published as full text articles within 36 months. Future congress committees could address this aspect in order to increase the visibility of and accessibility to research within the field of general practice...

  16. Full journal publication of abstracts presented at the Nordic Congress of General Practice in 2009 and 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Petersen, Kristine; Vinther, Siri

    2017-01-01

    journal publications within a 36-month follow-up from both congresses. In cases of doubt, the first author was contacted directly. Main outcome measures: Full journal publication within 36 months after the congress. Results: A total of 200 abstracts were analyzed. Of these, 85 (42.5%) were identified...... articles within 36 months. Key points: Congress abstracts accepted for Nordic Congress of General Practice are not indexed in international search databases. Less than half of the abstracts accepted for oral or poster presentation at two consecutive Nordic Congresses of General Practice were published...... as full text articles within 36 months. Future congress committees could address this aspect in order to increase the visibility of and accessibility to research within the field of general practice....

  17. Public Relations in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    of the Excellence Project in Public Relations and thus applies a research instrument similar to that used in other international scholarly investigations in public relations. The population comprises civil servants working in information and communication activities for Italian public administrations. Findings...... relations. Research limitations: Due to a lack of information on the exact number of public communication officers working in the Italian public administration and a too small number of respondents in one of the respondent groups, it is not possible to draw inferences or general conclusions from...... the findings. The study also suffers from the limits of a quantitative research approach, which provides less elaborate accounts of public communication officers’ perceptions of the strategic role of communication in the public sector. Originality/value of paper: This study contributes to the existing...

  18. 'Seed + expand': a general methodology for detecting publication oeuvres of individual researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnhoudt, Linda; Costas, Rodrigo; Noyons, Ed; Börner, Katy; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The study of science at the individual scholar level requires the disambiguation of author names. The creation of author's publication oeuvres involves matching the list of unique author names to names used in publication databases. Despite recent progress in the development of unique author identifiers, e.g., ORCID, VIVO, or DAI, author disambiguation remains a key problem when it comes to large-scale bibliometric analysis using data from multiple databases. This study introduces and tests a new methodology called seed + expand for semi-automatic bibliographic data collection for a given set of individual authors. Specifically, we identify the oeuvre of a set of Dutch full professors during the period 1980-2011. In particular, we combine author records from a Dutch National Research Information System (NARCIS) with publication records from the Web of Science. Starting with an initial list of 8,378 names, we identify 'seed publications' for each author using five different approaches. Subsequently, we 'expand' the set of publications in three different approaches. The different approaches are compared and resulting oeuvres are evaluated on precision and recall using a 'gold standard' dataset of authors for which verified publications in the period 2001-2010 are available.

  19. A NEW APROACH OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR GENERAL PURPOSE FINANCIAL REPORTING BY PUBLIC SECTOR ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistor Cristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of accounting in the modern economy is obvious. That is more elevated bodies of the European Union and elsewhere dealing with the organization and functioning of accounting as a fundamental component of business (Nistor C., 2009. The mission of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC is to serve the public interest, strengthen the worldwide accountancy profession and contribute to the development of strong international economies by initiating and encouraging the professional standards of high quality, the convergence process these international standards and to discuss issues of public interest which is extremely relevant international experience of (IFAC, 2011. Currently, the concepts related to financial reports in public sector are developed by IPSAS references. Many of today's IPSAS are based on international accounting standards (IAS / IFRS, to the extent that they are relevant to the requirements of the public sector. Therefore today's IPSAS are based on concepts and definitions of the IASB's conceptual framework, with changes where necessary for public sector specific approach. Thus this study present this brief draft statement under discussion by the leadership of IFAC in collaboration with other organizations and groups that develop financial reporting requirements of the public sector. Then, we highlight the importance and the degree of acceptance of the project which results from comments received. On the basis of combining qualitative with quantitative research seeks to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness of a common conceptual framework of the International Accounting Standards (in this case the Public Sector, starting from their emergence from presenting their bodies involved in the foundation, the content standards, experience of different countries. The results have direct implications on Romanian public accounting system, given that the reference of the international implementation and reporting is

  20. Opinions about euthanasia and advanced dementia: a qualitative study among Dutch physicians and members of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven, Pauline S C; Raijmakers, Natasja J H; van Delden, Johannes J M; Rietjens, Judith A C; van Tol, Donald G; van de Vathorst, Suzanne; de Graeff, Nienke; Weyers, Heleen A M; van der Heide, Agnes; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W

    2015-01-28

    The Dutch law states that a physician may perform euthanasia according to a written advance euthanasia directive (AED) when a patient is incompetent as long as all legal criteria of due care are met. This may also hold for patients with advanced dementia. We investigated the differing opinions of physicians and members of the general public on the acceptability of euthanasia in patients with advanced dementia. In this qualitative study, 16 medical specialists, 19 general practitioners, 16 elderly physicians and 16 members of the general public were interviewed and asked for their opinions about a vignette on euthanasia based on an AED in a patient with advanced dementia. Members of the general public perceived advanced dementia as a debilitating and degrading disease. Physicians emphasized the need for direct communication with the patient when making decisions about euthanasia. Respondent from both groups acknowledged difficulties in the assessment of patients' autonomous wishes and the unbearableness of their suffering. Legally, an AED may replace direct communication with patients about their request for euthanasia. In practice, physicians are reluctant to forego adequate verbal communication with the patient because they wish to verify the voluntariness of patients' request and the unbearableness of suffering. For this reason, the applicability of AEDs in advanced dementia seems limited.

  1. General classification of regulations on public administration of labor potential development of higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Moroz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of regulations’ classification was grounded in the article, the content of which is related to the practice of public administration of labor potential development of higher educational institutions. The article contains an analysis and synthesis on categorial content of such definitions as «classification» and «legal act». The scientific research organization was based on the existing scientific thought of distribution of regulations for certain classification groups. In the article the author’s approach on the classification of regulations on public administration of development of labor potential of higher education institutions forms the basic classification groups in the following areas of their grouping: the sphere of influence; the content of the educational system; for object orientation; the subjects of management influence; by institutional orientation; the participants of the educational process; the direction of the university; the subjects of law-making and the level of institutionalization of norms of public administration; the nature of the will of the subjects of public administration; Contextual impact on the system and the structure of the labor potential of universities. In addition, the article the author’s views on building classification scheme grouping regulations and defined communication classification groups according to the level of display management hierarchy administrators. The article concludes the evidence of the variability of proposed classification and openness of its content for further improvement within the development of the regulatory mechanism of public administration processes of formation and use of labor potential of higher education institutions. As one of the main results of scientific research, there was submitted justification of public-administrative levels of exposure, and therefore the competence of government relations for the development of labor potential of higher

  2. A pilot study exploring awareness among general public toward issues related to medication safety in the state of Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Azmi Hassali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A better understanding of medication safety ensures better health state among healthcare consumers. Aim: The study aims to assess general public awareness toward issues related to medication safety. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among general public selected conveniently in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Materials and methods: A total of 500 respondents were approached and 476 consumers participated in the survey giving a response rate of 95.2%. Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 12.0 and descriptive statistics were reported where appropriate. Results: Majority of the respondents (n=292, 61.3% stated that they were well aware of the possible side effects of their current medications. A total of 196 respondents (41.17% believed that all medicines registered in Malaysia are safe to use as these medicines have no side effects. About 40.33% (n=192 of the respondents claimed that they share their unused medicines with family and friends who are having similar illness. Majority of respondents 57.7% (n=275 were satisfied with the drug information provided by the healthcare professionals. This study also found that more than 80% of the respondents (n=409 did report that they read the labels of their medication before using. Conclusions: In this study, it was revealed that there is a moderate level of public knowledge regarding medication safety. It is evident that public underestimates the risk of their medications. There is a general lack of awareness and understanding among the public especially toward side effects.

  3. [Knowledge and attitude of the general public regarding symptoms, etiology and possible treatments of depressive illnesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, D; Stefanek, J; Hasford, J; Hegerl, U

    2002-07-01

    Within the German research network on depression, the Nuremberg Alliance against Depression aims at informing the public about depressive illness and preventing suicidality by carrying out a city-wide information campaign. Before the prevention program started, public attitudes and knowledge had been assessed in a public opinion survey in Nuremberg and in a control region. A total of 1426 randomly chosen inhabitants of Nuremberg and Würzburg completed a computer-assisted telephone interview during November and December 2000. They were asked about their knowledge and attitudes towards symptoms, causes, and treatment of depression. No relevant differences between Nuremberg and Würzburg were found. Depression is regarded as a serious illness. People seemed to be more knowledgeable as compared to the results of earlier surveys, but there are still important information deficits. This is especially true for males over 60, who show unfavorable attitudes. Eighty percent of the population consider antidepressants to be addictive, and 69% were convinced that the use of antidepressants would lead to personality changes. Future information campaigns should aim at describing depression as an often chronic disease similar to hypertonia or diabetes. Public knowledge about antidepressants must be improved.

  4. Public management, context, and performance: in quest of a more general theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Meier, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a substantial growth in the large-N quantitative study of public management and performance. Much of the progress can be attributed to a small number of data sets on local governments in a few countries. The range of data sets suggests the validity of the overall hypothesis of

  5. Public priorities for osteoporosis and fracture research: results from a general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskins, Zoe; Jinks, Clare; Mahmood, Waheed; Jayakumar, Prakash; Sangan, Caroline B; Belcher, John; Gwilym, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    This is the first national study of public and patient research priorities in osteoporosis and fracture. We have identified new research areas of importance to members of the public, particularly 'access to information from health professionals'. The findings are being incorporated into the research strategy of the National Osteoporosis Society. This study aimed to prioritise, with patients and public members, research topics for the osteoporosis research agenda. An e-survey to identify topics for research was co-designed with patient representatives. A link to the e-survey was disseminated to supporters of the UK National Osteoporosis Society (NOS) in a monthly e-newsletter. Responders were asked to indicate their top priority for research across four topics (understanding and preventing osteoporosis, living with osteoporosis, treating osteoporosis and treating fractures) and their top three items within each topic. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographics and item ranking. A latent class analysis was applied to identify a substantive number of clusters with different combinations of binary responses. One thousand one hundred eighty-eight (7.4%) respondents completed the e-survey. The top three items overall were 'Having easy access to advice and information from health professionals' (63.8%), 'Understanding further the safety and benefit of osteoporosis drug treatments' (49.9%) and 'Identifying the condition early by screening' (49.2%). Latent class analysis revealed distinct clusters of responses within each topic including primary care management and self-management. Those without a history of prior fracture or aged under 70 were more likely to rate items within the cluster of self-management as important (21.0 vs 12.9 and 19.8 vs 13.3%, respectively). This is the first study of public research priorities in osteoporosis and has identified new research areas of importance to members of the public including access to information. The findings

  6. A bottom-up, scientist-based initiative for the communication of climate sciences with the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourqui, Michel; Bolduc, Cassandra; Paul, Charbonneau; Marie, Charrière; Daniel, Hill; Angelica, Lopez; Enrique, Loubet; Philippe, Roy; Barbara, Winter

    2015-04-01

    This talk introduces a scientists-initiated, new online platform whose aim is to contribute to making climate sciences become public knowledge. It takes a unique bottom-up approach, strictly founded on individual-based participation, high scientific standards and independence The main purpose is to build an open-access, multilingual and peer-reviewed journal publishing short climate articles in non-scientific language. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local politicians, economists, members of the agriculture sector, and any other citizens from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. This journal is meant to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is ensured through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The platform fosters the direct participation of non-scientists through co-authoring, peer-reviewing, language translation. It furthermore engages the general public in the scientific inquiry by allowing non-scientists to invite manuscripts to be written on topics of their concern. The platform is currently being developed by a community of scientists and non-scientists. In this talk, I will present the basic ideas behind this new online platform, its current state and the plans for the next future. The beta version of the platform is available at: http://www.climateonline.bourquiconsulting.ch

  7. Determining the applicability of the Landauer nanoDot as a general public dosimeter in a research imaging facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Michael A; Thoreson, Kelly F; Cerecero, Jennifer A

    2012-11-01

    The Research Imaging Institute (RII) building at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA) houses two cyclotron particle accelerators, positron emission tomography (PET) machines, and a fluoroscopic unit. As part of the radiation protection program (RPP) and meeting the standard for achieving ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable), it is essential to minimize the ionizing radiation exposure to the general public through the use of controlled areas and area dose monitoring. Currently, thirty-four whole body Luxel+ dosimeters, manufactured by Landauer, are being used in various locations within the RII to monitor dose to the general public. The intent of this research was to determine if the nanoDot, a single point dosimeter, can be used as a general public dosimeter in a diagnostic facility. This was tested by first verifying characteristics of the nanoDot dosimeter including dose linearity, dose rate dependence, angular dependence, and energy dependence. Then, the response of the nanoDot dosimeter to the Luxel+ dosimeter when placed in a continuous, low dose environment was investigated. Finally, the nanoDot was checked for appropriate response in an acute, high dose environment. Based on the results, the current recommendation is that the nanoDot should not replace the Luxel+ dosimeter without further work to determine the energy spectra in the RII building and without considering the limitation of the microStar reader, portable on-site OSL reader, at doses below 0.1 mGy (10 mrad).

  8. Hydrocarbon recovery comprising injecting a slug comprising oil soluble alkoxylated surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; DaGue, M.G.; Dunn, N.G.

    1993-07-27

    A method is described of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of oil soluble surfactants produced from lignin, said oil soluble surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into relatively low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen, said reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200 C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reaction mixture, alkoxylating the lignin phenols by reacting the lignin phenols with an a-olefin epoxide having about 6 to about 20 carbon atoms at about 100 to about 200 C for about 1 to about 3 hours in an organic solvent, and changing the alkoxylated lignin phenols into oil soluble lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of sulfonation, sulfation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  9. [Imputing missing data in public health: general concepts and application to dichotomous variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Gilma; Moriña, David; Navarro, Albert

    The presence of missing data in collected variables is common in health surveys, but the subsequent imputation thereof at the time of analysis is not. Working with imputed data may have certain benefits regarding the precision of the estimators and the unbiased identification of associations between variables. The imputation process is probably still little understood by many non-statisticians, who view this process as highly complex and with an uncertain goal. To clarify these questions, this note aims to provide a straightforward, non-exhaustive overview of the imputation process to enable public health researchers ascertain its strengths. All this in the context of dichotomous variables which are commonplace in public health. To illustrate these concepts, an example in which missing data is handled by means of simple and multiple imputation is introduced. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a death education curriculum model for the general public using DACUM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Ahn, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Chong-Hyung; Lee, Moo-Sik; Kim, Moon-Joon; Arma, Park; Hwang, Hye-Jeong; Song, Hyeon-Dong; Shim, Moon-Sook; Kim, Kwang-Hwan

    2016-05-18

    In order to analyze tasks of the death education curriculum for the public, DACUM method was used. A committee for DACUM was gathered and a survey was conducted on professors of health care, humanities and social sciences for an interdisciplinary study. In the survey used to verify the model for death education for the public, a compilation based on difficulty and importance factor shows that the 27 tasks including the psychological changes in terminally ill or suicidal patients, healing of stress, acceptance and understanding of death and suicide prevention were identified as needing to be included in the curriculum. The data thus concluded will have to be reviewed when they are applied to actual education to revise the education program to make it more appropriate.

  11. A Generalized Framework for Ontology-Based Information Retrieval Application to a public-transportation system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a generic framework for ontology-based information retrieval. We focus on the recognition of semantic information extracted from data sources and the mapping of this knowledge into ontology. In order to achieve more scalability, we propose an approach for semantic indexing based on entity retrieval model. In addition, we have used ontology of public transportation domain in order to validate these proposals. Finally, we evaluated our system using ontology mapping and ...

  12. General Public Expectation from the Communication Process with their Healthcare Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Hassali, MA; Shafie, AA; Khan, TM

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to explore the public views and expectation about a successful communication process between the healthcare providers/physicians and patients in Penang Island, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Penang Island using a 14-item questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 15.0® were used to analyze the collected data. A nonparametric statistics was applied; the Chi-square test was applied to measure the association among t...

  13. Are managers' and the general public's perceptions of risk communication needs in line? A French alpine valley case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Sprague, Teresa; Bogaard, Thom; Greiving, Stefan; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Risk communication is a crucial element of risk management. It contributes to social capacity building by influencing the knowledge, attitude, behavior, psychology, as well as social and organizational aspects1,2. It is globally recognized that effective risk communication should address needs and requirements of targeted audiences, especially those of the public. This study compares needs and requirements related to risk communication as seen by the risk managers, with the needs and requirements as expressed by the general public. Two surveys were conducted in a mountainous region facing multi-hazards, the Ubaye valley (France). The first survey, conducted within the context of the Marie Curie Research and Training Network 'Mountain Risk', was addressed to the local community. It aimed at gathering perceptions, needs and requirements of the general public (344 respondents) on risk communication3. The second survey, conducted in the context of the Marie Curie Initial Training Network 'CHANGES', targeted risk managers (16 stakeholders of the authorities, technical services and emergency units) at both the local and the regional scale to evaluate their perceptions regarding risk communication with the general public. The needs and requirements were analyzed with respect to several dimensions: 1) the information provided to the public, 2) the legal requirements for communication, 3) the level of trust the population has in risk managers, 4) insights on awareness and preparedness, and 5) information on the media used in past communication efforts. Results of the analysis concerning the last dimension reveal that, while the general public mentioned press, official reports and technical reports as the top three media by which they received information, the risk managers cited the press but in contrast also selected radio and television. Other results indicate that a potential mismatch exists as more than 80% of the respondents of the population find all listed topics

  14. Compositions Comprising Nickel-Titanium, Methods Manufacture Thereof and Articles Comprising the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Glenn N. (Inventor); DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Disclosing herein is a method for manufacturing nickel-titanium compositions. The method includes disposing a powdered composition in a mold; the powdered composition comprising nickel and titanium; the titanium being present in an amount of about 38 to about 42 wt % and the nickel being present in an amount of about 58 to about 62 wt %; sintering the powdered composition to produce a sintered preform; compacting the preform; machining the preform to form an article; heat treating the article; the annealing being conducted at a temperature of about 1650.degree. F. to about 1900.degree. F. at a pressure of about 3 Torr to about 5 Kg-f/cm.sup.2 for a time period of about 10 minutes to about 5 hours; and quenching the article.

  15. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information--World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  16. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  17. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  18. 29 CFR 779.319 - A retail or service establishment must be open to general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false A retail or service establishment must be open to general... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Making Sales of Goods and Services ârecognized As Retailâ § 779.319 A retail...

  19. "Where On Mars?": An Open Planetary Mapping Platform for Researchers, Educators, and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaud, Nicolas; Carter, John; Boix, Oriol

    2016-10-01

    The "Where On Mars?" project is essentially the evolution of an existing outreach product developed in collaboration between ESA and CartoDB; an interactive map visualisation of the ESA's ExoMars Rover candidate landing sites (whereonmars.co). Planetary imagery data and maps are increasingly produced by the scientific community, and shared typically as images, in scientific publications, presentations or public outreach websites. However, this media lacks of interactivity and contextual information available for further exploration, making it difficult for any audience to relate one location-based information to another. We believe that interactive web maps are a powerful way of telling stories, engaging with and educating people who, over the last decade, have become familiar with tools such as Google Maps. A few planetary web maps exist but they are either too complex for non-experts, or are closed-systems that do not allows anyone to publish and share content. The long-term vision for the project is to provide researchers, communicators, educators and a worldwide public with an open planetary mapping and social platform enabling them to create, share, communicate and consume research-based content. We aim for this platform to become the reference website everyone will go to learn about Mars and other planets in our Solar System; just like people head to Google Maps to find their bearings or any location-based information. The driver is clearly to create for people an emotional connection with Mars. The short-term objectives for the project are (1) to produce and curate an open repository of basemaps, geospatial data sets, map visualisations, and story maps; (2) to develop a beautifully crafted and engaging interactive map of Mars. Based on user-generated content, the underlying framework should (3) make it easy to create and share additional interactive maps telling specific stories.

  20. An analysis of radiological research publications in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, You Jin [Department of Radiology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 445 Gil-dong Kangdong-Gu, Seoul 134-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dae Young, E-mail: evee0914@chollian.net [Department of Radiology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 445 Gil-dong Kangdong-Gu, Seoul 134-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Eun Joo [Department of Radiology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 445 Gil-dong Kangdong-Gu, Seoul 134-701 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Sora [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 445 Gil-dong Kangdong-Gu, Seoul 134-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Kyoung Ja; Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon [Department of Radiology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 445 Gil-dong Kangdong-Gu, Seoul 134-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Radiologists published only 0.2% of articles in five general medical journals. ► Most original articles from radiologists were funded and were prospective studies. ► Radiology researchers from only 11 countries published at least one original article. -- Abstract: Objective: To evaluate scientific papers published by radiologists in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010. Methods: A MEDLINE search was performed in five high impact general medical journals (AIM, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and NEJM) for all articles of which a radiologist was the first author between 1996 and 2010. The following information was abstracted from the original articles: radiological subspecialty, imaging technique used, type of research, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study outcome, declared funding, number of authors, collaboration, and country of the first author. Results: Of 216 (0.19%) articles were published by radiologists in five general medical journals between 1996 and 2010, 83 were original articles. Fifteen (18.1%) original articles were concerned with the field of vascular/interventional radiology, 24 (28.9%) used combined imaging techniques, 76 (91.6%) were clinical research, 63 (75.9%) had a sample size of >50, 65 (78.3%) were prospective, 78 (94.0%) performed statistical analysis, 83 (100%) showed positive study outcomes, 57 (68.7%) were funded, 49 (59.0%) had from four to seven authors, and 79 (95.2%) were collaborative studies. Conclusions: A very small number (0.19%) in five high impact general medical journals was published by radiologists between 1996 and 2010.

  1. General Public Perceptions towards Medicines in the State of Penang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Sa'di Al-Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to evaluate patients' knowledge,sources of knowledge, and perceptions towards medicines inthe state of Penang, Malaysia.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study design usingconvenience sampling technique was adopted in this study. Apre-validated questionnaire was developed and distributed to800 participants in the state of Penang, Malaysia. All data wasanalysed using SPSS version 16. A p-value of less than 0.05 wasconsidered significant.Results: 700 respondents successfully responded to thesurvey. One third of the respondents were aware ofconventional/modern medicines. Whereas only 3.3% knewwhat is meant by generic medicines. High proportion ofrespondents wrongly perceived the quality of medicines to berelated to the familiarity with the medicine, frequency ofadvertisements, price, packaging and country of themanufacturer. In addition, friends, family members, financialstatus, and previous history, found to play an important role inpatients decisions when selecting medicines.Conclusion: Results of this study urge for a nationalawareness program to the public regarding medicines.Decision makers have to consider these findings since highproportion of the public perceive and consume medicinesirrationally

  2. A generalized public goods game with coupling of individual ability and project benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; He, Yun-Xin; Zhong, Chen-Yang; Chen, Rong-Da; Qiu, Tian; Shi, Yong-Dong; Ren, Fei

    2017-08-01

    Facing a heavy task, any single person can only make a limited contribution and team cooperation is needed. As one enjoys the benefit of the public goods, the potential benefits of the project are not always maximized and may be partly wasted. By incorporating individual ability and project benefit into the original public goods game, we study the coupling effect of the four parameters, the upper limit of individual contribution, the upper limit of individual benefit, the needed project cost and the upper limit of project benefit on the evolution of cooperation. Coevolving with the individual-level group size preferences, an increase in the upper limit of individual benefit promotes cooperation while an increase in the upper limit of individual contribution inhibits cooperation. The coupling of the upper limit of individual contribution and the needed project cost determines the critical point of the upper limit of project benefit, where the equilibrium frequency of cooperators reaches its highest level. Above the critical point, an increase in the upper limit of project benefit inhibits cooperation. The evolution of cooperation is closely related to the preferred group-size distribution. A functional relation between the frequency of cooperators and the dominant group size is found.

  3. Assessment of general public perceptions toward traditional medicines used for aphrodisiac purpose in state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Al-Qazaz, Harith Khalid; Farooqui, Maryam; Aljadhey, Hisham; Atif, Muhammad; Masood, Imran

    2012-11-01

    The study aims to evaluate general public perceptions regarding the use of Traditional and Complementary Medicines (TCM) for aphrodisiac purposes. A questionnaire based, cross-sectional study was undertaken. Respondents were selected in the state of Penang, Malaysia. A total of 392 respondents were included in the study. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Chi Square/Fischer Exact tests were used where appropriate. Out of 392 respondents, 150 (38.26%) reported using specific Traditional medicines for aphrodisiac purposes. Most respondents (46.94%) agreed that aphrodisiac medicines were easily available t. Moreover, 40.31% of the respondents reported that traditional aphrodisiac medicines were cheaper than modern (prescription) medicines. This study highlights limited public knowledge regarding the use of traditional aphrodisiac medicine. Healthcare professionals should be aware of informal TCM usage when prescribing allopathic medicines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  5. Angalasut, an education and outreach project to create a bridge between scientists, local population in Greenland and the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgain, Pascaline

    2015-04-01

    Bridging Science and Society has now become a necessity for scientists to develop new partnerships with local communities and to raise the public interest for scientific activities. The French-Greenlandic educational project called "Angalasut" reflects this desire to create a bridge between science, local people and the general public. This program was set up on the 2012-2013 school year, as part of an international scientific program dedicated to study the interactions between the ocean and glaciers on the western coast of Greenland, in the Uummannaq fjord. Greenlandic and French school children were involved in educational activities, in classrooms and out on the field, associated with the scientific observations conducted in Greenland (glacier flow, ocean chemical composition and circulation, instrumentation...). In Greenland, the children had the opportunity to come on board the scientific sailing boat, and in France, several meetings were organized between the children and the scientists of the expedition. In the small village of Ikerasak, the children interviewed Elders about sea ice evolution in the area. These activities, coupled to the organization of public conferences and to the creation of a trilingual website of the project (French, Greenlandic, English) aimed at explaining why scientists come to study Greenland environment. This was the opportunity for scientists to discuss with villagers who could testify on their changing environment over the past decades. A first step toward a future collaboration between scientists and villagers that would deserve further development... The project Angalasut was also the opportunity for Greenlandic and French school children to exchange about their culture and their environment through Skype communications, the exchange of mails (drawings, shells...), the creation of a society game about European fauna and flora... A meeting in France between the two groups of children is considered, possibly in summer 2015

  6. Characteristics of Orthopedic Publications in High-Impact General Medical Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Lehman, Jason D; Lyman, Stephen; Marx, Robert G

    2017-05-01

    Orthopedic studies are occasionally published in high-impact general medical journals; these studies are often given high visibility and have significant potential to impact health care policy and inform clinical decision-making. The purpose of this review was to investigate the characteristics of operative orthopedic studies published in high-impact medical journals. The number of orthopedic studies published in high-impact medical journals is relatively low; however, these studies demonstrate methodological characteristics that may bias toward nonoperative treatment. Careful analysis and interpretation of orthopedic studies published in these journals is warranted. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(3):e405-e412.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner.

  8. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongracic Jacqueline A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ≥ 10; item reduction ≥ 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.

  9. What the public think about hypnosis and hypnotherapy: A narrative review of literature covering opinions and attitudes of the general public 1996-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouwel, Matthew; Jolly, Kate; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-06-01

    To describe the public's understanding of hypnosis and openness to hypnotherapy. A comprehensive search of English language peer reviewed journal articles from 1st January 1996-11th March 2016 was performed over 9 databases (Medline, PubMed, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, Embase (excerpta medica), PsychInfo, Cochrane, Science citation index-expanded, Conference citation index) and a title-only search of Google scholar. 39 keyword combinations were employed: hypnosis, hypnotherapy, hypnotic, perception, beliefs, knowledge, view, opinion and understanding, in singular and plural where appropriate. A search of the bibliographies of eligible articles was undertaken. Inclusion criteria - Articles containing original data regarding the general public's attitudes towards hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Exclusion criteria - Non-therapy hypnosis (forensic, entertainment) materials and those concerned with groups likely to possess prior or professional knowledge of hypnosis, (hypnotists, clinicians and psychologists). Analysis was conducted in line with the questions. 31 articles were identified, covering diverse populations. Most people believe that: hypnosis is an altered state which requires collaboration to enter; once hypnotized perception changes; hypnotherapy is beneficial for psychological issues and is supportive of medical interventions; hypnosis can also enhance abilities especially memory. People are open to hypnotherapy subject to validation from the psychological or medical establishment. Similarity of opinion is more apparent than difference. Most people are positive towards hypnotherapy, and would consider its use under the right circumstances. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A public code for general relativistic, polarised radiative transfer around spinning black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Jason

    2016-10-01

    Ray tracing radiative transfer is a powerful method for comparing theoretical models of black hole accretion flows and jets with observations. We present a public code, GRTRANS, for carrying out such calculations in the Kerr metric, including the full treatment of polarised radiative transfer and parallel transport along geodesics. The code is written in FORTRAN 90 and efficiently parallelises with OPENMP, and the full code and several components have PYTHON interfaces. We describe several tests which are used for verifiying the code, and we compare the results for polarised thin accretion disc and semi-analytic jet problems with those from the literature as examples of its use. Along the way, we provide accurate fitting functions for polarised synchrotron emission and transfer coefficients from thermal and power-law distribution functions, and compare results from numerical integration and quadrature solutions of the polarised radiative transfer equations. We also show that all transfer coefficients can play an important role in predicted images and polarisation maps of the Galactic centre black hole, Sgr A*, at submillimetre wavelengths.

  11. General Public Expectation from the Communication Process with their Healthcare Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassali, Ma; Shafie, Aa; Khan, Tm

    2012-07-01

    The current study aimed to explore the public views and expectation about a successful communication process between the healthcare providers/physicians and patients in Penang Island, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Penang Island using a 14-item questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 15.0(®) were used to analyze the collected data. A nonparametric statistics was applied; the Chi-square test was applied to measure the association among the variables. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of N (500) respondents have shown willingness to participate in the study with a response rate of 83.3%. The majority 319 (63.9%) have disclosed to communicate with their healthcare providers in the Malay language and about 401 (80.4%) of the respondents were found satisfied with the information provided by the physician. It was a common expectation by the most of the sample to focus more on the patient history before prescribing any medicine. Moreover, about 60.0% of the respondents expected that the healthcare providers must show patience to the patient's queries. The level of satisfaction with the information shared by the healthcare providers was higher among the respondents with a higher education level. Furthermore, patients with higher level of education expect that physician shouldwell understand their views and medical history to prescribe a better therapeutic regimen.

  12. Understanding geodesy and geoscience processes through interactive demonstrations for the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, S. E.; Bartel, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Hands-on demonstrations are an effective way for novice learners, whether they are students, public, or museum visitors, to experience geoscience processes. UNAVCO and community members have developed hands-on demonstrations of a variety of geophysical processes highlighting the geodetic techniques used to measure these processes. These demonstrations illustrate how observations of changes at the earth's surface can be quantified and inform us about forces within the earth that we can't see. They also emphasize the societal impact of research related to each earth process. In this presentation, we will provide descriptions of a suite of these demonstrations, major concepts covered, materials needed, instructions for assembly and how to lead the demonstration, sample questions to ask participants, weaknesses inherent in the model, and a list of supporting handouts that augment the demonstration. Some of the demonstrations to be highlighted include: volcanic deformation using flour or an augmented-reality sandbox; isostatic rebound from glacial melt using flubber; compression of the Pacific Northwest using springs; and tsunami early warning using a tub of water and foam buoys. We will also discuss the process of developing interactive demonstrations and provide initial feedback from classroom and science festival events. Write-ups of the demonstrations are freely available on the UNAVCO Education website (search terms: UNAVCO geodetic demonstrations).

  13. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES ABOUT ANTIBIOTIC USE AMONG THE GENERAL PUBLIC IN MALAYSIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islahudin, Farida; Tamezi, Alyaa Madihah Ahmad; Shah, Noraida Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major problem globally. Awareness of the impact and significance of antibiotic resistance is a first step in hindering its progression. We conducted this survey to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Malaysia. A total of 373 respondents were surveyed, 219 (58.1%) were female and 312 (83%) were Malay ethnicity. Eighty-four point two percent (314) had used antibiotics more than once (> 1) during the previous year. We found respondents who were less likely to take antibiotics (≤ 1) during the previous year were more likely to agree that antibiotic resistance was a serious public health issue compared to those that took antibiotic more than once during the previous year (p < 0.0001). A significantly greater number of patients (67.2%) who took antibiotics more than once during the previous year did not complete the full course than those who took antibiotics no more than once (55.9%) during the previous year (p < 0.01). We found the frequency of antibiotic use was related to knowledge about antibiotics among the study population. It is essential to develop educational interventions to correct the misuse and misunderstanding of antibiotics.

  14. BangA: An Efficient and Flexible Generalization-Based Algorithm for Privacy Preserving Data Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Anjum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing (PPDP has become a critical issue for companies and organizations that would release their data. k-Anonymization was proposed as a first generalization model to guarantee against identity disclosure of individual records in a data set. Point access methods (PAMs are not well studied for the problem of data anonymization. In this article, we propose yet another approximation algorithm for anonymization, coined BangA, that combines useful features from Point Access Methods (PAMs and clustering. Hence, it achieves fast computation and scalability as a PAM, and very high quality thanks to its density-based clustering step. Extensive experiments show the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach. Furthermore, we provide guidelines for extending BangA to achieve a relaxed form of differential privacy which provides stronger privacy guarantees as compared to traditional privacy definitions.

  15. Proceedings of the public debate on the general options of management of high and intermediate activity and long-lived radioactive wastes; Compte-rendu du debat public sur les options generales en matiere de gestion des dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprised 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is a summary of the main questions tackled during this debate from its preparation to its closing meeting and dealing with: the acceptation of the debate, the progress of the debate, the socio-technical problem of gathering the different points to be debated with respect to the different areas in concern, the general questions about the overall nuclear wastes and materials (radioactivity, health, radioprotection, management, reprocessing, control, actors organization, knowledge sharing, perenniality of the financing), the specific questions about long-lived wastes (inventory, separation-transmutation feasibility, nuclear energy and energy policy, management solutions, storage and geologic disposal feasibility, impact of debates on the 2006 law, long-lived waste territories), the conclusions for the 2006 law: mastering the overall nuclear wastes and materials and step-by-step building up of a solution for long-lived wastes (difficulties, lessons learnt from foreign experience, first draft of the 2006 law). Some opinions expressed by some participants about these proposals conclude

  16. Listening to the voices of the general public in India on biomedical research--an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Manjulika; Vaz, Mario; Srinivasan, K

    2015-01-01

    Medical research, from clinical trials to novel research on stored samples, is growing rapidly in India. Ethical regulations largely reflect standard international guidelines and the norms of "good clinical practice". Through in-depth interviews, this study aimed to explore the perceptions, motivations and concerns of the public with respect to participation in clinical trials and biobanking-related research. It was found that the expectation of therapeutic benefit reflects "therapeutic misconception" and this, along with a poor understanding of research, leads to favourable participation in clinical trials. A relatively low level of awareness and knowledge of health matters and research (health literacy), along with the differences in the power of the doctor and the participant, lead to an unquestioning trust in the physician or the institution conducting the research. "Informed consent" is thought to protect the interests of the researcher and the institution rather than the participants' rights. Biobanking research was very new to the participants and relatively unknown. Thus, it has not yet filtered into the public consciousness. As a result, the perceptions of the general public do not appear to be sufficiently evolved.

