WorldWideScience

Sample records for public mind views

  1. Teaching Mindfulness at a Public Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jenny J.

    2012-01-01

    Given the lack of published spiritual practices in classroom settings, particularly in public colleges and universities, this article provides one way of promoting mindfulness in an academic course format. Personal insights and practices are shared as a way to encourage fellow instructors not only to teach mindfulness but, more importantly, to…

  2. Teaching Mindfulness at a Public Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jenny J.

    2012-01-01

    Given the lack of published spiritual practices in classroom settings, particularly in public colleges and universities, this article provides one way of promoting mindfulness in an academic course format. Personal insights and practices are shared as a way to encourage fellow instructors not only to teach mindfulness but, more importantly, to…

  3. Metaphilosophy of Mind: how Do Minds Investigate Minds? Refutation of the Theocentric View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Konrad

    2017-03-01

    I shall propose metaphilosophy of mind as the philosophy of mind investigating mind. That is to say, I pose the question of how knowledge of mind provided by cognitive science, broadly construed, is constrained by the epistemic position of the knower, i.e. by the very fact that it is undertaken by a mind. Here I would like to propose a minimal framework, based on two distinctions: (i) the standard one between empirical and conceptual analysis; (ii) a new one, between the internal questions of mind and the boundary questions of mind. I shall then combine these distinctions to arrive at several ways of investigating the mind, the brain and cognition. On this ground, I will discuss the notion of epistemological theocentrism as outlined by Henry Allison and argue against the perspective I call theocentric philosophy of mind. From this angle I will be able to address skepticism which cannot be defeated but actually can be, as I put it, disarmed. Finally, metaphilosophy of mind based on the abovementioned distinctions elicits a perspective that is not sufficiently delineated by cognitive scientists and philosophers: empirical way of addressing the boundary questions of mind.

  4. Open Spaces, Public Spaces, Publics, Open-minded Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Bravo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 a double issue of the international architectural review (published in Italy “Casabella” was dedicated to “The design of open spaces”. Different positions and scholars and diverse point of views explored this complex theme, trying to explain the reasons, the modes and the possibilities of a new strategy in design research and practice. The starting point was the very term “open space”, which doesn’t belong to the classical vocabulary of architectural theory, with no reference to modern town planning manuals.Nowadays the difference between “open space”, as indicated in regulations of urban city spaces, and “public space” has found new declensions related to public life of groups or individuals, taking place in consolidated environments as well as in peripheral areas or in residual spaces up to edge cities, able to give values and functions to neglected or abandoned places. Next to public meeting spaces, such as large congress hall, fair precincts, political or cultural events, shopping centers, and to waiting spaces, such as offices, public institutions, underground stations, airports, many public spaces do not have an architectural connotation: life can be found at the corner of two suburban roads, where spontaneous conversation or some kind of special event slowly starts to layer, indicating a kind of rituality, or in anonymous suburban places where minority ethnic or immigrant groups gather, becoming places of solidarity and sharing. All these expressions, as already Vittorio Gregotti pointed out in his introductory essay on Casabella, articulate in a new way the demands for public space and for its architectural definition.

  5. Cerebellum and cognition: viewed from philosophy of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, M; Maschke, M; Timmann, D

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, it is believed, that the primary function of the cerebellum is to coordinate movement. During the past three decades, it has been controversially discussed, whether the cerebellum may also contribute to cognition and mental states like emotions. In this paper, no position relating to this controversy will be taken. Instead, the hypothesis of non-motor functions of the cerebellum will be viewed from the position of the philosophy of mind. The remarkably uniform microscopic structure and neuronal networks of the cerebellum have led to computer analogies by several authors. The main idea of functionalism, i.e., a theory within the philosophy of mind, is that the mental relates to the physical as computer software does to hardware. This raises the question, whether a cerebellar contribution to cognition and mental states would support functionalism in the philosophy of mind. No support of functionalism could be found in this study, investigating the classical philosophical arguments pro and con functionalism such as those of multiple realizability, the Chinese room and the explanatory gap, while taking the results of cerebellar research into account. On the other hand, philosophical reflection suggests a careful use of the phrases "cognitive dysmetria" (Andreasen et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996;93:9985-90) in the context of mental illness and of "dysmetria of thought" (Schmahmann Arch Neurol. 1991;48:1178-87). According to the argument of the explanatory gap there is at present little support for the assumption that the phenomenal experiencing of an altered emotion can be reduced to the dysmetria of movement.

  6. Geophysicists' views about public engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, J. C.; Dudo, A.; Yuan, S.

    2016-12-01

    The proposed talk would present the results of 2016 survey of American Geophysical Union members (n = 2040) about public engagement. This survey took place as part of a broader, NSF funded, study of engagement views across eight different U.S.-based scientific societies. The presentation would include data about geophysicists' past engagement behavior and willingness to engage alongside data about engagement attitudes, perceived norms (i.e. beliefs about whether peers engage and value engagement), and perceived efficacy (i.e., scientists' beliefs about their own communication skills and the impact of engagement). The presentation would also include results that describe scientists' overall goals for engagement (e.g., increasing support for specific policy positions, changing citizen behavior, etc.), as well as their communication-specific objectives (e.g., increasing knowledge, increase excitement, etc.). All of the results would be put in the context of equivalent results from scientists from seven other societies across a variety of fields, including chemistry, biology, and the social sciences. Three themes that would be emphasized in the presentation include (1) the fact that there are substantial commonalities in engagement views across scientific fields, (2) the important role that perceived engagement skill (efficacy) appears to play in predicting engagement willingness, and (3) a lack of evidence that scientists are thinking about engagement in strategic ways. Strategic engagement, in this regard, would involve setting clear goals and then choosing activities that the social science of science communication suggests might allow one to achieve those goals. The presentation would conclude with thoughts about what might be done to improve the effectiveness of science communication training.

  7. Process view on Law of Public Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Liška, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    This study contains groups of tasks for public procurement contracts in reference model Management Business Informatics (MBI). The tasks are sorted in chronological order in regard of procedure of public procurement contracts. The tasks contain new law on public procurement contracts, elaborated in the procedural point of view, and are complemented with a best practice. Process view in the reference model is intended for public procurers. It enables for the public procurer that he can have be...

  8. Leisure Role of Public Libraries: User Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Emma; Morris, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This is the second of two articles examining the leisure role of public libraries. The first article examined the leisure role of public libraries in the UK from a historical perspective. This examines the value of the public library service in providing leisure opportunities from a user point of view. The results demonstrate that public libraries…

  9. Mindfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiesa, Alberto; Serretti, Alessandro; Jakobsen, Janus Christian

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness practices are receiving increasing support from empirical studies. However, the functional neural mechanisms underlying these benefits have not been thoroughly investigated. Some authors suggest that mindfulness should be described as a 'top......-down' emotion regulation strategy, while others suggest that mindfulness should be described as a 'bottom-up' emotion regulation strategy. Current discrepancies might derive from the many different descriptions and applications of mindfulness. The present review aims to discuss current descriptions...... of mindfulness and the relationship existing between mindfulness practice and most commonly investigated emotion regulation strategies. Recent results from functional neuro-imaging studies investigating mindfulness training within the context of emotion regulation are presented. We suggest that mindfulness...

  10. Luria: a unitary view of human brain and mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecacci, Luciano

    2005-12-01

    Special questions the eminent Russian psychologist and neuropsychologist Aleksandr R. Luria (1902-1977) dealt with in his research regarded the relationship between animal and human brain, child and adult mind, normal and pathological, theory and rehabilitation, clinical and experimental investigation. These issues were integrated in a unitary theory of cerebral and psychological processes, under the influence of both different perspectives active in the first half of the Nineteenth century (psychoanalysis and historical-cultural school, first of all) and the growing contribution of neuropsychological research on brain-injured patients.

  11. Developing Public Mind Curriculum for Lower Secondary School Classes Using Contemplative Education Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srijumnong, Sirithorn; Sri-ampai, Pissamai; Chano, Jiraporn

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a public mind curriculum with Contemplative Education and to study the effect of using the curriculum to enhance public minds. The study was carried out using the research and development process, consisting of three phases: investigating fundamental data, developing a curriculum, and evaluating the…

  12. How Astronomers View Education and Public Outreach

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years, there have been a few studies on the development of an interest in science and scientists' views on public outreach. Yet, to date, there has been no global study regarding astronomers' views on these matters. Through the completion of our survey by 155 professional astronomers online and in person during the 28th International Astronomical Union General Assembly in 2012, we explored their development of and an interest for astronomy and their views on time constraints and budget restriction regarding public outreach activities. We find that astronomers develop an interest in astronomy between the ages of 4-6 but that the decision to undertake a career in astronomy often comes during late adolescence. We also discuss the claim that education and public outreach is regarded an optional task rather than a scientist's duty. Our study revealed that many astronomers think there should be a larger percentage of their research that should be invested into outreach activities, calling for a ch...

  13. Mindfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Nielsen, Charlotte Agger

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness har de senere år budt sig til som effektiv hjælp til selvhjælp for fortravlede ledere og professionelle. Men er meditationsøvelser og forsøg på at finde indre ”zen”-ro overhovedet lederens anstrengelser værd? Denne artikel diskuterer effekterne af mindfulness og giver ordet til såvel...

  14. Integrated safety assessment of Indian nuclear power plants for extreme events: Reducing impact on public mind

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Kakodkar; Ram Kumar Singh

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear energy professionals need to understand and address the catastrophe syndrome that of late seems to be increasingly at work in public mind in the context of nuclear energy. Classically the nuclear power reactor design and system evolution has been based on the logic of minimization of risk to an acceptable level and its quantification based on a deterministic approach and backed up by a further assessment based on the probabilistic methodology. However, in spite of minimization of risk, the reasons for anxiety and trauma in public mind that still prevails in the context of severe accidents needs to be understood and addressed. Margins between maximum credible accidents factored in the design and the ultimate load withstanding capacities of relevant systems need to be enhanced and guaranteed with a view to minimize release of radioactivity and avoid serious impact in public domain. A more realistic basis for management of an accident in public domain also needs to be quantified for this purpose. Assurance to public on limiting the consequences to a level that does not lead to a trauma is something that we need to be able to credibly demonstrate and confirm. The findings from Chernobyl reports point to significant psychological effects and related health disorders due to large scale emergency relocation of people that could have been possibly reduced by an order of magnitude without significant additional safety detriment. A combination of probabilistic and deterministic approaches should be evolved further to minimize consequences in public domain through enhancing safety margins and adding greater precision to quantitatively predicting accident progression and its management. The paper presents the case studies of the extreme external event such as tsunami and its impact on the coastal nuclear plants in India, the containment integrity assessment under the extreme internal event of over-pressurization and aircraft impact along with hydrogen deflagration

  15. Evaluation of theory of mind: A study with students from public and private schools

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,Marisa Cosenza; Pelisson, Maíze Carla Costa; Silveira,Flávia Fraga; Ribeiro, Nathalie Nehmy; Silva, Renata de Lourdes Miguel da

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the development of the theory of mind in preschool children aged 4 and 5 years old, along with potential interactions among gender, age and whether children were from private or public schools. A total of 178 children (91 students from public schools and 87 from private schools) participated in the study. After securing ethical compliance with applicable guidelines, we applied the Theory-of-Mind-Scale. There was no evidence of differences regarding gender (p< 0.38). Differ...

  16. What Predicts Children's Fixed and Growth Intelligence Mind-Sets? Not Their Parents' Views of Intelligence but Their Parents' Views of Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimovitz, Kyla; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-06-01

    Children's intelligence mind-sets (i.e., their beliefs about whether intelligence is fixed or malleable) robustly influence their motivation and learning. Yet, surprisingly, research has not linked parents' intelligence mind-sets to their children's. We tested the hypothesis that a different belief of parents-their failure mind-sets-may be more visible to children and therefore more prominent in shaping their beliefs. In Study 1, we found that parents can view failure as debilitating or enhancing, and that these failure mind-sets predict parenting practices and, in turn, children's intelligence mind-sets. Study 2 probed more deeply into how parents display failure mind-sets. In Study 3a, we found that children can indeed accurately perceive their parents' failure mind-sets but not their parents' intelligence mind-sets. Study 3b showed that children's perceptions of their parents' failure mind-sets also predicted their own intelligence mind-sets. Finally, Study 4 showed a causal effect of parents' failure mind-sets on their responses to their children's hypothetical failure. Overall, parents who see failure as debilitating focus on their children's performance and ability rather than on their children's learning, and their children, in turn, tend to believe that intelligence is fixed rather than malleable.

  17. Views on a brief mindfulness intervention among patients with long-term illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Ana; Perkins-Porras, Linda; Copland, Claire; Ussher, Michael

    2016-11-15

    Chronic illness is the leading cause of death in the UK and worldwide. Psychological therapies to support self-management have been shown to play an important role in helping those with chronic illness cope; more recently, the therapeutic benefits of mindfulness approaches have become evident for managing depression and other distressing emotions. Brief guided mindfulness interventions, are more convenient than intensive traditional programmes requiring regular attendance but have been less explored. This study assessed views on a brief (i.e., 10 min) mindfulness intervention for those with specific long-term illnesses. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with chronic illness patient groups (i.e., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic pain and cardiovascular disease), designed to capture the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. The interviews were conducted after use of a mindfulness based audio in clinic and, one week later, after use in the patient's own environment. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. In total, a combination of 18 interviews and focus groups were conducted among 14 patients. Recruitment was most successful with chronic pain patients. All patients reported benefits such as feelings of relaxation and improved coping with symptoms. While the wording and content of the audio were generally well received, it was suggested that the length could be increased, as it felt rushed, and that more guidance about the purpose of mindfulness, and when to use it, was needed. A brief mindfulness intervention was well accepted among patients with long-term illness. The intervention may benefit by being lengthened and by offering further guidance on its use.

  18. Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly-Foley, Georgina

    2017-06-14

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article discussed how mindfulness and self-compassion can enhance compassionate care. At a time when the NHS is under increased pressure and media scrutiny, it was useful to read about strategies that support nurses to manage this pressure and maintain high standards of care.

  19. Living to the fullest! Mindfulness-based interventions as public mental health interventions for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pots, Wendy Theresia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Interventions that are easily available, attractive and feasible help to broaden the effect public mental health interventions can have on depression. In this thesis, a specific subset of Mindfulness-based Interventions (MBIs) as public mental health interventions for people with mild to moderate de

  20. Living to the fullest! Mindfulness-based interventions as public mental health interventions for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pots, Wendy Theresia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Interventions that are easily available, attractive and feasible help to broaden the effect public mental health interventions can have on depression. In this thesis, a specific subset of Mindfulness-based Interventions (MBIs) as public mental health interventions for people with mild to moderate de

  1. Mind the gap : Societal limits to public library effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glorieux, Ignace; Kuppens, Toon; Vandebroeck, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the effectiveness of Flemish (Belgian) public libraries in reaching a large and socially diverse public. A statistical model is developed which incorporates unique data gathered through a large-scale visitor survey, a survey of librarians and municipal demographic information

  2. Mind the gap : Societal limits to public library effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glorieux, Ignace; Kuppens, Toon; Vandebroeck, Dieter

    This article focuses on the effectiveness of Flemish (Belgian) public libraries in reaching a large and socially diverse public. A statistical model is developed which incorporates unique data gathered through a large-scale visitor survey, a survey of librarians and municipal demographic

  3. Mind the gap: social media engagement by public health researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brett; Labrique, Alain; Jain, Kriti M; Pekosz, Andrew; Levine, Orin

    2014-01-14

    The traditional vertical system of sharing information from sources of scientific authority passed down to the public through local health authorities and clinicians risks being made obsolete by emerging technologies that facilitate rapid horizontal information sharing. The rise of Public Health 2.0 requires professional acknowledgment that a new and substantive forum of public discourse about public health exists on social media, such as forums, blogs, Facebook, and Twitter. Some public health professionals have used social media in innovative ways: to surveil populations, gauge public opinion, disseminate health information, and promote mutually beneficial interactions between public health professionals and the lay public. Although innovation is on the rise, most in the public health establishment remain skeptical of this rapidly evolving landscape or are unclear about how it could be used. We sought to evaluate the extent to which public health professionals are engaged in these spaces. We conducted a survey of professorial- and scientist-track faculty at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We asked all available faculty via email to complete a 30-question survey about respondent characteristics, beliefs about social media, and usage of specific technologies, including blogs, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. A total of 181 (19.8%) of 912 professor- and scientist-track faculty provided usable responses. The majority of respondents rarely used major social media platforms. Of these 181 respondents, 97 (53.6%) had used YouTube, 84 (46.4%) had used Facebook, 55 (30.4%) had read blogs, and 12 (6.6%) had used Twitter in the prior month. More recent degree completion was the best predictor of higher usage of social media. In all, 122 (67.4%) agreed that social media is important for disseminating information, whereas only 55 (30.4%) agreed that social media is useful for their research. In all, 43 (23.8%) said social media

  4. A Personal View of Public Librarianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article puts forward a credo of librarianship, particularly public librarianship. The writer addresses the differences between academic and public librarianship and suggests that there is little actual difference, and that apparent differences are differences in how librarians react to the environment in which they operate. The effects of the…

  5. On the definition of public relations: a European view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruler, A.A.; Vercic, D.; Buetschi, G.; Flodin, B.

    2001-01-01

    The article confronts a U.S.-based definition of public relations as relationship management with a European view that besides a relational, argues also for a reflective paradigm that is concerned with publics and the public sphere; not only with relational (which can in principle be private), but a

  6. On the definition of public relations: a European view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruler, A.A.; Vercic, D.; Buetschi, G.; Flodin, B.

    2001-01-01

    The article confronts a U.S.-based definition of public relations as relationship management with a European view that besides a relational, argues also for a reflective paradigm that is concerned with publics and the public sphere; not only with relational (which can in principle be private), but a

  7. An investigation of the neural substrates of mind wandering induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting eWang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate whether the calming effect induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings would make disengagement from that mental state more difficult, as measured by performance on a cognitive control task. In Experiment 1 we examined the subjective experience of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings vs. realistic oil landscape paintings in a behavioral study. Our results confirmed that, as predicted, traditional Chinese landscape paintings induce greater levels of relaxation and mind wandering and lower levels of object-oriented absorption and recognition, compared to realistic oil landscape paintings. In Experiment 2 we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to explore the behavioural and neural effects of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings on a task requiring cognitive control (i.e., the flanker task—administered immediately following exposure to paintings. Contrary to our prediction, the behavioural data demonstrated that compared to realistic oil landscape paintings, exposure to traditional Chinese landscape paintings had no effect on performance on the flanker task. However, the neural data demonstrated an interaction effect such that there was greater activation in the inferior parietal cortex (IPC and the superior frontal gyrus (SFG on incongruent compared with congruent flanker trials when participants switched from viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings to the flanker task than when they switched from realistic oil landscape paintings. These results suggest that switching from traditional Chinese landscape paintings placed greater demands on the brain’s attention and working memory networks during the flanker task than did switching from realistic oil landscape paintings.

  8. Colonizing minds: public education, the textbook Indian, and the struggle for settler hegemony in British Columbia, 1920-1970

    OpenAIRE

    Carleton, Sean Foster Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between public education, the representations of indigenous peoples as the Textbook Indian in secondary school textbooks, and the struggle for settler hegemony in British Columbia between 1920 and 1970. In drawing inspiration from Marxist Theory and critical pedagogy, this work shows how education in general and textbooks in particular were powerful tools of a project of colonizing minds. The colonizing minds project refers to the state’s process of manuf...

  9. Exploring views about mindfulness groups for voice-hearing from the perspective of service users and staff: A Q-methodology study.

    OpenAIRE

    Morera, Tirma; Bucci, Sandra; Randal, Chloe; Barrett, Moya; Pratt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite prevailing beliefs about the potential benefits and harmfulness of mindfulness for people who hear voices, there is a paucity of research into staff and service user views. Q-methodology was used to explore views about mindfulness groups for voice-hearers. METHOD: Opportunistic sampling of mental healthcare staff (N = 14) and service users with psychosis (N = 17). Both samples were analysed using principle components factor analysis to identify the range of attitudes held ...

  10. Violent, caring, unpredictable: public views on survivors of brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M A; Crothers, I R

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate how members of the public perceived survivors of brain injury. A 20-item list of attributes that could be used to describe characteristics of survivors of brain injury were given to 323 participants. One hundred and sixty-nine psychology students and 154 members of the public agreed to take part in the study. The effects of group (student and public), gender and socioeconomic status (low, moderate and high) on the attributes were assessed. Multivariate analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups with students holding more positive perceptions on 15 out of the 20 attributes. No effects of gender or socioeconomic status were found. The research suggests that members of the public hold less positive views on survivors of brain injury in respect to intellectual competency, ability to care and trustworthiness when compared to students.

  11. Practising mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsenan, Irene

    2017-08-16

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article examined the use of mindfulness techniques and how by learning to care for themselves, nurses can enhance the care they provide for patients. The concept of mindfulness has had widespread publicity, from meditation courses to adult colouring books, but I wanted to learn how mindfulness can be applied to nursing.

  12. School-Based Mindfulness Training and the Economisation of Attention: A Stieglerian View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, James

    2015-01-01

    Educational theorists may be right to suggest that providing mindfulness training in schools can challenge oppressive pedagogies and overcome Western dualism. Before concluding that this training is liberatory, however, one must go beyond pedagogy and consider schooling's role in enacting the educational neurofuture envisioned by mindfulness…

  13. Mindfulness for Children in Public Schools: Current Research and Developmental Issues to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Jeanne; Gelbar, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have increased in popularity over the past decade and interest continues to increase in the potential to use mindfulness-based interventions in schools. The current research concerning school-based mindfulness-based interventions is reviewed in this article. This research base is fragmented, as most of the studies…

  14. Diversity in public views toward stem cell sources and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsiedel, Edna; Premji, Shainur; Geransar, Rose; Orton, Noelle C; Thavaratnam, Thushaanthini; Bennett, Laura K

    2009-06-01

    Studies of public views on stem cell research have traditionally focused on human embryonic stem cells. With more recent scientific research on developing other stem cell sources, a series of focus group studies was undertaken with Canadian adults to examine their views on different stem cell sources (adult, umbilical cord blood, human embryonic stem cells, somatic cell nuclear transfer or SCNT, and interspecies nuclear transfer, or iSCNT). Views on three different policy models--a permissive, middle-of-the-road and restrictive policy approach--were also explored. Participants were recruited from several different social groups including patients, young adults, seniors, members of two ethnic communities, and a mixed group of adults. Participants were generally supportive of the use of adult stem cell sources. While there was also majority support for the use of hESC and SCNT, this was conditional on strict regulatory oversight. There was also majority support for a permissive policy which allows research on hESC and SCNT. General themes that cut across different groups included the potential cost of new technologies to the health care system, issues around who would gain access to these technologies, and trust in the scientific establishment and regulatory systems. A diversity of viewpoints was found as participants justified their positions on stem cell sources and policy approaches, showing more complexity and nuance than has been generally portrayed.

  15. Using mind mapping techniques for rapid qualitative data analysis in public participation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Allen, Jilla; Owen-Smith, Vicci

    2010-12-01

    In a health service environment where timescales for patient participation in service design are short and resources scarce, a balance needs to be achieved between research rigour and the timeliness and utility of the findings of patient participation processes. To develop a pragmatic mind mapping approach to managing the qualitative data from patient participation processes. While this article draws on experience of using mind maps in a variety of participation processes, a single example is used to illustrate the approach. In this example mind maps were created during the course of patient participation focus groups. Two group discussions were also transcribed verbatim to allow comparison of the rapid mind mapping approach with traditional thematic analysis of qualitative data. The illustrative example formed part of a local alcohol service review which included consultation with local alcohol service users, their families and staff groups. The mind mapping approach provided a pleasing graphical format for representing the key themes raised during the focus groups. It helped stimulate and galvanize discussion and keep it on track, enhanced transparency and group ownership of the data analysis process, allowed a rapid dynamic between data collection and feedback, and was considerably faster than traditional methods for the analysis of focus groups, while resulting in similar broad themes. This study suggests that the use of a mind mapping approach to managing qualitative data can provide a pragmatic resolution of the tension between limited resources and quality in patient participation processes. © 2010 The Authors. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. An evaluation of the public health paradigm: a view of social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    This article engages in a critical review of the public health paradigm to determine the compatibility with social work's guiding value of social justice. This critical examination explores the history, epistemology, and view of health underlying the public health paradigm. Implications of the public health paradigm's view of health on social work practice and discourse is examined.

  17. Mind Over Matter: Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Cocaine Print Mind Over Matter: Cocaine Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 806.08 KB Cocaine is ...

  18. Public Knowledge, Private Minds: Meaning Making on the Pathways of Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pryce R.

    Every day people are inundated with news reports about the latest scientific research. The ways in which these texts enlighten or misinform the general public is a central question in both the research literature and discussions in popular culture. However, both research and popular discussion often take on deficit views of these texts, and the capabilities of readers to critically engage with them, and treat them as static, one-way conduits that transfer information to a passive audience. In contrast, I advocate treating popular science texts as the result of a chain of consumption and production that are actively shaped by the varied perspectives of scientists, communicators, and members of the general public. My work envisions all of these actors as science learners who simultaneously act as both producers and consumers of science, and who interact with one another through in-the-moment meaning making. This dissertation examines how the meaning of scientific research is filtered and transformed in moments of interaction and knowledge construction as it moves along this pathway of science communication from scientists to the general public. I present the results of a study that attempts to follow pieces of recent scientific research as they work their way from scientists to publication as popular science news stories, and ultimately to the public. To that end, I collected data from three types of actors involved in the paths of science communication, as well as the texts they read and generate. These actors include (1) the scientists who performed the research, (2) the reporters tasked with writing about it for popular dissemination, and (3) members of the public who must read and interpret the research. The texts I analyze include: peer-reviewed scientific journal articles, university-produced news briefs, popular press science stories, and various text-based conversations between scientists and reporters. Through an analysis of texts, individual interviews, and

  19. Psyche--the meeting of mind and soul: current psychoanalytic views on the mental representation of god.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2013-11-01

    The author presents an overview of two contemporary, related psychoanalytic perspectives on religious phenomena. Based on data from systematic interviews, Ana-Maria Rizzuto explores the way the human mind forms the idea of God as it evolves through the various stages of childhood and adult development. The object-representation of God is greatly influenced by the mental representations of mother, father, and other important adults in the child's life. Object relations theory and the writings of Winnicott play an important role in these concepts. William Meissner, a Jesuit priest as well as a psychoanalyst, addresses Freud's views of religious belief as an illusion, or when accepted with certainty as real, as a delusion. Instead, Meissner sees religious belief as a developmental process that resides in the mental realm of transitional phenomena where spirituality, creativity, appreciation of beauty, transcendental states, play, and the psychoanalytic process itself also take place. In psychoanalytic treatment, religious phenomena are not exempt from exploration and understanding, perhaps resulting in more mature development of object representations, ego functions, and the superego functions of conscience and ego ideal as well as more mature religious life.

  20. Smartphones in Public Secondary Schools: Views of Matric Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavhunga, Francis Z.; Kibirige, Israel; Chigonga, Benard; Ramaboka, Manthiba

    2016-01-01

    Many schools in South Africa ban smartphones. The decision does not take into account the views of the learners. The purpose of this paper was to elicit learners' views regarding smartphones in schools. A survey design was used and data were collected from 93 learners using a questionnaire consisting of closed- and open-ended items. Data were…

  1. Smartphones in Public Secondary Schools: Views of Matric Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavhunga, Francis Z.; Kibirige, Israel; Chigonga, Benard; Ramaboka, Manthiba

    2016-01-01

    Many schools in South Africa ban smartphones. The decision does not take into account the views of the learners. The purpose of this paper was to elicit learners' views regarding smartphones in schools. A survey design was used and data were collected from 93 learners using a questionnaire consisting of closed- and open-ended items. Data were…

  2. 24 CFR 3282.153 - Public participation in formal or informal presentation of views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... informal presentation of views. 3282.153 Section 3282.153 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Informal and Formal Presentations of Views, Hearings and Investigations § 3282.153 Public participation in formal or informal presentation of views. (a) Any interested persons...

  3. Tai Chi and mindfulness-based stress reduction in a Boston Public Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Robert B

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a description of a clinical project that used combined Tai Chi and mindfulness-based stress reduction as an educational program. The 5-week program demonstrated that sustained interest in this material in middle school-aged boys and girls is possible. Statements the boys and girls made in the process suggested that they experienced well-being, calmness, relaxation, improved sleep, less reactivity, increased self-care, self-awareness, and a sense of interconnection or interdependence with nature. The curriculum is described in detail for nurses, teachers, and counselors who want to replicate this type of instruction for adolescent children. This project infers that Tai Chi and mindfulness-based stress reduction may be transformational tools that can be used in educational programs appropriate for middle school-aged children. Recommendations are made for further study in schools and other pediatric settings.

  4. On the Definition of Public Relations: A European View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercic, Dejan; van Ruler, Betteke; Butschi, Gerhard; Flodin, Bertil

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the project on the European Public Relations Body of Knowledge (EBOK). Reviews proposals on the definition, dimensions, and domain of public relations. Confronts these with findings from EBOK. Presents ideas on how to bridge the differences. Proposes ideas for further investigation. (SG)

  5. MPA and CPM Curriculum: An Analysis of the Views of Public Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Bruce J.

    Views of state public administrators about management education and training needs were investigated, as were administrator views concerning short-term management development workshops. Data was drawn from responses to questionnaires mailed to 5,980 state administrators who were selected from a national survey and from random samples using lists…

  6. Youth Views of Experiences and Benefits of Public Speaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Silliman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-eight youth participants, ages 9-17, involved in a public speaking event reported that preparation and presentation of a 5-12 minute demonstration or illustrated talk improved confidence, knowledge of a selected topic and skills in communicating, goal setting, organizing, working with others, and doing research. Positive benefits were reported from first-year as well as multi-year participants. Most youth surveyed indicated that they participated by choice and received adequate assistance in preparation for speaking. Similar results were found for a smaller group (N = 20 involved in a non-competitive performing arts event. A randomly-selected group (N = 37 interviewed about the extended effects of public speaking revealed that the experience helped them in school presentations, community leadership, and more in-depth involvement in specific topic areas. Implications of results for youth programming and engaging wider audiences of youth are discussed.

  7. Synthetic biology in the view of European public funding organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lei; Gaisser, Sibylle; Schmidt, Markus

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the decisions of major European public funding organisations to fund or not to fund synthetic biology (SB) and related ethical, legal and social implication (ELSI) studies. We investigated the reaction of public organisations in six countries (Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK) towards SB that may influence SB’s further development in Europe. We examined R&D and ELSI communities and their particular funding situation. Our results show that the funding situation for SB varies considerably among the analysed countries, with the UK as the only country with an established funding scheme for R&D and ELSI that successfully integrates these research communities. Elsewhere, we determined a general lack of funding (France), difficulties in funding ELSI work (Switzerland), lack of an R&D community (Austria), too small ELSI communities (France, Switzerland, Netherlands), or difficulties in linking existing communities with available funding sources (Germany), partly due to an unclear SB definition. PMID:22586841

  8. Communicating radio astronomy with the public: Another point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varano, S.

    2008-06-01

    Radio waves cannot be sensed directly, but they are used in daily life by almost everybody. Even so, the majority of the general public do not even know that celestial bodies emit radio waves. Presenting invisible radiation to a general audience with little or no background knowledge in physics is a difficult task. In addition, much important technology now commonplace in many other scientific fields was pioneered by radio observatories in their efforts to detect and process radio signals from the Universe. Radio astronomy outreach does not have such a well-established background as optical astronomy outreach. In order to make radio astronomy accessible to the public, it is necessary either to add more scientific detail or to find a different way of communicating. In this paper we present examples from our work at the Visitor Centre "Marcello Ceccarelli", which is part of the Medicina Radio Observatory, operated by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) in Bologna, which in turn is part of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF).

  9. The influence of science popularizers on the public's view of religion and science: An experimental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheitle, Christopher P; Ecklund, Elaine Howard

    2015-06-08

    Research suggests that public figures can play an influential role in forming public opinion; yet, little research has experimentally tested the efficacy of public figures on the cognitive formation of boundaries. Using an experiment embedded within a nationally representative survey, we examine how two science popularizers, Francis Collins and Richard Dawkins, influence perceptions regarding the boundaries between religion and science. We find that learning of Dawkins does not influence people's perceptions of the religion-science relationship, while learning of Collins shifts respondents toward a collaborative view of religion and science. Findings suggest that figures with unexpected views might be more effective in changing conceptual boundaries.

  10. Conociendo mindfulness [Knowing mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Montañés Sánchez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Actualmente, sobre todo en la última década de nuestro siglo, han surgido un gran número de investigaciones sobre la eficacia de mindfulness en la mejora de los síntomas de personas que presentan diferentes problemas físicos y psíquicos. Mindfulness consiste en prestar conciencia plena a la realidad del momento presente con una actitud básica de aceptación. En el presente artículo se realiza una introducción a mindfulness, destacando diferentes definiciones y formas de conceptualizarlo y profundizando en los mecanismos psicoterapéuticos que subyacen a la práctica de mindfulness.Abstract:Currently, especially in the last decade of our century, have emerged a lot of research on the effectiveness of mindfulness in improving the symptoms of people with different physical and psychological problems. Mindfulness is to provide full consciousness to the reality of the present moment with a basic attitude of acceptance. This paper presents an introduction to mindfulness, highlighting different definitions and ways of conceptualizing and deeper into the mechanisms underlying psychotherapeutic practice of mindfulness.

  11. Public views on drinking water standards as risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B

    2008-12-01

    Government agencies often compare contaminant levels to standards and other regulatory benchmarks to convey relative risk to public audiences, as well as for enforcement. Yet we know little of how citizens interpret these risk indicators or factors influencing interpretations. Owners of private residential wells in New Jersey were surveyed by mail. A majority appreciated this comparison, trusted the standard, and could effectively compare the contaminant level to the standard. Most people who recalled that their own well water quality was unsatisfactory simply installed treatment systems. However, there was also a surprising amount of inability to tell whether pollution levels were better or worse than the standard, perhaps exacerbated by confusing institutional language to summarize the comparison (e.g., pollution "exceeds" or is "less than" the standard) and innumeracy. There was also substantial skepticism about the degree to which pollution levels below, or (to a lesser extent) above, the standard are harmless or harmful, respectively. Skepticism was variously due to distrust of standards, disbelief in thresholds for health effects, inability to accurately compare standards and contaminant levels, information processing, and demographics. Discontinuity in reactions below versus above the standard did not exist in the aggregate, and rarely among individuals, contrary to some previous findings. At identical standards and contaminant levels, familiar toxins (mercury, arsenic, lead) elicited higher risk ratings than less familiar ones. Given the wide institutional use of this risk indicator, further research on how to improve the design and use of this indicator, and consideration of alternatives, is warranted.

  12. Policy Effects on the Quality of Public Health Care: Evaluating Portuguese Public Hospitals’ Quality through Customers’ Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Jaime R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, public health care administration issues are reviewed and public hospital patients’ views on quality of health care are empirically tested. The purpose is to support the recommendation of new public policies that lead to better performance, if necessary. Hospital patients’ views on service quality were assessed through a questionnaire to estimate a global customer satisfaction measure. We argue that customer satisfaction should be measured through multiple indicators, as a latent variable. Thus, we considered the latent segment models (LSM approach to assess customer service satisfaction. We found a twosegment latent structure: segment 1, the satisfied, with 48 percent of patients, mostly male and middle-aged patients; and segment 2, the unsatisfied, with 52 percent of patients, mostly female and youngest/oldest patients.

  13. Radiological threat, public and media: a psychosociological view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arciszewski, T. [University Rene Descartes - Paris 5, 92 - Boulogne (France)

    2006-07-01

    the fear of nuclear devices. In a scientific area as nuclear, where problems are often very complex for experts themselves, the way to communicate cannot be as simple as good information. Next to that statement, we will develop some conclusions based on the work of Slovic, Kasperson and some others, within the framework of the amplification of risk. This model describes how the threats can be diffuse in a population and specifically the radiological threat. Widely experimentally assessed, it analyse how the fear can spread and affect people, independently form the real measurable risk. We will lastly ask ourselves if there is a way of handle panic for this kind of threat. We will show that the notion of panic is somehow irrelevant to such threats whereas the confidence in political and public regulation is strongly related to them. Finally, we will ask if the social psychologist could make a model of public reaction in case of nuclear threat. That question remains open until further experiments are made. (author)

  14. Mind the Gap: Bridging theories and practice for the organisation of metropolitan public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Public transport has to be succesfull to maintain mobility in todays dense urban areas. Many scientific disciplines make contributions on how to achieve that success, with diverse and sometime contradictory recommendations. The thesis shows how policy makers can use the existing recommendations to i

  15. Mind the Gap: Bridging theories and practice for the organisation of metropolitan public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Public transport has to be succesfull to maintain mobility in todays dense urban areas. Many scientific disciplines make contributions on how to achieve that success, with diverse and sometime contradictory recommendations. The thesis shows how policy makers can use the existing recommendations to i

  16. Commercial Speech and Captive Minds: Regulating Advertising in Public High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Barbara; Wulfemeyer, K. Tim

    The youth market is a lucrative one, influencing the spending of over $125 billion annually. Increasingly, advertisers are turning to new in-school vehicles, including "wall media" (such as wallboards), tie-in programs, product sample packages and sponsored television programming, to reach students in public high schools. School systems,…

  17. The Unconscious Mind

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The unconscious mind is still viewed by many psychological scientists as the shadow of a “real” conscious mind, though there now exists substantial evidence that the unconscious is not identifiably less flexible, complex, controlling, deliberative, or action-oriented than is its counterpart. This “conscious-centric” bias is due in part to the operational definition within cognitive psychology that equates unconscious with subliminal. We review the evidence challenging this restricted view of ...

  18. Talk like TED the 9 public-speaking secrets of the world's top minds

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    Ideas are the currency of the twenty-first century. In order to succeed, you need to be able to sell your ideas persuasively. This ability is the single greatest skill that will help you accomplish your dreams. TED Talks have redefined the elements of a successful presentation and become the gold standard for public speaking. TED--which stands for technology, entertainment, and design--brings together the world's leading thinkers. These are the presentations that set the world on fire, and the techniques that top TED speakers use will make any presentation more dynamic, fire up any team, and give anyone the confidence to overcome their fear of public speaking. Public speaking coach and bestselling author Carmine Gallo has broken down hundreds of TED talks and interviewed the most popular TED presenters, as well as the top researchers in the fields of psychology, communications, and neuroscience to reveal the nine secrets of all successful TED presentations. Gallo's step-by-step method makes it possible for ...

  19. [Neurosciences and philosophy of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, Aarón

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that the interaction between neurosciences and philosophy of the mind is on the way to understand consciousness, and to solve the mind-body or mind-brain problem. Naturalism is the view that mental processes are just brain processes and that consciousness is a natural phenomenon. It is possible to construct a theory about its nature by blending insights from neuroscience, philosophy of the mind, phenomenology, psychology and evolutionary biology.

  20. Public science of the savage mind: contesting cultural anthropology in the Cold War classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Erika Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    "What is human about human beings? How did they get that way? How can they be made more so?" These three questions formed the basis of a fifth-grade social studies curriculum project developed in the 1960s called Man: A Course of Study, or MACOS. In the years between the curriculum's development in the 1960s and its controversial implementation in the 1970s, two separate sets of concerns served to problematize the use of anthropological materials in public school classrooms. On the one hand, MACOS designers were wary of the possibly racist interpretations of exploring so-called "primitive" cultures in the classroom. On the other, conservative textbook reformers objected to claims that all cultural solutions to biological problems were morally equivalent. Once MACOS earned a place in national news, it came to embody both hopes for the redemption of American democratic society and fears about the violent nature of humans, depending on one's political perspective. These mixed messages eventually undermined the long-term success of the program as public science. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Frederick Douglass Changed My Mind about the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, James

    2008-01-01

    Frederick Douglass dramatically and publicly changed his own mind about the Constitution. Like Frederick Douglass, the author had originally viewed the Constitution as pro-slavery. Yet a close look at Douglass's writings revealed a Constitution that empowered the federal government to abolish slavery.

  2. Mind the Gaps: Wikipedia as an education model and public duty for scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustead, Greg; Wiki Education Foundation

    2016-06-01

    Search for almost any scientific term on the Internet, and chances are that a Wikipedia page will be the first result. Wikipedia’s content reaches more than 450 million readers around the world, at a rate of about 8,000 readers a second. That makes Wikipedia one of the most powerful platforms for the dissemination of science information in the world. Although Wikipedia’s coverage of science topics is robust, clear gaps remain — especially with subject matter that requires technical or specialized expertise. Some information is woefully out of date; and, while a minority, some scientific entries on Wikipedia are simply inaccurate. Furthermore, the underrepresentation of women, and diversity in general, remains a real issue. The Wikipedia Year of Science 2016 is an unprecedented targeted initiative designed to improve Wikipedia’s potential for communicating science to the public. The multi-faceted effort is a program conceived by the Wiki Education Foundation, with support from the Simons Foundation and Google. This talk will provide a brief overview of the Wikipedia Year of Science initiative, and ways AAS members can get involved — during the meeting, in the classroom, and beyond.

  3. Transformation of Public Kindergartens in Shenzhen: Internet Study of Public Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, X. Christine

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the central government of China has been gradually privatizing early childhood education. As the main precursor of this large-scale reform in the country, Shenzhen has witnessed several innovative as well as radical changes. The existing public early childhood settings in the city were therefore forced to transform into…

  4. Stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy: public views about drug addiction and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma E; Pescosolido, Bernice A; Goldman, Howard H

    2014-10-01

    Public attitudes about drug addiction and mental illness were compared. A Web-based national survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support in regard to drug addiction and mental illness. Respondents held significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices against persons with drug addiction, more skeptical about the effectiveness of treatments, and more likely to oppose policies aimed at helping them. Drug addiction is often treated as a subcategory of mental illness, and insurance plans group them together under the rubric of "behavioral health." Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches to reducing stigma and advancing public policy.

  5. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Jill S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2010. Titles and abstracts were screened by one researcher according to the inclusion criteria. Papers were included if they assessed pharmacy staff or consumer attitudes towards pharmaceutical public health. Full papers identified for inclusion were assessed by a second researcher and data were extracted by one researcher. Results From the 5628 papers identified, 63 studies in 67 papers were included. Pharmacy staff: Most pharmacists viewed public health services as important and part of their role but secondary to medicine related roles. Pharmacists' confidence in providing public health services was on the whole average to low. Time was consistently identified as a barrier to providing public health services. Lack of an adequate counselling space, lack of demand and expectation of a negative reaction from customers were also reported by some pharmacists as barriers. A need for further training was identified in relation to a number of public health services. Consumers: Most pharmacy users had never been offered public health services by their pharmacist and did not expect to be offered. Consumers viewed pharmacists as appropriate providers of public health advice but had mixed views on the pharmacists' ability to do this. Satisfaction was found to be high in those that had experienced pharmaceutical public health Conclusions There has been little change in customer and pharmacist attitudes since reviews

  6. Public views on a wait time management initiative: a matter of communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laupacis Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have tried to reduce waiting times for health care through formal wait time reduction strategies. Our paper describes views of members of the public about a wait time management initiative - the Ontario Wait Time Strategy (OWTS (Canada. Scholars and governmental reports have advocated for increased public involvement in wait time management. We provide empirically derived recommendations for public engagement in a wait time management initiative. Methods Two qualitative studies: 1 an analysis of all emails sent by the public to the (OWTS email address; and 2 in-depth interviews with members of the Ontario public. Results Email correspondents and interview participants supported the intent of the OWTS. However they wanted more information about the Strategy and its actions. Interview participants did not feel they were sufficiently made aware of the Strategy and email correspondents requested additional information beyond what was offered on the Strategy's website. Moreover, the email correspondents believed that some of the information that was provided on the Strategy's website and through the media was inaccurate, misleading, and even dishonest. Interview participants strongly supported public involvement in the OWTS priority setting. Conclusions Findings suggest the public wanted increased communication from and with the OWTS. Effective communication can facilitate successful public engagement, and in turn fair and legitimate priority setting. Based on the study's findings we developed concrete recommendations for improving public involvement in wait time management.

  7. Mindfulness Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David

    2017-01-03

    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.

  8. The Unconscious Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, John A; Morsella, Ezequiel

    2008-01-01

    The unconscious mind is still viewed by many psychological scientists as the shadow of a "real" conscious mind, though there now exists substantial evidence that the unconscious is not identifiably less flexible, complex, controlling, deliberative, or action-oriented than is its counterpart. This "conscious-centric" bias is due in part to the operational definition within cognitive psychology that equates unconscious with subliminal. We review the evidence challenging this restricted view of the unconscious emerging from contemporary social cognition research, which has traditionally defined the unconscious in terms of its unintentional nature; this research has demonstrated the existence of several independent unconscious behavioral guidance systems: perceptual, evaluative, and motivational. From this perspective, it is concluded that in both phylogeny and ontogeny, actions of an unconscious mind precede the arrival of a conscious mind-that action precedes reflection.

