WorldWideScience

Sample records for public mind views

  1. The Mindful Self: A Mindfulness-Enlightened Self-view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianguo Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes studies of mindfulness and the self, with the aim of deepening our understanding of the potential benefits of mindfulness and meditation for mental health and well-being. Our review of empirical research reveals that positive changes in attitudes toward the self and others as a result of mindfulness-enabled practices can play an important role in modulating many mental and physical health problems. Accordingly, we introduce a new concept—the “mindful self”—and compare it with related psychological constructs to describe the positive changes in self-attitude associated with mindfulness meditation practices or interventions. The mindful self is conceptualized as a mindfulness-enlightened self-view and attitude developed by internalizing and integrating the essence of Buddhist psychology into one’s self-system. We further posit that the mindful self will be an important intermediary between mindfulness intervention and mental health problems, and an important moderator in promoting well-being. More generally, we suggest that the mindful self may also be an applicable concept with which to describe and predict the higher level of self-development of those who grow up in the culture of Buddhism or regularly engage in meditation over a long period of time.

  2. Metaphilosophy of Mind: how Do Minds Investigate Minds? Refutation of the Theocentric View

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    I shall propose metaphilosophy of mind as the philosophy of mind investigating mind. That is to say, I pose the question of how knowledge of mind provided by cognitive science, broadly construed, is constrained by the epistemic position of the knower, i.e. by the very fact that it is undertaken by a mind. Here I would like to propose a minimal framework, based on two distinctions: (i) the standard one between empirical and conceptual analysis; (ii) a new one, between the internal questions of...

  3. Geophysicists' views about public engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, J. C.; Dudo, A.; Yuan, S.

    2016-12-01

    The proposed talk would present the results of 2016 survey of American Geophysical Union members (n = 2040) about public engagement. This survey took place as part of a broader, NSF funded, study of engagement views across eight different U.S.-based scientific societies. The presentation would include data about geophysicists' past engagement behavior and willingness to engage alongside data about engagement attitudes, perceived norms (i.e. beliefs about whether peers engage and value engagement), and perceived efficacy (i.e., scientists' beliefs about their own communication skills and the impact of engagement). The presentation would also include results that describe scientists' overall goals for engagement (e.g., increasing support for specific policy positions, changing citizen behavior, etc.), as well as their communication-specific objectives (e.g., increasing knowledge, increase excitement, etc.). All of the results would be put in the context of equivalent results from scientists from seven other societies across a variety of fields, including chemistry, biology, and the social sciences. Three themes that would be emphasized in the presentation include (1) the fact that there are substantial commonalities in engagement views across scientific fields, (2) the important role that perceived engagement skill (efficacy) appears to play in predicting engagement willingness, and (3) a lack of evidence that scientists are thinking about engagement in strategic ways. Strategic engagement, in this regard, would involve setting clear goals and then choosing activities that the social science of science communication suggests might allow one to achieve those goals. The presentation would conclude with thoughts about what might be done to improve the effectiveness of science communication training.

  4. Public acceptance: A Japanese view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    A number of factors enter into a consideration of the public acceptance of nuclear power ? the public, nuclear power as an entity, and the interaction between the two. Interaction here implies the manner in which nuclear power is presented to the public ? what is the public need for nuclear power, and what public risk is entailed in having it? The problem of public acceptance, in this sense, is time-dependent. For the public is changeable, just as nuclear power is subject to technical progress and ' social' improvement. Japan is geographically a very small country with a very high density of population. Any industrial activity and any large-scale employment of modern technology is apt to have a much greater impact on the physical, social and biological environment of individual Japanese people than similar activities would have on those of other countries. Industrial pollutants such as sulphur dioxide from power plants, oxides of nitrogen from automobile engine exhausts, organic mercury from chemical industries and so on affect society to a high degree, considered in terms of their concentration either per capita or per square kilometre. In the case of nuclear power, therefore, people are more concerned with radiological effects than with thermal pollution.no matter how one looks at it, the experience of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has made the average member of the Japanese public, very sensitive to the problem of radiation safety. This is no longer a subject in which science or logic can persuade

  5. Public acceptance: A Japanese view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    A number of factors enter into a consideration of the public acceptance of nuclear power ? the public, nuclear power as an entity, and the interaction between the two. Interaction here implies the manner in which nuclear power is presented to the public ? what is the public need for nuclear power, and what public risk is entailed in having it? The problem of public acceptance, in this sense, is time-dependent. For the public is changeable, just as nuclear power is subject to technical progress and ' social' improvement. Japan is geographically a very small country with a very high density of population. Any industrial activity and any large-scale employment of modern technology is apt to have a much greater impact on the physical, social and biological environment of individual Japanese people than similar activities would have on those of other countries. Industrial pollutants such as sulphur dioxide from power plants, oxides of nitrogen from automobile engine exhausts, organic mercury from chemical industries and so on affect society to a high degree, considered in terms of their concentration either per capita or per square kilometre. In the case of nuclear power, therefore, people are more concerned with radiological effects than with thermal pollution.no matter how one looks at it, the experience of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has made the average member of the Japanese public, very sensitive to the problem of radiation safety. This is no longer a subject in which science or logic can persuade.

  6. Two Views of Public Participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, H. S.; Harbour, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Risk perception has been studied extensively over the past several decades. This research has defined the differences that exist between and among various groups as defined by their education, interests, geographic distribution, and beliefs. It has also been repeatedly demonstrated that various public groups can and do have a tremendous impact on decisions made in the public and private sectors. Involved citizens for example, have caused international corporations as well as the Department of Energy to change or even reverse a chosen course of action. A frequent cause of such reversals is attributed to a lack of involvement of the public and other key decision players directly in the decision process itself. Through our research and case studies, we have developed both an ''as is'' and a ''participatory'' model of decision-making process. The latter decision model allows the direct involvement of important player groups. The paper presents and discusses these models in theoretical and practical terms taken from case studies of the Brent Spar disposal in the North Atlantic, and the use of incineration as a method of waste treatment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Results from the case studies are used to demonstrate why the ''as is'' model accurately describes the current situation, and how the ''participatory model'' will allow decisions to be made that are publicly supported and can be implemented. The use of such a model will provide users a framework from which to successfully make progress in a wide range of environmental endeavors cooperatively with the public, rather than in spite of the public

  7. Mindfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiesa, Alberto; Serretti, Alessandro; Jakobsen, Janus Christian

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness practices are receiving increasing support from empirical studies. However, the functional neural mechanisms underlying these benefits have not been thoroughly investigated. Some authors suggest that mindfulness should be described as a 'top......-down' emotion regulation strategy, while others suggest that mindfulness should be described as a 'bottom-up' emotion regulation strategy. Current discrepancies might derive from the many different descriptions and applications of mindfulness. The present review aims to discuss current descriptions...... of mindfulness and the relationship existing between mindfulness practice and most commonly investigated emotion regulation strategies. Recent results from functional neuro-imaging studies investigating mindfulness training within the context of emotion regulation are presented. We suggest that mindfulness...

  8. Integrating some mind and brain views of transference: the phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, F M

    1997-01-01

    Because understanding the underpinnings of transferential learning allows the analyst to more effectively exploit transference in the clinical situation, as well as to advance psychoanalytic theory, the functions and mechanisms of transference phenomena in learning are subjected to an interdisciplinary analysis. Through transference the brain creates hierarchical databases that make emotional sense of the world, especially the world of human relationships. Transference plays a role in defense and resistance clinically; less explored but equally important is the adaptive potential of transference and its effect on an individual's readiness for structural change through the activation of working memory. Most investigators within psychoanalysis have not considered the importance of similarity judgments and memory priming, especially as these help to explain why transference and its proper handling are effective in treatment. Yet there are complex relationships among transference, similarity judgment, and memory priming that tie together psychoanalysis, cognitive psychology, and neurophysiology. Evidence increasingly suggests a relationship between transference and the transfer of knowledge between various content domains (databases) of mind and brain, which is essential to cognitive and emotional learning. There are indications as well that transference decisively facilitates learning readiness ("windows") in general by means of two of its components: free association and spontaneous (self-initiated) activity. The important question of which mind/brain mechanisms motivate transference is not yet understood comprehensively. However, Vygotsky's work on the zone of proximal development (ZPD), M.Stern's teleonomic theory, schema theory, and neural network theory offer further insights into what motivates transference.

  9. Integrated safety assessment of Indian nuclear power plants for extreme events: reducing impact on public mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakodkar, Anil; Singh, Ram Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear energy professionals need to understand and address the catastrophe syndrome that of late seems to be increasingly at work in public mind in the context of nuclear energy. Classically the nuclear power reactor design and system evolution has been based on the logic of minimization of risk to an acceptable level and its quantification based on a deterministic approach and backed up by a further assessment based on the probabilistic methodology. However, in spite of minimization of risk, the reasons for anxiety and trauma in public mind that still prevails in the context of severe accidents needs to be understood and addressed. Margins between maximum credible accidents factored in the design and the ultimate load withstanding capacities of relevant systems need to be enhanced and guaranteed with a view to minimize release of radioactivity and avoid serious impact in public domain. A more realistic basis for management of an accident in public domain also needs to be quantified for this purpose. Assurance to public on limiting the consequences to a level that does not lead to a trauma is something that we need to be able to credibly demonstrate and confirm. The findings from Chernobyl reports point to significant psychological effects and related health disorders due to large scale emergency relocation of people that could have been possibly reduced by an order of magnitude without significant additional safety detriment

  10. Developing Public Mind Curriculum for Lower Secondary School Classes Using Contemplative Education Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srijumnong, Sirithorn; Sri-ampai, Pissamai; Chano, Jiraporn

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a public mind curriculum with Contemplative Education and to study the effect of using the curriculum to enhance public minds. The study was carried out using the research and development process, consisting of three phases: investigating fundamental data, developing a curriculum, and evaluating the…

  11. The public view of Pacific Northwest forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    There are diverse communities that make up the public in the Pacific Northwest, all with differing views on the forest. To the media, the public are those indirect stakeholders, or average citizens, who have become keenly aware of the importance of environmental issues, including the implications for global change. Linkages between the forests, deforestation, global climate change, and overall environmental sustainability have been widely publicized, though less frequently analyzed in depth. Consequently, the state of Northwest forests has become a vital public interest. The need for an overall margin of global environmental security, and a concern over unsuspected consequences of all economic activity (including forestry) have created a community of interest among the urban population. In part, this is a spillover effect from promoting individual environmental responsibility and the conserver ethic into issues beyond the city boundary. In the Northwest, this often translates as a deep concern over forest management issues and strong conviction that changes are needed. At the same time, and largely as a direct response, the socioeconomic interests of rural forest communities have become a high-profile issue, raising debate over local empowerment and local forest stewardship models. The consequences of this complex and rapidly evolving public view of the forests are critical to forest managers and policymakers. 12 refs

  12. Mindfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Nielsen, Charlotte Agger

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness har de senere år budt sig til som effektiv hjælp til selvhjælp for fortravlede ledere og professionelle. Men er meditationsøvelser og forsøg på at finde indre ”zen”-ro overhovedet lederens anstrengelser værd? Denne artikel diskuterer effekterne af mindfulness og giver ordet til såvel...

  13. What Predicts Children's Fixed and Growth Intelligence Mind-Sets? Not Their Parents' Views of Intelligence but Their Parents' Views of Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimovitz, Kyla; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-06-01

    Children's intelligence mind-sets (i.e., their beliefs about whether intelligence is fixed or malleable) robustly influence their motivation and learning. Yet, surprisingly, research has not linked parents' intelligence mind-sets to their children's. We tested the hypothesis that a different belief of parents-their failure mind-sets-may be more visible to children and therefore more prominent in shaping their beliefs. In Study 1, we found that parents can view failure as debilitating or enhancing, and that these failure mind-sets predict parenting practices and, in turn, children's intelligence mind-sets. Study 2 probed more deeply into how parents display failure mind-sets. In Study 3a, we found that children can indeed accurately perceive their parents' failure mind-sets but not their parents' intelligence mind-sets. Study 3b showed that children's perceptions of their parents' failure mind-sets also predicted their own intelligence mind-sets. Finally, Study 4 showed a causal effect of parents' failure mind-sets on their responses to their children's hypothetical failure. Overall, parents who see failure as debilitating focus on their children's performance and ability rather than on their children's learning, and their children, in turn, tend to believe that intelligence is fixed rather than malleable. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Mind the Gap: Social Media Engagement by Public Health Researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Brett; Labrique, Alain; Jain, Kriti M; Pekosz, Andrew; Levine, Orin

    2014-01-01

    Background The traditional vertical system of sharing information from sources of scientific authority passed down to the public through local health authorities and clinicians risks being made obsolete by emerging technologies that facilitate rapid horizontal information sharing. The rise of Public Health 2.0 requires professional acknowledgment that a new and substantive forum of public discourse about public health exists on social media, such as forums, blogs, Facebook, and Twitter. Objec...

  15. Parent Expectancies and Preferences for Mental Health Treatment: The Roles of Emotion Mind-Sets and Views of Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleider, Jessica L; Weisz, John R

    2018-01-24

    Because parents are primary gatekeepers to mental health care for their children, parental expectations that mental health treatment is ineffective may undermine treatment seeking, retention, and response. Thus, a need exists to understand parents' expectations about treatment and to develop scalable interventions that can instill more favorable views. We examined parents' treatment expectancies and preferences for their offspring and themselves in relation to two global beliefs: mind-sets (malleability beliefs) of emotions and anxiety, and views of failure as enhancing versus debilitating. Study 1 (N = 200; 49.5% fathers; 70.4% Caucasian) examined associations among parents' emotion mind-sets, anxiety mind-sets, failure beliefs, and treatment expectancies and preferences. Study 2 (N = 430; 44.70% fathers; 75.80% Caucasian) tested whether online inductions teaching "growth emotion mind-sets" (viewing emotions as malleable), adaptive failure beliefs, or both improved parents' treatment expectancies and hypothetical preferences for treatment (vs. no-treatment). Participants received one of three 8- to 15-min inductions or a psychoeducation control, rating treatment expectancies. and preferences pre- and postinduction. In Study 1, fixed emotion mind-sets and failure-is-debilitating beliefs were associated with lower parent psychotherapy expectancies for offspring and themselves and stronger "no-treatment" preferences for offspring. In Study 2, inductions teaching (a) growth emotion mind-sets only and (b) growth emotion mind-sets and failure-is-enhancing beliefs improved parents' psychotherapy expectancies for themselves (ds = .38, .51) and offspring (ds = .30, .43). No induction increased parents' hypothetical preferences for treatment (vs. no-treatment). Findings suggest scalable strategies for strengthening parents' psychotherapy effectiveness beliefs for themselves and their children.

  16. An investigation of the neural substrates of mind wandering induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting eWang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate whether the calming effect induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings would make disengagement from that mental state more difficult, as measured by performance on a cognitive control task. In Experiment 1 we examined the subjective experience of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings vs. realistic oil landscape paintings in a behavioral study. Our results confirmed that, as predicted, traditional Chinese landscape paintings induce greater levels of relaxation and mind wandering and lower levels of object-oriented absorption and recognition, compared to realistic oil landscape paintings. In Experiment 2 we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to explore the behavioural and neural effects of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings on a task requiring cognitive control (i.e., the flanker task—administered immediately following exposure to paintings. Contrary to our prediction, the behavioural data demonstrated that compared to realistic oil landscape paintings, exposure to traditional Chinese landscape paintings had no effect on performance on the flanker task. However, the neural data demonstrated an interaction effect such that there was greater activation in the inferior parietal cortex (IPC and the superior frontal gyrus (SFG on incongruent compared with congruent flanker trials when participants switched from viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings to the flanker task than when they switched from realistic oil landscape paintings. These results suggest that switching from traditional Chinese landscape paintings placed greater demands on the brain’s attention and working memory networks during the flanker task than did switching from realistic oil landscape paintings.

  17. A Personal View of Public Librarianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article puts forward a credo of librarianship, particularly public librarianship. The writer addresses the differences between academic and public librarianship and suggests that there is little actual difference, and that apparent differences are differences in how librarians react to the environment in which they operate. The effects of the…

  18. Mind the gap: social media engagement by public health researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brett; Labrique, Alain; Jain, Kriti M; Pekosz, Andrew; Levine, Orin

    2014-01-14

    The traditional vertical system of sharing information from sources of scientific authority passed down to the public through local health authorities and clinicians risks being made obsolete by emerging technologies that facilitate rapid horizontal information sharing. The rise of Public Health 2.0 requires professional acknowledgment that a new and substantive forum of public discourse about public health exists on social media, such as forums, blogs, Facebook, and Twitter. Some public health professionals have used social media in innovative ways: to surveil populations, gauge public opinion, disseminate health information, and promote mutually beneficial interactions between public health professionals and the lay public. Although innovation is on the rise, most in the public health establishment remain skeptical of this rapidly evolving landscape or are unclear about how it could be used. We sought to evaluate the extent to which public health professionals are engaged in these spaces. We conducted a survey of professorial- and scientist-track faculty at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We asked all available faculty via email to complete a 30-question survey about respondent characteristics, beliefs about social media, and usage of specific technologies, including blogs, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. A total of 181 (19.8%) of 912 professor- and scientist-track faculty provided usable responses. The majority of respondents rarely used major social media platforms. Of these 181 respondents, 97 (53.6%) had used YouTube, 84 (46.4%) had used Facebook, 55 (30.4%) had read blogs, and 12 (6.6%) had used Twitter in the prior month. More recent degree completion was the best predictor of higher usage of social media. In all, 122 (67.4%) agreed that social media is important for disseminating information, whereas only 55 (30.4%) agreed that social media is useful for their research. In all, 43 (23.8%) said social media

  19. On the definition of public relations: a European view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruler, A.A.; Vercic, D.; Buetschi, G.; Flodin, B.

    2001-01-01

    The article confronts a U.S.-based definition of public relations as relationship management with a European view that besides a relational, argues also for a reflective paradigm that is concerned with publics and the public sphere; not only with relational (which can in principle be private), but

  20. Microbiologists’ Public Engagement Views and Behaviors †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, John; Kahlor, Lee Ann; Koh, Hyeseung; Copple, Jacob; Yuan, Shupei

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we present results from an extensive survey of US-based microbiologists (adults) to explore these scientists’ perceptions and behaviors related to communicating their research. Specifically, we explored the frequency with which microbiologists engage in public communication, how they evaluate their public communication experiences, and the factors associated with their willingness to engage in face-to-face and online public communication in the future. Data from a multi-wave online survey suggest that microbiologists (N = 903) are somewhat frequent communicators who derive great value from their outreach efforts. The results further suggest that social and psychological drivers of future intentions to engage with the public are consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Specifically, microbiologists with more positive attitudes toward engagement were more willing to partake in direct and online communication activities. Similarly, microbiologists who believe they possess communication skills are more willing than their less efficacious colleagues to do either type of outreach. Our results also indicate that more-senior and more-active researchers are more willing to participate in direct and online engagement. Implications for communication training are discussed. PMID:29904524

  1. Profiling public viewing and South African viewers during the 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profiling public viewing and South African viewers during the 2010 FIFA World Cup. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... especially from the Premier Soccer League (SA), European clubs or Brazil (mostly younger men ...

  2. MERS-CoV infection: Mind the public knowledge gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawazir, Amen; Al-Mazroo, Eman; Jradi, Hoda; Ahmed, Anwar; Badri, Motasim

    In August 2015, the Corona outbreak caused by Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was the 9th episode since June 2012 in Saudi Arabia. Little is known about the public awareness toward the nature or prevention of the disease. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge of the adult population in Riyadh toward the MERS-CoV. In this cross-sectional survey, a self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected participants visiting malls in Riyadh. The questionnaire contained measurable epidemiological and clinical MERS-CoV knowledge level variables and relevant source of information. The study included 676 participants. Mean age was 32.5 (±SD 8.6) years and 353 (47.8%) were males. Almost all participants heard about the corona disease and causative agent. The study showed a fair overall knowledge (66.0%), less knowledge on epidemiological features of the disease (58.3%), and good knowledge (90.7%) on the clinical manifestation of the MERS-CoV. Internet was the major (89.0%) source of disease information, and other sources including health care providers, SMS, television, magazines and books were low rated (all knowledge. This study concludes that there was inadequate epidemiological knowledge received by the public and the reliance mostly on the clinical manifestations to recognizing the MERS-CoV disease. Comprehensive public health education programs is important to increase awareness of simple epidemiological determinants of the disease is warranted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. School-Based Mindfulness Training and the Economisation of Attention: A Stieglerian View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, James

    2015-01-01

    Educational theorists may be right to suggest that providing mindfulness training in schools can challenge oppressive pedagogies and overcome Western dualism. Before concluding that this training is liberatory, however, one must go beyond pedagogy and consider schooling's role in enacting the educational neurofuture envisioned by mindfulness…

  4. High-Minded Utilitarian Public Relations Students Dance to Two Drummers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ni; Culbertson, Hugh M.

    2018-01-01

    Many critics view "deontology" (focusing largely on the merits of an action itself) and "utilitarianism" (evaluation of an action based on its projected consequences) as rival approaches to ethical decision making. This survey of public relations students at three universities in the United States and one each in Hong Kong and…

  5. Mindfulness for Children in Public Schools: Current Research and Developmental Issues to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Jeanne; Gelbar, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have increased in popularity over the past decade and interest continues to increase in the potential to use mindfulness-based interventions in schools. The current research concerning school-based mindfulness-based interventions is reviewed in this article. This research base is fragmented, as most of the studies…

  6. Public reactions to nuclear waste: Citizens' views of repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents revised and updated papers from a panel of social scientists, at the 1989 AAAS meetings, that examined the public's reactions to nuclear waste disposal and the repository siting process. The papers report the results of original empirical research on citizens' views of nuclear waste repository siting. Topics covered include the following: content analysis of public testimony; sources of public concern about nuclear waste disposal in Texas agricultural communities; local attitudes toward high-level waste repository at Hanford; perceived risk and attitudes toward nuclear wastes; attitudes of Nevada urban residents toward a nuclear waste repository; attitudes of rural community residents toward a nuclear waste respository. An introductory chapter provides background and context, and a concluding chapter summarizes the implications of the reports. Two additional chapters cover important features of high-level waste disposal: long term trends in public attitudes toward nuclear energy and nuclear waste policy and assessment of the effects on the Los Vegas convention business if a high-level nuclear waste depository were sited in Nevada

  7. South African public school teachers' views on right to discipline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I am not their parent and I should mind my own business. [Teacher 3, male]. The statement by ... felt that dealing with disruptive behaviour was taking too much of their .... involvement in education: An explanatory model. Educational Review ...