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration" included the following reports:Training Informal Educators Provides Leverage for Space Science Education and Public Outreach; Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education: K-12 Teacher Retention, Renewal, and Involvement in Professional Science; Telling the Tale of Two Deserts: Teacher Training and Utilization of a New Standards-based, Bilingual E/PO Product; Lindstrom M. M. Tobola K. W. Stocco K. Henry M. Allen J. S. McReynolds J. Porter T. T. Veile J. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes -- Update; Utilizing Mars Data in Education: Delivering Standards-based Content by Exposing Educators and Students to Authentic Scientific Opportunities and Curriculum; K. E. Little Elementary School and the Young Astronaut Robotics Program; Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities; and Online Access to the NEAR Image Collection: A Resource for Educators and Scientists.

  18. Beyond the "general public": implications of audience characteristics for promoting species conservation in the Western Ghats hotspot, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagavel, Arun; Raghavan, Rajeev; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2014-03-01

    Understanding how different audience groups perceive wildlife is crucial for the promotion of biodiversity conservation, especially given the key role of flagship species in conservation campaigns. Although the heterogeneity in preferences reinforces the need for campaigns tailored to specific target audiences, many conservation education and awareness campaigns still claim to target the "general public". Audiences can be segmented according to social, economic, and cultural criteria across which species perceptions are known to vary. Different studies have investigated the preferences of different groups towards certain wildlife species, but these are largely confined to a single conservation stakeholder group, such as tourists, local communities, or potential donors in western countries. In this study, we seek to determine from a multi-stakeholder perspective, audience characteristics that influence perceptions towards wildlife at Valparai, a fragmented plateau in the Western Ghats region of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka Hotspot. We found that stakeholder group membership was the most important characteristic followed by gender. While some characteristics had a wide-scale effect others were restricted to a few species. Our results emphasize the need to design conservation campaigns with specific audiences in mind, instead of the very often referred to "general public".

  19. Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate how medical and nursing staff of the Nicosia General Hospital is affected by specific motivation factors, and the association between job satisfaction and motivation. Furthermore, to determine the motivational drive of socio-demographic and job related factors in terms of improving work performance. Methods A previously developed and validated instrument addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) was used. Two categories of health care professionals, medical doctors and dentists (N = 67) and nurses (N = 219) participated and motivation and job satisfaction was compared across socio-demographic and occupational variables. Results The survey revealed that achievements was ranked first among the four main motivators, followed by remuneration, co-workers and job attributes. The factor remuneration revealed statistically significant differences according to gender, and hospital sector, with female doctors and nurses and accident and emergency (A+E) outpatient doctors reporting greater mean scores (p 55 years of age reported higher job satisfaction when compared to the other groups. Conclusions The results are in agreement with the literature which focuses attention to management approaches employing both monetary and non-monetary incentives to motivate health care professionals. Health care professionals tend to be motivated more by intrinsic factors, implying that this should be a target for effective employee motivation. Strategies based on the survey's results to enhance employee motivation are suggested. PMID:21080954

  20. Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-07-01

    This review explores the potential adverse impact of the increasing phosphorus content in the American diet on renal, cardiovascular, and bone health of the general population. Increasingly, studies show that phosphorus intakes in excess of the nutrient needs of a healthy population may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, which contributes to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, impaired kidney function, and bone loss. Moreover, large epidemiologic studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphate within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy populations without evidence of kidney disease. However, few studies linked high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphate because of the nature of the study design and inaccuracies in the nutrient composition databases. Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient, in excess it could be linked to tissue damage by a variety of mechanisms involved in the endocrine regulation of extracellular phosphate, specifically the secretion and action of fibroblast growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone. Disordered regulation of these hormones by high dietary phosphorus may be key factors contributing to renal failure, CVD, and osteoporosis. Although systematically underestimated in national surveys, phosphorus intake seemingly continues to increase as a result of the growing consumption of highly processed foods, especially restaurant meals, fast foods, and convenience foods. The increased cumulative use of ingredients containing phosphorus in food processing merits further study given what is now being shown about the potential toxicity of phosphorus intake when it exceeds nutrient needs.

  1. Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontodimopoulos Nick

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate how medical and nursing staff of the Nicosia General Hospital is affected by specific motivation factors, and the association between job satisfaction and motivation. Furthermore, to determine the motivational drive of socio-demographic and job related factors in terms of improving work performance. Methods A previously developed and validated instrument addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements was used. Two categories of health care professionals, medical doctors and dentists (N = 67 and nurses (N = 219 participated and motivation and job satisfaction was compared across socio-demographic and occupational variables. Results The survey revealed that achievements was ranked first among the four main motivators, followed by remuneration, co-workers and job attributes. The factor remuneration revealed statistically significant differences according to gender, and hospital sector, with female doctors and nurses and accident and emergency (A+E outpatient doctors reporting greater mean scores (p 55 years of age reported higher job satisfaction when compared to the other groups. Conclusions The results are in agreement with the literature which focuses attention to management approaches employing both monetary and non-monetary incentives to motivate health care professionals. Health care professionals tend to be motivated more by intrinsic factors, implying that this should be a target for effective employee motivation. Strategies based on the survey's results to enhance employee motivation are suggested.

  2. Geographic distribution indices of general practitioners, midwives, pediatricians, and gynecologists in the public sector of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarmand, Rasoul; Mozhdehifard, Mostafa; Kavosi, Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Health workforce distribution is so important in access posture, coverage and equity. Following millennium development goals (MDGs), special attention to health workforces in relation with maternal and child health is required. The aim of the current study was to determine distribution of maternal and child health related workforces in Iran during 2010-2012, using inequality measures. In this cross-sectional study, data about the number of physicians and midwives obtained from Ministry of Health reports and demographic statistics were obtained from the Statistical Center of Iran. Gini coefficient and Robin Hood index were calculated in terms of population ratio, need adjusted index for birth (NAIB) and need adjusted index for mortality (NAIM). For calculations, DAD software version 4.6 was used. Gini coefficient was reduced for general physicians (GPs) and pediatricians, and had increasing and decreasing trends for gynecologists. For achieving equality within provinces, the number of transferable health workforces was more than 1 person per 10 health workforces. Health workforce distribution had various trends in Iran. Special attention to deprived provinces is required. Most of the reduction in Gini coefficient is due to the increase in health workforce in developing provinces, and deprived provinces still have serious problems. The health system could achieve better equality by considering deprived provinces and using Gini coefficient and Robin Hood index together.

  3. Performance of general health workers in leprosy control activities at public health facilities in Amhara and Oromia States, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeje, Tadiye; Negera, Edessa; Kebede, Eshetu; Hailu, Tsegaye; Hassen, Ismaile; Lema, Tsehainesh; Yamuah, Lawrence; Shiguti, Birru; Fenta, Melkamu; Negasa, Megersa; Beyene, Demissew; Bobosha, Kidist; Aseffa, Abraham

    2016-04-07

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease of public health importance and one of the leading causes of permanent physical disability. Nevertheless, the drop in prevalence following multidrug therapy has resulted in the neglect of leprosy. The annual incidence of leprosy has remained the same in Ethiopia since decades with more than 76% of the reported new cases coming from Oromia and Amhara Regional States. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and skill of general health workers in leprosy control activities at public health facilities in Oromia and Amhara Regional States. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2011 to February 2012 at different public health facilities in selected eight zones in Oromia and Amhara Regional States. A multistage sampling method was used to obtain representative samples. High and low endemic zones for leprosy were included in the study in both regional states. Data were collected from general health workers through a structured self-administered questionnaire and at on-site assessment of their performance. Baseline socio-demographic data, health workers' attitude towards leprosy and their knowledge and skill in the management of leprosy were assessed. Bloom's cut off point was used to describe the knowledge and practical skills of the respondents while Likert's scale was used for attitude assessment. A total of 601 general health workers responsible for leprosy control activities at public health facilities were included in knowledge and attitude assessment and 83 of them were subjected to practical evaluation, with on-site observation of how they handle leprosy patients. These included medical doctors (4%), health officers and nurses with Bachelor degree in Science (27%), clinical nurses with diploma (66%) and health assistants (2.8%). The median age of the respondents was 26.0 years and females made up of 45%. Generally the knowledge and skills of the respondents were found to be poor while attitude

  4. Determinants of General Health, Work-Related Strain, and Burnout in Public Versus Private Emergency Medical Technicians in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunaligil, Verda; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan; Erdogan, Mehmet Sarper

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the impact of working for public versus private ambulance services in Turkey and elaborated on predictors of mental, physical, and emotional well-being in emergency medical technicians (EMT-Bs). In this observational cross-sectional study, an 81-question self-report survey was used to gather data about employee demographics, socioeconomic status, educational background, working conditions, and occupational health and workplace safety (OHS), followed by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the Work-Related Strain Inventory (WRSI), and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with three subscales: Emotional Exhaustion (MBI-EE), Depersonalization (MBI-DP), and Diminished Personal Accomplishment (MBI-PA). In 2011, 1,038 EMT-Bs worked for publicly operated and 483 EMT-Bs worked for privately owned ambulance services in Istanbul, Turkey, of which 606 (58.4%) and 236 (48.9%) participated in the study (overall participation rate = 55.4%), respectively. On all scales, differences between total mean scores in both sectors were statistically insignificant (p > .05). In the public sector, work locations, false accusations, occupational injuries and diseases, work-related permanent disabilities, and organizational support were found to significantly influence self-reported perceptions of well-being (p work (p work-related permanent disabilities (p working lives that need improvement; priority expectations in the public and private sectors were higher earnings (17.5%; 16.7%) and better social opportunities (17.4%; 16.8%). Working conditions, vocational training, and OHS emerged as topics that merit priority attention.

  5. The General Duty To Promote Racial Equality: Guidance for Public Authorities on Their Obligations under the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This publication helps British public authorities understand the implications of the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 and comply with their new general duty to promote racial equality, pending introduction by the Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) of statutory codes of practice in late 2001. Section 1, "Racial Discrimination,"…

  6. Paucity of qualitative research in general medical and health services and policy research journals: analysis of publication rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Qualitative research has the potential to inform and improve health care decisions but a study based on one year of publications suggests that it is not published in prominent health care journals. A more detailed, longitudinal analysis of its availability is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify, count and compare the number of qualitative and non-qualitative research studies published in high impact health care journals, and explore trends in these data over the last decade. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 20 top general medical and health services and policy research journals from 1999 to 2008. Eligible journals were selected based on performance in four different ranking systems reported in the 2008 ISI Journal Citation Reports. Qualitative and non-qualitative research published in these journals were identified by searching MEDLINE, and validated by hand-searching tables of contents for four journals. Results The total number of qualitative research articles published during 1999 to 2008 in ten general medical journals ranged from 0 to 41, and in ten health services and policy research journals from 0 to 39. Over this period the percentage of empirical research articles that were qualitative ranged from 0% to 0.6% for the general medical journals, and 0% to 6.4% for the health services and policy research journals. Conclusions This analysis suggests that qualitative research it is rarely published in high impact general medical and health services and policy research journals. The factors that contribute to this persistent marginalization need to be better understood. PMID:21992238

  7. Paucity of qualitative research in general medical and health services and policy research journals: analysis of publication rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrow Mark J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Qualitative research has the potential to inform and improve health care decisions but a study based on one year of publications suggests that it is not published in prominent health care journals. A more detailed, longitudinal analysis of its availability is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify, count and compare the number of qualitative and non-qualitative research studies published in high impact health care journals, and explore trends in these data over the last decade. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 20 top general medical and health services and policy research journals from 1999 to 2008. Eligible journals were selected based on performance in four different ranking systems reported in the 2008 ISI Journal Citation Reports. Qualitative and non-qualitative research published in these journals were identified by searching MEDLINE, and validated by hand-searching tables of contents for four journals. Results The total number of qualitative research articles published during 1999 to 2008 in ten general medical journals ranged from 0 to 41, and in ten health services and policy research journals from 0 to 39. Over this period the percentage of empirical research articles that were qualitative ranged from 0% to 0.6% for the general medical journals, and 0% to 6.4% for the health services and policy research journals. Conclusions This analysis suggests that qualitative research it is rarely published in high impact general medical and health services and policy research journals. The factors that contribute to this persistent marginalization need to be better understood.

  8. Charge pump DC-DC converter comprising solid state batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reefman, D.; Roozeboom, F.; Notten, P.H.L.; Klootwijk, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    An electronic device is provided which comprises a DC-DC converter. The DC-DC converter comprises at least one solid-state rechargeable battery (B1, B2) for storing energy for the DC-DC conversion and an output capacitor (C2).

  9. Medical preparation container comprising microwave powered sensor assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a medical preparation container which comprises a microwave powered sensor assembly. The microwave powered sensor assembly comprises a sensor configured to measure a physical property or chemical property of a medical preparation during its heating in a microwave...

  10. Attitudes and relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo De Ferrari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The interaction between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry influences physicians' attitudes and prescribing behavior. Although largely studied in the US, this topic has not been well studied in resource-poor settings, where a close relationship between physicians and industry still exists. OBJECTIVE: To describe physician interactions with and attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study through an anonymous, self-filled questionnaire distributed among faculty and trainee physicians of five different clinical departments working in a Peruvian public general hospital. A transcultural validation of an existing Spanish questionnaire was performed. Exposure to marketing activities, motivations to contact pharmaceutical representatives and attitudes towards industry were studied. Collected data was analyzed by degree of training, clinical department, gender and teaching status. Attitudes were measured on a four-point LIKERT scale. RESULTS: 155 physicians completed the survey, of which 148 were included in the study sample. 94.5% of attending physicians reported ongoing encounters with pharmaceutical representatives. The most common industry-related activities were receiving medical samples (91.2%, promotional material (87.8% and attending meetings in restaurants (81.8%. Respondents considered medical samples and continuing medical education the most ethically acceptable benefits. We found significant differences between attendings and residents, and teaching and non-teaching attendings. An association between the amount of encounters with pharmaceutical representatives, and attitudes towards industry and acceptance of medical samples was found. CONCLUSIONS: A close physician-industry relationship exists in the population under study. The contact is established mainly through pharmaceutical representatives. Medical samples are the most received

  11. Attitudes and relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ferrari, Aldo; Gentille, Cesar; Davalos, Long; Huayanay, Leandro; Malaga, German

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry influences physicians' attitudes and prescribing behavior. Although largely studied in the US, this topic has not been well studied in resource-poor settings, where a close relationship between physicians and industry still exists. To describe physician interactions with and attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru. Descriptive, cross-sectional study through an anonymous, self-filled questionnaire distributed among faculty and trainee physicians of five different clinical departments working in a Peruvian public general hospital. A transcultural validation of an existing Spanish questionnaire was performed. Exposure to marketing activities, motivations to contact pharmaceutical representatives and attitudes towards industry were studied. Collected data was analyzed by degree of training, clinical department, gender and teaching status. Attitudes were measured on a four-point LIKERT scale. 155 physicians completed the survey, of which 148 were included in the study sample. 94.5% of attending physicians reported ongoing encounters with pharmaceutical representatives. The most common industry-related activities were receiving medical samples (91.2%), promotional material (87.8%) and attending meetings in restaurants (81.8%). Respondents considered medical samples and continuing medical education the most ethically acceptable benefits. We found significant differences between attendings and residents, and teaching and non-teaching attendings. An association between the amount of encounters with pharmaceutical representatives, and attitudes towards industry and acceptance of medical samples was found. A close physician-industry relationship exists in the population under study. The contact is established mainly through pharmaceutical representatives. Medical samples are the most received and ethically accepted benefit. The attitudes of physicians on the

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z

    2016-11-01

    Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  13. Mapping of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels in outdoor environment and comparing with reference levels for general public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansiz, Mustafa; Abbasov, Teymuraz; Kurt, M Bahattin; Celik, A Recai

    2016-11-02

    In this study, radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels were measured on the main streets in the city center of Diyarbakır, Turkey. Measured electric field levels were plotted on satellite imagery of Diyarbakır and were compared with exposure guidelines published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Exposure measurements were performed in dense urban, urban and suburban areas each day for 7 consecutive days. The measurement system consisted of high precision and portable spectrum analyzer, three-axis electric field antenna, connection cable and a laptop which was used to record the measurement samples as a data logger. The highest exposure levels were detected for two places, which are called Diclekent and Batıkent. It was observed that the highest instantaneous electric field strength value for Batıkent was 7.18 V/m and for Diclekent was 5.81 V/m. It was statistically determined that the main contributor band to the total exposure levels was Universal Mobile Telecommunications System band. Finally, it was concluded that all measured exposure levels were lower than the reference levels recommended by ICNIRP for general public health.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 2 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.64.

  14. Windows to the Universe: an Internet Resource Bringing the Earth and Space Sciences to the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. M.; Alexander, C. J.; Burek, M.; Kozyra, J.; Lenhart, E.; Linker, J.; Mastie, D.; Ceritelli, M.; Thoenes, H.; Orselli, P.; Weymouth, T.

    1997-07-01

    Windows to the Universe is a World Wide Web site that presents information about the Earth and Space sciences as well as related historical and cultural topics to the general public in an attractive and user-friendly way. The site makes extensive use of graphically annotated button panels to allow intuitive navigation through the site. The site is graphics intensive, providing access to a rich archive of images, movies, animations and data collected by satellites, spacecraft, and ground-based instruments. Intended primarily as an innovative information resource for museums, libraries, and classrooms, content within Windows to the Universe is developed to complement K-12 science education needs. Content is available at three levels of sophistication, approximating the elementary, middle, and high school levels, and resources are available on-line for teachers including standards-based keyword search capabilities and classroom activities. Supplementary CD-ROMs are available for Mac and Windows-95 platforms that allow rapid access to images on the site, rather than requiring the user to download images over the Internet. This award-winning site is funded by the NASA Public Use of Remote Sensing Data Bases Program.

  15. General public's and physicians' perception of health risk associated with radon exposure in the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Muhammad; Jabeen, Shahida; Shahzad, M Ikram

    2008-01-01

    To conduct a radon awareness survey to examine the level of awareness and risk perception of indoor radon exposure among the general public, medical students, and physicians of the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, given that long-term exposure to indoor radon increases lifetime risk of lung cancer and may pose a substantial threat to public health. Cross-sectional survey. Households by telephone (500), interviews with menial laborers (200), questionnaires to shopkeepers and government employees (1,000), undergraduates (200), social science graduates (1,500), science graduates (1,500), medical students (325), and physicians (100). Familiarity with radioactivity and the nature and health hazards of radiation and radon. Significance of data trends was measured using the Kruskal-Wallis test. About 30% people (excluding medical students and physicians) were aware of radon, and about 6% had knowledgeable awareness of radon. About 80% of the medical students and physicians had heard about radon and about 30.5% of them had knowledgeable awareness about radon and its hazards. The study suggested a positive relationship of awareness of radon and its hazards with the educational level of people.

  16. Tackling stigma associated with intellectual disability among the general public: a study of two indirect contact interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica; Scior, Katrina

    2013-07-01

    Although evidence abounds that people with intellectual disabilities are exposed to stigma and discrimination, few interventions have attempted to tackle stigma among the general public. This study set out to assess the impact of two brief indirect contact interventions on lay people's inclusion attitudes, social distance and positive behavioral intentions, and to explore emotional reactions towards the two interventions. 925 participants completed the first online survey. Participants were randomized to watch either a 10 min film based on intergroup contact theory, or a film based on a protest message. In total, 403 participants completed the follow-up survey at one month. Both interventions were effective at changing inclusion attitudes and social distance in the short term and these effects were partially maintained at one month. The protest based intervention had a greater effect compared to the contact one on aspects of inclusion attitudes and evoked stronger emotional reactions. Despite small effect sizes, brief indirect contact interventions may have a potential role in tackling public stigma associated with intellectual disability but their effects on behavioral intentions are questionable. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Utility Values for Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma Health States from the General Public in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian F. Guest

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare type of cancer generally treated with palliative chemotherapy when in the advanced stage. There is a lack of published health utility data for locally advanced “inoperable”/metastatic disease (ASTS, essential for calculating the cost-effectiveness of current and future treatments. This study estimated time trade-off (TTO and standard gamble (SG preference values associated with four ASTS health states (progressive disease, stable disease, partial response, complete response among members of the general public in the UK (n=207. The four health states were associated with decreases in preference values from full health. Complete response was the most preferred health state (mean utility of 0.60 using TTO. The second most preferred health state was partial response followed by stable disease (mean utilities were 0.51 and 0.43, respectively, using TTO. The least preferred health state was progressive disease (mean utility of 0.30 using TTO. The utility value for each state was significantly different from one another (P<0.001. This study demonstrated and quantified the impact that different treatment responses may have on the health-related quality of life of patients with ASTS.

  18. What services are public? What aspects of performance are to be ranked? The case of “services of general interest”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, we focus on the difficulties in evaluating the performance of so-called services of general interest. These services generally include such services as water and electricity supply, telephony, postal services, and public transport, where providers are subjected to

  19. Why do some countries publish more than others? An international comparison of research funding, English proficiency and publication output in highly ranked general medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jonathan P; Weinkauf, Justin G; Tsang, Monica; Sin, Don D

    2004-01-01

    National factor(s) influencing publication output in the highest ranked medical journals are largely unknown. We sought to examine the relationship between national research funding and English proficiency on publication output. We identified all original research articles appearing in the five highest ranked general medical journals between 1997 and 2001. Using the country of the corresponding author as the source nation for each article, we determined a standardized publication rate across developed nations. We used multiple regression techniques to determine the influence of national expenditures on research and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), a surrogate for English proficiency, on publication output. There was a significant relationship of national spending on research and TOEFL scores to publication output of developed countries (p = 0.04; p < 0.01, respectively). These two variables explained approximately 71.5% of the variation in publication rate across developed nations around the world (R = 0.85; p < 0.01). Normalized for population size, English-speaking nations and certain northern European countries such as Denmark, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and Sweden had the highest rate of publication in the five highest ranked general medical journals, while Asian countries had generally low rates of publication. Research spending and English proficiency were strongly associated with publication output in the highest ranked general medical journals. While these data cannot be considered definitive due to their observational nature, they do suggest that for English-language medical journals, research funding and English proficiency may be important determinants of publication.

  20. Immunogenic compositions comprising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mosaic Nef proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Perkins, Simon [Los Alamos, NM; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos, NM; Fischer, William M [Los Alamos, NM; Theiler, James [Los Alamos, NM; Letvin, Norman [Boston, MA; Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos, NM; Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-02-21

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Nef polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  1. An endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-directed fusion protein comprising a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-directed fusion protein comprising a bacterial subtilisin ... which are used for the commercial production of therapeutic proteins. ... expression platforms) to purify recombinant proteins in crude plant extracts.

  2. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Jeon, Sea Ho; Mack, Nathan H.

    2011-08-02

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  3. Dielectric electroactive polymers comprising an ionic supramolecular structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ionic interpenetrating polymer network comprising at least one elastomer and an ionic supramolecular structure comprising the reaction product of at least two chemical compounds wherein each of said compounds has at least two functional groups and wherein said ...... compounds are able to undergo Lewis acid-base reactions. The interpenetrating polymer network may be used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs) having a high dielectric permittivity....

  4. Familiarity, perception, and reasons for electronic-cigarette experimentation among the general public in Malaysia: Preliminary insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Mohamed Elkalmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the general public views and familiarity toward electronic cigarette (e-cigarette in Kuantan, Malaysia. Methodology: A total of 277 Kuantan people were involved in this study. The questionnaire was distributed at random in shops, businesses, and public places in Kuantan. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 17.0. Results: From 400 participants, a total number of 277 (160, 57.7% men and 117, 42.4% women respondents completed the questionnaire. The mean age was 26.89 ± 9.8 years old. The majority of the study participants were male (57.7%, Malay (83.8%, Muslims (83.8%, singles (69%, and employed (75.8%, with about 83 (29.9% of the respondents were smokers. The prevalence of e-cigarettes smokers was found to be only 1.4% (n = 4. About one-third of the respondents (n = 72, 26% have tried e-cigarette before. Job status was significantly associated with smoking e-cigarette among the population (P = 0.02. Main factors for a person to start e-cigarette smoking were curiosity (37.5% and cheaper price (40.8%. Majority of respondents agreed that e-cigarette would not affect health as normal cigarette, and that variety of flavors contribute to better enjoyment (51.6% and 66.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the current study demonstrate that the prevalence of e-cigarettes smoking and its popularity, familiarity, and knowledge are still insufficient among Kuantan population. Further studies should be done to tackle this problem before it getting worse.

  5. How does the general public view posthumous organ donation? A meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Joshua D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many individuals are unwilling to become posthumous organ donors, resulting in a disparity between the supply and demand for organ transplants. A meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature was therefore conducted to determine how the general public views posthumous organ donation. Methods Three online databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus were searched for articles published between January 1990 and May 2008 using the following search terms: organ donation, qualitative, interview. Eligibility criteria were: examination of beliefs about posthumous organ donation; utilization of a qualitative research design; and publication in an English peer-reviewed journal. Exclusion criteria were examining how health professionals or family members of organ donors viewed posthumous organ donation. Grounded theory was used to identify the beliefs emerging from this literature. Thematically-related beliefs were then grouped to form themes. Results 27 articles from 24 studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The major themes identified were: religion, death, altruism, personal relevance, the body, the family, medical professionals, and transplant recipients. An altruistic motivation to help others emerged as the most commonly identified motivator for becoming an organ donor, although feeling a sense of solidarity with the broader community and believing that donated organs are put to good use may be important preconditions for the emergence of this motivation. The two most commonly identified barriers were the need to maintain bodily integrity to safeguard progression into the afterlife and the unethical recovery of organs by medical professionals. The influence of stakeholder groups on willingness to become an organ donor was also found to vary by the level of control that each stakeholder group exerted over the donation recovery process and their perceived conflict of interest in wanting organ donation to proceed. Conclusions

  6. Familiarity, perception, and reasons for electronic-cigarette experimentation among the general public in Malaysia: Preliminary insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkalmi, Ramadan Mohamed; Bhagavathul, Akshaya Srikanth; Ya’u, Adamu; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Elsayed, Tarek M.; Ahmad, Akram; Mohamed, Wael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the general public views and familiarity toward electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) in Kuantan, Malaysia. Methodology: A total of 277 Kuantan people were involved in this study. The questionnaire was distributed at random in shops, businesses, and public places in Kuantan. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 17.0). Results: From 400 participants, a total number of 277 (160, 57.7% men and 117, 42.4% women) respondents completed the questionnaire. The mean age was 26.89 ± 9.8 years old. The majority of the study participants were male (57.7%), Malay (83.8%), Muslims (83.8%), singles (69%), and employed (75.8%), with about 83 (29.9%) of the respondents were smokers. The prevalence of e-cigarettes smokers was found to be only 1.4% (n = 4). About one-third of the respondents (n = 72, 26%) have tried e-cigarette before. Job status was significantly associated with smoking e-cigarette among the population (P = 0.02). Main factors for a person to start e-cigarette smoking were curiosity (37.5%) and cheaper price (40.8%). Majority of respondents agreed that e-cigarette would not affect health as normal cigarette, and that variety of flavors contribute to better enjoyment (51.6% and 66.7%, respectively). Conclusion: The results of the current study demonstrate that the prevalence of e-cigarettes smoking and its popularity, familiarity, and knowledge are still insufficient among Kuantan population. Further studies should be done to tackle this problem before it getting worse. PMID:27413354

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. AlGhamdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western. Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601 of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544 were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p < 0.001. Likewise, respondents from the middle social class and those with higher education levels were more likely to be informed (p < 0.02. The prevalence of regular sunscreen use among study participants was only 23.7%, and female and employed respondents were more likely to use sunscreen (p < 0.001. Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  8. Communicating polar science to the general public: sharing the social media experience of @OceanSeaIceNPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösel, Anja; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Gerland, Sebastian; Meyer, Amelie; Hudson, Stephen R.; King, Jennifer; Itkin, Polona; Cohen, Lana; Dodd, Paul; de Steur, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The findings of climate science need to be communicated to the general public. Researchers are encouraged to do so by journalists, policy-makers and funding agencies and many of us want to become better science communicators. But how can we do this at the lab or small research group level without specifically allocated resources in terms of funds and communication officers? And how do we sustain communication on a regular basis and not just during the limited lifetime of a specific project? One of the solutions is to use the emerging platform of social media, which has become a powerful and inexpensive tool for communicating science to different target audiences. Many research institutions and individual researchers are already advanced users of social media, but small research groups and labs remain underrepresented. The group of oceanographers, sea ice and atmospheric scientists at the Norwegian Polar Institute (@OceanSeaIceNPI( will share our experiences developing and maintaining researcher-driven outreach for over a year through Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. We will present our solutions to some of the practical considerations such as identifying key target groups, defining the framework for sharing responsibilities and interactions within the research group, and choosing an up-to-date and appropriate social medium. By sharing this information, we aim to inspire and assist other research groups and labs in conducting their own effective science communication.

  9. Setting policy priorities to address eating disorders and weight stigma: views from the field of eating disorders and the US general public

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence and health consequences of eating disorders and weight stigmatization have prompted increasing discussion of potential policy actions to address these public health issues. The present study aimed to assess support for policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigmatization among the general public and relevant health professionals. Methods: An Internet survey was fielded to a national sample of 944 US adults and 1,420 members of professional organiz...

  10. The U.S. Market for Higher Education: A General Equilibrium Analysis of State and Private Colleges and Public Funding Policies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We develop a general equilibrium model of the market for undergraduate higher education that captures the coexistence of public and private colleges, the large degree of quality differentiation among them, and the tuition and admission policies that emerge from their competition for students. The calibrated version of the model matches well the aggregate characteristics of U.S. higher education including college attendance in public and private schools, tuition levels, and the distribution of...

  11. Combination Comprising Parthenolide For Use In The Treatment Of Alzheimer's Disease And Other Neurodegenerative Disorders

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-06-18

    The present invention generally concerns particular methods and compositions for treatment of a neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer\\'s Disease. In particular embodiments, there is a composition comprising Parthenolide and a second agent, including an inhibitor of TLR4/MD-2/CD14, nAChR agonist, Resatorvid, Curcumin, Tilorone or a Tilorone analog, or a combination thereof.

  12. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott; Swift, Greg

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes a thermoacoustic assembly and method for improved efficiency. The assembly has a first stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator and at least one additional heat exchanger. The first stage Stirling thermal unit is serially coupled to a first end of a quarter wavelength long coupling tube. A second stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator, and at least one additional heat exchanger, is serially coupled to a second end of the quarter wavelength long coupling tube.

  13. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Scott; Swift, Greg

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes a thermoacoustic assembly and method for improved efficiency. The assembly has a first stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator and at least one additional heat exchanger. The first stage Stirling thermal unit is serially coupled to a first end of a quarter wavelength long coupling tube. A second stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator, and at least one additional heat exchanger, is serially coupled to a second end of the quarter wavelength long coupling tube.

  14. The CHMI Nowcasting Webportal - Presentation of Nowcasting-related Information to General Public in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Petr; Kyznarova, Hana

    2013-04-01

    For successful nowcasting of meteorological phenomena, it is not enough to have access to precise high-resolution measurements and to run sophisticated nowcasting systems but also to present obtained analyses and forecasts to the end-user with minimal time delay and with possibility of detailed geographical and temporal localization of hazardous meteorological events. The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) utilizes measurements from wide range of meteorological instruments (own and internationally exchanged) and runs several nowcasting systems focusing on different meteorological hazards. Participation of the CHMI in the INCA-CE project (CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund) facilitated implementation of the INCA nowcasting system in the CHMI (INCA-CZ) and also accelerated development of new CHMI Nowcasting Webportal. The CHMI Nowcasting Webportal is a web application that enables not only presentation of analyses and forecasts from the INCA-CZ nowcasting system but also includes remote-sensing and station measurements and results of some other nowcasting tools (like the COTREC extrapolation forecasts). The CHMI Nowcasting Webportal is based on experiences with previous development of the JSMeteoView (web-based visualization tool of remote sensing data used operationally by the CHMI forecast offices). The webportal is available to general public on the CHMI webserver. In comparison with former web-presentations, people get access to more meteorological information with better temporal and spatial resolution. Utilization of specialized high-resolution pre-generated geographical layers and Google Maps API enable flexible visualization of meteorological fields and detailed geographical localization. The source code of the CHMI Nowcasting Webportal was used as a basis for developmet of INCA-CE Central European Nowcasting Webportal in Austrian weather service (ZAMG). Some of the newly developed features of the webportal

  15. Perceptions of point-of-care infectious disease testing among European medical personnel, point-of-care test kit manufacturers, and the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaman, Wendy E; Andrinopoulou, Eleni-Rosalina; Hays, John P

    2013-01-01

    Background The proper development and implementation of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics requires knowledge of the perceived requirements and barriers to their implementation. To determine the current requirements and perceived barriers to the introduction of POC diagnostics in the field of medical microbiology (MM)-POC a prospective online survey (TEMPOtest-QC) was established. Methods and results The TEMPOtest-QC survey was online between February 2011 and July 2012 and targeted the medical community, POC test diagnostic manufacturers, general practitioners, and the general public. In total, 293 individuals responded to the survey, including 91 (31%) medical microbiologists, 39 (13%) nonmedical microbiologists, 25 (9%) employees of POC test manufacturers, and 138 (47%) members of the general public. Responses were received from 18 different European countries, with the largest percentage of these living in The Netherlands (52%). The majority (>50%) of medical specialists regarded the development of MM-POC for blood culture and hospital acquired infections as “absolutely necessary”, but were much less favorable towards their use in the home environment. Significant differences in perceptions between medical specialists and the general public included the: (1) Effect on quality of patient care; (2) Ability to better monitor patients; (3) Home testing and the doctor-patient relationship; and (4) MM-POC interpretation. Only 34.7% of the general public is willing to pay more than a€10 ($13) for a single MM-POC test, with 85.5% preferring to purchase their MM-POC test from a pharmacy. Conclusion The requirements for the proper implementation of MM-POC were found to be generally similar between medical specialists and POC test kit manufacturers. The general public was much more favorable with respect to a perceived improvement in the quality of healthcare that these tests would bring to the hospital and home environment. PMID:23814465

  16. DC-to-DC converter comprising a reconfigurable capacitor unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, J.H.; Bergveld, H.J.; Roozeboom, F.; Reefman, D.; Ruigrok, J.