  9. Community nurses' child protection role: views of public health nurses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Public health nurses in Ireland are generalist practitioners with a wide range of roles that address the needs of clients in the community across their lifespan. Child protection is one of many of the roles of Irish public health nurses. However, with increasing caseloads, birth rates and aging populations, their child protection role is becoming more difficult to define and practise safely. This paper presents a key finding of a qualitative study that explored the views of a group of public health nurses (n = 10) regarding their role with pre-school children. A significant theme following analysis of the interviews were the nurses\\' expressed concerns on their role in child protection. There is a need to define the role practised by public health nurses in child protection and to achieve a standard for this nationally.

  10. Community views and perspectives on public engagement in health technology assessment decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, Sally; Tong, Allison; Howard, Kirsten

    2016-04-07

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to describe community views and perspectives on public engagement processes in Australian health technology assessment (HTA) decision making.Methods Six focus groups were held in Sydney (NSW, Australia) as part of a broad program of work on public engagement and HTA. Eligible participants were aged ≥18 years and spoke English. Participants were asked about their views and perspectives of public engagement in the HTA decision-making process, with responses analysed using a public participation framework.Results Fifty-eight participants aged 19-71 years attended the focus groups. Responses from the public indicated that they wanted public engagement in HTA to include a diversity of individuals, be independent and transparent, involve individuals early in the process and ensure that public input is meaningful and useful to the process. This was consistent with the public participation framework. Perceived shortcomings of the current public engagement process were also identified, namely the lack of awareness of the HTA system in the general population and the need to acknowledge the role different groups of stakeholders or 'publics' can have in the process.Conclusions The public do see a role for themselves in the HTA decision-making process. This is distinct to the involvement of patients and carers. It is important that any future public engagement strategy in this field distinguishes between stakeholder groups and outline approaches that will involve members of the public in the decision-making process, especially if public expectations of involvement in healthcare decision-making continue to increase.What is known about this topic? The views and perspectives of patients and consumers are important in the HTA decision-making process. There is a move to involve the broader community, particularly as decisions become increasingly complex and resources more scarce.What does this paper add? It not been known to what extent

  11. Public Value Creation Enabled by Healthcare IS Projects – a resource-based-view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Svejvig, Per; Laursen, Markus

    in a public HIS setting to create value. The framework consists of Professional- , Organisational-, Patient Perceived- and Employee Perceived-Value dimensions. HIS is partly overlooked in the public management literature and the aspect of emergence and (personal as well as organisational) learning plays......Creation of value from IT projects is a recurring theme that has diffused into healthcare information sys-tems (HIS). By applying a resource-based-view on findings from a study on the optimisation project of an integrated health information system (HIS) we develop a framework of capabilities needed...... an important role in the creation value in HIS-projects....

  12. [Epidemiology and laboratory: a different point or view of public health in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García M, Julio; Heitmann G, Ingrid

    2008-06-01

    The authors present an abridged history from their personal point of view of public health dealing with communicable diseases in Chile, in reference to an article previously published in Revista Chilena de Infectología. They do not agree with the mainly critical view of the author. They recognize that although there is a lot to be done on this matter, Chile has been a pioneer in Latin America in many policies relating to the control of these infections, having been recognized by international organisms. The relationship between the National Institute of Public Health, the Ministry of Health and the Laboratory Network, has strongly contributed along the years to concrete sanitary achievements in the field of transmissible diseases which are a pride for our country.

  13. Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities after viewing Olympic or Paralympic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Kate; Burns, Jan; Mills, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public's attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities.

  14. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism......, Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building...... Action in Public Environments with Diverse Semiotic Resources by Charles Goodwin pp. 169-182 How Marking in Dance Constitutes Thinking with the Body by David Kirsh pp. 183-214 Ambiguous Coordination: Collaboration in Informal Science Education Research by Ivan Rosero, Robert Lecusay, Michael Cole pp. 215-240...

  15. Public views on multiple dimensions of security : nuclear waepons, terrorism, energy, and the environment : 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, Kerry Gale (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK)

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  16. Mindfulness in cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation and other techniques drawn from Buddhism have increasingly been integrated into forms of psychotherapeutic intervention. In much of this work, mindfulness is understood as a mode of awareness that is present-centered and nonevaluative. This form of awareness is assumed to have intrinsic value in promoting positive mental health and adaptation by interrupting discursive thoughts that give rise to suffering. However, in the societies where it originated, mindfulness meditation is part of a larger system of Buddhist belief and practice with strong ethical and moral dimensions. Extracting techniques like mindfulness meditation from the social contexts in which they originate may change the nature and effects of the practice. The papers in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry explore the implications of a cultural and contextual view of mindfulness for continued dialogue between Buddhist thought and psychiatry. This introductory essay considers the meanings of mindfulness meditation in cultural context and the uses of mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention in contemporary psychiatry and psychology.

  17. The efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as a public mental health intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy T M Pots

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although there has been growing evidence for the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT for different clinical populations, its effectiveness as a public mental health intervention has not been studied. The present study evaluates a community-based MBCT intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology in a large multi-site, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. METHOD: The participants with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology were recruited from the general population and randomized to the MBCT intervention (n = 76 or to a waiting list control group (n = 75. Participants completed measures before and after the intervention. Participants in the experimental condition also completed these measures at a 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: In the experimental condition significant reductions in depression, anxiety, and experiential avoidance, and improvements in mindfulness and emotional- and psychological mental health were found, compared to the waiting list (effect sizes Cohen's d = 0.31-0.56. These effects were sustained at the 3-month follow-up. The likelihood of a clinically significant change in depressive symptoms was significantly higher for the MBCT group [odds ratio (OR 3.026, p<0.01 at post-treatment; NNT = 5.10]. DISCUSSION: MBCT as a public mental health intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms seems effective and applicable in a natural setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2096.

  18. Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist…

  19. Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist…

  20. Understanding Public Views about Air Quality and Air Pollution Sources in the San Joaquin Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Ricardo; Brown, Paul; Cameron, Linda; Gaab, Erin; Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Ramondt, Steven; Veloz, David; Song, Anna; Schweizer, Don

    2017-01-01

    The San Joaquin Valley of California has poor air quality and high rates of asthma. Surveys were collected from 744 residents of the San Joaquin Valley from November 2014 to January 2015 to examine the public's views about air quality. The results of this study suggest that participants exposed to high PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in size) concentrations perceived air pollution to be of the worst quality. Air quality in the San Joaquin Valley was primarily perceived as either moderate or unhealthy for sensitive groups. Females perceived air pollution to be of worse quality compared to males. Participants perceived unemployment, crime, and obesity to be the top three most serious community problems in the San Joaquin Valley. Participants viewed cars and trucks, windblown dust, and factories as the principle contributors to air pollution in the area. There is a need to continue studying public perceptions of air quality in the San Joaquin Valley with a more robust survey with more participants over several years and seasons.

  1. An Untapped Resource: Patient and Public Involvement in Implementation Comment on "Knowledge Mobilization in Healthcare Organizations: A View From the Resource-Based View of the Firm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Christopher; Rycroft-Malone, Jo

    2015-08-07

    This commentary considers the potential role of patient and public involvement in implementation. Developing an analytical thread from the resource-based view of the Firm, we argue that this involvement may create unique resources that have the capacity to enhance the impact of implementation activity for healthcare organisations.

  2. Mindful art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafouris, Lambros

    2013-04-01

    Bullot & Reber (B&R) begin asking if the study of the mind's inner life can provide a foundation for a science of art. Clearly there are many epistemological problems involved in the study of the cognitive and affective basis of art appreciation. I argue that context is key. I also propose that as long as the "mind's life" continues to be perceived as an "inner" intracranial phenomenon, little progress can be made. Mind and art are one.

  3. Do public inquiries for noise control serve a useful purpose?--An acoustic consultant's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flindell, I H

    2003-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, before the introduction of the various town and country planning acts and associated regulations, landowners were free to use their land in any way they wished, subject only to limitations imposed by lease or covenant and the avoidance of nuisance or trespass against neighbours. Any disputes arising would be resolved by negotiation or via a court of law. Under current planning laws and regulations, local authorities are empowered to impose special conditions or even to refuse development to prevent excessive nuisance, but the resulting noise management solutions are not always optimum from either the noise maker's or the noise exposed's points of view. In addition, the planning system has almost no effect on existing noise. Public inquiries provide a useful mechanism for the investigation of appeals against local authority decisions, or where the government has decided that issues of strategic or national importance need to be fully explored in a public forum. In practice, and largely because of individual disagreement, public inquiries can result in excessive delays while all interested parties are allowed to have their say. There seems to be an increasing consensus that the general inadequacy of existing methods of assessing noise impact is at least partly to blame. The new European Environmental Noise Directive represents a step change towards the imposition of one-size-fits-all regulatory or administrative procedures which should eventually contribute towards the reduction of public inquiry delays, but on the other hand, any weakening of the general principle of basing decisions on 'informed flexibility' will probably have significant negative consequences over the longer term.

  4. AN EVALUATION OF THE PROBLEMS OF TURKISH PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF PUBLIC RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Murat

    2010-01-01

    One of the basic problems of Turkish public administration is its distrustfulness against both to the public and its own staff. Similarly, the public don’t trust the public administration which is insensitive to their own expectations, desires and necessities. This sense of distrustfulness leads both to the administration’s introvertedness and its the lack of sensivity against the public, and at the same time the alienation of the public against the administration. The weakness of the reflexe...

  5. The Evolution of Public Views of the Black Sea Province During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the evolution of public views of the Black Sea province during the First World War. The materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals of the Black Sea province became the main source of work. This article employs the records of personal origins. As a result of study, the authors come to the conclusion the First World War began for Russian society with massive patriotic speeches, but at the end of 1916 year for both in Russia in general and in the Black Sea province comes a complex social process that can be described as war weariness. To the reasons for war weariness the authors referred: the protracted war, and as a consequence – the complexity of an economic nature.

  6. The public's views on health care reform in the 2008 presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara R; Kriss, Jennifer L

    2008-01-01

    A Commonwealth Fund survey of adults age 19 and older,conducted from June 2007 to October 2007, finds that large majorities of the public, regardless of political affiliation or income level, say that the candidates' views on health care reform will be very important or somewhat important in their voting decision. Moreover, they believe employers--long the cornerstone of the health insurance system--should retain responsibility for providing health insurance, or at least contribute financially to covering the country's working families. A majority of adults would also favor a requirement that everyone have health insurance, with the government helping those who are unable to afford it; support for such a requirement, however, is not strong and varies by political affiliation, geographic region, and income. There is overwhelming agreement that financing for health insurance coverage for all Americans should be a responsibility shared by employers, government, and individuals.

  7. TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC HEALTH SECTOR: PROFESSIONAL VIEW FROM EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE EXPERTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Kachieng’a

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has tried various strategies to improve access, quality and cost-efficiency in the health care delivery systems. However it is clear that the optimal approach has yet to be found. It has been recognised that health technology is an important element of this transformation, and will continue to play a vital role.
    It is almost evident that the way health technology is managed in health care institutions directly affects the quality of treatment patients receive. Although strategic importance of technology in health care has been documented widely in scientific literature; technology planning, procurement and management have not received the attention they deserve in the transformation of health care services in the country.
    The survey discussed in this paper investigated health care equipment maintenance problems and associated technological constraints from point of view of health technology managers, biomedical and clinical engineers. It also provides recommendations for competitive utilisation of technology in the public health sector.

  8. Mindful innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2008-01-01

    Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role.......Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role....

  9. Mindful innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2008-01-01

    Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role.......Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role....

  10. Comparison of pharmacist and public views and experiences of community pharmacy medicines-related services in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Ruth M; Gammie, Shivaun M; Loo, Ruey Leng; Corlett, Sarah A; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Background Services provided by community pharmacists designed to support people using medicines are increasing. In England, two national services exist: Medicine Use Reviews (MUR) and New Medicines Service (NMS). Very few studies have been conducted seeking views of the public, rather than service users, on willingness to use these services or expectations of these services, or determined whether views align with pharmacist perceptions. Objective To compare the perceptions of pharmacists and the general public on medicines-related services, particularly MUR and NMS services. Methods Two parallel surveys were conducted in one area of England: one involved the general public and was administered using a street survey, and the other was a postal survey of community pharmacists. Similar questionnaires were used, seeking views of services, awareness, reasons for using services, and perceived benefits. Results Response rates were 47.2% (1,000/2,012 approached) for the public and 40.8% (341/836) for pharmacists. Few people had experienced a discussion in a private consultation room or were aware of the two formal services, although their willingness to use them was high. Pharmacists estimated time spent on service provision as 10 minutes for MUR and 12 minutes for NMS, which aligned with acceptability to both pharmacists and the public. Pharmacists underestimated the willingness of the public to wait for an informal discussion or to make appointments for formal services. Both pharmacists and the public had high expectations that services would be beneficial in terms of increasing knowledge and understanding, but public expectations and experiences of services helping to sort out problems fell well below pharmacists’ perceptions. People who had experienced a pharmacy service had different perceptions of pharmacists. Conclusion Views differed regarding why people use services and key aspects of service delivery. For services to improve, the pharmacy profession needs a

  11. Comparison of pharmacist and public views and experiences of community pharmacy medicines-related services in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Ruth M; Gammie, Shivaun M; Loo, Ruey Leng; Corlett, Sarah A; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Services provided by community pharmacists designed to support people using medicines are increasing. In England, two national services exist: Medicine Use Reviews (MUR) and New Medicines Service (NMS). Very few studies have been conducted seeking views of the public, rather than service users, on willingness to use these services or expectations of these services, or determined whether views align with pharmacist perceptions. To compare the perceptions of pharmacists and the general public on medicines-related services, particularly MUR and NMS services. Two parallel surveys were conducted in one area of England: one involved the general public and was administered using a street survey, and the other was a postal survey of community pharmacists. Similar questionnaires were used, seeking views of services, awareness, reasons for using services, and perceived benefits. Response rates were 47.2% (1,000/2,012 approached) for the public and 40.8% (341/836) for pharmacists. Few people had experienced a discussion in a private consultation room or were aware of the two formal services, although their willingness to use them was high. Pharmacists estimated time spent on service provision as 10 minutes for MUR and 12 minutes for NMS, which aligned with acceptability to both pharmacists and the public. Pharmacists underestimated the willingness of the public to wait for an informal discussion or to make appointments for formal services. Both pharmacists and the public had high expectations that services would be beneficial in terms of increasing knowledge and understanding, but public expectations and experiences of services helping to sort out problems fell well below pharmacists' perceptions. People who had experienced a pharmacy service had different perceptions of pharmacists. Views differed regarding why people use services and key aspects of service delivery. For services to improve, the pharmacy profession needs a better awareness of what the public, especially

  12. Media, Minds, and Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggot, James; Vino, Faith

    This booklet describes the language arts course "Media, Minds, and Masses," written for the Dade County, Fla., public schools. Topics for the course include the workings of contemporary radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and movies; the present status and power of media; the history and development of media; and the influences of…

  13. "Can it read my mind?" - What do the public and experts think of the current (misuses of neuroimaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M Wardlaw

    Full Text Available Emerging applications of neuroimaging outside medicine and science have received intense public exposure through the media. Media misrepresentations can create a gulf between public and scientific understanding of the capabilities of neuroimaging and raise false expectations. To determine the extent of this effect and determine public opinions on acceptable uses and the need for regulation, we designed an electronic survey to obtain anonymous opinions from as wide a range of members of the public and neuroimaging experts as possible. The surveys ran from 1(st June to 30 September 2010, asked 10 and 21 questions, respectively, about uses of neuroimaging outside traditional medical diagnosis, data storage, science communication and potential methods of regulation. We analysed the responses using descriptive statistics; 660 individuals responded to the public and 303 individuals responded to the expert survey. We found evidence of public skepticism about the use of neuroimaging for applications such as lie detection or to determine consumer preferences and considerable disquiet about use by employers or government and about how their data would be stored and used. While also somewhat skeptical about new applications of neuroimaging, experts grossly underestimated how often neuroimaging had been used as evidence in court. Although both the public and the experts rated highly the importance of a better informed public in limiting the inappropriate uses to which neuroimaging might be put, opinions differed on the need for, and mechanism of, actual regulation. Neuroscientists recognized the risks of inaccurate reporting of neuroimaging capabilities in the media but showed little motivation to engage with the public. The present study also emphasizes the need for better frameworks for scientific engagement with media and public education.

  14. Mindfulness as a Path of Women's Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja FURLAN ŠTANTE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings together social mindfulness as a path of empowerment for women within its concept of the interrelatedness of all beings in the web of life. The paradigm of social mindfulness is thus established as the foundation of feminist spirituality. The focus of this work is on the possibility of applying the ethics of mindfulness as a paradigm to interpersonal interrelatedness. The relations among humans, nature, reason and emotion in self-development are confronted with the paradigm of mindfulness. This paper carries out a theoretical analysis of the possibility of integrating the paradigm of mindfulness with the paradigm of feminist spirituality. In this view, the paradigm shift toward integrating spiritual and social justice and ecological balance is examined. It also examines possibility of transformation of negative gender stereotypes with the help of mindfulness, loving kindness, compassion and ethics. From this point of view, the application of mindfulness in education (especially childhood, primary and secondary schools is considered.

  15. The dialogically extended mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Gangopadhyay, Nivedita; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A growing conceptual and empirical literature is advancing the idea that language extends our cognitive skills. One of the most influential positions holds that language – qua material symbols – facilitates individual thought processes by virtue of its material properties. Extending upon this model......, we argue that language enhances our cognitive capabilities in a much more radical way: The skilful engagement of public material symbols facilitates evolutionarily unprecedented modes of collective perception, action and reasoning (interpersonal synergies) creating dialogically extended minds. We...... relate our approach to other ideas about collective minds and review a number of empirical studies to identify the mechanisms enabling the constitution of interpersonal cognitive systems....

  16. DIFFERENT SIDES OF THE SAME COIN: MIXED VIEWS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS EDUCATORS AND PRACTITIONER ABOUT PUBLIC RELATIONS EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    BİR, Çisil Sohodol

    2010-01-01

    Public relations education is a topic of seemingly perpetual importance and interest for practitioners and educators alike In recent years, numerous researches have surveyed both practitioners and educators to identify appropriate ways to strengthen public relations education to prepare students for practitioner’s role. According to these research results public relations educators and practitioners disagree about the priorities they assign to qualities and goals of public relations education...

  17. DIFFERENT SIDES OF THE SAME COIN: MIXED VIEWS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS EDUCATORS AND PRACTITIONER ABOUT PUBLIC RELATIONS EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    BİR, Çisil Sohodol

    2010-01-01

    Public relations education is a topic of seemingly perpetual importance and interest for practitioners and educators alike In recent years, numerous researches have surveyed both practitioners and educators to identify appropriate ways to strengthen public relations education to prepare students for practitioner’s role. According to these research results public relations educators and practitioners disagree about the priorities they assign to qualities and goals of public relations education...

  18. Mindfulness and bodily distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjorback, Lone Overby

    2012-11-01

    We have created a mindfulness approach to treat patients who experience multiple, persistent, and disabling physical symptoms that cannot be explained by a well-defined medical or surgical condition. Randomized controlled trials in this area are few, and research is hampered by the lack of clear definitions. Bodily distress syndrome (BDS) or bodily stress is an empirically defined definition unifying various conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and somatization disorder. In the present PhD, we explored whether patients suffering from BDS may be committed to mental training in the form of mindfulness therapy, which is a mindfulness program specifically targeted patients suffering from BDS. The theoretical model for including mindfulness training in the treatment of BDS is based on identified neurobiological impairments in these patients and the neurobiological improvements that mindfulness training may offer. BDS is a major public health issue possibly associated with the pathology of the immuno-endocrine and autonomic nervous system. BDS patients are often stigmatized, and effective treatment is rarely delivered, which leaves these patients isolated, left by themselves, vulnerable to potentially harming medical and/or alternative treatments. Accordingly, there is a need for non-harming practical tools that patients can learn to master so that they can improve the ability to take responsibility for their own health and wellbeing. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group program that employs mindfulness practice to alleviate suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic, and psychiatric disorders. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is designed to prevent depressive relapse. Paper I and II present systematic literature reviews only of randomized controlled trials on MBSR and MBCT. The effect of MBSR has been explored on fibromyalgia in three studies, none of them showed convincing results, but gave some indications as to

  19. Reduced street lighting at night and health: A rapid appraisal of public views in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Green, J.; Perkins, C.; Steinbach, R; P. Edwards

    2015-01-01

    Financial and carbon reduction incentives have prompted many local authorities to reduce street lighting at night. Debate on the public health implications has centred on road accidents, fear of crime and putative health gains from reduced exposure to artificial light. However, little is known about public views of the relationship between reduced street lighting and health. We undertook a rapid appraisal in eight areas of England and Wales using ethnographic data, a household survey and docu...

  20. Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Lacko, S.; Brohan, E.; Mojtabai, R.; Thornicroft, G

    2012-01-01

    Background. Little is known about how the views of the public are related to self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Despite increasing activity aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, there is little evidence to guide and inform specific anti-stigma campaign development and messages to be used in mass campaigns. A better understanding of the association between public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours and the internalization of stigma among people with mental health problems...

  1. Reaching "an audience that you would never dream of speaking to": influential public health researchers' views on the role of news media in influencing policy and public understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; Haynes, Abby; Derrick, Gemma; Sturk, Heidi; Hall, Wayne D; St George, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    While governments and academic institutions urge researchers to engage with news media, traditional academic values of public disengagement have inhibited many from giving high priority to media activity. In this interview-based study, the authors report on the views about news media engagement and strategies used by 36 peer-voted leading Australian public health researchers in 6 fields. The authors consider their views about the role and importance of media in influencing policy, their reflections on effective or ineffective media communicators, and strategies used by these researchers about how to best retain their credibility and influence while engaging with the news media. A willingness and capacity to engage with the mass media was seen as an essential attribute of influential public health researchers.

  2. A community pharmacy-based cardiovascular screening service: views of service users and the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julia; Krska, Janet; Mackridge, Adam

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether pharmacy-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) screening reached the desired population, the local population's awareness of pharmacy screening and the views of service users and the general public about CVD screening. Pharmacy staff, located in one English Primary Care Trust providing a CVD screening service, issued questionnaires to service users who had undergone screening. Face-to-face street surveys were conducted with members of the general public within the vicinity of each participating pharmacy. A total of 259 people were screened within the first 6 months of service provision, 97 of whom (37.4%) completed the evaluation questionnaire. In addition, 261 non-service users participated in street surveys. Most respondents among both service users and non-users had at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including smoking and lack of exercise. Responses to statements regarding CVD screening showed a high level of agreement with the need for screening in both groups. However, significantly more service users (90.7%) agreed that a pharmacy was a good place for screening compared to the non-users (77.4%; P service users agreed that screening should be only carried out by doctors (10.3 compared to 25.3% of non-users; P service users 96 (99.7%) had a positive experience of the screening service, agreeing that they were given enough time and pharmacists made them feel at ease. Only 9% of non-users were aware of the pharmacy service and, although the majority (78.4%) were willing to be screened at a pharmacy, this was significantly lower among males than females (69.9 compared to 82.7%; P service and by addressing concerns about privacy and confidentiality in promotional activities. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. The relationship between (stigmatizing) views and lay public preferences regarding tuberculosis treatment in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immune virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) stigmas affect public attitudes toward TB treatment and policy. This study examined 'stigmatizing' ideas and the view that 'TB patients should line-up in the chronic illness queue' in rela

  4. The Adoption of Internal Audit as a Governance Control Mechanism in Australian Public Universities--Views from the CEOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and the views of university chief executive officers (CEOs) to examine the extent to which internal auditing as a control mechanism is adopted in Australian public universities under an environment of change management. The findings highlight negative consequences of change and their…

  5. The relationship between (stigmatizing) views and lay public preferences regarding tuberculosis treatment in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immune virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) stigmas affect public attitudes toward TB treatment and policy. This study examined 'stigmatizing' ideas and the view that 'TB patients should line-up in the chronic illness queue' in

  6. The Adoption of Internal Audit as a Governance Control Mechanism in Australian Public Universities--Views from the CEOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and the views of university chief executive officers (CEOs) to examine the extent to which internal auditing as a control mechanism is adopted in Australian public universities under an environment of change management. The findings highlight negative consequences of change and their…

  7. Comparison of pharmacist and public views and experiences of community pharmacy medicines-related services in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers RM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruth M Rodgers, Shivaun M Gammie, Ruey Leng Loo, Sarah A Corlett, Janet Krska Medway School of Pharmacy, The Universities of Greenwich and Kent, Chatham Maritime, UK Background: Services provided by community pharmacists designed to support people using medicines are increasing. In England, two national services exist: Medicine Use Reviews (MUR and New Medicines Service (NMS. Very few studies have been conducted seeking views of the public, rather than service users, on willingness to use these services or expectations of these services, or determined whether views align with pharmacist perceptions. Objective: To compare the perceptions of pharmacists and the general public on medicines-related services, particularly MUR and NMS services. Methods: Two parallel surveys were conducted in one area of England: one involved the general public and was administered using a street survey, and the other was a postal survey of community pharmacists. Similar questionnaires were used, seeking views of services, awareness, reasons for using services, and perceived benefits. Results: Response rates were 47.2% (1,000/2,012 approached for the public and 40.8% (341/836 for pharmacists. Few people had experienced a discussion in a private consultation room or were aware of the two formal services, although their willingness to use them was high. Pharmacists estimated time spent on service provision as 10 minutes for MUR and 12 minutes for NMS, which aligned with acceptability to both pharmacists and the public. Pharmacists underestimated the willingness of the public to wait for an informal discussion or to make appointments for formal services. Both pharmacists and the public had high expectations that services would be beneficial in terms of increasing knowledge and understanding, but public expectations and experiences of services helping to sort out problems fell well below pharmacists’ perceptions. People who had experienced a pharmacy service had

  8. Identifying like-minded audiences for global warming public engagement campaigns: an audience segmentation analysis and tool development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W Maibach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Achieving national reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will require public support for climate and energy policies and changes in population behaviors. Audience segmentation--a process of identifying coherent groups within a population--can be used to improve the effectiveness of public engagement campaigns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Fall 2008, we conducted a nationally representative survey of American adults (n = 2,164 to identify audience segments for global warming public engagement campaigns. By subjecting multiple measures of global warming beliefs, behaviors, policy preferences, and issue engagement to latent class analysis, we identified six distinct segments ranging in size from 7 to 33% of the population. These six segments formed a continuum, from a segment of people who were highly worried, involved and supportive of policy responses (18%, to a segment of people who were completely unconcerned and strongly opposed to policy responses (7%. Three of the segments (totaling 70% were to varying degrees concerned about global warming and supportive of policy responses, two (totaling 18% were unsupportive, and one was largely disengaged (12%, having paid little attention to the issue. Certain behaviors and policy preferences varied greatly across these audiences, while others did not. Using discriminant analysis, we subsequently developed 36-item and 15-item instruments that can be used to categorize respondents with 91% and 84% accuracy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In late 2008, Americans supported a broad range of policies and personal actions to reduce global warming, although there was wide variation among the six identified audiences. To enhance the impact of campaigns, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and businesses seeking to engage the public can selectively target one or more of these audiences rather than address an undifferentiated general population. Our screening instruments

  9. The public understanding of nanotechnology in the food domain: the hidden role of views on science, technology, and nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermoere, Frederic; Blanchemanche, Sandrine; Bieberstein, Andrea; Marette, Stephan; Roosen, Jutta

    2011-03-01

    In spite of great expectations about the potential of nanotechnology, this study shows that people are rather ambiguous and pessimistic about nanotechnology applications in the food domain. Our findings are drawn from a survey of public perceptions about nanotechnology food and nanotechnology food packaging (N = 752). Multinomial logistic regression analyses further reveal that knowledge about food risks and nanotechnology significantly influences people's views about nanotechnology food packaging. However, knowledge variables were unrelated to support for nanofood, suggesting that an increase in people's knowledge might not be sufficient to bridge the gap between the excitement some business leaders in the food sector have and the restraint of the public. Additionally, opposition to nanofood was not related to the use of heuristics but to trust in governmental agencies. Furthermore, the results indicate that public perceptions of nanoscience in the food domain significantly relate to views on science, technology, and nature.

  10. Mindfulness meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünenberg, Kristina; Walker, Hanne Kjærgaard; Knudsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    Meditation er ikke et nyt fænomen i det danske samfund. Det er den fokus som meditationsformen Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) har været genstand for i de senere år imidlertid. Inden for en sundhedssociologisk ramme undersøges nogle af grundene til, at netop MBSR er blevet populær både i...... en analyse af empirien, i hvilken forfatterne bl.a. argumenterer for, at opfattelsen af virkninger tilskrevet mindfulness meditation må ses i relation til to diskurser, som fremanalyseres og benævnes henholdsvis autenticitets- og e ektiviseringsdiskurserne. Disse diskurser udgør i artiklen...

  11. Efter mindfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Ole; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Tematiserer nogle af de udfordringer, der møder dig, som regelmæssigt praktiserer mindfulness og kommer med bud på, hvad bevidsthedens vaner og mønstre betyder for dybden af stilhed - og hvordan man kan arbejde med den viden.......Tematiserer nogle af de udfordringer, der møder dig, som regelmæssigt praktiserer mindfulness og kommer med bud på, hvad bevidsthedens vaner og mønstre betyder for dybden af stilhed - og hvordan man kan arbejde med den viden....

  12. Theory of mind and Verstehen (understanding) methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazaki, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    Theory of mind is a prominent, but highly controversial, field in psychology, psychiatry, and philosophy of mind. Simulation theory, theory-theory and other views have been presented in recent decades, none of which are monolithic. In this article, various views on theory of mind are reviewed, and methodological problems within each view are investigated. The relationship between simulation theory and Verstehen (understanding) methodology in traditional human sciences is an intriguing issue, although the latter is not a direct ancestor of the former. From that perspective, lessons for current clinical psychiatry are drawn.

  13. Understanding Second-Order Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    2.0 [ Artificial Intelligence ]: General—cognitive simula- tion; I.2.11 [ Artificial Intelligence ]: Distributed Artificial Intelligence — intelligent ...agents, coherence and coordination General Terms Theory Keywords theory of mind; human-robot teams 1. INTRODUCTION Theory of mind (ToM) is a critical...posit that that mechanism is simulation. Overall, robots with theory of mind are viewed as more natural and intelligent teammates to their human

  14. “怒观”、“治怒”与两种“不动心”*--儒学与斯多亚学派修身学的一个比较研究%Views of Anger Anger Control and Two Kinds of the Undisturbed Mind---A Comparative Study on Self-cultivation between Confucianism and Stoicism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立胜

    2014-01-01

    儒家区别义理之怒与血气之怒,前者需要培育,后者需要对治;斯多亚学派则视“怒”为“激情”,一切忿怒(包括义愤)均应克治。无论儒家抑或斯多亚学派之治怒均富有多重精神旨趣:既追求心灵宁静与“不动心”之境界,亦注重治怒之政治哲学之意味,而“关注当下”更是两者治怒背后的共同的“时间意识”。但儒家之不动心乃是一“热”的“不动心”,热情、平和、敏感是这种不动心的基本特征;斯多亚学派之不动心乃是一“冷”的“不动心”,冷静、理性、果断是这种不动心的基本特征。两种不动心背后折射出两种不同的真己、自我观。%Confucians make differences between the public anger and private one of which the former should be developed and the latter should be controlled whereas the Stoics looks all kinds of anger as passion which should be eliminated at all.There are multi-dimensional significances in the control/elimination of anger both in Confucianism and Stoicism such as pur-suing peace of mind and tranquility focusing on its meaning for political philosophy and achieving spiritual vigilance etc..But Confucian undis-turbed mind ( bu dong xin) is tender-minded whereas Stoic apathy is tough-minded which reflects the different views of the self.

  15. Making time for mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Laurie, J.; Blandford, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Digital mental wellbeing interventions are increasingly being used by the general public as well as within clinical treatment. Among these, mindfulness and meditation programs delivered through mobile device applications are gaining popularity. However, little is known about how people use and experience such applications and what are the enabling factors and barriers to effective use. To address this gap, the study reported here sought to understand how users adopt and experience ...

  16. Current views and practice of faculty members and consultants regarding ′Publications in India′: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S Kurdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: There is an increasing enthusiasm and pressure to submit scientific articles to journals for publication due to official policies. This has led to increased stress on authors and editors and in issues like plagiarism. We planned a cross-sectional study with an aim to explore the current publication related views and practice of faculty members and consultants. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire based prospective survey with 22 questions divided into parts. Print and electronic versions were sent to around 18,270 members in total, a majority of whom were anaesthesiologists and 600 members responded to our questionnaire. A database was created and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Results: About 80% felt that online journals were better read than print journals. Eighty eight percent agreed that publications improve academic skills. The Medical Council of India requirements to publish in reputed journals were cited as the main reasons for plagiarism. The publication rule had become a burden for 46% respondents. Review articles were most likely to be read though clinical investigations were considered to be of maximum academic significance. Review/publishing time followed by author requirements and journal indexing were the points our respondents liked to see most when choosing a journal for article submission. Conclusion: Our survey results depict the current author related views and trends in publication practice which may guide in evidence-based policy making.

  17. ViewSpace: A model for advancing public understanding of astronomical research through museum-based multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoke, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    The Office of Public Outreach (OPO) of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) has developed a unique multimedia presentation product that orchestrates images, digital video animations, music and interpretive text to provide a frequently-updated astronomy display suitable for mini-theater environments in museum-based exhibit galleries and planetarium lobbies (that may be, otherwise, seldom updated). "ViewSpace" utilizes the scientific expertise of STScI astronomers and puts Hubble discoveries into publically-accessible contexts. The program, which is offered at no charge to the museum and planetarium community in the United States, has been received with strong enthusiasm by the informal science education community. Future aspirations include higher-definition and immersive presentation formats, multi-lingual text display, an audible description track for the visually impaired, an associated interactive kiosk, and correlated education guides. Astronomers with interesting science stories to tell are invited to participate in the development of a ViewSpace segment.

  18. PHILOSOPHY OF MIND; THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE EMERGING VISION OF MIND-BRAIN INTERACTION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ruiz Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to contribute to the discussion of mind-brain interactions from an emergentism point of view of the Philosophy of Mind, using some of the naturalized theories. Some proposed bridges between mind and brain based on experimental naturalization are neuro-psychoanalysis, mirror neurons, and psychosomatics, among others. Naturalization can be achieved by earching for the link between psychological and biological processes. This biological-based approach can be developed avoiding mplification and reductionism of psychological processes. We discuss the access to new insights about the mind-brain relationship and its implications through neurophenomenology, from an emerging and interactionist point of view.

  19. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome): Views on the Administration’s Fiscal Year 1989 Public Health Service Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    police, and providers of allied health care, such as social workers, therapists , aides, and laboratory personnel. The report emphasized that a well- 1...million is also requested for bioethics and biosafety projects. Expert Views The state and local public health officials believe that patient care...million for AIDS services and drug treatment demonstration projects, $3 million for bioethics and biosafety (unchanged from the PHS budget request), and

  20. Legal rights during pandemics: federalism, rights and public health laws--a view from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B

    2009-03-01

    Pandemic influenza will cause significant social and economic disruption. Legal frameworks can play an important role in clarifying the rights and duties of individuals, communities and governments for times of crisis. In addressing legal frameworks, there is a need for jurisdictional clarity between different levels of government in responding to public health emergencies. Public health laws are also informed by our understandings of rights and responsibilities for individuals and communities, and the balancing of public health and public freedoms. Consideration of these issues is an essential part of planning for pandemic influenza.

  1. Modeling Minds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John

    others' minds. Then (2), in order to bring to light some possible justifications, as well as hazards and criticisms of the methodology of looking time tests, I will take a closer look at the concept of folk psychology and will focus on the idea that folk psychology involves using oneself as a model...... of other people in order to predict and understand their behavior. Finally (3), I will discuss the historical location and significance of the emergence of looking time tests...

  2. Making time for mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, James; Blandford, Ann

    2016-12-01

    Digital mental wellbeing interventions are increasingly being used by the general public as well as within clinical treatment. Among these, mindfulness and meditation programs delivered through mobile device applications are gaining popularity. However, little is known about how people use and experience such applications and what are the enabling factors and barriers to effective use. To address this gap, the study reported here sought to understand how users adopt and experience a popular mobile-based mindfulness intervention. A qualitative semi-structured interview study was carried out with 16 participants aged 25-38 (M=32.5) using the commercially popular mindfulness application Headspace for 30-40days. All participants were employed and living in a large UK city. The study design and interview schedule were informed by an autoethnography carried out by the first author for thirty days before the main study began. Results were interpreted in terms of the Reasoned Action Approach to understand behaviour change. The core concern of users was fitting the application into their busy lives. Use was also influenced by patterns in daily routines, on-going reflections about the consequences of using the app, perceived self-efficacy, emotion and mood states, personal relationships and social norms. Enabling factors for use included positive attitudes towards mindfulness and use of the app, realistic expectations and positive social influences. Barriers to use were found to be busy lifestyles, lack of routine, strong negative emotions and negative perceptions of mindfulness. Mobile wellbeing interventions should be designed with consideration of people's beliefs, affective states and lifestyles, and should be flexible to meet the needs of different users. Designers should incorporate features in the design of applications that manage expectations about use and that support users to fit app use into a busy lifestyle. The Reasoned Action Approach was found to be a useful

  3. Reduced street lighting at night and health: A rapid appraisal of public views in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Judith; Perkins, Chloe; Steinbach, Rebecca; Edwards, Phil

    2015-07-01

    Financial and carbon reduction incentives have prompted many local authorities to reduce street lighting at night. Debate on the public health implications has centred on road accidents, fear of crime and putative health gains from reduced exposure to artificial light. However, little is known about public views of the relationship between reduced street lighting and health. We undertook a rapid appraisal in eight areas of England and Wales using ethnographic data, a household survey and documentary sources. Public concern focused on road safety, fear of crime, mobility and seeing the night sky but, for the majority in areas with interventions, reductions went unnoticed. However, more private concerns tapped into deep-seated anxieties about darkness, modernity 'going backwards', and local governance. Pathways linking lighting reductions and health are mediated by place, expectations of how localities should be lit, and trust in local authorities to act in the best interests of local communities.

  4. A Double-Minded Fractal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a fun activity of generating a double-minded fractal image for a linear algebra class once the idea of rotation and scaling matrices are introduced. In particular the fractal flip-flops between two words, depending on the level at which the image is viewed. (Contains 5 figures.)

  5. The Contradictions of Public Sociology: A View from a Graduate Student at Berkeley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Reflecting on my experiences as a graduate student, I argue that the terminology of public sociology should be dropped. The public sociology rhetoric is at odds with the fundamental professional reality in the discipline. Sociology, as a "hyper-professionalized" endeavor, primarily values abstract, explanatory theories, even if those theories make…

  6. The Contradictions of Public Sociology: A View from a Graduate Student at Berkeley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Reflecting on my experiences as a graduate student, I argue that the terminology of public sociology should be dropped. The public sociology rhetoric is at odds with the fundamental professional reality in the discipline. Sociology, as a "hyper-professionalized" endeavor, primarily values abstract, explanatory theories, even if those theories make…

  7. A view of mathematics research productivity at U.S. regional public universities

    CERN Document Server

    Donnelly, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    Statistical summaries of certain kinds of mathematics research output are given for a large sample of U.S. regional public universities. These statistical summaries are reported using a variety of metrics that distinguish between single-authored and collaborative work and account for publication length.

  8. Vehicles for Education: Turkish Students' Beliefs and Views about Public Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Seymen, Hatice; Malandrakis, George; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of private rather than public transport is impacting on the environment in a number of ways, including contributing to the major problem of global warming. It is necessary, therefore, to improve strategies to encourage greater use of public transport. The aim of this study is to explore which perceived aspects of public…

  9. The Concept of Public Goods, the State, and Higher Education Finance: A View from the BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin; Froumin, Isak; Loyalka, Prashant K.; Tilak, Jandhyala B.

    2014-01-01

    Because higher education serves both public and private interests, the way it is conceived and financed is contested politically, appearing in different forms in different societies. What is public and private in education is a political--social construct, subject to various political forces, primarily interpreted through the prism of the state.…

  10. The emergence and workings of a process view in public education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk Pors, Justine; Ratner, Helene Gad

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a study of Danish primary education policy with the purpose of exploring what is put at stake when contemporary management discourses describe the object of management as fluid and emergent processes rather than as entities, persons and things. The article examines how...... such a process view of organisation allows policy makers to imagine innovative change, but also how a process view interacts in particular ways with financial pressures and become entangled to increased performance measurements. We conclude that in this particular case, a conception of the object of management...

  11. The Emergence and Workings of a Process View in Public Education Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Ratner, Helene

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a study of Danish primary education policy with the purpose of exploring what is put at stake when contemporary management discourses describe the object of management as fluid and emergent processes rather than as entities, persons and things. The article examines how...... such a process view of organisation allows policy makers to imagine innovative change, but also how a process view interacts in particular ways with financial pressures and become entangled to increased performance measurements. We conclude that in this particular case, a conception of the object of management...

  12. Introduction: Minds, Bodies, Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Coleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of 19 brings together a selection of essays from an interdisciplinary conference on 'Minds, Bodies, Machines' convened last year by Birkbeck's Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of London, in partnership with the English programme, University of Melbourne and software developers Constraint Technologies International (CTI. The conference explored the relationship between minds, bodies and machines in the long nineteenth century, with a view to understanding the history of our technology-driven, post-human visions. It is in the nineteenth century that the relationship between the human and the machine under post-industrial capitalism becomes a pervasive theme. From Blake on the mills of the mind by which we are enslaved, to Carlyle's and Arnold's denunciation of the machinery of modern life, from Dickens's sooty fictional locomotive Mr Pancks, who 'snorted and sniffed and puffed and blew, like a little labouring steam-engine', and 'shot out […]cinders of principles, as if it were done by mechanical revolvency', to the alienated historical body of the late-nineteenth-century factory worker under Taylorization, whose movements and gestures were timed, regulated and rationalised to maximize efficiency; we find a cultural preoccupation with the mechanisation of the nineteenth-century human body that uncannily resonates with modern dreams and anxieties around technologies of the human.

  13. The role of parents in public views of strategies to address childhood obesity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Gollust, Sarah E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-03-01

    POLICY POINTS: The American public--both men and women and those with and without children in the household--holds parents highly responsible and largely to blame for childhood obesity. High attributions of responsibility to parents for reducing childhood obesity did not universally undermine support for broader policy action. School-based obesity prevention policies were strongly supported, even among those viewing parents as mostly to blame for childhood obesity. Americans who viewed sectors outside the family (such as the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government) as helping address childhood obesity were more willing to support a wider range of population-based obesity prevention policies. The public's views of parents' behaviors and choices--and the attitudes held by parents themselves--are likely to influence the success of efforts to reverse obesity rates. We analyzed data from 2 US national public opinion surveys fielded in 2011 and 2012 to examine attributions of blame and responsibility to parents for obesity, both among the general public and parents themselves, and we also explored the relationship between views of parents and support for obesity prevention policies. We found that attribution of blame and responsibility to parents was consistently high, regardless of parental status or gender. Support for policies to curb childhood obesity also did not differ notably by parental status or gender. Multivariable analyses revealed consistent patterns in the association between public attitudes toward parents' responsibility and support for policies to curb childhood obesity. High parental responsibility was linked to higher support for school-targeted policies but generally was not associated with policies outside the school setting. Attribution of greater responsibility to entities external to children and their parents (schools, the food and beverage industry, and the government) was associated with greater support for both school

  14. Public Policy to Promote Healthy Nutrition in Schools: Views of Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Mat; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify policy options to support nutrition promotion in New Zealand primary schools. In achieving this aim, the study sought to identify framing by policymakers regarding child diet and obesity; views on the role of schools in nutrition promotion; policy options and degree of support for these options. Issue…

  15. Public Policy to Promote Healthy Nutrition in Schools: Views of Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Mat; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify policy options to support nutrition promotion in New Zealand primary schools. In achieving this aim, the study sought to identify framing by policymakers regarding child diet and obesity; views on the role of schools in nutrition promotion; policy options and degree of support for these options. Issue…

  16. Alice Moyer (1898-1980): A Woman Public School Teacher Views Progressive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Linda C.; Reeves, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Given the difficult of defining and comprehending progressive education (and in view of recent scholars' belief that the movement should be understood in context), this article seeks to shed light on progressive education through a historical case study. The subject is Alice Moyer (1898- 1980), a member of an under-researched group in the study of…

  17. The views of scientific experts on how the public conceptualize uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Hunt, S.; Brennan, M.; Kuznesof, S.; Ness, M.; Ritson, C.