  8. Public opinion on energy development: The interplay of issue framing, top-of-mind associations, and political ideology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Christopher E.; Hart, Philip S.; Schuldt, Jonathon P.; Evensen, Darrick T.N.; Boudet, Hilary S.; Jacquet, Jeffrey B.; Stedman, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine framing effects regarding unconventional oil and gas extraction using hydraulic fracturing (or fracking): an issue involving considerable controversy over potential impacts as well as terminology used to describe it. Specifically, we explore how two commonly used terms to describe this issue – fracking or shale oil or gas development – serve as issue frames and influence public opinion. Extending existing research, we suggest that these frames elicit different top-of-mind associations that reflect positive or negative connotations and resonate with people's political ideology. These associations, in turn, help explain direct and indirect framing effects on support/opposition as well as whether these effects differ by political ideology. Results of a split-ballot, national U.S. survey (n=1000) reveal that people are more supportive of the energy extraction process when it is referred to as shale oil or gas development versus fracking, and this relationship is mediated by greater perceptions of benefit versus risk. Political ideology did not moderate these effects. Further analysis suggests that these findings are partly explained by the tendency to associate fracking more with negative thoughts and impacts and shale oil or gas development more with positive thoughts and impacts. However, these associations also did not vary by political ideology. We discuss implications for communicating risk regarding energy development. -- Highlights: •How an issue is presented (“framed”) influences how people perceive it. •We applied this premise to oil/gas extraction via hydraulic fracturing (fracking). •We examined two commonly used frames: fracking and shale oil or gas development. •People viewed the former less favorably irrespective of political ideology. •We discuss implications for communicating about energy development impacts

  9. Psyche--the meeting of mind and soul: current psychoanalytic views on the mental representation of god.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2013-11-01

    The author presents an overview of two contemporary, related psychoanalytic perspectives on religious phenomena. Based on data from systematic interviews, Ana-Maria Rizzuto explores the way the human mind forms the idea of God as it evolves through the various stages of childhood and adult development. The object-representation of God is greatly influenced by the mental representations of mother, father, and other important adults in the child's life. Object relations theory and the writings of Winnicott play an important role in these concepts. William Meissner, a Jesuit priest as well as a psychoanalyst, addresses Freud's views of religious belief as an illusion, or when accepted with certainty as real, as a delusion. Instead, Meissner sees religious belief as a developmental process that resides in the mental realm of transitional phenomena where spirituality, creativity, appreciation of beauty, transcendental states, play, and the psychoanalytic process itself also take place. In psychoanalytic treatment, religious phenomena are not exempt from exploration and understanding, perhaps resulting in more mature development of object representations, ego functions, and the superego functions of conscience and ego ideal as well as more mature religious life.

  10. Negative public perceptions of juvenile diabetics: applying attribution theory to understand the public's stigmatizing views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Despite a rise in the incidence of juvenile diabetes globally, little research has focused on public perceptions regarding its patients. The need to evaluate whether the public holds stigmatizing views is pressing when one considers the relatively young age of the patients of the disease. The current study extends the attribution theoretic framework to evaluate public stigma regarding juvenile diabetes. The findings suggest that a large percentage of individuals misattribute the causes of the disease and believe it is relatively rare and that its patients are personally responsible for contracting it. Individuals often utilize pejorative terms describing juvenile diabetes as a disease afflicting children who are lazy, unhealthy, fat, obese, lacking exercise, and having eating disorders.

  11. Public Knowledge, Private Minds: Meaning Making on the Pathways of Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pryce R.

    Every day people are inundated with news reports about the latest scientific research. The ways in which these texts enlighten or misinform the general public is a central question in both the research literature and discussions in popular culture. However, both research and popular discussion often take on deficit views of these texts, and the capabilities of readers to critically engage with them, and treat them as static, one-way conduits that transfer information to a passive audience. In contrast, I advocate treating popular science texts as the result of a chain of consumption and production that are actively shaped by the varied perspectives of scientists, communicators, and members of the general public. My work envisions all of these actors as science learners who simultaneously act as both producers and consumers of science, and who interact with one another through in-the-moment meaning making. This dissertation examines how the meaning of scientific research is filtered and transformed in moments of interaction and knowledge construction as it moves along this pathway of science communication from scientists to the general public. I present the results of a study that attempts to follow pieces of recent scientific research as they work their way from scientists to publication as popular science news stories, and ultimately to the public. To that end, I collected data from three types of actors involved in the paths of science communication, as well as the texts they read and generate. These actors include (1) the scientists who performed the research, (2) the reporters tasked with writing about it for popular dissemination, and (3) members of the public who must read and interpret the research. The texts I analyze include: peer-reviewed scientific journal articles, university-produced news briefs, popular press science stories, and various text-based conversations between scientists and reporters. Through an analysis of texts, individual interviews, and

  12. Dualism persists in the science of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Athena; Liew, Charlene; Ledoux, Didier; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Sharpe, Michael; Laureys, Steven; Zeman, Adam

    2009-03-01

    The relationship between mind and brain has philosophical, scientific, and practical implications. Two separate but related surveys from the University of Edinburgh (University students, n= 250) and the University of Liège (health-care workers, lay public, n= 1858) were performed to probe attitudes toward the mind-brain relationship and the variables that account for differences in views. Four statements were included, each relating to an aspect of the mind-brain relationship. The Edinburgh survey revealed a predominance of dualistic attitudes emphasizing the separateness of mind and brain. In the Liège survey, younger participants, women, and those with religious beliefs were more likely to agree that the mind and brain are separate, that some spiritual part of us survives death, that each of us has a soul that is separate from the body, and to deny the physicality of mind. Religious belief was found to be the best predictor for dualistic attitudes. Although the majority of health-care workers denied the distinction between consciousness and the soma, more than one-third of medical and paramedical professionals regarded mind and brain as separate entities. The findings of the study are in line with previous studies in developmental psychology and with surveys of scientists' attitudes toward the relationship between mind and brain. We suggest that the results are relevant to clinical practice, to the formulation of scientific questions about the nature of consciousness, and to the reception of scientific theories of consciousness by the general public.

  13. What I have changed my mind about and why: public health and technology perspectives in the field of trauma studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Paula P; Bryant, Richard; Berliner, Lucy; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Rizzo, Albert; Ruzek, Josef I

    2017-01-01

    Background : This paper is based on a panel discussion at the 32nd annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies in Dallas, Texas, in November 2016. Objective : Paula Schnurr convened a panel of experts in the fields of public health and technology to address the topic: 'What I have changed my mind about and why.' Method : The panel included Richard Bryant, Lucy Berliner, Dean Kilpatrick, Albert ('Skip') Rizzo, and Josef Ruzek. Results : Panellists discussed innovative strategies for the dissemination of scientific knowledge and evidence-based treatment. Conclusions : Although there are effective treatments, there is a need to enhance the effectiveness of these treatments. There also is a need to develop simpler, low-cost strategies to disseminate effective treatments. However, technology approaches also offer pathways to increased dissemination. Researchers must communicate scientific findings more effectively to impact public opinion and public policy.

  14. On the Definition of Public Relations: A European View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercic, Dejan; van Ruler, Betteke; Butschi, Gerhard; Flodin, Bertil

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the project on the European Public Relations Body of Knowledge (EBOK). Reviews proposals on the definition, dimensions, and domain of public relations. Confronts these with findings from EBOK. Presents ideas on how to bridge the differences. Proposes ideas for further investigation. (SG)

  15. The Crowd in Mind and Crowded Minds: An Experimental Investigation of Crowding Effects on Students' Views Regarding Tuition Fees in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jens H.; Jucks, Regina

    2017-01-01

    In higher education, just amounts of tuition fees are often a topic of heated debate among different groups such as students, university teachers, administrative staff, and policymakers. We investigated whether unpleasant situations that students often experience at university due to social crowding can affect students' views on the justified…

  16. University Students' Views of a Public Service Graduation Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moely, Barbara E.; Ilustre, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    As New Orleans began to rebuild after Hurricane Katrina, Tulane University also began its recovery process. A new initiative in the recovery was the establishment of a public service graduation requirement for undergraduate students. Attitudes toward the requirement were assessed for 290 first-year and 257 advanced students in fall 2006. The…

  17. Palestinian Security Sector Reform : the View of the Public | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    PSR will consult with various stakeholders - the Ministry of the Interior, the security services, the judiciary, members of Parliament, human rights organizations and international donors - in extensive surveys of the public's perception of the security sector in all its dimensions, including capacity, mission, performance, service ...

  18. Youth Views of Experiences and Benefits of Public Speaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Silliman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-eight youth participants, ages 9-17, involved in a public speaking event reported that preparation and presentation of a 5-12 minute demonstration or illustrated talk improved confidence, knowledge of a selected topic and skills in communicating, goal setting, organizing, working with others, and doing research. Positive benefits were reported from first-year as well as multi-year participants. Most youth surveyed indicated that they participated by choice and received adequate assistance in preparation for speaking. Similar results were found for a smaller group (N = 20 involved in a non-competitive performing arts event. A randomly-selected group (N = 37 interviewed about the extended effects of public speaking revealed that the experience helped them in school presentations, community leadership, and more in-depth involvement in specific topic areas. Implications of results for youth programming and engaging wider audiences of youth are discussed.

  19. Synthetic biology in the view of European public funding organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lei; Gaisser, Sibylle; Schmidt, Markus

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the decisions of major European public funding organisations to fund or not to fund synthetic biology (SB) and related ethical, legal and social implication (ELSI) studies. We investigated the reaction of public organisations in six countries (Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK) towards SB that may influence SB’s further development in Europe. We examined R&D and ELSI communities and their particular funding situation. Our results show that the funding situation for SB varies considerably among the analysed countries, with the UK as the only country with an established funding scheme for R&D and ELSI that successfully integrates these research communities. Elsewhere, we determined a general lack of funding (France), difficulties in funding ELSI work (Switzerland), lack of an R&D community (Austria), too small ELSI communities (France, Switzerland, Netherlands), or difficulties in linking existing communities with available funding sources (Germany), partly due to an unclear SB definition. PMID:22586841

  20. The view of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.; Magnusson, S.

    2004-01-01

    The NEA's Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has, throughout its existence, been interested in the development of recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Recently, this interest has included a very active CRPPH programme to develop ideas and suggestions that the ICRP can take into account in its work, and the CRPPH has become an active partner with the ICRP to provide the views of regulators and experts from the NEA's 28 member countries. During 2002, the ICRP Main Commission released two documents for broad stakeholder review and comment. These framework documents presented the key concepts and approaches that the ICRP was, at that time, proposing to develop into more detailed general recommendations, covering public and worker radiological protection, and the protection of non-human species. The CRPPH performed a detailed analysis of these two framework documents, focusing on the possible implications that these concepts would have should they be translated into recommendations and issued by the ICRP (NEA 2003). This work was endorsed by the NEA's Radioactive Waste Management Committee, and presented during the 2nd NEA/ICRP Forum, Lanzarote, Spain, in April 2003, where it was further broadly endorsed. Some key findings of this work were as follows: There is broad agreement that the ICRP should simplify, clarify and consolidate its recommendations. However, the goal of the ICRP to publish new recommendations by 2005 is seen as being ambitious, and not absolutely necessary. The ICRP will need to provide a clear and compelling justification as to why any significant changes are needed at this time. Costs, as well as legal and regulatory implications should be considered prior to the implementation of new recommendations. Several key ideas and concepts seem to be either completely new, or to have significantly evolved from their previous manifestations (in ICRP Publication and its subsequent

  1. Communication with the public: a journalist's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungblut, M.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the proper role of the media in the nuclear debate, and the way the nuclear industry can itself contribute to a better understanding of its problems and of the contribution it can make to a secure and safe energy supply. It is possible that the nuclear industry could be the first in modern history whose growth and development might be seriously hampered, or even stopped, by a broad public movement. The economic future of the nuclear industry is also endangered by the fact that even those power plants already in use or under construction are becoming more and more expensive because of the abundance of security equipment imposed by a frightened bureaucracy. All this is due to a remarkable change in public opinion during the 1970s. This change was not, I think, initiated by the press. But once started, many journalists joined the movement, or at least broadly reported the arguments of the anti-nuclear fighters, and in this way attracted the attention of the general public. The question is whether or not the press is to blame. (author)

  2. Design and Build: Views from some Major Public Clients in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P C Chan

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the views of clients in public sector on design and build(D&B procurement method. Specifically, their reasons of adopting D&B and refusing to adopt it were explored. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with ten senior staff from four major public organisations in Hong Kong. The findings indicate that public clients held different views on D&B methods based on different grounds. Apart from functional requirements such as project completion time, cost certainty, etc., internal resources and political force would also influence client's adoption of D&B method in the public sector.

  3. Alternative Australian climate change plans: The public's views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, Richard T.; Louviere, Jordan J.; Wei, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Climate change has come to the forefront of Australian politics and there is now an active on-going policy debate about how to best reach a commonly agreed long term goal. This paper looks at five major dimensions of this debate and constructs policy options based on them. A discrete choice experiment approach was used with a representative sample from a major internet panel provider. Survey respondents made choices between pairs of policy options with different characteristics. They favored policies starting in 2010 rather than 2012, and spending 20% of revenue raised on energy-related R and D. They were almost evenly split on whether the plan should initially exempt the transport sector and two competing approaches that redistribute revenue from the plan, and, they opposed plans giving special treatment to energy-intensive sectors of the economy. A number of other policy relevant questions related to understanding Australian views and knowledge related to climate change also were asked.

  4. Freedom and Equality in a Pluralist Society: An Explanation and Defence of the Public Reason View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio Baccarini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to replies to Christiano’s criticism of Rawlsian public reason. Although Christiano’s criticism is successful in relation to one possible interpretation of the public reason view, a better and more fructuous interpretation of the public reason view is at the disposition of the Rawlsian project. This view of public reason is deliberately an idealization. It shows how public justification would function in a well-ordered society where citizens are committed to liberal values. The shared reasons relevant for public justification are represented by the ideal of society as a fair system of cooperation between free and equal citizens, as well as by the three features of the liberal conceptions of justice (basic rights and liberties, their priority, and the means to use them. In virtue of this view of public reason, it avoids Christiano’s objection of the utopianism of shared reasons, and it replies to the inequality argument, as well as to the generality and vagueness objection, and the inconsistency argument. The advantages of the proposal in the view of public reason, in comparison to Christiano’s proceduralist democratic proposal, are shown in the reply to the inequality argument.

  5. MPA and CPM Curriculum: An Analysis of the Views of Public Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Bruce J.

    Views of state public administrators about management education and training needs were investigated, as were administrator views concerning short-term management development workshops. Data was drawn from responses to questionnaires mailed to 5,980 state administrators who were selected from a national survey and from random samples using lists…

  6. A view, different proposals: Concept of gender and public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martín Bardera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the meaning of “gender” as a category of analysis in public policy. The concept has been transferred from the feminist theories and this has meant that the United Nations and European Union have incorporated the inequality as a structural inequality and an issue justice. So, the feminist demands enter the political agenda as an integral project which is characterized by the adoption of the gender perspective and its application from a transversal methodology (“gender mainstreaming”. In this sense, the "gender ideology" is a new paradigm against the “patriarchal ideology”. Now, political actions should be articulated in a double movement of correction and promotion to achieve real equality in societies more democratic and ultimately more just.

  7. Public views on drinking water standards as risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B

    2008-12-01

    Government agencies often compare contaminant levels to standards and other regulatory benchmarks to convey relative risk to public audiences, as well as for enforcement. Yet we know little of how citizens interpret these risk indicators or factors influencing interpretations. Owners of private residential wells in New Jersey were surveyed by mail. A majority appreciated this comparison, trusted the standard, and could effectively compare the contaminant level to the standard. Most people who recalled that their own well water quality was unsatisfactory simply installed treatment systems. However, there was also a surprising amount of inability to tell whether pollution levels were better or worse than the standard, perhaps exacerbated by confusing institutional language to summarize the comparison (e.g., pollution "exceeds" or is "less than" the standard) and innumeracy. There was also substantial skepticism about the degree to which pollution levels below, or (to a lesser extent) above, the standard are harmless or harmful, respectively. Skepticism was variously due to distrust of standards, disbelief in thresholds for health effects, inability to accurately compare standards and contaminant levels, information processing, and demographics. Discontinuity in reactions below versus above the standard did not exist in the aggregate, and rarely among individuals, contrary to some previous findings. At identical standards and contaminant levels, familiar toxins (mercury, arsenic, lead) elicited higher risk ratings than less familiar ones. Given the wide institutional use of this risk indicator, further research on how to improve the design and use of this indicator, and consideration of alternatives, is warranted.

  8. Public Views on Climate Change. European and USA Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzoni, I.; Pidgeon, N.F.

    2006-01-01

    If uncontrolled, human influences on the climate system may generate changes that will endanger various aspects of life on Earth. The precise implications of the scientific claims about climate change, and the extent to which they pose dangers to various populations, are becoming intensely debated at many levels in relation to policy. How 'danger' is interpreted will ultimately affect which actions are taken. In this paper, we examine how climate change is conceptualised by publics in Europe and in the USA. Although there is widespread concern about climate change, it is of secondary importance in comparison to other issues in people's daily lives. Most individuals relate to climate change through personal experience, knowledge, the balance of benefits and costs, and trust in other societal actors. We analyse these factors through findings from various surveys and studies, which highlight both the distinctiveness and some shared perspectives at a generalised level. We reflect upon these in relation to trust and responsibility for climate change action, and risk communication, supporting the call for discourses about climate change to also be situated in people's locality, as a means of increasing its saliency

  9. Radiological threat, public and media: a psychosociological view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arciszewski, T. [University Rene Descartes - Paris 5, 92 - Boulogne (France)

    2006-07-01

    the fear of nuclear devices. In a scientific area as nuclear, where problems are often very complex for experts themselves, the way to communicate cannot be as simple as good information. Next to that statement, we will develop some conclusions based on the work of Slovic, Kasperson and some others, within the framework of the amplification of risk. This model describes how the threats can be diffuse in a population and specifically the radiological threat. Widely experimentally assessed, it analyse how the fear can spread and affect people, independently form the real measurable risk. We will lastly ask ourselves if there is a way of handle panic for this kind of threat. We will show that the notion of panic is somehow irrelevant to such threats whereas the confidence in political and public regulation is strongly related to them. Finally, we will ask if the social psychologist could make a model of public reaction in case of nuclear threat. That question remains open until further experiments are made. (author)

  10. Radiological threat, public and media: a psychosociological view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arciszewski, T.

    2006-01-01

    the fear of nuclear devices. In a scientific area as nuclear, where problems are often very complex for experts themselves, the way to communicate cannot be as simple as good information. Next to that statement, we will develop some conclusions based on the work of Slovic, Kasperson and some others, within the framework of the amplification of risk. This model describes how the threats can be diffuse in a population and specifically the radiological threat. Widely experimentally assessed, it analyse how the fear can spread and affect people, independently form the real measurable risk. We will lastly ask ourselves if there is a way of handle panic for this kind of threat. We will show that the notion of panic is somehow irrelevant to such threats whereas the confidence in political and public regulation is strongly related to them. Finally, we will ask if the social psychologist could make a model of public reaction in case of nuclear threat. That question remains open until further experiments are made. (author)

  11. J. E. W. Wallin's Diagnostic Theory for Classifying the Feeble-Minded and Backward in Early Twentieth-Century Public Schools in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, American psychologists began addressing problems related to the intellectual capacity of students enrolled in public schools. This paper focuses on the role and influence of psychologists in addressing these problems, specifically the difficulty of classifying students deemed feeble-minded and…

  12. [Study on medical service supply public-private partnership mode: based on the view of public economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yue; Sun, Hong; Zhou, Li

    2015-02-01

    Due to the quasi-public attributes of medical service, the supply mode and system could influence equity and fairness of general people's health. Based on the view of public economics, the purpose of this paper was to explain the economic nature of medical service supply. By analyzing the practice of public-private partnership (PPP) mode in medical care supply and the related public economic issues, we summarized the feasibility and risks of PPP model in Chinese medical care supply market. Finally, we discussed the innovative medical service system provided by government, public hospitals, and social capitals together. Therefore, to guarantee further development of this new medical service supply--PPP mode, we should pay attention to some practical problems, such as the share of cooperation cost and the balance between the benefit and risk among all partners.

  13. [Neurosciences and philosophy of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, Aarón

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that the interaction between neurosciences and philosophy of the mind is on the way to understand consciousness, and to solve the mind-body or mind-brain problem. Naturalism is the view that mental processes are just brain processes and that consciousness is a natural phenomenon. It is possible to construct a theory about its nature by blending insights from neuroscience, philosophy of the mind, phenomenology, psychology and evolutionary biology.

  14. How scientists view the public, the media and the political process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, John C; Nisbet, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    We review past studies on how scientists view the public, the goals of communication, the performance and impacts of the media, and the role of the public in policy decision-making. We add to these past findings by analyzing two recent large-scale surveys of scientists in the UK and US. These analyses show that scientists believe the public is uninformed about science and therefore prone to errors in judgment and policy preferences. Scientists are critical of media coverage generally, yet they also tend to rate favorably their own experience dealing with journalists, believing that such interactions are important both for promoting science literacy and for career advancement. Scientists believe strongly that they should have a role in public debates and view policy-makers as the most important group with which to engage. Few scientists view their role as an enabler of direct public participation in decision-making through formats such as deliberative meetings, and do not believe there are personal benefits for investing in these activities. Implications for future research are discussed, in particular the need to examine how ideology and selective information sources shape scientists' views.

  15. Talk like TED the 9 public-speaking secrets of the world's top minds

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    Ideas are the currency of the twenty-first century. In order to succeed, you need to be able to sell your ideas persuasively. This ability is the single greatest skill that will help you accomplish your dreams. TED Talks have redefined the elements of a successful presentation and become the gold standard for public speaking. TED--which stands for technology, entertainment, and design--brings together the world's leading thinkers. These are the presentations that set the world on fire, and the techniques that top TED speakers use will make any presentation more dynamic, fire up any team, and give anyone the confidence to overcome their fear of public speaking. Public speaking coach and bestselling author Carmine Gallo has broken down hundreds of TED talks and interviewed the most popular TED presenters, as well as the top researchers in the fields of psychology, communications, and neuroscience to reveal the nine secrets of all successful TED presentations. Gallo's step-by-step method makes it possible for ...

  16. Community views and public health priority setting: how do health department priorities, community views, and health indicator data compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle-Richardson, Giulia; Scribani, Melissa; Wyckoff, Lynae; Strogatz, David; May, John; Jenkins, Paul

    2015-01-01

    New York, like many other states, provides county-level health statistics for use in local priority settings but does not provide any data on public views about priority health issues. This study assessed whether health department priorities are notably different from community concerns about health, and how both groups' priorities compare with local health statistics. Data from a 2009 rural survey on community health concerns were compared to priorities named by the seven area county health departments, and to local health indicator data. Health care/insurance cost (60%), obesity (53%), and prescription cost (41%) were leading community concerns, regardless of age, education, sex, or Internet in the home. Six of seven county health departments selected access to quality health care (which includes health care/insurance cost) as a leading public health priority, but only three identified obesity. The following leading local health issues were suggested by health indicators: Physical activity and nutrition, Smoking, and Unintentional injury. Health departments diverged from community priorities, from health indicator data, and from one another in choosing priorities. Adding a question about community health priorities to existing state telephone surveys on health behavior and lifestyle would provide an important tool to local health departments. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  17. Stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy: public views about drug addiction and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma E; Pescosolido, Bernice A; Goldman, Howard H

    2014-10-01

    Public attitudes about drug addiction and mental illness were compared. A Web-based national survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support in regard to drug addiction and mental illness. Respondents held significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices against persons with drug addiction, more skeptical about the effectiveness of treatments, and more likely to oppose policies aimed at helping them. Drug addiction is often treated as a subcategory of mental illness, and insurance plans group them together under the rubric of "behavioral health." Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches to reducing stigma and advancing public policy.

  18. Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Guide and Series / Methamphetamine Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine (Meth) Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish ... paranoia, aggressiveness, and hallucinations. The Brain's Response to Methamphetamine Hi, my name's Sara Bellum. Welcome to my ...