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a configurable trench multi-capacitor device comprising a trench in a semiconductor substrate. The trench has a lateral extension exceeding 10 micrometer and a trench filling includes a number of at least four electrically conductive capacitor-electrode layers. A

  17. Method of treating ammonia-comprising waste water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of treating ammonia-comprising waste water in which the bicarbonate ion is the counter ion of the ammonium ion present in the waste water. According to the invention half the ammonium is converted into nitrite, yielding an ammonia- and nitrite-containing solution, a

  18. Non-cementitious compositions comprising vaterite and methods thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenney, Martin; Fernandez, Miguel; Morgan, Samuel O.

    2015-09-15

    Non-cementitious compositions and products are provided. The compositions of the invention include a carbonate additive comprising vaterite such as reactive vaterite. Additional aspects of the invention include methods of making and using the non-cementitious compositions and products.

  19. What the public knows and wants to know about medicines research and development: a survey of the general public in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Suzanne; Starling, Bella; Mullan-Jensen, Christine; Tham, Su-Gwan; Warner, Kay; Wever, Kim

    2015-04-08

    To explore public knowledge of, and interest in, learning more about medicines R&D in six European countries. Online survey of 6931 members of the public across Europe. The survey formed part of a public omnibus survey. A quota sampling approach was used with quotas set according to national census data on age, gender and government region. The survey explored the public's knowledge and awareness of medicines R&D, their interest in learning more and the perceived influences on this. The survey was completed by 6931 members of the public, over 75% of whom reported having no or less than good knowledge of medicines R&D. Males were more likely than females to report good knowledge (17% vs 15%), and knowledge appeared to decrease with age. Those who were currently or had previously been involved in medical research were almost five times more likely to report good knowledge of medicines R&D overall (43% vs 13%). Participants reported good knowledge of medicines safety and clinical trials but little knowledge of pharmacoeconomics. They were most interested in learning more about medicines safety and personalised and predictive medicine and least interested in pharmacoeconomics. Older people, women and respondents with current good knowledge of medicines R&D were most interested in learning more about medicines R&D. Experience of medical research appears to play a key role in increasing public awareness of and future interest in medicines R&D. Some groups may need to be specifically targeted to increase their awareness of medicines R&D, for example, women expressed great interest in learning more but reported less knowledge than men. It may be useful to explore further the views of those who are currently uninterested in learning more. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Constructs and concepts comprising the stigma of mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    People with mental illness frequently confront public stigma andmay experience self-stigma. This review discusses the concepts of mental illness stigma and its consequences for those with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma prominent consequences pertaining to public stigma (i.e.,employment, health care quality) and self-stigma (i.e., self-confidence, quality of life, “why try” effect) are reviewed. We discuss the three main public stigma change strategies - protest, educati...

  1. Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda

    2007-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural…

  2. Towards a Design Framework for Legitimate Public Private Partnerships: A General Approach Applied to Innovative Renewable Energy Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldeweg, Michiel A.; Sanders, Maurits

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a framework to guide the choice and design of a fitting Public Private Partnerships (PPP), which is applied to a Dutch example of biogas/sustainable energy projects. The framework focuses on ‘legitimate public governance’, merging Beetham’s dimensions of legitimacy (legality,

  3. Development of an information source for patients and the public about general practice services: an action research study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, M.; Noble, J.; Davies, H.; Waterman, H.; Walshe, K.; Sheaff, R.; Elwyn, G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The publication of information about the performance of health-care providers is regarded as central to promoting greater accountability and empowering patients to exercise choice. The evidence suggests that the public is not very interested in accessing or using current sources of inform

  4. Recyclable organic solar cells on substrates comprising cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Moon, Robert; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Recyclable organic solar cells are disclosed herein. Systems and methods are further disclosed for producing, improving performance, and for recycling the solar cells. In certain example embodiments, the recyclable organic solar cells disclosed herein include: a first electrode; a second electrode; a photoactive layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode; an interlayer comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer disposed between the photoactive layer and at least a portion of the first electrode or the second electrode; and a substrate disposed adjacent to the first electrode or the second electrode. The interlayer reduces the work function associated with the first or second electrode. In certain example embodiments, the substrate comprises cellulose nanocrystals that can be recycled. In certain example embodiments, one or more of the first electrode, the photoactive layer, and the second electrode may be applied by a film transfer lamination method.

  5. Public knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic usage: a cross-sectional study among the general public in the state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling Oh, Ai; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Al-Haddad, Mahmoud Sadi; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Awaisu, Ahmed

    2011-05-28

    Public knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotics play a vital role in the success of the treatment process. This study aimed to assess public knowledge and attitudes toward antibiotic usage which could serve as baseline data for future studies within a government hospital setting in Malaysia. A self-administered cross-sectional survey involving 408 respondents was conducted using a validated questionnaire at an outpatient pharmacy department in Penang Hospital, Malaysia, from February to March 2009. Nearly 55% of the respondents had a moderate level of knowledge. Three quarters of the respondents (76.7%) could correctly identify that antibiotics are indicated for the treatment of bacterial infections. However, 67.2% incorrectly thought that antibiotics are also used to treat viral infections. About 59.1% of the respondents were aware of antibiotic resistance phenomena in relation to overuse of antibiotics. With regard to attitudes, 38% believed that taking antibiotics when having cold symptoms could help them to recover faster, while 47.3% expected antibiotics to be prescribed for common cold symptoms. Age, race and educational level were among the demographic characteristics significantly associated with knowledge and attitudes toward antibiotic use. Poor level of knowledge was found in less than one-third of the respondents whereas more than one-third of the respondents wrongly self-medicate themselves with antibiotics once they have a cold. Educational interventions are needed to promote prudent use of antibiotics among the public.

  6. DoD Needs to Improve Screening and Access Controls for General Public Tenants Leasing Housing on Military Installations (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE POLICY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE (FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND COMPTROLLER) NAVAL INSPECTOR GENERAL AUDITOR GENERAL ...Installations ( Report No. DODIG-2016-072) We are providing this report for your review and comment. DoD security officials did not properly screen general ... generally accepted government auditing standards. We considered management comments on a draft of this report when preparing the final report . DoD

  7. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as "individual publications"). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, Paltmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group.

  8. EUROPEAN VOLCANOES' NIGHT: building a link between general public and volcanologists in a relaxed and welcoming setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, David; González-Cárdenas, María E.; Baldrich, Laura; Solana, Carmen; Nave, Rosella; Calvari, Sonia; Harangi, Szabolcs; Chouraqui, Floriane; Dionis, Samara; Silva, Sonia V.; Forjaz, Victor H.; D'Auria, Luca; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    European Volcanoes' Night (www.volcanoesnight.com) is a "volcanic eruption" of art, culture, music, gastronomy, school activities, geotourism, exhibitions and scientific debates. The event aims to bring together members of the general public with scientists who work on the study of volcanoes, in order to meet and ask questions in a relaxed and welcoming setting. It is open to both locals and tourists who appreciate the beauty and power of this natural phenomena. This celebration gives attendees, and in particular young people, the opportunity to meet researchers in a relaxed and festive setting, which will feature many activities and which will be used to highlight the attractiveness of a career research on one of the most attractive natural phenomena; volcanoes. The 2016 European Volcanoes' Night was held at 16 different municipalities of Spain, France, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, United Kingdom and Cape Verde on September 30, 2016, coinciding with the celebration of "European Researchers' Night" held annually throughout Europe and neighbouring countries the last Friday of September. The spirit of the European VolcanoeśNight fits perfectly in the aim of the ERN, trying to close the gap between the scientific community and the rest of the society. In this case, volcanoes are the driving force of this event, celebrating the singularity of living on volcanoes, and how these affect our daily lives, our culture and our heritage. European VolcanoeśNight also celebrates volcano science, with avantgarde talks and presentations on different volcanic topics and becomes a meeting point for children discovering volcanoes as a pastime or a leisure topic, making this event a must for tourists and locals wherever has been held. At the end of 2016 European VolcanoeśNight, almost 150 activities were performed for thousands of spectators, a big success that confirms something as crucial as science as a communication issue, and as a tool to strengthen the ties between researchers

  9. Electrochemical cell comprising stable hydride-forming material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, J. J. G. S. A.; van Beek, J. R. G. C. M.; Buschow, K. H. J.

    1984-12-11

    An electrochemical cell having a negative electrode comprising a compound derived from LaNi/sub 5/, in which La is optionally substituted by a plateau pressure-increasing element and in which Ni is substituted entirely or partly by a plateau pressure-reducing element, for example, Co and/or Cu, with the object of considerably reducing volume steps and hence crack formation of the intermetallic compound during charging and discharging. Moreover, the corrosion of the intermetallic compound is counteracted by adding small quantities of Al, Cr and/or Si, Which metals enhance the formation of a protecting oxide layer.

  10. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material Comprising Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  11. Comparing stigmatising attitudes towards people with substance use disorders between the general public, GPs, mental health and addiction specialists and clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boekel, Leonieke C; Brouwers, Evelien Pm; van Weeghel, Jaap; Garretsen, Henk Fl

    2015-09-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) are among the most severely stigmatised conditions; however, little is known about the nature of these stigmatising attitudes. To assess and compare stigmatising attitudes towards persons with SUDs among different stakeholders: general public, general practitioners (GPs), mental health and addiction specialists, and clients in treatment for substance abuse. Cross-sectional study (N = 3,326) in which stereotypical beliefs, attribution beliefs (e.g. perceptions about controllability and responsibility for having an addiction), social distance and expectations about rehabilitation opportunities for individuals with substance use disorders were assessed and compared between stakeholders. Individuals with substance use disorders elicited great social distance across all stakeholders. Stereotypical beliefs were not different between stakeholders, whereas attribution beliefs were more diverse. Considering social distance and expectations about rehabilitation opportunities, the general public was most pessimistic, followed by GPs, mental health and addiction specialists, and clients. Stereotypical and attribution beliefs, as well as age, gender and socially desirable answering, were not associated with social distance across all stakeholders. The general public and GPs expressed more social distance and were more negative in their expectations about rehabilitation opportunities, compared to mental health and addiction specialists and clients. Although stigmatising attitudes were prevalent across all groups, no striking differences were found between stakeholders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Making ATLAS Data from CERN Accessible to the General Public: The Development and Evaluation of a Learning Resource in Experimental Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hagesjo, Louise; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Christiansen, Iben

    2017-08-15

    In 2016, the ATLAS experiment at CERN released data from 100 trillion proton-proton collisions to the general public. In connection to this release the ATLAS Outreach group has developed several tools for visualizing and analyzing the data, one of which is a Histogram analyzer. The focus of this project is to bridge the gap between the general public's knowledge in physics and what is needed to use this Histogram analyzer. The project consists of both the development and an evaluation of a learning resource that explains experimental particle physics for a general public audience. The learning resource is a website making use of analogies and two perspectives on learning: Variation Theory and Cognitive Load Theory. The evaluation of the website was done using a survey with 10 respondents and it focused on whether analogies and the perspectives on learning helped their understanding. In general the respondents found the analogies to be helpful for their learning, and to some degree they found the explanations ...

  13. Research on a tool for organizational culture assessment of public general hospitals in China%公立医院组织文化测评量表研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍; 常继乐; 黄金星; 李岚; 唐智柳; 黄葭燕; 伍蓉; 薛迪

    2011-01-01

    Objective A scientific evaluation of hospital culture with the Dimension organizational culture model, in view of features of China's general public hospitals.Methods Based on Denison model, according to the characteristics of the public general hospitals in China, the authors developed a tool for organizational culture assessment (TOCA) by using the survey data from 87 hospitals in three provinces from the East, Central, and West areas in China.Results This tool, an evaluation scale, comprises the four cultural characteristics of direction, consistency, participation, and adaptability, as well as 13 cultural dimensions of social responsibility and competitive consciousness. The tool is tested as having good internal reliability and validity.Conclusion The TOCA provides hospital administrators with a tool for hospital culture evaluation, diagnosis and improvement.%目的借鉴Denison组织文化模型,结合我国公立综合性医院特点,科学测评医院文化.方法 运用我国东、中、西3省/直辖市的87所医院的调查数据,研究设计了医院文化测评量表.结果 医院文化测评量表包括方向性、一致性、参与性、适应性4大文化特性以及社会责任、竞争意识在内的13个文化维度,经检验,量表具有良好的内部信度和效度.结论 医院文化测评量表为医院管理者进行医院文化测评、诊断和改善提供了测评工具.

  14. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  15. Anatomy of a public health agency turnaround: the case of the general health district in Mahoning County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Peggy A; Stefanak, Matthew; Dessens, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A turnaround describes an organization's ability to recover from successive periods of decline. Current and projected declines in US economic conditions continue to place local public health departments at risk of fiscal exigency. This examination focused on turnaround methodologies used by a local public health department to reverse successive periods of operational and financial declines. Illustrations are provided on the value added by implementing financial ratio and trend analysis in addition to using evidence-based private sector turnaround strategies of retrenchment, repositioning, and reorganization. Evidence has shown how the financial analysis and strategies aided in identifying operational weakness and set in motion corrective measures. The Public Health Uniform Data System is introduced along with a list of standards offered for mainstreaming these and other routine stewardship practices to diagnose, predict, and prevent agency declines.

  16. Perceptions of point-of-care infectious disease testing among European medical personnel, point-of-care test kit manufacturers, and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaman WE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wendy E Kaman,1 Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou,2 John P Hays11Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The NetherlandsBackground: The proper development and implementation of point-of-care (POC diagnostics requires knowledge of the perceived requirements and barriers to their implementation. To determine the current requirements and perceived barriers to the introduction of POC diagnostics in the field of medical microbiology (MM-POC a prospective online survey (TEMPOtest-QC was established.Methods and results: The TEMPOtest-QC survey was online between February 2011 and July 2012 and targeted the medical community, POC test diagnostic manufacturers, general practitioners, and the general public. In total, 293 individuals responded to the survey, including 91 (31% medical microbiologists, 39 (13% nonmedical microbiologists, 25 (9% employees of POC test manufacturers, and 138 (47% members of the general public. Responses were received from 18 different European countries, with the largest percentage of these living in The Netherlands (52%. The majority (>50% of medical specialists regarded the development of MM-POC for blood culture and hospital acquired infections as “absolutely necessary”, but were much less favorable towards their use in the home environment. Significant differences in perceptions between medical specialists and the general public included the: (1 Effect on quality of patient care; (2 Ability to better monitor patients; (3 Home testing and the doctor-patient relationship; and (4 MM-POC interpretation. Only 34.7% of the general public is willing to pay more than €10 ($13 for a single MM-POC test, with 85.5% preferring to purchase their MM-POC test from a pharmacy.Conclusion: The requirements for the proper implementation of MM-POC were found to be generally similar between medical

  17. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Gregori M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manuela De Gregori,1-3,* Valeria Scotti,4,* Annalisa De Silvestri,4 Moreno Curti,4 Guido Fanelli,2,5,6 Massimo Allegri,2,5,6 Michael E Schatman,2,7 1Pain Therapy Service, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 2Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research Group, Parma, Italy; 3Young Against Pain Group, Parma, Italy; 4Center for Scientific Documentation and Biometry Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 5Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Parma, Italy; 6Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy Service, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy; 7US Pain Foundation, Bellevue, WA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as “individual publications”. For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists, we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%, discussed

  18. Hypothesis: Is frequent, commercial jet travel by the general public a risk factor for developing cutaneous melanoma? [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Arbesman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma incidence has been increasing worldwide over the past 50 years and various risk factors have been identified. Interestingly, multiple studies have shown a multifold increased risk of developing melanoma in jet pilots and airline crew. There has also been a dramatic increase in the availability and frequency of jet travel by the general population during this time period.. Therefore, it is hypothesized that frequent commercial jet travel may represent an additional risk factor for the development of cutaneous melanoma in susceptible individuals of the general public.

  19. Dynamical Configurations of Celestial Systems Comprised of Multiple Irregular Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yu; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript considers the main features of the nonlinear dynamics of multiple irregular celestial body systems. The gravitational potential, static electric potential, and magnetic potential are considered. Based on the three established potentials, we show that three conservative values exist for this system, including a Jacobi integral. The equilibrium conditions for the system are derived and their stability analyzed. The equilibrium conditions of a celestial system comprised of n irregular bodies are reduced to 12n minus 9 equations. The dynamical results are applied to simulate the motion of multiple-asteroid systems. The simulation is useful for the study of the stability of multiple irregular celestial body systems and for the design of spacecraft orbits to triple asteroid systems discovered in the solar system. The dynamical configurations of the five triple-asteroid systems 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 216 Kleopatra, and 136617 1994CC, and the six-body system 134340 Pluto are calculated and...

  20. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han [Waltham, MA; LaConti, Anthony B [Lynnfield, MA; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K [Natick, MA; McCallum, Thomas J [Ashland, MA

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  1. Complete Recycling of Composite Material Comprising Polybutylene Terephthalate and Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Knappich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials comprising plastic and metal parts generate a large amount of waste containing valuable components that are difficult to separate and recycle. We therefore developed an economical solvent-based process for the recovery of costly manufactured composite materials comprising several copper panels over-moulded with a polymeric matrix of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT. We applied the CreaSolv® Process, which uses proprietary formulations with a low risk to user and environment, in order to dissolve the polymer and retain the inert copper. After separating the metal from the solution, solvent recovery was achieved by means of vacuum distillation and melt degassing extrusion. The recovered solvent was collected and recycled while maintaining its original properties. We tested two candidate solvents with PBT, measuring their impact on the molecular weight (Mw and polydispersity of the polymer at different residence times and dissolution temperatures. We found that increasing the temperature-time-load had a negative effect on the Mw. Both solvents we tested were able to dissolve the polymeric matrix within 30 min and with moderate energy consumption. Furthermore, we found that the exclusion of oxygen during dissolution significantly increases the quality of the recovered polymer and metal. We transferred the process from the laboratory scale to the small-technical scale and produced material for large analytical and mechanical quality evaluation, revealing no decline in the polymer quality by blending with new plastic. The recovered copper met virgin material properties. Therefore, both components of the original composite material have been recovered in a form suitable for reuse.

  2. Expectations for the methodology and translation of animal research: a survey of the general public, medical students and animal researchers in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Ari R; Bara, Meredith; Anton, Natalie; Nobis, Nathan

    2016-09-01

    To determine what are considered acceptable standards for animal research (AR) methodology and translation rate to humans, a validated survey was sent to: a) a sample of the general public, via Sampling Survey International (SSI; Canada), Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT; USA), a Canadian city festival (CF) and a Canadian children's hospital (CH); b) a sample of medical students (two first-year classes); and c) a sample of scientists (corresponding authors and academic paediatricians). There were 1379 responses from the general public sample (SSI, n = 557; AMT, n = 590; CF, n = 195; CH, n = 102), 205/330 (62%) medical student responses, and 23/323 (7%, too few to report) scientist responses. Asked about methodological quality, most of the general public and medical student respondents expect that: AR is of high quality (e.g. anaesthesia and analgesia are monitored, even overnight, and 'humane' euthanasia, optimal statistical design, comprehensive literature review, randomisation and blinding, are performed), and costs and difficulty are not acceptable justifications for lower quality (e.g. costs of expert consultation, or more laboratory staff). Asked about their expectations of translation to humans (of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and treatment findings), most expect translation more than 60% of the time. If translation occurred less than 20% of the time, a minority disagreed that this would "significantly reduce your support for AR". Medical students were more supportive of AR, even if translation occurred less than 20% of the time. Expectations for AR are much higher than empirical data show to have been achieved.

  3. Knowledge, attitude, and practices concerning presence of molds in foods among members of the general public in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matumba, Limbikani; Monjerezi, Maurice; Kankwamba, Henry; Njoroge, Samuel M C; Ndilowe, Peter; Kabuli, Hilda; Kambewa, Daimon; Njapau, Henry

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the public in Malawi on issues related to molds in foodstuffs. A survey involving structured questionnaire was conducted with 805 respondents from seven districts of Malawi. Descriptive statistics, t tests, and analyses of variance were calculated. A majority of respondents recognized that molds were dangerous to human health (88%); however, about 50% of respondents were not informed that mold toxins are thermally stable and that they are not destroyable by normal cooking processes. About 33% of the respondents asserted that they buy moldy maize, while approximately 20% of respondents reported that they consume moldy fruits having discarded moldy fraction. There were significant differences in knowledge scores among different demographic groups. Females had significantly (p public's knowledge about health risks associated with spoilage molds in food and prevention and management options.

  4. Accessibility of general practitioners and selected specialist physicians by car and by public transport in a rural region of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stentzel, Ulrike; Piegsa, Jens; Fredrich, Daniel; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; van den Berg, Neeltje

    2016-01-01

    Background The accessibility of medical care facilities in sparsely populated rural regions is relevant especially for elderly people which often represent a large segment of the population in such regions. Elderly people have higher morbidity risks and a higher demand for medical care. Although travelling with private cars is the dominating traffic mode in rural regions, accessibility by public transport is increasingly important especially because of limited mobility of elderly people. The ...

  5. An analysis of potassium iodide (KI) prophylaxis for the general public in the event of a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behling, H.; Behling, K. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Amarasooriya, H.; Kotsch, J. [Scientech, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-02-01

    A generic difficulty encountered in cost-benefit analyses is the quantification of major elements that define the costs and the benefits in commensurate units. In this study, the costs of making KI available for public use, and the avoidance of thyroidal health effects predicted to be realized from the availability of that KI (i.e., the benefits), are defined in the commensurate units of dollars.

  6. Raising awareness of carrier testing for hereditary haemoglobinopathies in high-risk ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a pilot study among the general public and primary care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Martina C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands no formal recommendations exist concerning preconceptional or antenatal testing for carriership of hereditary haemoglobinopathies. Those at highest risk may be unaware of the possibility of carrier screening. While universal newborn screening has recently been introduced, neither preconceptional nor antenatal carrier testing is routinely offered by health care services to the general public. A municipal health service and a foundation for public information on medical genetics undertook a pilot project with the aim of increasing knowledge and encouraging informed choice. Two groups were targeted: members of the public from ethnic groups at increased risk, and primary health care providers. This study examines the effectiveness of culturally specific 'infotainment' to inform high-risk ethnic groups about their increased risk for haemoglobinopathies. In addition, the study explores attitudes and intentions of primary care providers towards haemoglobinopathy carrier testing of their patients from high-risk ethnic groups. Methods Informational sessions tailored to the public or professionals were organised in Amsterdam, and evaluated for their effect. Psychological parameters were measured using structured questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Results The pre-test/post-test questionnaire showed that members of the public gained understanding of inheritance and carriership of haemoglobinopathies from the "infotainment" session (p Conclusion The "infotainment" programme may have a positive effect on people from high-risk groups, but informed general practitioners and midwives were reluctant to facilitate their patients' getting tested. Additional initiatives are needed to motivate primary care providers to facilitate haemoglobinopathy carrier testing for their patients from high-risk backgrounds.

  7. STREPTOMYCES SPECIES COMPRISING THE BLUE-SPORE SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TREJO, W H; BENNETT, R E

    1963-03-01

    Trejo, W. H. (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N.J.) and R. E. Bennett. Streptomyces species comprising the blue-spore series. J. Bacteriol. 85:676-690. 1963.-The objective of this study was to define and delimit the streptomycetes of the blue-spored (Viridochromogenes) series. The series, as defined in this study, includes 11 blue and blue-green species. The green-spored species were excluded on the basis of morphology as well as color. It was proposed that NRRL B-1511 be designated as the neotype strain of Streptomyces viridochromogenes (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici, and that IMRU 3761 be designated as the neotype for Streptomyces cyaneus (Krassilnikov) Waksman. Evidence was presented to show that physiological criteria cannot be used to differentiate these organisms below the series level. The major characteristics of the Viridochromogenes series are blue to blue-green spores borne in spirals, and chromogenicity (melanin-positive). Reverse color and spore morphology provide a basis for separation below the series level.

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  9. The Use of Counter-Attack in Apologetic Public Relations Crises: The Case of General Motors vs. Dateline NBC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearit, Keith Michael

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes an apologetic exchange between General Motors (GM) and NBC in 1992-93 over the safety of GM's C/K trucks. Concludes that NBC and GM used "kategoria-based apologiae," a heavy-handed strategy, in their interchange, but that, when used correctly, the strategy can be an important resource in challenging inaccurate and/or misleading…

  10. CREATION OF PUBLIC DIGITAL EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS AS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR FOR IMPROVING OF GENERAL EDUCATION QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii Yu. Pylypchuk

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems that must be addressed for digital educational resources to meet current requirements and to ensure their general education, analyzed ways to solve these problems abroad, particularly in the Russian Federation, and suggested possible ways to address them in Ukraine.

  11. 26 CFR 20.2055-1 - Deduction for transfers for public, charitable, and religious uses; in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to the benefit of any private stockholder or individual (other than as a legitimate object of such... specified requirements. (b) Powers of appointment—(1) General rule. A deduction is allowable under section...) of this section by the exercise, failure to exercise, release or lapse of a power of appointment...

  12. VIRTUAL MUSEUMS OF PUBLIC ART: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS AND SPECIFICITIES OF THE PROJECT FOR THE MUNICIPAL WEB OF ZARAGOZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Pedro Lorente

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a foretaste of the catalogue of public art currently being carried out by a multidisciplinary team of researchers for the web site of Saragossa City Council. It will be produced in collaboration with that of Barcelona, within a network of research projects financed by the Spanish Ministry of Education. We like to call it “virtual museum”, because it is going to be not just a register of schedules, but also a combination of itineraries and curatorial explanations. A first stage of the work will be available in internet by May 2008 at the following address: http://www.zaragoza.es/artepublico

  13. Understanding the relative valuation of research impact: a best–worst scaling experiment of the general public and biomedical and health researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, Alexandra; Potoglou, Dimitris; Patil, Sunil; Burge, Peter; Guthrie, Susan; King, Suzanne; Wooding, Steven; Grant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To test the use of best–worst scaling (BWS) experiments in valuing different types of biomedical and health research impact, and (2) to explore how different types of research impact are valued by different stakeholder groups. Design Survey-based BWS experiment and discrete choice modelling. Setting The UK. Participants Current and recent UK Medical Research Council grant holders and a representative sample of the general public recruited from an online panel. Results In relation to the study's 2 objectives: (1) we demonstrate the application of BWS methodology in the quantitative assessment and valuation of research impact. (2) The general public and researchers provided similar valuations for research impacts such as improved life expectancy, job creation and reduced health costs, but there was less agreement between the groups on other impacts, including commercial capacity development, training and dissemination. Conclusions This is the second time that a discrete choice experiment has been used to assess how the general public and researchers value different types of research impact, and the first time that BWS has been used to elicit these choices. While the 2 groups value different research impacts in different ways, we note that where they agree, this is generally about matters that are seemingly more important and associated with wider social benefit, rather than impacts occurring within the research system. These findings are a first step in exploring how the beneficiaries and producers of research value different kinds of impact, an important consideration given the growing emphasis on funding and assessing research on the basis of (potential) impact. Future research should refine and replicate both the current study and that of Miller et al in other countries and disciplines. PMID:27540096

  14. Thermoelectric material comprising scandium doped zinc cadmium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a composition of scandium doped Zinc Cadmium Oxide with the general formula ZnzCdxScyO which the inventors have prepared, and for which material the inventors have made the insight that it is particularly advantageous as an n-type oxide material, such as particularly advantageous...

  15. Preparedness actions towards seismic risk mitigation for the general public in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles: a mid-term appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Audru

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Martinique is a French island in the Lesser Antilles, with a high seismic hazard. In 2006, Martinican stakeholders involved in seismic safety formed the "Réplik" working group ("Aftershock" in French, the first of its kind in this region. This paper addresses a mid-term appraisal of the first seismic awareness campaign organised by Réplik from 2006 to 2011, and how it has modified, or not, local earthquake and tsunami preparedness. Despite efforts from Réplik to assess its efficiency through surveys, a growing gap is noted between the observed awareness and the actual preparedness of the public. As usual, gender, age, educational level, then boredom and saturation contribute to this discrepancy; strong cultural items may also influence the perception of actions. To remain efficient and respond to the public's expectations, Réplik must redirect its actions towards a cultural congruence of information: consideration of religion and local beliefs, comprehensive messages on TV and radio, use of the Creole language, participatory experiences and drills, and a little science. With this, the Réplik stakeholders can hope to increase Martinicans' involvement into the preparedness process, to cope quickly with a strong earthquake and this know-how can be shared with other seismically active islands in the Caribbean.

  16. Awareness of general public towards cancer prostate and screening practice in Arabic communities: a comparative multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Mostafa A; Rabah, Danny M; Wahdan, Iman H

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed at exploring the knowledge and beliefs of men aged forty years and over towards prostate cancer screening and early detection in three Arab countries. The field work was conducted in three countries; Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan, during the period February through December 2011. Our target population were men aged 40 years and over. It was a population-based cross sectional study comprising 400 subjects at each site. In addition to socio-demographic data, history of the present and past medical illness, practice history of prostatic cancer examination, family history of cancer prostate; participants were inquired about their knowledge and attitude towards prostate cancer and screening behavior using two different likert scales. The percentage of participants who practiced regular prostate check up ranged from 8-30%. They had poor knowledge and fair attitude towards prostate cancer screening behavior, where the mean total knowledge score was 10.25±2.5, 10.76±3.39 and 11.24±3.39 whereas the mean total attitude score was 18.3±4.08, 20.68±6.4 and 17.96±5.3 for Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan respectively. The respondents identified the physicians as the main sources of this information (62.4%), though they were not the main motives for regular checkup. Knowledge was the only significant predictor for participants' attitude in the multiple regression models. Participants' attitudes depends mainly on level of knowledge and quantity of information provided to the patients and their families. Such attitudes should rely on a solid background of proper information and motivation from physicians to enhance and empower behaviors towards prostate cancer screening practices.

  17. The rat pineal gland comprises an endocannabinoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marco; Habazettl, Iris; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2008-11-01

    In the mammalian pineal gland, the rhythm in melatonin biosynthesis depends on the norepinephrine (NE)-driven regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the penultimate enzyme of melatonin biosynthesis. A recent study showed that phytocannabinoids like tetrahydrocannabinol reduce AANAT activity and attenuate NE-induced melatonin biosynthesis in rat pineal glands, raising the possibility that an endocannabinoid system is present in the pineal gland. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed cannabinoid (CB) receptors and specific enzymes for endocannabinoid biosynthesis or catabolism in rat pineal glands and cultured pinealocytes. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed the presence of CB1 and CB2 receptor proteins, of N-acyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), an enzyme catalyzing endocannabinoid biosynthesis and of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid catabolizing enzyme, in pinealocytes, and in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers identified by double immunofluorescence with an antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase. The immunosignals for the CB2 receptor, NAPE-PLD, and FAAH found in pinealocytes did not vary under a 12 hr light:12 hr dark cycle. The CB1 receptor immunoreaction in pinealocytes was significantly reduced at the end of the light phase [zeitgeber time (ZT) 12]. The immunosignal for NAPE-PLD found in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers was reduced in the middle of the dark phase (ZT 18). Stimulation of cultured pinealocytes with NE affected neither the subcellular distribution nor the intensity of the immunosignals for the investigated CB receptors and enzymes. In summary, the pineal gland comprises indispensable compounds of the endocannabinoid system indicating that endocannabinoids may be involved in the control of pineal physiology.

  18. Analysis of the Activity of Fiscal Control Carried out by the General Directorate of Public Financem Maramures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Cucosel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Presently, Fiscal control activities are carried out by the bodies of fiscal control within the Ministry of Public Finance and its territorial units called fiscal control bodies, and by the specialized services of the local administrative authorities in order to handle local duties and taxes. The fiscal control includes a set of activities whose purpose is to verify the authenticity, legitimacy and sincerity of the tax statements, to verify that the taxpayers comply with their budget obligations and activities of investigation and finding tax evasion. The taxpayers – physical persons or legal entities, foreign and domestic, and associations with no legal entity status are subject to fiscal control if they have budget obligations.

  19. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Visual perception is very important for road users and in the dark it can be facilitated by public lighting. Public lighting has a mostly positive road safety effect. Installing public lighting on roads that were previously unlit generally results in fewer and less serious crashes. This effect seems

  20. Engaging general practitioners in public-private mix tuberculosis DOTS program in an urban area in Pakistan: need for context-specific approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethani, Amin; Zafar, Mubashir; Khan, Adeel Ahmed; Rabbani Sana, Unaib; Ahmed, Sana; Fatmi, Zafar

    2015-03-01

    A public-private mix tuberculosis (TB) DOTS project was implemented to enhance coverage and collaboration between the public and private sectors, with an objective to increase case detection and to improve TB case management in a large urban area. General practitioners (GPs) were trained to provide DOTS services. Patients were diagnosed and treated as per national guidelines and outcomes were reported to national TB control program. Treatment and sputum microscopy were provided free of cost. A total of 94 GPs were trained. In all, 57.4% of trained GPs remained actively involved in the project. Overall treatment success rate of the patients enrolled with the project was 86.3% with 8.7% default patients. Experience suggests that a more stringent selection criteria need to be followed for inclusion of GPs in the program to improve the success of the program. A multifaceted context specific approach is needed while working with private health care providers.

  1. Governor-General Leonard Wood’s neoliberal agenda of privatizing public assets stymied, 1921-1927

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Angel S. Ybiernas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available After a serious fiscal and financial crisis erupted in 1920 to 1921 (in the wake of the termination of World War I, the new American Governor General to the Philippines, U.S. Army Major General Leonard Wood, promised in his inaugural address to privatize the country’s government-owned and controlled corporations such as the Philippine National Bank and the Manila Railroad Company, among others. Wood’s neoliberal agenda in the Philippines was opposed by Filipino politicians in the executive and legislative departments from the start. This key policy disagreement climaxed in the resignation en masse of Governor Wood’s Filipino cabinet and the members of the executive-legislative Council of State in 1923. The particulars of the Cabinet Crisis of 1923 —the so-called Conley Affair— however, obscured from plain sight the true gravity of the broader conflict (i.e., Filipino opposition to Wood’s agenda.Moreover, the general perception that Governor Wood’s asset privatization program was successfully blocked by the Cabinet Crisis of 1923 is inaccurate. In truth, Wood was stymied by adverse international and national market conditions from 1921 to 1923. A further delay occurred from 1924 to 1926 when Governor Wood endeavored to get the Council of State and the Filipino Legislature’s Board of Control (an oversight committee on board his neoliberal agenda; he failed to get the support of the Filipino leaders in this regard. When Wood finally decided in 1926 to take unilateral steps, he was tied up by litigation (locally and in the United States arising from his actions until his death from an unsuccessful brain surgery in 1927.