    2003-01-01

    Scientific experts (drawn from scientific institutions, universities, industry, and government) were interviewed about how they thought the general public might handle information about uncertainty associated with risk analysis. It was found that, for many people within the scientific community, the

  18. The Lifetime Earnings Premium in the Public Sector: The View from Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, Matt; Postel-Vinay, Fabien; Turon, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    In a context of widespread concern about budget deficits, it is important to assess whether public sector pay is in line with the private sector. Our paper proposes an estimation of differences in lifetime values of employment between public and private sectors for five European countries. We use data from the European Community Household Panel over the period 1994-2001 for Germany, the Netherlands, France, Italy and Spain. We look at lifetime values instead of wage levels because, as we show...

  19. Public Views on Food Addiction and Obesity: Implications for Policy and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia M Lee; Jayne Lucke; Wayne D Hall; Carla Meurk; Boyle, Frances M; Adrian Carter

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to their advocates, neurobiological explanations of overeating, or "food addiction", have the potential to impact public understanding and treatment of obesity. In this study, we examine the public's acceptance of the concept of food addiction as an explanation of overeating and assess its effects upon their attitudes toward obese persons and the treatment of obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an online survey of 479 adults from the US (n = 215) and Australia (n...

  20. Fair Shares and Sharing Fairly: A Survey of Public Views on Open Science, Informed Consent and Participatory Research in Biobanking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Joly

    Full Text Available Biobanks are important resources which enable large-scale genomic research with human samples and data, raising significant ethical concerns about how participants' information is managed and shared. Three previous studies of the Canadian public's opinion about these topics have been conducted. Building on those results, an online survey representing the first study of public perceptions about biobanking spanning all Canadian provinces was conducted. Specifically, this study examined qualitative views about biobank objectives, governance structure, control and ownership of samples and data, benefit sharing, consent practices and data sharing norms, as well as additional questions and ethical concerns expressed by the public.Over half the respondents preferred to give a one-time general consent for the future sharing of their samples among researchers. Most expressed willingness for their data to be shared with the international scientific community rather than used by one or more Canadian institutions. Whereas more respondents indicated a preference for one-time general consent than any other model of consent, they constituted less than half of the total responses, revealing a lack of consensus among survey respondents regarding this question. Respondents identified biobank objectives, governance structure and accountability as the most important information to provide participants. Respondents' concerns about biobanking generally centred around the control and ownership of biological samples and data, especially with respect to potential misuse by insurers, the government and other third parties. Although almost half the respondents suggested that these should be managed by the researchers' institutions, results indicate that the public is interested in being well-informed about these projects and suggest the importance of increased involvement from participants. In conclusion, the study discusses the viability of several proposed models for

  1. Resource-based View as a Perspective for Public Tourism Management Research: Evidence from Two Brazilian Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Shizue Massukado-Nakatani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study adopted the Resource-Based View approach to analyse two public organizations located in Curitiba and Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil. The focus was to verify how organizational and tourist resources are being used for planning and public management in these cities. Data collection was made by adopting semi-structured interviews with two groups: public and private sector managers. The insights of these two groups and the use of documentary secondary data made it possible to infer that the main resource for the implementation of public policies was organizational architecture. However, the most influential resource in public tourism management is the existence of tourist resources and organizational resources related to internal and external relationships and organizational culture. The analysis demonstrated that the researched cities do not use or do not know how to use the available resources in value-creating activities for local tourist management. Both cities present imperfections that do not earmark the full exploitation of organizational resources, compromising the exploration of available tourist resources.

  2. Analysis and Research on Building the Body and Mind Harmonious Sports View——Humanities sports view and biological sports view don't need to oppose%对构建身心和谐体育观的解析与思考——无需对立的人文体育观和生物体育观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫华; 闫晓彤; 赵超君; 杜颖

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the tendency to opposing the humanities sports view and the biological sports view,this paper analyzed its negative influence on the school sports development.Based on the thought that people are the unification of biology,mentality and sociality,sports promote the harmonious unification of human's biology and mentality,school sport is the unification of tool and humanity,the author thinks that humanity sports view and biological sports view should not oppose.In order to build the body and mind harmonious sports view,we should restore the body's status in physical exercises.%针对当前人文体育观和生物体育观二元对立的倾向,分析了其给学校体育发展带来的不利影响。基于人是生物性、精神性和社会性的统一,体育促进人类生物性和精神性的和谐统一,学校体育是工具性和人文性的统一,认为人文体育观和生物体育观无需对立,构建身心和谐的体育观需要还原"身体"在体育活动中应有的地位。

  3. Trust, Risk and Public History: A View from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Gardner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the public history and museum communities today there is much difference of opinion over the concept of ‘radical trust,’ which basically argues for us to give up control and trust the public to develop content for our websites and exhibitions and provide direction for our work. Most public historians and curators are happy to share authority with the public, but are we now expected to yield all authority? Are we now taking historian Carl Becker’s well-known phrase ‘everyman his own historian’ and updating it to ‘every person his or her own curator’? What is the role of historical knowledge in a world of opinion? Unfortunately, at the same time that many of us are embracing risk online, in a world we have little control or even influence over, we seem to be stepping back from risk taking in our museums, on our own turf. We’ve become risk averse—afraid to make mistakes, afraid of trying new approaches and tackling the historically controversial or the ambiguous. Rather than the ‘safe place for unsafe ideas’ that Elaine Gurian proposed, we have become no more than safe places for safe ideas. We need to push back on both fronts. Public historians should be thought leaders, not followers—not wait to see what the future holds for us but rather try to shape that future.

  4. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...

  5. School-Based Management: Views from Public and Private Elementary School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary T. Apodaca-Tucker

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the principal questionnaire contained in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K database regarding the extent to which school-based management was reported as having been implemented differently by public and by private elementary school principals. Statistical analyses indicated many differences in the degree of influence reported to be present on the part of principals, parents, and other groups on important decisions made at schools. Differences in school-based management between our public and private elementary school principals were linked to the extant literature. Moreover, recommendations for further research were discussed.

  6. Urban Water Supply Industry Marketization of China in View of Public Water Service and Water Resource Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yining

    2010-01-01

    Started with the discussions on the value orientation of urban water supply industry marketization,the article points out that the current urban water supply industry marketization reform is inconsistent with the goal of public water service equalization to some extent.The article also analyzes the problems emerged in urban water supply industry marketization reform and various reasons in view of efficiency and fairness.An efficiency and fairness oriented management model is built in this article to illustrate how the government should conciliate interests of various communities involved in the process of marketization reform of the urban water supply industry so as to actualize the coordination of efficiency and fairness.At the end,an assumption on urban water price is put forward to help achieve the public water service equalization.

  7. Insights of Chinese Character "Touch" Charm from the Mind View%从物象思维中感悟汉字的“触觉”魅力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汀

    2012-01-01

    It analyzed the construction principle of Chinese character and the real meaning of human culture.In the view of mind views to find Chinese character "touch",the feasibility of "real" character in Chinese character design was further investigated.In addition,it studied the close relationship between Chinese character construction,natural environments and human culture and happy life,in purpose of leading more Chinese characters to have feasibility and "touch".%分析了汉字的构字原理与人文内涵的实质意义,从物象思维中发现汉字的"可触性"为切入点,进而分析了汉字在"实体"创意设计中的汉字造型设计的可行性。并论述了汉字造型与自然环境、人文因素以及快乐生活之间存在着不可分割的密切联系,目的是让更多的汉字具备设计活性与"可触性"。

  8. Fair Shares and Sharing Fairly: A Survey of Public Views on Open Science, Informed Consent and Participatory Research in Biobanking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Yann; Dalpé, Gratien; So, Derek; Birko, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Context Biobanks are important resources which enable large-scale genomic research with human samples and data, raising significant ethical concerns about how participants’ information is managed and shared. Three previous studies of the Canadian public’s opinion about these topics have been conducted. Building on those results, an online survey representing the first study of public perceptions about biobanking spanning all Canadian provinces was conducted. Specifically, this study examined qualitative views about biobank objectives, governance structure, control and ownership of samples and data, benefit sharing, consent practices and data sharing norms, as well as additional questions and ethical concerns expressed by the public. Results Over half the respondents preferred to give a one-time general consent for the future sharing of their samples among researchers. Most expressed willingness for their data to be shared with the international scientific community rather than used by one or more Canadian institutions. Whereas more respondents indicated a preference for one-time general consent than any other model of consent, they constituted less than half of the total responses, revealing a lack of consensus among survey respondents regarding this question. Respondents identified biobank objectives, governance structure and accountability as the most important information to provide participants. Respondents’ concerns about biobanking generally centred around the control and ownership of biological samples and data, especially with respect to potential misuse by insurers, the government and other third parties. Although almost half the respondents suggested that these should be managed by the researchers’ institutions, results indicate that the public is interested in being well-informed about these projects and suggest the importance of increased involvement from participants. In conclusion, the study discusses the viability of several proposed models

  9. Are children's views of the "enemy" shaped by a highly-publicized negative event?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenheimer, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the beginning of the first decade of this century, some highly-publicized extremistic acts of terror occurred. A hostage tragedy in a school in Beslan (North Ossetia) was followed in the Netherlands by the brutal murder of the controversial Dutch filmmaker and newspaper columnist Theo van Gogh, b

  10. Environment and Health: view from the prespective of public health management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Martín Moreno

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the environment on health is an area of primary interest for Public Health. Operationally speaking, the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs’ environmental health competencies fall within the framework of the action incumbent upon the Directorate General of Public Health (DGSP. This article contains a summarised review of some of the main environmental hazards and their effect on health, with reference to the role of the DGSP in these respects. The discussion covers aspects such as air pollution, chemical safety, sanitary control of water, radiological protection for patients, very low frequency magnetic fields, exposure to radio frequencies (mobile telephony and the crises caused by recent environment-related events. Environmental health policies at the European and international scale and institutional co-ordination in Spain in this regard are also briefly analysed. Subjects concerning hazard management and the precautionary principle are likewise explored. Finally, certain lines of the “Public Health co-operation and harmonisation plan in Spain”, intended to articulate action taken by the various levels of government in this area, are previewed. This plan is designed to seek ways to co-ordinate epidemiological, disease prevention and health protection information systems, taking a comprehensive approach to Public Health in close co-ordination not only with regional and local governments, but also with social agents, scientific societies and professional associations.

  11. Multiple Choice: How Public School Leaders in New Orleans' Saturated Market View Private School Competitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Huriya; Li, Dongmei M.

    2016-01-01

    School choice policies, such as charter schools and vouchers, are in part designed to induce competition between schools. While several studies have examined the impact of private school competition on public schools, few studies have explored school leaders' perceptions of private school competitors. This study examines the extent to which public…

  12. Education for Public Policy and Management: Views from the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); J.W. Björkman (James Warner); V. Moharir (Vasant); M.E. Wuyts (Marc)

    2000-01-01

    markdownabstractIntroduction When the Institute of Social Studies, ISS, was founded in 1952 in The Hague as a postgraduate centre for teaching and research on social and economic development, it established the first Masters programme in public administration and the first professorial chair in th

  13. Education for Public Policy and Management: Views from the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); J.W. Björkman (James Warner); V. Moharir (Vasant); M.E. Wuyts (Marc)

    2000-01-01

    markdownabstractIntroduction When the Institute of Social Studies, ISS, was founded in 1952 in The Hague as a postgraduate centre for teaching and research on social and economic development, it established the first Masters programme in public administration and the first professorial chair in

  14. An Insider's View of the Role of Science and Scientists in Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    In many ways, advances in fusion energy sciences and the amount of federal funding received are a case study of how the perception of a scientific endeavor can have a greater influence than actual scientific advances. Clearly, outreach by scientists to both legislators and the general public has a critical role in modifying this perception. This might include presenting current research results to the general public, advising an elected official on a piece of legislation, arguing for an increase in science funding, and more. As a new member of the NJ General Assembly, and as the first physicist ever elected to the NJ Legislature, I have had an opportunity to witness first hand how non-scientists judge science funding, scientists, and scientific advances. As expected, this can be based upon a lack of understanding of how science is conducted rather than results. There is no doubt that there is a clear need for scientists as policy advisors at all levels of government. I will discuss the importance of crosspollination between science and public policy and my experiences during my first year in public office, including my work to create a science fellowship similar to the APS/AAAS Congressional fellowship in the NJ Statehouse.

  15. Washington View: Not a Snapshot of Public Opinion but an Album

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The columnist weighs in on the most recent PDK/Gallup poll. The real value of the poll, the author says, comes from looking at each response and then thinking about the connective tissue between and among them. The poll's 47-year history adds yet another layer of rich context. Uniquely, the poll provides not a snapshot of public opinion, rather an…

  16. Public views on food addiction and obesity: implications for policy and treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to their advocates, neurobiological explanations of overeating, or "food addiction", have the potential to impact public understanding and treatment of obesity. In this study, we examine the public's acceptance of the concept of food addiction as an explanation of overeating and assess its effects upon their attitudes toward obese persons and the treatment of obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an online survey of 479 adults from the US (n = 215 and Australia (n = 264. There was substantial support for the idea of food addiction, particularly among obese participants. Over half favoured treating obesity as a type of addiction. Psychotherapy was believed to be the most effective treatment and educational and support programs were the preferred policies to address food addiction. There was very little support for increasing taxes on obesogenic foods. Despite the strong support for seeing obesity as a form of addiction, respondents still saw obesity as primarily the result of personal choices and emphasized the need for individuals to take responsibility for their eating. CONCLUSIONS: Our sample of the general public strongly supported the idea of obesity as a form of food addiction; but this did not translate into support of clinical and public health policies that experts believe are most likely to reduce the prevalence of obesity. The reasons for the apparent disjunction between support for food addiction and a strong emphasis on personal choice for weight warrant further examination.

  17. Education for Public Policy and Management: Views from the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); J.W. Björkman (James Warner); V. Moharir (Vasant); M.E. Wuyts (Marc)

    2000-01-01

    markdownabstractIntroduction When the Institute of Social Studies, ISS, was founded in 1952 in The Hague as a postgraduate centre for teaching and research on social and economic development, it established the first Masters programme in public administration and the first professorial chair in th

  18. A Developmental Perspective for Promoting Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Carol; Robinson, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Social neuroscience research has resulted in changing views of the theory of mind (ToM) construct. Theory of mind is no longer viewed as a unitary construct, but rather as a multidimensional construct comprising cognitive and affective ToM and interpersonal and intrapersonal ToM, each of which has differing neurophysiological/neuroanatomical…

  19. Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, S; Brohan, E; Mojtabai, R; Thornicroft, G

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about how the views of the public are related to self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Despite increasing activity aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, there is little evidence to guide and inform specific anti-stigma campaign development and messages to be used in mass campaigns. A better understanding of the association between public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours and the internalization of stigma among people with mental health problems is needed. This study links two large, international datasets to explore the association between public stigma in 14 European countries (Eurobarometer survey) and individual reports of self-stigma, perceived discrimination and empowerment among persons with mental illness (n=1835) residing in those countries [the Global Alliance of Mental Illness Advocacy Networks (GAMIAN) study]. Individuals with mental illness living in countries with less stigmatizing attitudes, higher rates of help-seeking and treatment utilization and better perceived access to information had lower rates of self-stigma and perceived discrimination and those living in countries where the public felt more comfortable talking to people with mental illness had less self-stigma and felt more empowered. Targeting the general public through mass anti-stigma interventions may lead to a virtuous cycle by disrupting the negative feedback engendered by public stigma, thereby reducing self-stigma among people with mental health problems. A combined approach involving knowledge, attitudes and behaviour is needed; mass interventions that facilitate disclosure and positive social contact may be the most effective. Improving availability of information about mental health issues and facilitating access to care and help-seeking also show promise with regard to stigma.

  20. Squeeze Play 2009: The Public's Views on College Costs Today--Public Agenda and the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerwahr, John; Johnson, Jean

    2012-01-01

    For increasing numbers of Americans, a crucial facet of the American Dream appears to be at risk. A solid majority consider a college degree an indispensable ticket to the middle class. At the same time, even more people believe college is financially out-of-reach for many qualified students. This is the message from new public opinion research by…

  1. The Struggle of African American Students in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubenga, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…

  2. Management of public services’ attributes in the view of the consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes a study on the relevance of the basic attributes, according to consumers, of public services supply in Focșani, using the results of practical – theoretical research done with Serqual model. It is extremely important that in the case of supplying public services of general economic interest, the institutions should understand the consumers’ desires and should make sure that supplying these services in the limits considered to be normal improves the consumers’ perception. The importance of services’ quality satisfies or not the citizen, satisfaction which is based on the identification and classification of attributes that help to a better understanding of perception, which will lead to the increase of users’ satisfaction.

  3. A View on ECHR Case law for Salary Policy in Romanian Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Tofan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As the economies of other countries in Western Europe, the Romania's economy went through a very difficult period because of the international financial crisis, with GDP falling by over 18%. In the situation of no longer being able to meet its payment obligations and under the pressures of international financial organizations, the Romanian government opted for the radical measure of cutting public sector wages by 25%. Faced with this unprecedented action of country administrative power representatives, the Romanian civil servants attacked this measure in national courts and after that, in front of the ECHR. This article presents the solutions of the Romanian courts, the European jurisprudence on lowering wages and its implications for public solutions Romanian legal systems.

  4. Publication bias in "Red, rank, and romance in women viewing men," by Elliot et al. (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2013-02-01

    Elliot et al. (2010) reported multiple experimental findings that the color red modified women's ratings of attractiveness, sexual desirability, and status of a photographed man. An analysis of the reported statistics of these studies indicates that the experiments lack sufficient power to support these claims. Given the power of the experiments, the probability that the observed 12 findings would all reject the null hypothesis is only .005. Thus, the proper interpretation of the findings is that the studies are contaminated with publication bias. Either some experiments with null findings were not reported or the reported experiments were run improperly in a way that inflated the likelihood of rejecting the null hypothesis. Because of the presence of publication bias, the findings in Elliot et al. (2010) should be considered nonscientific or anecdotal. It remains an open question whether the color red influences women's ratings of men's attributes. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Emily

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.

  6. Philosophy of science viewed through the lense of "References Publication Years spectrosopy" (RPYS)

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, K. Brad; Bornmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    We examine the sub-field of philosophy of science using a new method developed in information science, Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS). RPYS allows us to identify peak years in citations in a field, which promises to help scholars identify the key contributions to a field, and revolutionary discoveries in a field. We discovered that philosophy of science, a sub-field in the humanities, differs significantly from other fields examined with this method. Books play a more import...

  7. Rheumatology in India: a Bird's Eye View on Organization, Epidemiology, Training Programs and Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Agarwal, Vikas; Negi, Vir Singh

    2016-07-01

    India is home to the world's second largest population. Rheumatology is an emerging specialty in India. We reviewed organization, epidemiology and training facilities for Rheumatology in India. Also, we also looked at publications in the field of rheumatology from India from over the past six years using Scopus and Medline databases. Despite rheumatologic disorders affecting 6%-24% of the population, rheumatology in India is still in its infancy. Till recently, there were as few as two centers in the country training less than five fellows per year. However, acute shortage of specialists and increasing patient numbers led to heightened awareness regarding the need to train rheumatologists. Subsequently, six new centers have now started 3-year training programs in rheumatology. The epidemiology of rheumatic diseases in India is being actively studies under the Community Oriented Programme for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) initiative. The most number of publications on rheumatic diseases from India are on rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and osteoporosis, many of which have been widely cited. Major collaborators worldwide are USA, UK and France, whereas those from Asia are Japan, Saudi Arabia and Singapore. The Indian Rheumatology Association (IRA) is the national organization of rheumatologists. The flagship publication of the IRA, the Indian Journal of Rheumatology, is indexed in Scopus and Embase. To conclude, rheumatology in India is an actively expanding and productive field with significant contributions to world literature. There is a need to train more personnel in the subject in India.

  8. Beyond the therapeutic: A Habermasian view of self-help groups' place in the public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sarah; Avis, Mark; Munn-Giddings, Carol

    2013-02-01

    Self-help groups in the United Kingdom continue to grow in number and address virtually every conceivable health condition, but they remain the subject of very little theoretical analysis. The literature to date has predominantly focused on their therapeutic effects on individual members. And yet they are widely presumed to fulfil a broader civic role and to encourage democratic citizenship. The article uses Habermas' model of the public sphere as an analytical tool with which to reconsider the literature on self-help groups in order to increase our knowledge of their civic functions. In doing this it also aims to illustrate the continuing relevance of Habermas' work to our understanding of issues in health and social care. We consider, within the context of current health policies and practices, the extent to which self-help groups with a range of different forms and functions operate according to the principles of communicative rationality that Habermas deemed key to democratic legitimacy. We conclude that self-help groups' civic role is more complex than is usually presumed and that various factors including groups' leadership, organisational structure and links with public agencies can affect their efficacy within the public sphere.

  9. The relationship between (stigmatizing views and lay public preferences regarding tuberculosis treatment in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieboer Anna P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB and human immune virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS stigmas affect public attitudes toward TB treatment and policy. This study examined 'stigmatizing' ideas and the view that 'TB patients should line-up in the chronic illness queue' in relation to preferences and attitudes toward TB treatment. Methods Data were gathered through a survey administered to respondents from 1,020 households in Grahamstown. The survey measured stigmatization surrounding TB and HIV/AIDS, and determined perceptions of respondents whether TB patients should queue with other chronically ill patients. Respondents selected support and treatment options they felt would benefit TB patients. Statistical analysis identified the prevalence of TB and HIV/AIDS stigmas. Logistic regression analyses explored associations between stigmatizing ideas, views regarding TB patients in the chronic illness queue, and attitudes toward support and treatment. Results Respondents with TB stigmatizing ideas held positive attitudes toward volunteer support, special TB queues, and treatment at clinics; they held negative attitudes toward temporary disability grants, provision of information at work or school, and treatment at the TB hospital. Respondents who felt it beneficial for TB patients to queue with other chronically ill patients conversely held positive attitudes toward provision of porridge and disability grants, and treatment at the TB hospital; they held negative attitudes toward volunteer support, special TB queues, information provision at work or school, and treatment at clinics. Conclusion These results showed that two varying views related to visibility factors that expose patients to stigmatization (one characterized by TB stigma, the other by the view that TB patients should queue with other chronically ill patients are associated with opposing attitudes and preferences towards TB treatment. These opposing attitudes complicate

  10. Teenagers' view of violence and social tension in U.S. public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushinski, M

    1996-01-01

    Results of the latest in the MetLife series of annual surveys of the American teacher showed an encouraging decrease in the level of violence teenagers perceived in their public school. In 1996, 22 percent of 7th to 12th graders thought school violence had decreased during the previous year versus only 14 percent who expressed this belief in 1994. Nonetheless, social tensions are high and violence continues to be a problem in U.S. public schools. Almost half of the students (48 percent) indicated that only some, or hardly any, of their fellow students get along together. However, among students who feel that their teachers teach tolerance and/or who evaluate their education as being of high quality, more than 80 percent perceived positive race/ethnic/religious relations in their schools. Students in urban schools were the most likely to report problems such as gang violence, fights between students, threats or destructive acts or hostile/threatening remarks as being serious issues in their schools. In addition, almost 20 percent of students were at least somewhat fearful of being attacked in or around their schools; this fear was higher in urban (27 percent) than in nonurban schools (15 percent). Gang violence and turf battles were twice as often considered a serious problem by minority students than white.

  11. Managing United States public lands in response to climate change: a view from the ground up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenwood, Mikaela S; Dilling, Lisa; Milford, Jana B

    2012-05-01

    Federal land managers are faced with the task of balancing multiple uses and goals when making decisions about land use and the activities that occur on public lands. Though climate change is now well recognized by federal agencies and their local land and resource managers, it is not yet clear how issues related to climate change will be incorporated into on-the-ground decision making within the framework of multiple use objectives. We conducted a case study of a federal land management agency field office, the San Juan Public Lands Center in Durango, CO, U.S.A., to understand from their perspective how decisions are currently made, and how climate change and carbon management are being factored into decision making. We evaluated three major management sectors in which climate change or carbon management may intersect other use goals: forests, biofuels, and grazing. While land managers are aware of climate change and eager to understand more about how it might affect land resources, the incorporation of climate change considerations into everyday decision making is currently quite limited. Climate change is therefore on the radar screen, but remains a lower priority than other issues. To assist the office in making decisions that are based on sound scientific information, further research is needed into how management activities influence carbon storage and resilience of the landscape under climate change.

  12. IMPLEMENTING LAPAROSCOPY IN BRAZIL'S NATIONAL PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM: THE BARIATRIC SURGEONS' POINT OF VIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUSSENBACH, Samanta; SILVA, Everton N; PUFAL, Milene Amarante; ROSSONI, Carina; CASAGRANDE, Daniela Schaan; PADOIN, Alexandre Vontobel; MOTTIN, Cláudio Corá

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Brazilian National Public Health System (BNPHS) has presented advances regarding the treatment for obesity in the last years, there is a repressed demand for bariatric surgeries in the country. Despite favorable evidences to laparoscopy, the BNPHS only performs this procedure via laparotomy. Aim 1) Estimate whether bariatric surgeons would support the idea of incorporating laparoscopic surgery in the BNPHS; 2) If there would be an increase in the total number of surgeries performed; 3) As well as how BNPHS would redistribute both procedures. Methods A panel of bariatric surgeons was built. Two rounds to answer the structured Delphi questionnaire were performed. Results From the 45 bariatric surgeons recruited, 30 (66.7%) participated in the first round. For the second (the last) round, from the 30 surgeons who answered the first round, 22 (48.9%) answered the questionnaire. Considering the possibility that BNPHS incorporated laparoscopic surgery, 95% of surgeons were interested in performing it. Therefore, in case laparoscopic surgery was incorporated by the BNPHS there would be an average increase of 25% in the number of surgeries and they would be distributed as follows: 62.5% via laparoscopy and 37.5% via laparotomy. Conclusion 1) There was a preference by laparoscopy; 2) would increase the number of operations compared to the current model in which only the laparotomy is available to users of the public system; and 3) the distribution in relation to the type of procedure would be 62.5% and 37.5% for laparoscopy laparotomy. PMID:25409964

  13. What's fair is fair--or is it? Value differences underlying public views about social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, K A

    1987-07-01

    Individual differences in judgments of the fairness of various sociopolitical phenomena were examined in three surveys. Scales measuring two value dimensions thought to underlie the meaning of fairness were constructed, and survey respondents endorsing these different values were compared on their evaluation of the procedural and distributive fairness of political objects. Those endorsing the value of proportionality, hypothesized by equity theorists to underlie fairness judgments, judged equity-based public policies to be fairer than equality-based policies and judged that Ronald Reagan would be a fairer president than Walter Mondale. These people also emphasized the procedural aspects of government when judging government fairness. Respondents endorsing the value of egalitarianism, hypothesized by developmental theorists and some political philosophers to underlie fairness judgments, judged equality-based public policies to be fairer than equity-based policies and judged that Mondale would be a fairer president than Reagan. These people emphasized the distributive aspects of government when judging government fairness. Results support the naive moral philosopher image of the individual as judge of political objects (Tyler, 1984a). Political fairness judgments are ideological responses and are subject to the influence of the value structure of the judge (Tetlock, 1986).

  14. Mindfulness and Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    sessions, participants develop both formal and informal mindfulness practices. The formal practices draw from meditative traditions and from yoga , and...Body Scan; and, • Mindful movement [ Yoga ]. Several additions have been made by practitioners, including mindful self-inquiry, dialogue, and...traditions: cognitive psychology and Buddhist philosophy. Ellen Langer uses the word mindfulness to describe a healthy state of cognitive openness

  15. Social Workers as Civic-Minded Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Twill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined civic-mindedness among a sample of social work educators, community practitioners and new graduates. Using a web-based survey, researchers administered Hatcher’s (2008 Civic-Minded Professional scale. Results indicated that traditional and field faculty were more civic-minded than new graduates and other practitioners. Social work educators who focused on raising civic awareness in courses were more civic-minded than colleagues. New graduates who had participated in club service events were more civic-minded; however, there was no significant differences between groups based on number of community service courses completed. Social workers, whether faculty or not, who had participated in collaborative research were more civic-minded. The authors conclude that how social workers view their commitment to civic engagement has implications. Social workers need to be vigilant in our commitment to well-being in society. Intentional practices could be implemented to strengthen the partnership among groups.

  16. Public views of reclaiming an abandoned coal mine: the Macoupin County project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J. R.

    1980-07-01

    An abandoned underground coal mine waste area in Macoupin County, Illinois, has been reclaimed for demonstration and research purposes near the city of Staunton. According to federal law, end uses of reclaimed coal mines must be determined in part by local concerns. This study examined local residents' preferences for land uses and their social and economic evaluations of reclamation at the Macoupin County site. Personal interviews with 119 residents revealed preferences for recreational use of the demonstration area; however, responses were probably influenced by prior awareness of land-use intentions. Generally, very positive evaluations of the reclamation were received. Willingness to pay for reclamation appears to be linked to fulfillment of desired recreational uses on the site and socioeconomic status of the respondent. In general, the research results provide further evidence that the value of abatement of environmental damage from mining is recognized and supported in economic terms at the public level.

  17. OBJECTIVES, PERFORMANCES, RESULTS – VIEWS ON THEIR USE IN THE PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacanu Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the management associated with relatively common concepts: objective, result and performance (ORP. The study is important because in the Romania of the year 2011, a state reform is being planned, which will substantiate into the reorganization of public institutions, as the improvement of their activity is set forth by utilizing the set of tools associated with the aforementioned concepts. The study represents an analysis related to the use of the set of management tools associated with the aforementioned concepts within the Romanian public organizations. The study is concerned with a qualitative estimation involving the translation of the existing theory into the practice of the present moment. The review of the specialized literature is aimed at selecting the most common theoretical milestones, in order to increase the probability to retrieve them from the practice of the organizations. The works of Drucker represent the first theoretical system of reference. The way the ORP concepts have been utilized within the American organizations generate the guiding elements of the present study. The research presents a longitudinal segmentation, the frontier between the two parts being the present moment. The current state of facts is studied by means of an inductive approach. The hypothesis related to the ORP management in the near future is actually built on the grounds provided by the estimation of this state of facts. Its deductive approach starts from evaluating the pragmatic premises, involving the support of the process that will utilize the ORP in the near future, according to the theoretical percepts. The analysis is qualitative in nature. The identification of the cases that represented the exception was taken into account. The analysis focused on public institutions considered a priori as more transparent: the university, the hospital and the town hall. Even if in the case of the university there are regulations

  18. Philosophy of science viewed through the lense of "References Publication Years spectrosopy" (RPYS)

    CERN Document Server

    Wray, K Brad

    2014-01-01

    We examine the sub-field of philosophy of science using a new method developed in information science, Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS). RPYS allows us to identify peak years in citations in a field, which promises to help scholars identify the key contributions to a field, and revolutionary discoveries in a field. We discovered that philosophy of science, a sub-field in the humanities, differs significantly from other fields examined with this method. Books play a more important role in philosophy of science than in the sciences. Further, Einstein's famous 1905 papers created a citation peak in the philosophy of science literature. But rather than being a contribution to the philosophy of science, their importance lies in the fact that they are revolutionary contributions to physics with important implications for philosophy of science.

  19. [Management of tuberculosis (TB) cases from view points of public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Ken; Motomiya, Masakichi

    2011-08-01

    Tuberculosis control law was enacted in 1951 and has been the basis for the management of TB cases over the long post-war period. This law has legalized the use of public founds for the treatment of TB patients for the first time and has provided the authentic basis for mandatory hospitalization, routine health examination, vaccination, notification and registration of TB cases. However, this law was abrogated in 2001 and was joined to the comprehensive infectious diseases control law, in order to facilitate a prophylactic measure against TB infection and to protect human rights of TB patients. Concurrently the medical care system and the formalities connected to hospitalization treatment of TB patients were reviewed. The purpose of the present overview is to explain how TB cases are managed under the newly-enacted law.

  20. Engaging with Comparative Risk Appraisals: Public Views on Policy Priorities for Environmental Risk Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocks, Sophie A; Schubert, Iljana; Soane, Emma; Black, Edgar; Muckle, Rachel; Petts, Judith; Prpich, George; Pollard, Simon J

    2017-03-17

    Communicating the rationale for allocating resources to manage policy priorities and their risks is challenging. Here, we demonstrate that environmental risks have diverse attributes and locales in their effects that may drive disproportionate responses among citizens. When 2,065 survey participants deployed summary information and their own understanding to assess 12 policy-level environmental risks singularly, their assessment differed from a prior expert assessment. However, participants provided rankings similar to those of experts when these same 12 risks were considered as a group, allowing comparison between the different risks. Following this, when individuals were shown the prior expert assessment of this portfolio, they expressed a moderate level of confidence with the combined expert analysis. These are important findings for the comprehension of policy risks that may be subject to augmentation by climate change, their representation alongside other threats within national risk assessments, and interpretations of agency for public risk management by citizens and others.

  1. The Mind Grows Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahy, Rina

    2012-01-01

    There is a vast supply of prior art that study models for mental processes. Some studies in psychology and philosophy approach it from an inner perspective in terms of experiences and percepts. Others such as neurobiology or connectionist-machines approach it externally by viewing the mind as complex circuit of neurons where each neuron is a primitive binary circuit. In this paper, we also model the mind as a place where a circuit grows, starting as a collection of primitive components at birth and then builds up incrementally in a bottom up fashion. A new node is formed by a simple composition of prior nodes when we undergo a repeated experience that can be described by that composition. Unlike neural networks, however, these circuits take "concepts" or "percepts" as inputs and outputs. Thus the growing circuits can be likened to a growing collection of lambda expressions that are built on top of one another in an attempt to compress the sensory input as a heuristic to bound its Kolmogorov Complexity.

  2. Editors View the Continuous Publication Model as a Satisfactory Alternative for Open Access LIS Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hayman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Cirasella, J., & Bowdoin, S. (2013. Just roll with it? Rolling volumes vs. discrete issues in open access library and information science journals. Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication, 1(4. http://dx.doi.org/10.7710/2162-3309.1086 Abstract Objective – To understand the prevalence of, motivations for, and satisfaction with using a rolling-volume publishing model, as opposed to publishing discrete issues, across open access academic journals in library and information science. Design – A 12 question survey questionnaire. Setting – English-language, open access library and information science (LIS journals published in the United States of America. Subjects – A total of 21 open access LIS journals identified via the Directory of Open Access Journals that were actively publishing, and that also met the authors’ standard of scholarliness, which they established by identifying a journal’s peer-review process or other evidence of rigorous review. Based on responses, 12 journals published using discrete issues, while 9 published as rolling volumes or as rolling volumes with some discrete issues. Methods – In late 2011, the study’s authors invited lead editors or primary journal contacts to complete the survey. Survey participants were asked to identify whether their journal published in discrete issues, rolling volumes, or rolling volumes with occasional discrete issues, with the latter two categories combined as one for ease of results analysis. Survey logic split respondents into two groups, either discrete-issue or rolling-volume. Respondents in both categories were posed similar sets of questions, with the key difference being that the questions directed at each category accounted for the publication model the journals themselves identified as using. Editors from both groups were asked about the reasons for using the publication model they identified for their journal: within the survey tool, authors

  3. Disinfectants - bacterial cells interactions in the view of hygiene and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Książczyk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of biocides has increased rapidly. One common example is triclosan, with wide application in households as well as medical and industrial fields, especially food industry and animal husbandry. Chemical disinfection is a major mean to control and eliminate pathogenic bacteria, particularly those with multidrug resistance (MDR phenotype. However, exposition to biocides results in an adaptive response in microorganisms, causing them to display a wide range of resistance mechanisms. Numerous microorganisms are characterized by either natural resistance to chemical compounds or an ability to adapt to biocides using various strategies, such as: modification of cell surface structures (lipopolisaccharide, membrane fatty acids, over-expression of efflux pumps (a system for active transport of toxic compounds out of bacterial cell, enzymatic inactivation of biocides or altering biocide targets. For instance, it was shown that in vitro exposition of Salmonella Typhimurium to subinhibitory concentration of biocides (triclosan, quaternary ammonium compounds [QACs] resulted in selection of variants resistant to tested biocides and, additionally, to acridine dyes and antibiotics. Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus strains isolated from chlorine dioxide containing disinfection devices were found to be resistant to chlorine dioxide and also to other oxidizing compounds, such as peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Interaction between chemical compounds, including disinfectants and microbial cells, can create a serious threat to public health and sanitary-hygienic security. This phenomenon is connected with factor risk that intensify the probability of selection and dissemination of multidrug resistance among pathogenic bacteria.

  4. Top 10 health care ethics challenges facing the public: views of Toronto bioethicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Jennifer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous ethical challenges that can impact patients and families in the health care setting. This paper reports on the results of a study conducted with a panel of clinical bioethicists in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the purpose of which was to identify the top ethical challenges facing patients and their families in health care. A modified Delphi study was conducted with twelve clinical bioethicist members of the Clinical Ethics Group of the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics. The panel was asked the question, what do you think are the top ten ethical challenges that Canadians may face in health care? The panel was asked to rank the top ten ethical challenges throughout the Delphi process and consensus was reached after three rounds. Discussion The top challenge ranked by the group was disagreement between patients/families and health care professionals about treatment decisions. The second highest ranked challenge was waiting lists. The third ranked challenge was access to needed resources for the aged, chronically ill, and mentally ill. Summary Although many of the challenges listed by the panel have received significant public attention, there has been very little attention paid to the top ranked challenge. We propose several steps that can be taken to help address this key challenge.

  5. How does the general public view posthumous organ donation? A meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Joshua D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many individuals are unwilling to become posthumous organ donors, resulting in a disparity between the supply and demand for organ transplants. A meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature was therefore conducted to determine how the general public views posthumous organ donation. Methods Three online databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus were searched for articles published between January 1990 and May 2008 using the following search terms: organ donation, qualitative, interview. Eligibility criteria were: examination of beliefs about posthumous organ donation; utilization of a qualitative research design; and publication in an English peer-reviewed journal. Exclusion criteria were examining how health professionals or family members of organ donors viewed posthumous organ donation. Grounded theory was used to identify the beliefs emerging from this literature. Thematically-related beliefs were then grouped to form themes. Results 27 articles from 24 studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The major themes identified were: religion, death, altruism, personal relevance, the body, the family, medical professionals, and transplant recipients. An altruistic motivation to help others emerged as the most commonly identified motivator for becoming an organ donor, although feeling a sense of solidarity with the broader community and believing that donated organs are put to good use may be important preconditions for the emergence of this motivation. The two most commonly identified barriers were the need to maintain bodily integrity to safeguard progression into the afterlife and the unethical recovery of organs by medical professionals. The influence of stakeholder groups on willingness to become an organ donor was also found to vary by the level of control that each stakeholder group exerted over the donation recovery process and their perceived conflict of interest in wanting organ donation to proceed. Conclusions

  6. Patients' choice of payment system in the Swedish Public Dental Service--views on dental care and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Anna-Lena; Ahlström, Birgitta; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate new knowledge of considerations and factors having impacted the patients' choice of payment system and their views on oral health. Moreover, their later attitudes to the prepaid risk-related payment system, having been enrolled or not, were explored. A qualitative design was chosen and data was collected through semi-structured interviews.Twenty patients in the Public Dental Service (PDS) in western Sweden were strategically sampled with reference to gender, age (older/younger adults), residence (rural/urban), and choice of payment system:fee-for-service or capitation plan.The interview guide covered areas concerning the payment systems, patient considerations before choosing system, views of their own oral health and experiences of received dental care within the chosen system.The analysis was performed according to basic principles of qualitative content analysis. The results revealed two themes expressing the latent content. In the theme "The individual's relation to the PDS", expectations of the care, feelings of safety and aspects of responsibility emerged.The theme"Health-related attitudes and perceptions" revealed that views on health and self-assessment of oral health influenced the patients' considerations. Moreover, the perceived influence on oral health and risk thinking emerged as important factors in this theme. The conclusion was that the individual's relation to the PDS together with his/her health-related attitudes and perceptions were the main factors impacting the choice of payment system in the PDS. A health promotion perspective should be applied, empowering the patients to develop their risk awareness and their own resources.

  7. The simple view of reading in 4th grade grade students from a public school in Quito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sofía Zevallos Polo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simple view of reading is a model that tries to explain the reading comprehension from two variables which are decoding accuracy and oral language comprehension. There is an extensive research on this model in English readers. Although, some studies have been done in other languages with transparent orthographic systems, there are few investigations with Spanish readers. The purpose of this study has been to collect data on the applicability of the simple view of reading to Spanish reading comprehension, so 87 students of a public school from Quito were assessed with the PROLEC-R and CLP tests. The results show that join fluency or reading speed to the model may be more appropriate to explain the Spanish reading comprehension. Oral comprehension was the most related variable to the text reading comprehension; even thought decoding and reading speed made a small additional contribution. On the other hand, reading comprehension of sentences was only related in a significant way to decoding accuracy. These results show that the oral comprehension, the decoding accuracy and the decoding speed are essential in teaching and assessing reading.

  8. Bilingualism, Mind, and Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussias, Paola E.; Bice, Kinsey; Perrotti, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The use of two or more languages is common in most of the world. Yet, until recently, bilingualism was considered to be a complicating factor for language processing, cognition, and the brain. The past 20 years have witnessed an upsurge of research on bilingualism to examine language acquisition and processing, their cognitive and neural bases, and the consequences that bilingualism holds for cognition and the brain over the life span. Contrary to the view that bilingualism complicates the language system, this new research demonstrates that all of the languages that are known and used become part of the same language system. The interactions that arise when two languages are in play have consequences for the mind and the brain and, indeed, for language processing itself, but those consequences are not additive. Thus, bilingualism helps reveal the fundamental architecture and mechanisms of language processing that are otherwise hidden in monolingual speakers. PMID:28642932

  9. 从"高州模式"看公立医院改革与科学发展%Public Hospital Reform and Scientific Development in View of Gaozhou Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨善发; 周典; 江疆

    2011-01-01

    Public hospital reform is the key and difficult point of health reform, whose success depends on its own internal motive. Gaozhou Model shows that public hospitals should conscientiously be run by the view of scientific outlook on development and insist on the direction of developing both well and fast, the basic principle of putting people first, the basic requirements of all-round, coordinated and sustainable development and the fundamental approaches of making overall considerations. Only through doing medical workers conscientiously practice scientific outlook on development and showing their scientific outlook with their mind of the people's livelihood in their daily work can the success of public hospital reform be realized.%公立医院改革是医改的重点和难点,其成功的关键是医院自身必须具备内生动力."高州模式"的成功案例表明,公立医院改革应切实以科学发展观为根本指导,坚持"又好又快"的改革与发展方向,"以人为本"的基本原则,全面、协调和可持续的基本要求,统筹兼顾的基本方法.只有自觉践行科学发展观,以宽广的民生情怀彰显医务工作者的科学发展意识和"以人为本"的理念,公立医院改革与发展才有彻底成功的希望.

  10. The "extended mind" approach for a new paradigm of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, I would like to propose the idea of "extended mind" for a new paradigm of psychology. Kohler (Integrative Psychology & Behavioral Science 44:39-57, 2010) correctly pointed out the serious problems of the machine paradigm, and proposed the "organic" view as a new paradigm. But the term "organic" signifying the processes inside the body, is inadequate to express the characteristic of human mind. The recent philosophy of mind suggests that the mind is realized neither only in the brain nor only in the body, but in the whole system of brain-body-environment, namely, in the "extended mind". The characteristic of human mind resides in the interaction with the mediating tools, artifacts, and the humanized environment. We should propose an "extended mind approach" or an "ecological approach to humanized environment" as a new paradigm for a psychology.

  11. Mindfulness for psychosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chadwick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness treatments and research have burgeoned over the past decade. With psychosis, progress has been slow and likely held back by clinicians' belief that mindfulness may be harmful for this client group...

  12. Mind God's mind: History, development, and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, Andreas; Makris, Nikos; Pnevmatikos, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    We dispute the target article that belief in Big Gods facilitated development of large societies and suggest that the direction of causality might be inverted. We also suggest that plain theory of mind (ToM), although necessary, is not sufficient to conceive Big Gods. Grasp of other aspects of the mind is required. However, this theory is useful for the teaching of religion.

  13. Mindfulness starts with the body: somatosensory attention and top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Catherine E; Sacchet, Matthew D; Lazar, Sara W; Moore, Christopher I; Jones, Stephanie R

    2013-01-01

    Using a common set of mindfulness exercises, mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been shown to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness) practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we offer a novel view of ST-Mindfulness's somatic focus as a form of training for optimizing attentional modulation of 7-14 Hz alpha rhythms that play a key role in filtering inputs to primary sensory neocortex and organizing the flow of sensory information in the brain. In support of the framework, we describe our previous finding that ST-Mindfulness enhanced attentional regulation of alpha in primary somatosensory cortex (SI). The framework allows us to make several predictions. In chronic pain, we predict somatic attention in ST-Mindfulness "de-biases" alpha in SI, freeing up pain-focused attentional resources. In depression relapse, we predict ST-Mindfulness's somatic attention competes with internally focused rumination, as internally focused cognitive processes (including working memory) rely on alpha filtering of sensory input. Our computational model predicts ST-Mindfulness enhances top-down modulation of alpha by facilitating precise alterations in timing and efficacy of SI thalamocortical inputs. We conclude by considering how the framework aligns with Buddhist teachings that mindfulness starts with "mindfulness of the body." Translating this theory into neurophysiology, we hypothesize that with its somatic focus, mindfulness' top-down alpha rhythm modulation in SI enhances gain control which, in turn, sensitizes practitioners to better detect and regulate when the mind wanders from its somatic focus. This enhanced regulation of somatic mind-wandering may be an important early stage of mindfulness training that leads to enhanced cognitive regulation and metacognition.