  19. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2010. Titles and abstracts were screened by one researcher according to the inclusion criteria. Papers were included if they assessed pharmacy staff or consumer attitudes towards pharmaceutical public health. Full papers identified for inclusion were assessed by a second researcher and data were extracted by one researcher. Results From the 5628 papers identified, 63 studies in 67 papers were included. Pharmacy staff: Most pharmacists viewed public health services as important and part of their role but secondary to medicine related roles. Pharmacists' confidence in providing public health services was on the whole average to low. Time was consistently identified as a barrier to providing public health services. Lack of an adequate counselling space, lack of demand and expectation of a negative reaction from customers were also reported by some pharmacists as barriers. A need for further training was identified in relation to a number of public health services. Consumers: Most pharmacy users had never been offered public health services by their pharmacist and did not expect to be offered. Consumers viewed pharmacists as appropriate providers of public health advice but had mixed views on the pharmacists' ability to do this. Satisfaction was found to be high in those that had experienced pharmaceutical public health Conclusions There has been little change in customer and pharmacist attitudes since reviews conducted nearly 10 years

  20. Public health in community pharmacy: a systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, Claire E; Ferguson, Jill S; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2011-07-21

    The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Five electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2010. Titles and abstracts were screened by one researcher according to the inclusion criteria. Papers were included if they assessed pharmacy staff or consumer attitudes towards pharmaceutical public health. Full papers identified for inclusion were assessed by a second researcher and data were extracted by one researcher. From the 5628 papers identified, 63 studies in 67 papers were included. Pharmacy staff: Most pharmacists viewed public health services as important and part of their role but secondary to medicine related roles. Pharmacists' confidence in providing public health services was on the whole average to low. Time was consistently identified as a barrier to providing public health services. Lack of an adequate counselling space, lack of demand and expectation of a negative reaction from customers were also reported by some pharmacists as barriers. A need for further training was identified in relation to a number of public health services. Consumers: Most pharmacy users had never been offered public health services by their pharmacist and did not expect to be offered. Consumers viewed pharmacists as appropriate providers of public health advice but had mixed views on the pharmacists' ability to do this. Satisfaction was found to be high in those that had experienced pharmaceutical public health There has been little change in customer and pharmacist attitudes since reviews conducted nearly 10 years previously. In order to improve the public

  1. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Jill S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2010. Titles and abstracts were screened by one researcher according to the inclusion criteria. Papers were included if they assessed pharmacy staff or consumer attitudes towards pharmaceutical public health. Full papers identified for inclusion were assessed by a second researcher and data were extracted by one researcher. Results From the 5628 papers identified, 63 studies in 67 papers were included. Pharmacy staff: Most pharmacists viewed public health services as important and part of their role but secondary to medicine related roles. Pharmacists' confidence in providing public health services was on the whole average to low. Time was consistently identified as a barrier to providing public health services. Lack of an adequate counselling space, lack of demand and expectation of a negative reaction from customers were also reported by some pharmacists as barriers. A need for further training was identified in relation to a number of public health services. Consumers: Most pharmacy users had never been offered public health services by their pharmacist and did not expect to be offered. Consumers viewed pharmacists as appropriate providers of public health advice but had mixed views on the pharmacists' ability to do this. Satisfaction was found to be high in those that had experienced pharmaceutical public health Conclusions There has been little change in customer and pharmacist attitudes since reviews

  2. Mindfulness Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David

    2017-01-03

    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.

  3. Public views on a wait time management initiative: a matter of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Rebecca A; Laupacis, Andreas; Levinson, Wendy; Martin, Douglas K

    2010-08-05

    Many countries have tried to reduce waiting times for health care through formal wait time reduction strategies. Our paper describes views of members of the public about a wait time management initiative--the Ontario Wait Time Strategy (OWTS) (Canada). Scholars and governmental reports have advocated for increased public involvement in wait time management. We provide empirically derived recommendations for public engagement in a wait time management initiative. Two qualitative studies: 1) an analysis of all emails sent by the public to the (OWTS) email address; and 2) in-depth interviews with members of the Ontario public. Email correspondents and interview participants supported the intent of the OWTS. However they wanted more information about the Strategy and its actions. Interview participants did not feel they were sufficiently made aware of the Strategy and email correspondents requested additional information beyond what was offered on the Strategy's website. Moreover, the email correspondents believed that some of the information that was provided on the Strategy's website and through the media was inaccurate, misleading, and even dishonest. Interview participants strongly supported public involvement in the OWTS priority setting. Findings suggest the public wanted increased communication from and with the OWTS. Effective communication can facilitate successful public engagement, and in turn fair and legitimate priority setting. Based on the study's findings we developed concrete recommendations for improving public involvement in wait time management.

  4. Public views on a wait time management initiative: a matter of communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laupacis Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have tried to reduce waiting times for health care through formal wait time reduction strategies. Our paper describes views of members of the public about a wait time management initiative - the Ontario Wait Time Strategy (OWTS (Canada. Scholars and governmental reports have advocated for increased public involvement in wait time management. We provide empirically derived recommendations for public engagement in a wait time management initiative. Methods Two qualitative studies: 1 an analysis of all emails sent by the public to the (OWTS email address; and 2 in-depth interviews with members of the Ontario public. Results Email correspondents and interview participants supported the intent of the OWTS. However they wanted more information about the Strategy and its actions. Interview participants did not feel they were sufficiently made aware of the Strategy and email correspondents requested additional information beyond what was offered on the Strategy's website. Moreover, the email correspondents believed that some of the information that was provided on the Strategy's website and through the media was inaccurate, misleading, and even dishonest. Interview participants strongly supported public involvement in the OWTS priority setting. Conclusions Findings suggest the public wanted increased communication from and with the OWTS. Effective communication can facilitate successful public engagement, and in turn fair and legitimate priority setting. Based on the study's findings we developed concrete recommendations for improving public involvement in wait time management.

  5. Community nurses' child protection role: views of public health nurses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Public health nurses in Ireland are generalist practitioners with a wide range of roles that address the needs of clients in the community across their lifespan. Child protection is one of many of the roles of Irish public health nurses. However, with increasing caseloads, birth rates and aging populations, their child protection role is becoming more difficult to define and practise safely. This paper presents a key finding of a qualitative study that explored the views of a group of public health nurses (n = 10) regarding their role with pre-school children. A significant theme following analysis of the interviews were the nurses\\' expressed concerns on their role in child protection. There is a need to define the role practised by public health nurses in child protection and to achieve a standard for this nationally.

  6. The Microbiological@mind project: a public engagement initiative of Turin University bringing microbiology and health education into primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalas, Daniela; Roana, Janira; Mandras, Narcisa; Cuccu, Sonia; Banche, Giuliana; Marra, Elisa Simona; Collino, Nicoletta; Piersigilli, Giorgia; Allizond, Valeria; Tullio, Vivian; Cuffini, Anna Maria

    2017-10-01

    Despite ongoing global efforts, antimicrobial resistance continues to threaten the treatment of an ever-increasing range of bacterial infections. There is substantial evidence that public education programs that foster microbial literacy amongst young school audiences may improve correct knowledge of specific health issues, such as prevention of microbial infections and responsible use of antibiotics. The aim of the Microbiological@mind project was to engage primary school students with the subject of microbiology, to promote both scientific interest and awareness towards correct behaviors that may ensure a safer lifestyle. Interactive workshops based on a full ''hands-on'' approach were carried out by an expert team from the University of Turin to over 1200 children aged 9-11 years at primary schools in Turin. A questionnaire (pre- and post-activity test) on the main topic (i.e. antibiotics) was used to assess project effectiveness. The workshops provided a useful means to strengthen the understanding of basic microbiology concepts amongst students. Students' baseline knowledge of antibiotics was quite low, as low percentages of correct answers on antibiotic action and use (5.0% and 12.1%, respectively) were found in the pre-activity tests. A significant increase (P teaching activity. Our findings support the idea that microbial literacy in early childhood through hands-on educational programs is of great importance to foster children's interest in science learning, and to provide young people with information about general and specific health-related issues, such as prudent antibiotic use, for a more responsible citizenship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities after viewing Olympic or Paralympic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Kate; Burns, Jan; Mills, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public's attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities.

  8. Public Value Creation Enabled by Healthcare IS Projects – a resource-based-view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Svejvig, Per; Laursen, Markus

    Creation of value from IT projects is a recurring theme that has diffused into healthcare information sys-tems (HIS). By applying a resource-based-view on findings from a study on the optimisation project of an integrated health information system (HIS) we develop a framework of capabilities needed...... in a public HIS setting to create value. The framework consists of Professional- , Organisational-, Patient Perceived- and Employee Perceived-Value dimensions. HIS is partly overlooked in the public management literature and the aspect of emergence and (personal as well as organisational) learning plays...... an important role in the creation value in HIS-projects....

  9. Stigma, Discrimination, Treatment Effectiveness and Policy Support: Comparing Public Views about Drug Addiction with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Pescosolido, Bernice; Goldman, Howard H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compares current public attitudes about drug addiction with attitudes about mental illness. Methods A web-based national public opinion survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support. Results Respondents hold significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction compared to those with mental illness. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them on a job. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices, more skeptical about the effectiveness of available treatments, and more likely to oppose public policies aimed at helping persons with drug addiction. Conclusions Drug addiction is often treated as a sub-category of mental illness, and health insurance benefits group these conditions together under the rubric of behavioral health. Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches for advancing stigma reduction and public policy. PMID:25270497

  10. Public views on multiple dimensions of security: nuclear weapons, terrorism, energy, and the environment: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  11. Public views on multiple dimensions of security : nuclear waepons, terrorism, energy, and the environment : 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, Kerry Gale (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK)

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  12. Attitudes toward strategies to increase organ donation: views of the general public and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnieh, Lianne; Klarenbach, Scott; Gill, John S; Caulfield, Tim; Manns, Braden

    2012-12-01

    The acceptability of financial incentives for organ donation is contentious. This study sought to determine (1) the acceptability of expense reimbursement or financial incentives by the general public, health professionals involved with organ donation and transplantation, and those with or affected by kidney disease and (2) for the public, whether financial incentives would alter their willingness to consider donation. Web-based survey administered to members of the Canadian public, health professionals, and people with or affected by kidney disease asking questions regarding acceptability of strategies to increase living and deceased kidney donation and willingness to donate a kidney under various financial incentives. Responses were collected from 2004 members of the Canadian public October 11-18, 2011; responses from health professionals (n=339) and people with or affected by kidney disease (n=268) were collected during a 4-week period commencing October 11, 2011. Acceptability of one or more financial incentives to increase deceased and living donation was noted in >70% and 40% of all groups, respectively. Support for monetary payment for living donors was 45%, 14%, and 27% for the public, health professionals, and people with or affected by kidney disease, respectively. Overall, reimbursement of funeral expenses for deceased donors and a tax break for living donors were the most acceptable. The general public views regulated financial incentives for living and deceased donation to be acceptable. Future research needs to examine the impact of financial incentives on rates of deceased and living donors.

  13. Views of the Scottish general public on community pharmacy weight management services: international implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Anita Elaine; Cunningham, Scott; Gray, Gwen; Hansford, Denise; Bermano, Giovanna; Stewart, Derek

    2012-04-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels, with more than 1.5 billion adults being affected worldwide. In Scotland two-thirds of men and more than half of women are either overweight or obese, placing Scotland overall third behind the United States of America and Mexico. All community pharmacies in Scotland are contracted to provide public health services such as smoking cessation and there is increasing interest in their contribution to weight management. Researching this area in Scotland may provide valuable information to facilitate the development of community pharmacy services in other parts of the UK and internationally. To describe the views of the Scottish general public on the provision of weight management services via community pharmacies. General public in Scotland. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire survey of 6,000 randomly selected members of the Scottish general public aged 18 years and over. Views on community pharmacy led weight management services. Questionnaires were returned by 20.6% (n = 1,236). Over half 60.1% (n = 751) agreed or strongly agreed that they had easy access to pharmacy services in general and around one-third agreed (35%; n = 438) that it was more convenient to obtain weight management advice from a pharmacist than it is to make an appointment with a GP. Most respondents however lacked awareness of the types of health services available through community pharmacy (13.2%; n = 162) and would not feel comfortable speaking to a pharmacist or medicines counter assistant about weight related issues (25%; n = 320). Concerns over privacy (47.3%; n = 592) and perceived lack of pharmacists' specialist knowledge (open comments) were identified as potential barriers to service uptake by the general public. Overall, respondents appear to be receptive to the idea of accessing weight management services through community pharmacy but a perceived lack of privacy, poor knowledge of pharmacists' skill level and of public health services available to

  14. Mindfulness in cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation and other techniques drawn from Buddhism have increasingly been integrated into forms of psychotherapeutic intervention. In much of this work, mindfulness is understood as a mode of awareness that is present-centered and nonevaluative. This form of awareness is assumed to have intrinsic value in promoting positive mental health and adaptation by interrupting discursive thoughts that give rise to suffering. However, in the societies where it originated, mindfulness meditation is part of a larger system of Buddhist belief and practice with strong ethical and moral dimensions. Extracting techniques like mindfulness meditation from the social contexts in which they originate may change the nature and effects of the practice. The papers in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry explore the implications of a cultural and contextual view of mindfulness for continued dialogue between Buddhist thought and psychiatry. This introductory essay considers the meanings of mindfulness meditation in cultural context and the uses of mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention in contemporary psychiatry and psychology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. The view of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, T.; Magnusson, S.

    2004-07-01

    The NEA's Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has, throughout its existence, been interested in the development of recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Recently, this interest has included a very active CRPPH programme to develop ideas and suggestions that the ICRP can take into account in its work, and the CRPPH has become an active partner with the ICRP to provide the views of regulators and experts from the NEA's 28 member countries. During 2002, the ICRP Main Commission released two documents for broad stakeholder review and comment. These framework documents presented the key concepts and approaches that the ICRP was, at that time, proposing to develop into more detailed general recommendations, covering public and worker radiological protection, and the protection of non-human species. The CRPPH performed a detailed analysis of these two framework documents, focusing on the possible implications that these concepts would have should they be translated into recommendations and issued by the ICRP (NEA 2003). This work was endorsed by the NEA's Radioactive Waste Management Committee, and presented during the 2nd NEA/ICRP Forum, Lanzarote, Spain, in April 2003, where it was further broadly endorsed. Some key findings of this work were as follows: There is broad agreement that the ICRP should simplify, clarify and consolidate its recommendations. However, the goal of the ICRP to publish new recommendations by 2005 is seen as being ambitious, and not absolutely necessary. The ICRP will need to provide a clear and compelling justification as to why any significant changes are needed at this time. Costs, as well as legal and regulatory implications should be considered prior to the implementation of new recommendations. Several key ideas and concepts seem to be either completely new, or to have significantly evolved from their previous manifestations (in ICRP Publication and its

  16. Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist…

  17. American security perspectives: public views on energy, environment, nuclear weapons and terrorism: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from matching national surveys of the US general public on US energy and environmental security administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2008. Key areas of investigation include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alter-native sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include evolving perspectives on global climate change and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options. We also report findings from an Internet survey of the general public conducted in mid-2008 that investigates assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism.

  18. An Untapped Resource: Patient and Public Involvement in Implementation Comment on "Knowledge Mobilization in Healthcare Organizations: A View From the Resource-Based View of the Firm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Christopher; Rycroft-Malone, Jo

    2015-08-07

    This commentary considers the potential role of patient and public involvement in implementation. Developing an analytical thread from the resource-based view of the Firm, we argue that this involvement may create unique resources that have the capacity to enhance the impact of implementation activity for healthcare organisations. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  19. What is a mental illness? Public views and their effects on attitudes and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-07-01

    'Mental illness' is a common label. However, the general public may or may not consider various conditions, ranging from major psychiatric disorders to stress, as mental illnesses. It is unclear how such public views affect attitudes towards people with mental illness and reactions to one's own potential mental illness, e.g. in terms of help-seeking or disclosure. In representative English population surveys the classification of six conditions (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, drug addiction, stress, grief) as a mental illness was assessed as well as attitudes towards, and contact with, people with mental illness, intentions to disclose a mental illness and to seek treatment. A factor analysis of how strongly respondents perceived the six conditions as a mental illness yielded two factors: (i) major psychiatric disorders and (ii) stress- and behaviour-related conditions including drug addiction. In regression analyses, higher scores on the first, but not the second, factor predicted less perceived responsibility of people with mental illness for their actions, and more support for a neurobiological illness model and help-seeking. Classifying stress-related/behaviour-related conditions as mental illnesses, as well as not referring to major psychiatric disorders as mental illnesses, was associated with more negative attitudes and increased social distance, but also with stronger intentions to disclose a mental illness to an employer. Negative attitudes and social distance were also related to ethnic minority status and lower social grade. Referring to major psychiatric disorders as mental illnesses may reflect higher mental health literacy, better attitudes towards people with mental illness and help-seeking. A broader concept of mental illness could, although increasing negative attitudes, facilitate disclosure in the workplace. Public views on what is a mental illness may have context-dependent effects and should be taken into account in anti

  20. Priority to End of Life Treatments? Views of the Public in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Sofie; van Exel, Job; Baker, Rachel; B F Brouwer, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Recent debates in the Netherlands on health care priority setting have focused on the relative value of gains generated by life-extending medicines for people with a terminal illness, mostly new cancer drugs. These treatments are generally expensive, provide relatively small health gains, and therefore usually do not meet common cost per QALY thresholds. Nevertheless, these drugs may be provided under the assumption that there is public support for making a special case for treatments for people with a terminal illness. This study investigated the views of the public in the Netherlands on a range of equity and efficiency considerations relevant to priority setting and examines whether there is public support for making such a special case. Using Q methodology, three viewpoints on important principles for priority setting were identified. Data were collected through ranking exercises conducted by 46 members of the general public in the Netherlands, including 11 respondents with personal experience with cancer. Viewpoint 1 emphasized that people have equal rights to healthcare and opposed priority setting on any ground. Viewpoint 2 emphasized that the care for terminal patients should at all times respect the patients' quality of life, which sometimes means refraining from invasive treatments. Viewpoint 3 had a strong focus on effective and efficient care and had no moral objection against priority setting under certain circumstances. Overall, we found little public support for the assumption that health gains in terminally ill patients are more valuable than those in other patients. This implies that the assumption that society is prepared to pay more for health gains in people who have only a short period of lifetime left does not correspond with societal preferences in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Can enrichment make Brazilian tapir spend more time on view to the public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Luísa Mascarenhas Ladeia; Young, Robert John

    2015-01-01

    One common visitor complaint in zoos is that the nonhuman animals are not visible. This problem needs to be resolved without compromising the animals' welfare; environmental enrichment could solve the problem. This study investigated whether enrichment would increase public exposure time of lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in the Belo Horizonte Zoo in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Observations were made before (62 hr) and during (62 hr) the introduction of enrichment using focal animal sampling with instantaneous recording of behavior. The 5 enrichment items were a bamboo fence covered in vines, logs, a sandbox, dry leaves, and bamboo bushes. Before the enrichments were applied, the tapir was not visible to the public for more than 85% of the time. In addition, during the analysis of the enrichment treatment, other variables were considered--such as weekday, time of day, and weather conditions--which could influence the animals' interaction with the enrichments. The enrichments increased and decreased the expression of some behaviors; however, public viewing time of the animals did not increase. Thus, the enrichment applied was not strong enough to overcome the animals' crepuscular behavior.

  2. Plastic People in Pinstripe Suits: An Exploration of the Views of Irish Parents on the Publication of School League Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, O.; Lynch, R.; Hennessy, J.

    2015-01-01

    While the publication of school league tables is prohibited by law in Ireland, the publication of data categorising university placements achieved per school has become common practice. A central argument advanced in this endeavour includes the provision of information for parents. The views of parents on this issue have, until now, not been…

  3. Mindful innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2008-01-01

    Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role.......Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role....

  4. The Views of the Public on Youth Offenders and the New Zealand Criminal Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretto, Craig; Miers, Sarah; Lambie, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Public perceptions of crime and punishment have taken on increasing importance as countries grapple with how to address youth violence. The current study aimed to compare the views of those who have had personal experience of victimisation from youth offenders and those who have not, on what could be improved in managing youth offending in New Zealand. A qualitative methodology was used with data from open-ended survey responses from a nationally representative sample. Public sentiments favoured addressing systemic issues and providing rehabilitation as main emphases followed by more punitive measures, prevention, and restorative justice. Victims were over-represented on sentiments of prevention whereas non-victims were over-represented in support for more punitive measures and restorative justice. There was also considerable support for a multi-facetted approach that utilised a number of the approaches above, suggesting that the solution is as complex as the offender's circumstances. These findings are very much in line with the current goals of the youth justice system with its emphasis on diversion and rehabilitation.

  5. Public views on the links between air pollution and health in Northeast England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howel, Denise; Moffatt, Suzanne; Bush, Judith; Unn, C.E.; Prince, Helen

    2003-01-01

    We investigated how public perceptions of the links between air pollution and health varied with contextual factors describing individuals and their locality. Information was collected via postal surveys on 2744 adults resident in five neighborhoods in Northeast England. Perceptions were compared by individual factors (health status, age, and gender) and locality actors (relative deprivation, proximity to industry and district--Teesside r Sunderland, with different amounts of heavy industry). There was relatively little variation in views about air pollution and health links between neighborhoods. The greatest contrasts were found when comparing those living near or further from industry and between the two districts. Any differences were related more to awareness of illness in the neighborhood thought to be affected by air pollution, rather than belief that a particular disease was linked to air pollution. Chronic illness status and age were sometimes found to be associated with perceptions of disease affected by air pollution, but gender and material deprivation were not central to differences in risk perceptions among the population studied. In understanding public perceptions about the links between air quality and health, research should focus on the characteristics of places as well as of people

  6. Mindfulness as a Path of Women's Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja FURLAN ŠTANTE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings together social mindfulness as a path of empowerment for women within its concept of the interrelatedness of all beings in the web of life. The paradigm of social mindfulness is thus established as the foundation of feminist spirituality. The focus of this work is on the possibility of applying the ethics of mindfulness as a paradigm to interpersonal interrelatedness. The relations among humans, nature, reason and emotion in self-development are confronted with the paradigm of mindfulness. This paper carries out a theoretical analysis of the possibility of integrating the paradigm of mindfulness with the paradigm of feminist spirituality. In this view, the paradigm shift toward integrating spiritual and social justice and ecological balance is examined. It also examines possibility of transformation of negative gender stereotypes with the help of mindfulness, loving kindness, compassion and ethics. From this point of view, the application of mindfulness in education (especially childhood, primary and secondary schools is considered.

  7. Mind the public health leadership gap: the opportunities and challenges of engaging high-profile individuals in the public health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shickle, Darren; Day, Matthew; Smith, Kevin; Zakariasen, Ken; Moskol, Jacob; Oliver, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Public health leadership has been criticized as being ineffective. The public health profession is relatively small. Critics have argued that there is over-emphasis on technical aspects and insufficient use of the 'community as a source of public health actions'. The paper analyses the resources, motivations and skills utilized by high-profile individuals who have made contributions to the public health agenda. The phenomenon of celebrity diplomacy is critiqued. Two exemplars are discussed: Jamie Oliver and Michael Bloomberg. The risks of involving celebrities are also considered. Leaders for public health demonstrate 'a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will' to make the 'right decisions happen'. While they may have ego or self-interest, in this context, at least, they channel their ambition for the public health cause, not themselves. Leaders from outside public health may have no understanding of what public health is nor consider their work as part of a wider public health agenda. It is important to understand why they become leaders for public health. This will inform a strategy for how others may be encouraged to collaborate for public health causes. Some key points for working with high-profile leaders for public health are identified. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. DIFFERENT SIDES OF THE SAME COIN: MIXED VIEWS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS EDUCATORS AND PRACTITIONER ABOUT PUBLIC RELATIONS EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    BİR, Çisil Sohodol

    2010-01-01

    Public relations education is a topic of seemingly perpetual importance and interest for practitioners and educators alike In recent years, numerous researches have surveyed both practitioners and educators to identify appropriate ways to strengthen public relations education to prepare students for practitioner’s role. According to these research results public relations educators and practitioners disagree about the priorities they assign to qualities and goals of public relations education...