  2. A Finger-Stick Whole-Blood HIV Self-Test as an HIV Screening Tool Adapted to the General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazuck, Thierry; Karon, Stephen; Gubavu, Camelia; Andre, Jerome; Legall, Jean Marie; Bouvet, Elisabeth; Kreplak, Georges; Teglas, Jean Paul; Pialoux, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the French Health Authority approved the use of HIV self-tests in pharmacies for the general public. This screening tool will allow an increase in the number of screenings and a reduction in the delay between infection and diagnosis, thus reducing the risk of further infections. We previously compared 5 HIV-self test candidates (4 oral fluid and one whole blood) and demonstrated that the whole blood HIV test exhibited the optimal level of performance (sensitivity/specificity). We studied the practicability of an easy-to-use finger-stick whole blood HIV self-test "autotest VIH®", when used in the general public. This multicenter cross-sectional study involved 411 participants from the Parisian region (AIDES and HF association) between April and July 2014 and was divided into 2 separate studies: one evaluating the capability of participants to obtain an interpretable result using only the information notice, and a second evaluating the interpretation of test results, using a provided chart. A total of 411 consenting participants, 264 in the first study and 147 in the second, were included. All participants were over 18 years of age. In the first study, 99.2% of the 264 participants correctly administered the auto-test, and 21.2% needed, upon their request, telephone assistance. Ninety-two percent of participants responded that the test was easy/very easy to perform, and 93.5% did not find any difficulty obtaining a sufficient good quantity of blood. In the second study, 98.1% of the 147 participants correctly interpreted the results. The reading/interpretation errors concerned the negative (2.1%) or the indeterminate (3.3%) auto-tests. The success rate of handling and interpretation of this self-test is very satisfactory, demonstrating its potential for use by the general public and its utility to increase the number of opportunities to detect HIV patients.

  3. A Finger-Stick Whole-Blood HIV Self-Test as an HIV Screening Tool Adapted to the General Public.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Prazuck

    Full Text Available In 2013, the French Health Authority approved the use of HIV self-tests in pharmacies for the general public. This screening tool will allow an increase in the number of screenings and a reduction in the delay between infection and diagnosis, thus reducing the risk of further infections. We previously compared 5 HIV-self test candidates (4 oral fluid and one whole blood and demonstrated that the whole blood HIV test exhibited the optimal level of performance (sensitivity/specificity. We studied the practicability of an easy-to-use finger-stick whole blood HIV self-test "autotest VIH®", when used in the general public.This multicenter cross-sectional study involved 411 participants from the Parisian region (AIDES and HF association between April and July 2014 and was divided into 2 separate studies: one evaluating the capability of participants to obtain an interpretable result using only the information notice, and a second evaluating the interpretation of test results, using a provided chart.A total of 411 consenting participants, 264 in the first study and 147 in the second, were included. All participants were over 18 years of age. In the first study, 99.2% of the 264 participants correctly administered the auto-test, and 21.2% needed, upon their request, telephone assistance. Ninety-two percent of participants responded that the test was easy/very easy to perform, and 93.5% did not find any difficulty obtaining a sufficient good quantity of blood. In the second study, 98.1% of the 147 participants correctly interpreted the results. The reading/interpretation errors concerned the negative (2.1% or the indeterminate (3.3% auto-tests.The success rate of handling and interpretation of this self-test is very satisfactory, demonstrating its potential for use by the general public and its utility to increase the number of opportunities to detect HIV patients.

  4. Entrance surface dose and image quality: comparison of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in general practitioner clinics, public and private hospitals in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambali, Ahmad Shariff; Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Wang, Hwee-Beng; Jamal, Noriah; Spelic, David C; Suleiman, Orhan H

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the entrance surface dose (ESD) and image quality of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations conducted at general practitioner (GP) clinics, and public and private hospitals in Malaysia. The surveyed facilities were randomly selected within a given category (28 GP clinics, 20 public hospitals and 15 private hospitals). Only departmental X-ray units were involved in the survey. Chest examinations were done at all facilities, while only hospitals performed abdominal examinations. This study used the x-ray attenuation phantoms and protocols developed for the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey program in the United States. The ESD was calculated from measurements of exposure and clinical geometry. An image quality test tool was used to evaluate the low-contrast detectability and high-contrast detail performance under typical clinical conditions. The median ESD value for the adult chest X-ray examination was the highest (0.25 mGy) at GP clinics, followed by private hospitals (0.22 mGy) and public hospitals (0.17 mGy). The median ESD for the adult abdominal X-ray examination at public hospitals (3.35 mGy) was higher than that for private hospitals (2.81 mGy). Results of image quality assessment for the chest X-ray examination show that all facility types have a similar median spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability. For the abdominal X-ray examination, public hospitals have a similar median spatial resolution but larger low-contrast detectability compared with private hospitals. The results of this survey clearly show that there is room for further improvement in performing chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in Malaysia.

  5. A five-year follow-up study of the general public awareness and perception of epilepsy in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagić, Dragan; Mastilica, Miroslav; Bagić, Anto

    2012-10-01

    Public reception of epilepsy in Croatia was re-assessed in 2009, 5 years after an initial survey, by interviewing 1000 randomly selected adults. Ninety-two percent (-5.0%) of the respondents had heard about epilepsy, 47% (-7.9%) knew someone with epilepsy, and 38.6% (-6.0%) had witnessed a seizure. Interviewees were quite ready to accept a person with epilepsy. Almost 8% (+1.1%) would object if their child played with a child with epilepsy, and 77.8% (+1.8%) believed that a child with epilepsy could succeed as well as a child without epilepsy. Although 45.9% (-6.6%) would approach a person having a seizure and help, 36.1% (+3.0%) would also call "911." Citizens of Croatia re-declared a high tolerance toward people with epilepsy and positive attitude toward children with epilepsy. Experiential factors remained strong predictors of more positive attitudes. A more prominent role of patients and implementation of social marketing in addressing a large persisting degree of prejudice and stigmatization worldwide are warranted.

  6. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  7. Measurements of Electric and Magnetic Field Intensities at 50 Hz Mains Frequency and Comparison of Measurement Results to ICNIRP's Reference Levels for General Public Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Cansız

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP accepted by many countries as well as Turkey is a commission which determines reference levels for general public and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and has intensive works on these issues. ICNIRP has published separately a low frequency band (0-100 kHz and a high frequency band (100 kHz-300 GHz guidelines which investigate the biological and potential health hazard effects of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. In this study, measurements of low frequency electric and magnetic fields were taken in 30 different locations in the city center of Diyarbakir. Some locations exceeding the reference levels for general public exposure specified by ICNIRP were determined in the measurements of low frequency electric and magnetic fields and then some assessments were made about them. Low frequency electric and magnetic field meter device which is named EHP-50C was used in the measurements. The measurement results were calculated as an average value of 6 minute measurements. In addition, under a high voltage power line during 60 minutes, electric and magnetic field intensity values were recorded in the same manner. As a result of recordings, changes in the electric and magnetic field intensity values were observed, and then these changes were shown on the charts.

  8. Aesthetic outcome of cleft lip and palate treatment. Perceptions of patients, families, and health professionals compared to the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Papamanou, Despina A; Christou, Panagiotis; Topouzelis, Nikolaos

    2013-10-01

    The aesthetic outcome of cleft treatment is of great importance due to its complex management and the psychosocial consequences of this defect. The aim of the study was to assess the aesthetic evaluations of patients following cleft surgery by various groups and investigate potential associations of the assessments with life quality parameters. Head photos of 12 adult patients with treated unilateral cleft lip and palate were evaluated by laypeople and professionals. A questionnaire was distributed and answered by the patients and their parents. Intra-panel agreement was high (α > 0.8) for laypeople and professionals. Between-groups agreement was high for both laypeople and professionals, but not when patients and/or parents were tested. Professionals, parents, and patients were more satisfied with patients' appearance than laypeople, although in general all groups were not highly satisfied. Low satisfaction with aesthetics correlated with increased self-reported influence of the cleft in the patients' social activity and professional life (0.56 cleft on the patient's social activity and professional life and underline the need for the highest quality of surgical outcome for this group of patients.

  9. How to fulfill residents' training needs and public service missions in outpatient general internal medicine? An observational pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Humair, Jean-Paul; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel

    2012-07-12

    QUESTION UNDER STUDY/PRINCIPLES: Ambulatory care is a mandatory component of post-graduate training in general internal medicine. Academic outpatient clinics face challenges in training residents in terms of exposure to sufficient patient case-mix, diversity of clinical activities and continuity of care while fulfilling their mission to provide care to vulnerable populations. We report the development and evaluation of a new postgraduate curriculum in ambulatory care in Geneva, Switzerland, designed to overcome such challenges. The content of learning activities was adapted to core competencies and learning objectives. In the new 2-year curriculum, residents had their working week divided into 2½ days of continuity clinic over two years, and 2½ days of 6 to 12 months rotations (e.g., walk-in clinics). Team work was consolidated through the creation of subunits including an attending physician, 1-2 senior residents during one year and 6- to 8 residents, who met in bi-monthly meetings with other health professionals. In both local and national surveys, residents and senior residents expressed an overall global satisfaction with the new curriculum. Nursing and administrative staff were less satisfied, because of reduced residents' time in each unit. Interprofessional meetings were highly appreciated for both patient care and team building. Management of residents' absences became more complex. The new curriculum met its goals in gaining residents' satisfaction and in reinforcing interprofessional collaboration although management of human resources became more complex. It also gave insights into challenges to be addressed when disseminating a new curriculum, such as strong leadership, educational expertise and management skills and tools.

  10. Effort-reward and work-life imbalance, general stress and burnout among employees of a large public hospital in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmig, Oliver; Brauchli, Rebecca; Bauer, Georg F

    2012-05-31

    Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and work-life imbalance (WLI) are recognised risk factors for work stress and burnout but have not been investigated conjointly so far and compared with each other in this regard. The present cross-sectional study provides initial evidence by studying associations of ERI and WLI with general stress and burnout simultaneously. The study was based on survey data collected in 2007 among the personnel of a large public hospital in the canton of Zurich covering a random sample of 502 employees of all professions and positions. Prevalence rates, correlation coefficients, standardised regression coefficients and odds ratios were calculated as measures of association. Concerning the main research question and relating to the entire study sample, WLI was found to be more strongly associated with general stress and burnout than ERI. As stratified analyses with regard to burnout have shown, this applied especially to nursing, technical care and emergency staffs who account for more than three fifths of the study population. But for other professional categories like physicians, therapists and medical-technical personnel the opposite of a stronger association of ERI with burnout was found. Results also suggested that general stress plays a (rather minor) mediating role in the relationships between ERI and burnout and particularly between WLI and burnout. For the prevention of chronic stress and burnout one should consider both high efforts put into work as well as all job demands that are competing and interfering with family responsibilities or other private activities should be considered.

  11. GRAS Flavoring Substances 25. The 25th publication by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association provides an update on reent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients generally recognized as safe under the Food Additives Amendment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Fukushima, S.; Gooderham, N.J.; Hecht, S.S.; Marnett, L.J.; Porthogese, P.S.; Rietjens, I.; Adams, T.B.; Gavin, C.L.; McGowen, M.M.; Taylor, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The 25th publication by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association provides an update on recent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients generally recognized as safe under the Food Additives Amendment.

  12. 21 October 2008 - LHC Inauguration - Deputy Minister for Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works T. Xanthopulos welcomed by CERN Director-General R. Aymar, visiting the ATLAS cavern and LHC tunnel and signing the electronic guest book with E. Tsesmelis.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Photo Service

    2008-01-01

    21 October 2008 - LHC Inauguration - Deputy Minister for Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works T. Xanthopulos welcomed by CERN Director-General R. Aymar, visiting the ATLAS cavern and LHC tunnel and signing the electronic guest book with E. Tsesmelis.

  13. A Finger-Stick Whole-Blood HIV Self-Test as an HIV Screening Tool Adapted to the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazuck, Thierry; Karon, Stephen; Gubavu, Camelia; Andre, Jerome; Legall, Jean Marie; Bouvet, Elisabeth; Kreplak, Georges; Teglas, Jean Paul; Pialoux, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2013, the French Health Authority approved the use of HIV self-tests in pharmacies for the general public. This screening tool will allow an increase in the number of screenings and a reduction in the delay between infection and diagnosis, thus reducing the risk of further infections. We previously compared 5 HIV-self test candidates (4 oral fluid and one whole blood) and demonstrated that the whole blood HIV test exhibited the optimal level of performance (sensitivity/specificity). We studied the practicability of an easy-to-use finger-stick whole blood HIV self-test “autotest VIH®”, when used in the general public. Methods and Materials This multicenter cross-sectional study involved 411 participants from the Parisian region (AIDES and HF association) between April and July 2014 and was divided into 2 separate studies: one evaluating the capability of participants to obtain an interpretable result using only the information notice, and a second evaluating the interpretation of test results, using a provided chart. Results A total of 411 consenting participants, 264 in the first study and 147 in the second, were included. All participants were over 18 years of age. In the first study, 99.2% of the 264 participants correctly administered the auto-test, and 21.2% needed, upon their request, telephone assistance. Ninety-two percent of participants responded that the test was easy/very easy to perform, and 93.5% did not find any difficulty obtaining a sufficient good quantity of blood. In the second study, 98.1% of the 147 participants correctly interpreted the results. The reading/interpretation errors concerned the negative (2.1%) or the indeterminate (3.3%) auto-tests. Conclusions The success rate of handling and interpretation of this self-test is very satisfactory, demonstrating its potential for use by the general public and its utility to increase the number of opportunities to detect HIV patients. PMID:26882229

  14. Using path analysis to examine causal relationships among balanced scorecard performance indicators for general hospitals: the case of a public hospital system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Chin; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Examining whether the causal relationships among the performance indicators of the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework exist in hospitals is the aim of this article. Data were collected from all twenty-one general hospitals in a public hospital system and their supervising agency for the 3-year period, 2000-2002. The results of the path analyses identified significant causal relationships among four perspectives in the BSC model. We also verified the relationships among indicators within each perspective, some of which varied as time changed. We conclude that hospital administrators can use path analysis to help them identify and manage leading indicators when adopting the BSC model. However, they should also validate causal relationships between leading and lagging indicators periodically because the management environment changes constantly.

  15. NAGT: Partnering to Expand and Improve the Teaching of Earth Sciences at all Levels of Instruction while Increasing Earth Literacy to the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbstrith, K. G.

    2016-12-01

    Now more than ever, we need an Earth literate public and a workforce that can develop and be engaged in viable solutions to current and future environmental and resource challenges. The National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) is a member driven organization dedicated to fostering improvement in the teaching of the Earth Sciences at all levels of formal and informal instruction, to emphasizing the cultural significance of the Earth sciences and to disseminating knowledge in this field to the general public. NAGT offers a number of ways to partner and collaborate including our sponsored sessions, events and programs; two publications; workshop programming; three topical focused divisions; educational advocacy; and website offerings hosted through the Science Education Resource Center (SERC). A growing number of associations, institutions, projects, and individual educators are strengthening their professional networks by partnering with NAGT. Locating and connecting members of the Earth education community with shared values and interest is an important part of collaborating and NAGT's topical divisions assist community members who wish to work on the topics of 2-year college faculty, geoscience education research, and teacher preparation. The NAGT website and the linked websites of its collaborating partners provides a peer reviewed venue for educators to showcase their pedagogy and to learn best practices of others. The annual Earth Educators' Rendezvous is an opportunity to network face-to-face with the Earth education community, strengthening our relationships while working with those who share our interests and challenges while also learning from those who have divergent experiences. NAGT is a non-profit organization that advocates for the advancement of the geosciences and supports the work of Earth educators and geoscience education researchers. For more information about NAGT, visit our website at www.nagt.org

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to diabetes mellitus among the general public in Galle district in Southern Sri Lanka: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H M M; Weerasinghe, N P; Dias, H; Weerarathna, T P

    2017-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a global epidemic with significant disability and premature death. Identification of the level of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) related to diabetes among the general public is important in strategies for prevention of diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted as a community based cross sectional study in three Medical Officers of Health (MOH) areas in Galle district. Previously healthy literate individuals who have not attended any diabetes education program in the last two years were selected for this study. A total of 277 participants were included in the study. The majority (77%) had either moderate (39%) or above moderate knowledge (38%) on diabetes mellitus. Even though, level of education was significantly and positively associated with knowledge (p = 0.001), the association of gender and age with knowledge was not significant. Unlike knowledge, the attitude towards diabetes was poor in majority (90%) and level of education had no significant effect on attitude. With regards to practices, more than half of study subjects never had their blood sugar checked and, about 65% used to take refined sugar liberally and a large majority (80%) had no regular exercise activity. Even though the majority (77%) had moderate or above moderate knowledge on diabetes, their attitudes towards diabetes was poor (88%). It appears that the higher knowledge on diabetes did not translate into good practices as over 50% of study subjects did not involve with any preventive measures. Therefore, more emphasis should be given to address the issue of poor attitude and practices towards diabetes mellitus among general public in Sri Lanka.

  17. Setting policy priorities to address eating disorders and weight stigma: views from the field of eating disorders and the US general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Austin, S Bryn; Luedicke, Joerg; King, Kelly M

    2014-05-29

    The prevalence and health consequences of eating disorders and weight stigmatization have prompted increasing discussion of potential policy actions to address these public health issues. The present study aimed to assess support for policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigmatization among the general public and relevant health professionals. An Internet survey was fielded to a national sample of 944 US adults and 1,420 members of professional organizations specializing in eating disorders to examine their support for 23 potential policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigma. Participants also rated policy actions according to their potential for positive impact and feasible implementation. Support for the majority of health and social policies was high in both samples. For example, strategies to 1) improve school-based health curriculum to include content aimed at preventing eating disorders, 2) require training for educators and health providers on the prevention and early identification of eating disorders, and 3) implement school-based anti-bullying policies that that protect students from being bullied about their weight, were supported by over two-thirds of participants. Our findings suggest that both health and social policy actions will be important in broader policy initiatives to address eating disorders and weight stigma.

  18. Setting policy priorities to address eating disorders and weight stigma: views from the field of eating disorders and the US general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence and health consequences of eating disorders and weight stigmatization have prompted increasing discussion of potential policy actions to address these public health issues. The present study aimed to assess support for policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigmatization among the general public and relevant health professionals. Methods An Internet survey was fielded to a national sample of 944 US adults and 1,420 members of professional organizations specializing in eating disorders to examine their support for 23 potential policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigma. Participants also rated policy actions according to their potential for positive impact and feasible implementation. Results Support for the majority of health and social policies was high in both samples. For example, strategies to 1) improve school-based health curriculum to include content aimed at preventing eating disorders, 2) require training for educators and health providers on the prevention and early identification of eating disorders, and 3) implement school-based anti-bullying policies that that protect students from being bullied about their weight, were supported by over two-thirds of participants. Conclusions Our findings suggest that both health and social policy actions will be important in broader policy initiatives to address eating disorders and weight stigma. PMID:24884645

  19. [Institutional support as a method of analysis-intervention in the context of public health policies: the experience in a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Maria Elizabeth Barros de; Guedes, Carla Ribeiro; Roza, Monica Maria Raphael

    2011-12-01

    The article addresses the elaboration of a method for analysis/intervention in the sphere of public health policies. It describes the introduction of the National Humanization Policy of the Unified Health System (SUS) in a general hospital. It proposes institutional support expressed as a method for doing things that seeks the creation of group action, work process analysis and involves examining work management methods. It relies on promotion of health, which implies the production of subjects. The promotion of health is a networking process that involves individuals, work processes, knowledge and power. The challenge of supporting this network is to foster the exercise of the role of individuals and summon the inherent creative potential of life for the construction of new ways of work management that are not new forms of subjection. The study aims to show that by means of institutional support it is possible to bring to the fore the forces involved in the promotion of health and thereby summon the groups for an analysis of its implications. The effects produced indicate that this is a powerful strategy for the intervention of work processes within the scope of public health policies.

  20. Public Airports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a vector point digital data structure that contains the locations of General Public Use Airports in the State of New Mexico. It only contains those...

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of Cylindrical Light Diffusers Comprised of Shape Memory Polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small IV, W; Buckley, P R; Wilson, T S; Loge, J M; Maitland, K D; Maitland, D J

    2007-01-29

    We have developed a technique for constructing light diffusing devices comprised of a flexible shape memory polymer (SMP) cylindrical diffuser attached to the tip of an optical fiber. Devices were fabricated by casting an SMP rod over the cleaved tip of an optical fiber and media blasting the SMP rod to create a light diffusing surface. The axial and polar emission profiles and circumferential (azimuthal) uniformity were characterized for various blasting pressures, nozzle-to-sample distances, and nozzle translation speeds. The diffusers were generally strongly forward-directed and consistently withstood over 8 W of incident infrared laser light without suffering damage when immersed in water. These devices are suitable for various endoluminal and interstitial biomedical applications.

  2. Knowledge, Beliefs and Attitudes of Patients and the General Public towards the Interactions of Physicians with the Pharmaceutical and the Device Industry: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlallah, Racha; Nas, Hala; Naamani, Dana; El-Jardali, Fadi; Hammoura, Ihsan; Al-Khaled, Lina; Brax, Hneine; Kahale, Lara; Akl, Elie A

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the evidence on the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of patients and the general public towards the interactions of physicians with the pharmaceutical and the device industry. We included quantitative and qualitative studies addressing any type of interactions between physicians and the industry. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE in August 2015. Two reviewers independently completed data selection, data extraction and assessment of methodological features. We summarized the findings narratively stratified by type of interaction, outcome and country. Of the 11,902 identified citations, 20 studies met the eligibility criteria. Many studies failed to meet safeguards for protecting from bias. In studies focusing on physicians and the pharmaceutical industry, the percentages of participants reporting awareness was higher for office-use gifts relative to personal gifts. Also, participants were more accepting of educational and office-use gifts compared to personal gifts. The findings were heterogeneous for the perceived effects of physician-industry interactions on prescribing behavior, quality and cost of care. Generally, participants supported physicians' disclosure of interactions through easy-to-read printed documents and verbally. In studies focusing on surgeons and device manufacturers, the majority of patients felt their care would improve or not be affected if surgeons interacted with the device industry. Also, they felt surgeons would make the best choices for their health, regardless of financial relationship with the industry. Participants generally supported regulation of surgeon-industry interactions, preferably through professional rather than governmental bodies. The awareness of participants was low for physicians' receipt of personal gifts. Participants also reported greater acceptability and fewer perceived influence for office-use gifts compared to personal gifts. Overall, there appears to be lower awareness, less concern and

  3. USEMS & GLASS: investigator-driven frontier research in earthquake physics. Ground-breaking research in Europe enhances outreach to the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, S.; di Toro, G.; Collettini, C.; Usems Team; Glass Team

    2011-12-01

    USEMS and GLASS are two projects financed by the European Research Council (ERC) as part of the ERC starting grants scheme within the FP7 framework. The rationale behind the funding scheme is to support some of the most promising scientific endeavours in Europe that are being led by young researchers, and to emphasize the excellence of individual ideas rather than specific research areas; in other words, to promote bottom-up frontier research. The general benefits of this rationale are evident in the two ongoing projects that deal with earthquake physics, as these projects are increasingly recognized in their scientific community. We can say that putting excellence at the heart of European Research strongly contributes to the construction of a European knowledge-based society. From a researcher point-of-view one of the most challenging aspects of these projects is to approach and convey the results of the projects to a general public, contributing to the construction of knowledge-based society. Luckily, media interest and the availability of a number of new communication tools facilitate the outreach of scientific achievements. The largest earthquakes during the last ten years (e.g. Sumatra 2004 and Japan 2011) have received widespread attention in the media world (TV, W.W.W., Newspaper and so on) for months, and successful research projects such as those above also become media protagonists, gaining their space in the media bullring. The USEMS principal investigator and his team have participated in several dissemination events in the Mass Media, such as interviews wit Italian and French TV national broadcasts (RAI Due TG2, RAI Uno Unomattina, Rai Tre Geo & Geo, FRANCE 2); interviews in scientific journals: SCIENCE (Sept. 2010), newspapers and web (Corriere della Sera, Il Gazzettino, Il Messagero, La Stampa, Libero, Il Mattino, Yahoo, ANSA, AdnKronos and AGI); radio (RadioRai Uno, RadioRai Tre Scienza); documentary "Die Eroberung der Alpen" produced by Tangram

  4. Attitudes regarding the national forensic DNA database: Survey data from the general public, prison inmates and prosecutors' offices in the Republic of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorović, Smilja; Mijović, Dragan; Radovanović Nenadić, Una; Savić, Marina

    2017-01-21

    Worldwide, the establishment of national forensic DNA databases has transformed personal identification in the criminal justice system over the past two decades. It has also stimulated much debate centering on ethical issues, human rights, individual privacy, lack of safeguards and other standards. Therefore, a balance between effectiveness and intrusiveness of a national DNA repository is an imperative and needs to be achieved through a suitable legal framework. On its path to the European Union (EU), the Republic of Serbia is required to harmonize its national policies and legislation with the EU. Specifically, Chapter 24 of the EU acquis communautaire (Justice, Freedom and Security) stipulates the compulsory creation of a forensic DNA registry and adoption of corresponding legislation. This process is expected to occur in 2016. Thus, in light of launching the national DNA database, the goal of this work is to instigate a consultation with the Serbian public regarding their views on various aspects of the forensic DNA databank. Importantly, this study specifically assessed the opinions of distinct categories of citizens, including the general public, the prosecutors' offices staff, prisoners, prison guards, and students majoring in criminalistics. Our findings set a baseline for Serbian attitudes towards DNA databank custody, DNA sample and profile inclusion and retention criteria, ethical issues and concerns. Furthermore, results clearly demonstrate a permissive outlook of the respondents who are professional "beneficiaries" of genetic profiling and a restrictive position taken by the respondents whose genetic material has been acquired by the government. We believe that this opinion poll will be essential in discussions regarding a national DNA database, as well as in motivating further research on the reasons behind the observed views and subsequent development of educational strategies. All of these are, in turn, expected to aid the creation of suitable

  5. [PECULIARITY OF NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS PROGRAM, JAPAN--Public-Private Mix from the Very Beginning, and Provision of X-ray Apparatus in Most General Practitioner's Clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, Tadao

    2016-02-01

    Modern National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) of Japan started in 1951 when Tuberculosis (TB) Control Law was legislated, and 3 major components were health examination by tuberculin skin test (TST) and miniature X-ray, BCG vaccination and extensive use of modern TB treatment. As to the treatment program, Japan introduced Public-Private Mix (PPM) from the very beginning, and major reasons why PPM was adopted are (1) TB was then highly prevalent (Table 1), (2) TB sanatoria where many specialists are working are located in remote inconvenient places due to stigma against TB, (3) health centers (HCs) in Japan are working exclusively on prophylactic activities, and minor exceptions are treatment of sexually transmitted diseases and artificial pneumothorax for TB cases, however, as it covers on the average 100,000 population, access is not so easy in rural area, (4) Out-patients clinics mainly operated by general practitioners (GPs) are located throughout Japan, and the access is easy. Methods of TB treatment was developing rapidly in early 1950s, however, in 1952, as shown in Table 2, artificial pneumothorax and peritoneum were still used in many cases, and to fix the dosage of refill air, fluoroscopy was needed. Hence, GPs treating TB under TB Control Law had to be equipped with X-ray apparatus. To maintain the quality of TB treatment, "Criteria for TB treatment" was provided and revised taking into consideration the progress in TB treatment. If applied methods of treatment fit with the above criteria, public support is made for the cost of TB treatment. To discuss the applied treatment, TB Advisory Committee was set in each HC, composing of 5 members, director of HC, 2 TB specialists and 2 doctors recommended by the local medical association. In 1953, the first TB prevalence survey using stratified random sampling method was carried out, and the prevalence of TB requiring treatment was estimated at 3.4%, and only 21% of found cases knew their own disease, and more than

  6. Data on motivational factors of the medical and nursing staff of a Greek Public Regional General Hospital during the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Charalambous

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present the data related to motivational factors given by the medical (n=118 and nursing (n=217 staff, of a Greek Public General Hospital during a period of financial austerity. The data collection has been based on a structured self-administrable questionnaire which was used in a previous survey in Cyprus (Chatzicharalambous, 2015 [1]. The incentives-rewards included amount in a total to 11 (both financial and non-financial. The data contains 4 parts: (1 demographics, (2 assessment of the degree to which this hospital provided such incentives-rewards, (3 personal assessment of the participants about the significance of these incentive-rewards and (4 to what extent these incentives-rewards have increased or decreased over the last five years due to the economic crisis. The sample was analyzed as a whole on demographics and by a professional subgroup (doctors and nurses for the other three parts. The data include quantitative tables for all parts. Finally include three tables contain multilevel models.

  7. The systematic development of a brief intervention to increase walking in the general public using an "extended" theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David P; Darker, Catherine D; Eves, Frank F; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2013-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has been extensively used in predictive studies, but there have been considerably fewer experimental tests of the theory. One reason for this is that the guidance on developing concrete intervention strategies from the abstract theory is vague, and there are few exemplars of how to do this. The aim of this article is to provide such an exemplar. The development of an intervention to increase walking in the general public is described, based on the TPB, extended to include postvolitional processes. Identification of target constructs, elicitation of key salient beliefs underpinning these constructs, selection of appropriate behavior change techniques, and technique refinement. Each step is based on available evidence and consistent with theory. Perceived behavioral control (PBC) was identified as the key determinant of walking intentions, with an "intention-behavior gap" noted. A brief intervention was developed, using techniques to increase PBC by rehearsal of previous successful performance of behavior, along with planning techniques to translate motivation into behavior. This systematic approach taken should provide a model for others. The intervention has demonstrated efficacy in producing large changes in objectively measured walking behavior, in 2 separate evaluations reported elsewhere.

  8. Development and preliminary evaluation of an online educational video about whole-genome sequencing for research participants, patients, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Suckiel, Sabrina A; Zweig, Micol; Bottinger, Erwin P; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Richardson, Lynne D

    2016-05-01

    As whole-genome sequencing (WGS) increases in availability, WGS educational aids are needed for research participants, patients, and the general public. Our aim was therefore to develop an accessible and scalable WGS educational aid. We engaged multiple stakeholders in an iterative process over a 1-year period culminating in the production of a novel 10-minute WGS educational animated video, "Whole Genome Sequencing and You" (https://goo.gl/HV8ezJ). We then presented the animated video to 281 online-survey respondents (the video-information group). There were also two comparison groups: a written-information group (n = 281) and a no-information group (n = 300). In the video-information group, 79% reported the video was easy to understand, satisfaction scores were high (mean 4.00 on 1-5 scale, where 5 = high satisfaction), and knowledge increased significantly. There were significant differences in knowledge compared with the no-information group but few differences compared with the written-information group. Intention to receive personal results from WGS and decisional conflict in response to a hypothetical scenario did not differ between the three groups. The educational animated video, "Whole Genome Sequencing and You," was well received by this sample of online-survey respondents. Further work is needed to evaluate its utility as an aid to informed decision making about WGS in other populations.Genet Med 18 5, 501-512.

  9. Obese children, adults and senior citizens in the eyes of the general public: results of a representative study on stigma and causation of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sikorski

    Full Text Available Obese individuals are blamed for their excess weight based on causal attribution to the individual. It is unclear whether obese individuals of different age groups and gender are faced with the same amount of stigmatization. This information is important in order to identify groups of individuals at risk for higher stigmatization and discrimination. A telephone interview was conducted in a representative sample of 3,003 participants. Experimental manipulation was realized by vignettes describing obese and normal-weight children, adults and senior citizens. Stigmatizing attitudes were measured by semantic differential. Causal attribution was assessed. Internal factors were rated with highest agreement rates as a cause for the vignette's obesity. Lack of activity behavior and eating too much are the most supported causes. Importance of causes differed for the different vignettes. For the child, external causes were considered more important. The overweight vignette was rated consistently more negatively. Higher educational attainment and personal obesity were associated with lower stigmatizing attitudes. The vignette of the obese child was rated more negatively compared to that of an adult or senior citizen. Obesity is seen as a controllable condition, but for children external factors are seen as well. Despite this finding, they are faced with higher stigmatizing attitudes in the general public, contradicting attribution theory assumptions. Internal and external attribution were found to be inter-correlated. Obese children are the population most at risk for being confronted with stigmatization, making them a target point in stigma-reduction campaigns.

  10. Obese children, adults and senior citizens in the eyes of the general public: results of a representative study on stigma and causation of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Brähler, Elmar; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2012-01-01

    Obese individuals are blamed for their excess weight based on causal attribution to the individual. It is unclear whether obese individuals of different age groups and gender are faced with the same amount of stigmatization. This information is important in order to identify groups of individuals at risk for higher stigmatization and discrimination. A telephone interview was conducted in a representative sample of 3,003 participants. Experimental manipulation was realized by vignettes describing obese and normal-weight children, adults and senior citizens. Stigmatizing attitudes were measured by semantic differential. Causal attribution was assessed. Internal factors were rated with highest agreement rates as a cause for the vignette's obesity. Lack of activity behavior and eating too much are the most supported causes. Importance of causes differed for the different vignettes. For the child, external causes were considered more important. The overweight vignette was rated consistently more negatively. Higher educational attainment and personal obesity were associated with lower stigmatizing attitudes. The vignette of the obese child was rated more negatively compared to that of an adult or senior citizen. Obesity is seen as a controllable condition, but for children external factors are seen as well. Despite this finding, they are faced with higher stigmatizing attitudes in the general public, contradicting attribution theory assumptions. Internal and external attribution were found to be inter-correlated. Obese children are the population most at risk for being confronted with stigmatization, making them a target point in stigma-reduction campaigns.

  11. From Public Relations to Corporate Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    -win solutions supported by the general public. While existing research suggests that an important function of public relations is to create a perception of legitimacy and that the hope of economic and commercial public diplomacy is to create a perception of attractiveness among the public in foreign countries...