  14. Fringe Mind Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sleutels

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a number of basic strategies for modeling the mind in historical perspective. The best-known strategies are expansionism and eliminativism, which are both problematic: eliminativism compromises our self-understanding, while expansionism is unable to cope with fringe minds. Using Julian Jaynes’s theory of the bicameral mind as an example, an alternative strategy is outlined to meet the challenges posed by the history of the mind.

  15. Is the Mind Real ?

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The mind as a whole escapes objective studies because belief in mind- independent reality is self-contradictory and by definition excludes subjective experience (awareness, 'consciousness') from reality. The mind's center therefore vanishes in studies which imply exclusive objectivism or empiricism. This conceptual difficulty can be counteracted by acknowledging that all mental and world structures arise within an unstructured origin- and-matrix for knowledge-structures and beliefs. The mind'...

  16. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  17. Public-Private Partnerships in Education and the Pursuit of Gender Equality: A View from South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Fennell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of public-private partnerships (PPPs into the educational sphere has opened up the sector to a wide range of new private providers in India and Pakistan. The global literature has indicated that the growth in partnerships that provide targeted programmes for girls, in locations where parents prefer to enrol their daughters in these new private schools rather than state schools, will further reduce any existing gender gap. A specific focus on gender equality considerations within PPP programmes is necessary to analyse new evidence on gender equality. A review of national documents on education for India and Pakistan indicates that the concept of gender equality was not included in the original education policy documents, and gender concerns were introduced through a particular institutional history of engagement between international and national policy interventions.District and village data show that there was very little gendered difference in how parental generations studied viewed the educational pathways of their sons and daughters. The younger generation studied are not confident that they will be able to enter gainful employment, which raises policy concerns that the lack of employment for this younger generation could undo any reduction in the gender gap as increased poverty pushes girls out of school in the next two decades.

  18. Advanced Mind-Reading in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnet, Koen S.; Roeyers, Herbert; Buysse, Ann; De Clercq, Armand; Van Der Heyden, Eva

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the mind-reading abilities of 19 adults with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adults. Two static mind-reading tests and a more naturalistic empathic accuracy task were used. In the empathic accuracy task, participants attempted to infer the thoughts and feelings of target persons, while viewing a videotape of…

  19. Wildlife-Based Recreation as Economic Windfall: A Rhetorical Analysis of Public Discourse on Birding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Steven G.; Cable, Ted T.; Scott, David

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic convergence theory posits that groups of like-minded people use linguistic symbols to construct a shared reality and form rhetorical visions (ways of viewing and communicating about an issue). To see how rhetorical visions might help shape public tourism policy, the authors used fantasy theme analysis to examine 206 Kansas newspaper…

  20. Quantum physics meets the philosophy of mind new essays on the mind-body relation in quantum-theoretical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Meixner, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics, unlike classical physics, suggests a non-physicalistic metaphysics. Whereas physicalism implies a reductive position in the philosophy of mind, quantum physics is compatible with non-reductionism, and actually seems to support it. The essays in this book explore, from various points of view, the possibilities of basing a non-reductive philosophy of mind on quantum physics.

  1. Mindfulness og mental sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness is a way to practice 'healthy mindedness' – a form of self help that has been the subject for research and development of a number of new significant self-technologies, therapy and meditation treatment methods. To be mindful can help people to feel more relaxed (serenity) and fully...... alive. The article aims at describing realistic expectations to the contribution of mindfulness to health education work in the field of mental health. The article discuss ways in which mindfulnesss is connected with established health education in the mental health promotion field, and ways in which...... mindfulness breaks with established health education. Interest in utilising mindfulness and mindfulness-inspired methods in health-education intervention has increased in recent years. Mindfulness is seen here as an answer to how to achieve more accepting presence, and thereby a healthier mental life...

  2. Mindfulness og mental sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness is a way to practice 'healthy mindedness' – a form of self help that has been the subject for research and development of a number of new significant self-technologies, therapy and meditation treatment methods. To be mindful can help people to feel more relaxed (serenity) and fully...... alive. The article aims at describing realistic expectations to the contribution of mindfulness to health education work in the field of mental health. The article discuss ways in which mindfulnesss is connected with established health education in the mental health promotion field, and ways in which...... mindfulness breaks with established health education. Interest in utilising mindfulness and mindfulness-inspired methods in health-education intervention has increased in recent years. Mindfulness is seen here as an answer to how to achieve more accepting presence, and thereby a healthier mental life...

  3. “Can It Read My Mind?” – What Do the Public and Experts Think of the Current (Mis)Uses of Neuroimaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, Joanna M.; O'Connell, Garret; Shuler, Kirsten; DeWilde, Janet; Haley, Jane; Escobar, Oliver; Murray, Shaun; Rae, Robert; Jarvie, Donald; Sandercock, Peter; Schafer, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    Emerging applications of neuroimaging outside medicine and science have received intense public exposure through the media. Media misrepresentations can create a gulf between public and scientific understanding of the capabilities of neuroimaging and raise false expectations. To determine the extent of this effect and determine public opinions on acceptable uses and the need for regulation, we designed an electronic survey to obtain anonymous opinions from as wide a range of members of the public and neuroimaging experts as possible. The surveys ran from 1st June to 30 September 2010, asked 10 and 21 questions, respectively, about uses of neuroimaging outside traditional medical diagnosis, data storage, science communication and potential methods of regulation. We analysed the responses using descriptive statistics; 660 individuals responded to the public and 303 individuals responded to the expert survey. We found evidence of public skepticism about the use of neuroimaging for applications such as lie detection or to determine consumer preferences and considerable disquiet about use by employers or government and about how their data would be stored and used. While also somewhat skeptical about new applications of neuroimaging, experts grossly underestimated how often neuroimaging had been used as evidence in court. Although both the public and the experts rated highly the importance of a better informed public in limiting the inappropriate uses to which neuroimaging might be put, opinions differed on the need for, and mechanism of, actual regulation. Neuroscientists recognized the risks of inaccurate reporting of neuroimaging capabilities in the media but showed little motivation to engage with the public. The present study also emphasizes the need for better frameworks for scientific engagement with media and public education. PMID:21991367

  4. How Is Theory of Mind Useful? Perhaps to Enable Social Pretend Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Rebecca A.; Smith, Eric D.; Lillard, Angeline S.

    2015-01-01

    It is often claimed that theory of mind is facilitated by pretend play. This perspective piece challenges that view, proposing instead that theory of mind might be useful for driving social pretend play, rather than the reverse. There is a fundamental similarity between pretend play and theory of mind. Pretend play involves projecting a different…

  5. How Is Theory of Mind Useful? Perhaps to Enable Social Pretend Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Rebecca A.; Smith, Eric D.; Lillard, Angeline S.

    2015-01-01

    It is often claimed that theory of mind is facilitated by pretend play. This perspective piece challenges that view, proposing instead that theory of mind might be useful for driving social pretend play, rather than the reverse. There is a fundamental similarity between pretend play and theory of mind. Pretend play involves projecting a different…

  6. Exploring lay views on physical activity and their implications for public health policy. A case study from East Belfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, L; Scott, D; Hunter, R; Donnelly, M; Tully, M A; Cupples, M E; Kee, F

    2014-08-01

    It is now recognised that inactive lifestyles underpin much of the disease burden evident in the richer nations of the world. Indeed, the WHO has identified physical inactivity as a 'global public health problem' and has established minimum physical activity (PA) targets for people at different stages of the life-course. Yet, according to WHO, just under 1/3 of working age adults across the globe meet those targets and it is not at all clear how the disjunction between the recommendations of policy makers and the behaviour of ordinary people might be surmounted. Using an opportunity to examine the impact of an urban regeneration project on community residents in East Belfast (Northern Ireland) this paper examines the views of some 113 people on how to increase rates of PA in an area of multiple deprivation. The results of the analysis suggest that lay people rarely consider PA as a discrete issue, or one that centres on individuals and their motivation, but rather as one component in a complex web of concerns, processes and events that include such things as the actions of neighbours and relatives, material and political environments, vandalism, violence, and the weather. We explore and unravel the nature of those concerns using novel methods of content analysis that generate 'issue webs'. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which lay people conceptualize 'activity' and to the manner in which they point to ways of encouraging activity that are rooted in everyday life rather than in the corpocentric, agent-centred and often sport dominated strategies favoured by local policy makers. Our results support those who argue that interventions to increase rates of PA need to move beyond behavioural approaches that focus on individuals and consider the social, political and material contexts in which 'activity' occurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the Patients, Doctors and Nurses View Points about Patient Bill of Rights in Rasht Public Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bostani Khalesi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: With the aim to clarify the rights of the patients on the basis of medical ethic norms, Patient Bill of Rights in five categories was developed in Iran for the first time, during 2002. The main objective of this study was to determine the views of patients, physicians and nurses about this aspect of medical ethics and its necessary to comply in Rasht public hospitals. Materials &Methods: In this cross-sectional study the data were collected by filling a reliable and validated questionnaire consisting of demographic part and 25 specific questions about the rights of patients, these questions were answered By 185 patients, 22 nurses and 14 doctors. Each of the criteria necessary to use was measured by the Likert scale from zero (completely disagree to five (fully agree. SPSS software 16 and one way ANOVA tests were used for data analysis. Result: The results showed that all groups were agreeing with the necessity to have a bill and consider the patient's rights during treatment (P<0.05. But the most controversial point were related to the rights of patient to have access to their information and the right to choose and decide (P<0.05. However, 68.2 percent of physicians, 80.05 percent of nurses, and 93 percent of patients were agreed with the Bill of Rights. Conclusion: Although all the groups were agreed with the patient's Bill of rights (P<0.05, It seems it is necessary to reconsider the issue of providing the necessary information to the patient and give attention to their choices and decisions by the medical health service providers.

  8. Perspectives on a Whole Class Mindfulness Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George; Atkinson, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to establish pupil and teacher views about a six-hour, whole-class mindfulness programme called Paws.b. Pupil post-intervention focus groups and teacher semi-structured interviews were used to ascertain what was interesting and useful about Paws.b, and how it could be developed. Audio recordings were transcribed and thematically…

  9. [Mindfulness: A Concept Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsai-Ling; Chou, Fan-Hao; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2016-04-01

    "Mindfulness" is an emerging concept in the field of healthcare. Ranging from stress relief to psychotherapy, mindfulness has been confirmed to be an effective tool to help individuals manage depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other health problems in clinical settings. Scholars currently use various definitions for mindfulness. While some of these definitions overlap, significant differences remain and a general scholarly consensus has yet to be reached. Several domestic and international studies have explored mindfulness-related interventions and their effectiveness. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the fields of clinical medicine, consultation, and education. Mindfulness has rarely been applied in clinical nursing practice and no related systematic concept analysis has been conducted. This paper conducts a concept analysis of mindfulness using the concept analysis method proposed by Walker and Avant (2011). We describe the defining characteristics of mindfulness, clarify the concept, and confirm the predisposing factors and effects of mindfulness using examples of typical cases, borderline cases, related cases, and contrary case. Findings may provide nursing staff with an understanding of the concept of mindfulness for use in clinical practice in order to help patients achieve a comfortable state of body and mind healing.

  10. The Providence of Associated Minds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Giambattista Vico (1668–1744) has been one of the most innovative and influential thinkers in the history of human and social sciences. Although psychology sometimes underestimates his contribution, Vico was the first scholar to develop a systematic view of the relationship between mind and culture......, for instance, by Wilhelm Wundt and Carlo Cattaneo. The intellectual project that Vico pursued all his life was to develop a specific theory and method to account for the history of human development of civilization as well as to the full range of human products, arts, law, customs, language, institutions, etc...

  11. MINDFULNESS AND SPORT PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Mañas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness in sports is a recent field. While sport psychology relied mainly on “second wave” cognitive-behavioural interventions for the last four decades, a new approach has recently been developed in sport psychology including mindfulness: a “third wave” approach. This new approach assumes that ideal performance is a state that is not based on self-control or change in behaviour, but rather a state that arises from recognition and acceptance of thoughts, emotions and bodily sensations. Practicing mindfulness allows learns to observe and accept the thoughts, emotions, and body sensations, without making any attempt to eliminate or modify them. This paper reviews the main programs of mindfulness in sport performance both from the “third wave”: Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE and Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment(MAC.

  12. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    well-being is key for happy and stress free life. Mind has enormous energy. Everyone has access to tre­mendous mental energies; what matters is being aware of this and to work on concentrating your energy into creative work. To achieve mental strength, C5 is a su­preme powerful exercise for the mind......Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization....... Compare it with going to the gym where you work on the physical body. In the same way as with arms and legs, the mind is a mus­cle which you exercise through C5 practice. Steering the mind on your personal goal will help you to be creative....

  13. The role of religious context in children's differentiation between God's mind and human minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Rebekah A; Saide, Anondah R; Lesage, Kirsten A; Shaman, Nicholas J

    2017-03-01

    The current study examined the cultural factors (i.e., religious background, religious participation, parents' views of prayer, and parents' concepts of God) that contribute to children's differentiation between the capabilities of human minds and God's mind. Protestant Christian, Roman Catholic, Muslim, and Religiously Non-Affiliated parents and their preschool-aged children were interviewed (N = 272). Children of Muslim parents differentiated the most between God's mind and human minds (i.e., human minds are fallible but God's is not), and children who had greater differentiation between God's and humans' minds had parents who had the least anthropomorphic conceptions of God. Additionally, there was a unique effect of being raised in a Religiously Non-Affiliated home on the degree of children's differentiation between God's and human minds after religious context factors had been accounted for; in other words, children of Religious Non-Affiliates differentiated between humans and God the least and their differentiation was unrelated to religious context factors. These findings delineate the ways in which religious context differences influence concepts of God from the earliest formation. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children's concept of God develops during the preschool years. The degree of anthropomorphism in children's concept of God varies. What does this study add? Muslim children have a strong differentiation between what God's mind and human minds can do. Religiously Non-Affiliated children have almost no differentiation between God's and human minds. Parent anthropomorphism explains variance in children's God concepts, both within and across religious groups.

  14. Mindfulness og mental sundhed

    OpenAIRE

    Wistoft, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness is a way to practice 'healthy mindedness' – a form of self help that has been the subject for research and development of a number of new significant self-technologies, therapy and meditation treatment methods. To be mindful can help people to feel more relaxed (serenity) and fully alive. The article aims at describing realistic expectations to the contribution of mindfulness to health education work in the field of mental health. The article discuss ways in which mindfulnesss is ...

  15. A Mind of Three Minds: Evolution of the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Paul D.

    1978-01-01

    The author examines the evolutionary and neural roots of a triune intelligence comprised of a primal mind, an emotional mind, and a rational mind. A simple brain model and some definitions of unfamiliar behavioral terms are included. (Author/MA)

  16. Mindfulness and mind-wandering: finding convergence through opposing constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazek, Michael D; Smallwood, Jonathan; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2012-06-01

    Research into both mindfulness and mind-wandering has grown rapidly, yet clarification of the relationship between these two seemingly opposing constructs is still absent. A first study addresses the relationship between a dispositional measure of mindfulness (Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale, MAAS) and converging measures of both self-reported and indirect markers of mind-wandering. Negative correlations between dispositional mindfulness and 4 measures of mind-wandering confirm the opposing relationship between the 2 constructs and further validate the use of the MAAS as a dispositional measure of mindfulness. A second study demonstrated that 8 minutes of mindful breathing reduces behavioral indicators of mind-wandering during a Sustained Attention to Response Task compared with both passive relaxation and reading. Together these studies clarify the opposition between the constructs of mindfulness and mind-wandering and so should lead to greater convergence between what have been predominately separate, yet mutually relevant, lines of research.

  17. How is the New Public Management applied in the occupational health care system? - decision-makers' and OH personnel's views in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rissanen Sari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries occupational health care system is in change. Occupational health studies are mainly focused on occupational health substance and content. This study offers new perspectives on municipal OHS and its operations from management perspective. Aim The aim of this study is to analyse how New Public Management (NPM doctrines are applied in the Finnish occupational health care system (OHS. The main focus is to describe and compare the views of decision-makers' and OH workers within the framework of NPM. Methods The data were collected by semi-structured interviews from 17 municipal decision-makers' and 26 municipal OH workers. Data was analyzed by examining coded data in a theory-driven way according to Hood's doctrine of NPM. Results The doctrines were not as compatible with the OH personnel view as with the decision-makers' view. Decision-makers and OH personnel highlighted the strict criteria required for operation evaluation. Moreover, decision-makers strongly accentuated professional management in the public sector and the reorganization of public sector units. These were not equally relevant in OH personnel views. In OH personnel views, other doctrines (more attention to performance and accomplishments, emphasizing and augmentation of the competition and better control of public expense and means test were not similarly in evidence, only weak evidence was observed when their importance viewed as medium by decision-makers. Neither of the respondents group kept the doctrine of management models of the private sector relevant. Conclusions The NPM and Hoods doctrine fitted well with OH research. The doctrine brought out view differences and similarities between decision-makers and OH personnel. For example, policymakers highlighted more strongly the structural change by emphasizing professional management compared to OH personnel. The need for reorganization of municipal OH, regardless of different operational

  18. Involving Research Stakeholders in Developing Policy on Sharing Public Health Research Data in Kenya: Views on Fair Process for Informed Consent, Access Oversight, and Community Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-07-01

    Increased global sharing of public health research data has potential to advance scientific progress but may present challenges to the interests of research stakeholders, particularly in low-to-middle income countries. Policies for data sharing should be responsive to public views, but there is little evidence of the systematic study of these from low-income countries. This qualitative study explored views on fair data-sharing processes among 60 stakeholders in Kenya with varying research experience, using a deliberative approach. Stakeholders' attitudes were informed by perceptions of benefit and concerns for research data sharing, including risks of stigmatization, loss of privacy, and undermining scientific careers and validity, reported in detail elsewhere. In this article, we discuss institutional trust-building processes seen as central to perceptions of fairness in sharing research data in this setting, including forms of community involvement, individual prior awareness and agreement to data sharing, independence and accountability of governance mechanisms, and operating under a national framework.

  19. 《文心雕龙》与《论衡》谶纬观辨析%Differentiation and Analysis of Divinational Views Combined with Mystical Confucianist Beliefs Between Literary Mind and Carving of Dragons and Critical Documents on Mystical Confucianist Beliefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩中华; 王利锁

    2014-01-01

    Divinational books are a combination of books with prophetic remarks made casually which later comes true and books made farfetched conclusions with Confucianist beliefs; and Originally, they did not belong to the same category. The former appeared earlier in time, while the latter originated in the late Western Han Dynasty. Literary Mind and Carving of Dragons and Critical Documents on Mystical Confucian-ist Beliefs had expressed their views on the devinational books, while there was a huge contrast between them. The Differences between Liu Xie and Wang Chong’s Confucian thoughts was their different Divination-al views; Just because of this, books made farfetched conclusions with Confucianist beliefs: A Correction in Literary Mind and Carving of Dragons that are not recorded Wang Chong's thoughts. Literary Mind and Carv-ing of Dragons and Critical Documents on Mystical Confucianist Beliefs were focused on the writing of arti-cles and the denying of divinational views combined with mystical Confucianist beliefs, and their outlook were ahead of time.%谶纬是图谶和纬书的合一,本非一类,谶出现较早,纬起源于西汉末期。《文心雕龙》和《论衡》都表达了对谶纬的看法,却有很大反差。刘勰、王充经学思想的不同是他们谶纬观差异的基础,《文心雕龙·正纬》篇不录王充即缘于此。《文心雕龙》和《论衡》分别着眼于文章写作与“疾虚妄”,他们的谶纬观都是超越时代的。

  20. Public Involvement in Repository Site Selection for Nuclear Waste: Towards a more Dynamic View in Decision-Making Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Stauffacher, Michael; Flueeler, Thomas; Scholz, Roland W. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). lnst. for Human-Environment Systems (HES)

    2006-09-15

    This paper discusses possibilities of public involvement in radioactive waste management. A general overview of the radioactive waste issue is presented referring to a proposed model of the respective decision-making process. Based on the well known participation ladder by Arnstein, we differentiate various intensities of public involvement. A matrix with public involvement and the decision-making process is introduced and three prototypical patterns are discussed. We conclude that time frame, the level of public involvement and the mission have to be considered as well as techniques and the overarching context - all in all, a systematic and dynamic approach for public involvement is needed.

  1. Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Season Extension. Volume 3. Appendix C. Public Views and Responses on the Report and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    necessary. The following identification techniques were employed: a. Evaluation of existing data; for example, political, enviromental , socio- economic ...exten, if any, to address the significant social, environmental, economic , engineerinq, and institutional aspects, and, to make a recommendation for...Identification- - A Formulation of Detailed -PlansB II I-Public Views afid Responses on-the Report C and Environmental lmpa;ct’Statement IV Economic Benefits

  2. Investigating Socioscientific Issues via Scientific Habits of Mind: Development and Validation of the Scientific Habits of Mind Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Muammer; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Scientific Habits of Mind Survey (SHOMS) developed to explore public, science teachers' and scientists' understanding of habits of mind (HoM). The instrument contained 59 items, and captures the seven SHOM identified by Gauld. The SHOM was validated by administration to two cohorts of pre-service science teachers:…

  3. The male heart and the female mind: a study in the gendering of antidepressants and cardiovascular drugs in advertisements in Irish medical publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Phillip; O'Brien, Marita

    2006-04-01

    Stereotypes which suggest that cardiovascular disease and depression are related to gender can have consequences for the mental and physical health outcomes of both men and women. This study examines how these stereotypes may be reinforced by medical publications advertising for cardiovascular and antidepressant medication. A random sample of 61 (with no repeats) advertisements which appeared in Irish medical publications between July 2001 and December 2002 were analysed using both content and semiotic analysis. Results indicate that the meanings created by advertisers for cardiovascular drugs and antidepressants did in fact gender these products. Women were depicted as the predominant users of antidepressants and men as the main users of cardiovascular drugs. The images used identified two stereotyped patients: the 'male' heart patient and the depressed 'female' patient. Furthermore, the imagery and language used to promote the two categories of medication tended to strengthen gendered associations.

  4. Restless Mind, Restless Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Thomson, David R.; Cheyne, James Allan; Martens, Kaylena A. Ehgoetz; Smilek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the hypothesis that failures of task-related executive control that occur during episodes of mind wandering are associated with an increase in extraneous movements (fidgeting). In 2 studies, we assessed mind wandering using thought probes while participants performed the metronome response task (MRT), which…

  5. Mindfulness and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness has long been practiced in Eastern spiritual traditions for personal improvement, and educators and educational institutions have recently begun to explore its usefulness in schools. Mindfulness training can be valuable for helping students be more successful learners and more connected members of an educational community. To determine…

  6. Resisting Mind Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides conceptual analyses of mind control techniques along with practical advice on how to resist these techniques. The authors stress that effective mind control stems more from everyday social relations than from exotic technological gimmicks. Suggestions are given for resisting persuasion, resisting systems, and challenging the system.…

  7. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization...

  8. Fringe Mind Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutels, J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of basic strategies for modeling the mind in historical perspective. The best-known strategies are expansionism and eliminativism, which are both problematic: eliminativism compromises our self-understanding, while expansionism is unable to cope with fringe minds. Using

  9. Elliott on Mind Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maattanen, Pentti

    2000-01-01

    Argues that David Elliott's conception of the human mind presented in his book "Music Matters" is not coherent. Outlines three alternatives to Elliott's theory of mind. Suggests that the principles associated with the pragmatism of Charles Sanders Pierce would complement Elliott's ideas in his book. (CMK)

  10. Restless Mind, Restless Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Thomson, David R.; Cheyne, James Allan; Martens, Kaylena A. Ehgoetz; Smilek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the hypothesis that failures of task-related executive control that occur during episodes of mind wandering are associated with an increase in extraneous movements (fidgeting). In 2 studies, we assessed mind wandering using thought probes while participants performed the metronome response task (MRT), which…

  11. Teaching Tips: Mind Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, Callie L.; Fowler, Teri W.

    2006-01-01

    Mind magnets are maps to guide instruction and facilitate the comprehension processes. They extend individual comprehension strategy instruction, which does not typically show students how to link application of appropriate strategies to whole texts. The mind magnet framework allows teachers to plan powerful interactions between the reader and the…

  12. Patterns in the mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Alejandro

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available

     A mediados de la década de los noventa, el lingüista estadounidense Ray Jackendoff, meditando acerca de la situación de los avances en su campo de trabajo, publicó el libro Patterns in the Mind con el objetivo de poner al alcance del público no especializado los avances de la psicología cognitiva a partir de los postulados básicos de la revolución lingüística y cognitiva que
    floreció gracias a los trabajos del también lingüista norteamericano Noam Chomsky, a finales de la década de los cincuenta y principios de la de los sesenta. Su presencia en el desarrollo de esta nueva etapa del estudio del lenguaje y sus intereses en las nuevas teorías psicológicas 10 ubicaron en un marco teórico que comprende postulados acerca de la organización modular de las estructuras y procesos mentales, el innatismo de este tipo de organización y la existencia de una serie de patrones que rigen la construcción de gramáticas mentalesinconscientes para diversos dominios de la naturaleza humana.

  13. Methodology, Meditation, and Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balveer Singh Sikh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nondualistic nature of mindfulness is a complex and challenging task particularly when most clinical psychology draws from Western methodologies and methods. In this article, we argue that the integration of philosophical hermeneutics with Eastern philosophy and practices may provide a methodology and methods to research mindfulness practice. Mindfulness hermeneutics brings together the nondualistically aligned Western philosophies of Heidegger and Gadamer and selected Eastern philosophies and practices in an effort to bridge the gap between these differing worldviews. Based on the following: (1 fusion of horizons, (2 being in a hermeneutic circle, (3 understanding as intrinsic to awareness, and (4 the ongoing practice of meditation, a mindfulness hermeneutic approach was used to illuminate deeper understandings of mindfulness practice in ways that are congruent with its underpinning philosophies.

  14. A Moment of Mindfulness: Computer-Mediated Mindfulness Practice Increases State Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Lynsey; Hopthrow, Tim; Randsley de Moura, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated the use of a 5-minute, computer-mediated mindfulness practice in increasing levels of state mindfulness. In Study 1, 54 high school students completed the computer-mediated mindfulness practice in a lab setting and Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS) scores were measured before and after the practice. In Study 2 (N = 90) and Study 3 (N = 61), the mindfulness practice was tested with an entirely online sample to test the delivery of the 5-minute mindfulness practice via ...

  15. On Noddings' Public Educational Views and Their Enlightenment%诺丁斯公共性教育思想及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一华

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of critically inheriting Arendt' s public thoughts and Habermas' s theory of civil society, NOddings put forward his public educational views. Such views object to taking public care as perfect individual personali- ty and object to understanding public care as a kind of goodness in the religious domain. In all, Noddings' public ed- ucational views are mainly manifested in the areas of educational goals and methods, course settings, religious educa- tional vies, functions of moral education and methods of educational research. His views have the tendency of integra- ting subjects and objects and the value of happiness sharing. The former can regulate the orientation behavior of uni- versities' educational nature, and the latter can direct the Inheritance activities of public knowledge.%在批判地继承阿伦特公共性思想和哈贝马斯市民社会理论的基础上,诺丁斯提出了公共性教育思想。这种教育思想反对把公共关怀素养理解为个体完善的人格,也反对把公共关怀精神理解为一种宗教领域的善。归纳起来,诺丁斯公共性教育思想主要体现在教育目标、教育方法、课程设置、宗教教育观、德育功能、教育研究方法领域中。诺丁斯公共性教育理念具有主客统一的思想倾向和幸福分享的价值取向,前者能规范高校教育性质的定位行为,后者能指导公共知识的传承活动。

  16. Accounting System in Croatian Public Healthcare Organizations: an Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor VAŠIČEK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In considering the adequacy of adopting accruals and IPSASs, this paper tests the appropriateness of existing modified accrual accounting and financial reporting system in Croatian public healthcare sector. The paper indicates that accounting information system contains discrepancies and constraints in assuring true and fair view of organization’s financial position and performance. Our statistics confirms low level of cost and managerial accounting methods development, and external and internal financial reporting convergence.Having in mind its specificities, we argue that Croatian public healthcare sector represents a segmental accounting subsystem within the integral public sector accounting framework, where accruals implementation might prove justifiable.

  17. PHYSICS OF THE MIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Perlovsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to turn psychology into hard science? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics... and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into hard sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research.

  18. Physics of the Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I.

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to turn psychology into “hard science”? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics… and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into “hard” sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research. PMID:27895558

  19. Physics of the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to turn psychology into "hard science"? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics… and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into "hard" sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research.

  20. Mindfulness Research Update: 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To briefly review the effects of mindfulness on the mind, the brain, the body, and behavior. Methods Selective review of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar databases (2003–2008) using the terms “mindfulness”, “meditation”, “mental health”, “physical health”, “quality of life”, and “stress reduction.” A total of 52 exemplars of empirical and theoretical work were selected for review. Results Both basic and clinical research indicate that cultivating a more mindful way of being is associated with less emotional distress, more positive states of mind, and better quality of life. In addition, mindfulness practice can influence the brain, the autonomic nervous system, stress hormones, the immune system, and health behaviors, including eating, sleeping and substance use, in salutary ways. Conclusion The application of cutting-edge technology toward understanding mindfulness – an “inner technology” – is elucidating new ways in which attention, awareness, acceptance, and compassion may promote optimal health – in mind, body, relationships, and spirit. PMID:20047019

  1. Minding the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Ioanna Kayiatos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Fall of 2013 we team-taught a disability studies course for a small group of first-year students. The course, Minding the Body, integrated scholarship from disability studies, feminist/queer studies, psychology, and Russian Studies. Originally envisioned and taught independently in the Fall of 2012 by Joan Ostrove and focused entirely on the U.S., Anastasia Kayiatos's arrival in the Department of German and Russian Studies at Macalester College afforded us an opportunity for collaboration and co-instruction that we found invigorating, compelling, and transformative. Grounded from the outset in disability studies, the course asked students to interrogate such questions as: What is a "normal" body? A "beautiful" body? Why do we feel the way we do about our bodies? How are bodies objectified, exploited, and regulated? How and why do we discriminate against people with non-normative bodies? How do people represent the experience of having a disabled body? How can we think critically about the various ways in which people change, regulate, and enhance their bodies? How do sexism, racism, classism, colonialism, homophobia, transphobia and other forms of oppression influence how different bodies are viewed, treated, educated, and experienced? The integration of Russian Studies importantly allowed us to ask how these questions and ideas change when we travel across time and geographical space. In our paper we will reflect on our experience of co-authoring the syllabus (we will include both the solo-taught and co-taught versions of the syllabus in an appendix; outline some of our techniques for team-teaching; and analyze an exemplary assignment and class meeting. We will conclude with a final word about the unique forms of teaching and learning that happened in our class as a consequence of its collaborative and interdisciplinary approach, which opened up new perspectives in disability studies not only for our students but also for us.

  2. Mindfulness and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, David

    2011-09-01

    Does mindfulness offer more to psychology than a useful therapeutic technique? This paper argues that it can also establish a state of presence which is understood in relation to the practice of phenomenology. Mindfulness is then both linked to a Western intellectual tradition and offers that tradition a systematic method. This is an opening for psychological investigation of the non-conceptual basis of everyday experience. The combination of this theoretical stance with the increasingly widespread practical training of clinical psychologists in mindfulness has broad implications for clinical practice; this is illustrated in relation to the descriptive approach to clinical problems, qualitative research, and reflective practice.

  3. Mindfulness - en implicit utopi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2014-01-01

    mindfulness is used for individualized stress-reduction in order to keep up with existing or worsened working conditions instead of stress-reducing changes in the common working conditions. Mindfulness research emphasizes positive outcomes in coping with demands and challenges in everyday life especially...... considering suffering (for example stress and pain). While explicit constructions of Utopia present ideas of specific societal communities in well-functioning harmony, the interest in mindfulness can in contradistinction be considered an implicit critique of present life-conditions and an “implicit utopia...

  4. Social perception and "spectator theories" of other minds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Søren; Krueger, Joel William

    2013-01-01

    We resist Schilbach et al.'s characterization of the "social perception" approach to social cognition as a "spectator theory" of other minds. We show how the social perception view acknowledges the crucial role interaction plays in enabling social understanding. We also highlight a dilemma...... Schilbach et al. face in attempting to distinguish their second-person approach from the social perception view....

  5. Mindfulness starts with the body: Somatosensory attention and top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Kerr

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT use a common set of exercises to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we offer a novel view of ST-Mindfulness’s somatic focus as a form of training for optimizing attentional modulation of 7-14 Hz alpha rhythms that play a key role in filtering inputs to primary sensory neocortex and organizing the flow of sensory information. In support of the framework, we describe our previous finding (Kerr et al, 2011 that ST-Mindfulness enhanced attentional regulation of alpha in primary somatosensory cortex (SI. The framework allows us to make several predictions. In chronic pain, we predict somatic attention in ST-Mindfulness de-biases alpha in SI, freeing up pain-focused attentional resources. In depression relapse, we predict ST-Mindfulness’s somatic attention competes with internally focused rumination, as internally focused cognitive processes (e.g., working and short term memory rely on alpha filtering of sensory input. Our computational model (Jones et al, 2009 predicts ST-Mindfulness enhances top-down modulation of alpha by facilitating precise alterations in timing and efficacy of SI thalamocortical inputs. We conclude by considering how the proposed framework aligns with Buddhist teachings that mindfulness starts with mindfulness of the body. Translating this theory into neurophysiology, we hypothesize that with its somatic focus, mindfulness’ top-down alpha rhythm modulation in SI enhances gain control which, in turn, sensitizes practitioners to better detect and regulate when the mind wanders from its somatic focus. This enhanced regulation of somatic mind-wandering may be an early stage of mindfulness training, leading to cognitive regulation and metacognition.

  6. The embodied mind extended: Using words as social tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The extended mind view and the embodied-grounded view of cognition and language are typically considered as rather independent perspectives. In this paper we propose a possible integration of the two views and support it proposing the idea of ''Words As social Tools' (WAT'. In this respect, we will propose that words, also due to their social and public character, can be conceived as quasi-external devices that extend our cognition. Moreover, words function like tools in that they enlarge the bodily space of action thus modifying our sense of body. To support our proposal, we review the relevant literature on tool use and on words as tools and report recent evidence indicating that word use leads to an extension of space close to the body. In addition, we outline a model of the neural processes that may underpin bodily space extension via word use and may reflect possible effects on cognition of the use of words as external means. We also discuss how reconciling the two perspectives can help to overcome the limitations they encounter if considered independently.

  7. Mind a brief introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, John R

    2004-01-01

    "The philosophy of mind is unique among contemporary philosophical subjects," writes John Searle, "in that all of the most famous and influential theories are false." One of the world's most eminent thinkers, Searle dismantles these theories as he presents a vividly written, comprehensive introduction to the mind. He begins with a look at the twelve problems of philosophy of mind--which he calls "Descartes and Other Disasters"--problems which he returns to throughout the volume, as he illuminates such topics as materialism, consciousness, the mind-body problem, intentionality, mental causation, free will, and the self. The book offers a refreshingly direct and engaging introduction to one of the most intriguing areas of philosophy.

  8. Origins of Mindfulness & Meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness & meditation are gaining popularity in the Western psychological practice in the past 3-4 decades, especially within psychotherapeutic approaches, health promotion, and stress reduction. The origins and the broader context, however, seem to be overlooked in some of these practices......- mind, centrality of consciousness and meditation as a part of daily conduct are presented. The basic constructs of Buddhism, an integral part of Indian psychology, in relation to mindfulness and meditation, are also delineated as illustrations of these assumptions. The second part reflects...... on the application of the meditative practices through cognitive existential study of mindfulness (Kabat-Zinn, 2003) and a study on the phenomenology of meditation (Madsen, 2007). Both emphasise an experienced instructor, regular practice as a part of daily life, conceptual consciousness understandings...

  9. Open-Minded Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities.

  10. Mindless bodies-bodyless minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekacs-Weisz, Judit

    2007-09-01

    Possibilities opened up by scientific-technical developments of the last century have led to the breaking up of our basic concepts regarding elementary aspects of human life. Boundaries are more easily crossed (also among genders); the reality of functions and the functions of reality are becoming interchangeable. The audio-visual galaxy, which has evolved over the course of the 20th century, with its two dimensionality has resulted in generations growing up in the past decades who have learnt that the "other" can be a virtual body: the sensual is no longer an essential part of human relations. The somato-affective aspects of the experience get split off-relationships emerge between bodyless minds. This fragmentation also means that the body is seen increasingly as mindless: the linkages between body and mind are profoundly undermined. Reality and fantasy melt into one another. Reality control and thinking becomes insecure effected by a view of the world that has lost its keystones of orientation. When body boundaries get confused in such a manner how do ego boundaries develop? How will primary relationships alter among such conditions? What will the internal images of the objects be like? The deconstruction of our basic concepts about space, time, dimensions, body- and ego boundaries made differentiation and the processes of symbolization extremely difficult. Postmodern ideas, questioning the validity of facts have contributed greatly to transforming our image of reality also on a theoretical level. How do these massive changes effect our daily clinical work and our theory of the mind? My paper tries to explore some experiences and ideas related to these questions through clinical cases and narratives of our present times.

  11. A bibliometric analysis of academic publication on diabetic retinopathy disease trends during 1980-2014: a global and medical view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Cagatay; Demir, Emre; Kucukler, Ferit Kerim; Durmus, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate diabetic retinopathy (DR) literature using the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (WoS) database and to analyse the correlation results between socio-economic development datas and number of DR publications. METHODS The statistical analysis of the documents published during 1980-2014 was analysed. The data of this study were based on the database of WoS. “Diabetic retinopathy” was used as the keywords to search the WoS database. RESULTS The United States ranked first in the DR research with 1840 publications and 24.38% of the world production followed by England and Japan. Besides, the most productive country was Iceland. A high correlation was found between number of publications and 2014 gross domestic product (GDP) values of 81 countries (r=0.800, P<0.001). We found a significant correlation between number of publications and Human Development Index (HDI) (r=0.645, P=0.001). There is a moderate correlation between people with diabetes and number of DR publications for 81 countries (r=0.514, P<0.01). It could be analysed that estimated publication number with DR title will be 445 according to the regression curve constituted with cubic model in 2015 (R2=1.000). CONCLUSION More DR studies have been published in developed countries, DR and other complications of diabetes have gradually increased in developing countries over recent decades. It can be expected that the number of DR studies will gradually increase in developing countries. PMID:27990373

  12. How Medical Students View Their Relationships with Patients: The Role of Private and Public Self-Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimovich, Susana

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relations among self-consciousness, attribution of responsibility, and differentiation of emotions by interviewing 30 Israeli medical students. Finds that in terms of student-patient interactions, students high in public self-consciousness made more internal attributions while students high in private self-consciousness made more…

  13. THE VIEW OF THE COURT OF APPEAL OF THE STATE OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL ON TORTURE: judgments of public and private actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Rudnicki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the views of the Judiciary in relation to the practice of the crime of torture by public and private actors, in accordance with judgments of the Court of Appeal from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The study through an analysis of 92 decisions from the court, from 2009 until 2013. We seek to observe the legal reasoning from these criminal appeals that discuss the merits of the crime of torture, in order to check for differences in the application of Torture Act depending on the agent denounced being a public or private actor and which are the factors that could influence this different application of the law. We present the transformation and the concept of the crime of torture, in the international and in the Brazilian law, and after that the most relevant judgments are described and analyzed. Thus, we conclude that there is a difference in the application of the law by the Judiciary, with greater punishment for private agents than for public ones, and that this difference occurs due to the expansion of the concept of torture carried out by the Brazilian legislator, who popularized the term and the conduct typified as a common crime. For full understanding of the phenomenon, we must also consider the characteristics of the Brazilian penal system, which is selective. Thus through the perpetuation of a classic criminal model, it allows for public officials to commit illegalities.

  14. Psychology and mind in Aquinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valdecasas, Miguel

    2005-09-01

    This article stresses the main lines of Thomas Aquinas's philosophy on the nature of the body-soul union. Following Aristotle, Aquinas sees the soul as a 'principle of life' which is intimately bound to a body. Together they form a non-contingent composition. In addition, the distinctive feature of the human soul is rationality, which implies that a human needs a mind to be what it is. However, this is not to say, as Descartes proposes, that the reason that I am a human is that I am fully self-conscious. On the contrary, I will show that self-consciousness is not necessarily a key to defining a human being. To that aim, and based on Aquinas's views, I draw a distinction between what I will call 'egos' and selves'.

  15. Scientific publications about DNA structure-function and PCR technique in Costa Rica: a historic view (1953-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Federico J

    2004-09-01

    The spreading of knowledge depends on the access to the information and its immediate use. Models are useful to explain specific phenomena. The scientific community accepts some models in Biology after a period of time, once it has evidence to support it. The model of the structure and function of the DNA proposed by Watson & Crick (1953) was not the exception, since a few years later the DNA model was finally accepted. In Costa Rica, DNA function was first mentioned in 1970, in the magazine Biologia Tropical (Tropical Biology Magazine), more than 15 years after its first publication in a scientific journal. An opposite situation occurs with technical innovations. If the efficiency of a new scientific technique is proved in a compelling way, then the acceptance by the community comes swiftly. This was the case of the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. The first PCR machine in Costa Rica arrived in 1991, only three years after its publication.

  16. Public views of mobile medical devices and services: a US national survey of consumer sentiments towards RFID healthcare technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, James E; Rice, Ronald E

    2009-02-01

    A 2007 national public opinion survey of 1404 Americans revealed variations in sentiments concerning the desirability of several mobile healthcare technologies based on RFID. The survey appears to be the first reasonably national public opinion survey of US adults concerning their attitudes towards mobile healthcare technology. The survey revealed high levels of interest in emergency intervention services, but much less so in health information and monitoring services. Interest in RFID personal medical technology was positively associated with high levels of trust in others and social support. At the same time, a small minority were negatively disposed towards such applications. In those cases, the negative sentiment appears heightened when the mobile healthcare application is offered in a modality attached to the body as opposed to a somewhat more physically remote option, i.e., attached to one's cell phone.

  17. Citation patterns and trends of systematic reviews about mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Alberto; Fazia, Teresa; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Morandi, Gabriella

    2017-08-01

    We performed a citation analysis of the literature about mindfulness aimed at describing the most significant topics and the impact of more relevant papers. We classified 128 systematic reviews about mindfulness-based intervention retrieved in Scopus according to their object, the population included and the type of mindfulness proposed. The citation counting was reported. The cumulative citation numbers per chronological years and article life were analyzed thorough a linear regression model. 1) We observed a general increase in the number of reviews published from 2003 to 2016; 2) two reviews collected the 33% of the overall citations; 3) citation counting for clinical and mixed population collected the 90% of total citations; 4) clinical reviews had higher cumulative citation per publication/year growth. As mindfulness research advances, higher attention should be given to the mechanisms by which mindfulness interventions work so as to provide fruitful insights for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Building a sustainable land public transportation at Ayer Keroh, Malacca: Perspective view from hang tuah jaya municipal council (HTJMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukri, Fatin Hafizah; Chew, Boon Cheong; Hamid, Syaiful Rizal; Loo, Heoy Shin

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable land public transportation (SLPT) aims to promote a better and healthier ways of meeting individual and community needs. Even though sufficient land public transportation have been provided at Ayer Keroh, Malacca but the level of usage among the community is still low as there is the growth in traffic. Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council (HTJMC) is responsible to identify the most appropriate strategies to manage the issues regarding SLPT in order to support of the Malacca state vision becoming Green Technology State in the year 2020. Therefore, this paper attempts to examine the strategies involve in building a SLPT, which may enhance the community's welfare. Thus, the proposed theoretical framework is to demonstrate the strategies towards building a SLPT, which can cater issues within the municipal council area. In this qualitative research, an in-depth focus group have been conducted to obtain the primary data. Thirteen (13) executives from HTJMC involved. This study brings a new paradigm in transforming land public transportation at Ayer Keroh to enhance the community welfare. The result found that land use development as the most significant strategy in SLPT, meanwhile the implementation program is the least strategy involved in building a SLPT at Ayer Keroh. Future research requires more information on the factors of implementing of SLPT so that HTJMC can plan an effective SLPT thorough the demand as the data may indicate numbers of passengers who really support to the implementation of SLPT.