  9. Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Lacko, S.; Brohan, E.; Mojtabai, R.; Thornicroft, G.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Little is known about how the views of the public are related to self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Despite increasing activity aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, there is little evidence to guide and inform specific anti-stigma campaign development and messages to be used in mass campaigns. A better understanding of the association between public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours and the internalization of stigma among people with mental health problems...

  10. The (Mis)understanding of Scientific Uncertainty? How Experts View Policy-Makers, the Media and Publics

    OpenAIRE

    Landstrom, Catharina; Hauxwell-Baldwin, Richard; Lorenzoni, Irene; Rogers-Hayden, Tee

    2015-01-01

    Frequent claims that publics ‘misunderstand’ science ignore the contested definition of scientific uncertainty itself. Scientific uncertainty means different things in the natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities, while public controversies show that these interpretations of scientific uncertainty have different implications for policy and decision-making. This prompts analysis of the ways that experts view scientific uncertainty and how they characterise the (mis)understandings o...

  11. Reaching "an audience that you would never dream of speaking to": influential public health researchers' views on the role of news media in influencing policy and public understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; Haynes, Abby; Derrick, Gemma; Sturk, Heidi; Hall, Wayne D; St George, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    While governments and academic institutions urge researchers to engage with news media, traditional academic values of public disengagement have inhibited many from giving high priority to media activity. In this interview-based study, the authors report on the views about news media engagement and strategies used by 36 peer-voted leading Australian public health researchers in 6 fields. The authors consider their views about the role and importance of media in influencing policy, their reflections on effective or ineffective media communicators, and strategies used by these researchers about how to best retain their credibility and influence while engaging with the news media. A willingness and capacity to engage with the mass media was seen as an essential attribute of influential public health researchers.

  12. The Adoption of Internal Audit as a Governance Control Mechanism in Australian Public Universities--Views from the CEOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and the views of university chief executive officers (CEOs) to examine the extent to which internal auditing as a control mechanism is adopted in Australian public universities under an environment of change management. The findings highlight negative consequences of change and their…

  13. "What is meant by public?": Stakeholder views on strengthening impacts of public reporting of hospital performance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaway, Rachel; Bismark, Marie; Dunt, David; Prang, Khic-Houy; Kelaher, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Public reporting of hospital performance data is a developing area that is gaining increased attention. This is the first study to explore a range of stakeholder opinions on how such public reporting could be strengthened in Australia. Thirty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of expert healthcare consumer, provider and purchaser informants who worked in a variety of senior roles and had knowledge of or involvement in public reporting of hospital data within the public or private healthcare sectors. Informants from all Australian states, territory and national jurisdictions participated. Thematic analysis was used to gain an overview of experts' opinions to inform policy and systems-development for strengthening foundational frameworks for public reporting of health services performance. Themes arising were synthesised to generate explanatory figures to highlight key areas for strengthening public reporting. Our findings suggest that in Australia there is a lack of agreement on what the objectives and who the audience are for public reporting of hospital performance data. Without this shared understanding it is difficult to strengthen frameworks and impacts of public reporting. When developing frameworks for public reporting of hospital data in Australia, more explicit definition of what or who are the 'public' is needed along with identification of barriers, desired impacts, data needs, and data collection/reporting/feedback mechanisms. All relevant stakeholders should be involved in design of public reporting frameworks. Offering multiple systems of public reporting, each tailored to particular audiences, might enable greater impact of reporting towards improved hospital quality and safety, and consumer knowledge to inform treatment decisions. This study provides an overview of perspectives, but further research is warranted to develop PR frameworks that can generate greatest impacts for the needs of various audiences

  14. Out of sight, out of mind? The inclusion and identification of people with intellectual disability in public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Katie; van Dooren, Kate; Tseng, Chih-Han; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nick; Ware, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Adults with intellectual disability experience substantial health inequities. Public health research aiming to improve the lives of this population group is needed. We sought to investigate the extent to which a sample of international public health research includes and identifies people with intellectual disability. In this systematic review, we examined a select number of public health journals to determine (1) how often people with intellectual disability are explicitly included in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies and (2) how the presence of intellectual disability is identified and reported. Among eligible articles in these selected public health journals, it was found that cohort studies passively exclude people with intellectual disability, while RCTs actively exclude this population. Most general population articles that explicitly identified people with intellectual disability did so through self-report or proxy report and databases. A more extensive and adequate evidence base relating to the health of this overlooked population group is needed. A useful first step would be for researchers specialising in intellectual disability to identify how we can best assist mainstream researchers to include and identify people with intellectual disability in their population-level studies. © Royal Society for Public Health 2014.

  15. The public understanding of nanotechnology in the food domain: the hidden role of views on science, technology, and nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermoere, Frederic; Blanchemanche, Sandrine; Bieberstein, Andrea; Marette, Stephan; Roosen, Jutta

    2011-03-01

    In spite of great expectations about the potential of nanotechnology, this study shows that people are rather ambiguous and pessimistic about nanotechnology applications in the food domain. Our findings are drawn from a survey of public perceptions about nanotechnology food and nanotechnology food packaging (N = 752). Multinomial logistic regression analyses further reveal that knowledge about food risks and nanotechnology significantly influences people's views about nanotechnology food packaging. However, knowledge variables were unrelated to support for nanofood, suggesting that an increase in people's knowledge might not be sufficient to bridge the gap between the excitement some business leaders in the food sector have and the restraint of the public. Additionally, opposition to nanofood was not related to the use of heuristics but to trust in governmental agencies. Furthermore, the results indicate that public perceptions of nanoscience in the food domain significantly relate to views on science, technology, and nature.

  16. Efter mindfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Ole; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Tematiserer nogle af de udfordringer, der møder dig, som regelmæssigt praktiserer mindfulness og kommer med bud på, hvad bevidsthedens vaner og mønstre betyder for dybden af stilhed - og hvordan man kan arbejde med den viden.......Tematiserer nogle af de udfordringer, der møder dig, som regelmæssigt praktiserer mindfulness og kommer med bud på, hvad bevidsthedens vaner og mønstre betyder for dybden af stilhed - og hvordan man kan arbejde med den viden....

  17. Mindfulness meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünenberg, Kristina; Walker, Hanne Kjærgaard; Knudsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    Meditation er ikke et nyt fænomen i det danske samfund. Det er den fokus som meditationsformen Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) har været genstand for i de senere år imidlertid. Inden for en sundhedssociologisk ramme undersøges nogle af grundene til, at netop MBSR er blevet populær både i...... en analyse af empirien, i hvilken forfatterne bl.a. argumenterer for, at opfattelsen af virkninger tilskrevet mindfulness meditation må ses i relation til to diskurser, som fremanalyseres og benævnes henholdsvis autenticitets- og e ektiviseringsdiskurserne. Disse diskurser udgør i artiklen...

  18. Theory of mind and Verstehen (understanding) methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazaki, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    Theory of mind is a prominent, but highly controversial, field in psychology, psychiatry, and philosophy of mind. Simulation theory, theory-theory and other views have been presented in recent decades, none of which are monolithic. In this article, various views on theory of mind are reviewed, and methodological problems within each view are investigated. The relationship between simulation theory and Verstehen (understanding) methodology in traditional human sciences is an intriguing issue, although the latter is not a direct ancestor of the former. From that perspective, lessons for current clinical psychiatry are drawn. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Identifying like-minded audiences for global warming public engagement campaigns: an audience segmentation analysis and tool development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W Maibach

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving national reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will require public support for climate and energy policies and changes in population behaviors. Audience segmentation--a process of identifying coherent groups within a population--can be used to improve the effectiveness of public engagement campaigns.In Fall 2008, we conducted a nationally representative survey of American adults (n = 2,164 to identify audience segments for global warming public engagement campaigns. By subjecting multiple measures of global warming beliefs, behaviors, policy preferences, and issue engagement to latent class analysis, we identified six distinct segments ranging in size from 7 to 33% of the population. These six segments formed a continuum, from a segment of people who were highly worried, involved and supportive of policy responses (18%, to a segment of people who were completely unconcerned and strongly opposed to policy responses (7%. Three of the segments (totaling 70% were to varying degrees concerned about global warming and supportive of policy responses, two (totaling 18% were unsupportive, and one was largely disengaged (12%, having paid little attention to the issue. Certain behaviors and policy preferences varied greatly across these audiences, while others did not. Using discriminant analysis, we subsequently developed 36-item and 15-item instruments that can be used to categorize respondents with 91% and 84% accuracy, respectively.In late 2008, Americans supported a broad range of policies and personal actions to reduce global warming, although there was wide variation among the six identified audiences. To enhance the impact of campaigns, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and businesses seeking to engage the public can selectively target one or more of these audiences rather than address an undifferentiated general population. Our screening instruments are available to assist in that process.

  20. Identifying like-minded audiences for global warming public engagement campaigns: an audience segmentation analysis and tool development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Mertz, C K

    2011-03-10

    Achieving national reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will require public support for climate and energy policies and changes in population behaviors. Audience segmentation--a process of identifying coherent groups within a population--can be used to improve the effectiveness of public engagement campaigns. In Fall 2008, we conducted a nationally representative survey of American adults (n = 2,164) to identify audience segments for global warming public engagement campaigns. By subjecting multiple measures of global warming beliefs, behaviors, policy preferences, and issue engagement to latent class analysis, we identified six distinct segments ranging in size from 7 to 33% of the population. These six segments formed a continuum, from a segment of people who were highly worried, involved and supportive of policy responses (18%), to a segment of people who were completely unconcerned and strongly opposed to policy responses (7%). Three of the segments (totaling 70%) were to varying degrees concerned about global warming and supportive of policy responses, two (totaling 18%) were unsupportive, and one was largely disengaged (12%), having paid little attention to the issue. Certain behaviors and policy preferences varied greatly across these audiences, while others did not. Using discriminant analysis, we subsequently developed 36-item and 15-item instruments that can be used to categorize respondents with 91% and 84% accuracy, respectively. In late 2008, Americans supported a broad range of policies and personal actions to reduce global warming, although there was wide variation among the six identified audiences. To enhance the impact of campaigns, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and businesses seeking to engage the public can selectively target one or more of these audiences rather than address an undifferentiated general population. Our screening instruments are available to assist in that process.

  1. Identifying Like-Minded Audiences for Global Warming Public Engagement Campaigns: An Audience Segmentation Analysis and Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W.; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Mertz, C. K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Achieving national reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will require public support for climate and energy policies and changes in population behaviors. Audience segmentation – a process of identifying coherent groups within a population – can be used to improve the effectiveness of public engagement campaigns. Methodology/Principal Findings In Fall 2008, we conducted a nationally representative survey of American adults (n = 2,164) to identify audience segments for global warming public engagement campaigns. By subjecting multiple measures of global warming beliefs, behaviors, policy preferences, and issue engagement to latent class analysis, we identified six distinct segments ranging in size from 7 to 33% of the population. These six segments formed a continuum, from a segment of people who were highly worried, involved and supportive of policy responses (18%), to a segment of people who were completely unconcerned and strongly opposed to policy responses (7%). Three of the segments (totaling 70%) were to varying degrees concerned about global warming and supportive of policy responses, two (totaling 18%) were unsupportive, and one was largely disengaged (12%), having paid little attention to the issue. Certain behaviors and policy preferences varied greatly across these audiences, while others did not. Using discriminant analysis, we subsequently developed 36-item and 15-item instruments that can be used to categorize respondents with 91% and 84% accuracy, respectively. Conclusions/Significance In late 2008, Americans supported a broad range of policies and personal actions to reduce global warming, although there was wide variation among the six identified audiences. To enhance the impact of campaigns, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and businesses seeking to engage the public can selectively target one or more of these audiences rather than address an undifferentiated general population. Our screening instruments are

  2. The ethics and politics of mindfulness-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas T

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been a lot of enthusiasm for mindfulness practice and its use in healthcare, businesses and schools. An increasing number of studies give us ground for cautious optimism about the potential of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) to improve people's lives across a number of dimensions. This paper identifies and addresses some of the main ethical and political questions for larger-scale MBIs. First, how far are MBIs compatible with liberal neutrality given the great diversity of lifestyles and conceptions of the good characteristic of modern societies? It will be argued that the potential benefits of contemporary secular mindfulness practice are indeed of a sufficiently primary or all-purpose nature to qualify as suitable goals of liberal public policy. Second, what challenges are brought up if mindfulness is used in contexts and applications-such as military settings-whose goals seem incompatible with the ethical and soteriological views of traditional mindfulness practice? It will be argued that, given concerns regarding liberal neutrality and reasonable disagreement about ethics, MBIs should avoid strong ethical commitments. Therefore, it should, in principle, be applicable in contexts of controversial moral value. Finally, drawing on recent discussions within the mindfulness community, it is argued that we should not overstate the case for mindfulness and not crowd out discussion of organisational and social determinants of stress, lowered well-being, and mental illness and the collective measures necessary to address them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Meeting the concerns of the public through participation. The point of view of the consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, M.

    1993-01-01

    The public participation in nuclear decision making supposes a previous information of this public. It is also necessary to have this participation when it is still possible to do something. Even if that kind of things are not easy to install, public participation in nuclear matter cannot be anything else but favourable

  4. Computational physics of the mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duch, Włodzisław

    1996-08-01

    In the XIX century and earlier physicists such as Newton, Mayer, Hooke, Helmholtz and Mach were actively engaged in the research on psychophysics, trying to relate psychological sensations to intensities of physical stimuli. Computational physics allows to simulate complex neural processes giving a chance to answer not only the original psychophysical questions but also to create models of the mind. In this paper several approaches relevant to modeling of the mind are outlined. Since direct modeling of the brain functions is rather limited due to the complexity of such models a number of approximations is introduced. The path from the brain, or computational neurosciences, to the mind, or cognitive sciences, is sketched, with emphasis on higher cognitive functions such as memory and consciousness. No fundamental problems in understanding of the mind seem to arise. From a computational point of view realistic models require massively parallel architectures.

  5. The emergence and workings of a process view in public education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk Pors, Justine; Ratner, Helene Gad

    2017-01-01

    such a process view of organisation allows policy makers to imagine innovative change, but also how a process view interacts in particular ways with financial pressures and become entangled to increased performance measurements. We conclude that in this particular case, a conception of the object of management...... as processes is utilised to stabilise a belief that undoing organisational structures and categories offer an almost limitless resource for a simultaneous improvement of performance and reduction of expenses....

  6. Betrayed Mood in Public View: Taking a MySpace History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodinee L. Dissanayake

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites (SNS, the modern mainstay of adolescent expression, may provide vital information to physicians. The Emergency Department (ED is a setting where SNS may be helpful. A reticent 19-year-old in the ED prompted a search for pertinent information on the Internet, where a profile on www.myspace.com relayed a troubled post. The patient was admitted for psychiatric evaluation due to intentional overdose. These SNS may provide a venue for physicians to learn about risky behaviors and life stressors that would help identify underlying medical issues in young adults. We provide a guideline on how to utilize SNS with privacy rights in mind. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(1:31–34.

  7. PHILOSOPHY OF MIND; THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE EMERGING VISION OF MIND-BRAIN INTERACTION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ruiz Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to contribute to the discussion of mind-brain interactions from an emergentism point of view of the Philosophy of Mind, using some of the naturalized theories. Some proposed bridges between mind and brain based on experimental naturalization are neuro-psychoanalysis, mirror neurons, and psychosomatics, among others. Naturalization can be achieved by earching for the link between psychological and biological processes. This biological-based approach can be developed avoiding mplification and reductionism of psychological processes. We discuss the access to new insights about the mind-brain relationship and its implications through neurophenomenology, from an emerging and interactionist point of view.

  8. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    OpenAIRE

    Eades, Claire E; Ferguson, Jill S; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched ...

  9. Legal rights during pandemics: federalism, rights and public health laws--a view from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B

    2009-03-01

    Pandemic influenza will cause significant social and economic disruption. Legal frameworks can play an important role in clarifying the rights and duties of individuals, communities and governments for times of crisis. In addressing legal frameworks, there is a need for jurisdictional clarity between different levels of government in responding to public health emergencies. Public health laws are also informed by our understandings of rights and responsibilities for individuals and communities, and the balancing of public health and public freedoms. Consideration of these issues is an essential part of planning for pandemic influenza.

  10. The emergence and workings of a process view in public education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk Pors, Justine; Ratner, Helene Gad

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a study of Danish primary education policy with the purpose of exploring what is put at stake when contemporary management discourses describe the object of management as fluid and emergent processes rather than as entities, persons and things. The article examines how...... such a process view of organisation allows policy makers to imagine innovative change, but also how a process view interacts in particular ways with financial pressures and become entangled to increased performance measurements. We conclude that in this particular case, a conception of the object of management...

  11. A Double-Minded Fractal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a fun activity of generating a double-minded fractal image for a linear algebra class once the idea of rotation and scaling matrices are introduced. In particular the fractal flip-flops between two words, depending on the level at which the image is viewed. (Contains 5 figures.)

  12. Vehicles for Education: Turkish Students' Beliefs and Views about Public Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Seymen, Hatice; Malandrakis, George; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of private rather than public transport is impacting on the environment in a number of ways, including contributing to the major problem of global warming. It is necessary, therefore, to improve strategies to encourage greater use of public transport. The aim of this study is to explore which perceived aspects of public…

  13. The Concept of Public Goods, the State, and Higher Education Finance: A View from the BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin; Froumin, Isak; Loyalka, Prashant K.; Tilak, Jandhyala B.

    2014-01-01

    Because higher education serves both public and private interests, the way it is conceived and financed is contested politically, appearing in different forms in different societies. What is public and private in education is a political--social construct, subject to various political forces, primarily interpreted through the prism of the state.…

  14. The Contradictions of Public Sociology: A View from a Graduate Student at Berkeley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Reflecting on my experiences as a graduate student, I argue that the terminology of public sociology should be dropped. The public sociology rhetoric is at odds with the fundamental professional reality in the discipline. Sociology, as a "hyper-professionalized" endeavor, primarily values abstract, explanatory theories, even if those theories make…

  15. Public Policy to Promote Healthy Nutrition in Schools: Views of Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Mat; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify policy options to support nutrition promotion in New Zealand primary schools. In achieving this aim, the study sought to identify framing by policymakers regarding child diet and obesity; views on the role of schools in nutrition promotion; policy options and degree of support for these options. Issue…

  16. Public views of different sources of health advice: pharmacists, social media and mobile health applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilly, Philip; Jair, Sophia; Mahmood, Zahra; Moin Khan, Armineh; Munir, Aneesah; Osei-Bediako, Irene; Samir, Mustafa; Kayyali, Reem

    2018-05-06

    Investigating public perceptions of community pharmacists (CP) in public health and their use of social media (SM) and mobile health applications (MH apps) in that regard. Two surveys were created. One sought public perceptions of SM and the other of MH apps for health advice. Both included a section on perceptions of the role of CPs in public health. A convenience sampling strategy, based on proximity, was used.The study population was the public (n = 8 500 000) living in Greater London. The general public were recruited face-to-face in public spaces. A minimum sample (95% confidence interval/5% margin of error) of 385 was needed. Ethical approval was obtained from the university ethics committee. Responses were analysed in SPSS. About 820/1800 (45.6%) completed one/both surveys. Respondents seek health advice primarily from GPs, followed by digital mediums and then CPs. Under 35s use digital mediums more frequently (P = 0.039). Those who had used SM (41.7%) or MH apps (61.8%) for health information did not confirm its accuracy with a healthcare professional (HCP). Of those that did (MH apps = 39.2%; SM = 58.3%), the HCP disagreed with the information on MH apps and SM on 19.6% and 36.7% of occasions, respectively. Nevertheless, 64.5% stated that if a SM page was maintained by an HCP they would use it. The public are using digital mediums for health advice instead of speaking to an HCP. If CPs want to have an impact on public health they must start imbedding digital mediums into their services. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Introduction: Minds, Bodies, Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Coleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of 19 brings together a selection of essays from an interdisciplinary conference on 'Minds, Bodies, Machines' convened last year by Birkbeck's Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of London, in partnership with the English programme, University of Melbourne and software developers Constraint Technologies International (CTI. The conference explored the relationship between minds, bodies and machines in the long nineteenth century, with a view to understanding the history of our technology-driven, post-human visions. It is in the nineteenth century that the relationship between the human and the machine under post-industrial capitalism becomes a pervasive theme. From Blake on the mills of the mind by which we are enslaved, to Carlyle's and Arnold's denunciation of the machinery of modern life, from Dickens's sooty fictional locomotive Mr Pancks, who 'snorted and sniffed and puffed and blew, like a little labouring steam-engine', and 'shot out […]cinders of principles, as if it were done by mechanical revolvency', to the alienated historical body of the late-nineteenth-century factory worker under Taylorization, whose movements and gestures were timed, regulated and rationalised to maximize efficiency; we find a cultural preoccupation with the mechanisation of the nineteenth-century human body that uncannily resonates with modern dreams and anxieties around technologies of the human.