  12. El Acuerdo General sobre el Comercio de Servicios y sus implicaciones para la salud pública General Agreement on Trade in Services and its implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Umaña-Peña

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la importancia económica del sector servicios y a su potencial comercial, en 1995 entró en vigor el Acuerdo General sobre el Comercio de Servicios (AGCS de la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC, cuyos objetivos son liberalizar el comercio de servicios y establecer las normas y disciplinas que lo rijan. Sin embargo, hasta el momento el acuerdo ha generado poca jurisprudencia sobre sus normas, y algunas de ellas están en proceso de elaboración, lo que le da un carácter ambiguo a la vez que dificulta precisar sus implicaciones. No obstante, algunos analistas consideran que ciertas características y disposiciones representarían una amenaza a los mecanismos de financiación de los servicios públicos, así como a la autonomía reglamentaria gubernamental. Además, el acuerdo llevaría a la formalización de compromisos de carácter irreversible, que impedirían el restablecimiento de condiciones previas, en caso de que fallasen los sistemas de mercado y la participación privada; por otra parte, estaría en oposición a los monopolios y proveedores exclusivos y, en cierto grado, afectaría a los subsidios de los proveedores locales. La capacidad del Tribunal de Justicia de las Comunidades Europeas para forzar la implementación de medidas competitivas en los servicios públicos genera incertidumbre por sus implicaciones para los sistemas sanitarios. El acuerdo de España con la OMC tiene muchos aspectos aún por consolidar, lo que abre una oportunidad política para el debate y la participación desde el sector salud en sucesivas rondas de negociación.Due to the economic importance of the service sector and its trade potential, in 1995 the World Trade Organization (WTO launched the General Agreement on Trade in Services with the objective of liberalizing trade in services worldwide and of establishing rules and disciplines to regulate it. Until now, the Agreement has produced few case laws on its rules and some of them are in

  13. Relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic position and neighbourhood public green space availability: An environmental inequality analysis in a large German city applying generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Gabriel, Katharina M A; Bolte, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. Two different measures were defined for green space availability. Firstly, percentage of green space within neighbourhoods was calculated with the additional consideration of various buffers around the boundaries. Secondly, percentage of green space was calculated based on various radii around the neighbourhood centroid. An index of neighbourhood SEP was calculated with principal component analysis. Log-gamma regression from the group of generalized linear models was applied in order to consider the non-normal distribution of the response variable. All models were adjusted for population density. Low neighbourhood SEP was associated with decreasing neighbourhood green space availability including 200m up to 1000m buffers around the neighbourhood boundaries. Low neighbourhood SEP was also associated with decreasing green space availability based on catchment areas measured from neighbourhood centroids with different radii (1000m up to 3000 m). With an increasing radius the strength of the associations decreased. Social unequally distributed green space may amplify environmental health inequalities in an urban context. Thus, the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods and population groups plays an important role for epidemiological research and healthy city planning. As a methodical aspect, log-gamma regression offers an adequate parametric modelling strategy for positively distributed environmental variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Domains of quality of life: results of a three-stage Delphi consensus procedure among patients, family of patients, clinicians, scientists and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietersma, Suzanne; de Vries, Marieke; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske

    2014-06-01

    Our key objective is to identify the core domains of health-related quality of life (QoL). Health-related QoL utility scales are commonly used in economic evaluations to assess the effectiveness of health-care interventions. However, health-care interventions are likely to affect QoL in a broader sense than is quantifiable with traditional scales. Therefore, measures need to go beyond these scales. Unfortunately, there is no consensus in the scientific literature on the essential domains of QoL. We conducted a three-stage online Delphi consensus procedure to identify the key domains of health-related QoL. Five stakeholder groups (i.e., patients, family of patients, clinicians, scientists and general public) were asked, on three consecutive occasions, what they perceive as the most important domains of health-related QoL. An analysis of existing (health-related) QoL and well-being measurements formed the basis of the Delphi-procedure. In total, 42 domains of QoL were judged, covering physical, mental and social aspects. All participants rated 'self-acceptance', 'self-esteem' and 'good social contacts' as essential. Strikingly, mental and social domains are perceived as more essential than physical domains across stakeholders groups. In traditionally used health-related QoL utility measures, physical domains like 'mobility' are prominently present. The Delphi-procedure shows that health-related QoL (utility) scales need to put sufficient emphasis on mental and social domains to capture aspects of QoL that are essential to people.

  15. Connecting the Pioneers, Current Leaders and the Nature and History of Space Weather with K-12 Classrooms and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C.; Thompson, B. J.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Barbier, B.; Odenwald, S.; Spadaccini, J.; James, N.; Stephenson, B.; Davis, H. B.; Major, E. R.; Space Weather Living History

    2011-12-01

    The Space Weather Living History program will explore and share the breakthrough new science and captivating stories of space environments and space weather by interviewing space physics pioneers and leaders active from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to the present. Our multi-mission project will capture, document and preserve the living history of space weather utilizing original historical materials (primary sources). The resulting products will allow us to tell the stories of those involved in interactive new media to address important STEM needs, inspire the next generation of explorers, and feature women as role models. The project is divided into several stages, and the first stage, which began in mid-2011, focuses on resource gathering. The goal is to capture not just anecdotes, but the careful analogies and insights of researchers and historians associated with the programs and events. The Space Weather Living History Program has a Scientific Advisory Board, and with the Board's input our team will determine the chronology, key researchers, events, missions and discoveries for interviews. Education activities will be designed to utilize autobiographies, newspapers, interviews, research reports, journal articles, conference proceedings, dissertations, websites, diaries, letters, and artworks. With the help of a multimedia firm, we will use some of these materials to develop an interactive timeline on the web, and as a downloadable application in a kiosk and on tablet computers. In summary, our project augments the existing historical records with education technologies, connect the pioneers, current leaders and the nature and history of space weather with K-12 classrooms and the general public, covering all areas of studies in Heliophysics. The project is supported by NASA award NNX11AJ61G.

  16. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  17. A keyboard for dynamic display and a system comprising the keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a dynamic display keyboard comprising a plurality of key elements, each key element comprises a transmitting part capable of transmitting at least a part of light incident on the transmitting part; an elastic mat comprising a plurality of elevated elements capable...... keyboard is able to provide a tactile feedback in response to a user action directed towards a key of the keyboard....

  18. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2017-09-05

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  19. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  20. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-10-04

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  1. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-08-02

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  2. Public debate on the general options relative to the management of high-medium activity and long-lived radioactive wastes; Debat public sur les options generales en matiere de gestion des dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. This document presents the organizational aspects of the debate: origin, organization committee (mission, members, commitments), framework (the December 31, 1991 law, technical enlargement, society aspects), topics (summary of the debate in ten questions), organization modalities (4 main steps, schedule, venues), objectives and perspectives (sharing information, decision making processes to be implemented by 2006). (J.S.)

  3. International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference. Papers of the Libraries Serving the General Public Division: Public Libraries, School Libraries and Mobile Libraries Sections (47th, Leipzig, East Germany, August 17-22, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedgeworth, Robert; And Others

    This collection of five papers on public, school, and mobile libraries includes discussions of: (1) public library associations in the United States, emphasizing major activities; (2) dental library institutions and services in Hungary, focusing on their functions and relationships with other institutions and organizations; (3) standards,…

  4. Understanding attitudes toward the control of nonnative wild and feral mammals: similarities and differences in the opinions of the general public, animal protectionists, and conservationists in New Zealand (aotearoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnworth, Mark J; Watson, Helen; Adams, Nigel J

    2014-01-01

    Lethal control is used extensively in New Zealand to control nonnative nonhuman mammals. Respondents were surveyed about 8 mammal groups considered pests and their attitudes toward their control and pest status. They also identified the most appropriate method of control for the 8 different mammals. Information was gathered from 3 groups of respondents: nonhuman animal protectionists, conservationists, and the general public. Conservationists routinely rated all animal groups as more severe pests than the general public or animal protectionists, who provided the lowest scores. Rats, stoats, brushtail possums, and rabbits were identified as the 4 most serious pests by all 3 groups. Conservationists were 5.7 and 2.6 times more likely to prefer a lethal method of control than protectionists and the general public, respectively. For all 3 groups an increase in pest score for a given animal saw a decline in importance placed upon the animal's welfare. This relationship was strong for the general public but weak for conservationists and animal protectionists. Understanding aspects of potentially opposing viewpoints may be invaluable in supporting the development of new welfare-focused control methods.

  5. Primary care and public health a natural alliance? The introduction of the guidelines for obesity and undernutrition of the Dutch College of General Practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avendonk, M.J.P van; Mensink, P.A.J.S.; Drenthen, A.J.; Binsbergen, J.J. van

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally and forms a huge public health problem. On the other hand, the prevalence of malnutrition or undernutrition is substantial, especially in nursing homes or in the elderly at home. Primary care and public health are separate disciplines.

  6. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the fer

  7. Polymer coating comprising 2-methoxyethyl acrylate units synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Source: US2012184029A The present invention relates to preparation of a polymer coating comprising or consisting of polymer chains comprising or consisting of units of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate synthesized by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (SI ATRP) such as ARGET SI ATRP...... or AGET SI ATRP and uses of said polymer coating....

  8. Method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattenberg, H.R.; Willemsen, J.H.A.; Starmans, D.A.J.; Hoving, H.D.; Winters, M.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Described is a method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material, such as coffee or tea, and in particular cocoa, at least comprising the steps of: introducing the food base material into an aqueous extractant and incubating the food base material

  9. Molecular sleds comprising a positively -charged amino acid sequence and a molecular cargo and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANGEL, WALTER, F; BLAINEY, PAUL; GRAZIANO, VITO; HERRMANN, ANDREAS; MCGRATH, WILLIAM, J; VAN OIJEN, ANTONIUS, MARTINUS; XIE, XIAOLIANG, SUNNEY

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions which may comprise a molecular sled linked to cargo and uses thereof. In particular, the present invention relates to a non-naturally occurring or engineered composition which may comprise a molecular sled, linkers and a molecular cargo connected to the

  10. Ball bearings comprising nickel-titanium and methods of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Glennon, Glenn N. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a friction reducing nickel-titanium composition. The nickel-titanium composition includes a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38. A bearing for reducing friction comprising a nickel-titanium composition comprising a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38; where the bearing is free from voids and pinholes.

  11. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2017-08-08

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  12. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2014-07-15

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  13. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the

  14. Analysis of spontaneous inquiries about suspected adverse drug reactions posted by the general public on the electronic Japanese bulletin board “Yahoo! Japan Chiebukuro”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobashi A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Akira Dobashi,1 Kaori Kurata,1 Mitsuhiro Okazaki,2,3 Mari Nishizawa4 1Education and Research Institute of Information Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji, Tokyo, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Health Innovation and Technology Center, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, 3Cross Care Field Co., Ltd., 4Yakuju Corporation, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: Spontaneous inquiries about the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs to medicines can be extracted based on the questions posted by the general public on the electronic Japanese bulletin board “Yahoo! Japan Chiebukuro”. Our aim was to clarify the characteristics related to people’s descriptions of suspected ADRs and determine the reasons for submitting a spontaneous inquiry. Methods: Fifty brand names of medicines used for inquiry extraction were chosen by selecting 35 pharmaceutical products, based on the generic names that had the highest sales in Japan. Questions containing both the brand name of one of these medicines and the term “Fukusayō” (ADR in Japanese that were posted from July 2004 to June 2009 were extracted from the site. Results: Among 1,419 questions extracted, 614 questions had at least one identifiable brand name of a suspected medicine, an ADR description, and the extent to which the ADR appeared to be caused by the suspected medicine(s. Among these 614 questions, 589 described in detail the symptoms/signs that the inquirers themselves or their families had experienced as ADRs. The highest number of questions was found for Paxil (525. Posts asking whether the symptoms being experienced were due to an ADR accounted for the highest number of questions. In most cases, the inquirer suspected that a single medicine led to an ADR and was seeking advice from others taking the same medicine. Conclusion: Our examination of spontaneous inquiries showed that people have sufficient knowledge to adequately report potential ADRs in terms of their symptoms

  15. The General Public’s Awareness of Early Symptoms of and Emergency Responses to Acute Myocardial Infarction and Related Factors in South Korea: A National Public Telephone Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sook Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prompt treatment affects prognosis and survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI onset. This study evaluated the awareness of early symptoms of AMI and knowledge of appropriate responses on symptom occurrence, along with related factors. Methods: Participants’ knowledge of the early symptoms of and responses to AMI onset were investigated using a random digit dialing survey. We included 9600 residents of 16 metropolitan cities and provinces in Korea. Results: The proportions of respondents who were aware of early symptoms of AMI ranged from 32.9% (arm or shoulder pain to 79.1% (chest pain and discomfort. Of the respondents, 67.0% would call an ambulance if someone showed signs of AMI, 88.7% knew ≥1 symptom, 10.9% knew all five symptoms, and 3.1% had excellent knowledge (correct identification of all five AMI symptoms, not answering “Yes” to the trap question, and correctly identifying calling an ambulance as the appropriate response when someone is exhibiting AMI symptoms. The odds ratio (OR for having excellent knowledge was significantly higher for those who graduated college or higher (OR 3.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–10.76 than for those with less than a primary school education, as well as for subjects with AMI advertisement exposure (OR 1.49; 95% CI, 1.10–2.02 and with knowledge of AMI (OR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.16–2.27. The 60- to 79-year-old group had significantly lower OR for excellent knowledge than the 20- to 39-year-old group (OR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.28–0.99. Conclusions: Awareness of AMI symptoms and the appropriate action to take after symptom onset in South Korea was poor. Therefore, educational and promotional strategies to increase the overall awareness in the general public, especially in the elderly and those with low education levels, are needed.

  16. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  17. Effort-reward and work-life imbalance, general stress and burnout among employees of a large public hospital in Switzerland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hämmig, Oliver; Brauchli, Rebecca; Bauer, Georg F

    2012-01-01

    .... The study was based on survey data collected in 2007 among the personnel of a large public hospital in the canton of Zurich covering a random sample of 502 employees of all professions and positions...

  18. Assessing the economic impact of public investment in Malaysia: a case study on MyRapid Transit project using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    OpenAIRE

    Muniandy, Meenachi

    2017-01-01

    The central focus of this thesis is the question of whether public investment in transport infrastructure contributes positively to Malaysia’s economic growth and welfare. Although there are strong analytical reasons to believe that public investment spending is one of the important variables that influence growth, there remains significant uncertainty about its actual degree of influence. In Malaysia, whenever there is a collapse in domestic demand, government spending becomes an important m...

  19. PUBLIC SCHOOL LAWS OF NORTH CAROLINA--COMMUNITY COLLEGES, TECHNICAL INSTITUTES, AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION CENTERS. CHAPTER 115A, GENERAL STATUTES OF NORTH CAROLINA, INCLUDING AMENDMENTS ADOPTED BY THE 1965 AND 1967 GENERAL ASSEMBLIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina General Assembly, Raleigh.

    CHAPTER 115A OF THE GENERAL STATUTES OF NORTH CAROLINA PROVIDES FOR THE STATE'S COMMUNITY COLLEGES, TECHNICAL INSTITUTES, AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION CENTERS. IT INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES--(1) GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR STATE ADMINISTRATION, (2) LOCAL ADMINISTRATION, (3) FINANCIAL SUPPORT, (4) BUDGETING, ACCOUNTING, AND FISCAL MANAGEMENT, (5)…

  20. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in melanoma comprise high numbers of T-cell clonotypes that are lost during in vitro culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    thor Straten, P; Kirkin, A F; Siim, E

    2000-01-01

    Melanoma is generally accepted as being an antigenic tumor capable of eliciting T-cell responses that, however, in most cases are inadequate to control tumor growth. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in melanoma lesions comprise clonotypic T cells, indicating the in situ recognition of melanoma......-associated peptide epitopes. Cultured TIL have been studied in order to unveil characteristics of TIL and the interactions of TIL and melanoma cells. Whether in vitro cultured TIL mirrors the in situ situation has, however, been questioned. In the present study we have taken advantage of T-cell receptor clonotype...

  1. Public knowledge and public trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    As health care applications derived from human genetics research are likely to move increasingly from 'clinic to community', there is growing interest not just in how patients understand and take up health-related genetic information but also in the views of the wider population, as well as a range of professional groups. In this paper, issues relating public knowledge and public trust are raised and discussed in an attempt to move forward debates about public involvement in genomic research and the role of sociologists within interdisciplinary teams. As the field of public understanding of science has developed, we have seen a shift from a focus on the lack of scientific literacy as problem to a recognition of the range of different knowledges that people have and use as they confront science and technology in their everyday lives. As a mood for dialogue pervades many institutions in their relations with 'publics', attention must now be paid to the way in which knowledge and expertise is expressed, heard and acted upon in dialogic encounters. There is increasing concern about public trust in science and calls to increase public confidence, particularly through more open engagement with a range of publics. However, lack of trust or loss of confidence may be constructed as problems rather than reflecting empirical reality, where more complex relationships and attitudes prevail. Lack of trust is often privatized, deeply rooted in lived experience and routinely managed. Trust relations are generally characterized by ambivalence, uncertainty and risk, and are always provisional. Drawing on selected literature and empirical research to review and illustrate this field, this paper argues that scepticism or ambivalence on the part of publics are not necessarily problems to be overcome in the interest of scientific progress, but rather should be mobilized to enhance open and public debates about the nature and direction of genomics research, medicine, and the related

  2. Nanolipoprotein particles comprising a natural rubber biosynthetic enzyme complex and related products, methods and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeprich, Paul D.; Whalen, Maureen

    2016-04-05

    Provided herein are nanolipoprotein particles that comprise a biosynthetic enzyme more particularly an enzyme capable of catalyzing rubber or other rubbers polymerization, and related assemblies, devices, methods and systems.

  3. Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes Comprising Magnetically Sensitive Metal Oxides in Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G. P. " Bud" (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is a nanoparticle mixture or suspension or nanofluid comprising nonmagnetically sensitive nanoparticles, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles, and surfactant(s). The present invention also relates to methods of preparing and using the same.

  4. Thermally stable drilling fluid additive comprised of a copolymer of catechol-based monomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, A.D.

    1986-06-17

    A water soluble polymer is described having thermal stability and exhibiting utility as an aqueous drilling fluid additive comprising: (a) a major portion of a catechol based monomer; (b) a minor portion of a dicarboxylic acid monomer.

  5. Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, C

    2000-11-01

    From 1990 to 1999, estimations of the effective dose from external as well as internal irradiation from {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia, highly contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The villages were situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant and the deposition of {sup 137}Cs was in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq/m{sup 2}. Yearly expeditions were conducted in autumn by members of the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmoe and Goeteborg, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg and the the first 5 years also by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The dose levels and their change in time were estimated for various groups of the general public. The body burden of {sup 134,137}Cs and hence, the effective dose, was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of cesium radionuclides, together with direct measurements of the body content using a portable detector. The effective dose from external irradiation was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a special case study, the changes in biokinetics of {sup 137}Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of {sup 137}Cs via mushrooms from a highly contaminated forest in the area. During pregnancy there is an increased excretion of cesium resulting in a biological half-time of cesium which was 54% of the half-time before pregnancy. The ratio of the {sup 137}Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq/l) to that in the mother's body (Bq/kg) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of {sup 137}Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in urine showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the cesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or

  6. Pharmaceutical compositions comprising lubricants for preventing or reducing aseptic loosening in a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising one or more amphiphilic polymer lubricants for use in association with artificial orthopaedic implants. Additionally, the invention relates to medical use of the lubricants of the invention in connection with conditions...... associated with artificial5 orthopaedic implants. The invention furthermore relates to artificial joint implants comprising the polymer lubricants according to the invention and methods for preparing such implants....

  7. Trends in Public Sector Arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Harry; Wallace, Virginia

    1982-01-01

    Presents developments in grievance arbitration in government employment by examining all public sector arbitration cases from 1971 through 1979. Predicts that issues of employee discipline and discharge will comprise the largest number of cases proceeding to arbitration. (Author/MLF)

  8. 32 CFR 705.5 - Taking of photos on board naval ships, aircraft and installations by members of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taking of photos on board naval ships, aircraft... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.5 Taking of photos on board naval ships, aircraft and installations by...

  9. International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference. Papers of the Libraries Serving the General Public Division, ROTNAC Section (47th, Leipzig, East Germany, August 17-22, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, Ed; And Others

    Three papers and a brief report on audiovisual services and the agencies providing them in three countries of western Europe include: (1) "National Service to Public Libraries in the Field of Audiovisual Media: The Situation in the Netherlands," by Ed Spruit, who discusses problems concerned with the inclusion of audiovisual media in…

  10. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8A: General Public Health Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests such as cockroaches, lice, fleas, and mites, vertebrate pests; and plant pests such as poison ivy and ragweed. A study guide…

  11. The Additive Impact of Group and Individual Publicly Displayed Feedback: Examining Individual Response Patterns and Response Generalization in a Safe-Driving Occupational Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Geller, E. Scott; Clarke, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on…

  12. 我国综合性公立医院价值观倾向的特征研究%Characteristic Analysis of Organizational Values of Public General Hospitals in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白飞; 张俊超; 常继乐; 黄金星; 周萍; 薛迪

    2013-01-01

    通过对我国东、中、西3省(直辖市)9个地区的78所综合性公立医院的13组价值观的倾向性调查,试图了解目前我国综合性公立医院的价值观面貌的特征.研究显示,我国综合性公立医院价值观倾向有较大的趋同性.对不同战略定位类型的医院分析显示,B类医院价值观倾向普遍趋向弱势,值得关注.%The article made a characteriStic analysis on organizational values of public general hospitals based on the surveying data from 78 public general hospitals in 9 regions of 3 provinces locating in eastern,central,western areas in China.It was found that public general hospitals shared common orientation feature.It deserved attention that the hospitals with Strategic-Positioning-B universally had lower values.

  13. Study on the Types of Strategic Positioning of Public General Hospitals in China%我国公立综合性医院战略定位类型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍; 常继乐; 黄金星; 白飞; 王评; 唐智柳; 伍蓉; 黄葭燕; 薛迪

    2011-01-01

    借鉴经营战略相关理论,结合我国特点,从业务定位、市场定位和竞争态势定位对我国公立综合性医院的战略定位分类进行了研究.通过对我国东、中、西三省/直辖市公立综合性医院的抽样调查,课题组将其战略定位分为5类,并分析了5类战略定位在公立综合性医院中的分布.%Based on the relative theories for business strategy and the Chinese characteristics, the paper studied the types of strategic positioning of public general hospitals from business positioning, market positioning and competitive positioning, Five types of strategic positioning were classified and their distribution among public general hispitals in China were analyzed by the survey of public general hospitals in three provinces located in eastern, middle and western areas of China

  14. Decree no. 2003-588 from June 27, 2003, relative to the general technical prescriptions of design and operation to which the facilities must fulfill for their connection to the public power transportation grid; Decret no. 2003-588 du 27 juin 2003 relatif aux prescriptions techniques generales de conception et de fonctionnement auxquelles doivent satisfaire les installations en vue de leur raccordement au reseau public de transport de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This decree fixes the general technical prescriptions of design and operation as foreseen in the article no. 14 of the law from February 10, 2000 and to which the power consuming or power generating facilities must fulfill for their connection to the public power grid. The prescriptions concern the voltage level, the capacity and the power of the facility, the connection scheme, the possible disturbances, the protection systems, the metering etc.. (J.S.)

  15. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    MARS PENSIONS CONTRACT POLICY GENERAL INFORMATION   PUBLIC MEETINGS COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Monday 15 Oct. 2 pm Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Wednesday 17 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Thursday 18 Oct. 10 am Salle du Conseil/ Council Chamber 503-1-001 Meyrin Thursday 18 Oct. 2 pm Filtration Plant, 222-R-001(in English) Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2012 : lessons learned Pension Fund Capital preservation policy : what is it ? Contract policy LC2IC statistics SA proposal General information CVI 2013 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS)  

  16. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  17. A comparative study of aesthetic perceptions of malocclusion among general practice dentists, orthodontists and the public using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the IOTN-AC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Castellote, Gonzalo; Montiel-Company, José-María; Almerich-Silla, José-Manuel; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Perception of malocclusion varies among individuals and among patients and practitioners. Although several indices that tend to coincide in many aspects and unify criteria, no single index has been recognised as the most suitable for assessing orthodontic treatment need. Moreover, orthodontists are not always aware of the differences in perception of malocclusion between patients and practitioners. Objetives To examine the perception of dental anaesthetics amongst dentists, orthodontists and the general population, study the relationship between the perception of dental aesthetics and the severity of the malocclusion, using the visual analogue scale and the IOTN-AC, and investigate relationships among the resulting data. Study Design Frontal intraoral photographs of 24 cases were classified by the severity of their malocclusion according to the DAI index. The photographs were examined by 150 individuals (30 orthodontists, 30 general dental practitioners and 90 members of the general population), who assessed them on a visual analogue scale and according to the IOTN-AC. Results The orthodontists gave the lowest scores on the visual analogue scale, although the differences between the three groups were not significant. For DAI grades 1, 3 and 4, significant differences were found in the IOTN-AC assessments. Here too, the orthodontist group was the most critical. Conclusions In general, in all three groups, both the visual analogue scale and IOTN-AC scores increased or decreased in line with the severity of the malocclusion according to the DAI. However, the correlation between these scores was low. The orthodontists scored the malocclusions more critically than the general dentists or the general population with the IOTN-AC, but this difference was not found with the visual analogue scale. Key words:IOTN-AC, DAI, malocclusion. PMID:27957275

  18. Apparatus comprising trace element dosage and method for treating raw water in biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    : - the filter comprises a filter material (4) including a porous filter material and a microbial biomass, the filter material is either stationary relative to the volume or comprises a particulate material, the filter material (4) is inserted in a fluid flow path generated by water flowing in direction from...... the inlet (2) to the outlet (3) or in the reverse direction, - the trace element dosage device (13) is positioned upstream of the porous filter material and microbial biomass and is configured to dose trace element(s) to the water flowing through the filter. A method for treating raw water by microbial...

  19. Structural tensegrity module and two-layer structural mesh comprising said module

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Jáuregui, Valentín; Otero González, César Antonio; Arias Fernández, Rubén; Manchado del Val, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The invention relates to a structural tensegrity module contained in a prism defined by a lower base and an upper base having 2n sides, comprising 2n lower corner nodes aligned with the vertices of the lower base and 2n lower intermediate nodes aligned with the mid-point of each side of the lower base, and 2n upper corner nodes aligned with the vertices of the upper base and 2n upper intermediate nodes aligned with the mid-point of each side of the upper base. The module comprises a...

  20. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    OpenAIRE

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the ferrous scrap is conveyed and released into the waterbeam so as to cause that the ferrous scrap is allowed to fall and move further, subject to the forces of gravity and the waterbeam.

  1. Publications of general practice research in China mainland 1993-2012:a bibliographic review%中国内地全科医学1993-2012年文献回顾分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 杜娟; 崔树起; 程艾军

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To review the publications of general practice research in China mainland from 1993 to 2012.Methods The literatures on general practice research published in China mainland from 1993 to 2012 were retrieved from the China Journal Full Text Databases , Wanfang Databases and PubMed . The publications were analyzed using the literature management software NoteExpress 2, Excelland SPSS 19.0.Results A total of 16 349 Chinese publications and 266 English publications of general practice research were collected .The amount of publications was gradually increasing during 1993 and 2012 and there was a sharp increase in the Chinese publications from 2008 to 2012 comparing with the previous years.The Chinese publications in China′s core journals accounted for 32.39%(5 295/16 349) of total of publications;and the English publications in SCI journals accounted for 96.62% ( 257/266 ) of total publications.The authors from community health service facilities accounted for 76.01%(12 427/16 349) of Chinese publications; while authors from research institutes and universities accounted for 61.65%(164/266) of the English publications .Results showed that 37.59% ( 6 145/16 349 ) and 37.12%( 6 069/16 349 ) of the Chinese publications were commentaries and descriptive studies , only 9.57%(1 565/16 349) were randomized controlled trials;52.63% (140/266) of the English publications were descriptive studies and 9.02% ( 24/266 ) were randomized controlled trials .60.75% ( 9 932/16 349 ) of the Chinese publications and 75.94% ( 202/266 ) of the English publications were focused on clinical topics.Conclusion Although the number of general practice publications has been increasing during 1993-2012, the quality of publications is still less satisfactory and need to be further improved .%目的:了解中国内地全科医学论文发表情况,分析存在问题并探讨对策。方法分别利用中国期刊全文数据库( CNKI)、万方数据库和PubMed对1993年1月1

  2. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV among the general staff of a public university in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV.

  3. Photomlxer for terahertz electromagnetic wave emission comprising quantum dots in a laser cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photomixer for generating terahertz electromagnetic radiation in response to illumination by a time-modulated optical signal. The photomixer (300) comprises a carrier substrate (310) with a plurality of quantum dots arranged in an emission region (308) thereof...

  4. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-​functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3...

  5. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3...

  6. Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers reference to related application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim; Yu Seung , Lee; Kwan-Soo , Rockward; Tommy Q. T.

    2012-08-07

    Compositions, and methods of making thereof, comprising from about 1% to about 5% of a perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer or a hydrocarbon-based ionomer; and from about 95% to about 99% of a solvent, said solvent consisting essentially of a polyol; wherein said composition is substantially free of water and wherein said ionomer is uniformly dispersed in said solvent.

  7. Polymer foam comprising a polymer and nanoparticles, and nanoparticles for the manufacture of such foam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vancso, Gyula J.; Duvigneau, Joost; Nederkoorn, P.H.J.; Wassing, T.

    2014-01-01

    A polymer foam is produced comprising a polymer and nanoparticles having a maximum dimensionof 750 nm, which foam has cells with an average cell size of at most 1 µm and a cell density of at least 1012 cells/ml, wherein polymeric grafts have been attached to the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may

  8. Polymer foam comprising a polymer and nanoparticles, and nanoparticles for the manufacture of such foam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vancso, G.J.; Duvigneau, J.; Nederkoorn, P.H.J.; Wassing, T.

    2014-01-01

    A polymer foam is produced comprising a polymer and nanoparticles having a maximum dimensionof 750 nm, which foam has cells with an average cell size of at most 1 µm and a cell density of at least 1012 cells/ml, wherein polymeric grafts have been attached to the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may

  9. Light source comprising a common substrate, a first led device and a second led device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Vi-En

    2010-02-23

    At least one stacked organic or polymeric light emitting diode (PLEDs) devices to comprise a light source is disclosed. At least one of the PLEDs includes a patterned cathode which has regions which transmit light. The patterned cathodes enable light emission from the PLEDs to combine together. The light source may be top or bottom emitting or both.

  10. The minimal essential unit for cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion comprises extracellular domains 1 and 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shan, Weisong; Yagita, Yoshiki; Wang, Zhaohui

    2004-01-01

    N-cadherin comprises five homologous extracellular domains, a transmembrane, and a cytoplasmic domain. The extracellular domains of N-cadherin play important roles in homophilic cell adhesion, but the contribution of each domain to this phenomenon has not been fully evaluated. In particular, the ...

  11. New mesogenic Schiff base esters comprising benzothiazole moiety:Synthesis and mesomorphic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sie Tiong Ha; Teck Ming Koh; Guan Yeow Yeap; Hong Cheu Lin; Jun Kit Beh; Yip Foo Win; Peng Lim Boey

    2009-01-01

    A homologous series of Schiff base esters,6-methoxy-2-(2-hydroxy-4-alkanoyloxybenzylidenamino)benzothiazoles,comprising a benzothiazole moiety as the core was synthesized.All the members of this series exhibited an enantiotropic nematic phase.The azomethine linkage along with the lateral hydroxyl and terminal methoxyl groups were found to exert an effect on the mesomorphic properties.

  12. “Superficial Water Concessions In Light Of The General Theory of the Administrative Act” The Incidence of the Public Law’s Dogmatic Tradition of Public Law Within Environmental Law

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Rey, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks the determine the ways in which anomalous decisions derived from the particularization and constitutionalization of environmental law can arise given the general theory of administrative action. This is seen through the lens of a study and characterization of administrative decisions issued by the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Cundinamarca –CAR- within the superficial water concessions procedure. It also discusses the conceptual contents of these licenses.

  13. “Superficial Water Concessions In Light Of The General Theory of the Administrative Act” The Incidence of the Public Law’s Dogmatic Tradition of Public Law Within Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gómez-Rey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks the determine the ways in which anomalous decisions derived from the particularization and constitutionalization of environmental law can arise given the general theory of administrative action. This is seen through the lens of a study and characterization of administrative decisions issued by the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Cundinamarca –CAR- within the superficial water concessions procedure. It also discusses the conceptual contents of these licenses.

  14. 公共建筑照明、控制与节能概论%Generality of Lighting, Controlling and Energy Saving for Public Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉卿; 王浩然

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly analyzed the building energy consumption, the common lighting source and lighting control mode. During the lighting design for public buildings for the future, it ought to select energy-saving and efficient lightings, to use economic and reasonable intelligent control mode and to adapt practical and effective measures in order to reduce the energy consumption of public building lighting to a more reasonable level.%本文对建筑能耗、常用照明光源和照明控制方式进行了简单的分析,并提出了在今后的公共建筑照明的设计和使用过程中,应尽量选用高效节能的照明光源和高效的灯具,选用经济合理的智能控制方式,采取切实有效的措施,争取把公共建筑照明能耗降低到更合理水平。

  15. USEMS & GLASS: investigator-driven frontier research in earthquake physics. Ground-breaking research in Europe enhances outreach to the general public.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    USEMS and GLASS are two projects financed by the European Research Council (ERC) as part of the ERC starting grants scheme within the FP7 framework. The rationale behind the funding scheme is to support some of the most promising scientific endeavours in Europe that are being led by young researchers, and to emphasize the excellence of individual ideas rather than specific research areas; in other words, to promote bottom-up frontier research. The general benefits of this rationale are evid...

  16. Popular apps on the medical category targeting patients and the general public in the United Kingdom: Do they conform to the Health On the Net Foundation principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Mussa, Ali; Paget, Anthony M

    2016-08-26

    Smartphones with their rising popularity and versatile software 'apps' have great potential for revolutionising healthcare services. However, this was soon overshadowed by concerns highlighted by many studies over quality. These were subject and/or discipline specific and mostly evaluated compliance with a limited number of information portrayal standards originally devised for health websites. Hence, this study aimed to take a broader approach by evaluating the most popular apps categorised as medical in the United Kingdom for compliance with all of those standards systematically using the Health On the Net (HON) Foundation principles.The study evaluated top 50 free and paid apps of the 'medical' category on both iTunes and Google stores for evidence of compliance with an app-adapted version of the HON Foundation code of conduct. The sample included 64 apps, 34/64 (53%) were on Google Play and 36/64 (56%) were free. None of the apps managed to comply with the entire eight principles. Compliance with seven principles was achieved by only one app (1.6%), and the rest were compliant with three, two, and one (14.7%, 27%, and 38%, respectively).In conclusion, this study demonstrated that most popular apps on the medical category that are available in the United Kingdom do not meet the standards for presenting health information to the public, and this is consistent with earlier studies. Improving the situation would require raising the public awareness, providing tools that would assist in quality evaluation, encouraging developers to use robust development process, and facilitating collaboration and engagement among the stakeholders. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  18. Education of healthcare professionals and the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Cookson, Barry D; Lewis, Michael A O

    2012-07-01

    In the winter of 2007-08 a new public-facing antimicrobial campaign was agreed by the Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare-Associated Infection (ARHAI) Education sub-Group (later divided into subgroups for professional and public education): it comprised posters with a positive message on how the public could help themselves when they had a cold. However, the poster campaign, used in isolation in England, did not improve antibiotic use; therefore, the Public Education sub-Group took forward educational approaches to change the behaviour of the public and health professionals. Professionals have been encouraged to give patients clear information about the likely duration of symptoms, self-care, and benefits and harms of antibiotics, reinforcing the public poster campaigns in surgeries, hospitals and pharmacies. Since 2008, campaigns have been launched in England to coincide with European Antibiotic Awareness Day (EAAD) on 18 November, using Department of Health and EAAD materials. Professional education has been facilitated by the 2008 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence respiratory tract infection delayed prescribing guidance for general practitioners. A toolkit of materials for medicines management teams, to facilitate good antimicrobial stewardship in primary care (ASPIC), is being taken forward by the Public Education sub-Group and professional societies. After advice from ARHAI, in 2009 the General Medical Council requested that all postgraduate deans and Royal Colleges ensure infection prevention and control and antimicrobial prescribing become standard practice implemented in all clinical settings, and that they are emphasized strongly in undergraduate and postgraduate medical training. ARHAI has also taken a keen interest in reviewing, advising and leading on a number of European Union initiatives dealing with professional education.