  19. Mindfulness for unge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    Undersøgelsen af, hvordan interventionsforløbet Mindfulness for unge virkede, er baseret på kvalitative interview med 24 elever i 9. klasse, som har deltaget i Mindfulness for unge i 8 uger. Resultater: Det fælles mindfulnessforløb i klassen har lært mange af eleverne at kunne bruge deres bevidste...... opmærksomhed til at forholde sig til deres situation, tilstand og muligheder, så de udvikler deres ressourcer i stedet for at blive fanget i afmagt og stress. Det er oplevelser og erfaringer med de praktiske mindfulness-øvelser, der har været særlig betydningsfuldt. Overordnet ser Mindfulness for unge ud til...... at kunne bidrage til at forebygge stress i skolen for en del elever, når mindfulness-instruktørens undervisning følges op og faciliteres af en mindfulnesspraktiserende lærer, der kender klassen og eleverne godt. Interesse og opbakning fra skolens ledelse og elevernes familier er også væsentligt...

  20. A Moment of Mindfulness: Computer-Mediated Mindfulness Practice Increases State Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Lynsey; Hopthrow, Tim; Randsley de Moura, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated the use of a 5-minute, computer-mediated mindfulness practice in increasing levels of state mindfulness. In Study 1, 54 high school students completed the computer-mediated mindfulness practice in a lab setting and Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS) scores were measured before and after the practice. In Study 2 (N = 90) and Study 3 (N = 61), the mindfulness practice was tested with an entirely online sample to test the delivery of the 5-minute mindfulness practice via the internet. In Study 2 and 3, we found a significant increase in TMS scores in the mindful condition, but not in the control condition. These findings highlight the impact of a brief, mindfulness practice for single-session, computer-mediated use to increase mindfulness as a state.

  1. Mind-body practices for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hwan; Schneider, Suzanne M; Kravitz, Len; Mermier, Christine; Burge, Mark R

    2013-06-01

    Mind-body practices are increasingly used to provide stress reduction for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Mind-body practice encompasses activities with the intent to use the mind to impact physical functioning and improve health. This is a literature review using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress to identify the effects of mind-body intervention modalities, such as yoga, tai chi, qigong, mindfulness-based stress reduction, meditation, and deep breathing, as interventions for PTSD. The literature search identified 92 articles, only 16 of which were suitable for inclusion in this review. We reviewed only original, full text articles that met the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies have small sample size, but findings from the 16 publications reviewed here suggest that mind-body practices are associated with positive impacts on PTSD symptoms. Mind-body practices incorporate numerous therapeutic effects on stress responses, including reductions in anxiety, depression, and anger, and increases in pain tolerance, self-esteem, energy levels, ability to relax, and ability to cope with stressful situations. In general, mind-body practices were found to be a viable intervention to improve the constellation of PTSD symptoms such as intrusive memories, avoidance, and increased emotional arousal. Mind-body practices are increasingly used in the treatment of PTSD and are associated with positive impacts on stress-induced illnesses such as depression and PTSD in most existing studies. Knowledge about the diverse modalities of mind-body practices may provide clinicians and patients with the opportunity to explore an individualized and effective treatment plan enhanced by mind-body interventions as part of ongoing self-care.

  2. Mind, brain and psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheth Hitesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is long-standing debate about superiority of mind over brain, in other words about superiority of mind over matter. And outcome of this debate is going to decide future of psychiatry. The psychiatrists believing in materialism may say that brain is all and by changing neurotransmitters level with new molecules of drugs would cure all illnesses. On the other hand, antipsychiatry activists and some psychotherapists oppose all types of treatment despite of convincing evidence that drug therapy is effective (although sometimes it is not as effective as it claims to be. However, truth lies somewhere in between. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are like two legs of psychiatry and psychiatry cannot walk into a future on one leg. The studies have shown that judicious use of pharmacotherapy along with psychotherapy gives better outcome than any one of them used alone. We must heal dichotomy between mind and brain before we heal the patients.

  3. Public foetal images and the regulation of middle-class pregnancy in the online media: a view from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Catriona; Howell, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography images and their derivatives have been taken up in a range of 'public' spaces, including medical textbooks, the media, anti-abortion material, advertising, the Internet and public health facilities. Feminists have critiqued the personification of the foetus, the bifurcation of the woman's body and the reduction of the pregnant woman to a disembodied womb. What has received less attention is how these images frequently intersect with race, class, gender and heteronormativity in the creation of idealised and normative understandings of pregnancy. This paper focuses on the discursive positioning of pregnant women as 'mothers' and foetuses as 'babies' in online media targeted at a South African audience, where race and class continue to intersect in complex ways. We show how the ontologically specific understandings of 'mummies' and 'babies' emerge through the use of foetal images to construct specific understandings of the 'ideal' pregnancy. In the process, pregnant women are made responsible for ensuring that their pregnancy conforms to these ideals, which includes the purchasing of the various goods advertised by the websites. Not only does this point to a commodification of pregnancy, but also serves to reinforce a cultural understanding of White, middle-class pregnancy as constituting the normative 'correct' form of pregnancy.

  4. Plans, Habits, and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Baker, Chris L; Cushman, Fiery A

    2016-01-01

    Human success and even survival depends on our ability to predict what others will do by guessing what they are thinking. If I accelerate, will he yield? If I propose, will she accept? If I confess, will they forgive? Psychologists call this capacity "theory of mind." According to current theories, we solve this problem by assuming that others are rational actors. That is, we assume that others design and execute efficient plans to achieve their goals, given their knowledge. But if this view is correct, then our theory of mind is startlingly incomplete. Human action is not always a product of rational planning, and we would be mistaken to always interpret others' behaviors as such. A wealth of evidence indicates that we often act habitually-a form of behavioral control that depends not on rational planning, but rather on a history of reinforcement. We aim to test whether the human theory of mind includes a theory of habitual action and to assess when and how it is deployed. In a series of studies, we show that human theory of mind is sensitive to factors influencing the balance between habitual and planned behavior.

  5. 'A vehicle of symbols and nothing more'. George Romanes, theory of mind, information, and Samuel Butler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsdyke, Donald R

    2015-09-01

    Today's 'theory of mind' (ToM) concept is rooted in the distinction of nineteenth-century philosopher William Clifford between 'objects' that can be directly perceived and 'ejects', such as the mind of another person, which are inferred from one's subjective knowledge of one's own mind. George Romanes, a founder with Charles Darwin of the discipline of comparative psychology, considered the minds of animals as ejects, an idea that could be generalized to 'society as eject' and, ultimately, 'the world as an eject' - mind in the universe. Yet, Romanes and Clifford only vaguely connected mind with the abstraction we call 'information', which needs 'a vehicle of symbols' - a material transporting medium. However, Samuel Butler was able to address, in informational terms depleted of theological trappings, both organic evolution and mind in the universe. This view harmonizes with insights arising from modern DNA research, the relative immortality of 'selfish' genes, and some startling recent developments in brain research.

  6. Factors Influencing Postsecondary STEM Students' Views of the Public Communication of an Emergent Technology: a Cross-National Study from Five Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Grant E.; Jones, M. Gail; Albe, Virginie; Blonder, Ron; Laherto, Antti; Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela

    2016-10-01

    Recent efforts in the science education community have highlighted the need to integrate research and theory from science communication research into more general science education scholarship. These synthesized research perspectives are relatively novel but serve an important need to better understand the impacts that the advent of rapidly emerging technologies will have on a new generation of scientists and engineers including their formal communication with engaged citizenry. This cross-national study examined postsecondary science and engineering students' (n = 254 from five countries: Austria, Finland, France, Israel, and USA) perspectives on the role of science communication in their own formal science and engineering education. More broadly, we examined participants' understanding of their perceived responsibilities of communicating science and engineering to the general public when an issue contains complex social and ethical implications (SEI). The study is contextualized in the emergent technology of nanotechnology for which SEI are of particular concern and for which the general public often perceives conflicting risks and benefits. Findings indicate that student participants' hold similar views on the need for their own training in communication as future scientists and engineers. When asked about the role that ethics and risk perception plays in research, development, and public communication of nanotechnology, participants demonstrate similar trajectories of perspectives that are, however, often anchored in very different levels of beginning concern. Results are discussed in the context of considerations for science communication training within formal science education curricula globally.

  7. Factors Influencing Postsecondary STEM Students' Views of the Public Communication of an Emergent Technology: a Cross-National Study from Five Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Grant E.; Jones, M. Gail; Albe, Virginie; Blonder, Ron; Laherto, Antti; Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela

    2017-10-01

    Recent efforts in the science education community have highlighted the need to integrate research and theory from science communication research into more general science education scholarship. These synthesized research perspectives are relatively novel but serve an important need to better understand the impacts that the advent of rapidly emerging technologies will have on a new generation of scientists and engineers including their formal communication with engaged citizenry. This cross-national study examined postsecondary science and engineering students' ( n = 254 from five countries: Austria, Finland, France, Israel, and USA) perspectives on the role of science communication in their own formal science and engineering education. More broadly, we examined participants' understanding of their perceived responsibilities of communicating science and engineering to the general public when an issue contains complex social and ethical implications (SEI). The study is contextualized in the emergent technology of nanotechnology for which SEI are of particular concern and for which the general public often perceives conflicting risks and benefits. Findings indicate that student participants' hold similar views on the need for their own training in communication as future scientists and engineers. When asked about the role that ethics and risk perception plays in research, development, and public communication of nanotechnology, participants demonstrate similar trajectories of perspectives that are, however, often anchored in very different levels of beginning concern. Results are discussed in the context of considerations for science communication training within formal science education curricula globally.

  8. A Study of Local Governance Practice from the View of Wang Shouren’s Mind Philosophy%王守仁心学视阈下的基层社会治理实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪

    2015-01-01

    Grass‐root social governance is a concrete reflection of effectively combining Wang Shouren ’s mind philosophy and social governance .In the long‐term political practice ,Wang and his pupils built grass‐root so‐cial governance system ,w hich ,based on and guided by mind theory ,includes such main forms as village regu‐lations ,family rules and lectures .The fundamental purpose of the system is to maintain the Confucian morality and orderly operation of the grass‐root community .And people from different social stratums can participate in local governance system so as to achieve the effective integration of mind theory and social governance .T here‐fore ,it is argued ,from the perspective of cultural heritage ,that the theory and practice of traditional Chinese national governance should be inherited and absorbed in order to construct modern governance system in China .%基层社会治理是王守仁心学理论与社会治理有效结合的具体体现。王守仁及其弟子在长期的政治实践中,构建起以心学理论为指导,以乡约、族规、讲学为主要形式,以维系儒家道德观念和基层社会有序运转为根本目的,社会各阶层成员共同参与的基层社会治理体系,从而实现了心学理论与社会治理的有效结合。在构建国家现代化治理体系的时代背景下,指出当代国家治理体系建设应重视继承和吸收中国传统国家治理的理论成果和实践经验。

  9. Cultivating Mind Fitness through Mindfulness Training: Applied Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenfeldt, Jo Ann; Herkenhoff, Linda; Coe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness reduces distress, promotes optimal health, improves attentional control, mental agility, emotional intelligence, and situational awareness. Stress management and cognitive performance in Marines who spent more hours practicing Mindfulness Based Mind Fitness Training were superior to those soldiers who practiced fewer hours. Students…

  10. The Politics of Mindfulness. A Response to "Mindfulness, Democracy, Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is rapidly becoming a mainstream educational intervention. A growing number of schools, colleges, and universities are incorporating mindfulness into the curriculum, and while there is a substantial body of research literature in psychology attesting to the mental and physical benefits of mindfulness, critics of the movement have…

  11. The Politics of Mindfulness. A Response to "Mindfulness, Democracy, Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is rapidly becoming a mainstream educational intervention. A growing number of schools, colleges, and universities are incorporating mindfulness into the curriculum, and while there is a substantial body of research literature in psychology attesting to the mental and physical benefits of mindfulness, critics of the movement have…

  12. Memory, Mind and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memory, Mind and Language celebrates the 30th anniversary of the The Nordic Association of Linguists (NAL) and the main contribution is the history of those first 30 years. The book is also an overview of trends and basic problems in linguistics in the first decennium of the 21st century. It takes...... up a number of topics in the field, among them the question of synchrony vs. diachrony in the language sciences, and issues of how to investigate the relationship between language, brain and mind. The book proposes some preliminary solutions to that problem, and, most significantly, it touches...

  13. Mindfulness, Multitasking, and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    The ability to multitask has been typically worn like a badge of honor for all case managers. Mindfulness, on the contrary, is the new kid on the block and is proving to increase resilience and decrease stress. Research shows that multitasking lowers IQ, shrinks the gray matter, and lowers productivity by 40%. Conversely, mindfulness increases gray matter and improves regions involved with learning and memory processes, modulation of emotional control, and the process of awareness. The research leaves more questions than answers but may be a key to engaged, focused, and less-stressed staff.

  14. MasterMind

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Desarrollo de una aplicación en Android que sea totalmente funcional. En este caso nos hemos propuesto desarrollar el juego MasterMind, un clásico de los juegos de mesa, pero adaptándolo a las nuevas tecnologías que nos permitirán darle una orientación social al estilo de Apalabrados o Mezcladitos. Desenvolupament d'una aplicació en Android que sigui totalment funcional. En aquest cas ens hem proposat desenvolupar el joc MasterMind, un clàssic dels jocs de taula, però adaptant-lo a les nov...

  15. The Mind-Body Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Jerry A.

    1981-01-01

    Describes several different philosophies of mind with each philosophy's explanation of the mind-body problem. Philosophies discussed include dualism, materialism, functionalism, radical behaviorism, logical behaviorism and central-state identity. (DS)

  16. Mindfulness handler ikke om individualisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden

    2013-01-01

    Kommentar til indlæg i Ugebrevet A4 om, at mindfulness virker individualiserende på arbejdspladsen.......Kommentar til indlæg i Ugebrevet A4 om, at mindfulness virker individualiserende på arbejdspladsen....

  17. A call for change: the 2011 Commonwealth Fund Survey of Public Views of the U.S. Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremikis, Kristof; Schoen, Cathy; Fryer, Ashley-Kay

    2011-04-01

    More than seven of 10 adults believe the U.S. health system needs fundamental change or complete rebuilding. Most adults surveyed reported difficulties accessing care, poor care coordination, and struggles with the costs and administrative hassles of health insurance. In addition, the survey finds substantial evidence of inefficient and wasteful delivery of health services. When looking toward the future, nearly three of four adults worry about getting high-quality care or paying medical bills. Respondents favor policies that encourage more patient-centered and integrated care, and nearly nine of 10 think it is important for private and public payers to work together to negotiate prices and improve quality. These experiences attest to the value of reforms aimed at stimulating and supporting the spread of more patient-centered, accountable care organizations. To the extent reforms succeed, patients and their families stand to gain from more accessible, safer, responsive, and less wasteful care.

  18. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing ...

  19. A Case Study of Framing and Project Design Impacts on Participant Identity, Views, and Trust of Science in a Phenology Public Participatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, A. E.; Jordan, R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent literature has suggested public participatory research models (e.g., citizen science and similar) as a key opportunity for scientists to meaningfully engage and communicate with the public to increase support for science and encourage pro-science behavior. In this, there has been an inherent assumption that all models of engagement yield similar participant results with few examples of assessment of these programs. While many of these programs do share superficial similarities in their modes of participant engagement and participant motivation, there is a large disparity in participant engagement between them. This disparity suggests that framing of these projects (e.g., citizen science versus crowd sourcing) also plays an important role in decisions about participation. Additionally, participant outcomes, in terms of beliefs about scientific practices and scientific trust, between these two project types has not yet been investigated. To investigate the impact of framing, participants were recruited to a web-based tree phenology public participatory research program where half the participants were engaged in a citizen science framed program and the other were engaged in a crowdsourced framed project. The participants in each frame were engaged in the same task (reporting leaf budding/leaf drop), but the way the projects were framed differed. Post-participation we see that there are indeed statistically significant differences in participant outcomes between individuals who participated as a citizen scientist versus as a crowdsourcer. Particularly we see differences in terms of their views of science, identity, and trust of science. This work is the first to the authors' knowledge that aims to evaluate if projects can be treated synonymously when discussing potential for public engagement and broader trust and literacy outcomes.

  20. Scientific publications about DNA structure-function and PCR technique in Costa Rica: A historic view (1953-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J Albertazzi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The spreading of knowledge depends on the access to the information and its immediate use. Models are useful to explain specific phenomena. The scientific community accepts some models in Biology after a period of time, once it has evidence to support it. The model of the structure and function of the DNA proposed by Watson & Crick (1953 was not the exception, since a few years later the DNA model was finally accepted. In Costa Rica, DNA function was first mentioned in 1970, in the magazine Biología Tropical (Tropical Biology Magazine, more than 15 years after its first publication in a scientific journal. An opposite situation occurs with technical innovations. If the efficiency of a new scientific technique is proved in a compelling way, then the acceptance by the community comes swiftly. This was the case of the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. The first PCR machine in Costa Rica arrived in 1991, only three years after its publication. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 417-421. Epub 2004 Dic 15.La diseminación del conocimiento depende de la disponibilidad de la información y aplicar dicha información para resolver una problema. Los modelos sirvan para explicar fenómenos determinados. En Biología los modelos son aceptados por la comunidad científica después de cierto tiempo si ha probado su validez y reconocido la evidencia para apoyar dicho modelo. El modelo estructural y función de la molécula de ADN propuesto por Watson y Crick (1953 no fue la excepción pues tardó varios años en ser completamente aceptado por la comunidad científica. En Costa Rica la primera publicación relacionada con la función del ADN fue en la Revista Biología Tropical fue en 1970, más de 15 años después de ser propuesta. La situación contraria se presenta cuando son innovaciones técnicas. Si la eficiencia es demostrada, rápidamente se incorpora dentro de la comunidad. Este fue el caso de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, abreviado en inglés como

  1. Mindful Social Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debaene, Raf

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness gets growing attention in the education and practice of social work. It is seen as an important source of inspiration for social work and as a counterbalance for the rationalization of social work. Hick states that mindfulness “is an orientation to our everyday experiences that can be cultivated by means of various exercises and practices. By opening up in a particular way to their internal and external experiences, social workers and clients are better able to understand what is happening to them in both a psychological and sociological sense. With this understanding, people are better able to see the variety of ways in which they can respond. Habitual reactions are more easily avoided, and inner peace and balance are developed” (Hick 2009: 1. Despite this praise of mindfulness as an important source of inspiration and the expectation that its popularity might expand in the next century, it is argued in this essay by Raf Debaene that mindfulness, although possibly very useful in some settings, had very little to do with social work.

  2. Origins of Mindfulness & Meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness & meditation are gaining popularity in the Western psychological practice in the past 3-4 decades, especially within psychotherapeutic approaches, health promotion, and stress reduction. The origins and the broader context, however, seem to be overlooked in some of these practices...

  3. Mindfulness, Democracy, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Andrea Marie; LaPrad, James G.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explain how mindfulness can enhance a democratic way of being, connecting practices of awareness, reflection, dialog, and action to democratic citizenship and social arrangements. We begin by sharing our understanding of democracy as a philosophy and a political system. We then provide a background for the concept of…

  4. Mind, brain and person:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    tools to explain the relationship between mind and brain in a sophisticated way that is .... i) Psychiatry as a subject in relation to psychology and neurology, or .... of discourse, or conceptual schemes.24 He portrayed this pluralism as lacking ...

  5. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  6. Mindfulness and psychological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J Mark G

    2010-02-01

    The author reviews the articles in the Special Section on Mindfulness, starting from the assumption that emotions evolved as signaling systems that need to be sensitive to environmental contingencies. Failure to switch off emotion is due to the activation of mental representations of present, past, and future that are created independently of external contingencies. Mindfulness training can be seen as one way to teach people to discriminate such "simulations" from objects and contingencies as they actually are. The articles in this Special Section show how even brief laboratory training can have effects on processing affective stimuli; that long-term meditation practitioners show distinct reactions to pain; that longer meditation training is associated with differences in brain structure; that 8 weeks' mindfulness practice brings about changes in the way emotion is processed showing that participants can learn to uncouple the sensory, directly experienced self from the "narrative" self; that mindfulness training can affect working memory capacity, and enhance the ability of participants to talk about past crises in a way that enables them to remain specific and yet not be overwhelmed. The implications of these findings for understanding emotion and for further research is discussed.

  7. Calming the Monkey Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliuk, Kendra; Chorney, David

    2017-01-01

    Many of today's students are experiencing higher levels of stress and anxiety in school. The need for competitive grades, the desire to be seen as perfect in a digital society, and parental pressures are only some of the reasons that students are experiencing more stress. This increased stress has lead to an overworked mind for many youth, dubbed…

  8. Mindfulness, mist of mirakel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness wordt steeds meer gebruikt als onderdeel van een behandeling in de ggz. Over de definitie en de werking ervan bestaat echter geen consensus. Het is maar de vraag of elementen uit de boeddhistische leer en cultuur zomaar overgeplant kunnen worden naar de westerse gezondheidszorg. Van op z

  9. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  10. Mindful Emotion Regulation: Exploring the Neurocognitive Mechanisms behind Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grecucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review some of the psychological and neural mechanisms behind mindfulness practice in order to explore the unique factors that account for its positive impact on emotional regulation and health. After reviewing the mechanisms of mindfulness and its effects on clinical populations we will consider how the practice of mindfulness contributes to the regulation of emotions. We argue that mindfulness has achieved effective outcomes in the treatment of anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologies through the contribution of mindfulness to emotional regulation. We consider the unique factors that mindfulness meditation brings to the process of emotion regulation that may account for its effectiveness. We review experimental evidence that points towards the unique effects of mindfulness specifically operating over and above the regulatory effects of cognitive reappraisal mechanisms. A neuroanatomical circuit that leads to mindful emotion regulation is also suggested. This paper thereby aims to contribute to proposed models of mindfulness for research and theory building by proposing a specific model for the unique psychological and neural processes involved in mindful detachment that account for the effects of mindfulness over and above the effects accounted for by other well-established emotional regulation processes such as cognitive reappraisal.

  11. The Jupyter/IPython architecture: a unified view of computational research, from interactive exploration to communication and publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan-Kelley, M.; Perez, F.; Granger, B.; Kluyver, T.; Ivanov, P.; Frederic, J.; Bussonnier, M.

    2014-12-01

    IPython has provided terminal-based tools for interactive computing in Python since 2001. The notebook document format and multi-process architecture introduced in 2011 have expanded the applicable scope of IPython into teaching, presenting, and sharing computational work, in addition to interactive exploration. The new architecture also allows users to work in any language, with implementations in Python, R, Julia, Haskell, and several other languages. The language agnostic parts of IPython have been renamed to Jupyter, to better capture the notion that a cross-language design can encapsulate commonalities present in computational research regardless of the programming language being used. This architecture offers components like the web-based Notebook interface, that supports rich documents that combine code and computational results with text narratives, mathematics, images, video and any media that a modern browser can display. This interface can be used not only in research, but also for publication and education, as notebooks can be converted to a variety of output formats, including HTML and PDF. Recent developments in the Jupyter project include a multi-user environment for hosting notebooks for a class or research group, a live collaboration notebook via Google Docs, and better support for languages other than Python.

  12. Mindful attention reduces neural and self-reported cue-induced craving in smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John David; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Julson, Erica; Kober, Hedy; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be beneficial for smoking cessation and the treatment of other addictive disorders. One way that mindfulness may facilitate smoking cessation is through the reduction of craving to smoking cues. The present work considers whether mindful attention can reduce self-reported and neural markers of cue-induced craving in treatment seeking smokers. Forty-seven (n = 47) meditation-naïve treatment-seeking smokers (12-h abstinent from smoking) viewed and made ratings of smoking and neutral images while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were trained and instructed to view these images passively or with mindful attention. Results indicated that mindful attention reduced self-reported craving to smoking images, and reduced neural activity in a craving-related region of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Moreover, a psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that mindful attention reduced functional connectivity between sgACC and other craving-related regions compared to passively viewing smoking images, suggesting that mindfulness may decouple craving neurocircuitry when viewing smoking cues. These results provide an initial indication that mindful attention may describe a ‘bottom-up’ attention to one’s present moment experience in ways that can help reduce subjective and neural reactivity to smoking cues in smokers. PMID:22114078

  13. Having views, abandoning views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In the bKa' brgyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, holding a philosophical view cannot produce an understanding of ultimate reality. The article contains some arguments why views must ultimately be abandoned....

  14. Children's strategic theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Itai; Koenig, Melissa; Rustichini, Aldo

    2014-09-16

    Human strategic interaction requires reasoning about other people's behavior and mental states, combined with an understanding of their incentives. However, the ontogenic development of strategic reasoning is not well understood: At what age do we show a capacity for sophisticated play in social interactions? Several lines of inquiry suggest an important role for recursive thinking (RT) and theory of mind (ToM), but these capacities leave out the strategic element. We posit a strategic theory of mind (SToM) integrating ToM and RT with reasoning about incentives of all players. We investigated SToM in 3- to 9-y-old children and adults in two games that represent prevalent aspects of social interaction. Children anticipate deceptive and competitive moves from the other player and play both games in a strategically sophisticated manner by 7 y of age. One game has a pure strategy Nash equilibrium: In this game, children achieve equilibrium play by the age of 7 y on the first move. In the other game, with a single mixed-strategy equilibrium, children's behavior moved toward the equilibrium with experience. These two results also correspond to two ways in which children's behavior resembles adult behavior in the same games. In both games, children's behavior becomes more strategically sophisticated with age on the first move. Beyond the age of 7 y, children begin to think about strategic interaction not myopically, but in a farsighted way, possibly with a view to cooperating and capitalizing on mutual gains in long-run relationships.

  15. Having views, abandoning views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In the bKa' brgyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, holding a philosophical view cannot produce an understanding of ultimate reality. The article contains some arguments why views must ultimately be abandoned.......In the bKa' brgyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, holding a philosophical view cannot produce an understanding of ultimate reality. The article contains some arguments why views must ultimately be abandoned....

  16. Mind, Matter, Information and Quantum Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Maleeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I give a new information-theoretic analysis of the formalisms and interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM in general, and of two mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics in particular: The Copenhagen interpretation and David Bohm’s interpretation of quantum mechanics. Adopting Juan G. Roederer’s reading of the notion of pragmatic information, I argue that pragmatic information is not applicable to the Copenhagen interpretation since the interpretation is primarily concerned with epistemology rather than ontology. However it perfectly fits Bohm’s ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics in the realms of biotic and artificial systems. Viewing Bohm’s interpretation of QM in the context of pragmatic information imposes serious limitations to the qualitative aspect of such an interpretation, making his extension of the notion active information to every level of reality illegitimate. Such limitations lead to the idea that, contrary to Bohm’s claim, mind is not a more subtle aspect of reality via the quantum potential as active information, but the quantum potential as it affects particles in the double-slit experiment represents the non-algorithmic aspect of the mind as a genuine information processing system. This will provide an information-based ground, firstly, for refreshing our views on quantum interpretations and secondly, for a novel qualitative theory of the relationship of mind and matter in which mind-like properties are exclusive attributes of living systems. To this end, I will also take an information-theoretic approach to the notion of intentionality as interpreted by John Searle.

  17. Navigating diagnoses: understanding mind-body relations, mental health, and stigma in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Harper, Ian

    2008-12-01

    Anthropologists and psychiatrists traditionally have used the salience of a mind-body dichotomy to distinguish Western from non-Western ethnopsychologies. However, despite claims of mind-body holism in non-Western cultures, mind-body divisions are prominent in non-Western groups. In this article, we discuss three issues: the ethnopsychology of mind-body dichotomies in Nepal, the relationship between mind-body dichotomies and the hierarchy of resort in a medical pluralistic context, and, finally, the role of mind-body dichotomies in public health interventions (biomedical and psychosocial) aimed toward decreasing the stigmatization of mental illness. We assert that, by understanding mind-body relations in non-Western settings, their implications, and ways in which to reconstitute these relations in a less stigmatizing manner, medical anthropologists and mental health workers can contribute to the reduction of stigma in global mental health care.

  18. Effects of preventive online mindfulness interventions on stress and mindfulness: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasantha P. Jayawardene, MD, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence suggested that mind-body interventions can be effectively delivered online. This study aimed to examine whether preventive online mindfulness interventions (POMI for non-clinical populations improve short- and long-term outcomes for perceived-stress (primary and mindfulness (secondary. Systematic search of four electronic databases, manuscript reference lists, and journal content lists was conducted in 2016, using 21 search-terms. Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating effects of POMI in non-clinical populations with adequately reported perceived-stress and mindfulness measures pre- and post-intervention were included. Random-effects models utilized for all effect-size estimations with meta-regression performed for mean age and %females. Participants were volunteers (adults; predominantly female from academic, workplace, or community settings. Most interventions utilized simplified Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction protocols over 2–12 week periods. Post-intervention, significant medium effect found for perceived-stress (g = 0.432, with moderate heterogeneity and significant, but small, effect size for mindfulness (g = 0.275 with low heterogeneity; highest effects were for middle-aged individuals. At follow-up, significant large effect found for perceived-stress (g = 0.699 with low heterogeneity and significant medium effect (g = 0.466 for mindfulness with high heterogeneity. No publication bias was found for perceived-stress; publication bias found for mindfulness outcomes led to underestimation of effects, not overestimation. Number of eligible RCTs was low with inadequate data reporting in some studies. POMI had substantial stress reduction effects and some mindfulness improvement effects. POMI can be a more convenient and cost-effective strategy, compared to traditional face-to-face interventions, especially in the context of busy, hard-to-reach, but digitally-accessible populations.

  19. Zhou Zuo-ren's View on Nature and The Literary Mind and Carving of Dragons%周作人的“自然”观与《文心雕龙》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权绘锦

    2011-01-01

    "自然"在周作人的文学批评中占据着核心位置。它既是对以《文心雕龙》为代表的传统文论的继承,又经过了具有现代意义和个性的改造。文章旨在厘清二者之间既有相同之处,又存在显著差异的复杂关系,阐明现代文学批评与传统文论之间割舍不断的历史连续性。%"Nature"occupies a core position in Zhou Zuo-ren's literary criticism.It is the succession of traditional literary theory represented by The Literary Mind and Carving of Dragons,also refined by Zhou Zuo-ren.This paper aims to clear up the complex relation

  20. Decade of the Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Manfred

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Fall of 2007, ten neuroscientists published a proposal for an interdisciplinary research initiative, the Decade of the Mind, that would focus on four "broad but intertwined areas": mental health, research on high-level cognitive functions, education, and computational applications (such as intelligent machines. I review the basic ideas behind the proposal and discuss the four proposed areas of research. I argue that for research on higher cognitive functions and in particular, for research and practice in education, the Decade of the Mind is a welcome initiative that may change our lives for the better. Therefore, the proposal, which is scientifically interdisciplinary in nature, has to be politically international.

  1. Mind, esprit, psychologie.

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    L’A. examine quelques raisons de la difficulté à délimiter un domaine français de la philosophie de l’esprit qui soit l’équivalent de la « philosophy of mind » : définir la « philosophie de l’esprit » aujourd’hui nécessiterait une réflexion préalable sur le statut de l’esprit, et sur les enjeux philosophiques et historiques de la constitution d’une « philosophy of mind », plutôt que l’acceptation non critique de théories du « mental ». L’A. tente de définir le domaine de la « philosophy of mi...

  2. Language, games, and minds

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Language has often been compared to the game of Chess. In this article, I claim that a productive analogy for linguistic interaction would be the Asian board game GO. I further explore common aspects of language use and creative play that we find in improvised ensemble music-making.  What is said about language and games, and language and improvised music-making is then related to a discussion of linguistic interaction as constitutive of thought and mind.

  3. The embodied mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s the study of the brain has developed from a primarily biological field to a significant interdisciplinary area with an already strong influence on the humanities and social sciences. In this article I describe fundamental elements in what I call the embodied mind paradigm and the ......, philosophy, sociology and film studies.This article is published as part of an ongoing collection dedicated to interdisciplinary research...

  4. Blacked-out spaces: Freud, censorship and the re-territorialization of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galison, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Freud's analogies were legion: hydraulic pipes, military recruitment, magic writing pads. These and some three hundred others took features of the mind and bound them to far-off scenes--the id only very partially resembles an uncontrollable horse, as Freud took pains to note. But there was one relation between psychic and public act that Freud did not delimit in this way: censorship, the process that checked memories and dreams on their way to the conscious. (Freud dubbed the relation between internal and external censorship a 'parallel' rather than a limited analogy.) At first, Freud likened this suppression to the blacking out of texts at the Russian frontier. During the First World War, he suffered, and spoke of suffering under, Viennese postal and newspaper censorship--Freud was forced to leave his envelopes unsealed, and to recode or delete content. Over and over, he registered the power of both internal and public censorship in shared form: distortion, anticipatory deletion, softenings, even revision to hide suppression. Political censorship left its mark as the conflict reshaped his view of the psyche into a society on a war footing, with homunculus-like border guards sifting messages as they made their way--or did not--across a topography of mind.

  5. Mind, Thinking and Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global civilization is the product of diverse cultures, each contributing a unique perspective arising from the development of different mental faculties and powers of mind. The momentous achievements of modern science are the result of the cumulative development of mind’s capacity for analytic thinking, mathematical rendering and experimental validation. The near-exclusive preoccupation with analysis, universal laws, mechanism, materialism, and objective experience over the past two centuries has shaped the world we live in today, accounting both for its accomplishments and its insoluble problems. Today humanity confronts complex challenges that defy solution by piecemeal analysis, unidimensional theories, and fragmented strategies. Poverty, unemployment, economic crisis, fundamentalism, violence, climate change, war, refugees, reflect the limitations and blindspots that have resulted from a partial, one-sided application of the diverse capacities of the human mind. Human monocultures suffer from all the limitations as their biological counterparts. There is urgent need to revive the legitimacy of synthetic, organic and integrated modes of thinking, to restore the credibility of subjective self-experience in science, to reaffirm the place of symbol, analogy and metaphor as valid ways of knowing and communication in education, to recognize the unique role of the individual in social processes, to recognize the central role of insight and intuition in science as in art. This article examines themes presented at the WAAS-WUC course on Mind, Thinking and Creativity, conducted at Dubrovnik in April 2016.

  6. Mario Bunge's Materialist Theory of Mind and Contemporary Cognitive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Bunge's writings on the mind-body problem provide a rigorous, analytical antidote to the persistent anti-materialist tendency that has characterized the history of philosophy and science. Bunge gives special attention to dualism and its shortcomings, and this attention is welcome in view of the resurgence of the doctrine today. However, I focus my…

  7. How mindfulness changed my sleep: focus groups with chronic insomnia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbling, Amber; Reilly-Spong, Maryanne; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Gross, Cynthia R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic insomnia is a major public health problem affecting approximately 10% of adults. Use of meditation and yoga to develop mindful awareness (‘mindfulness training’) may be an effective approach to treat chronic insomnia, with sleep outcomes comparable to nightly use of prescription sedatives, but more durable and with minimal or no side effects. The purpose of this study was to understand mindfulness training as experienced by patients with chronic insomnia, and suggest proced...

  8. Current Views and Perspectives on E-Mental Health: An Exploratory Survey Study for Understanding Public Attitudes Toward Internet-Based Psychotherapy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinário-Hagen, Jennifer; Vehreschild, Viktor; Alkoudmani, Ramez M

    2017-02-23

    , which we labeled "usefulness or helpfulness," "relative advantage or comparability," and "accessibility or access to health care." Analyses revealed negative views about Internet-based therapies on most domains, such as perceived helpfulness. The study findings further indicated ambivalent attitudes: Although most respondents agreed to statements on expected improvements in health care (eg, expanded access), we observed low intentions to future use of Internet-delivered therapies in case of mental health problems. This pilot study showed deficient "e-awareness" and rather negative or ambivalent attitudes toward Internet-delivered therapies in the German-speaking general population. However, research targeting determinants of the large-scale adoption of Internet-based psychotherapy is still in its infancy. Thus, further research is required to explore the "black box" of public attitudes toward Internet-delivered therapies with representative samples, validated measures, and longitudinal survey designs.

  9. Language facilitates introspection: Verbal mind-wandering has privileged access to consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Mikaël; Lerique, Sébastien; Adam, Vincent; Franklin, Michael S; Schooler, Jonathan W; Sackur, Jérôme

    2017-03-01

    Introspection and language are the cognitive prides of humankind, but their interactions in healthy cognition remain unclear. Episodes of mind-wandering, where personal thoughts often go unnoticed for some time before being introspected, offer a unique opportunity to study the role of language in introspection. In this paper, we show that inner speech facilitates awareness of mind-wandering. In two experiments, we either interfered with verbal working memory, via articulatory suppression (Exp. 1), or entrained it, via presentation of verbal material (Exp. 2), and measured the resulting awareness of mind-wandering. Articulatory suppression decreased the likelihood to spontaneously notice mind-wandering, whereas verbal material increased retrospective awareness of mind-wandering. In addition, an ecological study using smartphones confirmed that inner speech vividness positively predicted mind-wandering awareness (Exp. 3). Together, these findings support the view that inner speech facilitates introspection of one's thoughts, and therefore provides empirical evidence for a positive relation between language and consciousness.

  10. 8 Questions About the Conscious Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, A.J.P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Can the mind function separately from the brain? Can machines have conscious minds? Is Google Maps part of the conscious mind? Hans Dooremalen provides answers to these three and five other questions about the conscious mind in an easy to read introduction to the philosophy of mind.

  11. Mindful parenting in mental health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogels, S.M.; Lehtonen, A.; Restifo, K.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness is a form of meditation based on the Buddhist tradition, which has been used over the last two decades to successfully treat a multitude of mental health problems. Bringing mindfulness into parenting ("mindful parenting") is one of the applications of mindfulness. Mindful parenting inter

  12. Research Stakeholders' Views on Benefits and Challenges for Public Health Research Data Sharing in Kenya: The Importance of Trust and Social Relations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Jao

    Full Text Available There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries.Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates.The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science.Given background structural inequities in much

  13. Computers in the Classroom? A Critique of the Digital Computer as a Metaphor for Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Keith

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that the computer/artificial intelligence (AI) metaphor dominates current thinking about the operation of the mind among educators and the public, and that the metaphor limits one's understanding of how the mind really works to detrimental effect. In particular, the author posits that ideas about literacy are…

  14. Stress Prevention and Mindfulness: A Psychoeducational and Support Group for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Jenson E.; Murphy, Susan L.; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    A stress prevention and mindfulness (SPAM) group is described, which is a 6-week psychoeducational and support group for teachers. The group incorporated psychoeducation about stress and utilized elements of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). The group was implemented in a public charter school in the Southwest. Preliminary evaluation…

  15. Virtual Replica of Matter in Bivacuum & Possible Mechanism of Distant Mind - Matter and Mind - Mind Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Kaivarainen, A

    2001-01-01

    The original mechanism of bivacuum mediated Mind-Matter and Mind-Mind interaction, proposed here, is based on the following stages of long term efforts: New dynamic models of bivacuum, sub-elementary particles and corpuscle-wave [C-W] duality, as a background of Superunification; New Hierarchic theory of liquids and solids; New Hierarchic model of elementary act of consciousness; Virtual Replica (VR)of matter, including living organisms, in bivacuum; The distant resonant [Mind-Bivacuum-Matter] and [Mind-Bivacuum-Mind] interaction, mediated by Bivacuum oscillation (BvO, accompanied by virtual particles/antiparticles pressure oscillation. The latter factor is related to oscillation of vacuum permittivity and permeability. The virtual replica (VR) of condensed matter (living organisms in private case), may influence the properties of virtual pressure of bivacuum in following manner: 1) changing the amplitude of virtual pressure waves (VPW) in-phase with Bivacuum oscillations (BvO). This factor is dependent on fr...

  16. The balanced mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Micah; Smallwood, Jonathan; Christensen, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    in the default mode network (DMN). However, recent findings suggest that TUTs and the DMN can also facilitate metacognitive abilities and related behaviors. To further understand these relationships, we examined the influence of subjective intensity, ruminative quality, and variability of mind...... error awareness, supporting a link between monitoring and TUTs. Altogether our results suggest that although TUT is detrimental to task performance, fluctuations in attention between self-generated and external task-related thought is a characteristic of individuals with greater metacognitive monitoring...

  17. Philosophy of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Georges

    2010-09-01

    Philosophy of mind concerns questions about mental phenomena that empirical research alone can't settle, such as the nature of mental states and which sorts of things can have them-only living things, or also machines? Settling them requires reflection on such phenomena as consciousness, rationality, and intentionality; the 'explanatory gaps' that seem to exist between these; and underlying physical phenomena and the different strategies-dualist, eliminativist, physicalist, and functionalist-that have been proposed for dealing with them. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  18. Mind in ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A Venkoba

    2002-07-01

    Ayurveda now among the alternative complementary systems of medicine is over 5000 years old. Its origin and the compilation of Caraka Samhita are noted. The nature of mind as a sensory and a motor organ, its structure and functions are discussed. The concept of Thdosha theory and Trigunas are explained besides the so-called master-forms of Doshas namely Prana, Tejas and Ojas. The constituional and tempermental types depending upon the doshas are described. These determine diagnoses and guide treatment. Ayurveda is highlighted as a holistic system with its concern for prevention of disease and promotion of health. Disease denotes failure of prophylaxis. Some methods of Ayurvedic therapy are mentioned.

  19. Being Mindful about the Use of Mindfulness in Clinical Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimidjian, Sona; Kleiber, Blair

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, interest in the use and investigation of mindfulness-based interventions in clinical settings has expanded greatly. This commentary addresses key questions facing clinicians and researchers in order to undertake future work with rigor and care. We consider, in particular, questions regarding the definition of mindfulness,…

  20. Return to work after vocational rehabilitation: does mindfulness matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindholmen S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Solveig Vindholmen,1 Rune Høigaard,2 Geir Arild Espnes,3 Stephen Seiler41Department of Psychosocial Health, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; 2Department of Public Health, Sport and Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; 3Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources, Department of Social Work and Health Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 4Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Kristiansand, NorwayPurpose: Mindfulness has become an important construct in return-to-work (RTW rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mindfulness is a predictor for RTW, and to examine the indirect effect of mindfulness on RTW and work ability through quality of life (QOL.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted among 80 former participants (71 females and seven males from age 24 to 66, in a multidisciplinary vocational rehabilitation program (MVRP. Self-report questionnaires were used to measure work status, work ability, QOL, and mindfulness. Demographic data were also collected.Results: In the current sample, 47% of participants reported having returned to ordinary work. The majority of the non-working sub-sample reported being in work-related activity or education. A bias-corrected bootstrapping technique was used to examine indirect effects. Results revealed that mindfulness was indirectly related to both RTW and work ability through QOL. There was no significant total effect of mindfulness on work ability or RTW. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of mindfulness on the likelihood that respondents returned to work. None of the independent mindfulness variables (observe, describe, act aware, non-judge, non-react made a unique statistically significant contribution to the model. The covariates work ability and education level significantly

  1. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  2. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  3. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  4. Beyond Mindfulness: Buddha Nature and the Four Postures in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacamano, James; Altman, Jennifer K

    2016-10-01

    We propose to incorporate the contextual view of the Buddhist teachings of the Three Turnings into applications of mindfulness in psychotherapy; specifically by applying the teaching of the Four Postures, which are expressions of innate health in ordinary life activities. This practice may expand understanding of the core mechanisms of different modalities of mindfulness and psychotherapy, thereby supporting clinicians in guiding clients on a healing path that is in natural alignment with each individual. By its allegiance to inherent wakefulness (Buddha Nature), this teaching supports clients in appreciating their own inherent health and the health of the world around them.

  5. Fluctuating Minds: Spontaneous Psychophysical Variability during Mind-Wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez, Rodrigo A; Chica, Ana B; Billeke, Pablo; Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Mind-wandering is the occasional distraction we experience while performing a cognitive task. It arises without any external precedent, varies over time, and interferes with the processing of sensory information. Here, we asked whether the transition from the on-task state to mind-wandering is a gradual process or an abrupt event. We developed a new experimental approach, based on the continuous, online assessment of individual psychophysical performance. Probe questions were asked whenever response times (RTs) exceeded 2 standard deviations from the participant's average RT. Results showed that mind-wandering reports were generally preceded by slower RTs, as compared to trials preceding on-task reports. Mind-wandering episodes could be reliably predicted from the response time difference between the last and the second-to-last trials. Thus, mind-wandering reports follow an abrupt increase in behavioral variability, lasting between 2.5 and 10 seconds.

  6. Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Peter; Petersen, Marian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of mindfulness meditation on chronic pain. DESIGN: A total of 109 patients with nonspecific chronic pain were randomized to either a standardized mindfulness meditation program (mindfulness-based stress reduction [MBSR...