  18. Public views on principles for health care priority setting: findings of a European cross-country study using Q methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Exel, Job; Baker, Rachel; Mason, Helen; Donaldson, Cam; Brouwer, Werner

    2015-02-01

    Resources available to the health care sector are finite and typically insufficient to fulfil all the demands for health care in the population. Decisions must be made about which treatments to provide. Relatively little is known about the views of the general public regarding the principles that should guide such decisions. We present the findings of a Q methodology study designed to elicit the shared views in the general public across ten countries regarding the appropriate principles for prioritising health care resources. In 2010, 294 respondents rank ordered a set of cards and the results of these were subject to by-person factor analysis to identify common patterns in sorting. Five distinct viewpoints were identified, (I) "Egalitarianism, entitlement and equality of access"; (II) "Severity and the magnitude of health gains"; (III) "Fair innings, young people and maximising health benefits"; (IV) "The intrinsic value of life and healthy living"; (V) "Quality of life is more important than simply staying alive". Given the plurality of views on the principles for health care priority setting, no single equity principle can be used to underpin health care priority setting. Hence, the process of decision making becomes more important, in which, arguably, these multiple perspectives in society should be somehow reflected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of parents in public views of strategies to address childhood obesity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Gollust, Sarah E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-03-01

    POLICY POINTS: The American public--both men and women and those with and without children in the household--holds parents highly responsible and largely to blame for childhood obesity. High attributions of responsibility to parents for reducing childhood obesity did not universally undermine support for broader policy action. School-based obesity prevention policies were strongly supported, even among those viewing parents as mostly to blame for childhood obesity. Americans who viewed sectors outside the family (such as the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government) as helping address childhood obesity were more willing to support a wider range of population-based obesity prevention policies. The public's views of parents' behaviors and choices--and the attitudes held by parents themselves--are likely to influence the success of efforts to reverse obesity rates. We analyzed data from 2 US national public opinion surveys fielded in 2011 and 2012 to examine attributions of blame and responsibility to parents for obesity, both among the general public and parents themselves, and we also explored the relationship between views of parents and support for obesity prevention policies. We found that attribution of blame and responsibility to parents was consistently high, regardless of parental status or gender. Support for policies to curb childhood obesity also did not differ notably by parental status or gender. Multivariable analyses revealed consistent patterns in the association between public attitudes toward parents' responsibility and support for policies to curb childhood obesity. High parental responsibility was linked to higher support for school-targeted policies but generally was not associated with policies outside the school setting. Attribution of greater responsibility to entities external to children and their parents (schools, the food and beverage industry, and the government) was associated with greater support for both school

  20. Fair Shares and Sharing Fairly: A Survey of Public Views on Open Science, Informed Consent and Participatory Research in Biobanking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Joly

    Full Text Available Biobanks are important resources which enable large-scale genomic research with human samples and data, raising significant ethical concerns about how participants' information is managed and shared. Three previous studies of the Canadian public's opinion about these topics have been conducted. Building on those results, an online survey representing the first study of public perceptions about biobanking spanning all Canadian provinces was conducted. Specifically, this study examined qualitative views about biobank objectives, governance structure, control and ownership of samples and data, benefit sharing, consent practices and data sharing norms, as well as additional questions and ethical concerns expressed by the public.Over half the respondents preferred to give a one-time general consent for the future sharing of their samples among researchers. Most expressed willingness for their data to be shared with the international scientific community rather than used by one or more Canadian institutions. Whereas more respondents indicated a preference for one-time general consent than any other model of consent, they constituted less than half of the total responses, revealing a lack of consensus among survey respondents regarding this question. Respondents identified biobank objectives, governance structure and accountability as the most important information to provide participants. Respondents' concerns about biobanking generally centred around the control and ownership of biological samples and data, especially with respect to potential misuse by insurers, the government and other third parties. Although almost half the respondents suggested that these should be managed by the researchers' institutions, results indicate that the public is interested in being well-informed about these projects and suggest the importance of increased involvement from participants. In conclusion, the study discusses the viability of several proposed models for

  1. Fair Shares and Sharing Fairly: A Survey of Public Views on Open Science, Informed Consent and Participatory Research in Biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Yann; Dalpé, Gratien; So, Derek; Birko, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are important resources which enable large-scale genomic research with human samples and data, raising significant ethical concerns about how participants' information is managed and shared. Three previous studies of the Canadian public's opinion about these topics have been conducted. Building on those results, an online survey representing the first study of public perceptions about biobanking spanning all Canadian provinces was conducted. Specifically, this study examined qualitative views about biobank objectives, governance structure, control and ownership of samples and data, benefit sharing, consent practices and data sharing norms, as well as additional questions and ethical concerns expressed by the public. Over half the respondents preferred to give a one-time general consent for the future sharing of their samples among researchers. Most expressed willingness for their data to be shared with the international scientific community rather than used by one or more Canadian institutions. Whereas more respondents indicated a preference for one-time general consent than any other model of consent, they constituted less than half of the total responses, revealing a lack of consensus among survey respondents regarding this question. Respondents identified biobank objectives, governance structure and accountability as the most important information to provide participants. Respondents' concerns about biobanking generally centred around the control and ownership of biological samples and data, especially with respect to potential misuse by insurers, the government and other third parties. Although almost half the respondents suggested that these should be managed by the researchers' institutions, results indicate that the public is interested in being well-informed about these projects and suggest the importance of increased involvement from participants. In conclusion, the study discusses the viability of several proposed models for informed consent

  2. Aspirations and expectations: public views on electricity supply in Ontario, Canada. Paper no. IGEC-1-038

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, I.H. [Univ. of Waterloo, Dept. of Environment and Resource Studies, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: irowland@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Parker, P. [Univ. of Waterloo, Dept. of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: pparker@fes.uwaterloo.ca

    2005-07-01

    It is increasingly being recognised that electricity is a key public policy issue. No longer the domain of monopoly players shielded from public scrutiny, the growing restructuring of electricity supply systems around the world has increased public involvement in electricity decisions. Accordingly, it is becoming more and more important for policy-makers to have a clear understanding of their citizens' priorities regarding electricity supply issues. This paper examines public attitudes in a major Canadian metropolitan area (Waterloo Region) by analysing the results of over 1,000 surveys on a range of energy and environment issues. Regarding the present arrangements for electricity supply in Ontario, most respondents were not able to identify the resource most used (nuclear power), but instead thought that the resource that has the longest history in the province's electricity system (hydropower) dominated the supply system. Regarding future resource options, while respondents clearly expressed their preference for green electricity, particularly the so-called 'new' renewables (solar and wind power), respondents also felt that the prospects for more traditional resources - particularly, nuclear, hydropower and natural gas - remained higher. Further analyses reveal that two demographic factors (gender and age) and three attitudinal factors (perceived consumer effectiveness, liberalism and ecological concern) help predict those likely to be more optimistic and/or enthusiastic about green electricity. While the empirical material in this paper is taken from the Canadian province of Ontario, key conclusions and broader lessons are more widely applicable. Every community undergoing electricity restructuring of any kind is forced to consider public views to a greater extent. Indeed, prospects for greater use of green electricity in electricity supply systems are contingent upon a greater understanding of citizen views of the same. (author)

  3. Aspirations and expectations: public views on electricity supply in Ontario, Canada. Paper no. IGEC-1-038

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.; Parker, P.

    2005-01-01

    It is increasingly being recognised that electricity is a key public policy issue. No longer the domain of monopoly players shielded from public scrutiny, the growing restructuring of electricity supply systems around the world has increased public involvement in electricity decisions. Accordingly, it is becoming more and more important for policy-makers to have a clear understanding of their citizens' priorities regarding electricity supply issues. This paper examines public attitudes in a major Canadian metropolitan area (Waterloo Region) by analysing the results of over 1,000 surveys on a range of energy and environment issues. Regarding the present arrangements for electricity supply in Ontario, most respondents were not able to identify the resource most used (nuclear power), but instead thought that the resource that has the longest history in the province's electricity system (hydropower) dominated the supply system. Regarding future resource options, while respondents clearly expressed their preference for green electricity, particularly the so-called 'new' renewables (solar and wind power), respondents also felt that the prospects for more traditional resources - particularly, nuclear, hydropower and natural gas - remained higher. Further analyses reveal that two demographic factors (gender and age) and three attitudinal factors (perceived consumer effectiveness, liberalism and ecological concern) help predict those likely to be more optimistic and/or enthusiastic about green electricity. While the empirical material in this paper is taken from the Canadian province of Ontario, key conclusions and broader lessons are more widely applicable. Every community undergoing electricity restructuring of any kind is forced to consider public views to a greater extent. Indeed, prospects for greater use of green electricity in electricity supply systems are contingent upon a greater understanding of citizen views of the same. (author)

  4. Trust, Risk and Public History: A View from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Gardner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the public history and museum communities today there is much difference of opinion over the concept of ‘radical trust,’ which basically argues for us to give up control and trust the public to develop content for our websites and exhibitions and provide direction for our work. Most public historians and curators are happy to share authority with the public, but are we now expected to yield all authority? Are we now taking historian Carl Becker’s well-known phrase ‘everyman his own historian’ and updating it to ‘every person his or her own curator’? What is the role of historical knowledge in a world of opinion? Unfortunately, at the same time that many of us are embracing risk online, in a world we have little control or even influence over, we seem to be stepping back from risk taking in our museums, on our own turf. We’ve become risk averse—afraid to make mistakes, afraid of trying new approaches and tackling the historically controversial or the ambiguous. Rather than the ‘safe place for unsafe ideas’ that Elaine Gurian proposed, we have become no more than safe places for safe ideas. We need to push back on both fronts. Public historians should be thought leaders, not followers—not wait to see what the future holds for us but rather try to shape that future.

  5. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...

  6. The Mind of Consciousness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Human mind, often considered synonymous ... between the monoists who believe that mind ... mental process in its own right, as widespread ... real challenge for experimental scientists is to devise ... several books like "The Minds of Robots",.

  7. Public, Private, and Home School Children's Views of Forgiveness and Retribution in "Cinderella."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafle, June D.; Wescott, Alice Legenza

    Fifth Graders (N=626) from public, Catholic, Christian, and home schools reacted to values of forgiveness versus retribution in the two main versions of "Cinderella" by choosing which ending they preferred for themselves, for a 4-year old sister, and for a 4-year old brother. Girls preferred the forgiveness ending for themselves…

  8. General Public Views on Uses and Users of Administrative Health Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alison Paprica

    2017-04-01

    Members of general public were generally supportive of research based on linked administrative health data but with conditions, particularly when the possibility of private sector research was discussed. Notably, and citing security concerns, focus group participants preferred models that had a limited number of individuals or organizations accessing data.

  9. Are children's views of the "enemy" shaped by a highly-publicized negative event?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenheimer, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the beginning of the first decade of this century, some highly-publicized extremistic acts of terror occurred. A hostage tragedy in a school in Beslan (North Ossetia) was followed in the Netherlands by the brutal murder of the controversial Dutch filmmaker and newspaper columnist Theo van Gogh,

  10. Are Children's Views of the "Enemy" Shaped by a Highly-Publicized Negative Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Louis

    2010-01-01

    In the beginning of the first decade of this century, some highly-publicized extremistic acts of terror occurred. A hostage tragedy in a school in Beslan (North Ossetia) was followed in the Netherlands by the brutal murder of the controversial Dutch filmmaker and newspaper columnist Theo van Gogh, bomb attacks in Bali and Madrid and other acts of…

  11. Education for Public Policy and Management: Views from the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); J.W. Björkman (James Warner); V. Moharir (Vasant); M.E. Wuyts (Marc)

    2000-01-01

    markdownabstractIntroduction When the Institute of Social Studies, ISS, was founded in 1952 in The Hague as a postgraduate centre for teaching and research on social and economic development, it established the first Masters programme in public administration and the first professorial chair in

  12. Multiple Choice: How Public School Leaders in New Orleans' Saturated Market View Private School Competitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Huriya; Li, Dongmei M.

    2016-01-01

    School choice policies, such as charter schools and vouchers, are in part designed to induce competition between schools. While several studies have examined the impact of private school competition on public schools, few studies have explored school leaders' perceptions of private school competitors. This study examines the extent to which public…

  13. Nuclear power in the United States: public views and industry actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncelet, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    The author describes the public policy environment that surround the nuclear power program in the United States and the social implications as an expression of the public opinion, the mass media as a source of information and the organized opposition movements with their socio-political motivations. The political climate after the new Republican government is also analysed as well as the communication efforts of the nuclear industry to ascertain the need of assertive programs and the sense of cooperation and commitment on the part of both the nuclear and electric utility industries. The general situation is characterized on the one hand by the growing acknowledgement of the need for nuclear power development in an economy dominated by the oil crisis; on the other hand, it is the financial crisis faced by electric utilities which directly impacts on this future development. (AF)

  14. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Emily

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.

  15. Understanding Why Scholars Hold Different Views on the Influences of Video Games on Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, C.J.; Colwell, J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite decades of research, no scholarly consensus has been achieved regarding the potential impact of video games on youth aggression or other public health concerns. In recent years, hypotheses have been raised that scholarly opinions on video games may resemble past moral panics, with attitudes reflective of generational conflicts. These hypotheses are tested in a sample of 175 criminologists, psychologists and media scholars, examining both overall negative attitudes about video games an...

  16. Case studies in public-sector leadership: residency training transformation: a view from the frontline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkil-Oteo, Andres; Holoshitz, Yael

    2014-07-01

    Psychiatrists of the future will be called upon to lead teams of clinicians in increasingly complex medical care systems, but will they be prepared for those roles? The authors of this column asked alumni of the Columbia University Public Psychiatry Fellowship (PPF) to identify important skills and knowledge that were not stressed in general residency education. "Silos are rampant in our work," complained one respondent, reflecting a common concern that not enough time was spent teaching residents to collaborate.

  17. Beyond the therapeutic: A Habermasian view of self-help groups' place in the public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sarah; Avis, Mark; Munn-Giddings, Carol

    2013-02-01

    Self-help groups in the United Kingdom continue to grow in number and address virtually every conceivable health condition, but they remain the subject of very little theoretical analysis. The literature to date has predominantly focused on their therapeutic effects on individual members. And yet they are widely presumed to fulfil a broader civic role and to encourage democratic citizenship. The article uses Habermas' model of the public sphere as an analytical tool with which to reconsider the literature on self-help groups in order to increase our knowledge of their civic functions. In doing this it also aims to illustrate the continuing relevance of Habermas' work to our understanding of issues in health and social care. We consider, within the context of current health policies and practices, the extent to which self-help groups with a range of different forms and functions operate according to the principles of communicative rationality that Habermas deemed key to democratic legitimacy. We conclude that self-help groups' civic role is more complex than is usually presumed and that various factors including groups' leadership, organisational structure and links with public agencies can affect their efficacy within the public sphere.

  18. A local authority view of the Sizewell B decision and the role of the public enquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayre, D.

    1987-01-01

    The background to the Sizewell-B public inquiry is presented. The local authorities are important in this as it was they who first received the Central Electricity Generating Board's request to build Sizewell-B and who triggered the need for a Public Inquiry. The local authorities did not object in principle to the use of the Sizewell site for additional nuclear power generation provided the Government was satisfied that there was a national need for the extra capacity. In future inquiries there might not be acceptance in principle which would change the nature of the Inquiry. The local authority involvement in the public inquiry is discussed under the headings: need and economics, safety and local environment issues. The relevant parts of the Sizewell-B report are considered. The Secretary of State's decision, which follows the Inspector's report, justifies the confidence put in the inquiry process by the local authorities. Concern is expressed, however, that extra financial help is needed to pay for the local authorities expenditure on the Inquiry and also for the consequences of the Sizewell-B project itself. (U.K.)

  19. Confidence in public institutions: A focus group study on views on the Swedish Social Insurance Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, K; Rosstorp, F; Rohdén, H

    2016-09-27

    From a public health perspective among the working population, it is very important that confidence in the welfare system is high, ensuring the citizens economic security and protecting them from economic stress when falling ill. The aim of this study was to explore how people with experience of health insurance perceive their confidence in the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (SSIA). Eight focus groups (n = 41) were conducted and each group met on one occasion. The participants described a systemic change in the work of the SSIA where the rule-of-law was disregarded, with arbitrary assessment, and no transparency. The reception by the SSIA shaped the image of the SSIA. The participants described vulnerability in relation to the SSIA. They felt mistrusted, which left a feeling of impotence that worsened their health. Experiencing vulnerability left a strong impression and affected the participants' confidence negatively. The following has to be acknowledged to prevent clients from experiencing impaired health, promote return-to-work possibilities, and to push public confidence in the institution in a more positive direction: Politicians and public administrators need to clarify the regulations. The decision-making process needs to be transparent and just. The entire procedure, including continuity as well as a personal, nice reception, has to be ensured.

  20. A Developmental Perspective for Promoting Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Carol; Robinson, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Social neuroscience research has resulted in changing views of the theory of mind (ToM) construct. Theory of mind is no longer viewed as a unitary construct, but rather as a multidimensional construct comprising cognitive and affective ToM and interpersonal and intrapersonal ToM, each of which has differing neurophysiological/neuroanatomical…

  1. Integrating Genetic Studies of Nicotine Addiction into Public Health Practice: Stakeholder Views on Challenges, Barriers and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingel, M.J.; Hicks, A.D.; Robinson, M.E.; Koenig, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Will emerging genetic research strengthen tobacco control programs? In this empirical study, we interview stakeholders in tobacco control to illuminate debates about the role of genomics in public health. Methods: The authors performed open-ended interviews with 86 stakeholders from 5 areas of tobacco control: basic scientists, clinicians, tobacco prevention specialists, health payers, and pharmaceutical industry employees. Interviews were qualitatively analyzed using standard techniques. Results: The central tension is between the hope that an expanding genomic knowledge base will improve prevention and smoking cessation therapies and the fear that genetic research might siphon resources away from traditional and proven public health programs. While showing strong support for traditional public health approaches to tobacco control, stakeholders recognize weaknesses, specifically the difficulty of countering the powerful voice of the tobacco industry when mounting public campaigns and the problem of individuals who are resistant to treatment and continue smoking. Conclusions: In order for genetic research to be effectively translated into efforts to minimize the harm of smoking-related disease, the views of key stakeholders must be voiced and disagreements reconciled. Effective translation requires honest evaluation of both the strengths and limitations of genetic approaches. PMID:21757875

  2. Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, S; Brohan, E; Mojtabai, R; Thornicroft, G

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about how the views of the public are related to self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Despite increasing activity aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, there is little evidence to guide and inform specific anti-stigma campaign development and messages to be used in mass campaigns. A better understanding of the association between public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours and the internalization of stigma among people with mental health problems is needed. This study links two large, international datasets to explore the association between public stigma in 14 European countries (Eurobarometer survey) and individual reports of self-stigma, perceived discrimination and empowerment among persons with mental illness (n=1835) residing in those countries [the Global Alliance of Mental Illness Advocacy Networks (GAMIAN) study]. Individuals with mental illness living in countries with less stigmatizing attitudes, higher rates of help-seeking and treatment utilization and better perceived access to information had lower rates of self-stigma and perceived discrimination and those living in countries where the public felt more comfortable talking to people with mental illness had less self-stigma and felt more empowered. Targeting the general public through mass anti-stigma interventions may lead to a virtuous cycle by disrupting the negative feedback engendered by public stigma, thereby reducing self-stigma among people with mental health problems. A combined approach involving knowledge, attitudes and behaviour is needed; mass interventions that facilitate disclosure and positive social contact may be the most effective. Improving availability of information about mental health issues and facilitating access to care and help-seeking also show promise with regard to stigma.

  3. Transfer of scientific knowledge to the general public from the scientists' point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.P.; Krueger, J.

    1985-07-01

    Our analysis demonstrates that nearly all scientists agree to having responsibilities to disseminate information about their work not only to collegues but also to the general public. More than two-thirds of the respondents perceive personal benefits for their career and/or the acquisition of research funding when reports about their work appear in the mass media. Most scientists rated the interest of the population in reports on science at least as ''medium'', but most of them are also sceptical of the population's ability to understand those reports. Only a minority of the scientists surveyed perceives hostility against science among the public. About 40% of the respondents reported having contacts with journalists. Their experiences during these contacts were often not encouraging. More than half of the scientists whose work had been reported in media answered that at least something had been incorrectly reported. Three-quarters of the scientists who have had contacts with journalists have had partially bad experiences. There are indications that scientists do not see science reporting solely as a task of journalists; they want to be involved in that process, not only as information sources. However, during the contacts with journalists, scientists will experience that their ideas of good science reporting contradict the journalistic approach. Journalists have other quality standards and emphasize other aspects than scientists do. Therefore the collision of scientific norms and values with those of the journalism leads to experiences which are probably frustrating for both sides, although scientists and journalists agree on the general goal of public information. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Multiple stakeholder views on changes in delivery of public health nursing services in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafin, Sinead; Dwan O'Reilly, Emma

    2015-08-01

    In contrast with community nursing services in the UK and other parts of the world, the public health nursing service in the Republic of Ireland operates as a generalist service, providing both public health and wellbeing services in addition to clinical nursing services to a wide range of patient groups. While much discussion has taken place over the years about the benefits and challenges of a generalist service, little consensus has emerged about whether the current generalist approach should be maintained or whether a more specialised approach is required. This article presents key findings from an evaluation, using research methods, of a community nursing service that was restructured from a generalist, geographically based service, to a more specialist team-based model. The findings across multiple stakeholders show a number of positive effects in the areas of quality, safety, risk, governance, active caseload management, and finances. Some challenges were also identified, particularly with respect to continuity of services, loss of expertise, role of the team leader, and engagement in population-based activities.

  5. OBJECTIVES, PERFORMANCES, RESULTS – VIEWS ON THEIR USE IN THE PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacanu Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the management associated with relatively common concepts: objective, result and performance (ORP. The study is important because in the Romania of the year 2011, a state reform is being planned, which will substantiate into the reorganization of public institutions, as the improvement of their activity is set forth by utilizing the set of tools associated with the aforementioned concepts. The study represents an analysis related to the use of the set of management tools associated with the aforementioned concepts within the Romanian public organizations. The study is concerned with a qualitative estimation involving the translation of the existing theory into the practice of the present moment. The review of the specialized literature is aimed at selecting the most common theoretical milestones, in order to increase the probability to retrieve them from the practice of the organizations. The works of Drucker represent the first theoretical system of reference. The way the ORP concepts have been utilized within the American organizations generate the guiding elements of the present study. The research presents a longitudinal segmentation, the frontier between the two parts being the present moment. The current state of facts is studied by means of an inductive approach. The hypothesis related to the ORP management in the near future is actually built on the grounds provided by the estimation of this state of facts. Its deductive approach starts from evaluating the pragmatic premises, involving the support of the process that will utilize the ORP in the near future, according to the theoretical percepts. The analysis is qualitative in nature. The identification of the cases that represented the exception was taken into account. The analysis focused on public institutions considered a priori as more transparent: the university, the hospital and the town hall. Even if in the case of the university there are regulations

  6. Public views of reclaiming an abandoned coal mine: the Macoupin County project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J. R.

    1980-07-01

    An abandoned underground coal mine waste area in Macoupin County, Illinois, has been reclaimed for demonstration and research purposes near the city of Staunton. According to federal law, end uses of reclaimed coal mines must be determined in part by local concerns. This study examined local residents' preferences for land uses and their social and economic evaluations of reclamation at the Macoupin County site. Personal interviews with 119 residents revealed preferences for recreational use of the demonstration area; however, responses were probably influenced by prior awareness of land-use intentions. Generally, very positive evaluations of the reclamation were received. Willingness to pay for reclamation appears to be linked to fulfillment of desired recreational uses on the site and socioeconomic status of the respondent. In general, the research results provide further evidence that the value of abatement of environmental damage from mining is recognized and supported in economic terms at the public level.

  7. Education and public information on nuclear power from a student's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, Ruxandra Cristina; Arsene, Radu Cristian; Nistor, George Cristian; Tiba, Bogdan Florin; Prisecaru, Ilie

    2008-01-01

    By this paper we try to answer the frequently asked question among the people related to the nuclear field on how to improve actual communication ways with the general public and how to prove them that nuclear power is a component of the sustainable development. The complexity of this domain makes it more difficult to be understood by people who have no connection with it. We need to use all the possible means of communication to spread out our message. To change this situation and promote this domain we have made some suggestions like working with children, students, teachers, scientists and mass-media. The acceptance of nuclear power may not be easy to achieve but with appropriate education and means of information we hope people will realize that nuclear is the key to their continuous need of energy, even if they don't see it yet. (authors)

  8. Social Workers as Civic-Minded Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Twill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined civic-mindedness among a sample of social work educators, community practitioners and new graduates. Using a web-based survey, researchers administered Hatcher’s (2008 Civic-Minded Professional scale. Results indicated that traditional and field faculty were more civic-minded than new graduates and other practitioners. Social work educators who focused on raising civic awareness in courses were more civic-minded than colleagues. New graduates who had participated in club service events were more civic-minded; however, there was no significant differences between groups based on number of community service courses completed. Social workers, whether faculty or not, who had participated in collaborative research were more civic-minded. The authors conclude that how social workers view their commitment to civic engagement has implications. Social workers need to be vigilant in our commitment to well-being in society. Intentional practices could be implemented to strengthen the partnership among groups.