  19. Installation of a radioactive waste disposal facility. The necessity of building up durable links between the general public and radioactive waste. Feedback from experience in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comte, Annabelle; Farin, Sebastien [Andra, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2015-07-01

    2013 has been a banner year for Andra with widespread discussions on the question of long-term management of radioactive waste: a nationwide public discussion about the planned Cigeo deep disposal facility has been organized and national discussions on the energy source transition had inevitably brought up the question of what to do with future radioactive waste to be produced under the various scenarios put forward. In spite of an open institutional framework, with numerous legal provisions for citizen participation, 2013 showed that creation of a radioactive waste disposal facility is not, and cannot be, a question dealt with like breaking news, within a given temporal or spatial perimeter. Any attempts to bring up the subject under the spotlight of public scrutiny inevitably shift the discussions away from their central theme and abandon the underlying question - what should be done with the existing radioactive waste and the waste that is bound to be produced? - to move on to the other major question: ''Should we stop using nuclear power or not?'', which takes us away from our responsibilities towards future generations. Daring to face the question, anchor it in citizen discussions, and create awareness of our duties towards coming generations: this is the challenge that Andra had already set itself several years ago. Our position is a strong one; rather than seeking to mask the problem of radioactive waste, we must face up to our responsibilities: the waste is already there, and we have to do something with it. It will take time to be successful here. Long-term management of radioactive waste is clearly a really long-term matter. All the experience in the field has shown that it involves patience and careful listening, and requires building up a basis for solid trust among the potential neighboring population, who are the most directly concerned. Durable proximity human investment is one of the key factors of success. For over 20 years now

  20. Support for a tax increase to provide unrestricted access to an Alzheimer's disease medication: a survey of the general public in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarride Jean-Eric

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public drug insurance plans provide limited reimbursement for Alzheimer's disease (AD medications in many jurisdictions, including Canada and the United Kingdom. This study was conducted to assess Canadians' level of support for an increase in annual personal income taxes to fund a public program of unrestricted access to AD medications. Methods A telephone survey was administered to a national sample of 500 adult Canadians. The survey contained four scenarios describing a hypothetical, new AD medication. Descriptions varied across scenarios: the medication was alternatively described as being capable of treating the symptoms of cognitive decline or of halting the progression of cognitive decline, with either no probability of adverse effects or a 30% probability of primarily gastrointestinal adverse effects. After each scenario, participants were asked whether they would support a tax increase to provide unrestricted access to the drug. Participants who responded affirmatively were asked whether they would pay an additional $75, $150, or $225 per annum in taxes. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the determinants of support for a tax increase. Results Eighty percent of participants supported a tax increase for at least one scenario. Support was highest (67% for the most favourable scenario (halt progression - no adverse effects and lowest (49% for the least favourable scenario (symptom treatment - 30% chance of adverse effects. The odds of supporting a tax increase under at least one scenario were approximately 55% less for participants who attached higher ratings to their health state under the assumption that they had moderate AD and almost five times greater if participants thought family members or friends would somewhat or strongly approve of their decision to support a tax increase. A majority of participants would pay an additional $150 per annum in taxes, regardless of scenario. Less

  1. Microchannel apparatus comprising plural microchannels and methods of conducting unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Whyatt, Greg A [West Richland, WA

    2009-03-10

    Microchannel apparatus comprising a header and plural flow microchannels is described in which orifices connect the header and the flow microchannels. The orifices constrict flow. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of each of the orifices to the cross-sectional area of the flow microchannels connected to the orifices is between 0.0005 and 0.1. Also described is microchannel apparatus for conducting unit operations in which a device comprises two arrays of microchannels, and a unit operation is conducted on a fluid as it passes through the first set of microchannels and into a header where a second unit operation is performed, and then the fluid stream passes into the second array of microchannels where the first unit operation is again performed. Methods of conducting unit operations in the apparatuses are also described.

  2. A construction and a tension element comprising a cable and one or more strakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a construction comprising a structural element and at least one cable (101) arranged in tension to carry at least a part of the weight of the structural element. The cable defines an outer surface (102) onto which at least one strake (104) forms a protrusion for reducing rain...... and wind induced vibrations. The strake has a height being a distance from a strake root part connected to the outer surface of the cable and a strake end part terminating the strake outwards away from the cable, and the strake has a width being transverse to the height, the width decreasing...... in the direction from the strake root part towards the strake end part. The height is less than 5 percent of the diameter of the cable. Furthermore, the strake comprises a first strake surface portion facing away from the cable, which first strake surface portion is concave or straight....

  3. Energy storage systems having an electrode comprising Li.sub.xS.sub.y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Wu; Shao, Yuyan; Yang, Zhenguo

    2016-08-02

    Improved lithium-sulfur energy storage systems can utilizes Li.sub.xS.sub.y as a component in an electrode of the system. For example, the energy storage system can include a first electrode current collector, a second electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable separator separating the first and second electrode current collectors. A second electrode is arranged between the second electrode current collector and the separator. A first electrode is arranged between the first electrode current collector and the separator and comprises a first condensed-phase fluid comprising Li.sub.xS.sub.y. The energy storage system can be arranged such that the first electrode functions as a positive or a negative electrode.

  4. DC high voltage to drive helium plasma jet comprised of repetitive streamer breakdowns

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xingxing

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates and studies helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet comprised of series of repetitive streamer breakdowns, which is driven by a pure DC high voltage (auto-oscillations). Repetition frequency of the breakdowns is governed by the geometry of discharge electrodes/surroundings and gas flow rate. Each next streamer is initiated when the electric field on the anode tip recovers after the previous breakdown and reaches the breakdown threshold value of about 2.5 kV/cm. Repetition frequency of the streamer breakdowns excited using this principle can be simply tuned by reconfiguring the discharge electrode geometry. This custom-designed type of the helium plasma jet, which operates on the DC high voltage and is comprised of the series of the repetitive streamer breakdowns at frequency about 13 kHz, is demonstrated.

  5. Lateral acoustic wave resonator comprising a suspended membrane of low damping resonator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady; , Ihab F.; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Branch; , Darren W.; Su; Mehmet F.,; Reinke; Charles M.,

    2013-09-03

    A very high-Q, low insertion loss resonator can be achieved by storing many overtone cycles of a lateral acoustic wave (i.e., Lamb wave) in a lithographically defined suspended membrane comprising a low damping resonator material, such as silicon carbide. The high-Q resonator can sets up a Fabry-Perot cavity in a low-damping resonator material using high-reflectivity acoustic end mirrors, which can comprise phononic crystals. The lateral overtone acoustic wave resonator can be electrically transduced by piezoelectric couplers. The resonator Q can be increased without increasing the impedance or insertion loss by storing many cycles or wavelengths in the high-Q resonator material, with much lower damping than the piezoelectric transducer material.

  6. Orifice plate for controlling solids flow, methods of use thereof and articles comprising the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen D.; Teigen, Bard C.

    2017-01-31

    Disclosed herein is an orifice plate comprising one or more plates having orifices disposed therein; the orifices being operative to permit the flow of solids from a moving bed heat exchanger to a solids flow control system; where the orifice plate is downstream of a tube bundle of the moving bed heat exchanger and upstream of the solids flow control system and wherein the orifice plate is operative to evenly distribute the flow of solids in the solids flow control system.

  7. Transgenic Carrot Expressing Fusion Protein Comprising M. tuberculosis Antigens Induces Immune Response in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia V. Permyakova; Zagorskaya, Alla A.; Belavin, Pavel A.; Elena A. Uvarova; Nosareva, Olesya V.; Nesterov, Andrey E.; Novikovskaya, Anna A.; Evgeniy L. Zav’yalov; Mikhail P Moshkin; Deineko, Elena V.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This co...

  8. A reconfigurable on-line learning spiking neuromorphic processor comprising 256 neurons and 128K synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ning; Mostafa, Hesham; Corradi, Federico; Osswald, Marc; Stefanini, Fabio; Sumislawska, Dora; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Implementing compact, low-power artificial neural processing systems with real-time on-line learning abilities is still an open challenge. In this paper we present a full-custom mixed-signal VLSI device with neuromorphic learning circuits that emulate the biophysics of real spiking neurons and dynamic synapses for exploring the properties of computational neuroscience models and for building brain-inspired computing systems. The proposed architecture allows the on-chip configuration of a wide range of network connectivities, including recurrent and deep networks, with short-term and long-term plasticity. The device comprises 128 K analog synapse and 256 neuron circuits with biologically plausible dynamics and bi-stable spike-based plasticity mechanisms that endow it with on-line learning abilities. In addition to the analog circuits, the device comprises also asynchronous digital logic circuits for setting different synapse and neuron properties as well as different network configurations. This prototype device, fabricated using a 180 nm 1P6M CMOS process, occupies an area of 51.4 mm(2), and consumes approximately 4 mW for typical experiments, for example involving attractor networks. Here we describe the details of the overall architecture and of the individual circuits and present experimental results that showcase its potential. By supporting a wide range of cortical-like computational modules comprising plasticity mechanisms, this device will enable the realization of intelligent autonomous systems with on-line learning capabilities.

  9. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's.

  10. Interim report of the interagency coal export task force: draft for public comment. [Trade by country 1960-1979; general forecasting to 1985, 1990 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The Interagency Coal Export Task Force was formed in the Spring of 1980 at the direction of the President, in support of the international efforts of the United States, encouraging the use of coal. Its purpose was to report on possible courses of action to increase United States steam coal exports in a manner consistent with other national policies, including our commitment to environmental protection. The Task Force assembled existing data, developed significant new information regarding the international coal market and undertook analyses of apparent problems underlying coal exports. The Task Force contributed to a public awareness of the fact that increased coal exports will serve both the domestic and international interests of the United States. Based upon extensive, independent field studies in Europe and the Far East, the Task Force concludes that there will be significant growth in world demand for steam coal. Such growth has already begun, has contributed to the almost seven-fold increase in United States overseas steam coal exports for 1990 over 1979, and is expected to continue beyond the end of this century. The growth in world steam coal trade projected in the report does not guarantee United States coal exporters a large or expanding share of the market. The United States' role depends on the buying strategies of the consuming countries, the policies and prices of competing exporters, and the actions taken by the United States to maintain reasonable prices, prompt delivery and dependable quality. Projections of United States steam coal exports, therefore, rest upon a number of highly uncertain factors which are discussed in some detail.

  11. Method of converting a carbon-comprising material, method of operating a fuel cell stack, and a fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of converting a carbon-comprising material at elevated temperature in the presence of a molecule that comprises at least one oxygen atom. According to the invention the carbon-comprising material in the fuel cell is converted substantially to carbon monoxide in a re

  12. Method of converting a carbon-comprising material, method of operating a fuel cell stack, and a fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of converting a carbon-comprising material at elevated temperature in the presence of a molecule that comprises at least one oxygen atom. According to the invention the carbon-comprising material in the fuel cell is converted substantially to carbon monoxide in a

  13. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      MARS 2015 FIVE YEARLY REVIEW CONTRACT POLICY PENSION FUND GENERAL INFORMATION   COME AND BE INFORMED! PUBLIC MEETINGS Friday 3rd October at 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Friday 3rd October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Monday 6th October at 10 am Kjell Johnsen Auditorium, 30-7-018 Meyrin Monday 6th October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin  

  14. The situation and Countermeasures of University Public Art Teaching under General Education%通识教育背景下高校公共艺术教育的现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆军红

    2014-01-01

    General education is the basic education,the implementation of quality education in uni-versities,for all the students were non professional education including culture,art,science,history, etc.knowledge.Public art education is an important part of general education,it plays edify senti-ment,improve students'aesthetic taste,cultivate innovative talents,the comprehensive development of an important role.But because of insufficient investment in public art education,the shortage of teachers,students lack awareness of the public artistic education development process is slow.With the accelerated process of the reform,it will be public art education,general education courses to proper position,can continue to train innovative talents the country needs.%通识教育是普通高校实施素质教育的基础性教育,它面向全体大学生进行包括文化、艺术、科学、历史等知识在内的非专业性教育。公共艺术教育是通识教育的重要组成部分,它发挥着陶冶情操、提高学生审美情趣、培养全面发展的创新人才等重要作用。但由于对公共艺术教育投入不足、师资短缺、学生认识不足等使得公共艺术教育的开展进程缓慢。随着高校改革进程的加快,只有将公共艺术教育在内的通识教育课程提高到应有的位置上,才能不断培养国家需要的创新型复合人才。

  15. PUBLIC FINANCE FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEZURE OANA SABINA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of public finances is due to objective causes needs and determined their main function being to obtain the financial resources it needs for the State to exercise its powers and on the way to intervene in the economy and society general. Public finances are necessary, subjectively and objectively, as it contributes to accomplishing the tasks and functions of the state, which could not be realized without financial leverage. Public finances are inextricably linked to the existence of the state, and public sector's role in the economy. Thus, they express "social relations, economic arising in the establishment and use of public funds between the state, on the one hand, and members of society on the other hand, to meet the needs of general interest of society" [1]. Thus, the role of public finance is to meet the needs of general interest or collective needs.

  16. The impact of interventions to promote healthier ready‐to‐eat meals (to eat in, to take away or to be delivered) sold by specific food outlets open to the general public: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerbell, C. D.; Moore, H. J.; Routen, A.; Lake, A. A.; Adams, J.; White, M.; Araujo‐Soares, V.; Abraham, C.; Adamson, A. J.; Brown, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Ready‐to‐eat meals sold by food outlets that are accessible to the general public are an important target for public health intervention. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of such interventions. Methods Studies of any design and duration that included any consumer‐level or food‐outlet‐level before‐and‐after data were included. Results Thirty studies describing 34 interventions were categorized by type and coded against the Nuffield intervention ladder: restrict choice = trans fat law (n = 1), changing pre‐packed children's meal content (n = 1) and food outlet award schemes (n = 2); guide choice = price increases for unhealthier choices (n = 1), incentive (contingent reward) (n = 1) and price decreases for healthier choices (n = 2); enable choice = signposting (highlighting healthier/unhealthier options) (n = 10) and telemarketing (offering support for the provision of healthier options to businesses via telephone) (n = 2); and provide information = calorie labelling law (n = 12), voluntary nutrient labelling (n = 1) and personalized receipts (n = 1). Most interventions were aimed at adults in US fast food chains and assessed customer‐level outcomes. More ‘intrusive’ interventions that restricted or guided choice generally showed a positive impact on food‐outlet‐level and customer‐level outcomes. However, interventions that simply provided information or enabled choice had a negligible impact. Conclusion Interventions to promote healthier ready‐to‐eat meals sold by food outlets should restrict choice or guide choice through incentives/disincentives. Public health policies and practice that simply involve providing information are unlikely to be effective. PMID:27899007

  17. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    MARS SURVEY 5YR 2015 GENERAL INFORMATION ELECTIONS 2013   COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Tuesday 1st Oct. 10 am Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Tuesday 1st Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin Friday 4 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Monday 7 Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Tuesday 8 Oct. 10 am Amphi Kjell Johnsen, 30-7-018 Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2013: lessons learned Survey: five-yearly review, give us your opinion General information CVI 2014 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS) Elections 2013 Renewal of the Staff Council 2014 - 2015  

  18. [The general psychological concept in the later work of Eugen Bleulers. Comparison with a summarized description from a forgotten theory 60 years after the final publication (1939)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A; Hell, D

    1999-04-01

    Documents by Eugen Bleuler from 1921 to 1939 that go into general psychological topics of meaning of consciousness, formation of motive and will, are presented. An effort towards integration of seemingly incompatible, side by side standing, unrelated biological and psychological concepts that probably is most likely explainable by the contemporary background of ideas, is recognizable. In this context, Eugen Bleuler refers to an already (especially by Richard Semon) systematically developed theory called "Mnemism" that he interpreted and applied to the psychological circumstances mentioned above. That theory of "mnemism" that can be most adequately described as a biogenetic-vitalistic theory, is assuming, that all organic life--independent of the possibility of a self-reflecting consciousness--is able to learn experiences made by analysis of environment and to pass it on following generations. Pattern of stimulus reactions are in the sense of this theory memorized ("engraphiert") and reactivated under similar situational circumstances ("ekphoriert") by the psychological mode of association.--It can be shown that Bleuler pursued this theory for a period of more than ten years. It represents the benchmark for Bleuler's standpoints, for example for the question of determination of human acting, that as itselves are already known from his earlier documents, but here have found a more theoretically based explanation. The assumption of the efficacy of specific, not necessary consciously remembered "engramms" of memory, suggests the hypothesis of the existence of unconsciousness; in this context textual points of contact to the psychological concepts of S. Freud and C. G. Jung--mnemic memory and collective unconscious--are shown.

  19. Cobalamin status during normal pregnancy and postpartum: a longitudinal study comprising 406 danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, KE; Bergholt, T

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) status during normal pregnancy and postpartum in a longitudinal setting. METHODS: This study was performed in 1995-1996. It comprised 406 healthy, pregnant Danish Caucasian women, living in Copenhagen County. Cobalamin status, i.e. plasma (P...... in late pregnancy. The recommendations for periconceptional vitamin B(12) supplementation should be reconsidered.......-) cobalamin, P-methylmalonic acid and P-homocysteine was measured at 18, 32 and 39 wk gestation and 8 wk postpartum during lactation. RESULTS: P-cobalamin showed a gradual, significant decline during pregnancy (P

  20. Composites comprising novel RTIL-based polymers, and methods of making and using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gin, Douglas; Carlisle, Trevor; Noble, Richard; Nicodemus, Garret; McDanel, William; Cowan, Matthew

    2017-06-27

    The invention includes compositions comprising curable imidazolium-functionalized poly(room-temperature ionic liquid) copolymers and homopolymers. The invention further includes methods of preparing and using the compositions of the invention. The invention further includes novel methods of preparing thin, supported, room-temperature ionic liquid-containing polymeric films on a porous support. In certain embodiments, the methods of the invention avoid the use of a gutter layer, which greatly reduces the overall gas permeance and selectivity of the composite membrane. In other embodiments, the films of the invention have increased gas selectivity and permeance over films prepared using methods described in the prior art.

  1. The Electrical Properties for Phenolic Isocyanate-Modified Bisphenol-Based Epoxy Resins Comprising Benzoate Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Yong; Chae, Il Seok; Park, Dongkyung; Suh, Hongsuk; Kang, Sang Wook

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin has been required to have a low dielectric constant (D(k)), low dissipation factor (Df), low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low water absorption, high mechanical, and high adhesion properties for various applications. A series of novel phenolic isocyanate-modified bisphenol-based epoxy resins comprising benzoate group were prepared for practical electronic packaging applications. The developed epoxy resins showed highly reduced dielectric constants (D(k)-3.00 at 1 GHz) and low dissipation values (Df-0.014 at 1 GHz) as well as enhanced thermal properties.

  2. Quantum correlations and entanglement in a model comprised of a short chain of nonlinear oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaga, J. K.; Kowalewska-Kudłaszyk, A.; Leoński, W.; Barasiński, A.

    2016-09-01

    We discuss a model comprised of a chain of three Kerr-like nonlinear oscillators pumped by two modes of external coherent field. We show that the system can be treated as nonlinear quantum scissors and behave as a three-qubit model. For such situation, different types of tripartite entangled states can be generated, even when damping effects are present in the system. Some amount of such entanglement can survive even in a long-time limit. The flow of bipartite entanglement between subsystems of the model and relations among first-order correlations, second-order correlations, and the entanglement are discussed.

  3. IDIOMS THAT COMPRISE THE PRESENCE OF TURKISH WORDS IN GREEK CYPRIOT LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Şevket ÖZNUR; Mahmut İSLÂMOĞLU

    2010-01-01

    In this communiqué again we preferred to present some examples from the effects of Turkish Cypriot Culture. For a few years, we have concentrated on our culture’s effect on other cultures in Cyprus. Bearing in mind that we have lived together for hundreds of years with other societies, we have seen fit to give examples of the cultural interaction between other cultures and Turkish Cypriot culture. Our communiqué mostly comprises the effects of Turkish Culture. We have found it convenient to p...

  4. Structures and Energetic Properties of Two New Salts Comprising the 5,5'-Azotetrazolate Dianion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raik Deblitz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new potentially energetic salts comprising the 5,5'-azotetrazolate dianion have been prepared and structurally characterized. The new azotetrazolates are tetraphenylphosphonium-5,5'-azotetrazolate (1 and 1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamidine-5,5'-azotetrazolate (2. The crystal structures of both compounds have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and their energetic properties have been tested. Due to its high nitrogen-content of 73.14%, compound 2 was found to be significantly impact-sensitive.

  5. HVDC Solution for Offshore Wind Park Comprising Turbines Equipped with Full-Range Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2010-01-01

    of a HVDC transmission system. The power system under study includes an offshore wind farm comprising turbines equipped with full range converters. The collection network is a local AC grid. Power transmission is done through HVDC system. The grid side VSC (voltage source converter) controls the DC voltage...... a voltage drop is created at the collection grid, the wind turbines go into fault-ride-through mode. The power output from each of the wind turbines is thus reduced to balance the system power. The detailed explanation of the strategy is presented in the paper. Matlab simulation model was prepared and some...

  6. Modern approaches regarding public goods

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This article is trying to present general elements regarding public goods. It is presenting also all types of public goods and optimum provision of public goods. Public Goods designate goods, benefits which belong to all citizens, or community. Four categories of goods can be delimited Public goods; Private goods; Common goods; Taxable goods. We also introduce two new concepts of public goods: “Club Goods” and “Joint” Goods.

  7. Pigmentation Effect of Rice Bran Extracted Minerals Comprising Soluble Silicic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jun Jang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our investigation focused on identifying melanogenesis effect of soluble minerals in rice bran ash extract (RBE which include orthosilicic acid (OSA. Melanocytes were apparently normal in terms of morphology. It was, however, shown that they were stressed a little in the RBE and OSA added media in aspect of LDH activity. Melanin synthesis and intracellular tyrosinase activity were increased by treatment of RBE which is similar to that of OSA. The Western blotting results showed that TRP-1, tyrosinase, and MITF expression levels were 2-3 times higher in the OSA and RBE groups compared to the control group which promoted melanin synthesis through CREB phosphorylation. Moreover, histology and immunohistochemistry were shown to have similar result to that of protein expression. As a result, minerals which comprise orthosilicic acid has the potential to promote melanogenesis and both RBE and OSA have similar cell viability, protein expression, and immunostaining results, suggesting that RBE comprises specific minerals which promote melanin synthesis through increasing of MITF and CREB phosphorylation. Therefore, RBE could be used as a novel therapeutic approach to combat melanin deficiency related diseases by stimulating melanocytes via its soluble Si and mineral components.

  8. Emergent ferroelectricity in disordered tri-color multilayer structure comprised of ferromagnetic manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li-Wei; Chen, Chang-Le; Dong, Xiang-Lei; Xing, Hui; Luo, Bing-Cheng; Jin, Ke-Xin

    2016-10-01

    Multiferroic materials, showing the coexistence and coupling of ferroelectric and magnetic orders, are of great technological and fundamental importance. However, the limitation of single phase multiferroics with robust magnetization and polarization hinders the magnetoelectric effect from being applied practically. Magnetic frustration, which can induce ferroelectricity, gives rise to multiferroic behavior. In this paper, we attempt to construct an artificial magnetically frustrated structure comprised of manganites to induce ferroelectricity. A disordered stacking of manganites is expected to result in frustration at interfaces. We report here that a tri-color multilayer structure comprised of non-ferroelectric La0.9Ca0.1MnO3(A)/Pr0.85Ca0.15MnO3(B)/Pr0.85Sr0.15MnO3(C) layers with the disordered arrangement of ABC-ACB-CAB-CBA-BAC-BCA is prepared to form magnetoelectric multiferroics. The multilayer film exhibits evidence of ferroelectricity at room temperature, thus presenting a candidate for multiferroics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61471301, 61078057, 51172183, 51402240, and 51471134), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20126102110045), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2015JQ5125), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 3102015ZY078).

  9. Residence time distribution for electrokinetic flow through a microchannel comprising a bundle of cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Ting, Chung-Chieh; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tseng, Shiojenn; Chen, Chur-Jen; Su, Ay

    2007-03-01

    The electrokinetic flow of an electrolyte solution through a microchannel that comprises a bundle of cylinders is investigated for the case of constant surface potential. The system under consideration is simulated by a unit cell model, and analytical expressions for the flow field and the corresponding residence time distribution under various conditions are derived. These results are readily applicable to the assessment of the performance of a microreactor such as that which comprises a bundle of optical fibers. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the influences of the key parameters, including the thickness of the double layer, the strength of the applied electric field, the magnitude of the applied pressure gradient, and the characteristic sizes of a microchannel, on the residence time distribution. We show that the following could result in a shorter residence time: thin double layer, strong applied electric field, large applied pressure gradient, and small number of cylinders. Based on the thickness of the double layer, criteria are proposed for whether the flow field can be treated as a laminar flow or as a plug flow, two basic limiting cases in reactor design.

  10. Storage fading of a commercial 18650 cell comprised with NMC/LMO cathode and graphite anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, She-huang; Lee, Po-Han

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the storage capacity fade of a commercial 18650 lithium ion cell comprised with a composite cathode of LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC) and Li1.1Mn1.9O4 (LMO) and graphite anode at various depths-of-discharge (DoDs) and temperatures have been investigated. The results manifest that the capacity fading is strongly affected by the storage temperature and becomes prominent as temperatures higher than 45 °C. Results of the incremental capacity analysis of the charging/discharging curves cycled at C/25 rate under 25 °C after cells been stored at various DoDs at 60 °C for various durations are used to reveal the factors of storage capacity fade of this commercial cell in company with the results of post-mortem studies on the electrodes harvested from the 12 month storage-aged cells with SEM, EDX, XPS, XRD, and electrode capacity retention study with those of a fresh commercial cell for comparison. The contributions of these factors are also estimated quantitatively. The losses of active electrode materials are the main reasons of the storage capacity fade of the commercial cell comprised with composite NMC/LMO cathode and graphite anode, while the loss of lithium inventory is less influential. The degradation of the electrodes and the loss the lithium inventory are strongly DoD dependent.

  11. Simulation of a Drivetrain of a Vehicle comprising Continuously Variable Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Sanchawat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the constant hike in fuel prices on a day to day basis, maximum performance with minimum compromise on the front of fuel economy and emissions is highly desirable and expected from a vehicle’s drivetrain. In this context, a drivetrain comprising a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT plays the role to the best extent possible. CVT facilitates a continuous change in gear ratiosbetween the driver and the driven shaft. CVTs are superior to automatic transmissions with a fixed number of gear ratios in that it offers greater acceleration and more efficient fuel economy.In this paper, we propose to model a drivetrain of a vehicle comprising CVT. A detailed mathematical model based on the geometry of the components has been formulated and also, equations of theirrespective motions representing their behaviour have been derived. Furthermore, a dynamic model of a drivetrain, using bond graph method, is prepared which captures the behaviour of the CVT during thetransient shift ratio condition and the complete simulation is implemented in MATLAB Simulink. The results substantiate the effect of mass of flyweights and spring constant of torsion springs on theperformance of CVT.

  12. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  13. Public Service Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Marilena Mihalcioiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.

  14. Methods for estimating properties of hydrocarbons comprising asphaltenes based on their solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2016-10-04

    Disclosed herein is a method of estimating a property of a hydrocarbon comprising the steps of: preparing a liquid sample of a hydrocarbon, the hydrocarbon having asphaltene fractions therein; precipitating at least some of the asphaltenes of a hydrocarbon from the liquid sample with one or more precipitants in a chromatographic column; dissolving at least two of the different asphaltene fractions from the precipitated asphaltenes during a successive dissolution protocol; eluting the at least two different dissolved asphaltene fractions from the chromatographic column; monitoring the amount of the fractions eluted from the chromatographic column; using detected signals to calculate a percentage of a peak area for a first of the asphaltene fractions and a peak area for a second of the asphaltene fractions relative to the total peak areas, to determine a parameter that relates to the property of the hydrocarbon; and estimating the property of the hydrocarbon.

  15. Nanoscale Cross-Point Resistive Switching Memory Comprising p-Type SnO Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti

    2015-02-23

    Reproducible low-voltage bipolar resistive switching is reported in bilayer structures of p-type SnO films. Specifically, a bilayer homojunction comprising SnOx (oxygen-rich) and SnOy (oxygen-deficient) in nanoscale cross-point (300 × 300 nm2) architecture with self-compliance effect is demonstrated. By using two layers of SnO film, a good memory performance is obtained as compared to the individual oxide films. The memory devices show resistance ratio of 103 between the high resistance and low resistance states, and this difference can be maintained for up to 180 cycles. The devices also show good retention characteristics, where no significant degradation is observed for more than 103 s. Different charge transport mechanisms are found in both resistance states, depending on the applied voltage range and its polarity. The resistive switching is shown to originate from the oxygen ion migration and subsequent formation/rupture of conducting filaments.

  16. MOLECULAR FIELD THEORY FOR NEMATIC LIQUID CRYSTAL POLYMER COMPRISING FLEXIBLE SPACER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaogong; LIU Deshan; ZHOU Qixiang

    1993-01-01

    Based on the new model and concept of intramolecular orientational order parameter, a molecular field theory was built up for main chain liquid crystalline polymer (MC-LCPs) with flexible spacers. The theory takes account of orientational correlation among all mesogens in a polymer chain and the relationship between the intramolecular orientation and spatial orientation of the mesogens. The free energy, temperature and entropy of the nematic-isotropic transition were determined with the theory and compared with experiments in current work. It was found that many unique transition properties of the MC-LCPs comprising flexible spacer are correctly predicted by the theory and the agreement of the theory with the experiments is impressive.

  17. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOSITES COMPRISING MODIFIED HARDWOOD AND WOOD POLYMERS/POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxanda Bodîrlău

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of hardwood sawdust from ash-tree species was carried out with a solution of maleic anhydride in acetone. Wood polymers, lignin, and cellulose were isolated from the wood sawdust and modified by the same method. Samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, providing evidence that maleic anhydride esterifies the free hydroxyl groups of the wood polymer components. Composites comprising chemically modified wood sawdust and wood polymers (cellulose, lignin-as variable weight percentages-, and poly (vinyl chloride were obtained and further characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The thermal behavior of composites was investigated by using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. In all cases, thermal properties were affected by fillers addition.

  18. Formation Mechanistism Study of TiO2 Film Comprising Nanotubes and Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Yang; Yi-quan Wang; Guo-bin Ren; Shuai Feng; Yuan-yuan Chen; Wen-zhong Wang

    2012-01-01

    A novel titanium dioxide (TiO2) film comprising both nanotubes and nanopaticles was fabricated by an anodization process of the modified titanium.The local electric field at the anodized surface was simulated and its influence on the morphology of the TiO2 film was discussed.The results show that the electric field strength is enhanced by the covering.The growth rate of TiO2 increases with the assist of the local electric field.However,TiO2 dissolution is hindered since the local electric field prevents [TiF6]6- from diffusing.It means that the balance condition for the formation of nanotubes is broken,and TiO2 nanoparticles are formed.Moreover,the crystal structure of the TiO2 film was confirmed using X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis.The anatase is a main phase for the proposed film.

  19. Formation Mechanistism Study of TiO2 Film Comprising Nanotubes and Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Wang, Yi-quan; Ren, Guo-bin; Feng, Shuai; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Wen-zhong

    2012-02-01

    A novel titanium dioxide (TiO2) film comprising both nanotubes and nanopaticles was fabricated by an anodization process of the modified titanium. The local electric field at the anodized surface was simulated and its influence on the morphology of the TiO2 film was discussed. The results show that the electric field strength is enhanced by the covering. The growth rate of TiO2 increases with the assist of the local electric field. However, TiO2 dissolution is hindered since the local electric field prevents [TiF6]6- from diffusing. It means that the balance condition for the formation of nanotubes is broken, and TiO2 nanoparticles are formed. Moreover, the crystal structure of the TiO2 film was confirmed using X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis. The anatase is a main phase for the proposed film.

  20. Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of Optimised Cocoyam-Based Composite Flour Comprising Cassava Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awolu Olugbenga Olufemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite flour comprising cocoyam (Colocassia esculenta, bambara groundnut and cassava starch was produced. The proximate and minerals compositions and functional properties were optimized using optimal mixture design of response surface methodology. The antinutritional, pasting and farinograph analyses of the optimum blends were evaluated. Bambara groundnut improved protein, fibre, ash and minerals contents; cassava starch improved swelling capacity, least gelation and pasting characteristics. The optimum blends CBC1 (70% cocoyam flour, 18.33% bambara groundnut flour, 11.67% cassava starch and CBC2 (69.17% cocoyam flour, 16.67% bambara groundnut flour, 14.17% cassava starch. were comparable to wheat–based flour samples (60% wheat, 30% cocoyam, 10% bambara groundnut flours and (72% wheat, 19% cocoyam, 9% bambara groundnut flours in terms of pasting and farinograph analyses.

  1. Optical modulation of nano-gap tunnelling junctions comprising self-assembled monolayers of hemicyanine dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhossein, Parisa; Vijayaraghavan, Ratheesh K.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Chiechi, Ryan C.

    2016-06-01

    Light-driven conductance switching in molecular tunnelling junctions that relies on photoisomerization is constrained by the limitations of kinetic traps and either by the sterics of rearranging atoms in a densely packed monolayer or the small absorbance of individual molecules. Here we demonstrate light-driven conductance gating; devices comprising monolayers of hemicyanine dyes trapped between two metallic nanowires exhibit higher conductance under irradiation than in the dark. The modulation of the tunnelling current occurs faster than the timescale of the measurement (~1 min). We propose a mechanism in which a fraction of molecules enters an excited state that brings the conjugated portion of the monolayer into resonance with the electrodes. This mechanism is supported by calculations showing the delocalization of molecular orbitals near the Fermi energy in the excited and cationic states, but not the ground state and a reasonable change in conductance with respect to the effective barrier width.

  2. Nucleic acids encoding phloem small RNA-binding proteins and transgenic plants comprising them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, William J.; Yoo, Byung-Chun; Lough, Tony J.; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2007-03-13

    The present invention provides a polynucleotide sequence encoding a component of the protein machinery involved in small RNA trafficking, Cucurbita maxima phloem small RNA-binding protein (CmPSRB 1), and the corresponding polypeptide sequence. The invention also provides genetic constructs and transgenic plants comprising the polynucleotide sequence encoding a phloem small RNA-binding protein to alter (e.g., prevent, reduce or elevate) non-cell autonomous signaling events in the plants involving small RNA metabolism. These signaling events are involved in a broad spectrum of plant physiological and biochemical processes, including, for example, systemic resistance to pathogens, responses to environmental stresses, e.g., heat, drought, salinity, and systemic gene silencing (e.g., viral infections).

  3. Transgenic carrot expressing fusion protein comprising M. tuberculosis antigens induces immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permyakova, Natalia V; Zagorskaya, Alla A; Belavin, Pavel A; Uvarova, Elena A; Nosareva, Olesya V; Nesterov, Andrey E; Novikovskaya, Anna A; Zav'yalov, Evgeniy L; Moshkin, Mikhail P; Deineko, Elena V

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice) when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  4. Infrared absorption on a complex comprising three equivalent hydrogen atoms in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herklotz, F.; Hupfer, A.; Johansen, K. M.; Svensson, B. G.; Koch, S. G.; Lavrov, E. V.