  7. Specific mindfulness skills differentially predict creative performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, M.; Nevicka, B.; ten Velden, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Past work has linked mindfulness to improved emotion regulation, interpersonal skills, and basic cognitive abilities, but is unclear about the relation between mindfulness and creativity. Studies examining effects of mindfulness on factors pertinent to creativity suggest a uniform and positive

  8. Mindful Climate Action: Health and Environmental Co-Benefits from Mindfulness-Based Behavioral Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Barrett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes. We designed the Mindful Climate Action (MCA curriculum to help people improve their health while simultaneously lowering their carbon footprints. Combining mindfulness-based practices with the Stages of Change theory, the MCA program aims to: (1 improve personal health and well-being; (2 decrease energy use; (3 reduce automobile use; (4 increase active transport; (5 shift diet towards plant-based foods; and (6 reduce unnecessary purchasing. Mindfulness practices will foster attentional awareness, openness, and response flexibility, supporting positive behavior change. We plan to test MCA in a randomized controlled trial, with rigorous assessment of targeted outcomes. Our long-term goal is to refine and adapt the MCA program to a variety of audiences, in order to enhance public health and environmental sustainability.

  9. Mindful Climate Action: Health and Environmental Co-Benefits from Mindfulness-Based Behavioral Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce; Grabow, Maggie; Middlecamp, Cathy; Mooney, Margaret; Checovich, Mary M; Converse, Alexander K; Gillespie, Bob; Yates, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes. We designed the Mindful Climate Action (MCA) curriculum to help people improve their health while simultaneously lowering their carbon footprints. Combining mindfulness-based practices with the Stages of Change theory, the MCA program aims to: (1) improve personal health and well-being; (2) decrease energy use; (3) reduce automobile use; (4) increase active transport; (5) shift diet towards plant-based foods; and (6) reduce unnecessary purchasing. Mindfulness practices will foster attentional awareness, openness, and response flexibility, supporting positive behavior change. We plan to test MCA in a randomized controlled trial, with rigorous assessment of targeted outcomes. Our long-term goal is to refine and adapt the MCA program to a variety of audiences, in order to enhance public health and environmental sustainability.

  10. How Public Is Public Administration? A Constitutional Approach of Publicness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeling, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Both in Public Administration and in practice, there is a loss of the concept of public. A view became dominant in which markets were superior to governments and public to private. Not only did the esteem of the public sphere diminish, but also its significance in our reasoning and teaching. It became less clear what the public sphere stood for.…

  11. How Public Is Public Administration? A Constitutional Approach of Publicness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeling, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Both in Public Administration and in practice, there is a loss of the concept of public. A view became dominant in which markets were superior to governments and public to private. Not only did the esteem of the public sphere diminish, but also its significance in our reasoning and teaching. It became less clear what the public sphere stood for.…

  12. Creating an open mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Duncan

    2011-07-01

    Duncan Monaghan is 33 years old and in his second year of an Arts degree in Creative Writing. He is a published poet and is currently producing a music CD. Duncan has a history of bipolar disorder which was diagnosed when he was nineteen: "It worried me at first a lot. It played on my mind constantly. I felt different from everybody else--I did not understand what was happening to me." Drawing on his life experiences, Duncan has been enhancing his recovery through creativity--in poetry, lyrics, music and story. "Life for me was a constant battle of relying on medication and appointments with my case manager...until I realized I could combine my recovery with my passions as a tool to use as an outlet to many of the "mind traps" I so often found hindering my own recovery." Duncan is Aboriginal and has experience of the mental health systems in most states and territories and now lives in Brisbane. This is a shortened version of his presentation at Creating Futures 2010.

  13. Memory, Mind and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memory, Mind and Language celebrates the 30th anniversary of the The Nordic Association of Linguists (NAL) and the main contribution is the history of those first 30 years. The book is also an overview of trends and basic problems in linguistics in the first decennium of the 21st century. It takes...... up a number of topics in the field, among them the question of synchrony vs. diachrony in the language sciences, and issues of how to investigate the relationship between language, brain and mind. The book proposes some preliminary solutions to that problem, and, most significantly, it touches...... on both general and specific issues in theory and analysis, e.g. ‘adverbs in English and Norwegian,’ ‘verb semantics,’ ‘pronouns in Estonian,’ ‘morphology and neurolinguistics,’ ‘word order and morphology,’ ‘the nature and use of prepotions’ and ‘speech acts.’ The contributing scholars come from a variety...

  14. Mindfulness Practices and Learning Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borker, David R.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest among educators in teaching and learning practices based on mindfulness, a concept derived from eastern meditative traditions. This paper describes how mindfulness practices and concepts can be used to enhance the student's learning experience in beginning economics courses. Specific areas with a high potential for…

  15. Mindfulness and the Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernay, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a hermeneutic phenomenological study of five beginning teachers who were introduced to mindfulness during their initial teacher education programme. The participants kept fortnightly journals and engaged in three interviews with the researcher to assess the benefits of using mindfulness during the first year of teaching. The…

  16. Words as cultivators of others minds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa S S Schilhab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The embodied-grounded view of cognition and language holds that sensorimotor experiences in the form of ‘re-enactments’ or ‘simulations’ are significant to the individual’s development of concepts and competent language use. However, a typical objection to the explanatory force of this view is that, in everyday life, we engage in linguistic exchanges about much more than might be directly accessible to our senses. For instance, when knowledge-sharing occurs as part of deep conversations between a teacher and student, language is the salient tool by which to obtain understanding, through the unfolding of explanations. Here, the acquisition of knowledge is realised through language, and the constitution of knowledge seems entirely linguistic.In this paper, based on a review of selected studies within contemporary embodied cognitive science, I propose that such linguistic exchanges, though occurring independently of direct experience, are in fact disguised forms of embodied cognition, leading to the reconciliation of the opposing views. I suggest that, in conversation, interlocutors use Words as Cultivators (WAC of other minds as a direct result of their embodied-grounded origin, rendering WAC a radical interpretation of the Words as social Tools (WAT proposal. The WAC hypothesis endorses the view of language as dynamic, continuously integrating with, and negotiating, cognitive processes in the individual. One such dynamic feature results from the ‘linguification process’, a term by which I refer to the socially produced mapping of a word to its referent which, mediated by the interlocutor, turns words into cultivators of others minds. In support of the linguification process hypothesis and WAC, I review relevant embodied-grounded research, and selected studies of instructed fear conditioning and guided imagery.

  17. Open-minded Local Gentlemen and Public Causes in Anti-Japanese Aggression Bases%开明士绅与抗日根据地的公益慈善事业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆刚

    2011-01-01

    It should not be neglected that during the war against Japanese aggression, open-minded local gentlemen played active roles in promoting education and health, disaster relief and building water conservancy projects.%抗战时期,开明士绅在参与推动根据地的教育发展、卫生进步、救荒赈济、兴修水利等公益慈善事业方面,都发挥了一定的积极作用,不应忽视。

  18. Current Views and Perspectives on E-Mental Health: An Exploratory Survey Study for Understanding Public Attitudes Toward Internet-Based Psychotherapy in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehreschild, Viktor; Alkoudmani, Ramez M

    2017-01-01

    attitudes toward Internet-based therapies, which we labeled “usefulness or helpfulness,” “relative advantage or comparability,” and “accessibility or access to health care.” Analyses revealed negative views about Internet-based therapies on most domains, such as perceived helpfulness. The study findings further indicated ambivalent attitudes: Although most respondents agreed to statements on expected improvements in health care (eg, expanded access), we observed low intentions to future use of Internet-delivered therapies in case of mental health problems. Conclusions This pilot study showed deficient “e-awareness” and rather negative or ambivalent attitudes toward Internet-delivered therapies in the German-speaking general population. However, research targeting determinants of the large-scale adoption of Internet-based psychotherapy is still in its infancy. Thus, further research is required to explore the “black box” of public attitudes toward Internet-delivered therapies with representative samples, validated measures, and longitudinal survey designs. PMID:28232298

  19. Mindful approach to University education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggi, Fiorenza; Bomba, Monica; Rimondini, Michela; Mutti, Maura; Pasta, Sara; Ricci, Chiara; Tagliabue, Luca; Valsecchi, Silvia; Monaco, Elide; Neri, Francesca; Oggiano, Silvia; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    A mindful approach to education and training could improve students’ reflective capacities and have positive effects on clinical practice because it facilitates a helping relationship. The main aims of this study were to investigate whether participation in a mindful-based University training was associated with increases in mindfulness skills as measured by the 5-Facet M Questionnaire, and to present the Italian validation of the questionnaire. Sixty-seven students from the course Neuro and Psychomotor Therapy were enrolled. They filled in the self-administered 5-Facet M Questionnaire before and 1 month after a mindfulness-based training, focused on role-playing and followed by a feedback group discussion. The Italian version of the 5-Facet M Questionnaire had good psychometric properties. The pre- and post-training analysis showed a significant increase in the subscale ‘Observing’. Findings suggest that role-playing and feedback group sessions are valid tools to improve students’ mindfulness skills. PMID:27729823

  20. 从公共关系学视角看高校学生管理%Discussion on College Student Management from the View of Public Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨笑

    2016-01-01

    influenced by family environment ,living environment ,education environment and net‐work environment ,contemporary college students hold insightful views of life ,value and world ,which makes the management of college students becomes more challenging with obvious communication barri‐ers .As to management work of college students ,establishing better communication with students is not only the key measure for school to meet education requirement ,reach education goals and realize educa‐tion ideal but also an important task for schools to set up school image and maintain schools ’ public rela‐tions .Related theory and skill in public relation can effectively shorten the psychological distance be‐tween teachers and students ,relax uncomfortable communication atmosphere ,and establish mutual trust relations ,which has unneglectable function for clearing and preventing communication barriers .%受家庭环境、生活环境、教育环境以及网络环境的影响,当代大学生群体对人生观、价值观、世界观有着自己独到的理解。使今天的高校学生管理更加富有挑战,沟通障碍更为凸显。对于高校学生管理工作来说,与学生建立良好的沟通不仅是学校满足教育要求、达成教育目标、实现教育理想的关键手段,更是树立学校形象,维护学校公共关系的重要任务。公共关系学中相关理论与技巧可以有效的缩短师生间心理距离、缓解不适沟通氛围、建立相互信任关系,对高校学生管理沟通障碍的化解与预防有着不可小觑的作用。

  1. Self-reported trait mindfulness and affective reactivity: a motivational approach using multiple psychophysiological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Danielle; Wiens, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture

  2. Self-reported trait mindfulness and affective reactivity: a motivational approach using multiple psychophysiological measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cosme

    Full Text Available As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51 passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN and late positive potential (LPP amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses

  3. Oculometric variations during mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandchamp, Romain; Braboszcz, Claire; Delorme, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    A significant body of literature supports the contention that pupil size varies depending on cognitive load, affective state, and level of drowsiness. Here we assessed whether oculometric measures such as gaze position, blink frequency and pupil size were correlated with the occurrence and time course of self-reported mind-wandering episodes. We recorded the pupil size of two subjects engaged in a monotonous breath counting task while keeping their eyes on a fixation cross. This task is conducive to producing mind-wandering episodes. Each subject performed ten 20-min sessions, for total duration of about 4 h. Subjects were instructed to report spontaneous mind-wandering episodes by pressing a button when they lost count of their breath. After each button press, subjects filled in a short questionnaire describing the characteristics of their mind-wandering episode. We observed larger pupil size during the breath-focusing period compared to the mind-wandering period (p mind wandering episodes in visual tasks. We discuss possible explanations for this discrepancy. We also analyzed nine other oculometric measures including blink rate, blink duration and gaze position. We built a support vector machine (SVM) classifier and showed that mean pupil size was the most reliable predictor of mind wandering in both subjects. The classification accuracy of mind wandering data segments vs. breath-focusing data segments was 81% for the first subject and 77% for the second subject. Additionally, we analyzed oculometric measures in light of the phenomenological data collected in the questionnaires. We showed that how well subjects remembered their thoughts while mind wandering was positively correlated with pupil size (subject 1, p mind-wandering episodes.

  4. Mindful Learning: A Case Study of Langerian Mindfulness in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase Davenport

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The K-12 classroom applications of mindfulness as developed by Ellen Langer are discussed in a case study of a first-year charter school. Langerian Mindfulness, which is the act of drawing distinctions and noticing novelty, is deeply related to well-being and creativity, yet its impact has yet to be tested at the primary or secondary school level. The objective of the article is to display how Langerian Mindfulness strategies could increase 21st century skills and Social-Emotional Learning in primary classrooms. The New School San Francisco, an inquiry-based, socioeconomically and racially integrated charter school, serves as a model for mindful teaching and learning strategies. It is concluded that when mindful strategies are implemented, students have significant opportunities to exercise the 21st century skills of creativity, collaboration, communication and critical thinking. Langerian Mindfulness is also considered as a tool for increasing Social-Emotional Learning in integrated classrooms. It is recommended that mindful interventions be further investigated in the primary and secondary school context.

  5. Mindful Learning: A Case Study of Langerian Mindfulness in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Chase; Pagnini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The K-12 classroom applications of mindfulness as developed by Ellen Langer are discussed in a case study of a first-year charter school. Langerian Mindfulness, which is the act of drawing distinctions and noticing novelty, is deeply related to well-being and creativity, yet its impact has yet to be tested at the primary or secondary school level. The objective of the article is to display how Langerian Mindfulness strategies could increase 21st century skills and Social-Emotional Learning in primary classrooms. The New School San Francisco, an inquiry-based, socioeconomically and racially integrated charter school, serves as a model for mindful teaching and learning strategies. It is concluded that when mindful strategies are implemented, students have significant opportunities to exercise the 21st century skills of creativity, collaboration, communication and critical thinking. Langerian Mindfulness is also considered as a tool for increasing Social-Emotional Learning in integrated classrooms. It is recommended that mindful interventions be further investigated in the primary and secondary school context. PMID:27672377

  6. Mind-blanking: When the mind goes away

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Frank Ward

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available People often feel like their minds and their bodies are in different places. Far from an exotic experience, this phenomenon seems to be ubiquitous facet of human life (e.g., Killingsworth & Gilbert, 2010. Many times, people’s minds seem to go somewhere else—attention becomes disconnected from perception, and people’s minds wander to times and places removed from the current environment (e.g., Schooler, Reichle & Halpern, 2004. At other times, however, people’s minds may seem to go nowhere at all—they simply disappear. This mental state—mind-blanking—may represent an extreme decoupling of perception and attention, one in which attention fails to bring any stimuli into conscious awareness. In the present research, we outline the properties of mind-blanking, differentiating this mental state from other mental states in terms of phenomenological experience, behavioral outcomes, and underlying cognitive processes. Seven experiments suggest that when the mind seems to disappear, there are times when we have simply failed to monitor its whereabouts—and there are times when it is actually gone.

  7. Healing and the Mind with Bill Moyers. Resource Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Lois; Kelso, Richard

    This high school resource package for the public television series "Healing and the Mind with Bill Moyers" includes: (1) a teacher's guide that provides complete lesson plans for each program in the series; (2) a glossary that features definitions of the terms used in the series; (3) a bibliography containing books of interest to both…

  8. Trait Mindfulness and Cognitive Task Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emalee J. W. Quickel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness meditation (MM training has been shown to have positive effects on working memory and focused attention tasks. Clarifying the construct of mindfulness is important so that mindfulness can be studied effectively in individual differences and cognition research. The current study tested whether trait mindfulness alone explains any of the variability on task performance. Five commonly used mindfulness scales, as well as six standardized and experimental attention and working memory tasks were administered to 164 participants with no meditation experience. Confirmatory factor analysis found that the common variance denoted by measures of trait mindfulness is unrelated to the common variance among tasks requiring focused attention. These results indicate that mindfulness scales may not be capturing the attentional aspects of mindfulness. Individuals who score high on mindfulness scales do not perform better on focused attention tasks than those who score lower on mindfulness scales. These results have implications for defining and operationalizing mindfulness.

  9. Mindfulness i undervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Dorthe

    2012-01-01

    Hverdagen i skole og institutioner er fyldt med udfordringer og krav om læring og udvikling i fællesskabet. Dette stiller store krav til den enkelte, og de mange relationer i løbet af en dag. Dette kan i nogle tilfælde fjerne fokus fra den enkeltes evne til nærvær både i forhold til sig selv og i...... forhold til andre. Mindfulness i undervisningen er et redskab til at skabe et lærings- og udviklingsmiljø, hvor børn får erfaringer med at være til stede i sig selv, og hvor de oplever ro til at lære og være....

  10. Writing in Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Theiner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the “extended mind” thesis, a significant portion of human cog-nition does not occur solely inside the head, but literally extends beyond the brain into the body and the world around us (Clark & Chalmers 1998; Clark 2003, 2008; Wilson 1995, 2004; Rowlands 1999, 2010; Menary 2007, 2012; Sutton 2010; Theiner 2011. One way to understand this thesis is that as human beings, we are particularly adept at creating and recruiting environmental props and scaffolds (media, tools, artifacts, symbol systems for the purpose of solving problems that would otherwise lie beyond our cognitive reach. We manipulate, scaffold, and re-design our environments in ways that transform the nature of difficult tasks that would baffle our unaided biological brains (e.g., math, logic, sequential problem-solving into simpler types of problems that we are naturally much better equipped to solve. A central tenet of the “extended mind” thesis, then, is that “much of what matters for human-level intelligence is hidden not in the brain, nor in the technology, but in the complex and iterated interactions and collaborations between the two” (Clark 2001: 154. Over the past fifteen years or so, the “extended mind” thesis has become a hot ticket in the philosophy of mind. As with all great ideas, the thesis was hardly conceived ex nihilo, but builds on, and re-articulates many earlier strands of thought. Unfortunately, many of those cognate strands have become marginalized in contemporary philosophy of mind and psychology, and do not receive the amount of attention they deserve. Part of what we hope to accomplish with this special issue is to reverse this trend, and to rekindle the dialogue between the “extended mind” thesis and its historical predecessors.

  11. Depersonalization, mindfulness, and childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Beutel, Manfred E; Jordan, Jochen; Zimmermann, Michael; Wolters, Susanne; Heidenreich, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Depersonalization (DP), i.e., feelings of being detached from one's own mental processes or body, can be considered as a form of mental escape from the full experience of reality. This mental escape is thought to be etiologically linked with maltreatment during childhood. The detached state of consciousness in DP contrasts with certain aspects of mindfulness, a state of consciousness characterized by being in touch with the present moment. Against this background, the present article investigates potential connections between DP severity, mindfulness, and childhood trauma in a mixed sample of nonpatients and chronic nonmalignant pain patients. We found a strong inverse correlation between DP severity and mindfulness in both samples, which persisted after partialing out general psychological distress. In the nonpatient sample, we additionally found significant correlations between emotional maltreatment on the one hand and DP severity (positive) and mindfulness (negative) on the other. We conclude that the results first argue for an antithetical relationship between DP and certain aspects of mindfulness and thus encourage future studies on mindfulness-based interventions for DP and second throw light on potential developmental factors contributing to mindfulness.

  12. Oculometric variations during mind wandering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eGrandchamp

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant body of literature supports the contention that pupil size varies depending on cognitive load, affective state, and level of drowsiness. Here we assessed whether oculometric measures such as gaze position, blink frequency and pupil size were correlated with the occurrence and time course of self-reported mind-wandering episodes. We recorded the pupil size of two subjects engaged in a monotonous breath counting task while keeping their eyes on a fixation cross. Each subject performed ten 20-minute sessions, for total duration of about 4 hours. This task is conducive to producing mind-wandering episodes. Subjects were instructed to report spontaneous mind-wandering episodes by pressing a button when they lost count of their breath. After each button press, subjects filled in a short questionnaire describing the characteristics of their mind-wandering episode. We observed larger pupil size during the breath-focusing period compared to the mind-wandering period (p< 0.01 for both subjects. Our findings contradict previous research showing a higher baseline pupil size during mind wandering episodes in visual tasks. We discuss possible explanations for this discrepancy. We also analyzed nine other oculometric measures including blink rate, blink duration and gaze position. We built a support vector machine classifier and showed that mean pupil size was the most reliable predictors of mind wandering in both subjects. The classification accuracy of mind wandering data segments versus breath-focusing data segments was 81% for the first subject and 77% for the second subject. Additionally, we analyzed oculometric measures in light of the phenomenological data collected in the questionnaires. We showed that how well subjects remembered their thoughts while mind wandering was positively correlated with pupil size (subject 1, p< 0.001; subject 2, p< 0.05. Feelings of well being were also positively correlated with pupil size (subject 1, p< 0

  13. A public world without public relations?

    OpenAIRE

    Nayden, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    The term "public relations" (PR) has long gained currency as meaning the practice of producing a positive public image. This article argues that public relations should be released from the prison of "PR" and, instead, reconceptualised as relations which define the public realm much as economic relations define the economy. From this point of view, three main levels of public relations can be distinguished: (1) relations between public institutions, (2) relations between citizens and public i...

  14. A public world without public relations?:

    OpenAIRE

    Nayden, Nikolay

    2009-01-01

    The term "public relations" (PR) has long gained currency as meaning the practice of producing a positive public image. This article argues that public relations should be released from the prison of "PR" and, instead, reconceptualised as relations which define the public realm much as economic relations define the economy. From this point of view, three main levels of public relations can be distinguished: (1) relations between public institutions, (2) relations between citizens and public i...

  15. Minding morale of institutional markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, S

    1996-01-01

    The definition of the term SOCIAL LIFE FEELING is offered to denote or connote a sentiment about the social world or an affect-state that comes from socializing in that world. A review of the literature in SOCIOLOGY indicates that there is an abundance of predilection among sociologists in measuring and assessing How People Feel About Society and Their Place in Society. The selection of TWELVE SOCIAL LIFE FEELING SCALES developed by Karl F. Schuessler is based on their established reliability, their ease of use, and their embodiment in covering concepts pertaining to both a person's outlook on society (cynical, pessimistic, fatalistic) and his or her frame of mind in society (demoralized, estranged, alienated). The present report is based on SLFS11 or FEELINGS OF DEMORALIZATION in Urban and Rural settings. This scale gives the subjects an opportunity to express whether they are marking time, finding it difficult to be optimistic, surmising the world as too complicated, viewing their physical condition to be good, or taking pleasure in their achievements, and so and so forth. A random sample of 398 students drawn from an urban and a rural campus was personally administered a questionnaire included in Appendix A. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analyses through MINITAB software. High scores present a view of self as useless, helpless, aimless; low scores on the other hand, rules out such an admission of self as useless. It appears that this scale comes closest to approximating the concept of morale and its denotation of demoralization and despair. Persons of high morale have high hopes and great expectations and intend to persevere. Persons of low morale have little hope in their efforts being counted and would presumably stop trying. It is important to note that the items in this scale have principally determined the morale of older people. In this study we have attempted to find its utility in investigating undergraduate students representing the

  16. Mind Mirror Projects: A Tool for Integrating Critical Thinking into the English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Matthew M.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying a point of view can be a complex task in any language. By analyzing what characters say, think, and do throughout a story, readers can observe how points of view tend to change over time. Easier said than done, this ability to climb inside the mind of a character can help students as they analyze personalities found in literature,…

  17. Schizotypy and mindfulness: Magical thinking without suspiciousness characterizes mindfulness meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Antonova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing evidence for demonstrated efficacy of mindfulness in various disorders, there is a continuous concern about the relationship between mindfulness practice and psychosis. As schizotypy is part of the psychosis spectrum, we examined the relationship between long-term mindfulness practice and schizotypy in two independent studies. Study 1 included 24 experienced mindfulness practitioners (19 males from the Buddhist tradition (meditators and 24 meditation-naïve individuals (all males. Study 2 consisted of 28 meditators and 28 meditation-naïve individuals (all males. All participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Raine, 1991, a self-report scale containing 9 subscales (ideas of reference, excessive social anxiety, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, odd/eccentric behavior, no close friends, odd speech, constricted affect, suspiciousness. Participants of study 2 also completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire which assesses observing (Observe, describing (Describe, acting with awareness (Awareness, non-judging of (Non-judgment and non-reactivity to inner experience (Non-reactivity facets of trait mindfulness. In both studies, meditators scored significantly lower on suspiciousness and higher on magical thinking compared to meditation-naïve individuals and showed a trend towards lower scores on excessive social anxiety. Excessive social anxiety correlated negatively with Awareness and Non-judgment; and suspiciousness with Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity facets across both groups. The two groups did not differ in their total schizotypy score. We conclude that mindfulness practice is not associated with an overall increase in schizotypal traits. Instead, the pattern suggests that mindfulness meditation, particularly with an emphasis on the Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity aspects, may help to reduce suspiciousness and excessive social anxiety.

  18. Out of our minds: a review of sociocultural cognition theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenberg, Josh; Knobelsdorf, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Theories of mind are implicitly embedded in educational research. The predominant theory of mind during the latter half of the twentieth century has focused primarily on the individual mind in isolation, context-free problem-solving and mental representations and reasoning, what we refer to as cognitivism. Over the last two decades, CS Education researchers have begun to incorporate recent research that extends, elaborates and sometimes challenges cognitivism. These theories, which we refer to collectively as sociocultural cognition theory, view minds as cultural products, biologically evolved to be extended by tools, social interaction and embodied interaction in the world. Learning, under this perspective, is viewed as tool-mediated participation in the ongoing practices of cultural communities. In this paper, we pursue three goals. First, we provide a summary of the key principles in sociocultural cognition theory, placing this theory within a historical context with respect to the cognitive theories that it extends and challenges. Second, we integrate across different but related research efforts that all fall under the sociocultural cognition umbrella, using a uniform terminology for describing ideas represented within different discourse communities. And third, we reference a number of canonical sources in sociocultural cognition theory so as to serve as an index into this diverse literature for those wanting to explore further.

  19. Intersubjectivity in Wittgenstein and Freud: other minds and the foundations of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, J

    1997-12-01

    Intersubjectivity, the cooperation of two or more minds, is basic to human behavior, yet eludes the grasp of psychiatry. This paper traces the dilemma to the "problem of other minds" assumed with the epistemologies of modern science. It presents the solution of Wittgenstein's later philosophy, known for his treatment of other minds in terms of "human agreement in language." Unlike recent studies of "Wittgenstein's psychology," this one reviews the Philosophical Investigations' "private language argument," the crux of his mature views on mind. It reads that argument as recording his shift from the modern egocentric paradigm of mind to an intersubjective one. The paper contrasts the merits of Wittgenstein's reduction of subject and object to grammar with the problems of Freud's metapsychological reduction. It shows how Wittgenstein's intersubjective method avoids the excesses of behaviorism and phenomenology, offering a specifically human way to adapt mechanistic and interpretive means to the communicative ends of psychiatry.

  20. Mechanisms of mindfulness: The dynamics of affective adaptation during open monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusberg, Helen; Uusberg, Andero; Talpsep, Teri; Paaver, Marika

    2016-07-01

    Mindfulness - the nonjudgmental awareness of the present experience - is thought to facilitate affective adaptation through increased exposure to emotions and faster extinction of habitual responses. To test this framework, the amplification of the Late Positive Potential (LPP) by negative relative to neutral images was analyzed across stimulus repetitions while 37 novices performed an open monitoring mindfulness exercise. Compared to two active control conditions where attention was either diverted to a distracting task or the stimuli were attended without mindfulness instructions, open monitoring enhanced the initial LPP response to negative stimuli, indicating increased emotional exposure. Across successive repetitions, mindfulness reduced and ultimately removed the affective LPP amplification, suggesting extinction of habitual emotional reactions. This effect arose from reduced negative as well enlarged neutral LPPs. Unlike stimuli from control conditions, the images previously viewed with mindfulness instructions did not elicit affective LPP amplification during subsequent re-exposure, suggesting reconsolidation of stimulus meaning.

  1. The Psychological Benefits from Reconceptualizing Music-Making as Mindfulness Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Matthew; Brewer, Judson

    2015-06-01

    While the music psychology and education literatures have devoted considerable attention to how musical instrumentalists practice their instruments, less formal scholarly attention has been given in consideration of what it means to maintain a musical "practice" over time and across context. In this paper, the practice of mindfulness meditation is used as heuristic, arguing for a view of mindfulness meditation as a formalized de-specialization of the infinite number of other activities with which people can achieve mindfulness. Sitting meditation, requiring of one to observe the contents of their mind unmediated, can serve as a useful model for the musician in understanding the phenomenology of the music-making process and the "flow" states that can result from an embodied musical practice. Finally, reconceptualizing music-making as a mindfulness practice is considered with psychological and pedagogical implications relevant for developing musicians.

  2. Specific Mindfulness Skills Differentially Predict Creative Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Matthijs; Nevicka, Barbara; Ten Velden, Femke S

    2014-05-23

    Past work has linked mindfulness to improved emotion regulation, interpersonal skills, and basic cognitive abilities, but is unclear about the relation between mindfulness and creativity. Studies examining effects of mindfulness on factors pertinent to creativity suggest a uniform and positive relation, whereas work on specific mindfulness skills suggests that mindfulness skills may differentially predict creativity. To test whether the relation between mindfulness and creativity is positive and uniform (the uniform hypothesis) or differentially depends on particular components of mindfulness (the differential hypothesis), we conducted four studies in which mindfulness skills were measured, extensively trained, or manipulated with a short, incidental meditation session. Results supported a differential relation between mindfulness and creativity: Only the ability to observe and attend to various stimuli consistently and positively predicted creativity. Results regarding other mindfulness skills were less consistent. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  3. [Mentalization and theory of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyl, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children.

  4. Mindfulness reduces the correspondence bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopthrow, Tim; Hooper, Nic; Mahmood, Lynsey; Meier, Brian P; Weger, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    The correspondence bias (CB) refers to the idea that people sometimes give undue weight to dispositional rather than situational factors when explaining behaviours and attitudes. Three experiments examined whether mindfulness, a non-judgmental focus on the present moment, could reduce the CB. Participants engaged in a brief mindfulness exercise (the raisin task), a control task, or an attention to detail task before completing a typical CB measure involving an attitude-attribution paradigm. The results indicated that participants in the mindfulness condition experienced a significant reduction in the CB compared to participants in the control or attention to detail conditions. These results suggest that mindfulness training can play a unique role in reducing social biases related to person perception.

  5. Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    I propose that pattern recognition, memorization and processing are key concepts that can be a principle set for the theoretical modeling of the mind function. Most of the questions about the mind functioning can be answered by a descriptive modeling and definitions from these principles. An understandable consciousness definition can be drawn based on the assumption that a pattern recognition system can recognize its own patterns of activity. The principles, descriptive modeling and definiti...

  6. Communicative competence and the architecture of the mind/brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirassa, M

    1999-07-01

    Cognitive pragmatics is concerned with the mental processes involved in intentional communication. I discuss a few issues that may help clarify the relationship between this area and the broader cognitive science and the contribution that they give, or might give, to each other. Rather than dwelling on the many technicalities of the various theories of communication that have been advanced, I focus on the different conceptions of the nature and the architecture of the mind/brain that underlie them. My aims are, first, to introduce and defend mentalist views of communication in general; second, to defend one such view, namely that communication is a cognitive competence, that is, a faculty, and the underlying idea that the architecture of the mind/brain is domain-specific; and, third, to review the (scarce) neuropsychological evidence that bears on these issues.

  7. 'Mind the Gap!'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar

    This paper challenges the widely held view that sharply falling real transport costs closed the transatlantic gap in grain prices in the second half of the 19th century. Several new results emerge from an analysis of a new data set of weekly wheat prices and freight costs from New York to UK mark...

  8. Pilates, Mindfulness and Somatic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Karen; Adams, Marianne; Quin, Rebecca; Harrison, Mandy; Greeson, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    The Pilates Method is a form of somatic education with the potential to cultivate mindfulness - a mental quality associated with overall well-being. However, controlled studies are needed to determine whether changes in mindfulness are specific to the Pilates Method or also result from other forms of exercise. This quasi-experimental study compared Pilates Method mat classes and recreational exercise classes on measures of mindfulness and well-being at the beginning, middle and end of a 15 week semester. Total mindfulness scores increased overall for the Pilates Method group but not for the exercise control group, and these increases were directly related to end of semester ratings of self-regulatory self-efficacy, perceived stress and mood. Findings suggest that the Pilates Method specifically enhances mindfulness, and these increases are associated with other measures of wellness. The changes in mindfulness identified in this study support the role of the Pilates Method in the mental well-being of its practitioners and its potential to support dancers' overall well-being.

  9. Mindful approach to University education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broggi F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiorenza Broggi,1 Monica Bomba,1 Michela Rimondini,2 Maura Mutti,1 Sara Pasta,1 Chiara Ricci,1 Luca Tagliabue,1 Silvia Valsecchi,1 Elide Monaco,1 Francesca Neri,1 Silvia Oggiano,2 Renata Nacinovich,1 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano–Bicocca, Monza, 2Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Verona, Italy Abstract: A mindful approach to education and training could improve students’ reflective capacities and have positive effects on clinical practice because it facilitates a helping relationship. The main aims of this study were to investigate whether participation in a mindful-based University training was associated with increases in mindfulness skills as measured by the 5-Facet M Questionnaire, and to present the Italian validation of the questionnaire. Sixty-seven students from the course Neuro and Psychomotor Therapy were enrolled. They filled in the self-administered 5-Facet M Questionnaire before and 1 month after a mindfulness-based training, focused on role-playing and followed by a feedback group discussion. The Italian version of the 5-Facet M Questionnaire had good psychometric properties. The pre- and post-training analysis showed a significant increase in the subscale ‘Observing’. Findings suggest that role-playing and feedback group sessions are valid tools to improve students’ mindfulness skills. Keywords: mindfulness, role play, self-awareness, communication skills, insight, reflective capacities, feedback

  10. [What can qualia be? The monistic views].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livaditis, M

    2012-01-01

    Phenomenal properties, also named qualia (that is, the qualities of human experiences, e.g. the senses of red, of salt, of pain, qua senses) create a hard problem for philosophy. It is claimed that phenomenal properties are radically different to the physical ones: they are intrinsic (their essence is totally confined within the limits of their existence), they depend on mind, they are accessible only privately, by introspection and they are infallible, in the sense that the experience of a quale is identical to its existence. On the contrary, physical properties are dispositional (their essence is defined through their causal consequences), they exist independently of mind, they are accessible to public observation and are liable to verification or falsification. The faculty of philosophy, named philosophy of mind, is systematically interested in qualia. In the present paper some of the main monistic philosophical approaches to qualia are discussed. The main common characteristic of monistic views is that (contrary to dualistic views) they purport that: two radically different substances cannot exist, side by side, within the same world (our world). Thus, there are either physical properties, or phenomenal properties, but not both. The monistic theories, supporting that in our world there are only physical properties, or properties totally reducible into physical ones, are named physicalism (or according to a more traditional nomination, materialism). On the other hand, monistic theories maintaining that all existing properties are phenomenal, or properties reducible into phenomenal ones, are named phenomenalism. The main arguments for physicalism are: (a) the scientific principle of the causal closure of the universe (every event has one physical cause), (b) the dependence of every well-studied mental phenomenon, from a physical phenomenal, such as the function of the neural system. Dualists counterattack physicalism with mental experiments (such as, the

  11. The Eyes as Windows Into Other Minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Eyes have been shown to play a key role during human social interactions. However, to date, no comprehensive cross-discipline model has provided a framework that can account for uniquely human responses to eye cues. In this review, I present a framework that brings together work on the phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and neural bases of perceiving and responding to eyes. Specifically, I argue for a two-process model: a first process that ensures privileged attention to information encoded in the eyes and is important for the detection of other minds and a second process that permits the decoding of information contained in the eyes concerning another person's emotional and mental states. To some degree, these processes are unique to humans, emerge during different times in infant development, can be mapped onto distinct but interconnected brain regions, and likely serve critical functions in facilitating cooperative interactions in humans. I also present evidence to show that oxytocin is a key modulator of sensitive responding to eye cues. Viewing eyes as windows into other minds can therefore be considered a hallmark feature of human social functioning deeply rooted in our biology.

  12. The mind and heart of the negotiator

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Leigh L

    2015-01-01

    For undergraduate and graduate-level business courses that cover the skills of negotiation. Delve into the mind and heart of the negotiator in order to enhance negotiation skills. The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator is dedicated to negotiators who want to improve their ability to negotiate-whether in multimillion-dollar business deals or personal interactions. This text provides an integrated view of what to do and what to avoid at the bargaining table, facilitated by an integration of theory, scientific research, and practical examples. This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. Here's how: *Provide Students with Practical Real-World Examples: Each chapter opens with a case study that illustrates a real business situation.*Offer In-Depth Information on Business Negotiation Skills: This text provides practical take-away points for the manager and executive on integrative negotiation and contains a series of hands-on principles that have been proven to incre...

  13. The effect of a brief mindfulness induction on processing of emotional images: an ERP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Marianna D.; Brunyé, Tad T.; Tower-Richardi, Sarah; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to effectively direct one’s attention is an important aspect of regulating emotions and a component of mindfulness. Mindfulness practices have been established as effective interventions for mental and physical illness; however, the underlying neural mechanisms of mindfulness and how they relate to emotional processing have not been explored in depth. The current study used a within-subjects repeated measures design to examine if focused breathing, a brief mindfulness induction, could modulate event-related potentials (ERPs) during emotional image processing relative to a control condition. We related ERP measures of processing positive, negative, and neutral images (the P300 and late positive potential – LPP) to state and trait mindfulness measures. Overall, the brief mindfulness induction condition did not influence ERPs reflecting emotional processing; however, in the brief mindfulness induction condition, those participants who reported feeling more decentered (a subscale of the Toronto Mindfulness Scale) after viewing the images had reduced P300 responses to negative versus neutral images. PMID:26441766

  14. The human mind in the contemporary world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D

    2005-01-01

    The author examines conflicting conceptions of human mentation and human mental development, an area representing an overlapping interest in psychoanalysis and philosophy. Focus is on the question of whether there is any essential aspect to the mind or whether everything is relative, intersubjective, and formed by the culture in which one lives. The irrational and noncognitive aspects of mental life are outlined from the thought of Freud, Nietzsche, and Schopenhauer and their views of the essential springs of psychic activity. The ramifications of these various conflicting conceptions for the practice of psychoanalytic therapy are outlined. The question is addressed of whether it will ever be possible, as in the Enlightenment dream, to improve the human condition and put an end to human violence. The answers to this question are shown to differ depending on the various conceptions of human mentation and human mental development involved. No conclusions are reached; the issues remain unsettled in our time.

  15. "Mind the trap": mindfulness practice reduces cognitive rigidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Greenberg

    Full Text Available Two experiments examined the relation between mindfulness practice and cognitive rigidity by using a variation of the Einstellung water jar task. Participants were required to use three hypothetical jars to obtain a specific amount of water. Initial problems were solvable by the same complex formula, but in later problems ("critical" or "trap" problems solving was possible by an additional much simpler formula. A rigidity score was compiled through perseverance of the complex formula. In Experiment 1, experienced mindfulness meditators received significantly lower rigidity scores than non-meditators who had registered for their first meditation retreat. Similar results were obtained in randomized controlled Experiment 2 comparing non-meditators who underwent an eight meeting mindfulness program with a waiting list group. The authors conclude that mindfulness meditation reduces cognitive rigidity via the tendency to be "blinded" by experience. Results are discussed in light of the benefits of mindfulness practice regarding a reduced tendency to overlook novel and adaptive ways of responding due to past experience, both in and out of the clinical setting.

  16. A frame of mind from psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintiadis, Elly

    2015-11-01

    A distinctive characteristic of psychiatry is that it is a discipline that deals with both the physical and the mental lives of individuals. Largely because of this characteristic, different models are used for different disorders, however, there is still a remnant tendency towards reductionist views in the field. In this paper I argue that the available empirical evidence from psychiatry gives us reasons to question biological reductionism and that, in its place, we should adopt a pluralistic explanatory model that is more suited to the needs of the discipline and to the needs of the patients it is meant to help. This will allow us to retain psychiatry as an autonomous science that can productively co-exist with neuroscience while also giving patients the kind of attention they need. I further argue that this same evidence supports a view of the mind that is anti-reductive and that allows that causation can be both bottom-up and top-down and that such a view is available in emergentism coupled with an interventionist model of causation.

  17. Communicating Science Broadly: An NSF Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinen, M. S.

    2006-12-01

    In the view of NSF, communicating about both the process of doing science and about scientific results are of paramount importance. But those of us in the agency are not the ones who do the science or generate the results. Thus, our policy is to encourage the community we fund to communicate their results as broadly as possible. Why does NSF feel so strongly about communicating scientific results? First, science only moves forward when there is free and open debate about scientific results through public mechanisms in which there is an opportunity for thorough analysis (e.g. scientific literature, professional meetings and workshops). Second, the research we support is done for the good of the public and should be communicated to the public. Third, scientific results are critical to many important decision-making processes and policy-making processes. Democracies thrive when an informed public is engaged, so communicating science broadly to the lay public is important. Why does NSF feel so strongly about communicating about the process of science? Science is a habit of mind; an orderly process for testing ideas. But many do not understand how science is done, the difference between fact and conjecture, why speculation, hypotheses and theory are critical to progress, or why the culture of constructive criticism is essential to progress. Without this context, science can be misunderstood as magic, opinion, or argument. Thus the efforts that we fund to enhance scientific education and outreach are critical to having discourse about scientific results.

  18. towards an epigenetic view of our musical mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eBrigati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In our everyday life, we feel responsible for ourselves. Step by step, a premise is followed by action followed by consequences. This succession of events, seemingly dominated by the principle of cause and effect, is constantly scrutinized by our consciousness and makes us aware of the world. Even in the field of our more abstract behavior, such as practicing Art or Science, creation becomes our license of free individuals, finally liberating mankind from the instincts that dominate the animal world. But is this true? Recent studies seem to throw shadows of these certainties; here we review a series of data and introduce novel speculations on possible epigenetic mechanisms in our brain that could dictate how we perceive and perform creation, art and music in particular.

  19. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Action in Public Environments with Diverse Semiotic Resources by Charles Goodwin pp. 169-182 How Marking in Dance Constitutes Thinking with the Body by David Kirsh pp. 183-214 Ambiguous Coordination: Collaboration in Informal Science Education Research by Ivan Rosero, Robert Lecusay, Michael Cole pp. 215-240...

  20. Brug af mindfulness til facilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Gennem de senere år er mindfulness gået fra udelukkende at være en eksistentiel praksis til også at være en behandlingsform og senest til også at blive brugt som et praktisk redskab i erhvervslivet. Denne artikel viser, at mindfulness også kan anvendes i forbindelse med facilitering. Facilitering...... er et værktøj, som bruges i arbejdslivet fx til møder og konferencer, hvor en gruppe mennesker er samlet for at lære eller udrette noget sammen. Det nye ved at kombinere mindfulness med facilitering er, at fokus hermed ændres fra individet, som er centrum for den eksistentielle fordybelse eller det...... terapeutiske forløb, til gruppen, som er udgangspunktet i facilitering. Artiklen viser, hvordan mindfulness konkret kan bruges på gruppeniveau og diskuterer samtidig hvilke problemer, der kan være forbundet hermed. Baseret på vores egne erfaringer, diskuterer vi, hvordan mindfulness kan påvirke en gruppes...

  1. Hypnosis and Mindfulness: The Twain Finally Meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Mindfulness meditation (or simply mindfulness) is an ancient method of attention training. Arguably, developed originally by the Buddha, it has been practiced by Buddhists over 2,500 years as part of their spiritual training. The popularity in mindfulness has soared recently following its adaptation as Mindfulness-Based Stress Management by Jon Kabat-Zinn (1995). Mindfulness is often compared to hypnosis but not all assertions are accurate. This article, as a primer, delineates similarities and dissimilarities between mindfulness and hypnosis in terms of 12 specific facets, including putative neuroscientific findings. It also provides a case example that illustrates clinical integration of the two methods.

  2. Mindfulness Integrative Model (MIM): Cultivating positive states of mind towards oneself and the others through mindfulness and self-compassion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raquel Rodríguez-Carvajal; Carlos García-Rubio; David Paniagua; Gustavo García-Diex

    2016-01-01

    ...). MIM main hypothesis is that mindfulness practice leads to an increment in mindfulness trait, which leads to an increase of self-compassion, and these in turn, lead to increase positive mental states...

  3. European Communication Monitor 2009: an institutionalized view of how public relations and communication management professionals face the economic and media crises in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Á.; Verhoeven, P.; Tench, R.; Zerfass, A.

    2010-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) is an extensive longitudinal research project to monitor trends in public relations and communication management and analyze the changing framework for the profession in Europe. The 2009 ECM edition identifies the main characteristics of individual

  4. A Tabloid Mind?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Tabloidization of news and its potential threat to democracy is a recurring issue in debates among scholars and journalists. Most research focuses on measuring either content or the effects of tabloid style content and often leaves the antecedents of the content as a ‘black box’. This study compa...... shows that journalists’ adherence to the role as public mobilizer is positively related to personalization, which implies that tabloidization might carry benefits and not only threats to democracy....

  5. Setting policy priorities to address eating disorders and weight stigma: views from the field of eating disorders and the US general public

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence and health consequences of eating disorders and weight stigmatization have prompted increasing discussion of potential policy actions to address these public health issues. The present study aimed to assess support for policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigmatization among the general public and relevant health professionals. Methods: An Internet survey was fielded to a national sample of 944 US adults and 1,420 members of professional organiz...