  9. Engaging with Comparative Risk Appraisals: Public Views on Policy Priorities for Environmental Risk Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocks, Sophie A; Schubert, Iljana; Soane, Emma; Black, Edgar; Muckle, Rachel; Petts, Judith; Prpich, George; Pollard, Simon J

    2017-09-01

    Communicating the rationale for allocating resources to manage policy priorities and their risks is challenging. Here, we demonstrate that environmental risks have diverse attributes and locales in their effects that may drive disproportionate responses among citizens. When 2,065 survey participants deployed summary information and their own understanding to assess 12 policy-level environmental risks singularly, their assessment differed from a prior expert assessment. However, participants provided rankings similar to those of experts when these same 12 risks were considered as a group, allowing comparison between the different risks. Following this, when individuals were shown the prior expert assessment of this portfolio, they expressed a moderate level of confidence with the combined expert analysis. These are important findings for the comprehension of policy risks that may be subject to augmentation by climate change, their representation alongside other threats within national risk assessments, and interpretations of agency for public risk management by citizens and others. © 2017 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. The liberalization of the electric market from the view of a public utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, J.

    1999-01-01

    The competition associated with the liberalization of the electric power-supply markets and the altered customers behavior will require a fundamental reorientation in all commercial areas of the energy supply companies (ESC).The companies will only master these new challenges if they react promptly and in an appropriate flexible manner as well as with the demanded orientation attached to the market and to the customers. The strategy of reorientation of the ESC will be determined more and more by the customers and by demand less by supply and technology. The competition on the power-supply market will take predominately place in production and in commercialization. Thereby the commercialization of demand oriented products will be of increasing importance. On the partial markets of 'Industrial' and 'Contract'-customers and electric power trade the energy-suppliers must operate with different strategies. For the power-supplier the following results as consequences of the environment's change: trend to competition is irreversible, areas of creation of economic values are more important than supply stages, the net remains monopoly, new market participants will appear, the competition in the production will increase. The management-orientated way of the Grazer StadtwerkeAG as a public utility is to read as follows: increase the competence for competition, focus on the customer. (author)

  11. Editors View the Continuous Publication Model as a Satisfactory Alternative for Open Access LIS Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hayman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Cirasella, J., & Bowdoin, S. (2013. Just roll with it? Rolling volumes vs. discrete issues in open access library and information science journals. Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication, 1(4. http://dx.doi.org/10.7710/2162-3309.1086 Abstract Objective – To understand the prevalence of, motivations for, and satisfaction with using a rolling-volume publishing model, as opposed to publishing discrete issues, across open access academic journals in library and information science. Design – A 12 question survey questionnaire. Setting – English-language, open access library and information science (LIS journals published in the United States of America. Subjects – A total of 21 open access LIS journals identified via the Directory of Open Access Journals that were actively publishing, and that also met the authors’ standard of scholarliness, which they established by identifying a journal’s peer-review process or other evidence of rigorous review. Based on responses, 12 journals published using discrete issues, while 9 published as rolling volumes or as rolling volumes with some discrete issues. Methods – In late 2011, the study’s authors invited lead editors or primary journal contacts to complete the survey. Survey participants were asked to identify whether their journal published in discrete issues, rolling volumes, or rolling volumes with occasional discrete issues, with the latter two categories combined as one for ease of results analysis. Survey logic split respondents into two groups, either discrete-issue or rolling-volume. Respondents in both categories were posed similar sets of questions, with the key difference being that the questions directed at each category accounted for the publication model the journals themselves identified as using. Editors from both groups were asked about the reasons for using the publication model they identified for their journal: within the survey tool, authors

  12. Disinfectants - bacterial cells interactions in the view of hygiene and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Książczyk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of biocides has increased rapidly. One common example is triclosan, with wide application in households as well as medical and industrial fields, especially food industry and animal husbandry. Chemical disinfection is a major mean to control and eliminate pathogenic bacteria, particularly those with multidrug resistance (MDR phenotype. However, exposition to biocides results in an adaptive response in microorganisms, causing them to display a wide range of resistance mechanisms. Numerous microorganisms are characterized by either natural resistance to chemical compounds or an ability to adapt to biocides using various strategies, such as: modification of cell surface structures (lipopolisaccharide, membrane fatty acids, over-expression of efflux pumps (a system for active transport of toxic compounds out of bacterial cell, enzymatic inactivation of biocides or altering biocide targets. For instance, it was shown that in vitro exposition of Salmonella Typhimurium to subinhibitory concentration of biocides (triclosan, quaternary ammonium compounds [QACs] resulted in selection of variants resistant to tested biocides and, additionally, to acridine dyes and antibiotics. Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus strains isolated from chlorine dioxide containing disinfection devices were found to be resistant to chlorine dioxide and also to other oxidizing compounds, such as peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Interaction between chemical compounds, including disinfectants and microbial cells, can create a serious threat to public health and sanitary-hygienic security. This phenomenon is connected with factor risk that intensify the probability of selection and dissemination of multidrug resistance among pathogenic bacteria.

  13. Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences: translational and integrative mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Rowland

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Initiated four years ago, Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences (J Mind Med Sci. established the mission to publish papers on mental and medical topics in distinct but closely interrelated domains. The editorial policy especially encourages interdisciplinary and integrative perspectives, being equally focused on basic research and clinical investigations and short reports. The journal adheres to the philosophy that high quality, original ideas and information should be readily accessible and freely shared within and amongst the scientific community. Accordingly, J Mind Med Sci. is an online, open access, non-for-profit journal which, because of individual/ private support, has levied no charges for submission, review, and publication of articles. All published articles may be freely downloaded and used by anyone from anywhere for scientific purposes. Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences is published by ValpoScholar/ Valparaiso University using the leading institutional repository platform of Digital Commons (powered by Bepress and under the local management of Jon Bull, Library Services, Valparaiso University, which combines submission management, editorial, and peer-review tools into a unique and flexible publishing software system. These editorial and publishing norms have facilitated the journal’s evolution, now indexed and abstracted in several international respected databases. Journal visibility is wide among international academic institutions and readers, as documented by the number of downloaded articles cited in respected journals, some indexed by Thomson Reuters and having high impact factors. In addition, published authors in J Mind Med Sci. periodically receive a statistical report about views / downloads of their articles. It is a pleasure and honor to thank all those who have thus far supported the journal activity (authors, reviewers, editorial board and assistance, publishing support, and to further invite and encourage

  14. Winning hearts and minds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drulia, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    'The greatest problem in communication is the illusion that it has been accomplished' (George Bernard Shaw). Over the past few decades we have seen major shifts in opinion as to what makes a business successful. The 1950's and 1960's saw a production focus whilst the 1970's and 1980's saw progressive change towards quality and 'customer is king' as key business drivers. A popular view now suggests that the next step change will be towards internal marketing, based on the concept that, in the future, winning employee support will be seen as the single biggest contributor to driving business performances. In summary, to win hearts and minds you must understand the needs of your audience, the intent of your communication activity, adopt a suitable style and match your deeds to your words

  15. Changing your mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Clare R; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2009-07-01

    When individuals detect an inconsistency in a set of propositions, they tend to change their minds about at least one proposition to resolve the inconsistency. The orthodox view from William James (1907) onward has been that a rational change should be minimal. We propose an alternative hypothesis according to which individuals seek to resolve inconsistencies by explaining their origins. We report four experiments corroborating the explanatory hypothesis. Experiment 1 showed that participants' explanations revised general conditional claims rather than specific categorical propositions. Experiment 2 showed that, when explanations did revise the categorical proposition, participants also tended to deny the consequences of a second generalization. Experiment 3 showed that this tendency persists when participants previously affirmed these consequences explicitly. Experiment 4 showed that, when participants could easily explain an inconsistency by revising a generalization, they were more likely to accept the consequences of a second generalization. All four results contravene minimalism but support the explanatory hypothesis.

  16. Internet use and television viewing in children and its association with vision loss: a major public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the distribution of eye and vision conditions among school children in Qatar. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of excessive internet use and television viewing on low vision and its prevalence with socio-demographic characteristics. This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in the public and private schools of the Ministry of Education and Higher Education of the State of Qatar from September 2009 to April 2010. A total of 3200 students aged 6-18 years were invited to take part of whom 2586 (80.8% agreed. A questionnaire, that included questions about socio-demographic factors, internet use, and television viewing and computer games, co-morbid factors, and family history and vision assessment, was designed to collect information from the students. This was distributed by the school authorities. Of the school children studied (n=2586, 52.8% were girls and 47.2% boys. The overall prevalence of low vision was 15.2%. The prevalence of low vision was significantly higher in the age group 6-10 years (17.1%; P=0.05. Low vision was more prevalent among television viewers (17.2% than in infrequent viewers (14.0%. The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher in frequent internet users and television viewers (21.3%. Also, low vision without aid was higher in frequent viewers. The study findings revealed a greater prevalence of low vision among frequent internet users and television viewers. The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher among frequent viewers. The prevalence of low vision decreased with increasing age.

  17. Internet Use and Television Viewing in Children and its Association with Vision Loss: A Major Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Mahdi, Huda S

    2012-03-07

    Little is known about the distribution of eye and vision conditions among school children in Qatar. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of excessive internet use and television viewing on low vision and its prevalence with socio-demographic characteristics. This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in the public and private schools of the Ministry of Education and Higher Education of the State of Qatar from September 2009 to April 2010. A total of 3200 students aged 6-18 years were invited to take part of whom 2586 (80.8%) agreed. A questionnaire, that included questions about socio-demographic factors, internet use, and television viewing and computer games, co-morbid factors, and family history and vision assessment, was designed to collect information from the students. This was distributed by the school authorities. Of the school children studied (n=2586), 52.8% were girls and 47.2% boys. The overall prevalence of low vision was 15.2%. The prevalence of low vision was significantly higher in the age group 6-10 years (17.1%; P=0.05). Low vision was more prevalent among television viewers (17.2%) than in infrequent viewers (14.0%). The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher in frequent internet users and television viewers (21.3%). Also, low vision without aid was higher in frequent viewers. The study findings revealed a greater prevalence of low vision among frequent internet users and television viewers. The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher among frequent viewers. The prevalence of low vision decreased with increasing age.

  18. The "extended mind" approach for a new paradigm of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, I would like to propose the idea of "extended mind" for a new paradigm of psychology. Kohler (Integrative Psychology & Behavioral Science 44:39-57, 2010) correctly pointed out the serious problems of the machine paradigm, and proposed the "organic" view as a new paradigm. But the term "organic" signifying the processes inside the body, is inadequate to express the characteristic of human mind. The recent philosophy of mind suggests that the mind is realized neither only in the brain nor only in the body, but in the whole system of brain-body-environment, namely, in the "extended mind". The characteristic of human mind resides in the interaction with the mediating tools, artifacts, and the humanized environment. We should propose an "extended mind approach" or an "ecological approach to humanized environment" as a new paradigm for a psychology.

  19. How do public health professionals view and engage with research? A qualitative interview study and stakeholder workshop engaging public health professionals and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Peter; Forrest, Lynne F; Adams, Jean; Shucksmith, Janet; White, Martin

    2017-11-22

    With increasing financial pressures on public health in England, the need for evidence of high relevance to policy is now stronger than ever. However, the ways in which public health professionals (PHPs) and researchers relate to one another are not necessarily conducive to effective knowledge translation. This study explores the perspectives of PHPs and researchers when interacting, with a view to identifying barriers to and opportunities for developing practice that is effectively informed by research. This research focused on examples from two responsive research schemes, which provide university-based support for research-related enquiries from PHPs: the NIHR SPHR Public Health Practitioner Evaluation Scheme 1 and the responsive research service AskFuse 2 . We examined enquiries that were submitted to both between 2013 and 2015, and purposively selected eight enquiries for further investigation by interviewing the PHPs and researchers involved in these requests. We also identified individuals who were eligible to make requests to the schemes but chose not to do so. In-depth interviews were conducted with six people in relation to the PHPES scheme, and 12 in relation to AskFuse. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic framework analysis. Verification and extension of the findings were sought in a stakeholder workshop. PHPs recognised the importance of research findings for informing their practice. However, they identified three main barriers when trying to engage with researchers: 1) differences in timescales; 2) limited budgets; and 3) difficulties in identifying appropriate researchers. The two responsive schemes addressed some of these barriers, particularly finding the right researchers to work with and securing funding for local evaluations. The schemes also supported the development of new types of evidence. However, other barriers remained, such as differences in timescales and the resources needed to scale-up research. An increased

  20. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  1. Public-Private Partnerships in Education and the Pursuit of Gender Equality: A View from South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Fennell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of public-private partnerships (PPPs into the educational sphere has opened up the sector to a wide range of new private providers in India and Pakistan. The global literature has indicated that the growth in partnerships that provide targeted programmes for girls, in locations where parents prefer to enrol their daughters in these new private schools rather than state schools, will further reduce any existing gender gap. A specific focus on gender equality considerations within PPP programmes is necessary to analyse new evidence on gender equality. A review of national documents on education for India and Pakistan indicates that the concept of gender equality was not included in the original education policy documents, and gender concerns were introduced through a particular institutional history of engagement between international and national policy interventions.District and village data show that there was very little gendered difference in how parental generations studied viewed the educational pathways of their sons and daughters. The younger generation studied are not confident that they will be able to enter gainful employment, which raises policy concerns that the lack of employment for this younger generation could undo any reduction in the gender gap as increased poverty pushes girls out of school in the next two decades.

  2. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building......The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism...

  3. The mind as skills and dispositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2012-01-01

    On the occasion of the critique of Alfredo Gaete and Carlos Cornejo, this article explains and extends the hybrid theory of the mind that I recently presented in this journal. Taking inspiration from Rom Harré’s program for a hybrid psychology, the theory is supposed to be integrative and aims...... to broaden Harré’s hybrid psychology by including not just the brain, but also the body, social practices, and technological artifacts as mediators of the mind. The mind is understood not as a substance of any kind, but as a set of skills and dispositions to act, think, and feel. This implies a normative...... view of the mind, according to which psychological phenomena do not simply happen, but are done, and can consequently be done more or less well. I provide arguments in favor of grounding psychology in normativity rather than conscious experience, and I explain why the emphasis on mediators does...

  4. Mindfulness og mental sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness is a way to practice 'healthy mindedness' – a form of self help that has been the subject for research and development of a number of new significant self-technologies, therapy and meditation treatment methods. To be mindful can help people to feel more relaxed (serenity) and fully...... alive. The article aims at describing realistic expectations to the contribution of mindfulness to health education work in the field of mental health. The article discuss ways in which mindfulnesss is connected with established health education in the mental health promotion field, and ways in which...... mindfulness breaks with established health education. Interest in utilising mindfulness and mindfulness-inspired methods in health-education intervention has increased in recent years. Mindfulness is seen here as an answer to how to achieve more accepting presence, and thereby a healthier mental life...

  5. Understanding the New Public Outlook on the Economy and Middle-Class Decline: How FDI Attitudes are caught in a Tentative Closing of the Canadian Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Graves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While a single survey is a snapshot of a given moment in time, a series of surveys on the same topics over the years is akin to time-lapse photography, tracing the unfurling trends of public opinion. In examining the results of surveys conducted in recent decades by EKOS Research Associates on Canadians’ views of the economy, the prospects of the middle class, immigration and foreign trade, the time-lapse images show a dispiriting pessimism, especially among younger Canadians. For example, in 2002, nearly 70 per cent of Canadians surveyed described themselves as middle class. That figure dropped precipitously to just 47 per cent in 2015. Nearly half (46 per cent of those aged 25-44 said they were earning less in inflation-adjusted dollars last year than their fathers earned at the same age. Fewer than one in five Canadians believed their personal economic lot improved last year. Thirty-seven per cent of respondents said they had fallen behind economically in the last year and the last five years. When a society sees shared progress as an imperative, it is truly dismal that fewer than one in five Canadians thought things had improved for them last year. Just over a month and a half before the October 2015 federal election, a survey showed that restoring middle-class prosperity was the top issue for all demographic groups, standing at 35 per cent of respondents between the ages of 35 and 49 and 55 per cent among those aged 49 to 64. Accompanying this incipient uneasiness about the future of the middle class in Canada is a concomitant drawing inwards, a tendency towards parochialism about aspects of foreign trade and immigration, which may be perceived as threatening an economic future already considered to be tenuous. For example, support dropped dramatically (from 47 per cent the year before the 2008 recession to 25 per cent last year for the notion that Canadians, Americans and Mexicans should be free to work anywhere in North America. While

  6. Quantum physics meets the philosophy of mind new essays on the mind-body relation in quantum-theoretical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Meixner, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics, unlike classical physics, suggests a non-physicalistic metaphysics. Whereas physicalism implies a reductive position in the philosophy of mind, quantum physics is compatible with non-reductionism, and actually seems to support it. The essays in this book explore, from various points of view, the possibilities of basing a non-reductive philosophy of mind on quantum physics.

  7. Supporting women with postpartum anxiety: exploring views and experiences of specialist community public health nurses in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Miriam T; Ayers, Susan; Olander, Ellinor K

    2017-05-01

    Anxiety is common among postpartum women and can have adverse effects on mother's and child's somatic and psychological health if left untreated. In the UK, nurses or midwifes with a specialisation in community public health nursing, also called health visitors (HVs), work with families who have children younger than 5 years of age and are therefore in a key position to identify and support women with postpartum mental health issues. Until recently, postpartum mental health support provided by HVs mainly focused on identifying and managing depression, but the updated clinical guidance by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence also includes guidance regarding screening and psychological interventions for perinatal anxiety. This study therefore aimed to explore HVs' experiences of supporting women with postpartum anxiety and their views on currently available care. Using a qualitative approach, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 HVs from the UK between May and October 2015. Participants were interviewed in person at their workplace or on the phone/Skype. Using thematic analysis, four main themes emerged: identification and screening issues; importance of training; service usage; and status of current service provision. Women with postpartum anxiety were commonly encountered by HVs in their clinical practice and described as often heavily using their or other related healthcare services, which puts additional strain on HVs' already heavy workload. Issues with identifying and screening for postpartum anxiety were raised and the current lack of perinatal mental health training for HVs was highlighted. In addition, HVs described a current lack of good perinatal mental health services in general and specifically for anxiety. The study highlights the need for HV perinatal mental health training in general and postpartum anxiety specifically, as well as better coverage of specialist mental health services and the need for development

  8. About public health policies in the new century

    OpenAIRE

    Franco G., Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    Several subjects of public health policies are analyzed from different points of view, bearing in mind the line of coherence of their universal, global and integral character. Themes such as "Health for All", understood as a universal policy at the close of this century, are included. Around it other recent approaches are considered which are also related between them: the subject of health promotion in its broad vision from the guidelines of the Ottawa (Canada) letter, and the public health ...

  9. How Is Theory of Mind Useful? Perhaps to Enable Social Pretend Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Rebecca A.; Smith, Eric D.; Lillard, Angeline S.

    2015-01-01

    It is often claimed that theory of mind is facilitated by pretend play. This perspective piece challenges that view, proposing instead that theory of mind might be useful for driving social pretend play, rather than the reverse. There is a fundamental similarity between pretend play and theory of mind. Pretend play involves projecting a different…

  10. Mindfulness - en implicit utopi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2014-01-01

    The field of mindfulness and meditation has met growing interest in the western world during the last decades. Mindfulness aims to develop a friendly, accepting and mindful awareness in the present moment. Critiques have argued that this aim is deployed in a new kind of management technology where...... mindfulness is used for individualized stress-reduction in order to keep up with existing or worsened working conditions instead of stress-reducing changes in the common working conditions. Mindfulness research emphasizes positive outcomes in coping with demands and challenges in everyday life especially...... considering suffering (for example stress and pain). While explicit constructions of Utopia present ideas of specific societal communities in well-functioning harmony, the interest in mindfulness can in contradistinction be considered an implicit critique of present life-conditions and an “implicit utopia...

  11. Mindfulness and flow in occupational engagement: presence in doing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Denise

    2011-02-01

    Flow is a psychological state that might be viewed as desirable, and it occurs when a person is aware of his or her actions but is not being aware of his or her awareness. Mindfulness is viewed not as the achievement of any particular state, but as intentional awareness of what is, being aware of awareness. To examine theoretical perspectives and empirical research on flow and mindfulness, and offer suggestions about the relevance of these concepts to occupational engagement. Both flow and mindfulness involve being present, actively engaged, and attentive. The experience and practice of flow and mindfulness are relevant to the experience of occupational engagement. Understanding flow and mindfulness may help occupational therapists improve the therapeutic occupational engagement process with their clients through enhancing depth and meaning of occupational experiences, as well as health and well-being.

  12. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization. Posi....... Compare it with going to the gym where you work on the physical body. In the same way as with arms and legs, the mind is a mus­cle which you exercise through C5 practice. Steering the mind on your personal goal will help you to be creative....

  13. A Mind of Three Minds: Evolution of the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Paul D.

    1978-01-01

    The author examines the evolutionary and neural roots of a triune intelligence comprised of a primal mind, an emotional mind, and a rational mind. A simple brain model and some definitions of unfamiliar behavioral terms are included. (Author/MA)

  14. Public Involvement in Repository Site Selection for Nuclear Waste: Towards a more Dynamic View in Decision-Making Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Stauffacher, Michael; Flueeler, Thomas; Scholz, Roland W. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). lnst. for Human-Environment Systems (HES)

    2006-09-15

    This paper discusses possibilities of public involvement in radioactive waste management. A general overview of the radioactive waste issue is presented referring to a proposed model of the respective decision-making process. Based on the well known participation ladder by Arnstein, we differentiate various intensities of public involvement. A matrix with public involvement and the decision-making process is introduced and three prototypical patterns are discussed. We conclude that time frame, the level of public involvement and the mission have to be considered as well as techniques and the overarching context - all in all, a systematic and dynamic approach for public involvement is needed.

  15. Public Involvement in Repository Site Selection for Nuclear Waste: Towards a more Dynamic View in Decision-Making Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruetli, Pius; Stauffacher, Michael; Flueeler, Thomas; Scholz, Roland W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses possibilities of public involvement in radioactive waste management. A general overview of the radioactive waste issue is presented referring to a proposed model of the respective decision-making process. Based on the well known participation ladder by Arnstein, we differentiate various intensities of public involvement. A matrix with public involvement and the decision-making process is introduced and three prototypical patterns are discussed. We conclude that time frame, the level of public involvement and the mission have to be considered as well as techniques and the overarching context - all in all, a systematic and dynamic approach for public involvement is needed

  16. The Role of Parents in Public Views of Strategies to Address Childhood Obesity in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    WOLFSON, JULIA A; GOLLUST, SARAH E; NIEDERDEPPE, JEFF; BARRY, COLLEEN L

    2015-01-01

    Policy PointsThe American public—both men and women and those with and without children in the household—holds parents highly responsible and largely to blame for childhood obesity.High attributions of responsibility to parents for reducing childhood obesity did not universally undermine support for broader policy action. School-based obesity prevention policies were strongly supported, even among those viewing parents as mostly to blame for childhood obesity.Americans who viewed sectors outs...

  17. Public meetings for views and comments on the conduct of the 1992 Clean Coal Technology Solicitation---Cheyenne, Wyoming, October 30, 1991 and Louisville, Kentucky, November 12, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    Two public meetings were convened by the Department of Energy (DOE) in October and November 1991 in order to obtain views, comments, and recommendations with regard to the forthcoming Clean Coal Technology V solicitation. In the sections that follow, brief descriptions are provided on the background to the CCT solicitation and the public meetings, and how the meetings were conducted. Subsequent chapters of this report present the discussions that ensued at teach of the meetings, and the views, recommendations, and concerns that were expressed by attendees. The report also includes a compilation of the written comments that were received. Finally, an appendix contains attendee registration data and transcripts for opening and closing plenary sessions. (VC)

  18. The Providence of Associated Minds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Giambattista Vico (1668–1744) has been one of the most innovative and influential thinkers in the history of human and social sciences. Although psychology sometimes underestimates his contribution, Vico was the first scholar to develop a systematic view of the relationship between mind and culture....... This chapter presents his ideas about the co-development of psychological and cultural processes and about the philosophical view of individual and collective agency. I show how Vico’s “new science” about human facts will directly influence the birth of social and cultural psychology, through his reception...... Giambattista Vico as a fundamental source of ideas that could contribute to the development of new reflections and directions in psychological science....