    2015-10-01

    A hydrogen-related defect in ZnO which causes two broad IR absorption bands at 3303 and 3321 cm-1 is studied by means of infrared absorption spectroscopy and first-principles theory. In deuterated samples, the defect reveals two sharp absorption lines at 2466 and 2488 cm-1 accompanied by weaker sidebands at 2462 and 2480 cm-1. Isotope substitution experiments with varying concentrations of H and D together with polarization-sensitive measurements strongly suggest that these IR absorption lines are due to stretch local vibrational modes of a defect comprising three equivalent hydrogen atoms. The zinc vacancy decorated by three hydrogen atoms, VZnH3 , and ammonia trapped at the zinc vacancy, (NH3)Zn, are discussed as a possible origin for the complex.

  5. Superhydrophobic, diatomaceous earth comprising bandages and method of making the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; D' Urso, Brian R.

    2017-01-10

    A bandage comprising a substrate having a first surface with a plurality of superhydrophobic particles attached to the first surface. The plurality of superhydrophobic particles can be porous diatomaceous earth particles having a hydrophobic layer conforming to the surfaces of the DE particles, where the hydrophobic layer is bound to the DE particles. The plurality of attached superhydrophobic particles can render the first surface superhydrophobic, while a second surface opposite the first surface can be hydrophilic or hydrophobic. The substrate can be breathable in order to maintain skin health for the tissue underlying the bandage. The substrate can be selected from porous films, apertured films, textiles, nonwoven materials, impregnated composites thereof, and combinations thereof.

  6. A construction and a tension element comprising a cable and a plurality of strakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a construction comprising a structural element and at least one cable (100) arranged in tension to carry at least a part of the weight of the structural element. The cable defines an outer surface (102) onto which a plurality of strakes (104) form protrusions for reducing...... rain and wind induced vibrations. Each strake has a height being a distance from a strake root part connected to the outer surface of the cable and a strake end part terminating the strake outwards form the cable, a width being transverse to the height, and a length transverse to the height and width...... and along which length the strake is connected to the cable. The length of each strake is shorter than the circumference of the outer surface, and the height is less than 5 percent of the diameter of the cable....

  7. Analysis and Design of Ultra Thin Electromagnetic Absorbers Comprising Resistively Loaded High Impedance Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Filippo; Manara, Giuliano; 10.1109/TAP.2010.2044329

    2010-01-01

    High-Impedance Surfaces (HIS) comprising lossy Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS) are employed to design thin electromagnetic absorbers. The structure, despite its typical resonant behavior, is able to perform a very wideband absorption in a reduced thickness. Losses in the frequency selective surface are introduced by printing the periodic pattern through resistive inks and hence avoiding the typical soldering of a large number of lumped resistors. The effect of the surface resistance of the FSS and dielectric substrate characteristics on the input impedance of the absorber is discussed by means of a circuital model. It is shown that the optimum value of surface resistance is affected both by substrate parameters (thickness and permittivity) and by FSS element shape. The equivalent circuit model is then used to introduce the working principles of the narrowband and the wideband absorbing structure and to derive the best-suited element for wideband absorption. Finally, the experimental validation of the prese...

  8. Cobalamin status during normal pregnancy and postpartum: a longitudinal study comprising 406 danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, KE; Bergholt, T;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) status during normal pregnancy and postpartum in a longitudinal setting. METHODS: This study was performed in 1995-1996. It comprised 406 healthy, pregnant Danish Caucasian women, living in Copenhagen County. Cobalamin status, i.e. plasma (P......-) cobalamin, P-methylmalonic acid and P-homocysteine was measured at 18, 32 and 39 wk gestation and 8 wk postpartum during lactation. RESULTS: P-cobalamin showed a gradual, significant decline during pregnancy (P ... and 8 wk postpartum median values were 225, 172, 161 and 319 pmol/L, respectively. P-methylmalonic displayed a gradual, significant increase during pregnancy as well as postpartum (P homocysteine demonstrated...

  9. Crystal structures of two ytterbium(III complexes comprising alkynylamidinate ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sida Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two ytterbium(III complexes comprising alkynylamidinate ligands, namely bis(η5-cyclopentadienyl(3-cyclopropyl-N,N′-diisopropylpropynamidinato-κ2N,N′ytterbium(III, [Yb(C5H52(C12H19N2] or Cp2Yb[(iPr2N2C—C[triple-bond]C—c-C3H5] (1 and tris(3-phenyl-N,N′-dicyclohexylpropynamidinato-κ2N,N′ytterbium(III, [Yb(C21H27N23] or Yb[(CyN2C—C[triple-bond]C—Ph]3 (Cy = cyclohexyl (2 have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Both complexes are monomers; for complex 2, the contribution to the scattering from highly disordered toluene solvent molecules in these voids was removed with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] in PLATON. The stated crystal data for Mr, μ etc. do not take these into account.

  10. Transgenic Carrot Expressing Fusion Protein Comprising M. tuberculosis Antigens Induces Immune Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Permyakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L. genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  11. Kinetic analysis of overlapping multistep thermal decomposition comprising exothermic and endothermic processes: thermolysis of ammonium dinitramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravyev, Nikita V; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Meerov, Dmitry B; Pivkina, Alla N

    2017-01-25

    This study focused on kinetic modeling of a specific type of multistep heterogeneous reaction comprising exothermic and endothermic reaction steps, as exemplified by the practical kinetic analysis of the experimental kinetic curves for the thermal decomposition of molten ammonium dinitramide (ADN). It is known that the thermal decomposition of ADN occurs as a consecutive two step mass-loss process comprising the decomposition of ADN and subsequent evaporation/decomposition of in situ generated ammonium nitrate. These reaction steps provide exothermic and endothermic contributions, respectively, to the overall thermal effect. The overall reaction process was deconvoluted into two reaction steps using simultaneously recorded thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) curves by considering the different physical meanings of the kinetic data derived from TG and DSC by P value analysis. The kinetic data thus separated into exothermic and endothermic reaction steps were kinetically characterized using kinetic computation methods including isoconversional method, combined kinetic analysis, and master plot method. The overall kinetic behavior was reproduced as the sum of the kinetic equations for each reaction step considering the contributions to the rate data derived from TG and DSC. During reproduction of the kinetic behavior, the kinetic parameters and contributions of each reaction step were optimized using kinetic deconvolution analysis. As a result, the thermal decomposition of ADN was successfully modeled as partially overlapping exothermic and endothermic reaction steps. The logic of the kinetic modeling was critically examined, and the practical usefulness of phenomenological modeling for the thermal decomposition of ADN was illustrated to demonstrate the validity of the methodology and its applicability to similar complex reaction processes.

  12. Ethnic differences in prevalence of general obesity and abdominal obesity among low-income rural Kazakh and Uyghur adults in far western China and implications in preventive public health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia He

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity has become a disastrous public health issue that needs urgent attention. Previous studies have concentrated in high-income urban settings and few cover low-income rural settings especially nomadic residents in mountain areas. This study focused on low-income rural and nomadic minority people residing in China's far west and investigated their prevalence and ethnic differences of obesity.A questionnaire-based survey and physical examination of 8,036 individuals were conducted during 2009-2010, using stratified cluster random sampling method in nomadic Kazakhs and rural Uyghur residents (≥ 18 years old in 18 villages, Xinjiang, China, about 4,407 km away from capital Beijing. Obesity was defined by BMI and WC.The overall prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in Kazakh adults were 18.3% and 60.0%, respectively and in Uyghur, 7.6% and 54.5%, respectively. Female's prevalence of obesity was higher than male's for general obesity (45-54 age group in Uyghur, P = 0.041 and abdominal obesity (≥ 55 years in Kazakhs, P(55 ∼ = 0.010, P(65 ∼ = 0.001; and ≥ 18 years in Uyghurs, P<0.001. Kazakh's prevalence of obesity was higher than Uyghur's (general obesity: ≥ 35 years, P<0.001; abdominal obesity: ≥ 25 years in males and ≥ 65 years in females, P<0.01. The prevalence of obesity increased after 18 years old and subsequently decreased after 55 years old. Meat consumption, older age, and female gender had a higher risk of obesity in these two minorities.Both general and abdominal obesity were common in rural ethnic Kazakhs and Uyghurs. The prevalence rates were different in these two minorities depending on ethnicity, gender, and age. Kazakhs, females and elderly people may be prioritized in prevention of obesity in western China. Because of cost-effectiveness in measuring BMI and WC, we recommend that BMI and WC be integrated into local preventive policies in public health toward screening obesity and related

  13. 高校公共艺术设计通识课程建设研究%On the Significance of Constructing General Education Courses of Public Artistic Design in Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹤

    2015-01-01

    针对当前普通高等院校公共艺术教育缺乏新形式课程以及与专业艺术教育脱节两大问题,将兼具不同艺术设计专业特征,涵盖范围广、适应性强的公共艺术专业教学融入普通高校公共艺术教育体系,建设形式新颖的艺术设计通识课程,将能够充分活跃后者的课程体系,提升学习者兴趣。在提升学习者综合素质之外,也可为我国艺术、科技创新人才培养做出贡献。%The public art education of Chinese universities and colleges is currently faced with two main problems: a lack of novel courses and the separation from academic art education. This article proposes to blend into the public art education system of universities a kind of public art education scheme, which is well-rounded and highly adaptive, and embodies features of different art design disciplines, in an effort to innovate general education curriculum in art design. The novel courses will be able to fully activate the art curriculum and stimulate learners’ interest in art design. Therefore, the scheme is expected to not only strengthen the comprehensive ability of learners but also help foster innovative talents in art, science and technology for China’s development.

  14. 上海市浦东新区公立综合性医院病人安全氛围评价%Evaluation on patient safety climate in public general hospitals in Pudong New Area of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡美玉; 顾建钧; 贺晓燕; 俞步青; 孙昕; 周萍; 廖兴斌; 薛迪

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价上海市浦东新区区属公立综合性医院的病人安全氛围。方法:采用病人安全氛围测评量表,对浦东新区7家综合性医院1353位员工进行问卷调查。结果:员工对医院病人安全氛围总体评价良好,但对不害怕受羞辱、不害怕受责备、未见不良结果维度的评价较低,管理者和受过质控培训的员工评价较高。结论:医院应加强医院病人安全文化的建设,避免医疗差错重复发生。%Objective:The study aims to evaluate the patient safety climate in public general hospitals in Pudong New Area of Shanghai. Methods:Questionnaire survey of 1 353 employees in seven public general hospitals of Pudong New Area was conducted. An assessment tool for patient safety climate was used. Results:Overall,the perception of employees on patient safety climate was positive,but the perceptions of employees on“not fear of shame”,“not fear of blame”and“no adverse outcomes”dimensions were negative. In addition,the hospital managers and the employees who had got training on quality control had more positive perception on patient safety climate. Conclusion:Hospitals should construct patient safety culture to avoid repeated medical errors.

  15. Public spaces - public life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    2004-01-01

    A handbook on how to create human qualities in the city comparing European cities in general to what is obtained in Copenhagen. A metod of assessing urban quality and a thorough insigt into how people use urban spaces....

  16. Public Accountancy Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern public accountancy practice in New York State is presented. In addition to identifying licensing requirements/procedures for certified public accountants, general provisions of Title VIII of the Education Law are covered, along with state management, professional misconduct, and…

  17. Public Accountancy Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern public accountancy practice in New York State is presented. In addition to identifying licensing requirements/procedures for certified public accountants, general provisions of Title VIII of the Education Law are covered, along with state management, professional misconduct, and…

  18. 42 CFR 1000.10 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General definitions. 1000.10 Section 1000.10 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS INTRODUCTION; GENERAL DEFINITIONS Definitions § 1000.10 General definitions. In this...

  19. How to Develop Sustainable Public Administration Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu RADU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Public administration reform and reform in general is a never ending story. The human so-cieties are evolving and so do their needs. Pub-lic administration has to keep the pace with the changes that are taking place in society. Specifc issues like ageing of the population and the mi-gration from small to larger communities, or from poor to wealthy regions are placing supplemen-tary burdens on modern administrative systems for decades. The economic crisis that started in 2008 made administrative matters even more complicated. Functional economies and consol-idated democracies proved to be vulnerable to what was considered by many as a market failure. The crisis and the responses of the governments around the world raised a number of questions related to the role that state and public authority in general should play in a modern democracy. The paper is briefy exploring the challenges that administrative systems from the new European Union member states and from the candidatestates were or are facing in their attempt to meet the requirements of the European Union mem-bership, and is proposing a challenging measure: the development of an acquis communautaire for the feld of public administration and consequent-ly the establishment of a correspondent structure inside the European Commission. The acquis communautaire will comprise of a minimum set of principles, widely accepted, that should rep-resent a ‘to do list’ for new member states that are having diffculties in promoting a sound and sustainable reform in public administration.

  20. Chikungunya: Information for the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or heart disease • Deaths are rare The mosquitoes • Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus • These same types ... for signs of chikungunya or other similar diseases Prevention • There is no vaccine or medication to prevent ...

  1. Einstein for Schools and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K. E.; Kozma, C; Nilsson, Ch

    2006-01-01

    In April 2005 the World Year of Physics (Einstein Year in the UK and Ireland) was celebrated with an Einstein week in Stockholm House of Science. Seven experiments illustrated Einstein's remarkable work in 1905 on Brownian motion, the photoelectric effect and special relativity. Thirteen school classes with 260 pupils, 30 teachers and 25 members…

  2. Giardia Prevention and Control: General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or wound After using the toilet After changing diapers or cleaning up a child who has used ... diarrhea (this is most important for children in diapers). If diagnosed with giardiasis, do not swim for ...

  3. Course-embedded Assessment of General Education in American Public Universities%美国公立大学通识教育课程嵌入式评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱铭; 汪霞

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of general education curriculum is of great importance to American public universities,and course-embedded assessment is an approach frequently employed in those universities.Course-embedded assessment is not simply used in a single course ,it also provides the universities ’general education with a coherent basis.As part of the curriculum,it has the functions of both instruction and diagnosis.%美国公立大学重视通识教育课程评价,课程嵌入式评价是其通识教育课程常用的评价方法之一。课程嵌入式评价不仅适用于单门课程,更重要的是为学校整个通识教育提供了连贯一致的基础,它作为课程的一部分,对教学具有诊断功能和回流作用。

  4. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, I am pleased to invite you to a public meeting which will be held on Thursday 11 November 2010 at 2:30 p.m., in the Main Auditorium (welcome coffee from 2 p.m.) In this meeting Sigurd Lettow, Director for Administration and General Infrastructure will present the Management’s proposals towards restoring full funding of the Pension Fund. The meeting will follow discussions which took place with the Staff Association, at the Standing Concertation Committee (CCP) of 1 November 2010 and will be held with the Members States, at the Tripartite Employment Conditions Forum (TREF) of 4 November 2010. You will be able to attend this presentation in the Main Auditorium or via the webcast. The Management will also be available to reply to your questions on this subject. Best regards, Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  5. Capturing of the internal mechanics of liquid-granular flows comprised of polydisperse spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollin, Devis; Bowman, Elisabeth

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a series of flume experiments designed to examine the motion and arrest of concentrated granular-fluid flows, with a view to understanding the role of polydispersity in debris flows. A non-intrusive technique is used to investigate the internal behaviour of small scale experimental flows. Three different particle size distributions comprised of polydisperse spherical particles and one with the finer component made of angular particles were analysed. The choice of using spherical shaped particles was made to improve the visualization of the internal mechanics without reducing overmuch the complexity involved in the study of these flows. We examined and compared the internal velocities of the flows and their depositional spreads. While the optical performance of the non-intrusive technique was improved, some of the characteristics commonly seen in these types of granular flows were not observed. Velocity profiles obtained in the body of the flows were similar in shape but with differences in velocity magnitude depending on the amount of fines and the angularity of the particle in one case. Depositional runouts between flows were similar at low inclinations when little internal energy was supplemented to the system or when the viscous effects dominated the mechanics at steeper angles.

  6. Polymeric media comprising polybenzimidazoles N-substituted with organic-inorganic hybrid moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S [Idaho Falls, ID; Wertsching, Alan K [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J [Shelley, ID; Luther, Thomas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Michael G [Pocatello, ID

    2009-12-15

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be included in a separator medium. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2-- where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The separatory medium may exhibit an H.sub.2, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.3, or CO.sub.2 gas permeability greater than the gas permeability of a comparable separatory medium comprising the PBI compound without substitution. The separatory medium may further include an electronically conductive medium and/or ionically conductive medium. The separatory medium may be used as a membrane (semi-permeable, permeable, and non-permeable), a barrier, an ion exhcange media, a filter, a gas chromatography coating (such as stationary phase coating in affinity chromatography), etc.

  7. Solid dispersion matrix tablet comprising indomethacin-PEG-HPMC fabricated with fusion and mold technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesnukul A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to fabricate the polyethylene glycol matrix tablet by mold technique. Indomethacin and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose were used as model drug and polymer, respectively, in PEG matrix system. The physical and drug release characteristics of developed matrix tablet were studied. This inert carrier system comprising 7:3 polyethylene glycol 4000: polyethylene glycol 400 could effectively enhance the solubility of indomethacin and an addition of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose could sustain the drug release. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph indicated the drug diffusion outward through the porous network of this developed matrix tablet into the dissolution fluid. Least square fitting the experimental dissolution data to the mathematical expressions (power law, first-order, Higuchi′s and zero-order indicated the drug release kinetics primarily as Fickian diffusion. Both the enhancement of drug dissolution and the prolongation of the drug release could be achieved for aqueous insoluble drug such as, indomethacin, by using polyethylene glycol-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose matrix system prepared with melting and mold technique.

  8. Control-Oriented Model of a Generating Set Comprising a Diesel Engine and a Synchronous Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutaz Tuffaha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A generating set (Genset comprises a prime mover such as a Diesel Engine, and a synchronous generator. The most important controllers of such systems are the speed governor to regulate the engine or shaft speed and the automatic voltage regulator (AVR to regulate the terminal voltage. The speed governor is a PID controller that uses the difference between the speed and its desired value as a feedback signal to change the fuel mass input by changing the fuel rack position. AVR is also a PID that uses the difference between the terminal voltage of the generator and its desired value, and changes it by manipulating the voltage of the field excitation circuit. Thus, the two controllers act separately. That is to say, if the speed varies from the desired value, the speed governor will react, while the AVR will not react as long as the voltage is stable, and vice versa. In this work, a control-oriented model is suggested for a Genset, and then a controller, that regulates the shaft speed and the terminal voltage, is designed by feedback linearisation. The proposed controller has two inputs: the fuel mass and the field circuit voltage. Simulations show that the proposed controller makes the two inputs act, simultaneously. Thus, any change of the speed e.g., forces the two input controls to react, in contrast to the ordinary PID controllers. Further, we discuss the robustness of the proposed controller to uncertainties and time delay.

  9. Structure formation in adsorbed overlayers comprising functional cross-shaped molecules: A Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperski, Adam; Nieckarz, Damian; Szabelski, Paweł

    2015-11-01

    Surface confined self-assembly of functional star-shaped organic molecules is a promising method to create nanoporous networks with tailorable structure and functions. In this work we use the Monte Carlo simulation method to demonstrate how the morphology of these supramolecular assemblies can be tuned by manipulating intrinsic parameters of the building blocks and modified by the presence of co-adsorbed metal atoms. To that purpose we study the 2D self-assembly of planar cruciform molecules modeled as collections of interconnected segments, some of which were activated to represent discrete interaction centers. We consider a few exemplary adsorbed systems in which the molecules with different size, aspect ratio and intramolecular distribution of active centers form superstructures stabilized by short-range segment-segment interactions or by metal-segment interactions. These two situations correspond to supramolecular assemblies sustained by, for example, hydrogen bonding and metal-organic ligand coordination, respectively. The simulated results show that proper encoding of intramolecular interactions into the cruciform building bricks allows for directing the self-assembly towards largely diversified structures ranging from nanoclusters to porous grids. The obtained findings can facilitate designing and optimization of molecular networks comprising cross-shaped units including functionalized porphyrins and phthalocyanines and they can be helpful in preliminary selection of these building blocks.

  10. Stability Assessment of a System Comprising a Single Machine and Inverter with Scalable Ratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Yashen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    From the inception of power systems, synchronous machines have acted as the foundation of large-scale electrical infrastructures and their physical properties have formed the cornerstone of system operations. However, power electronics interfaces are playing a growing role as they are the primary interface for several types of renewable energy sources and storage technologies. As the role of power electronics in systems continues to grow, it is crucial to investigate the properties of bulk power systems in low inertia settings. In this paper, we assess the properties of coupled machine-inverter systems by studying an elementary system comprised of a synchronous generator, three-phase inverter, and a load. Furthermore, the inverter model is formulated such that its power rating can be scaled continuously across power levels while preserving its closed-loop response. Accordingly, the properties of the machine-inverter system can be assessed for varying ratios of machine-to-inverter power ratings and, hence, differing levels of inertia. After linearizing the model and assessing its eigenvalues, we show that system stability is highly dependent on the interaction between the inverter current controller and machine exciter, thus uncovering a key concern with mixed machine-inverter systems and motivating the need for next-generation grid-stabilizing inverter controls.

  11. Polyionic hybrid nano-engineered systems comprising alginate and chitosan for antihypertensive therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Taskeen; Nasir, Habib; Shabbir, Saima; Rehman, Asma; Imran, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    Hydrophobic nature of virtually all antihypertensive (AHT) drugs is the major hindrance towards their oral administration. Current study focuses on the development of polyionic hybrid nano drug delivery systems comprising sodium alginate and chitosan, loaded with distinct AHT drugs (captopril, amlodipine and valsartan). Encapsulation efficiency of hybrid NCS increased in the order of amlodipine>valsartan>captopril with average value of 42±0.9%, 91±1.5% and 96±1.9%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed hybrid NCS with smooth topography and round appearance in case of captopril. FTIR analysis confirmed the cross-linking between amino and carboxylate group of chitosan and alginate to form polyionic structures at nano-scale. Zeta-sizer experiments revealed that particle size distribution had increased from 197±12nm to 341±15nm for void and captopril loaded NCS. However, highly positive zeta potential of +32±1.6mV was not decreased significantly. In vitro sustained release assays reflected excellent retention of AHT drug in hybrid nanoparticles at 4°C and 37°C in physiological buffer, as less than 8% of the total drug was released in first 24h. Thus, carbohydrate-based hybrid NCS offering high loading capacity, stability and sustained release of hydrophobic drugs can be excellent alternative to current AHT therapeutics.

  12. Crystal structures of two ytterbium(III) complexes comprising alkynylamidinate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sida; Sroor, Farid M; Liebing, Phil; Lorenz, Volker; Hilfert, Liane; Edelmann, Frank T

    2016-09-01

    Two ytterbium(III) complexes comprising alkynylamidinate ligands, namely bis-(η(5)-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)(3-cyclo-propyl-N,N'-diiso-propyl-propynamidinato-κ(2)N,N')ytterbium(III), [Yb(C5H5)2(C12H19N2)] or Cp2Yb[( (i) Pr2N)2C-C≡C-c-C3H5] (1) and tris-(3-phenyl-N,N'-di-cyclo-hexyl-propynamidinato-κ(2)N,N')ytterbium(III), [Yb(C21H27N2)3] or Yb[(CyN)2C-C≡C-Ph]3 (Cy = cyclo-hex-yl) (2) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Both complexes are monomers; for complex 2, the contribution to the scattering from highly disordered toluene solvent molecules in these voids was removed with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] in PLATON. The stated crystal data for Mr, μ etc. do not take these into account.

  13. IDIOMS THAT COMPRISE THE PRESENCE OF TURKISH WORDS IN GREEK CYPRIOT LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şevket ÖZNUR

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this communiqué again we preferred to present some examples from the effects of Turkish Cypriot Culture. For a few years, we have concentrated on our culture’s effect on other cultures in Cyprus. Bearing in mind that we have lived together for hundreds of years with other societies, we have seen fit to give examples of the cultural interaction between other cultures and Turkish Cypriot culture. Our communiqué mostly comprises the effects of Turkish Culture. We have found it convenient to present idioms rather than words. As it can be seen from the examples, in every Greek saying there is a Turkish word. For that reason, we have chosen our title as “Turkish Idioms in Greek Cypriot Language”. These idioms which have the clear evidence of the effect of Turkish Culture have been limited with only 71 examples due to shortage of time. We are happy to be able to contribute to our culture. Now with our best regards we would like to start presenting the examples.

  14. Hybrid Layered Crystal Comprising Polyoxometalate and Surfactant Synthesized from Reduced Mo-Blue Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Mikurube

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid layered crystal containing polyoxomolybdate was successfully synthesized from reduced Mo-blue species as starting material. The hybrid crystal, [C5H5N(C16H33]2[β-H2Mo8O26]·2C2H5OH (C16py-H2Mo8, was obtained as a single phase by the gradual oxidation of hexadecylpyridinium-Mo-blue (C16py-Mo-blue hybrid. The X-ray structure analysis revealed that C16py-H2Mo8 comprised β-type octamolybdate anion with two protons (β-H2Mo8. The β-H2Mo8 anions and ethanol molecules of crystallization formed two-dimensional anionic layers. The pyridine rings of C16py did not attend to form the two-dimensional inorganic layers, and the interdigitated C16py bilayers were sandwiched by the β-H2Mo8 anionic layers with periodicity of 18.2 Å. These C16py-H2Mo8 hybrid layered crystals possibly work as a new class of proton conductor.

  15. FGF4 and FGF8 comprise the wavefront activity that controls somitogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiche, L A; Holder, Nakisha; Lewandoski, Mark

    2011-03-08

    Somites form along the embryonic axis by sequential segmentation from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and differentiate into the segmented vertebral column as well as other unsegmented tissues. Somites are thought to form via the intersection of two activities known as the clock and the wavefront. Previous work has suggested that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activity may be the wavefront signal, which maintains the PSM in an undifferentiated state. However, it is unclear which (if any) of the FGFs expressed in the PSM comprise this activity, as removal of any one gene is insufficient to disrupt early somitogenesis. Here we show that when both Fgf4 and Fgf8 are deleted in the PSM, expression of most PSM genes is absent, including cycling genes, WNT pathway genes, and markers of undifferentiated PSM. Significantly, markers of nascent somite cell fate expand throughout the PSM, demonstrating the premature differentiation of this entire tissue, a highly unusual phenotype indicative of the loss of wavefront activity. When WNT signaling is restored in mutants, PSM progenitor markers are partially restored but premature differentiation of the PSM still occurs, demonstrating that FGF signaling operates independently of WNT signaling. This study provides genetic evidence that FGFs are the wavefront signal and identifies the specific FGF ligands that encode this activity. Furthermore, these data show that FGF action maintains WNT signaling, and that both signaling pathways are required in parallel to maintain PSM progenitor tissue.

  16. The Alternaria genomes database: a comprehensive resource for a fungal genus comprised of saprophytes, plant pathogens, and allergenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ha X; Pryor, Barry; Peever, Tobin; Lawrence, Christopher B

    2015-03-25

    Alternaria is considered one of the most common saprophytic fungal genera on the planet. It is comprised of many species that exhibit a necrotrophic phytopathogenic lifestyle. Several species are clinically associated with allergic respiratory disorders although rarely found to cause invasive infections in humans. Finally, Alternaria spp. are among the most well known producers of diverse fungal secondary metabolites, especially toxins. We have recently sequenced and annotated the genomes of 25 Alternaria spp. including but not limited to many necrotrophic plant pathogens such as A. brassicicola (a pathogen of Brassicaceous crops like cabbage and canola) and A. solani (a major pathogen of Solanaceous plants like potato and tomato), and several saprophytes that cause allergy in human such as A. alternata isolates. These genomes were annotated and compared. Multiple genetic differences were found in the context of plant and human pathogenicity, notably the pro-inflammatory potential of A. alternata. The Alternaria genomes database was built to provide a public platform to access the whole genome sequences, genome annotations, and comparative genomics data of these species. Genome annotation and comparison were performed using a pipeline that integrated multiple computational and comparative genomics tools. Alternaria genome sequences together with their annotation and comparison data were ported to Ensembl database schemas using a self-developed tool (EnsImport). Collectively, data are currently hosted using a customized installation of the Ensembl genome browser platform. Recent efforts in fungal genome sequencing have facilitated the studies of the molecular basis of fungal pathogenicity as a whole system. The Alternaria genomes database provides a comprehensive resource of genomics and comparative data of an important saprophytic and plant/human pathogenic fungal genus. The database will be updated regularly with new genomes when they become available. The

  17. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  18. Preparation of salted meat products, e.g. cured bacon - by injecting liquid comprising meat proteins hydrolysed with enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation of salted meat products comprises the following:(1) meat is chopped into fine pieces and mixed with water to form a slurry; (2) enzymes hydrolyse proteins in the meat; (3) adding a culture to the resulting medium, which comprises short peptide chains or amino acids; (4) forming...... flavourings as the culture is growing, and (5) injecting the liquid into pieces of meat....

  19. Preparation of salted meat products, e.g. cured bacon - by injecting liquid comprising meat proteins hydrolysed with enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation of salted meat products comprises the following:(1) meat is chopped into fine pieces and mixed with water to form a slurry; (2) enzymes hydrolyse proteins in the meat; (3) adding a culture to the resulting medium, which comprises short peptide chains or amino acids; (4) forming...

  20. Hearing of the public on September 19, 2005 at Cherbourg; Audition du public, Cherbourg, le 19 septembre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the last public hearing at Cherbourg. This meeting gathers representatives of the different actors of the nuclear industry, ministers, public authorities, non governmental organizations who argue the questions asked by peoples from the audience. The topics concern the public health aspects and the risks linked with nuclear activities in general, the safety and security aspects of waste reprocessing and disposal facilities, and the technical feasibility of transmutation. (J.S.)

  1. An enhanced linkage map of the sheep genome comprising more than 1000 loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, J F; Davies, K P; Crawford, A M; Hulme, D J; Vaiman, D; Cribiu, E P; Freking, B A; Beh, K J; Cockett, N E; Kang, N; Riffkin, C D; Drinkwater, R; Moore, S S; Dodds, K G; Lumsden, J M; van Stijn, T C; Phua, S H; Adelson, D L; Burkin, H R; Broom, J E; Buitkamp, J; Cambridge, L; Cushwa, W T; Gerard, E; Galloway, S M; Harrison, B; Hawken, R J; Hiendleder, S; Henry, H M; Medrano, J F; Paterson, K A; Schibler, L; Stone, R T; van Hest, B

    2001-07-01

    A medium-density linkage map of the ovine genome has been developed. Marker data for 550 new loci were generated and merged with the previous sheep linkage map. The new map comprises 1093 markers representing 1062 unique loci (941 anonymous loci, 121 genes) and spans 3500 cM (sex-averaged) for the autosomes and 132 cM (female) on the X chromosome. There is an average spacing of 3.4 cM between autosomal loci and 8.3 cM between highly polymorphic [polymorphic information content (PIC) > or = 0.7] autosomal loci. The largest gap between markers is 32.5 cM, and the number of gaps of > 20 cM between loci, or regions where loci are missing from chromosome ends, has been reduced from 40 in the previous map to 6. Five hundred and seventy-three of the loci can be ordered on a framework map with odds of > 1000 : 1. The sheep linkage map contains strong links to both the cattle and goat maps. Five hundred and seventy-two of the loci positioned on the sheep linkage map have also been mapped by linkage analysis in cattle, and 209 of the loci mapped on the sheep linkage map have also been placed on the goat linkage map. Inspection of ruminant linkage maps indicates that the genomic coverage by the current sheep linkage map is comparable to that of the available cattle maps. The sheep map provides a valuable resource to the international sheep, cattle, and goat gene mapping community.

  2. Amyloid β Ion Channels in a Membrane Comprising Brain Total Lipid Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon; Kim, Young Hun; T Arce, Fernando; Gillman, Alan L; Jang, Hyunbum; Kagan, Bruce L; Nussinov, Ruth; Yang, Jerry; Lal, Ratnesh

    2017-02-20

    Amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers are the predominant toxic species in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. The prevailing mechanism for toxicity by Aβ oligomers includes ionic homeostasis destabilization in neuronal cells by forming ion channels. These channel structures have been previously studied in model lipid bilayers. In order to gain further insight into the interaction of Aβ oligomers with natural membrane compositions, we have examined the structures and conductivities of Aβ oligomers in a membrane composed of brain total lipid extract (BTLE). We utilized two complementary techniques: atomic force microscopy (AFM) and black lipid membrane (BLM) electrical recording. Our results indicate that Aβ1-42 forms ion channel structures in BTLE membranes, accompanied by a heterogeneous population of ionic current fluctuations. Notably, the observed current events generated by Aβ1-42 peptides in BTLE membranes possess different characteristics compared to current events generated by the presence of Aβ1-42 in model membranes comprising a 1:1 mixture of DOPS and POPE lipids. Oligomers of the truncated Aβ fragment Aβ17-42 (p3) exhibited similar ion conductivity behavior as Aβ1-42 in BTLE membranes. However, the observed macroscopic ion flux across the BTLE membranes induced by Aβ1-42 pores was larger than for p3 pores. Our analysis of structure and conductance of oligomeric Aβ pores in a natural lipid membrane closely mimics the in vivo cellular environment suggesting that Aβ pores could potentially accelerate the loss of ionic homeostasis and cellular abnormalities. Hence, these pore structures may serve as a target for drug development and therapeutic strategies for AD treatment.