  6. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally Relevant Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah

    2014-01-01

    To test young children’s false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered 3 tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an “accidental transgressor” task, which measured a morally relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind. PMID:21377148

  7. The minds of gods: a comparative study of supernatural agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant

    2013-10-01

    The present work is the first study to systematically compare the minds of gods by examining some of the intuitive processes that guide how people reason about them. By examining the Christian god and the spirit-masters of the Tyva Republic, it first confirms that the consensus view of the Christian god's mind is one of omniscience with acute concern for interpersonal social behavior (i.e., moral behaviors) and that Tyvan spirit-masters are not as readily attributed with knowledge or concern of moral information. Then, it reports evidence of a moralization bias of gods' minds; American Christians who believe that God is omniscient rate God as more knowledgeable of moral behaviors than nonmoral information. Additionally, Tyvans who do not readily report pro- or antisocial behavior among the things that spirit-masters care about will nevertheless rate spirit-masters' knowledge and concern of moral information higher than nonmoral information. However, this knowledge is distributed spatially; the farther away from spirits' place of governance a moral behavior takes place, the less they know and care about it. Finally, the wider the breadth of knowledge Tyvans attribute to spirit-masters, the more they attribute moral concern for behaviors that transpire beyond their jurisdiction. These results further demonstrate that there is a significant gulf between expressed beliefs and intuitive religious cognition and provides evidence for a moralization bias of gods' minds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The mind as skills and dispositions: on normativity and mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2012-03-01

    On the occasion of the critique of Alfredo Gaete and Carlos Cornejo, this article explains and extends the hybrid theory of the mind that I recently presented in this journal. Taking inspiration from Rom Harré's program for a hybrid psychology, the theory is supposed to be integrative and aims to broaden Harré's hybrid psychology by including not just the brain, but also the body, social practices, and technological artifacts as mediators of the mind. The mind is understood not as a substance of any kind, but as a set of skills and dispositions to act, think, and feel. This implies a normative view of the mind, according to which psychological phenomena do not simply happen, but are done, and can consequently be done more or less well. I provide arguments in favor of grounding psychology in normativity rather than conscious experience, and I explain why the emphasis on mediators does not represent a threat to the ontological primacy of the person in psychology.

  9. Optimal Allocation of Public Sports Resources Viewed from Law%法学视域下体育公共资源的优化配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2012-01-01

    Based on the explanation of public resources and public sports resources,the paper represents the legal value orientation and controling principles of optimal allocation of public sports resources.The paper proposes the countermeasures for the optimal allocation of the public sports resources,such as prefecting the government licensed management system,standardizing the administrative charging,promoting the public sports financial system reform and improving the decision mechanism of the citizens participating in the optimal allocation of public sports resources%在对公共资源与体育公共资源进行释义的基础上,阐述了体育公共资源优化配置的法律价值取向和法律控制原则,并提出法律视域下体育公共资源优化配置的对策:完善政府特许经营制度;规范行政收费行为;推进体育公共财政体制改革;健全与完善公民参与体育公共资源优化配置的决策机制。

  10. Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind

    CERN Document Server

    de Paiva, Gilberto

    2009-01-01

    I propose that pattern recognition, memorization and processing are key concepts that can be a principle set for the theoretical modeling of the mind function. Most of the questions about the mind functioning can be answered by a descriptive modeling and definitions from these principles. An understandable consciousness definition can be drawn based on the assumption that a pattern recognition system can recognize its own patterns of activity. The principles, descriptive modeling and definitions can be a basis for theoretical and applied research on cognitive sciences, particularly at artificial intelligence studies.

  11. The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Hölzel, Britta K; Posner, Michael I

    2015-04-01

    Research over the past two decades broadly supports the claim that mindfulness meditation - practiced widely for the reduction of stress and promotion of health - exerts beneficial effects on physical and mental health, and cognitive performance. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to uncover the brain areas and networks that mediate these positive effects. However, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear, and it is apparent that more methodologically rigorous studies are required if we are to gain a full understanding of the neuronal and molecular bases of the changes in the brain that accompany mindfulness meditation.

  12. Baby MIND Experiment Construction Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, M.; et al.

    2017-04-28

    Baby MIND is a magnetized iron neutrino detector, with novel design features, and is planned to serve as a downstream magnetized muon spectrometer for the WAGASCI experiment on the T2K neutrino beam line in Japan. One of the main goals of this experiment is to reduce systematic uncertainties relevant to CP-violation searches, by measuring the neutrino contamination in the anti-neutrino beam mode of T2K. Baby MIND is currently being constructed at CERN, and is planned to be operational in Japan in October 2017.

  13. Mindful Storytellers: Emerging Pragmatics and Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Camila

    2013-01-01

    Emerging pragmatic language skills involve social, cognitive and linguistic abilities, including children's awareness of the conversational partner's mental states. The present study investigated the relation between children's theory of mind (ToM) and features of pragmatic language skills assessed through narrative discourse. One hundred and…

  14. Mind in Nature, Nature in Mind: A Reply to Ule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastjan Vörös

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a response to Ule’s ideas on the (impossibility of naturalizing the mind. After providing a brief overview of some of the main inconsistencies in Ule’s account, I argue that a naturalistic explanation of the key feature of the mind as construed by Ule (“experiential perspectivity” is, in fact, feasible, but only if it is complemented by an equally important shift in our conception of nature. The central part of the article consists of two steps. First, following the line of thought developed (predominantly by Jonas and Varela, the article attempts to outline a route to the naturalization of “perspectivity” along the lines of the so-called autopoietic theory and the corresponding double dialectic of identity and sense making. Secondly, I emphasize that this is merely the first half of the story, and that the second element in Ule’s construal of the mind, “experientiality”, cannot be explained within the metaphysical framework of modern naturalism, but calls for a radical restructuring of our field of inquiry in terms of the fundamental circularity between lived experience and scientific endeavour. Thus, the process of the naturalization of life and mind needs to be reciprocated by the process of the phenomenologization of nature and reconceptualization of naturalism.

  15. 黑格尔精神哲学视域下的婚姻伦理观及其现代启示%Marriage ethical view in the perspective of Hegel’s philosophy of mind theory and its modern enlightenments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆毅

    2013-01-01

    Under the philosophy of mind, Hegel analyzed the marriage ethical relations deeply. Hegel believed that marriage“is essentially ethical relationship”,“is the meaning of the law of ethical love”. Through the sacred wedding marriage ethics ascertains and reveals its sanctity. In monogamy absolute principle, Marriage ethics follows the marriage of equality of personality moral requirements strictly. Hegel considered that the purpose of marriage is ethical, so divorce takes orders not from self-willed but from the ethical authority. Ethical authority should make it difficult to achieve. Hegel’s spiritual philosophical analysis on marriage ethics still has positive enlightenments for setting up correct marriage ethical view, for solving practical problems in marriage ethics, and for constructing harmonious marriage and family.%  在精神哲学视域下,黑格尔深刻剖析了婚姻伦理关系。黑格尔认为,婚姻“实质上是伦理关系”,“是具有法的意义的伦理性的爱”。婚姻伦理通过庄严神圣的婚礼得以确认并彰显其神圣性,要求严格遵循婚姻双方人格平等的道德要求,以一夫一妻制为绝对原则。因为婚姻的目的是伦理性的,所以离婚不能听凭任性来决定,而只能通过伦理性的权威来决定,并且应使之难以实现。黑格尔对于婚姻伦理的精神哲学分析,对于当今树立正确的婚姻伦理观,解决婚姻伦理中的实践难题,建构和谐的婚姻家庭仍具有积极启示。

  16. [The history of Mindfulness put to the test of current scientific data: unresolved questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousselard, M; Steiler, D; Claverie, D; Canini, F

    2014-12-01

    The first part of this paper describes the long history of the concept of Mindfulness. Contrary to the belief that Mindfulness only has Buddhist and Hindu origins, it is also rooted in Jewish, Islamic and Christian religions. Furthermore, western philosophers have described a mindful path to become more aware of thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations. Mindfulness can be considered as a universal human ability embodied to foster clear thinking and open-heartedness. As such, this form of being requires no particular religious or cultural belief system. The current acceptance of what a mindful path is, refers to a psychological quality that involves bringing one's complete attention to present experience on a moment-to-moment basis, in a particular way: in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally. Although such a definition is well accepted in France, the French translation for Mindfulness is not easy to use: being conscious and being aware are translated with the same French word. The French language fails to clearly separate the dimensional attributes of a mindful subject from the ways for developing mindfulness through formal meditation practice. In line with this conception, stability and assessments of Mindfulness mainly were examined. How this disposition allows the development of concentration, attention and acceptance moment by moment in a nonjudgmental way is described in the second part. Particular attention is paid to its positive effects in several aspects of mental and physical health. In particular, positive effects on the ability to cope with stress are described from a physiological point of view. Third, this article intends to present neurobiological aspects currently proposed to explain the benefits of Mindfulness meditation. Modifications of cerebral networks and neurobiological functioning are described in relation to expertise in meditation practice. The hypothesis of the role of meditation on neuroplasticity is also discussed. Furthermore, the

  17. Unexpected Benefits of Deciding by Mind Wandering

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The mind wanders, even when people are attempting to make complex decisions. We suggest that mind wandering—allowing one's thoughts to wander until the “correct” choice comes to mind—can positively impact people's feelings about their decisions. We compare post-choice satisfaction from choices made by mind wandering to reason-based choices and randomly assigned outcomes. Participants chose a poster by mind wandering or deliberating, or were randomly assigned a poster. Whereas forecasters pred...

  18. Specific mindfulness skills differentially predict creative performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, M.; Nevicka, B.; ten Velden, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Past work has linked mindfulness to improved emotion regulation, interpersonal skills, and basic cognitive abilities, but is unclear about the relation between mindfulness and creativity. Studies examining effects of mindfulness on factors pertinent to creativity suggest a uniform and positive relat

  19. Mindfulness: Implications for Substance Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Jonathan; Kim-Appel, Dohee

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness is a concept that has taken quite a hold on the therapeutic world in recent years. Techniques that induce "mindfulness" are increasingly being employed in Western psychology and psychotherapy to help alleviate a variety of conditions. So while mindfulness has its conceptual roots in Buddhism it has been translated into a Western…

  20. Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda P.; Marquis, Andre; Guiffrida, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness is a relatively new construct in counseling that is rapidly gaining interest as it is applied to people struggling with a myriad of problems. Research has consistently demonstrated that counseling interventions using mindfulness improve well-being and reduce psychopathology. This article provides a detailed definition of mindfulness,…

  1. Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda P.; Marquis, Andre; Guiffrida, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness is a relatively new construct in counseling that is rapidly gaining interest as it is applied to people struggling with a myriad of problems. Research has consistently demonstrated that counseling interventions using mindfulness improve well-being and reduce psychopathology. This article provides a detailed definition of mindfulness,…

  2. Analysis of a voluntary initiative to reduce sodium in processed and ultra-processed food products in Argentina: the views of public and private sector representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronuovo, Luciana; Allemandi, Lorena; Tiscornia, Victoria; Champagne, Beatriz; Campbell, Norm; Schoj, Verónica

    2017-07-03

    The Less Salt, More Life program was the first voluntary salt reduction initiative in Argentina. This article analyzes the perspectives of the stakeholders involved in this voluntary agreement between the Ministry of Health and the food industry to gradually reduce sodium content in processed foods. This exploratory case study used a qualitative approach including 29 in-depth interviews with stakeholders from the public and private sectors and identified the role of the different stakeholders and their perceptions regarding the challenges encountered in the policy process that contribute to the debate on public-private partnerships in health policies. The article also discusses the initiative's main challenges and controversies.

  3. Quechua Children's Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Penelope G.; Olson, David R.

    Three different theory of mind tasks were conducted with 4- to 8-year-old Quechua peasant children in the Peruvian Andes. The study investigated the ways in which children in preliterate cultures think and the possibility that they think differently than children in literate cultures. The tasks included: (1) a false-belief task, which tested the…

  4. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile.

  5. Digitalization of the human mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Drita Mehmeti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The human faces with various problems already in its first steps in live, and carriers of such life situations are found in various ages which bring new currents in the way of life. Starting from the ancient Greek thought, the human and its mind made the centre of the world, already orienting the Western thought towards the study of the human mind (namely human reason, since it made the key tool for human survival. Although human problems have been discussed throughout various ages, they have not been able to resolve in full the human problems, and therefore, the same issues were taken by the representatives of the socalled “critical theory”, who used the theory to criticize the way of live Western civilization was offering, known as digitalization of the human mind. The human problems are addressed in a poly-dimensional manner. The factors affecting the human mind are: industrial civilization, technical progress, automation, overtly influence of machinery on humans, substitution of cultural values, which in sum have developed a new World Order, where the ruler is technology. In the modern world, the human fails to recognize himself, since he is out of himself and lives according to the rules set forth by the “remote control”. In the flow of this kind of livelihood, human alienates, or in other words, the human goes out of himself, trying to adapt maximally to the requirements of the new way of life.

  6. Mindfulness på arbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Torben; Nielsen, Lotte Svalgaard

    2011-01-01

    organisationer, hvor fokus er på følelser, kultur, mindfulness, negativ formåen og mobning. •Ledelse, hvor postmoderne ledelsesmetoder bringes frem, beskrives og analyseres i forhold til selvstyrende grupper, mentalisering, teamorienteret ledelse og kønsperspektivet på ledelse. •Konsulentperspektivet, som...

  7. Mindfulness, Self-Compassion, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Functional Disability in U.S. Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Katherine A; Meyer, Eric C; Neff, Kristin D; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Morissette, Sandra B

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness and self-compassion are overlapping, but distinct constructs that characterize how people relate to emotional distress. Both are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may be related to functional disability. Although self-compassion includes mindful awareness of emotional distress, it is a broader construct that also includes being kind and supportive to oneself and viewing suffering as part of the shared human experience--a potentially powerful way of dealing with distressing situations. We examined the association of mindfulness and self-compassion with PTSD symptom severity and functional disability in 115 trauma-exposed U.S. Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans. Mindfulness and self-compassion were each uniquely, negatively associated with PTSD symptom severity. After accounting for mindfulness, self-compassion accounted for unique variance in PTSD symptom severity (f(2) = .25; medium ES). After accounting for PTSD symptom severity, mindfulness and self-compassion were each uniquely negatively associated with functional disability. The combined association of mindfulness and self-compassion with disability over and above PTSD was large (f(2) = .41). After accounting for mindfulness, self-compassion accounted for unique variance in disability (f(2) = .13; small ES). These findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing mindfulness and self-compassion could potentially decrease functional disability in returning veterans with PTSD symptoms.

  8. On the knowledge system of administrative law from the view of public management%论公共管理视角的行政法学课程知识体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金龙

    2011-01-01

    In the public management major, teaching purpose of administrative law courses is to cultivate students' s, conception of rule and cultivating lawful management behavior and cultivating the capacity for bearing the legal liability for their management. So administrative law courses in the public management major need to establish a new curriculum knowledge system that complies with public management practice. From the analysis of logic, construction of the curriculum knowledge system of administrative law courses from the public management perspective, needs to clear three fundamental questions: how to understand the administrative law from the perspective of public management? how many administrative law systems for the public administration activities to rely on? What is the useful knowledge for the public management major? Accordingly, the knowledge system of administrative law courses from the view of public management posed by the theory of the basis of administrative law and the theory of the subject of administrative law and the theory of administrative legal behavior and administrative law supervision theory and the theory of administrative legal relief. They are interrelated and mutually supporting and together constitute a knowledge system of administrative law courses in the view of public management. Among them, the behavior theory of administrative law is the main line in the knowledge system of administrative law courses. Other theories support the teaching content in the knowledge system of administrative law courses from the view of public management.%公共管理类专业行政法学课程的教学目的是培养学生的法治观念和依法从事公共管理的行为方式以及对自己管理行为承担法律责任的能力.当前以行政权为核心概念的传统行政法学课程知识体系已经不能适应公共行政范式向公共管理范式的转向,因此公共管理类专业的行政法学课程教学需要重构符合公共管理

  9. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduces mind wandering: The critical role of acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahl, Hayley A; Lindsay, Emily K; Pacilio, Laura E; Brown, Kirk W; Creswell, J David

    2017-03-01

    Mindfulness meditation programs, which train individuals to monitor their present-moment experience in an open or accepting way, have been shown to reduce mind wandering on standardized tasks in several studies. Here we test 2 competing accounts for how mindfulness training reduces mind wandering, evaluating whether the attention-monitoring component of mindfulness training alone reduces mind wandering or whether the acceptance training component is necessary for reducing mind wandering. Healthy young adults (N = 147) were randomized to either a 3-day brief mindfulness training condition incorporating instruction in both attention monitoring and acceptance, a mindfulness training condition incorporating attention monitoring instruction only, a relaxation training condition, or an active reading-control condition. Participants completed measures of dispositional mindfulness and treatment expectancies before the training session on Day 1 and then completed a 6-min Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) measuring mind wandering after the training session on Day 3. Acceptance training was important for reducing mind wandering, such that the attention-monitoring plus acceptance mindfulness training condition had the lowest mind wandering relative to the other conditions, including significantly lower mind wandering than the attention-monitoring only mindfulness training condition. In one of the first experimental mindfulness training dismantling studies to-date, we show that training in acceptance is a critical driver of mindfulness-training reductions in mind wandering. This effect suggests that acceptance skills may facilitate emotion regulation on boring and frustrating sustained attention tasks that foster mind wandering, such as the SART. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Nature of Science and Models: Comparing Portuguese Prospective Teachers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Joana; Vasconcelos, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Despite the relevance of nature of science and scientific models in science education, studies reveal that students do not possess adequate views regarding these topics. Bearing in mind that both teachers' views and knowledge strongly influence students' educational experiences, the main scope of this study was to evaluate Portuguese prospective…

  11. Nature of Science and Models: Comparing Portuguese Prospective Teachers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Joana; Vasconcelos, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Despite the relevance of nature of science and scientific models in science education, studies reveal that students do not possess adequate views regarding these topics. Bearing in mind that both teachers' views and knowledge strongly influence students' educational experiences, the main scope of this study was to evaluate Portuguese prospective…

  12. The Gods Within On the Vedic understanding of mind and neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    Kak, S

    2000-01-01

    Mind is the last frontier of science. We observe the physical universe through our mind, yet we have no clear idea how mind functions, how memories are stored and recalled and what is the origin of our subjective feelings. Is this level of ignorance a result of the reductionist nature of the tools that have been used in the study of mind and consciousness? If that is so, will an approach that has a different philosophical basis help? It is for this reason we turn to an examination of Indic psychology--based on a holistic view of reality--, where the central concern is self and awareness. We provide evidence that the "gods" of Indic mythology are cognitive centers in the brain. Without forcing our own interpretation on ancient material, we let the texts speak for themselves. Parallels are drawn using our recent insights from neurscience.

  13. Contributions of subregions of the prefrontal cortex to the theory of mind and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Chunhua; Zhu, Youling; Niu, Chaoshi; Zhu, Chunyan; Lee, Tatia M C; Tian, Yanghua; Wang, Kai

    2011-08-10

    Recent works have suggested an association between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) and social cognition or decision making. The aim of this study is to investigate the theory of mind and decision making in patients with VMPC lesions and in those with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPC) lesions. Patients with VMPC lesions (n=16) and those with DLPC lesions (n=14) were compared with healthy controls (HC) on faux pas recognition and 2 decision-making tasks. Consistent with previous data, patients with VMPC lesions performed worse on the theory of mind and decision making. Patients with DLPC lesions showed impairments of the theory of mind but performed at control levels on the 2 decision-making tasks. The results supported the view that a separation of function of 2 distinct subregions of the prefrontal cortex is important to the theory of mind and decision making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. European Communication Monitor 2009: an institutionalized view of how public relations and communication management professionals face the economic and media crises in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Á.; Verhoeven, P.; Tench, R.; Zerfass, A.

    2010-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) is an extensive longitudinal research project to monitor trends in public relations and communication management and analyze the changing framework for the profession in Europe. The 2009 ECM edition identifies the main characteristics of individual practition

  15. The European Communication Monitor 2009: an institutionalized view of how public relations and communication management professionals face the economic and media crises in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Á. Moreno; P. Verhoeven; R. Tench; A. Zerfass

    2010-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) is an extensive longitudinal research project to monitor trends in public relations and communication management and analyze the changing framework for the profession in Europe. The 2009 ECM edition identifies the main characteristics of individual practition

  16. Layers of Influence: Exploring Institutional- and State-Level Effects on College Student Views toward Access to Public Education for Undocumented Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibay, Juan C.; Herrera, Felisha A.; Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Garcia, Gina A.

    2016-01-01

    Providing undocumented immigrants access to public education remains a pertinent issue facing both institutions of higher education and state governments. While instate resident tuition (ISRT) has remained a contentious policy, little is known about how such policies, as well as other state contexts, influence college students' attitudes toward…

  17. Using the Deficit Model, Public Debate Model and Co-Production of Knowledge Models to Interpret Points of View of Students Concerning Citizens' Participation in Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    In the first part of this article I propose a conceptual framework--based on the deficit, public debate and co-production of knowledge models articulated by (Callon, 1999)--with which to examine students' appropriation of de socioscientific issues (SSI). The second part of this article presents the way a group of three…

  18. European Communication Monitor 2009: an institutionalized view of how public relations and communication management professionals face the economic and media crises in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Á.; Verhoeven, P.; Tench, R.; Zerfass, A.

    2010-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) is an extensive longitudinal research project to monitor trends in public relations and communication management and analyze the changing framework for the profession in Europe. The 2009 ECM edition identifies the main characteristics of individual practition

  19. Public Relations in the Social Construction of Reality: Theoretical and Practical Implications of Berger and Luckmann's View of the Social Construction of Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jon

    As P. L. Berger and T. Luckmann argue, what the public regards as social reality is a construction to which each member contributes by selecting from all available information to develop a picture of the world. To do so, people negotiate with other people regarding the meaning of the information provided. A logical extension of this theory is that…

  20. Darwin in mind: new opportunities for evolutionary psychology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan J Bolhuis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Psychology (EP views the human mind as organized into many modules, each underpinned by psychological adaptations designed to solve problems faced by our Pleistocene ancestors. We argue that the key tenets of the established EP paradigm require modification in the light of recent findings from a number of disciplines, including human genetics, evolutionary biology, cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, and paleoecology. For instance, many human genes have been subject to recent selective sweeps; humans play an active, constructive role in co-directing their own development and evolution; and experimental evidence often favours a general process, rather than a modular account, of cognition. A redefined EP could use the theoretical insights of modern evolutionary biology as a rich source of hypotheses concerning the human mind, and could exploit novel methods from a variety of adjacent research fields.

  1. Mario Bunge's Materialist Theory of Mind and Contemporary Cognitive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Bunge's writings on the mind-body problem provide a rigorous, analytical antidote to the persistent anti-materialist tendency that has characterized the history of philosophy and science. Bunge gives special attention to dualism and its shortcomings, and this attention is welcome in view of the resurgence of the doctrine today. However, I focus my comments selectively on Bunge's more controversial, provocative claims, not to dismiss them, but to engage with them seriously. For example, a difficulty arising from Bunge's rhetorical style and its undoubted virtues is that not all the targets of his selfconfessed "bashings" (2010, xi) are equally deserving. For example, Bunge suggests "most contemporary philosophers of mind are indifferent to psychology, or are remarkably uninformed about it". This charge cannot be sustained today in light of the work of foremost philosophers today.

  2. Darwin in Mind: New Opportunities for Evolutionary Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Johan J.; Brown, Gillian R.; Richardson, Robert C.; Laland, Kevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary Psychology (EP) views the human mind as organized into many modules, each underpinned by psychological adaptations designed to solve problems faced by our Pleistocene ancestors. We argue that the key tenets of the established EP paradigm require modification in the light of recent findings from a number of disciplines, including human genetics, evolutionary biology, cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, and paleoecology. For instance, many human genes have been subject to recent selective sweeps; humans play an active, constructive role in co-directing their own development and evolution; and experimental evidence often favours a general process, rather than a modular account, of cognition. A redefined EP could use the theoretical insights of modern evolutionary biology as a rich source of hypotheses concerning the human mind, and could exploit novel methods from a variety of adjacent research fields. PMID:21811401

  3. Darwin in mind: new opportunities for evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Johan J; Brown, Gillian R; Richardson, Robert C; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-07-01

    Evolutionary Psychology (EP) views the human mind as organized into many modules, each underpinned by psychological adaptations designed to solve problems faced by our Pleistocene ancestors. We argue that the key tenets of the established EP paradigm require modification in the light of recent findings from a number of disciplines, including human genetics, evolutionary biology, cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, and paleoecology. For instance, many human genes have been subject to recent selective sweeps; humans play an active, constructive role in co-directing their own development and evolution; and experimental evidence often favours a general process, rather than a modular account, of cognition. A redefined EP could use the theoretical insights of modern evolutionary biology as a rich source of hypotheses concerning the human mind, and could exploit novel methods from a variety of adjacent research fields.

  4. Mindfulness and Compassion: An Examination of Mechanism and Scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daniel; Condon, Paul; DeSteno, David

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that meditation engenders prosocial behaviors meant to benefit others. However, the robustness, underlying mechanisms, and potential scalability of such effects remain open to question. The current experiment employed an ecologically valid situation that exposed participants to a person in visible pain. Following three-week, mobile-app based training courses in mindfulness meditation or cognitive skills (i.e., an active control condition), participants arrived at a lab individually to complete purported measures of cognitive ability. Upon entering a public waiting area outside the lab that contained three chairs, participants seated themselves in the last remaining unoccupied chair; confederates occupied the other two. As the participant sat and waited, a third confederate using crutches and a large walking boot entered the waiting area while displaying discomfort. Compassionate responding was assessed by whether participants gave up their seat to allow the uncomfortable confederate to sit, thereby relieving her pain. Participants’ levels of empathic accuracy was also assessed. As predicted, participants assigned to the mindfulness meditation condition gave up their seats more frequently than did those assigned to the active control group. In addition, empathic accuracy was not increased by mindfulness practice, suggesting that mindfulness-enhanced compassionate behavior does not stem from associated increases in the ability to decode the emotional experiences of others. PMID:25689827

  5. Mindfulness and compassion: an examination of mechanism and scalability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lim

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that meditation engenders prosocial behaviors meant to benefit others. However, the robustness, underlying mechanisms, and potential scalability of such effects remain open to question. The current experiment employed an ecologically valid situation that exposed participants to a person in visible pain. Following three-week, mobile-app based training courses in mindfulness meditation or cognitive skills (i.e., an active control condition, participants arrived at a lab individually to complete purported measures of cognitive ability. Upon entering a public waiting area outside the lab that contained three chairs, participants seated themselves in the last remaining unoccupied chair; confederates occupied the other two. As the participant sat and waited, a third confederate using crutches and a large walking boot entered the waiting area while displaying discomfort. Compassionate responding was assessed by whether participants gave up their seat to allow the uncomfortable confederate to sit, thereby relieving her pain. Participants' levels of empathic accuracy was also assessed. As predicted, participants assigned to the mindfulness meditation condition gave up their seats more frequently than did those assigned to the active control group. In addition, empathic accuracy was not increased by mindfulness practice, suggesting that mindfulness-enhanced compassionate behavior does not stem from associated increases in the ability to decode the emotional experiences of others.

  6. Mindfulness and compassion: an examination of mechanism and scalability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daniel; Condon, Paul; DeSteno, David

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that meditation engenders prosocial behaviors meant to benefit others. However, the robustness, underlying mechanisms, and potential scalability of such effects remain open to question. The current experiment employed an ecologically valid situation that exposed participants to a person in visible pain. Following three-week, mobile-app based training courses in mindfulness meditation or cognitive skills (i.e., an active control condition), participants arrived at a lab individually to complete purported measures of cognitive ability. Upon entering a public waiting area outside the lab that contained three chairs, participants seated themselves in the last remaining unoccupied chair; confederates occupied the other two. As the participant sat and waited, a third confederate using crutches and a large walking boot entered the waiting area while displaying discomfort. Compassionate responding was assessed by whether participants gave up their seat to allow the uncomfortable confederate to sit, thereby relieving her pain. Participants' levels of empathic accuracy was also assessed. As predicted, participants assigned to the mindfulness meditation condition gave up their seats more frequently than did those assigned to the active control group. In addition, empathic accuracy was not increased by mindfulness practice, suggesting that mindfulness-enhanced compassionate behavior does not stem from associated increases in the ability to decode the emotional experiences of others.

  7. Meditation and mindfulness in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Deborah R; Black, Nancy B

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the various forms of meditation and provides an overview of research using these techniques for children, adolescents, and their families. The most researched techniques in children and adolescents are mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, yoga meditation, transcendental meditation, mind-body techniques (meditation, relaxation), and body-mind techniques (yoga poses, tai chi movements). Current data are suggestive of a possible value of meditation and mindfulness techniques for treating symptomatic anxiety, depression, and pain in youth. Clinicians must be properly trained before using these techniques.

  8. Mindfulness as a transtheoretical clinical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Rose; Callahan, Jennifer L; Swift, Joshua K

    2013-09-01

    The use of mindfulness in psychotherapy has garnered the attention of both researchers and therapists over recent years. Based on established research, use of mindfulness with clients is recommended to improve awareness during sessions, reduce ruminative thinking patterns, and increase self-compassion regardless of theoretical orientation. In this article, de-identified clinical material is used to illustrate both informal and formal mindfulness training in session. Further, we provide illustrations of presession and within-session therapist mindfulness, recommending that therapists develop their own mindfulness practice, as research has demonstrated that it is related to important clinical skills including attentiveness, nonjudgment, and improved client perceptions.

  9. View relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential of using visual representations to support people in managing, organizing, and understanding relations between multiple visualization views. Multiple views can help people understand different facets of data and data processing, and are a crucial part of data...... analysis particularly when it is done collaboratively. Both the growing use of multiple views and the increasing display sizes have amplified the need to explore how to better help people to understand the relations between many views. To improve our understanding of how to visualize view relations, we...... invited visualization and interaction designers to critique and sketch representations of view relations. The participants provided design critiques, and sketched their own relation representations. Our findings expand the range and palette of ways of visually linking visualization views and suggest new...

  10. Mind as Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLloyd

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience typically develops hypotheses to explain phenomena that are localized in space and time. Determining functions of brain regions in spatial and temporal isolation is generally regarded as the first step toward understanding the conjoint operation of the whole brain. In other words, if the task of cognitive neuroscience is to interpret the neural code, then the first step has been semantic, searching for the meanings (functions of localized elements, prior to exploring neural syntax, the mutual constraints among elements synchronically and diachronically. Researchers generally assume that neural semantics is a precondition for determining neural syntax. Furthermore, it is often assumed that the syntax of the brain is too complex for our present technology and understanding. A corollary of this view holds that functional MRI lacks the spatial and temporal resolution needed to identify the dynamic syntax of neural computation. This paper examines these assumptions with a novel analysis of fMRI image series, resting on the conjecture that any computational code will exhibit aggregate features that can be detected even if the meaning of the code is unknown. Specifically, computational codes will be sparse or dense in different degrees. A sparse code is one that uses only a few of the many possible patterns of activity (in the brain or symbols (in a human-made code. Considering sparseness at different scales and as measured by different techniques, this approach clearly distinguishes two conventional coding systems, namely, language and music. Considering 99 subjects in three different fMRI protocols, in comparison with 194 musical examples and 700 language passages, it is observed that fMRI activity is more similar to music than it is to language, as measured over single symbols, as well as symbol combinations in pairs and triples. Tools from cognitive musicology may therefore be useful in characterizing the brain as a dynamical

  11. Brief Online Mindfulness Training: Immediate Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J

    2017-01-01

    Online training is feasible, but the impact of brief mindfulness training on health professionals needs to be better understood. We analyzed data from health professionals and trainees who completed self-reflection exercises embedded in online mindfulness training between May 2014 and September, 2015; their changes in mindfulness were measured using standardized scales. Participants included nurses (34%), physicians (24%), social workers and psychologists (10%), dietitians (8%), and others (25%); 85% were women, and 20% were trainees. The most popular module was Introduction to Mindfulness (n = 161), followed by Mindfulness in Daily Life (n = 146), and Mindful Breathing and Walking (n = 129); most (68%) participants who took 1 module took all 3 modules. There were no differences in participation in any module by gender, trainee status, or profession. Completing modules was associated with small but significant improvements on the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (P mindfulness. Additional research is warranted to compare the long-term cost-effectiveness of different doses of online and in-person mindfulness training on clinician burnout and quality of care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. The psychomotor theory of human mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Uner

    2007-08-01

    This study presents a new theory to explain the neural origins of human mind. This is the psychomotor theory. The author briefly analyzed the historical development of the mind-brain theories. The close relations between psychological and motor systems were subjected to a rather detailed analysis, using psychiatric and neurological examples. The feedback circuits between mind, brain, and body were shown to occur within the mind-brain-body triad, in normal states, and psycho-neural diseases. It was stated that psychiatric signs and symptoms are coupled with motor disturbances; neurological diseases are coupled with psychological disturbances; changes in cortico-spinal motor-system activity may influence mind-brain-body triad, and vice versa. Accordingly, a psychomotor theory was created to explain the psychomotor coupling in health and disease, stating that, not the mind-brain duality or unity, but the mind-brain-body triad as a functional unit may be essential in health and disease, because mind does not end in the brain, but further controls movements, in a reciprocal manner; mental and motor events share the same neural substrate, cortical, and spinal motoneurons; mental events emerging from the motoneuronal system expressed by the human language may be closely coupled with the unity of the mind-brain-body triad. So, the psychomotor theory rejects the mind-brain duality and instead advances the unity of the psychomotor system, which will have important consequences in understanding and improving the human mind, brain, and body in health and disease.

  13. Brief mindfulness induction reduces inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Creswell, J David; Denson, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Prior research has linked mindfulness to improvements in attention, and suggested that the effects of mindfulness are particularly pronounced when individuals are cognitively depleted or stressed. Yet, no studies have tested whether mindfulness improves declarative awareness of unexpected stimuli in goal-directed tasks. Participants (N=794) were either depleted (or not) and subsequently underwent a brief mindfulness induction (or not). They then completed an inattentional blindness task during which an unexpected distractor appeared on the computer monitor. This task was used to assess declarative conscious awareness of the unexpected distractor's presence and the extent to which its perceptual properties were encoded. Mindfulness increased awareness of the unexpected distractor (i.e., reduced rates of inattentional blindness). Contrary to predictions, no mindfulness×depletion interaction emerged. Depletion however, increased perceptual encoding of the distractor. These results suggest that mindfulness may foster awareness of unexpected stimuli (i.e., reduce inattentional blindness).

  14. Unexpected benefits of deciding by mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Colleen E; Morewedge, Carey K; Norton, Michael I

    2013-01-01

    The mind wanders, even when people are attempting to make complex decisions. We suggest that mind wandering-allowing one's thoughts to wander until the "correct" choice comes to mind-can positively impact people's feelings about their decisions. We compare post-choice satisfaction from choices made by mind wandering to reason-based choices and randomly assigned outcomes. Participants chose a poster by mind wandering or deliberating, or were randomly assigned a poster. Whereas forecasters predicted that participants who chose by mind wandering would evaluate their outcome as inferior to participants who deliberated (Experiment 1), participants who used mind wandering as a decision strategy evaluated their choice just as positively as did participants who used deliberation (Experiment 2). In some cases, it appears that people can spare themselves the effort of deliberation and instead "decide by wind wandering," yet experience no decrease in satisfaction.

  15. Mind-Wandering With and Without Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-08-01

    The past decade has seen a surge of research examining mind-wandering, but most of this research has not considered the potential importance of distinguishing between intentional and unintentional mind-wandering. However, a recent series of papers have demonstrated that mind-wandering reported in empirical investigations frequently occurs with and without intention, and, more crucially, that intentional and unintentional mind-wandering are dissociable. This emerging literature suggests that, to increase clarity in the literature, there is a need to reconsider the bulk of the mind-wandering literature with an eye toward deconvolving these two different cognitive experiences. In this review we highlight recent trends in investigations of the intentionality of mind-wandering, and we outline a novel theoretical framework regarding the mechanisms underlying intentional and unintentional mind-wandering.

  16. İbni Haldun’un Gözüyle Kamu Maliyesi Yaklaşımı(Public Finance Approach From Ibn Khauldan’s Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin CANDAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Khauldan who is Middle ages Islam-Arab philosophers, with his scientific personality, observations and ideas has affected his era and, has maintained his importance even in present. Ibn Khauldan who is known as “Historian, philosopher, sociologist, economist, politician scientist” to have Ibn Khauldan’s own peculiar philosophical and economic point of views. Ibn Khaldun has mentioned significantly at his named “Muqaddimah” scientific point of views; abaout social, political, economical, fiscal events and, to among the relations. Ibn Khaldun has examined historical events within the correspondence between cause and effect and has tried to get some deductions about communities. Ibn Khaldun has claimed knowing history the opinion which has been “necessity” to analyze from several perspective bir çok açıdan society events. In this study, by examining historical period of time when Ibn Khaldun had lived, Ibn Kahldun’s point of view to public finance had been displayed.

  17. Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzer, Tina A.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

  18. Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzer, Tina A.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

  19. Intentionality and meta-awareness of mind wandering: Are they one and the same, or distinct dimensions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Ralph, Brandon C W; Risko, Evan F; W Schooler, Jonathan; Schacter, Daniel L; Smilek, Daniel

    2017-02-27

    Researchers have recently demonstrated that mind-wandering episodes can vary on numerous dimensions, and it has been suggested that assessing these dimensions will play an important role in our understanding of mind wandering. One dimension that has received considerable attention in recent work is the intentionality of mind wandering. Although it has been claimed that indexing the intentionality of mind wandering will be necessary if researchers are to obtain a coherent understanding of the wandering mind, one concern is that this dimension might be redundant with another, longstanding, dimension: namely, meta-awareness. Thus, the utility of the argument for assessing intentionality rests upon a demonstration that this dimension is distinct from the meta-awareness dimension. To shed light on this issue, across two studies we compared and contrasted these dimensions to determine whether they are redundant or distinct. In both studies, we found support for the view that these dimensions are distinct.

  20. The Guidance of Public Opinion and Public Opinion Polls in the View of News%新闻学视野的民意调查与舆论引导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方建移

    2012-01-01

    The po11 is the most important part of precision journalism, which promotes the government public decision-making more scientific and service the decision-making and communication of the public policy. European nations and the United States pay more attention to the use of guiding public opinion poll. We should use scientific investigation and analysis to ensure the credibility of the polling agency to play the guidance role for the poll in the public opinion.%民意调查是精确新闻学的最主要组成部分,有助于推动政府公共决策的科学化,服务于公共政策的决策和传播。欧美国家都比较重视运用民意调查进行舆论引导。发挥民意调查在舆论引导中的作用,应利用科学的调查和分析方法.确保民意调查机构的公信力。

  1. Winning American Hearts and Minds: Country Characteristics, Public Relations and Mass Media%如何赢得美国民心:国家特征、公共关系与大众媒体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀丽; 帕米拉·休梅克

    2012-01-01

    文章采用内容分析方法并结合现有数据以及盖洛普的调查数据,分析了32个国家的政治、经济和文化特征以及它们在美国的公关活动如何影响美国媒体对这些国家的报道以及美国民众对这些国家的看法。研究发现,一个国家与美国在语言、宗教等文化因素和政冶体制方面越相似,美国媒体对该国的报道越正面,美国民众对该国的态度越友善。同时,本文的研究还发现,在控制国家特征和公关活动等变量的影响后,美国民众对媒体报道越正面的国家的态度更为友善。%This study looks at how 32 countries' political, economic and cultural characteristics and their public relations effort in the United States may influence U.S. media's coverage of these countries and Americans' opinions toward the countries. Using content analysis, existing statistics and Gallup's survey data, the study finds that a country's cultural similarity to the U.S. in terms of language, religion, and political freedom is significant in predicting U.S. media's coverage of the country and Americans' opinion toward the country, with more similarity leading to more positive coverage and more favorable opinions. The valence of news coverage shows a significant positive effect on Americans' opinions toward foreign countries when taking country characteristics and public relations effort into consideration.

  2. Mind as music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience typically develops hypotheses to explain phenomena that are localized in space and time. Specific regions of the brain execute characteristic functions, whose causes and effects are prompt; determining these functions in spatial and temporal isolation is generally regarded as the first step toward understanding the coherent operation of the whole brain over time. In other words, if the task of cognitive neuroscience is to interpret the neural code, then the first step has been semantic, searching for the meanings (functions) of localized elements, prior to exploring neural syntax, the mutual constraints among elements synchronically and diachronically. While neuroscience has made great strides in discovering the functions of regions of the brain, less is known about the dynamic patterns of brain activity over time, in particular, whether regions activate in sequences that could be characterized syntactically. Researchers generally assume that neural semantics is a precondition for determining neural syntax. Furthermore, it is often assumed that the syntax of the brain is too complex for our present technology and understanding. A corollary of this view holds that functional MRI (fMRI) lacks the spatial and temporal resolution needed to identify the dynamic syntax of neural computation. This paper examines these assumptions with a novel analysis of fMRI image series, resting on the conjecture that any computational code will exhibit aggregate features that can be detected even if the meaning of the code is unknown. Specifically, computational codes will be sparse or dense in different degrees. A sparse code is one that uses only a few of the many possible patterns of activity (in the brain) or symbols (in a human-made code). Considering sparseness at different scales and as measured by different techniques, this approach clearly distinguishes two conventional coding systems, namely, language and music. Based on an analysis of 99 subjects in

  3. Does Parental Mind-Mindedness Account for Cross-Cultural Differences in Preschoolers' Theory of Mind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Devine, Rory T; Wang, Zhenlin

    2017-02-03

    This study of 241 parent-child dyads from the United Kingdom (N = 120, Mage  = 3.92, SD = 0.53) and Hong Kong (N = 121, Mage  = 3.99, SD = 0.50) breaks new ground by adopting a cross-cultural approach to investigate children's theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. Relative to the Hong Kong sample, U.K. children showed superior theory-of-mind performance and U.K. parents showed greater levels of mind-mindedness. Within both cultures parental mind-mindedness was correlated with theory of mind. Mind-mindedness also accounted for cultural differences in preschoolers' theory of mind. We argue that children's family environments might shed light on how culture shapes children's theory of mind.

  4. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  5. "You cannot eat rights": a qualitative study of views by Zambian HIV-vulnerable women, youth and MSM on human rights as public health tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyamba, Choolwe; Broaddus, Elena; Campbell, Catherine

    2015-10-05

    Human rights approaches now dominate the HIV prevention landscape across sub-Saharan Africa, yet little is known about how they are viewed by the populations they are designed to serve. Health interventions are most effective when they resonate with the worldviews and interests of target groups. This study examined local Zambian understandings of human rights approaches to HIV-prevention among three highly HIV-vulnerable groups: women, youth, and men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Focus groups included 23 women, youth, and MSM who had participated in activities organized by local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) using rights-based approaches, and interviews included 10 Zambian employees of these NGOs. Topics included participants' experiences and views of the utility of these activities. Thematic analysis mapped out diverse ways participants viewed the concept of human rights in relation to HIV-prevention. Whilst NGO workers noted the need for human rights programs to address the complex drivers of the HIV epidemic, they struggled to tailor them to the Zambian context due to donor stipulations. Women program beneficiaries noted that the concept of human rights helped challenge harmful sexual practices and domestic abuse, and youth described rights-based approaches as more participatory than previous HIV-prevention efforts. However, they criticized the approach for conflicting with traditional values such as respect for elders and 'harmonious' marital relationships. They also critiqued it for threatening the social structures and relationships that they relied on for material survival, and for failing to address issues like poverty and unemployment. In contrast, MSM embraced the rights approach, despite being critical of its overly confrontational implementation. A rights-based approach seeks to tackle the symbolic drivers of HIV-its undeniable roots in cultural and religious systems of discrimination. Yet, it fails to resonate with youth and women's own

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of carious lesions in digital radiographs at a public dental clinic - can it be improved by optimizing viewing conditions and further education?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Westerberg, Jane; Hellén-Halme, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of digital dental radiograpny for detecting carious lesions on approximal surfaces before and after optimization of the environ- ment, and after joint training on evaluation and review of x-rays. A further aim was to evaluate differences in diagnostic accuracy between general dental practitioners (GDPs) and dental hygienists (DHs). One hundred extracted teeth (premolars and molars) underwent standardized radiography. Eleven participants (seven GDPs and four DHs) evaluated digital images for approximal carious lesions in three sessions: (1) at current conditions with no optimization or further training, (2) under optimized viewing conditions, and (3) under optimized viewing conditions after a short educational session. Receiver operating characteristic curves were,used to evaluate the results. Histological evaluation was made and served as a cri- terion standard for differentiating sound teeth and teeth with carious lesions. Kappa statistics evaluated intra-observer agreement. Diagnostic accuracy in the GDP group differed sig- nificantlyfor all types of carious lesions between the first and third evaluations (p=0.002), and also between the second and third (p=0.015). Diagnostic accuracy also differed significantly for carious lesions into the dentin between the first and third evaluations (p=0.010) and between the second and third (p=0.015). Most of the staff had optimized the environment when evaluating digital radiographs. A short educational session highlighting the difficulty of caries diagnostics in digital dental radiography can increase diagnostic accuracy. Diagnostic accuracy in the detection of approximal carious lesions on digital radiographs did not differ between GDPs and DHs.