  19. Mindfulness and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness has long been practiced in Eastern spiritual traditions for personal improvement, and educators and educational institutions have recently begun to explore its usefulness in schools. Mindfulness training can be valuable for helping students be more successful learners and more connected members of an educational community. To determine…

  20. Restless Mind, Restless Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Thomson, David R.; Cheyne, James Allan; Martens, Kaylena A. Ehgoetz; Smilek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the hypothesis that failures of task-related executive control that occur during episodes of mind wandering are associated with an increase in extraneous movements (fidgeting). In 2 studies, we assessed mind wandering using thought probes while participants performed the metronome response task (MRT), which…

  1. Elliott on Mind Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maattanen, Pentti

    2000-01-01

    Argues that David Elliott's conception of the human mind presented in his book "Music Matters" is not coherent. Outlines three alternatives to Elliott's theory of mind. Suggests that the principles associated with the pragmatism of Charles Sanders Pierce would complement Elliott's ideas in his book. (CMK)

  2. Mindfulness at Cam

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter Brian; Dufour, G; Galante, Julieta; English, E

    2016-01-01

    The University of Cambridge and the National Institute for Health Research and Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (NIHR CLAHRC), East of England, are currently undertaking research into the effectiveness of mindfulness as a way of combatting student stress. In this article, various stakeholders in the project describe its purpose, its focus, and the delivery of mindfulness sessions to students.

  3. Resisting Mind Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides conceptual analyses of mind control techniques along with practical advice on how to resist these techniques. The authors stress that effective mind control stems more from everyday social relations than from exotic technological gimmicks. Suggestions are given for resisting persuasion, resisting systems, and challenging the system.…

  4. Text 2 Mind Map

    OpenAIRE

    Iona, John

    2017-01-01

    This is a review of the web resource 'Text 2 Mind Map' www.Text2MindMap.com. It covers what the resource is, and how it might be used in Library and education context, in particular for School Librarians.

  5. Mind Your Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP 223KB Social Media Graphics Download .ZIP 293KB Social Media Graphics CAMPAIGN RESOURCES: SOCIAL MEDIA GRAPHICS Mind Your Risks® (MYR) ... ZIP 360KB Social Media Graphics Download .ZIP 433KB Social Media Graphics CAMPAIGN RESOURCES: SOCIAL MEDIA GRAPHICS Mind Your Risks® (MYR) ...

  6. Patterns in the mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Alejandro

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available

     A mediados de la década de los noventa, el lingüista estadounidense Ray Jackendoff, meditando acerca de la situación de los avances en su campo de trabajo, publicó el libro Patterns in the Mind con el objetivo de poner al alcance del público no especializado los avances de la psicología cognitiva a partir de los postulados básicos de la revolución lingüística y cognitiva que
    floreció gracias a los trabajos del también lingüista norteamericano Noam Chomsky, a finales de la década de los cincuenta y principios de la de los sesenta. Su presencia en el desarrollo de esta nueva etapa del estudio del lenguaje y sus intereses en las nuevas teorías psicológicas 10 ubicaron en un marco teórico que comprende postulados acerca de la organización modular de las estructuras y procesos mentales, el innatismo de este tipo de organización y la existencia de una serie de patrones que rigen la construcción de gramáticas mentalesinconscientes para diversos dominios de la naturaleza humana.

  7. A Moment of Mindfulness: Computer-Mediated Mindfulness Practice Increases State Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, L.; Hopthrow, T.; Randsley de Moura, G.

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated the use of a 5-minute, computer-mediated mindfulness practice in increasing levels of state mindfulness. In Study 1, 54 high school students completed the computer-mediated mindfulness practice in a lab setting and Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS) scores were measured before and after the practice. In Study 2 (N = 90) and Study 3 (N = 61), the mindfulness practice was tested with an entirely online sample to test the delivery of the 5-minute mindfulness practice via ...

  8. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  9. Mindfulness for palliative care patients. Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorraca, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz; Martimbianco, Ana Luiza Cabrera; Pachito, Daniela Vianna; Pacheco, Rafael Leite; Riera, Rachel

    2017-12-01

    Nineteen million adults worldwide are in need of palliative care. Of those who have access to it, 80% fail to receive an efficient management of symptoms. To assess the effectiveness and safety of mindfulness meditation for palliative care patients. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, PEDro, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Opengrey, ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO-ICTRP. No restriction of language, status or date of publication was applied. We considered randomised clinical trials (RCTs) comparing any mindfulness meditation scheme vs any comparator for palliative care. Cochrane Risk of Bias (Rob) Table was used for assessing methodological quality of RCTs. Screening, data extraction and methodological assessments were performed by two reviewers. Mean differences (MD) (confidence intervals of 95% (CI 95%)) were considered for estimating effect size. Quality of evidence was appraised by GRADE. Four RCTs, 234 participants, were included. All studies presented high risk of bias in at least one RoB table criteria. We assessed 4 comparisons, but only 2 studies showed statistically significant difference for at least one outcome. 1. Mindfulness meditation (eight weeks, one session/week, daily individual practice) vs control: statistically significant difference in favour of control for quality of life - physical aspects. 2. Mindfulness meditation (single 5-minute session) vs control: benefit in favour of mindfulness for stress outcome in both time-points. None of the included studies analysed safety and harms outcomes. Although two studies have showed statistically significant difference, only one showed effectiveness of mindfulness meditation in improving perceived stress. This study focused on one single session of mindfulness of 5 minutes for adult cancer patients in palliative care, but it was considered as possessing high risk of bias. Other schemes of mindfulness meditation did not show benefit in any outcome evaluated (low and very low quality evidence). © 2017 John Wiley

  10. Current and future trends in public sector reform: The views of trade unions and consultants in ten European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S.D. Curry; W. Blijleven (Wieke); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ While public sector reform has been a constant process, sometimes evolutionary and sometimes revolutionary, the financial crisis that started in 2008, along with the streamlining and efficiency aims of New Public Management paradigms that began to emerge in the 1980s,

  11. Minding the close relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J H; Omarzu, J

    1997-01-01

    In this theoretical analysis, we argue that a process referred to as minding is essential for a couple to feel mutually close and satisfied in a close relationship over a long period Minding represents a package of mutual self-disclosure, other forms of goal-oriented behavior aimed at facilitating the relationship, and attributions about self's and other's motivations, intentions, and Mort in the relationship. Self-disclosure and attribution activities in minding are aimed at getting to know the other, trying to understand the other's motivations and deeper disposition as they pertain to the relationship, and showing respect and acceptance for knowledge gained about other. We link the concept of minding to other major ideas and literatures about how couples achieve closeness: self-disclosure and social penetration, intimacy, empathy and empathic accuracy, and love and self-expansion. We argue that the minding process articulated here has not previously been delineated and that it is a useful composite notion about essential steps in bonding among humans. We also argue that the minding concept stretches our understanding of the interface of attribution and close relationships. We present research possibilities and implications and consider possible alternative positions and counter arguments about the merits of the minding idea for close relationship satisfaction.

  12. Physics of the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to turn psychology into "hard science"? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics… and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into "hard" sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research.

  13. PHYSICS OF THE MIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Perlovsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to turn psychology into hard science? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics... and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into hard sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research.

  14. Minding the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Ioanna Kayiatos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Fall of 2013 we team-taught a disability studies course for a small group of first-year students. The course, Minding the Body, integrated scholarship from disability studies, feminist/queer studies, psychology, and Russian Studies. Originally envisioned and taught independently in the Fall of 2012 by Joan Ostrove and focused entirely on the U.S., Anastasia Kayiatos's arrival in the Department of German and Russian Studies at Macalester College afforded us an opportunity for collaboration and co-instruction that we found invigorating, compelling, and transformative. Grounded from the outset in disability studies, the course asked students to interrogate such questions as: What is a "normal" body? A "beautiful" body? Why do we feel the way we do about our bodies? How are bodies objectified, exploited, and regulated? How and why do we discriminate against people with non-normative bodies? How do people represent the experience of having a disabled body? How can we think critically about the various ways in which people change, regulate, and enhance their bodies? How do sexism, racism, classism, colonialism, homophobia, transphobia and other forms of oppression influence how different bodies are viewed, treated, educated, and experienced? The integration of Russian Studies importantly allowed us to ask how these questions and ideas change when we travel across time and geographical space. In our paper we will reflect on our experience of co-authoring the syllabus (we will include both the solo-taught and co-taught versions of the syllabus in an appendix; outline some of our techniques for team-teaching; and analyze an exemplary assignment and class meeting. We will conclude with a final word about the unique forms of teaching and learning that happened in our class as a consequence of its collaborative and interdisciplinary approach, which opened up new perspectives in disability studies not only for our students but also for us.

  15. Mindfulness y creatividad

    OpenAIRE

    Palau Valero, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Psicologia. Codi: PS1048. Curs acadèmic 2014-2015 Este trabajo realiza una revisión bibliográfica sobre el efecto que ejerce la práctica del mindfulness sobre el pensamiento creativo. Después de explicar y contextualizar los conceptos de mindfulness y creatividad, se analizarán las variables de tipo afectivo que esperamos afecten a la creatividad influidas por el mindfulness, como son la emoción, bienestar, afecto, personalidad, estrés, ansiedad y atención. Estas v...

  16. Mindful Leaders in Highly Effective Schools: A Mixed-Method Application of Hoy's M-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, W. Sean; Kelsey, Cheryl; Herrington, David

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a mixed-method study utilizing teacher ratings of principal mindfulness from 149 public schools in Texas and follow-up qualitative data analysis through semi-structured interviews conducted with the top 10 percent of princeipals identified as mindful. This research is based on the theoretical framework of mindfulness as…

  17. Ethical tensions associated with the promotion of public health policy in health visiting: a qualitative investigation of health visitors' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Julie Catherine; Entwistle, Vikki Ann; terMeulen, Ruud

    2013-04-01

    To explore whether and how health visitors experience ethical tensions between the public health agenda and the need to be responsive to individual clients. Current health policy in England gives health visitors a key role in implementing the government's public health agenda. Health visitors are also required by their Professional Code to respond to the health-related concerns and preferences of their individual clients. This may generate tensions. A total of 17 semi-structured individual interviews covering participants' experiences of implementing public health interventions and perceptions of the ethical tensions involved were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically using a Framework approach. Health visitors raised a number of ethical concerns, which they attributed to organisational resource allocation and the introduction of protocols and targets relating to public health goals. They did not always regard it as appropriate to raise topics that employing organisations had identified as public health priorities with particular clients for whom they were not priorities, or who had other more pressing needs. They noted that resources that were allocated towards reaching public health targets were unavailable for clients who needed support in other areas. Organisational protocols designed to monitor performance put pressure on health visitors to prioritise achieving targets and undermined their ability to exercise professional judgement when supporting individual clients. This had implications for health visitors' sense of professionalism. Health visitors saw trusting relationships as key to effective health visiting practice, but the requirement to implement public health priorities, combined with a lack of resources in health visiting, eroded their ability to form these. Policies need to be evaluated with regard to their impact upon a broader range of processes and outcomes than public health goals. The erosion of health

  18. Mind, brain and person:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Keywords: Philosophy; Models/Theories of Psychiatry; dualism; monism; pluralism. Received: 26.05. ... in terms of the logical and computational processes involved and are ..... Wallace E. Mind-body: monistic dual aspect interactionism. J Nerv.

  19. Origins of Mindfulness & Meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness & meditation are gaining popularity in the Western psychological practice in the past 3-4 decades, especially within psychotherapeutic approaches, health promotion, and stress reduction. The origins and the broader context, however, seem to be overlooked in some of these practices......- mind, centrality of consciousness and meditation as a part of daily conduct are presented. The basic constructs of Buddhism, an integral part of Indian psychology, in relation to mindfulness and meditation, are also delineated as illustrations of these assumptions. The second part reflects...... on the application of the meditative practices through cognitive existential study of mindfulness (Kabat-Zinn, 2003) and a study on the phenomenology of meditation (Madsen, 2007). Both emphasise an experienced instructor, regular practice as a part of daily life, conceptual consciousness understandings...

  20. Mind a brief introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, John R

    2004-01-01

    "The philosophy of mind is unique among contemporary philosophical subjects," writes John Searle, "in that all of the most famous and influential theories are false." One of the world's most eminent thinkers, Searle dismantles these theories as he presents a vividly written, comprehensive introduction to the mind. He begins with a look at the twelve problems of philosophy of mind--which he calls "Descartes and Other Disasters"--problems which he returns to throughout the volume, as he illuminates such topics as materialism, consciousness, the mind-body problem, intentionality, mental causation, free will, and the self. The book offers a refreshingly direct and engaging introduction to one of the most intriguing areas of philosophy.

  1. The effect of a brief mindfulness induction on processing of emotional images: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Marianna D; Brunyé, Tad T; Tower-Richardi, Sarah; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A

    2015-01-01

    The ability to effectively direct one's attention is an important aspect of regulating emotions and a component of mindfulness. Mindfulness practices have been established as effective interventions for mental and physical illness; however, the underlying neural mechanisms of mindfulness and how they relate to emotional processing have not been explored in depth. The current study used a within-subjects repeated measures design to examine if focused breathing, a brief mindfulness induction, could modulate event-related potentials (ERPs) during emotional image processing relative to a control condition. We related ERP measures of processing positive, negative, and neutral images (the P300 and late positive potential - LPP) to state and trait mindfulness measures. Overall, the brief mindfulness induction condition did not influence ERPs reflecting emotional processing; however, in the brief mindfulness induction condition, those participants who reported feeling more decentered (a subscale of the Toronto Mindfulness Scale) after viewing the images had reduced P300 responses to negative versus neutral images.

  2. Mindfulness starts with the body: Somatosensory attention and top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Kerr

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT use a common set of exercises to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we offer a novel view of ST-Mindfulness’s somatic focus as a form of training for optimizing attentional modulation of 7-14 Hz alpha rhythms that play a key role in filtering inputs to primary sensory neocortex and organizing the flow of sensory information. In support of the framework, we describe our previous finding (Kerr et al, 2011 that ST-Mindfulness enhanced attentional regulation of alpha in primary somatosensory cortex (SI. The framework allows us to make several predictions. In chronic pain, we predict somatic attention in ST-Mindfulness de-biases alpha in SI, freeing up pain-focused attentional resources. In depression relapse, we predict ST-Mindfulness’s somatic attention competes with internally focused rumination, as internally focused cognitive processes (e.g., working and short term memory rely on alpha filtering of sensory input. Our computational model (Jones et al, 2009 predicts ST-Mindfulness enhances top-down modulation of alpha by facilitating precise alterations in timing and efficacy of SI thalamocortical inputs. We conclude by considering how the proposed framework aligns with Buddhist teachings that mindfulness starts with mindfulness of the body. Translating this theory into neurophysiology, we hypothesize that with its somatic focus, mindfulness’ top-down alpha rhythm modulation in SI enhances gain control which, in turn, sensitizes practitioners to better detect and regulate when the mind wanders from its somatic focus. This enhanced regulation of somatic mind-wandering may be an early stage of mindfulness training, leading to cognitive regulation and metacognition.

  3. Student Views about the Public Spot Advertisement Signs in the Context of Lifelong Learning (The Example of Reading Culture Themed Public Spot Advertisement)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanca, H. Altug; Ünal, Fatma

    2018-01-01

    It's important that the messages and information in the public spot advertisements that is wanted to be conveyed to the individuals to be reached at the desired level and an asymmetric structure existing between the message prepared with a fictional structure and the perception between the message and the receiving party. Because, a decent…

  4. Mind, Evolution, and Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamson, Joseph R.

    1994-01-01

    Science deals with knowledge of the material world based on objective reality. It is under constant attack by those who need magic, that is, concepts based on imagination and desire, with no basis in objective reality. A convenient target for such people is speculation on the machinery and method of operation of the human mind, questions that are still obscure in 1994. In The Emperor's New Mind, Roger Penrose attempts to look beyond objective reality for possible answers, using, in his argume...

  5. Theory of Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanka, Della Raymena; Setiawan, Denny

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed to describe preschool age children's Theory of Mind, as a part of their cognitive development. Some factors that affect the children's Theory of Mind are parental talking, social economic background, parents' education, etc.The research participants are 82 preschool age children in South Jakarta, Indonesia. The method used in this paper was quasi experiment, adaptated from Sobel, Li, and Corriveau's method. The statistical data were examined by one way ANOVA. These data sugge...

  6. A public choice view on the climate and energy policy mix in the EU — How do the emissions trading scheme and support for renewable energies interact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawel, Erik; Strunz, Sebastian; Lehmann, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the rationale for an energy policy mix when the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is considered from a public choice perspective. That is, we argue that the economic textbook model of the ETS implausibly assumes (1) efficient policy design and (2) climate protection as the single objective of policy intervention. Contrary to these assumptions, we propose that the ETS originates from a political bargaining game within a context of multiple policy objectives. In particular, the emissions cap is negotiated between regulators and emitters with the emitters' abatement costs as crucial bargaining variable. This public choice view yields striking implications for an optimal policy mix comprising RES supporting policies. Whereas the textbook model implies that the ETS alone provides sufficient climate protection, our analysis suggests that support for renewable energies (1) contributes to a more effective ETS-design and (2) may even increase the overall efficiency of climate and energy policy if other externalities and policy objectives besides climate protection are considered. Thus, our analysis also shows that a public choice view not necessarily entails negative evaluations concerning efficiency and effectiveness of a policy mix. - Highlights: • We analyze the interaction of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and support policies for RES. • Stylized framework with emission cap as variable to be negotiated between regulators and emitters. • RES-support contributes to a more stringent emission cap and may even increase overall efficiency

  7. Mind the gap: knowledge and practice of providers treating uncomplicated malaria at public and mission health facilities, pharmacies and drug stores in Cameroon and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Hanson, Kara; Mbacham, Wilfred; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Wiseman, Virginia

    2015-11-01

    Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) has been the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Cameroon since 2004 and Nigeria since 2005, though many febrile patients receive less effective antimalarials. Patients often rely on providers to select treatment, and interventions are needed to improve providers' practice and encourage them to adhere to clinical guidelines. Providers' adherence to malaria treatment guidelines was examined using data collected in Cameroon and Nigeria at public and mission facilities, pharmacies and drug stores. Providers' choice of antimalarial was investigated separately for each country. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether providers were more likely to choose ACT if they knew it was the first-line antimalarial. Multiple imputation was used to impute missing data that arose when linking exit survey responses to details of the provider responsible for selecting treatment. There was a gap between providers' knowledge and their practice in both countries, as providers' decision to supply ACT was not significantly associated with knowledge of the first-line antimalarial. Providers were, however, more likely to supply ACT if it was the type of antimalarial they prefer. Other factors were country-specific, and indicated providers can be influenced by what they perceived their patients prefer or could afford, as well as information about their symptoms, previous treatment, the type of outlet and availability of ACT. Public health interventions to improve the treatment of uncomplicated malaria should strive to change what providers prefer, rather than focus on what they know. Interventions to improve adherence to malaria treatment guidelines should emphasize that ACT is the recommended antimalarial, and it should be used for all patients with uncomplicated malaria. Interventions should also be tailored to the local setting, as there were differences between the two countries in providers' choice of antimalarial

  8. Public participation in the licensing of large-scale projects with environmental impact. The point of view of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloede, F.; Buecker-Gaertner, H.

    1989-01-01

    The paper explains purpose, concept and methods of the poll, the structures of the pattern of opinions given, and th causes of opinion forming and overlapping patterns of orientation. A significant aspect observed is that irrespective of differentiation in the opinion forming process among the regional population, public participation seems to have only little legitimatory effect. Applicants as well as authorities meet with distrust on the part of the public, caused by the (subjective feeling) of discrepany between decision-relevant or 'licence-relevant, and social preferences. There is the common feeling that the interests of the propulation are only sometimes taken into account, and the public's power to influence decisions is very limited. This is why over two thirds of the regional population sees a need for modification of the practical execution of the procedures, and of the legal provisions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme in Andhra Pradesh, India: a comprehensive analytic view of private public partnership model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sunita; Mary, Immaculate

    2013-01-01

    The Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance (RACHI) in Andhra Pradesh (AP) has been very popular social insurance scheme with a private public partnership model to deal with the problems of catastrophic medical expenditures at tertiary level care for the poor households. A brief analysis of the RACHI scheme based on officially available data and media reports has been undertaken from a public health perspective to understand the nature and financing of partnership and the lessons it provides. The analysis of the annual budget spent on the surgeries in private hospitals compared to tertiary public hospitals shows that the current scheme is not sustainable and pose huge burden on the state exchequers. The private hospital association's in AP, further acts as pressure groups to increase the budget or threaten to withdraw services. Thus, profits are privatized and losses are socialized.

  10. The embodied mind extended: Using words as social tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The extended mind view and the embodied-grounded view of cognition and language are typically considered as rather independent perspectives. In this paper we propose a possible integration of the two views and support it proposing the idea of ''Words As social Tools' (WAT'. In this respect, we will propose that words, also due to their social and public character, can be conceived as quasi-external devices that extend our cognition. Moreover, words function like tools in that they enlarge the bodily space of action thus modifying our sense of body. To support our proposal, we review the relevant literature on tool use and on words as tools and report recent evidence indicating that word use leads to an extension of space close to the body. In addition, we outline a model of the neural processes that may underpin bodily space extension via word use and may reflect possible effects on cognition of the use of words as external means. We also discuss how reconciling the two perspectives can help to overcome the limitations they encounter if considered independently.

  11. A review of research activities at the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University in view of research publication information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Takayuki; Mizuma, Mitsuo; Kimura, Itsuro.

    1995-01-01

    A database of research publication was constructed for the purpose of grasping all of the research activities at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University. The database named KURRIP collects all of the research publications of the Institute by not only its own staff but also visiting scientists. The publications are in the form of original papers, review papers, papers in proceedings, short notes and letters, synopses over 3 pages presented orally at scientific meeting, books and doctoral theses. At present, the KURRIP database contains the information on 6,210 items which have been published for 30 years since the Institute was established as an interuniversity research institute for joint use of a research reactor and other related large facilities in 1963. By utilizing the KURRIP database, the analyses have been done: (1) affiliation of the authors, (2) kind of publications, (3) classification of publishers, (4) research fields, and (5) experimental facilities. The KURRIP database is now stored in the Data Processing Center of Kyoto University and can be utilized through a computer center at one of the main national universities in Japan. (author)

  12. Energy and the public as viewed by the World Energy Conference. Energie und Oeffentlichkeit aus der Sicht der WEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, P.M. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Programmgruppe Technik und Gesellschaft); Jungermann, H. (Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Psychologie)

    1989-09-01

    The committee 'Energy and the Public', set up by the World Energy Conference, at this year's meeting of the WEK presented a comparative international study on the attitude of the public towards systems of energy production, respectively energy supply. Attitudes towards a certain energy system depend on different aspects: With nuclear energy it is above all the safety aspect; for the rest, environmental-protection and economic aspects are important. But the conflict between materialistic and postmaterialistic values also influences people's energy-political convictions. What this study documents is the origin of a world-wide problem-consciousness that energy policy has to contend with if it wants to be economically, environmentally, and socially compatible. (orig./UA).