  3. Microvascular oxygen pressures in muscles comprised of different fiber types: Impact of dietary nitrate supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Scott K.; Holdsworth, Clark T.; Wright, Jennifer L.; Fees, Alex J.; Allen, Jason D.; Jones, Andrew M.; Musch, Timothy I.; Poole, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3−) supplementation via beetroot juice (BR) preferentially improves vascular conductance and O2 delivery to contracting skeletal muscles comprised predominantly of type IIb + d/x (i.e. highly glycolytic) fibers following its reduction to nitrite and nitric oxide (NO). To address the mechanistic basis for NO3− to improve metabolic control we tested the hypothesis that increased NO bioavailability via BR supplementation would elevate microvascular PO2 (PO2mv) in fast twitch but not slow twitch muscle. Twelve young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered BR ([NO3−] 1 mmol/kg/day, n=6) or water (control, n=6) for 5 days. PO2mv (phosphorescence quenching) was measured at rest and during 180s of electrically induced 1-Hz twitch contractions (6–8 V) of the soleus (9% type IIb +d/x) and mixed portion of the gastrocnemius (MG, 91% type IIb + d/x) muscles. In the MG, but not the soleus, BR elevated contracting steady state PO2mv by ~43% (control: 13.7 ± 0.5, BR: 19 ± 1.6 mmHg, (P<0.05). This higher PO2mv represents a greater blood-myocyte O2 driving force during muscle contractions thus providing a potential mechanism by which NO3− supplementation via BR improves metabolic control in fast twitch muscle. Recruitment of higher order type II muscle fibers is thought to play a role in the development of the V.O2 slow component which is inextricably linked to the fatigue process. These data therefore provide a putative mechanism for the BR-induced improvements in high-intensity exercise performance seen in humans. PMID:25280991

  4. The Histone Code of Toxoplasma gondii Comprises Conserved and Unique Posttranslational Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Sheila C.; Che, Fa-Yun; Silmon de Monerri, Natalie C.; Xiao, Hui; Nieves, Edward; Madrid-Aliste, Carlos; Angel, Sergio O.; Sullivan, William J.; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Kim, Kami; Weiss, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epigenetic gene regulation has emerged as a major mechanism for gene regulation in all eukaryotes. Histones are small, basic proteins that constitute the major protein component of chromatin, and posttranslational modifications (PTM) of histones are essential for epigenetic gene regulation. The different combinations of histone PTM form the histone code for an organism, marking functional units of chromatin that recruit macromolecular complexes that govern chromatin structure and regulate gene expression. To characterize the repertoire of Toxoplasma gondii histone PTM, we enriched histones using standard acid extraction protocols and analyzed them with several complementary middle-down and bottom-up proteomic approaches with the high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer using collision-induced dissociation (CID), higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and/or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation. We identified 249 peptides with unique combinations of PTM that comprise the T. gondii histone code. T. gondii histones share a high degree of sequence conservation with human histones, and many modifications are conserved between these species. In addition, T. gondii histones have unique modifications not previously identified in other species. Finally, T. gondii histones are modified by succinylation, propionylation, and formylation, recently described histone PTM that have not previously been identified in parasitic protozoa. The characterization of the T. gondii histone code will facilitate in-depth analysis of how epigenetic regulation affects gene expression in pathogenic apicomplexan parasites and identify a new model system for elucidating the biological functions of novel histone PTM. PMID:24327343

  5. Contiguous metal-mediated base pairs comprising two Ag(I) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megger, Dominik A; Guerra, Célia Fonseca; Hoffmann, Jan; Brutschy, Bernhard; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Müller, Jens

    2011-05-27

    The incorporation of transition-metal ions into nucleic acids by using metal-mediated base pairs has proved to be a promising strategy for the site-specific functionalization of these biomolecules. We report herein the formation of Ag(+)-mediated Hoogsteen-type base pairs comprising 1,3-dideaza-2'-deoxyadenosine and thymidine. By defunctionalizing the Watson-Crick edge of adenine, the formation of regular base pairs is prohibited. The additional substitution of the N3 nitrogen atom of adenine by a methine moiety increases the basicity of the exocyclic amino group. Hence, 1,3-dideazaadenine and thymine are able to incorporate two Ag(+) ions into their Hoogsteen-type base pair (as compared with one Ag(+) ion in base pairs with 1-deazaadenine and thymine). We show by using a combination of experimental techniques (UV and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, dynamic light scattering, and mass spectrometry) that this type of base pair is compatible with different sequence contexts and can be used contiguously in DNA double helices. The most stable duplexes were observed when using a sequence containing alternating purine and pyrimidine nucleosides. Dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations have been performed to provide insight into the structure, formation and stabilization of the twofold metalated base pair. They revealed that the metal ions within a base pair are separated by an Ag···Ag distance of about 2.88 Å. The Ag-Ag interaction contributes some 16 kcal mol(-1) to the overall stability of the doubly metal-mediated base pair, with the dominant contribution to the Ag-Ag bonding resulting from a donor-acceptor interaction between silver 4d-type and 4s orbitals. These Hoogsteen-type base pairs enable a higher functionalization of nucleic acids with metal ions than previously reported metal-mediated base pairs, thereby increasing the potential of DNA-based nanotechnology.

  6. Formation and structure of the first metal complexes comprising amidino-guanidinate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, Farid M; Liebing, Phil; Hrib, Cristian G; Gräsing, Daniel; Hilfert, Liane; Edelmann, Frank T

    2016-11-01

    The first metal complexes comprising amidino-guanidinate ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized, namely bis-[μ-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraisopropyl-1-(1-butyl-amidinato)guanidinato-κ(3)N(1),N(2):N(2)]bis-[(tetra-hydro-furan)lithium], [Li2(C18H37N4)2(C4H8O)2], (2), and [bis-(tetra-hydro-furan)-lithium]-di-μ-chlorido-{(N,N'-di-cyclo-hexyl-1-butyl-amidinato-κ(2)N(1),N(2))[N,N',N'',N'''-tetra-cyclo-hexyl-1-(1-butyl-amidinato)guanidinato-κ(2)N(1),N(2)]holmate(III)}, [HoLiCl2(C4H8O)2(C17H31N2)(C30H53N4)], (3). The novel lithium amidino-guanidinate precursors Li[ (n) BuC(=NR)(NR)C(NR)2] [1: R = Cy (cyclo-hex-yl), 2: R = (i) Pr) were obtained by treatment of N,N'-diorganocarbodi-imides, R-N=C=N-R (R = (i) Pr, Cy), with 0.5 equivalents of n-butyl-lithium under well-defined reaction conditions. An X-ray diffraction study of 2 revealed a ladder-type dimeric structure in the solid state. Reaction of anhydrous holmium(III) chloride with in situ-prepared 2 afforded the unexpected holmium 'ate' complex [ (n) BuC(=NCy)(NCy)C(NCy)2]Ho[ (n) BuC(NCy)2](μ-Cl)2Li(THF)2 (3) in 71% yield. An X-ray crystal structure determination of 3 showed that this complex contains both an amidinate ligand and the new amidino-guanidinate ligand.

  7. Formation and structure of the first metal complexes comprising amidinoguanidinate ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid M. Sroor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The first metal complexes comprising amidinoguanidinate ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized, namely bis[μ-N,N′,N′′,N′′′-tetraisopropyl-1-(1-butylamidinatoguanidinato-κ3N1,N2:N2]bis[(tetrahydrofuranlithium], [Li2(C18H37N42(C4H8O2], (2, and [bis(tetrahydrofuranlithium]-di-μ-chlorido-{(N,N′-dicyclohexyl-1-butylamidinato-κ2N1,N2[N,N′,N′′,N′′′-tetracyclohexyl-1-(1-butylamidinatoguanidinato-κ2N1,N2]holmate(III}, [HoLiCl2(C4H8O2(C17H31N2(C30H53N4], (3. The novel lithium amidinoguanidinate precursors Li[nBuC(=NR(NRC(NR2] [1: R = Cy (cyclohexyl, 2: R = iPr were obtained by treatment of N,N′-diorganocarbodiimides, R—N=C=N—R (R = iPr, Cy, with 0.5 equivalents of n-butyllithium under well-defined reaction conditions. An X-ray diffraction study of 2 revealed a ladder-type dimeric structure in the solid state. Reaction of anhydrous holmium(III chloride with in situ-prepared 2 afforded the unexpected holmium `ate' complex [nBuC(=NCy(NCyC(NCy2]Ho[nBuC(NCy2](μ-Cl2Li(THF2 (3 in 71% yield. An X-ray crystal structure determination of 3 showed that this complex contains both an amidinate ligand and the new amidinoguanidinate ligand.

  8. Formation and structure of the first metal complexes comprising amidino­guanidinate ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, Farid M.; Liebing, Phil; Hrib, Cristian G.; Gräsing, Daniel; Hilfert, Liane; Edelmann, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    The first metal complexes comprising amidino­guanidinate ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized, namely bis­[μ-N,N′,N′′,N′′′-tetraisopropyl-1-(1-butyl­amidinato)guanidinato-κ3 N 1,N 2:N 2]bis­[(tetra­hydro­furan)lithium], [Li2(C18H37N4)2(C4H8O)2], (2), and [bis­(tetra­hydro­furan)­lithium]-di-μ-chlorido-{(N,N′-di­cyclo­hexyl-1-butyl­amidinato-κ2 N 1,N 2)[N,N′,N′′,N′′′-tetra­cyclo­hexyl-1-(1-butyl­amidinato)guanidinato-κ2 N 1,N 2]holmate(III)}, [HoLiCl2(C4H8O)2(C17H31N2)(C30H53N4)], (3). The novel lithium amidino­guanidinate precursors Li[nBuC(=NR)(NR)C(NR)2] [1: R = Cy (cyclo­hex­yl), 2: R = iPr) were obtained by treatment of N,N′-diorganocarbodi­imides, R—N=C=N—R (R = iPr, Cy), with 0.5 equivalents of n-butyl­lithium under well-defined reaction conditions. An X-ray diffraction study of 2 revealed a ladder-type dimeric structure in the solid state. Reaction of anhydrous holmium(III) chloride with in situ-prepared 2 afforded the unexpected holmium ‘ate’ complex [nBuC(=NCy)(NCy)C(NCy)2]Ho[nBuC(NCy)2](μ-Cl)2Li(THF)2 (3) in 71% yield. An X-ray crystal structure determination of 3 showed that this complex contains both an amidinate ligand and the new amidino­guanidinate ligand. PMID:27840700

  9. Neuroplasticity in dynamic neural networks comprised of neurons attached to adaptive base plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joghataie, Abdolreza; Shafiei Dizaji, Mehrdad

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a learning algorithm is developed for Dynamic Plastic Continuous Neural Networks (DPCNNs) to improve their learning of highly nonlinear time dependent problems. A DPCNN is comprised of a base medium, which is nonlinear and plastic, and a number of neurons that are attached to the base by wire-like connections similar to perceptrons. The information is distributed within DPCNNs gradually and through wave propagation mechanism. While a DPCNN is adaptive due to its connection weights, the material properties of its base medium can also be adjusted to improve its learning. The material of the medium is plastic and can contribute to memorizing the history of input-response similar to neuroplasticity in natural brain. The results obtained from numerical simulation of DPCNNs have been encouraging. Nonlinear plastic finite element modeling has been used for numerical simulation of dynamic behavior and wave propagation in the medium. Two significant differences of DPCNNs with other types of neural networks are that: (1) there is a medium to which the neurons are attached where the medium can contribute to the learning, (2) the input layer is not made of nodes but it is an edge terminal which is capable of receiving a continuous function over the input edge, though it is discretized in the finite element model. A DPCNN is reduced to a perceptron if the medium is removed and the neurons are connected to each other only by wires. Continuity of the input lets the discretization of data take place intrinsically within the DPCNN instead of being applied by the user.

  10. Communicating with external publics: managing public opinion and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristino, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    In health care organizational settings public relations plays an important role in managing relationships with a variety of external publics as well as with society in general. Managing these relationships involves both reactive and proactive communication activities. Reactively, public relations responds to public issues, crises and concerns, as well as inquiries from the media and other social institutions. Proactively, public relations engages in deliberately planned campaigns and programs to inform, influence or change behaviors of targeted publics for a wide range of strategic purposes. These purposes include managing the organization's image and identity; influencing public policies; supporting health promotion and education; promoting fund raising and volunteerism; and managing organizational change and crises.

  11. DyP-type peroxidases comprise a novel heme peroxidase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Y

    2009-04-01

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) is produced by a basidiomycete (Thanatephorus cucumeris Dec 1) and is a member of a novel heme peroxidase family (DyP-type peroxidase family) that appears to be distinct from general peroxidases. Thus far, 80 putative members of this family have been registered in the PeroxiBase database (http://peroxibase.isbsib.ch/) and more than 400 homologous proteins have been detected via PSI-BLAST search. Although few studies have characterized the function and structure of these proteins, they appear to be bifunctional enzymes with hydrolase or oxygenase, as well as typical peroxidase activities. DyP-type peroxidase family suggests an ancient root compared with other general peroxidases because of their widespread distribution in the living world. In this review, firstly, an outline of the characteristics of DyP from T. cucumeris is presented and then interesting characteristics of the DyP-type peroxidase family are discussed.

  12. Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Wai Shin; Haslenda Hashim

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT) for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE) to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear ...

  13. Monitoring the level of government trust, risk perception and intention of the general public to adopt protective measures during the influenza A (H1N1 pandemic in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oudhoff Jurriaan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the course of an influenza pandemic, governments know relatively little about the possibly changing influence of government trust, risk perception, and receipt of information on the public's intention to adopt protective measures or on the acceptance of vaccination. This study aims to identify and describe possible changes in and factors associated with public's intentions during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1 pandemic in the Netherlands. Methods Sixteen cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted (N = 8060 between April - November 2009. From these repeated measurements three consecutive periods were categorized based on crucial events during the influenza A (H1N1 pandemic. Time trends in government trust, risk perception, intention to adopt protective measures, and the acceptance of vaccination were analysed. Factors associated with an intention to adopt protective measures or vaccination were identified. Results Trust in the government was high, but decreased over time. During the course of the pandemic, perceived vulnerability and an intention to adopt protective measures increased. Trust and vulnerability were associated with an intention to adopt protective measures in general only during period one. Higher levels of intention to receive vaccination were associated with increased government trust, fear/worry, and perceived vulnerability. In periods two and three receipt of information was positively associated with an intention to adopt protective measures. Most respondents wanted to receive information about infection prevention from municipal health services, health care providers, and the media. Conclusions The Dutch response to the H1N1 virus was relatively muted. Higher levels of trust in the government, fear/worry, and perceived vulnerability were all positively related to an intention to accept vaccination. Only fear/worry was positively linked to an intention to adopt protective measures during the entire

  14. Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Wai Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP model was developed and implemented in General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS. The RE options considered including landfill gas, municipal solid waste, palm oil residue and hydro power. While the model presents a general approach for electricity planning, Iskandar Malaysia is applied as a case study in this research. Results: By considering the cost, FiT, availability of the Renewable Energy Source (RES and limit of RE fund for FiT remuneration in Malaysia. The optimization result indicates that Iskandar Malaysia can satisfy the set target of 40% carbon emission reduction by 2015 by implementing biomass RE. Conclusion: It’s revealed that a total of 875 MW of RE is required from Biomass Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BBFB using various palm oil biomass fuel (mesofiber-215 MW, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-424 MW and kernel-236 MW. However, this increases the Cost Of Electricity (COE by 69-6.5% cents/kWh.

  15. School and Public Library Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincellete, Pete; Queen, Priscilla

    2012-01-01

    More than 60,000 students attend over seventy schools comprising the Douglas County School District (DCSD) in Colorado. It has been a consistently high-performing district, with a reputation for being among Colorado's elite. Douglas County Libraries (DCL) is a nationally recognized state-of-the-art public library system with seven branches serving…

  16. Work environments for healthy and motivated public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naoko; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kitaike, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives By defining health as mental health and productivity and performance as work motivation, the study aimed to identify work environments that promote the health and motivation of public health nurses, using the concept of a healthy work organizations, which encompasses the coexistence of excellent health for each worker and the productivity and performance of the organization.Methods Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 363 public health nurses in 41 municipal public health departments in Chiba prefecture. The questions were comprised of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) for mental health and the Morale Measurement Scale (5 items) for work motivation. Demographic data, workplace attributes, workload, and workplace environment were set as independent variables. The Comfortable Workplace Survey (35 items in 7 areas) was used to assess workers' general work environments. The "Work Environment for Public Health Nurses" scale (25 items) was developed to assess the specific situations of public health nurses. While aggregation was carried out area by area for the general work environment, factor analysis and factor-by-factor aggregation were used for public health nurse-specific work environments. Mental health and work motivation results were divided in two based on the total scores, which were then evaluated by t-tests and χ(2) tests. Items that showed a significant correlation were analyzed using logistic regression.Results The valid responses of 215 participants were analyzed (response rate: 59.2%). For the general work environment, high scores (the higher the score, the better the situation) were obtained for "contributions to society" and "human relationships" and low scores were obtained for "career building and human resource development." For public health nurse-specific work environments, high scores were obtained for "peer support," while low scores were obtained for "easy access to advice and training" and

  17. Public Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshan, Harry M.; Arnheim, Louise

    This paper, the second in a series exploring future options for public policy in the communications and information arenas, examines some of the issues underlying public broadcasting, primarily public television. It advances two reasons why quality local public television programming is scarce: funds for the original production of programming have…

  18. General framework for bridge life cycle design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhai MA; Airong CHEN; Jun HE

    2009-01-01

    Based on a detailed illustration for bridge life cycle design which comprises the processes of service life design, aesthetics design, performance design, environ-mental and ecological design, inspection, maintenance and repair design as well as cost analysis, this paper presented a general framework for bridge life cycle design comprising three design phases and six design processes.

  19. Control of microvascular oxygen pressures in rat muscles comprised of different fibre types

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Paul; Behnke, Brad J; Padilla, Danielle J; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2005-01-01

    In response to an elevated metabolic rate , increased microvascular blood–muscle O2 flux is the product of both augmented O2 delivery and fractional O2 extraction. Whole body and exercising limb measurements demonstrate that and fractional O2 extraction increase as linear and hyperbolic functions, respectively, of . Given the presence of disparate vascular control mechanisms among different muscle fibre types, we tested the hypothesis that, in response to muscle contractions, would be lower and fractional O2 extraction (as assessed via microvascular O2 pressure, PmvO2) higher in fast- versus slow-twitch muscles. Radiolabelled microsphere and phosphorescence quenching techniques were used to measure and PmvO2, respectively at rest and across the transition to 1 Hz twitch contractions at low (Lo, 2.5 V) and high intensities (Hi, 4.5 V) in rat (n = 20) soleus (Sol, slow-twitch, type I), mixed gastrocnemius (MG, fast-twitch, type IIa) and white gastrocnemius (WG, fast-twitch, type IIb) muscle. At rest and for Lo and Hi (steady-state values) transitions, PmvO2 was lower (all P < 0.05) in MG (mmHg: rest, 22.5 ± 1.0; Lo, 15.3 ± 1.3; Hi, 10.2 ± 1.6) and WG (mmHg: rest, 19.0 ± 1.3; Lo, 12.2 ± 1.1; Hi, 9.9 ± 1.1) than in Sol (rest, 33.1 ± 3.2 mmHg; Lo, 19.0 ± 2.3 mmHg; Hi, 18.7 ± 1.8 mmHg), despite lower and in MG and WG under each set of conditions. These data suggest that during submaximal metabolic rates, the relationship between and O2 extraction is dependent on fibre type (at least in the muscles studied herein), such that muscles comprised of fast-twitch fibres display a greater fractional O2 extraction (i.e. lower PmvO2) than their slow-twitch counterparts. These results also indicate that the greater sustained PmvO2 in Sol may be important for ensuring high blood–myocyte O2 flux and therefore a greater oxidative contribution to energetic requirements. PMID:15637098

  20. Novel metabolic attributes of the genus cyanothece, comprising a group of unicellular nitrogen-fixing Cyanothece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Anindita; Elvitigala, Thanura; Welsh, Eric; Stöckel, Jana; Liberton, Michelle; Min, Hongtao; Sherman, Louis A; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2011-01-01

    The genus Cyanothece comprises unicellular cyanobacteria that are morphologically diverse and ecologically versatile. Studies over the last decade have established members of this genus to be important components of the marine ecosystem, contributing significantly to the nitrogen and carbon cycle. System-level studies of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, a prototypic member of this group, revealed many interesting metabolic attributes. To identify the metabolic traits that define this class of cyanobacteria, five additional Cyanothece strains were sequenced to completion. The presence of a large, contiguous nitrogenase gene cluster and the ability to carry out aerobic nitrogen fixation distinguish Cyanothece as a genus of unicellular, aerobic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Cyanothece cells can create an anoxic intracellular environment at night, allowing oxygen-sensitive processes to take place in these oxygenic organisms. Large carbohydrate reserves accumulate in the cells during the day, ensuring sufficient energy for the processes that require the anoxic phase of the cells. Our study indicates that this genus maintains a plastic genome, incorporating new metabolic capabilities while simultaneously retaining archaic metabolic traits, a unique combination which provides the flexibility to adapt to various ecological and environmental conditions. Rearrangement of the nitrogenase cluster in Cyanothece sp. strain 7425 and the concomitant loss of its aerobic nitrogen-fixing ability suggest that a similar mechanism might have been at play in cyanobacterial strains that eventually lost their nitrogen-fixing ability. The unicellular cyanobacterial genus Cyanothece has significant roles in the nitrogen cycle in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 was extensively studied over the last decade and has emerged as an important model photosynthetic microbe for bioenergy production. To expand our understanding of the distinctive metabolic capabilities of

  1. General Dentist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some general dentists work in government health services, research programs, higher education, corporations and even the military. ?xml:namespace> What kind of procedures do general dentists provide? ?xml:namespace> Many general dentists are ...

  2. Propaganda de medicamentos para grande público: parâmetros conceituais de uma prática produtora de risco Drug advertising to the general public: conceptual parameters of a risk producer practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro César Nascimento

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa alguns conceitos relativos a marketing, propaganda, medicamento, regulação e manipulação, discutindo parâmetros éticos e de vigilância sanitária relativos à prática da propaganda de medicamentos para o grande público. O foco deste trabalho é a análise das contradições, desde o ponto de vista conceitual, da prática da propaganda farmacêutica como instrumento de elevação das vendas e conquista de mercados versus a política de uso racional de medicamentos. Estudos acadêmicos e a monitoração da propaganda farmacêutica realizada pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária demonstram que os conteúdos das peças publicitárias de medicamentos direcionadas ao grande público superestimam as qualidades do produto, enaltecem quase exclusivamente seus benefícios, colocando-os em uma posição central no processo terapêutico; e omitem os riscos inerentes à sua utilização e exageram suas qualidades, às vezes duvidosas. Mais que se debruçar sobre propostas reguladoras que objetivariam criar constrangimentos a esta prática, este artigo discute a impossibilidade, considerando-se os interesses da saúde pública, da convivência de interesses tão díspares quanto os do marketing - que busca sempre expandir mercados - e das políticas de uso correto, racional e seguro de medicamentos.This article analyzes some concepts relating to marketing, advertising, medications, regulation and manipulation. It discusses ethical and health surveillance parameters of drugs advertising for the general public. The focus of this work is the analysis of contradictions from a conceptual point of view between the practice of pharmaceutical advertising as a tool for the increase of sales and the conquest of markets versus the policy of rational use of medicines. Academic studies and monitoring of drugs advertising conducted by the National Health Surveillance Agency show that the contents of the advertising pieces oriented

  3. Competency Guidelines for Public Health Laboratory Professionals: CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned-Sykes, Renée; Johnson, Catherine; Ridderhof, John C; Perlman, Eva; Pollock, Anne; DeBoy, John M

    2015-05-15

    These competency guidelines outline the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for public health laboratory (PHL) professionals to deliver the core services of PHLs efficiently and effectively. As part of a 2-year workforce project sponsored in 2012 by CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), competencies for 15 domain areas were developed by experts representing state and local PHLs, clinical laboratories, academic institutions, laboratory professional organizations, CDC, and APHL. The competencies were developed and reviewed by approximately 170 subject matter experts with diverse backgrounds and experiences in laboratory science and public health. The guidelines comprise general, cross-cutting, and specialized domain areas and are divided into four levels of proficiency: beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. The 15 domain areas are 1) Quality Management System, 2) Ethics, 3) Management and Leadership, 4) Communication, 5) Security, 6) Emergency Management and Response, 7) Workforce Training, 8) General Laboratory Practice, 9) Safety, 10) Surveillance, 11) Informatics, 12) Microbiology, 13) Chemistry, 14) Bioinformatics, and 15) Research. These competency guidelines are targeted to scientists working in PHLs, defined as governmental public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories that provide analytic biological and/or chemical testing and testing-related services that protect human populations against infectious diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, environmental hazards, treatable hereditary disorders, and natural and human-made public health emergencies. The competencies support certain PHL workforce needs such as identifying job responsibilities, assessing individual performance, and providing a guiding framework for producing education and training programs. Although these competencies were developed specifically for the PHL community, this does not preclude their broader application to other professionals

  4. General information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1940-01-01

    The region which forms the field of these studies lies between Trinidad and the Goajira-peninsula, off the northcoast of South America, comprising of seventeen islands or island-groups with a total area of about 2000 square kilometers. It is a part of the Venezuelan Republic, excepting Curaçao, Arub

  5. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome comprises some but not all cases of hypospadias and impaired spermatogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Main, K M

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, when the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) concept was proposed, it suggested that impaired development of foetal testes could lead to increased risks of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, decreased spermatogenesis or testis cancer. The TDS concept links the pathogenesis of the four disorders...... are most likely caused by TDS. However, the frequency of the syndrome in the general population and to what extent poor semen quality and hypospadias are actually biologically related through a foetal mechanism remain unresolved. Hypospadias and impaired spermatogenesis can be classified as TDS if combined...... to a better understanding of the early origin of male reproductive problems, but it clearly encompasses only a fraction of cases of hypospadias and impaired spermatogenesis....

  6. Public diplomacy: Basic marketing issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenović Rada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss the general features build in international activities known under term public diplomacy. Public diplomacy is not one-side process as well as strictly official but have a lot meanings - from economic to cultural. Linking up to economic side of the global national appearance, paper stressing an impact public diplomacy developed on the micro or company level. Some general remarks are mentioned in the case of Montenegro experience.

  7. Matter in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two theories of matter in general relativity, the fluid theory and the kinetic theory, were studied. Results include: (1) a discussion of various methods of completing the fluid equations; (2) a method of constructing charged general relativistic solutions in kinetic theory; and (3) a proof and discussion of the incompatibility of perfect fluid solutions in anisotropic cosmologies. Interpretations of NASA gravitational experiments using the above mentioned results were started. Two papers were prepared for publications based on this work.

  8. Perceived risk, anxiety, and behavioural responses of the general public during the early phase of the Influenza A (H1N1 pandemic in the Netherlands: results of three consecutive online surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Steenbergen Jim E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into risk perception and behavioural responses in case of emerging infectious diseases is still relatively new. The aim of this study was to examine perceptions and behaviours of the general public during the early phase of the Influenza A (H1N1 pandemic in the Netherlands. Methods Two cross-sectional and one follow-up online survey (survey 1, 30 April-4 May; survey 2, 15-19 June; survey 3, 11-20 August 2009. Adults aged 18 years and above participating in a representative Internet panel were invited (survey 1, n = 456; survey 2, n = 478; follow-up survey 3, n = 934. Main outcome measures were 1 time trends in risk perception, feelings of anxiety, and behavioural responses (survey 1-3 and 2 factors associated with taking preventive measures and strong intention to comply with government-advised preventive measures in the future (survey 3. Results Between May and August 2009, the level of knowledge regarding Influenza A (H1N1 increased, while perceived severity of the new flu, perceived self-efficacy, and intention to comply with preventive measures decreased. The perceived reliability of information from the government decreased from May to August (62% versus 45%. Feelings of anxiety decreased from May to June, and remained stable afterwards. From June to August 2009, perceived vulnerability increased and more respondents took preventive measures (14% versus 38%. Taking preventive measures was associated with no children in the household, high anxiety, high self-efficacy, more agreement with statements on avoidance, and paying much attention to media information regarding Influenza A (H1N1. Having a strong intention to comply with government-advised preventive measures in the future was associated with higher age, high perceived severity, high anxiety, high perceived efficacy of measures, high self-efficacy, and finding governmental information to be reliable. Conclusions Decreasing trends over time in perceived

  9. Polymerizable Ionic Liquid Crystals Comprising Polyoxometalate Clusters toward Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Solid Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeru Ito

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid electrolytes are crucial materials for lithium-ion or fuel-cell battery technology due to their structural stability and easiness for handling. Emergence of high conductivity in solid electrolytes requires precise control of the composition and structure. A promising strategy toward highly-conductive solid electrolytes is employing a thermally-stable inorganic component and a structurally-flexible organic moiety to construct inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Ionic liquids as the organic component will be advantageous for the emergence of high conductivity, and polyoxometalate, such as heteropolyacids, are well-known as inorganic proton conductors. Here, newly-designed ionic liquid imidazolium cations, having a polymerizable methacryl group (denoted as MAImC1, were successfully hybridized with heteropolyanions of [PW12O40]3− (PW12 to form inorganic-organic hybrid monomers of MAImC1-PW12. The synthetic procedure of MAImC1-PW12 was a simple ion-exchange reaction, being generally applicable to several polyoxometalates, in principle. MAImC1-PW12 was obtained as single crystals, and its molecular and crystal structures were clearly revealed. Additionally, the hybrid monomer of MAImC1-PW12 was polymerized by a radical polymerization using AIBN as an initiator. Some of the resulting inorganic-organic hybrid polymers exhibited conductivity of 10−4 S·cm−1 order under humidified conditions at 313 K.

  10. The SAPHO syndrome: defining the radiologic spectrum of diseases comprising the syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, H.; Tamura, K. [Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical School, 3311 Minamikawachi-machi, Kawachi-gun, Tochigi-ken, 329-04 (Japan); Fujii, T. [Department of Pathology, Jichi Medical School, 3311 Minamikawachi-machi, Kawachi-gun, Tochigi-ken, 329-04 (Japan)

    1998-06-02

    The objective of our study was to clarify the radiologic spectrum of disease entities belonging to the SAPHO syndrome (SAPHO being an acronym for synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis). A retrospective analysis of radiologic data was undertaken to determine the relationship of the osteoarthritic changes seen in palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP, n = 179), acne (n = 3), psoriasis vulgaris (PsV, n = 355), generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP, n = 25), and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO, n = 4). Osseous changes of PPP, acne, and CRMO overlap each other; 7 PPP, 2 acne, and 3 CRMO patients manifested stenocostoclavicular hyperostosis as well as hyperostosis of the spine, pelvis, and/or femur. These findings were not seen in either PsV or GPP patients. Thirteen PsV and 4 GPP patients had peripheral arthritis and/or symmetrical sacroiliitis, which were not observed in the PPP, acne, and CRMO patients. The PPP, acne, and CRMO patients may be grouped as belonging to the single disease entity, namely SAPHO syndrome. Our findings do not support the inclusion of PsV and GPP in the spectrum of this syndrome. (orig.) With 7 figs., 2 tabs., 30 refs.

  11. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  12. Burnout contagion among general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.

    2001-01-01

    This study used a representative sample of 507 general practitioners (GPs) to test the hypothesis that burnout is contagious. Following a two-dimensional conceptualization of burnout, it is assumed that burnout is comprised of emotional exhaustion and negative attitudes (i.e., depersonalization and

  13. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Last Monday at 9 a.m. the Council Chamber was full, with several people standing, for the public meeting of the Staff Association. Simultaneously, many of our colleagues followed the presentations in the Amphitheatre in Prévessin. We would like to thank all of you for the interest you have shown and for your feedback. In the introduction we explained how the Staff Association represents the staff in its discussions with Management and Member States, and how the staff itself defined, by its participation in the 2013 staff survey, the priority assigned to various points related to the employment conditions. The position of the Staff Association regarding the new contract policy, to be implemented as of 31 March 2015 after approval by Council, was stated. Then, in the framework of the 2015 five-yearly review, the general approach that we would like to see for the new career structure, was explained. Concerning diversity, based on what we know about the situation in other international organiza...

  14. Efficacy and safety of nanohybrids comprising silver nanoparticles and silicate clay for controlling Salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bau IJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Shu-Her Chiao,1* Siou-Hong Lin,1* Ching-I Shen,2* Jiunn-Wang Liao,3 I-Jiuan Bau,1 Jiun-Chiou Wei,4 Li-Ping Tseng,1 Shan-hui Hsu,4 Ping-Shan Lai,2 Shinn-Zong Lin,5–7 Jiang-Jen Lin,4 Hong-Lin Su,1,8 1Department of Life Sciences, Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, 2Department of Chemistry, Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, 3Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Center for Neuropsychiatry, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 6Department of Neurosurgery, China Medical University Beigan Hospital, Yunlin, Taiwan; 7Graduate Institute of Immunology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 8Department of Physical Therapy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan*These three authors contributed equallyAbstract: Developing effective and safe drugs is imperative for replacing antibiotics and controlling multidrug-resistant microbes. Nanoscale silicate platelet (NSP and its nanohybrid, silver nanoparticle/NSP (AgNP/NSP, have been developed, and the nanohybrids show a strong and general antibacterial activity in vitro. Here, their efficacy for protecting Salmonella-infected chicks from fatality and septicemia was evaluated. Both orally administrated NSP and AgNP/NSP, but not AgNPs alone, effectively reduced the systemic Salmonella infection and mortality. In addition, quantitative Ag analyses demonstrated that Ag deposition from AgNP/NSP in the intestines was less than that from conventional AgNPs, indicating that the presence of NSP for immobilizing AgNPs reduced Ag accumulation in tissue and improved the safety of AgNPs. These in vivo results illustrated that both NSP and AgNP/NSP nanohybrid represent potential agents for controlling enteric bacterial infections.Keywords: silver

  15. Public debt management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Gaber

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper generally describes the segment of public debt management or especially the structure of public debt. It focuses on different kinds of risks which present potential danger for the public debt explosion. It intends to explain the government goal for borrowing money at lowest rate and sustain the fiscal stability. Also, it explains some practical issues regarding this topic for Republic of Macedonia for the period from 2009-2011. In the process of research were implemented several qualitative methods.

  16. A novel approach to population-based risk stratification, comprising individualized lifestyle intervention in Danish general practice to prevent chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Larsen, Lars; Søndergaard, Jens; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of patients at risk seems to be effective for reducing the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases. We aim to test the feasibility of a novel intervention for early detection of lifestyle-related chronic diseases based on a population-based stratification using......) identification of patients already diagnosed with a lifestyle-related chronic disease, and (4) risk estimation and stratification of apparently healthy patients using questionnaire and electronic patient record data on validated risk estimation models. We show that it is feasible to implement a novel...

  17. The United States Air Force and Profession: Why Sixty Percent of Air Force General Officers are Still Pilots When Pilots Comprise Just Twenty Percent of the Officer Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-25

    in this category of weapon than in the first. Examples of this category include the VB-3 Razon bomb, AGM-12 Bullpup air-to-surface missile, the...Although the Razon and its predecessors were used prior to 1953, the FY1953 USAF Statistical Digest contained the first reporting on the Razon . After the... Razon came the TM-61 Matador ground-flown surface-to-surface missile or unmanned bomber in FY1953, whose 300-odd missiles in FY1956 were eclipsed by the

  18. 28 CFR 0.28 - General functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General functions. 0.28 Section 0.28 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 3-Office of Public Affairs § 0.28 General functions. The Office of Public Affairs is headed by a Director of Public...

  19. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2009-08-11

    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  20. Control valve and control valve system for controlling solids flow, methods of manufacture thereof and articles comprising the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen D.; Teigen, Bard C.

    2017-04-11

    Disclosed herein is a solids flow control valve comprising a standpipe; a shoe; and a transport pipe; wherein the standpipe is in operative communication with the shoe and lies upstream of the shoe; the standpipe comprising a first end and a second end, where the first end is in contact with a source that contains disposable solids and the second end is in fluid contact with the shoe; the shoe being operative to restrict the flow of the disposable solids; the transport pipe being disposed downstream of the shoe to receive and transport the solids from the shoe.