  7. Cognitive processes as mediators of the relation between mindfulness and change in social anxiety symptoms following cognitive behavioral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica R; Price, Matthew; Schmertz, Stefan K; Johnson, Suzanne B; Masuda, Akihiko; Calamaras, Martha; Anderson, Page L

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined whether pretreatment mindfulness exerts an indirect effect on outcomes following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Cognitive processes of probability and cost bias (i.e., overestimations of the likelihood that negative social events will occur, and that these events will have negative consequences when they do occur) were explored as potential mediators of the relation between mindfulness and social anxiety symptom change. People with higher levels of mindfulness may be better able to benefit from treatments that reduce biases because mindfulness may aid in regulation of attention. Sixty-seven individuals with a primary diagnosis of social phobia identifying public speaking as their greatest fear received eight sessions of one of two types of exposure-based CBT delivered according to treatment manuals. Participants completed self-report measures of mindfulness, probability bias, cost bias, and social anxiety symptoms. Mediation hypotheses were assessed by a bootstrapped regression using treatment outcome data. Pretreatment mindfulness was not related to change in social anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. However, mindfulness had an indirect effect on treatment outcome via its association with probability bias, but not cost bias, at midtreatment. These findings were consistent across three metrics of social anxiety symptoms. Mindfulness may play a role in response to CBT among individuals with social phobia through its relation with probability bias--even when the treatment does not target mindfulness.

  8. Mind: Explore the Space Inside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Barve

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When caught in the dilemma of career choice, a critical conversation helped the writer crystallize the decision to plunge into the field of mental health. The decision just not only kindled interest in psychiatry but passion to study the science of the mind despite the fact that in earlier times psychiatry mainly catered to patients with chronic schizophrenia and uncontrolled bipolar disorder. Weathering the curious glances of colleagues the writer pursued to explore the field of the science of the mind. Not restricting himself to classical trends in private practice, he explored every opportunity to reach out to the common man through writing articles in popular newspapers and also ran a TV Show to respond to people′s queries on mental health. He further ventured into training and development of young MBA aspirants and trained himself into an international coach and facilitator. The science of Behavioural Economics beckons him now.

  9. Trust-based collective view prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Tiejian; Xu, Guandong; Zhou, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Collective view prediction is to judge the opinions of an active web user based on unknown elements by referring to the collective mind of the whole community. Content-based recommendation and collaborative filtering are two mainstream collective view prediction techniques. They generate predictions by analyzing the text features of the target object or the similarity of users' past behaviors. Still, these techniques are vulnerable to the artificially-injected noise data, because they are not able to judge the reliability and credibility of the information sources. Trust-based Collective View

  10. Integration of DICOM images into an electronic medical record using thin viewing clients.

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, B. K.; Langer, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past five years the University of Washington has created a clinical data repository. This repository combines in a distributed relational database information from multiple departmental databases (MIND). MINDscape provides a platform independent, web browser view of the MIND dataset that can easily be linked to other information resources on the network.

  11. The human mind: origin in geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, William L

    2010-01-01

    Within 53 years after the public acceptance of Mendel's laws (in 1900), the genetic material was identified and described (by Watson and Crick). Today, 53 years after the modern era began in the scientific study of language (with Chomsky's Syntactic structures), there is no agreement as to whether universal grammar exists, or whether language as such exists at all, that is, there is no agreement as to which square is square-one. Under the circumstances, a new approach is justified. It is the goal of this paper to place the scientific study of mind, language and brain onto a theoretical basis, beginning with naturally-occurring human language. The human mind has two major components, one with its antecedents in biology and behaviour the other with its antecedents in geometry. It is the geometric component, consisting of language, tool-use, the mathematical sense, and the sense of truth and falsity, that distinguishes and defines the human being. Thus the constructions of language conform to the commutative, associative and distributive laws, and have their ultimate source in geometry. Equations have a symmetrical deep-structure based on the fact that one side is "equal" to the other: The "equals" symbol represents the axis of symmetry, and functions as a kind of main verb. The deep structure of the ordinary sentence is derived by moving the attachment for the "equals" to one of the branches, generating the asymmetrical Subject-Verb-Object relationship. Tool-use, with its Subject (the tool), Verb (movement of the tool), and Object (the workpiece), and manipulation of mental images, is an extension of the sentence. The sense of truth and falsity shares a common source with the right and wrong answers of arithmetic.

  12. Towards a theory of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Boyarsky

    1999-01-01

    consists of the collection of all brain images (clusters of activated neurons that are relevant to consciousness. The dynamics of the brain is modelled by means of a discrete time transformation T which takes a cluster of activated brain cells into another cluster of activated brain cells. The space X is partitioned into subcollections of brain images, namely those generated by the five senses and by other processes that produce brain images relevant to consciousness. It is argued that T is a Markov transformation with respect to this partition of X. This leads to the existence of an object μ, referred to as an SRB measure which possesses properties that make it a candidate for mind: μ is ‘aware’ of the brain images in its support; μ is time-invariant and acts as an attractor into which all orbits of (conscious brain images settle. Furthermore, the dynamical systems model for mind allows the estimation of brain information rates and provides a framework in which a number of mind related issues can be discussed.

  13. The Many Faces of Belief: Reflections on Fodor's and the Child's Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Josef

    1995-01-01

    Contrasts Fodor's theory of children's Very Simple Theory of Mind, with the view that children's concepts cross-cut the adult conceptual system: young children do not distinguish between the state of affairs a belief is about and how this state of affairs is thought of, which puts a severe limit on their understanding of belief as distinct from…

  14. The relationship between Theory of Mind and Relational Frame Theory: Convergence of perspective-taking measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.L.; Barnes-Holmes, Y.; McEnteggart, C.; Mey, H.R.A. De; Witteman, C.L.M.; Janssen, G.T.L.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Perspective-taking difficulties have been demonstrated in autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations, and are traditionally examined from a Theory of Mind (ToM) point of view. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) offers a behavioural and contextual

  15. Contextualising Postmodernity in Daoist Symbolism: Toward a Mindful Education Embracing Eastern Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rob; Lu, Chunlei

    2016-01-01

    In cultivating a Western inclination toward Eastern wisdom, it is important to seek the foundations that sustain traditional practices toward such end. In a secularised and modern world view, the tendency has been to extract and abstract foundational practices such as mindfulness meditation and contemplation within an objectivist or scientistic…

  16. "The Mozart of Psychology": "Mind in Society" by L. S. Vygotsky: Implications for Improving Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sheila

    L. S. Vygotsky's book "Mind in Society" was published more than 50 years ago in Russia, but it is now being recognized as relevant to contemporary research in child development because of the areas of investigation that he suggested. Vygotsky views children as active participants in their own learning and suggests that researchers…

  17. "The Mozart of Psychology": "Mind in Society" by L. S. Vygotsky: Implications for Improving Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sheila

    L. S. Vygotsky's book "Mind in Society" was published more than 50 years ago in Russia, but it is now being recognized as relevant to contemporary research in child development because of the areas of investigation that he suggested. Vygotsky views children as active participants in their own learning and suggests that researchers…

  18. Relational mindfulness, spirituality, and the therapeutic bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falb, Melissa D; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2012-12-01

    Mindfulness training, which emphasizes deliberate non-judgmental attention to present moment experiences, has become increasingly mainstream over the past several decades. With accumulating evidence for the physical and mental health benefits of mindfulness, it has been integrated into medical and psychological treatments and is increasingly accepted in the fields of psychology and psychiatry. However, several elements of mindfulness practice which potentially contribute to its benefits have been largely neglected. These include the connections between mindfulness, interpersonal relationships, spirituality, and the psychotherapeutic alliance. The emerging concept of "relational mindfulness" focuses attention on the oft-neglected interpersonal aspects of mindfulness practices. Relational mindfulness is potentially relevant to the psychotherapeutic process, due to its cultivation of the types of qualities that enhance the therapeutic relationship, including warmth, empathy, curiosity, acceptance, self-attunement, and emotional intelligence. In addition, mindfulness practices, especially relational ones, can contribute to the development of spiritual qualities, such as transcendence, boundlessness, ultimacy, and interconnectedness. Several recent studies suggest that meditation/mindfulness interventions may be explained and or enhanced by an emphasis on spiritual components. In this paper, we suggest that focusing on the oft-neglected relational and spiritual aspects of mindfulness practice has the potential to deepen its benefits, especially within the context of the psychotherapeutic relationship.

  19. Creating a Culture of Mindfulness in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchterhand, Charlene; Rakel, David; Haq, Cynthia; Grant, Lisa; Byars-Winston, Angela; Tyska, Steve; Engles, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Well-documented challenges faced by primary care clinicians have brought growing awareness to the issues of physician wellness and burnout and the potential subsequent impact on patients. Research has identified mindfulness as a tool to increase clinician well-being and enhance clinician characteristics associated with a more patient-centered orientation to clinical care. The overall goal of our intervention was to promote the cultivation of mindful awareness throughout our health system, creating a culture of mindfulness in medicine. We developed a systems-level strategy to promote health and resilience for clinicians and patients by preparing a group of clinician leaders to serve as catalysts to practice and teach mindfulness. The strategy involved 3 steps: (1) select 5 primary care leaders to help foster mindfulness within both health care delivery and education; (2) provide funds for these leaders to attend advanced mindfulness training designed specifically for clinicians; and (3) foster mindfulness within our health system and beyond via collaborative planning meetings and seed money for implementation of projects. All 5 leaders endorsed the personal value of the mindfulness training, with some describing it as life-changing. Within 8 months, 4 of the leaders fostered a wide variety of mindfulness activities benefitting colleagues, medical students, and patients across our state and beyond. We found that the value received from our investment in mindfulness far exceeded our relatively low cost, although further evaluation is needed to prove this.

  20. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Susan L.; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and personality, using the Tridimensional Character Inventory. Individuals with ADHD report themselves as less mindful than non-ADHD controls and more novelty-seeking, less self-directed, and more self-transcendent. Mindfulness is negatively associated with ADHD and positively associated with self-directedness and self-transcendence. Analyses of subscales of mindfulness suggest that ADHD is associated most with the ‘Acting in Awareness’ dimension perhaps due to shared items reflecting attentional variability. The current findings support that a large portion of variability in trait mindfulness can be explained by ADHD status and personality traits of self-directedness and self-transcendence. It further suggests that interventions that increase mindfulness might improve symptoms of ADHD and increase self-directedness and/or self-transcendence. PMID:19681107

  1. Origins of theory of mind, cognition and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, A N

    1999-01-01

    There has been a revolution in our understanding of infant and toddler cognition that promises to have far-reaching implications for our understanding of communicative and linguistic development. Four empirical findings that helped to prompt this change in theory are analyzed: (a) Intermodal coordination--newborns operate with multimodal information, recognizing equivalences in information across sensory-modalities; (b) Imitation--newborns imitate the lip and tongue movements they see others perform; (c) Memory--young infants form long-lasting representations of perceived events and use these memories to generate motor productions after lengthy delays in novel contexts; (d) Theory of mind--by 18 months of age toddlers have adopted a theory of mind, reading below surface behavior to the goals and intentions in people's actions. This paper examines three views currently being offered in the literature to replace the classical framework of early cognitive development: modularity-nativism, connectionism, and theory-theory. Arguments are marshaled to support the "theory-theory" view. This view emphasizes a combination of innate structure and qualitative reorganization in children's thought based on input from the people and things in their culture. It is suggested that preverbal cognition forms a substrate for language acquisition and that analyzing cognition may enhance our understanding of certain disorders of communication.

  2. The effects of the liberalization of peruvean urban transport. Two analytical points of view on public dominion of road networks after two decades of “market”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Vignolo Cueva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Large Peruvian cities suffer from serious problems that significantly affect several constitutional rights of all citizens that live or reside in them. The cause of these continuing lesions comes from the messy mercantilist, deregulated, and liberalized urban passenger-transportation applied in Peru’s reality. Such method has been largely neglected since the nineties’ decade, diminishing the importance of the principal role that Municipalities should have when defining and limiting this activity. Therefore, this paper tries to mix this past component with the essential nature of urban roads, separating the private operator market from the public infrastructure that supports and sustains its exercise, while assuming the necessity of comprehending its nature and range, and putting them into value. Consequently, by having poorly controlled market activity based on real municipal public domain –and directed towards the general interest–, it becomes of dire urgency the need of change in paths from the one practiced by our own legislator and local entities, to one of different legal treatments.

  3. 高职高专公共英语教学之我见%My Views on Public English Teaching in Vocational Higher Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满江红

    2012-01-01

    本文根据教育部高教司规定的高职英语"以实用为主,应用为目的"教学目标,分析了目前我国高职高专公共英语教学的现状和问题,并结合教学改革趋势与自己的教学实践,对提高高职公共英语教学的实用性、职业性提出了一些对策和建议,以期更好地实现高职高专人才培养目标,为我国经济发展做出贡献。%Based on the teaching aims "practice-oriented and for the purpose of application" set by Department of Higher Education,Ministry of Education,the paper analyzes the status quo and problems of public English teaching in vocational higher colleges.On the basis of the trend in teaching reform and the author’s own teaching practice,the paper brings forward some strategies and suggestions on how to make public English teaching in vocational higher colleges more practical and professional in order to realize the aims and make contributions to the economic development of our country.

  4. Setting policy priorities to address eating disorders and weight stigma: views from the field of eating disorders and the US general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Austin, S Bryn; Luedicke, Joerg; King, Kelly M

    2014-05-29

    The prevalence and health consequences of eating disorders and weight stigmatization have prompted increasing discussion of potential policy actions to address these public health issues. The present study aimed to assess support for policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigmatization among the general public and relevant health professionals. An Internet survey was fielded to a national sample of 944 US adults and 1,420 members of professional organizations specializing in eating disorders to examine their support for 23 potential policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigma. Participants also rated policy actions according to their potential for positive impact and feasible implementation. Support for the majority of health and social policies was high in both samples. For example, strategies to 1) improve school-based health curriculum to include content aimed at preventing eating disorders, 2) require training for educators and health providers on the prevention and early identification of eating disorders, and 3) implement school-based anti-bullying policies that that protect students from being bullied about their weight, were supported by over two-thirds of participants. Our findings suggest that both health and social policy actions will be important in broader policy initiatives to address eating disorders and weight stigma.

  5. Setting policy priorities to address eating disorders and weight stigma: views from the field of eating disorders and the US general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence and health consequences of eating disorders and weight stigmatization have prompted increasing discussion of potential policy actions to address these public health issues. The present study aimed to assess support for policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigmatization among the general public and relevant health professionals. Methods An Internet survey was fielded to a national sample of 944 US adults and 1,420 members of professional organizations specializing in eating disorders to examine their support for 23 potential policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigma. Participants also rated policy actions according to their potential for positive impact and feasible implementation. Results Support for the majority of health and social policies was high in both samples. For example, strategies to 1) improve school-based health curriculum to include content aimed at preventing eating disorders, 2) require training for educators and health providers on the prevention and early identification of eating disorders, and 3) implement school-based anti-bullying policies that that protect students from being bullied about their weight, were supported by over two-thirds of participants. Conclusions Our findings suggest that both health and social policy actions will be important in broader policy initiatives to address eating disorders and weight stigma. PMID:24884645

  6. The embodied mind: A review on functional genomic and neurological correlates of mind-body therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehsam, David; Lutgendorf, Susan; Mills, Paul J; Rickhi, Badri; Chevalier, Gaétan; Bat, Namuun; Chopra, Deepak; Gurfein, Blake

    2017-02-01

    A broad range of mind-body therapies (MBTs) are used by the public today, and a growing body of clinical and basic sciences research has resulted in evidence-based integration of many MBTs into clinical practice. Basic sciences research has identified some of the physiological correlates of MBT practices, leading to a better understanding of the processes by which emotional, cognitive and psychosocial factors can influence health outcomes and well-being. In particular, results from functional genomics and neuroimaging describe some of the processes involved in the mind-body connection and how these can influence health outcomes. Functional genomic and neurophysiological correlates of MBTs are reviewed, detailing studies showing changes in sympathetic nervous system activation of gene transcription factors involved in immune function and inflammation, electroencephalographic and neuroimaging studies on MBT practices, and persistent changes in neural function and morphology associated with these practices. While the broad diversity of study designs and MBTs studied presents a patchwork of results requiring further validation through replication and longitudinal studies, clear themes emerge for MBTs as immunomodulatory, with effects on leukocyte transcription and function related to inflammatory and innate immune responses, and neuromodulatory, with effects on brain function and morphology relevant for attention, learning, and emotion regulation. By detailing the potential mechanisms of action by which MBTs may influence health outcomes, the data generated by these studies have contributed significantly towards a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying MBTs.

  7. Wind energy. Views on the environment: clean and green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Thomas O.

    1999-12-01

    As the United States grapples with the issue of global climate change resulting from fossil fuel combustion, and as the U.S. Congress and individual state legislatures consider restructuring the electric utility industry, lawmakers should keep in mind the environmental preferability of renewable energy sources such as wind and the long, continuing record of public support for them. This is particularly important in view of restructuring, which will have the effect of shifting decisions about the type and quantity of new power plants to be built from utility executives to the general public. Preliminary information suggests that ''green,'' or environmentally-friendly, power sources could win a significant market share. In addition to creating new demand for clean energy sources, this development is likely to create a committed, educated political constituency for clean energy that has not existed in the past. In such an altered environment for the selection of new generation, public attitudes on the desirability of various power sources will become much more important than they have in the past. The purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize public opinion surveys on the environment in general, renewable energy in general, and wind energy in particular in that order, using data gathered from polling in the U.S., the United Kingdom, and Canada. At this writing, more than 16 years after the first wind plants began going up in California, there is a solid and growing body of information available on public acceptance of wind energy. This paper draws on more than 25 surveys conducted over the years on wind and renewables, as well as individual findings on attitudes on the environment from other polls. An abbreviated summary of the public attitudes reviewed in this document is as follows: Views on the Environment: Public concern about protecting the environment, and particularly those aspects of the environment that relate to human health, such as

  8. From a state to a trait: Trajectories of state mindfulness in meditation during intervention predict changes in trait mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Kiken, Laura G.; Garland, Eric L.; Bluth, Karen; Palsson, Olafur S.; Gaylord, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that heightening state mindfulness in meditation practice over time increases trait mindfulness, which benefits psychological health. We prospectively examined individual trajectories of state mindfulness in meditation during a mindfulness-based intervention in relation to changes in trait mindfulness and psychological distress. Each week during the eight-week intervention, participants reported their state mindfulness in meditation after a brief mindfulness meditation. Partic...

  9. Placebos and painkillers: is mind as real as matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloca, Luana; Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2005-07-01

    Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of the placebo effect, and most of our knowledge originates from the field of pain and analgesia. Today, the placebo effect represents a promising model that could allow us to shed new light on mind-body interactions. The mental events induced by placebo administration can activate mechanisms that are similar to those activated by drugs, which indicates a similarity between psychosocial and pharmacodynamic effects. These new neurobiological advances are already changing our conception of how clinical trials and medical practice must be viewed and conducted.

  10. Google Street View: Walking the Line of Privacy-Intrusion upon Seclusion and Publicity Given to Private Facts in the Digital Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan E. Segall

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available On a snowy evening, a man hears of a new restaurant opening in a distant suburb of his metropolis and looks for driving directions to take his significant other out for a romantic evening. He opens Google and conducts a driving direction search. As they have never been to the location, and as the weather is not optimal, they check the layout of the roads in order to alleviate safety concerns through Google's Street View Program.1 They click on the images nextto the proposed turns and see a picture of a man walking with a woman at the intersection. Later it is disclosed in the news that this individual is a high-ranking government official and the woman is not his wife, but his mistress.2 In another image, a smoker is lounging in the background, hiding his addiction from his family and friends.3 With another click of the mouse he sees sunbathers sitting on top of the roof of a building, enjoying the warm summer day as well as the seeming privacy and anonymity of their rooftop abode.

  11. Environment and Health: view from the prespective of public health management Medio Ambiente y Salud: perspectivas desde la gestión de salud pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Martín Moreno

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the environment on health is an area of primary interest for Public Health. Operationally speaking, the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs’ environmental health competencies fall within the framework of the action incumbent upon the Directorate General of Public Health (DGSP. This article contains a summarised review of some of the main environmental hazards and their effect on health, with reference to the role of the DGSP in these respects. The discussion covers aspects such as air pollution, chemical safety, sanitary control of water, radiological protection for patients, very low frequency magnetic fields, exposure to radio frequencies (mobile telephony and the crises caused by recent environment-related events. Environmental health policies at the European and international scale and institutional co-ordination in Spain in this regard are also briefly analysed. Subjects concerning hazard management and the precautionary principle are likewise explored. Finally, certain lines of the “Public Health co-operation and harmonisation plan in Spain”, intended to articulate action taken by the various levels of government in this area, are previewed. This plan is designed to seek ways to co-ordinate epidemiological, disease prevention and health protection information systems, taking a comprehensive approach to Public Health in close co-ordination not only with regional and local governments, but also with social agents, scientific societies and professional associations.El impacto que sobre la salud tiene el medio ambiente constituye un área de interés primordial en el ámbito de la Salud Pública. Las competencias del Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo en materia de Salud Ambiental están operativamente delimitadas en el marco de las actuaciones de la Dirección General de Salud Pública (DGSP. En este artículo se examinan de forma sintética algunos de los principales riesgos ambientales y su efecto en la salud, haciendo

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heart and Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Wolf, Fred

    2008-01-01

    networks. The brain, however, would be only incompletely understood when just viewed as a complex dynamical system. Understanding the operation of the mind also requires describing and analyzing its emergent information processing functions. To achieve this, many aspects of neural computation have been successfully formulated as problems of statistical inference and optimal decision making, phrasing them in the mathematical language of statistical physics. Both subjects, heart and mind, are thus united through the similarity of current models for the emergence of collective capabilities. They rely conceptually and technically essentially on the paradigms and tools of statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics. In general, none of the functions and processes of the heart or mind can be appropriately understood without a thorough analysis of the collective dynamics of the underlying biological networks and nonlinear media. Approaching any of these problems with necessity requires a coordinated interdisciplinary effort utilizing approaches from nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation to genetics, molecular biology and biological imaging. Because of their thorough understanding and advanced methodology for dissecting nonlinear and collective phenomena, physicists are playing an increasingly important role in unravelling the dynamical principles governing the operation as well as the malfunction of heart and mind. Current research in the physics of heart and mind spans a wide spectrum of theoretical, experimental, and computational approaches. Many are guided by the aim for a transparent picture of systems function that links the biophysics of individual cells to the operation of the entire organ or information processing system. Theoretical work thus often centres on the construction and analysis of models that contain sufficient biophysical detail to represent reliably all cellular mechanisms of importance, but that are still theoretically sufficiently transparent and

  13. A Neural Model of Mind Wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittner, Matthias; Hawkins, Guy E; Boekel, Wouter; Forstmann, Birte U

    2016-08-01

    The role of the default-mode network (DMN) in the emergence of mind wandering and task-unrelated thought has been studied extensively. In parallel work, mind wandering has been associated with neuromodulation via the locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. Here we propose a neural model that links the two systems in an integrative framework. The model attempts to explain how dynamic changes in brain systems give rise to the subjective experience of mind wandering. The model implies a neural and conceptual distinction between an off-focus state and an active mind-wandering state and provides a potential neural grounding for well-known cognitive theories of mind wandering. Finally, the proposed neural model of mind wandering generates precise, testable predictions at neural and behavioral levels.

  14. What I have changed my mind about and why

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Yehuda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based upon a panel discussion “What I Have Changed My Mind About and Why” held on 5 November in New Orleans, Louisiana (USA, as part of the ISTSS 2015 annual meeting “Back to Basics: Integrating Clinical and Scientific Knowledge to Advance the Field of Trauma.” The panel was chaired by Professor Dr. Rachel Yehuda of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and the James J. Peters Veterans Affairs, and included five clinician-scholars who exchanged thoughts about what they have changed their minds about over the years: Dr. David Spiegel, Dr. Steven Southwick, Dr. Lori Davis, Dr. Thomas Neylan, and Dr. John Krystal. This paper provides a summary of the salient points made by each expert and the questions and discussion that ensured. Major issues raised included the increasingly clear limitations to the fear-based model that has advanced the field. While treatments for PTSD have improved, there are some aspects of trauma exposure that cannot be entirely repaired. Research providing an evidence base to treatment has led to overly specific treatment guidelines that may obscure more general principles of effective treatment. Treatment might be viewed as a way to increase the plasticity of the brain in the context of processing social cues. A variety of novel and integrative therapies include comprehensive holistic care, exercise, returning to competitive work, logotherapy, mindfulness, enhancing well-being and resilience, and medications with novel mechanisms, such as ketamine.

  15. The more your mind wanders, the smaller your attentional blink: an individual differences study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, David R; Ralph, Brandon C W; Besner, Derek; Smilek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present studies investigate the hypothesis that individuals who frequently report experiencing episodes of mind wandering do so because they under-invest attentional/executive resources in the external environment. Here we examined whether self-reported instances of mind wandering predict the magnitude of the "attentional blink" (AB) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task, since a prominent view is that the AB derives from an over-investment of attention in the information stream. Study 1 demonstrates that subjective reports of mind wandering in a sustained attention task have a negative predictive relation with respect to the magnitude of the AB measured in a subsequent RSVP task. In addition, using the Spontaneous and Deliberate Mind Wandering Questionnaire in Study 2, we were again able to show that trait-level mind wandering in everyday life negatively predicts AB magnitude. We suggest that mind wandering may be the behavioural outcome of an adaptive cognitive style intended to maximize the efficient processing of dynamic and temporally unpredictable events.

  16. Mind Wandering "Ahas" versus Mindful Reasoning: Alternative Routes to Creative Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Zedelius

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on mixed results linking both mindfulness and its opposing construct mind wandering to enhanced creativity, we predicted that the relationship between mindfulness and creativity might depend on whether creative problems are approached through analytic strategy or through insight (i.e., sudden awareness of a solution. Study 1 investigated the relationship between trait mindfulness and compound remote associates problem solving as a function of participants’ self-reported approach to each problem. The results revealed a negative relationship between mindfulness and problem-solving overall. However, more detailed analysis revealed that mindfulness was associated with impaired problem solving when approaching problems with insight, but increased problem solving when using analysis. In Study 2, we manipulated participants’ problem-solving approach through instructions. We again found a negative relationship between mindfulness and creative performance in general, however, more mindful participants again performed better when instructed to approach problems analytically.

  17. A survey of the awareness, knowledge, policies and views of veterinary journal Editors-in-Chief on reporting guidelines for publication of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Douglas Jc; Dean, Rachel S; Christopher, Mary M; Brennan, Marnie L

    2014-01-10

    Wider adoption of reporting guidelines by veterinary journals could improve the quality of published veterinary research. The aims of this study were to assess the knowledge and views of veterinary Editors-in-Chief on reporting guidelines, identify the policies of their journals, and determine their information needs. Editors-in-Chief of 185 journals on the contact list for the International Association of Veterinary Editors (IAVE) were surveyed in April 2012 using an online questionnaire which contained both closed and open questions. The response rate was 36.8% (68/185). Thirty-six of 68 editors (52.9%) stated they knew what a reporting guideline was before receiving the questionnaire. Editors said they had found out about reporting guidelines primarily through articles in other journals, via the Internet and through their own journal. Twenty of 57 respondents (35.1%) said their journal referred to reporting guidelines in its instructions to authors. CONSORT, REFLECT, and ARRIVE were the most frequently cited. Forty-four of 68 respondents (68.2%) believed that reporting guidelines should be adopted by all refereed veterinary journals. Qualitative analysis of the open questions revealed that lack of knowledge, fear, resistance to change, and difficulty in implementation were perceived as barriers to the adoption of reporting guidelines by journals. Editors suggested that reporting guidelines be promoted through communication and education of the veterinary community, with roles for the IAVE and universities. Many respondents believed a consensus policy on guideline implementation was needed for veterinary journals. Further communication and education about reporting guidelines for editors, authors and reviewers has the potential to increase their adoption by veterinary journals in the future.

  18. Representation of his Mind the Way his Work Followed -A View of Hong Sheng' s Female Consciousness and Writing Psychology in his Late years in Terms of The Four Learned Ladies%称心而出,如题所止——从《四婵娟》看洪升的女性意识及其晚年的创作心理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高益荣

    2012-01-01

    The Four Learned Ladies was a series of mind-revealing poetic drama. By telling stories of the four learned ladies in Chinese history, Xie Daoyun, Wei Maoyi, Li Qingzhao and Guart Zhongji, the playwright ex- pressed his anti-traditional personal evaluation about women. In the plays, he highlighted the female characters' men-transcending talent and ability and sang praise of the new view of marriage and family which advocated tree- love-based marriage and equality between man and wife, which showed that Hong Sheng the playwright possessed a female consciousness of modem sense. From the above-mentioned, we can surmise Hong' s writing psychology in his late years.%《四婵娟》是一组写心杂剧,作者借谢道韫、卫茂漪、李清照和管仲姬四位历史上的才女以抒自己的心魂,对女性作出了不同传统观念的评价,突出其超乎男性的才识,赞颂了以真情为内核的夫妻平等互爱的美满的新型婚姻家庭观,表现出洪升具有现代意义的女性意识,由此亦可揣摩到洪升晚年的创作心理。

  19. Moral Education, Mindfulness, and Social Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Hyland

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although there have recently been indications in U.K. educational policy and practice of a movement away from the dominance of economic capital and employability as primary goals of education and toward social capital with an emphasis on the affective domain and greater concerns with personal and social well-being, the prevailing instrumentalist and economistic function of learning still reigns supreme. Moreover, even though the neo-liberal hegemony and associated materialistic culture have been severely dented following the 2008 financial meltdown and current global economic recession, there are few signs of any marked trends away from selfish capitalism. This article suggests ways of foregrounding social capital through programs that incorporate “mindfulness”—non-judgmental present moment attention and awareness drawn from Buddhist traditions—as a means of rejuvenating the affective domain of learning concerned with emotions and values. The analysis will also address the recent challenge to what has been (mistakenly in my view called a “therapeutic turn” in education claimed by critics who suggest that learning is or should be about intellectual-cognitive matters not feelings or emotional development. In the process, the links between mindfulness, the affective domain, and social engagement will be explored as ways of developing the social values that support community well-being and trust.

  20. Can mind-wandering be timeless? Atemporal focus and aging in mind-wandering paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has examined how often mind-wandering occurs about past vs. future events. However, mind-wandering may also be atemporal, although previous investigations of this possibility have not yielded consistent results. Indeed, it is unclear what proportion of mind-wandering is atemporal, and also how an atemporal response option would affect the future-oriented bias often reported during low-demand tasks used to measure mind-wandering. The present study examined self-reported (Experi...

  1. Mindfully in Love: A Meta-Analysis of the Association Between Mindfulness and Relationship Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Julianne McGill; Francesca Adler-Baeder; Priscilla Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness is an individual practice, where one has a heightened awareness of the present moment. An extensive research literature finds links between trait mindfulness and individual-level physical and mental health benefits. A limited but growing amount of research focuses on the association between mindfulness and romantic relationship satisfaction. Though there have been comprehensive reviews, no study has statistically tested the magnitude of the association between mindfulness and rela...

  2. Towards a neuroscience of mind-wandering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eGruberger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mind wandering is among the most robust and permanent expressions of human conscious awareness, classically regarded by philosophers, clinicians and scientists as a core element of an intact sense of self. Nevertheless, the scientific exploration of mind wandering poses unique challenges; mind wandering is by nature a spontaneous, off-task, internal mental process which is often unaware and usually difficult to control, document or replicate. Consequently, there is a lack of accepted modus operandi for exploring mind wandering in a laboratory setup, leading to a relatively small amount of studies regarding the neural basis of mind wandering.In order to facilitate scientific examination of mind wandering the current review categorizes recent literature into five suggested strategies. Each strategy represents a different methodology of mind wandering research within functional neuroimaging paradigms.Particular attention is paid to resting state brain activity and to the ‘default mode’ network. Since the default network is known to exert high activity levels during off-task conditions, it stands out as a compelling candidate in mind wandering research which in of itself is a rest based phenomenon. By summarizing the results within and across strategies we suggest further insights into the neural basis and adaptive value of mind wandering, a truly intriguing and unique human experience.

  3. Potential environmental effects of 765-kV transmission lines: views before the New York State Public Service Commission, Cases 26529 and 26559, 1976-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott-Walton, B.; Clark, K. M.; Holt, B. R.; Jones, D. C.; Kaplan, S. D.; Krebs, J. S.; Polson, P.; Shepherd, R. A.; Young, J. R.

    1979-11-01

    Testimony given before the New York Public Service Commission in two recent cases on the potential environmental effects of 765-kV overhead ac transmission lines is reviewed. The testimony focused on the potential effects of audible noise, on the potential biological effects of the electromagnetic fields, on the potential for electric shocks to people who touch vehicles parked under the proposed lines, on the potential effects of the electromagnetic fields on electronic cardiac pacemakers, and on potential effects of ozone produced by corona discharge from the lines. The testimony fully explored these questions; however, it did not resolve all of them. The testimony indicates potential impacts from the audible noise and from the electrostatic shocks that people can receive when they touch a large vehicle parked under the lines. The testimony also indicates that certain cardiac pacemaker and lead combinations may, under certain circumstances, undergo reversion to a fixed rate of pacing in the presence of the fields under the lines, but that little risk to cardiac patients results except possibly for those patients for whom competition between the heart's own rate and the pacemaker rate presents a health risk. The testimony fails to demonstrate biological hazards from the field; further research is necessary to understand better the effects of the fields on biological systems. The testimony indicates that ozone produced by the lines will not significantly affect the environment.

  4. Electricity generation cost issues - public authorities and power generation companies points of view; Approches du cout de production du KWH: vision publique et vision producteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lermusieau, Ph. [Electrabel France, 75 - Paris (France); Leban, R. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France); Percebois, J. [Montpellier-1 Univ., 34 (France); Centre de Recherche en Economie et Droit de l' Energie (CREDEN), 34 - Montpellier (France); Regent, A. [Ambassade de France a Londres (United Kingdom); Ged, A. [Solving France, 75 - Paris (France); Boulanger, Ph. [ENDESA France (France); Dallemagne, G. [Societe Generale (France); Favennec, J.P. [AEE-France, 92 6 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Gonnot, F.M. [Depute de l' Oise, 95 (France); Percebois, J. [Centre de Recherche en Economie et Droit de l' Energie (CREDEN), 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2008-07-15

    This dossier is dedicated to the cost of the production of electricity. As for any investment, we have to consider the future income the investment will give, this income depends on a list of parameters from which we can highlight for nuclear power in Europe: the opening of the market to competitors, the inter-connection of the national markets, the oscillation of prices between long-term and short-term costs. We have to consider also the structure of the cost (CO{sub 2}, fuel, operation and maintenance) and the issue of risk management for the investor (delay, civil liability, dismantlement). It appears that nuclear investments require long term cooperation between companies deeply involved in the power industry but the structures allowing such cooperation have to be defined. A competitive market will produce results that match public interest if social and environmental costs are included in the production costs and if the assessment of complete costs of every energy source using the best available technology are regularly published. The United-Kingdom is the first country to launch a massive program concerning nuclear energy that is backed by private investors. (A.C.)

  5. Telling the Story of MindRising: Minecraft, Mindfulness and Meaningful Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Deirdre; Brown, Mark; Críosta, Gar Mac

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a unique project known as MindRising Games. It reports how the innovative use of Minecraft™ combined with the principles of mindfulness and meaningful learning contributed to rich digital story telling. MindRising Games was a competition, which was part of the 100-year commemoration of the Easter Rising, designed to celebrate…

  6. The Temporal Order of Change in Daily Mindfulness and Affect During Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Nyklicek, Ivan; Schroevers, Maya J.; Bos, Elisabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in mindfulness are assumed to lead to improvements in psychological well-being during mindfulness-based treatments. However, the temporal order of this association has received little attention. This intensive longitudinal study examines whether within-person changes in mindfulness precede

  7. Can mind-wandering be timeless? Atemporal focus and aging in mind-wandering paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan David Jackson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has examined how often mind-wandering occurs about past versus future events. However, mind-wandering may also be atemporal, although previous investigations of this possibility have not yielded consistent results. Indeed, it is unclear what proportion of mind-wandering is atemporal, and also how an atemporal response option would affect the future oriented bias often reported during low-demand tasks used to measure mind-wandering. The present study examined self-reported (Experiment 1 and probe-caught (Experiment 2 mind-wandering using the low-demand Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART in younger (18-30 and older (50-73 adults in an experimental paradigm developed to measure mind-wandering in a sample using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Across self-reported and probe-caught mind-wandering, the atemporal response option was used at least as frequently as past or future mind-wandering options. Although older adults reported far fewer mind-wandering events, they showed a very similar temporal pattern to younger adults. Most importantly, inclusion of the atemporal report option affected performance on the SART and selectively eliminated the prospective bias in self-reported mind-wandering, but not in probe-caught mind-wandering. These results suggest that both young and older participants are often not thinking of past or future events when mind-wandering, but are thinking of events that cannot easily be categorized as either.

  8. Mindfulness for Singers: The Effects of a Targeted Mindfulness Course on Learning Vocal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Anne-Marie L.; Greasley, Alinka E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development and implementation of a unique Mindfulness for Singers (MfS) course designed to improve singers' vocal technique. Eight university students completed the intervention. Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) scores showed general improvement across all five facets of mindfulness. Qualitative results showed…

  9. Mind Your Words: Positive and Negative Items Create Method Effects on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Hobkirk, Andrea L.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Earleywine, Mitch

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness, a construct that entails moment-to-moment effort to be aware of present experiences and positive attitudinal features, has become integrated into the sciences. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), one popular measure of mindfulness, exhibits different responses to positively and negatively worded items in nonmeditating…

  10. Mindful Parenting Training in Child Psychiatric Settings : Heightened Parental Mindfulness Reduces Parents' and Children's Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Renee; de Bruin, Esther I.; Wanders-Mulder, Femy H.; Vennik, Corinne J.; Bogels, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Mindful parenting training is an application of mindfulness-based interventions that allows parents to perceive their children with unbiased and open attention without prejudgment and become more attentive and less reactive in their parenting. This study examined the effectiveness of mindful parenti

  11. The Temporal Order of Change in Daily Mindfulness and Affect During Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Nyklicek, Ivan; Schroevers, Maya J.; Bos, Elisabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in mindfulness are assumed to lead to improvements in psychological well-being during mindfulness-based treatments. However, the temporal order of this association has received little attention. This intensive longitudinal study examines whether within-person changes in mindfulness precede

  12. Mindfulness for Singers: The Effects of a Targeted Mindfulness Course on Learning Vocal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Anne-Marie L.; Greasley, Alinka E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development and implementation of a unique Mindfulness for Singers (MfS) course designed to improve singers' vocal technique. Eight university students completed the intervention. Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) scores showed general improvement across all five facets of mindfulness. Qualitative results showed…

  13. Mind-Mindedness and Theory of Mind: Mediating Roles of Language and Perspectival Symbolic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Arnott, Bronia; Leekam, Susan R.; de Rosnay, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Relations among indices of maternal mind-mindedness (appropriate and nonattuned mind-related comments) and children's: (a) internal state vocabulary and perspectival symbolic play at 26 months ("N" = 206), and (b) theory of mind (ToM) at 51 months ("n" = 161) were investigated. Appropriate comments were positively…

  14. The temporal order of change in daily mindfulness and affect during mindfulness-based stress reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, E.; Nyklicek, I.; Schroevers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in mindfulness are assumed to lead to improvements in psychological well-being during mindfulness-based treatments. However, the temporal order of this association has received little attention. This intensive longitudinal study examines whether within-person changes in mindfulness precede

  15. The Temporal Order of Change in Daily Mindfulness and Affect During Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Nyklicek, Ivan; Schroevers, Maya J.; Bos, Elisabeth H.

    Increases in mindfulness are assumed to lead to improvements in psychological well-being during mindfulness-based treatments. However, the temporal order of this association has received little attention. This intensive longitudinal study examines whether within-person changes in mindfulness precede

  16. Greasing the Skids of the Musical Mind: Connecting Music Learning to Mind Brain Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers suggest that musical training prepares the mind for learning; however, there are many obstacles to the implementation of research to practice in music education. The purpose of this article is to apply key principles of mind brain education to music education and to evaluate how music prepares the mind for learning. Practical teaching…

  17. Can mind-wandering be timeless? Atemporal focus and aging in mind-wandering paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jonathan D.; Weinstein, Yana; Balota, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has examined how often mind-wandering occurs about past vs. future events. However, mind-wandering may also be atemporal, although previous investigations of this possibility have not yielded consistent results. Indeed, it is unclear what proportion of mind-wandering is atemporal, and also how an atemporal response option would affect the future-oriented bias often reported during low-demand tasks used to measure mind-wandering. The present study examined self-reported (Experiment 1) and probe-caught (Experiment 2) mind-wandering using the low-demand Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) in younger (18–30) and older (50–73) adults in an experimental paradigm developed to measure mind-wandering using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (Mturk). Across self-reported and probe-caught mind-wandering, the atemporal response option was used at least as frequently as past or future mind-wandering options. Although older adults reported far fewer mind-wandering events, they showed a very similar temporal pattern to younger adults. Most importantly, inclusion of the atemporal report option affected performance on the SART and selectively eliminated the prospective bias in self-reported mind-wandering, but not in probe-caught mind-wandering. These results suggest that both young and older participants are often not thinking of past or future events when mind-wandering, but are thinking of events that cannot easily be categorized as either. PMID:24137147

  18. Greasing the Skids of the Musical Mind: Connecting Music Learning to Mind Brain Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers suggest that musical training prepares the mind for learning; however, there are many obstacles to the implementation of research to practice in music education. The purpose of this article is to apply key principles of mind brain education to music education and to evaluate how music prepares the mind for learning. Practical teaching…

  19. Can mind-wandering be timeless? Atemporal focus and aging in mind-wandering paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jonathan D; Weinstein, Yana; Balota, David A

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has examined how often mind-wandering occurs about past vs. future events. However, mind-wandering may also be atemporal, although previous investigations of this possibility have not yielded consistent results. Indeed, it is unclear what proportion of mind-wandering is atemporal, and also how an atemporal response option would affect the future-oriented bias often reported during low-demand tasks used to measure mind-wandering. The present study examined self-reported (Experiment 1) and probe-caught (Experiment 2) mind-wandering using the low-demand Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) in younger (18-30) and older (50-73) adults in an experimental paradigm developed to measure mind-wandering using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (Mturk). Across self-reported and probe-caught mind-wandering, the atemporal response option was used at least as frequently as past or future mind-wandering options. Although older adults reported far fewer mind-wandering events, they showed a very similar temporal pattern to younger adults. Most importantly, inclusion of the atemporal report option affected performance on the SART and selectively eliminated the prospective bias in self-reported mind-wandering, but not in probe-caught mind-wandering. These results suggest that both young and older participants are often not thinking of past or future events when mind-wandering, but are thinking of events that cannot easily be categorized as either.

  20. Buddhism between Asia and Europe: The Concept of Mindfulness through a Historical Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara DITRICH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twentieth century mindfulness has been positioned at the core of modern Buddhism and viewed by many modern interpreters as an essential component of Buddhist doctrine and practices. More recently, the practice of mindfulness has become rapidly popularised, radically secularised and removed from its Buddhist context, employed mainly as a therapeutic tool or applied for the enhancement of well-being. This paper examines the concept of mindfulness using an historical lens, aiming to identify some of the main parameters and consequent implications involved in the changes and developments of this Buddhist contemplative method—from its early beginnings over 2,500 years ago to the present day. Special attention is given to the historical developments in the colonial period, when various Buddhist traditions encountered the main European discourses of the time, resulting in the birth of modern Buddhism. In this period, particularly in Burma, meditation was positioned at the centre of Buddhist teachings and thus provided the grounds and conditions for the subsequent popularisation and secularisation of mindfulness in the late twentieth century. Through an examination of the concept of mindfulness through history, the paper explores whether a critical awareness of historical facts provides a better understanding of the current ubiquity of mindfulness practices worldwide. In addition, mindfulness has recently become an object of scientific research and, hence, it is important to investigate it in different contexts and discourses throughout history, and understand the implications of various definitions, interpretations and applications of mindfulness for the development of modern research approaches and methodologies.