  13. Scientific publications about DNA structure-function and PCR technique in Costa Rica: a historic view (1953-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Federico J

    2004-09-01

    The spreading of knowledge depends on the access to the information and its immediate use. Models are useful to explain specific phenomena. The scientific community accepts some models in Biology after a period of time, once it has evidence to support it. The model of the structure and function of the DNA proposed by Watson & Crick (1953) was not the exception, since a few years later the DNA model was finally accepted. In Costa Rica, DNA function was first mentioned in 1970, in the magazine Biologia Tropical (Tropical Biology Magazine), more than 15 years after its first publication in a scientific journal. An opposite situation occurs with technical innovations. If the efficiency of a new scientific technique is proved in a compelling way, then the acceptance by the community comes swiftly. This was the case of the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. The first PCR machine in Costa Rica arrived in 1991, only three years after its publication.

  14. Building a sustainable land public transportation at Ayer Keroh, Malacca: Perspective view from hang tuah jaya municipal council (HTJMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukri, Fatin Hafizah; Chew, Boon Cheong; Hamid, Syaiful Rizal; Loo, Heoy Shin

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable land public transportation (SLPT) aims to promote a better and healthier ways of meeting individual and community needs. Even though sufficient land public transportation have been provided at Ayer Keroh, Malacca but the level of usage among the community is still low as there is the growth in traffic. Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council (HTJMC) is responsible to identify the most appropriate strategies to manage the issues regarding SLPT in order to support of the Malacca state vision becoming Green Technology State in the year 2020. Therefore, this paper attempts to examine the strategies involve in building a SLPT, which may enhance the community's welfare. Thus, the proposed theoretical framework is to demonstrate the strategies towards building a SLPT, which can cater issues within the municipal council area. In this qualitative research, an in-depth focus group have been conducted to obtain the primary data. Thirteen (13) executives from HTJMC involved. This study brings a new paradigm in transforming land public transportation at Ayer Keroh to enhance the community welfare. The result found that land use development as the most significant strategy in SLPT, meanwhile the implementation program is the least strategy involved in building a SLPT at Ayer Keroh. Future research requires more information on the factors of implementing of SLPT so that HTJMC can plan an effective SLPT thorough the demand as the data may indicate numbers of passengers who really support to the implementation of SLPT.

  15. A science writer' view about the information the public looked for after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Waki

    2012-01-01

    The public was confused at a lot of information after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Especially, they were perplexed about effects of low-dose radiation exposure, because expert opinions varied with regard to safety and danger. Politicians and mass media insisted that irrational behaviors of the public caused unnecessary damages. But they were unable to understand the radiation health risk, so it was natural that the feelings of uncertainty intensified affective reactions and invited chaos. They worried about food and water contamination in spite of the low levels of monitoring data. That's why the government set very low regulation values for radioactivity in foods and drink without consideration of the principle of optimization that the International Commission on Radiological Protection had recommended. Although the concept of optimization is very important for understanding and management of the risks after this disaster, the government and many scientists did not explain about it. I think the provision of various kinds of information on both risks and socio-economic effects of various activities in society could enhance the interest of the public in the radiation risk and its management strategy, and contribute to the understanding the concept of optimization. (author)

  16. [Mindful neuropsychology: Mindfulness-based cognitive remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacka, E; Lavault, S; Pelissolo, A; Bagnis Isnard, C

    2018-02-01

    Mindfulness based interventions (MBI) have recently gained much interest in western medicine. MBSR paradigm is based on teaching participants to pay complete attention to the present experience and act nonjudgmentally towards stressful events. During this mental practice the meditator focuses his or her attention on the sensations of the body. While the distractions (mental images, thoughts, emotional or somatic states) arise the participant is taught to acknowledge discursive thoughts and cultivate the state of awareness without immediate reaction. The effectiveness of these programs is well documented in the field of emotional response regulation in depression (relapse prevention), anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder or eating disorders. Furthermore, converging lines of evidence support the hypothesis that mindfulness practice improves cognition, especially the ability to sustain attention and think in a more flexible manner. Nevertheless, formal rehabilitation programs targeting cognitive disturbances resulting from psychiatric (depression, disorder bipolar, schizophrenia) or neurologic conditions (brain injury, dementia) seldom rely on MBI principles. This review of literature aims at discussing possible links between MBI and clinical neuropsychology. We conducted a review of literature using electronic databases up to December 2016, screening studies with variants of the keywords ("Mindfulness", "MBI", "MBSR", "Meditation") OR/AND ("Cognition", "Attention", "Executive function", "Memory", "Learning") RESULTS: In the first part, we describe key concepts of the neuropsychology of attention in the light of Posner's model of attention control. We also underline the potential scope of different therapeutic contexts where disturbances of attention may be clinically relevant. Second, we review the efficacy of MBI in the field of cognition (thinking disturbances, attention biases, memory and executive processes impairment or low metacognitive abilities

  17. Mindfulness for unge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    Undersøgelsen af, hvordan interventionsforløbet Mindfulness for unge virkede, er baseret på kvalitative interview med 24 elever i 9. klasse, som har deltaget i Mindfulness for unge i 8 uger. Resultater: Det fælles mindfulnessforløb i klassen har lært mange af eleverne at kunne bruge deres bevidste...... opmærksomhed til at forholde sig til deres situation, tilstand og muligheder, så de udvikler deres ressourcer i stedet for at blive fanget i afmagt og stress. Det er oplevelser og erfaringer med de praktiske mindfulness-øvelser, der har været særlig betydningsfuldt. Overordnet ser Mindfulness for unge ud til...... at kunne bidrage til at forebygge stress i skolen for en del elever, når mindfulness-instruktørens undervisning følges op og faciliteres af en mindfulnesspraktiserende lærer, der kender klassen og eleverne godt. Interesse og opbakning fra skolens ledelse og elevernes familier er også væsentligt...

  18. Is it worth it? Patient and public views on the impact of their involvement in health research and its assessment: a UK-based qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Joanna C; Boylan, Anne-Marie; Bostock, Jennifer; Locock, Louise

    2017-06-01

    There are mounting calls for robust, critical evaluation of the impact of patient and public involvement (PPI) in health research. However, questions remain about how to assess its impact, and whether it should be assessed at all. The debate has thus far been dominated by professionals. To explore the views of PPI contributors involved in health research regarding the impact of PPI on research, whether and how it should be assessed. Qualitative interview study. Thirty-eight PPI contributors involved in health research across the UK. Participants felt that PPI has a beneficial impact on health research. They described various impactful roles, which we conceptualize as the 'expert in lived experience', the 'creative outsider', the 'free challenger', the 'bridger', the 'motivator' and the 'passive presence'. Participants generally supported assessing the impact of PPI, while acknowledging the challenges and concerns about the appropriateness and feasibility of measurement. They expressed a range of views about what impacts should be assessed, by whom and how. Individual feedback on impact was seen as an important driver of improved impact and motivation to stay involved. While there appears to be widespread support for PPI impact assessment among PPI contributors, their views on what to assess and how are diverse. PPI contributors should be involved as equal partners in debates and decisions about these issues. Individual feedback on impact may increase PPI contributors' potential impact and their motivation to stay involved. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. An evaluation of the Public Health Responsibility Deal: Informants' experiences and views of the development, implementation and achievements of a pledge-based, public-private partnership to improve population health in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Mary Alison; Petticrew, Mark; Goulding, Lucy; Eastmure, Elizabeth; Knai, Cecile; Mays, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    The Coalition Government's Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) was launched in England in 2011 as a public-private partnership designed to improve public health in the areas of food, alcohol, health at work and physical activity. As part of a larger evaluation, we explored informants' experiences and views about the RD's development, implementation and achievements. We conducted 44 semi-structured interviews with 50 interviewees, purposively sampled from: RD partners (businesses, public sector and non-governmental organisations); individuals with formal roles in implementing the RD; and non-partners and former partners. Data were analysed thematically: NVivo (10) software was employed to manage the data. Key motivations underpinning participation were corporate social responsibility and reputational enhancement. Being a partner often involved making pledges related to work already underway or planned before joining the RD, suggesting limited 'added value' from the RD, although some pledge achievements (e.g., food reformulation) were described. Benefits included access to government, while drawbacks included resource implications and the risk of an 'uneven playing field' between partners and non-partners. To ensure that voluntary agreements like the RD produce gains to public health that would not otherwise have occurred, government needs to: increase participation and compliance through incentives and sanctions, including those affecting organisational reputation; create greater visibility of voluntary agreements; and increase scrutiny and monitoring of partners' pledge activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Moment of Mindfulness: Computer-Mediated Mindfulness Practice Increases State Mindfulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsey Mahmood

    Full Text Available Three studies investigated the use of a 5-minute, computer-mediated mindfulness practice in increasing levels of state mindfulness. In Study 1, 54 high school students completed the computer-mediated mindfulness practice in a lab setting and Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS scores were measured before and after the practice. In Study 2 (N = 90 and Study 3 (N = 61, the mindfulness practice was tested with an entirely online sample to test the delivery of the 5-minute mindfulness practice via the internet. In Study 2 and 3, we found a significant increase in TMS scores in the mindful condition, but not in the control condition. These findings highlight the impact of a brief, mindfulness practice for single-session, computer-mediated use to increase mindfulness as a state.

  1. A MARKETING VIEW OVER THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC AUTHORITIES IN THE PROTECTION OF THE CONSUMERS PRIVATE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veghes Calin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of privacy, seen in connection with the consumer's private space, and defined in terms of the rights the consumer have to disclose or not, respectively to have protected their personal data has gained an increasing importance, as a result of the organizations extended and more and more aggressive attempts, within their marketing efforts, to capture, process and use the consumers personal data. Privacy protection has become an important but, in the same time, extremely sensitive and challenging topic to be taken into consideration by all the stakeholders involved in the processing and employment of the consumers personal data. A key role in this respect is played by the public authorities acting as data controllers the Data Protection Authorities, that have to adopt a more proactive and efficient attitude in adopting and implementing policies and processes aiming to ensure a more effective protection of the personal data and private space, conduct privacy impact assessments and continuously improve the specific activities. Paper presents the opinions of the consumers through the results of an exploratory study regarding the importance given to the protection of the personal data, the area of protection of the specific laws, the need for laws regulating the personal data protection, the balance between the public and private entities in providing a proper protection of the personal data, and the relationship between the domestic, European, and international levels in ensuring the protection of the consumers personal data. Results regarding the role of the public authorities in the protection of the consumers personal data and private space in terms of the most appropriate institution to act as a data controller, the rights consumers consider important in relationship with the protection of their personal data and the risks faced in the context of a less effective protection are also presented.

  2. Relationship between self-focused attention, mindfulness and distress in individuals with auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda-Gómez, J; León-Palacios, M G; Escudero-Pérez, S; Barros-Albarrán, M D; López-Jiménez, A M; Perona-Garcelán, S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among self-focused attention, mindfulness and distress caused by the voices in psychiatric patients. Fifty-one individuals with a psychiatric diagnosis participated in this study. The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale (PSYRATS) emotional factor was applied to measure the distress caused by the voices, the Self-Absorption Scale (SAS) was given for measuring the levels of self-focused attention, and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) was used to measure mindfulness. The results showed that distress caused by the voices correlated positively with self-focused attention (private and public) and negatively with mindfulness. A negative correlation was also found between mindfulness and self-focused attention (private and public). Finally, multiple linear regression analysis showed that public self-focus was the only factor predicting distress caused by the voices. Intervention directed at diminishing public self-focused attention and increasing mindfulness could improve distress caused by the voices.

  3. Citation patterns and trends of systematic reviews about mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Alberto; Fazia, Teresa; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Morandi, Gabriella

    2017-08-01

    We performed a citation analysis of the literature about mindfulness aimed at describing the most significant topics and the impact of more relevant papers. We classified 128 systematic reviews about mindfulness-based intervention retrieved in Scopus according to their object, the population included and the type of mindfulness proposed. The citation counting was reported. The cumulative citation numbers per chronological years and article life were analyzed thorough a linear regression model. 1) We observed a general increase in the number of reviews published from 2003 to 2016; 2) two reviews collected the 33% of the overall citations; 3) citation counting for clinical and mixed population collected the 90% of total citations; 4) clinical reviews had higher cumulative citation per publication/year growth. As mindfulness research advances, higher attention should be given to the mechanisms by which mindfulness interventions work so as to provide fruitful insights for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Accounting System in Croatian Public Healthcare Organizations: an Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor VAŠIČEK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In considering the adequacy of adopting accruals and IPSASs, this paper tests the appropriateness of existing modified accrual accounting and financial reporting system in Croatian public healthcare sector. The paper indicates that accounting information system contains discrepancies and constraints in assuring true and fair view of organization’s financial position and performance. Our statistics confirms low level of cost and managerial accounting methods development, and external and internal financial reporting convergence.Having in mind its specificities, we argue that Croatian public healthcare sector represents a segmental accounting subsystem within the integral public sector accounting framework, where accruals implementation might prove justifiable.

  5. Public foetal images and the regulation of middle-class pregnancy in the online media: a view from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Catriona; Howell, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography images and their derivatives have been taken up in a range of 'public' spaces, including medical textbooks, the media, anti-abortion material, advertising, the Internet and public health facilities. Feminists have critiqued the personification of the foetus, the bifurcation of the woman's body and the reduction of the pregnant woman to a disembodied womb. What has received less attention is how these images frequently intersect with race, class, gender and heteronormativity in the creation of idealised and normative understandings of pregnancy. This paper focuses on the discursive positioning of pregnant women as 'mothers' and foetuses as 'babies' in online media targeted at a South African audience, where race and class continue to intersect in complex ways. We show how the ontologically specific understandings of 'mummies' and 'babies' emerge through the use of foetal images to construct specific understandings of the 'ideal' pregnancy. In the process, pregnant women are made responsible for ensuring that their pregnancy conforms to these ideals, which includes the purchasing of the various goods advertised by the websites. Not only does this point to a commodification of pregnancy, but also serves to reinforce a cultural understanding of White, middle-class pregnancy as constituting the normative 'correct' form of pregnancy.

  6. From "our world" to the "real world": Exploring the views and behaviour of policy-influential Australian public health researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Abby S; Derrick, Gjemma E; Chapman, Simon; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D; Gillespie, James; Sturk, Heidi

    2011-04-01

    Research and researchers influence the genesis and development of public health policy in limited but essential ways. Surveys and interviews with 36 peer-nominated "highly influential" Australian public health researchers found they engaged in a breadth of strategies that included rigorous but targeted research design, multilateral collaboration, multiple methods of research dissemination and promotion (including tactical use of the media), and purposeful development of bridging relationships. Researchers' ability to understand the worlds of research, policy and the media and to speak their languages (or to work with others who fulfilled this role) was a key factor. Advocacy was seen as fundamental by some but was disparaged by others. Influential behaviours were guided by values and beliefs about the principles underlying traditional science and the contrasting ethos of contemporary research. This study may help researchers consider their own policy-related roles, strategies and relationships in the context of increasing calls for research that serves economic and/or social goals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The balanced mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Micah; Smallwood, Jonathan; Christensen, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Self-generated thoughts unrelated to ongoing activities, also known as "mind-wandering," make up a substantial portion of our daily lives. Reports of such task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) predict both poor performance on demanding cognitive tasks and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity...... in the default mode network (DMN). However, recent findings suggest that TUTs and the DMN can also facilitate metacognitive abilities and related behaviors. To further understand these relationships, we examined the influence of subjective intensity, ruminative quality, and variability of mind...

  8. Mindfulness e Inteligencia Emocional

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Ballesteros, Desirée

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta una breve investigación sobre temas tan de actualidad como son mindfulness e inteligencia emocional. El objetivo principal es mostrar la relación existente entre ambos constructos, y mostrar la utilidad de integrar ambas disciplinas en el ámbito de la educación gracias a la revisión bibliográfica y a la investigación llevada a cabo. Por un lado, con el mindfulness tomamos conciencia de los acontecimientos internos y externos que experimentamos en cualquier momento ...

  9. Data, models, and views: towards integration of diverse numerical model components and data sets for scientific and public dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Richard; Lemmen, Carsten; Nasermoaddeli, Hassan; Klingbeil, Knut; Wirtz, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Data and models for describing coastal systems span a diversity of disciplines, communities, ecosystems, regions and techniques. Previous attempts of unifying data exchange, coupling interfaces, or metadata information have not been successful. We introduce the new Modular System for Shelves and Coasts (MOSSCO, http://www.mossco.de), a novel coupling framework that enables the integration of a diverse array of models and data from different disciplines relating to coastal research. In the MOSSCO concept, the integrating framework imposes very few restrictions on contributed data or models; in fact, there is no distinction made between data and models. The few requirements are: (1) principle coupleability, i.e. access to I/O and timing information in submodels, which has recently been referred to as the Basic Model Interface (BMI) (2) open source/open data access and licencing and (3) communication of metadata, such as spatiotemporal information, naming conventions, and physical units. These requirements suffice to integrate different models and data sets into the MOSSCO infrastructure and subsequently built a modular integrated modeling tool that can span a diversity of processes and domains. We demonstrate how diverse coastal system constituents were integrated into this modular framework and how we deal with the diverging development of constituent data sets and models at external institutions. Finally, we show results from simulations with the fully coupled system using OGC WebServices in the WiMo geoportal (http://kofserver3.hzg.de/wimo), from where stakeholders can view the simulation results for further dissemination.

  10. The Politics of Mindfulness. A Response to "Mindfulness, Democracy, Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is rapidly becoming a mainstream educational intervention. A growing number of schools, colleges, and universities are incorporating mindfulness into the curriculum, and while there is a substantial body of research literature in psychology attesting to the mental and physical benefits of mindfulness, critics of the movement have…

  11. Plans, Habits, and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Baker, Chris L; Cushman, Fiery A

    2016-01-01

    Human success and even survival depends on our ability to predict what others will do by guessing what they are thinking. If I accelerate, will he yield? If I propose, will she accept? If I confess, will they forgive? Psychologists call this capacity "theory of mind." According to current theories, we solve this problem by assuming that others are rational actors. That is, we assume that others design and execute efficient plans to achieve their goals, given their knowledge. But if this view is correct, then our theory of mind is startlingly incomplete. Human action is not always a product of rational planning, and we would be mistaken to always interpret others' behaviors as such. A wealth of evidence indicates that we often act habitually-a form of behavioral control that depends not on rational planning, but rather on a history of reinforcement. We aim to test whether the human theory of mind includes a theory of habitual action and to assess when and how it is deployed. In a series of studies, we show that human theory of mind is sensitive to factors influencing the balance between habitual and planned behavior.

  12. Mindfulness handler ikke om individualisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden

    2013-01-01

    Kommentar til indlæg i Ugebrevet A4 om, at mindfulness virker individualiserende på arbejdspladsen.......Kommentar til indlæg i Ugebrevet A4 om, at mindfulness virker individualiserende på arbejdspladsen....

  13. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Information 6 Things You ... Disease and Dementia (12/20/13) Research Spotlights Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Shown To ...

  14. Mindfulness-baseret kognitiv terapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Velden, Anne Maj; Piet, Jacob; Møller, Anne Buch

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an evidencebased psychotherapeutic intervention, which integrates elements of cognitive behavioural therapy for depression with the clinical application of mindfulness meditation. MBCT is currently recommended in several national clinical guidelines a...

  15. The Mind-Body Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Jerry A.

    1981-01-01

    Describes several different philosophies of mind with each philosophy's explanation of the mind-body problem. Philosophies discussed include dualism, materialism, functionalism, radical behaviorism, logical behaviorism and central-state identity. (DS)

  16. Factors Influencing Postsecondary STEM Students' Views of the Public Communication of an Emergent Technology: a Cross-National Study from Five Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Grant E.; Jones, M. Gail; Albe, Virginie; Blonder, Ron; Laherto, Antti; Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela

    2017-10-01

    Recent efforts in the science education community have highlighted the need to integrate research and theory from science communication research into more general science education scholarship. These synthesized research perspectives are relatively novel but serve an important need to better understand the impacts that the advent of rapidly emerging technologies will have on a new generation of scientists and engineers including their formal communication with engaged citizenry. This cross-national study examined postsecondary science and engineering students' ( n = 254 from five countries: Austria, Finland, France, Israel, and USA) perspectives on the role of science communication in their own formal science and engineering education. More broadly, we examined participants' understanding of their perceived responsibilities of communicating science and engineering to the general public when an issue contains complex social and ethical implications (SEI). The study is contextualized in the emergent technology of nanotechnology for which SEI are of particular concern and for which the general public often perceives conflicting risks and benefits. Findings indicate that student participants' hold similar views on the need for their own training in communication as future scientists and engineers. When asked about the role that ethics and risk perception plays in research, development, and public communication of nanotechnology, participants demonstrate similar trajectories of perspectives that are, however, often anchored in very different levels of beginning concern. Results are discussed in the context of considerations for science communication training within formal science education curricula globally.

  17. Mind mapping in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Christopher; Powell, Julia; Stroud, James; Pringle, Jan

    We tested a theory that mind mapping could be used as a tool in qualitative research to transcribe and analyse an interview. We compared results derived from mind mapping with those from interpretive phenomenological analysis by examining patients' and carers' perceptions of a new nurse-led service. Mind mapping could be used to rapidly analyse simple qualitative audio-recorded interviews. More research is needed to establish the extent to which mind mapping can assist qualitative researchers.

  18. Scientific publications about DNA structure-function and PCR technique in Costa Rica: A historic view (1953-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J Albertazzi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The spreading of knowledge depends on the access to the information and its immediate use. Models are useful to explain specific phenomena. The scientific community accepts some models in Biology after a period of time, once it has evidence to support it. The model of the structure and function of the DNA proposed by Watson & Crick (1953 was not the exception, since a few years later the DNA model was finally accepted. In Costa Rica, DNA function was first mentioned in 1970, in the magazine Biología Tropical (Tropical Biology Magazine, more than 15 years after its first publication in a scientific journal. An opposite situation occurs with technical innovations. If the efficiency of a new scientific technique is proved in a compelling way, then the acceptance by the community comes swiftly. This was the case of the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. The first PCR machine in Costa Rica arrived in 1991, only three years after its publication. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 417-421. Epub 2004 Dic 15.La diseminación del conocimiento depende de la disponibilidad de la información y aplicar dicha información para resolver una problema. Los modelos sirvan para explicar fenómenos determinados. En Biología los modelos son aceptados por la comunidad científica después de cierto tiempo si ha probado su validez y reconocido la evidencia para apoyar dicho modelo. El modelo estructural y función de la molécula de ADN propuesto por Watson y Crick (1953 no fue la excepción pues tardó varios años en ser completamente aceptado por la comunidad científica. En Costa Rica la primera publicación relacionada con la función del ADN fue en la Revista Biología Tropical fue en 1970, más de 15 años después de ser propuesta. La situación contraria se presenta cuando son innovaciones técnicas. Si la eficiencia es demostrada, rápidamente se incorpora dentro de la comunidad. Este fue el caso de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, abreviado en inglés como

  19. Mindful Social Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debaene, Raf

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness gets growing attention in the education and practice of social work. It is seen as an important source of inspiration for social work and as a counterbalance for the rationalization of social work. Hick states that mindfulness “is an orientation to our everyday experiences that can be cultivated by means of various exercises and practices. By opening up in a particular way to their internal and external experiences, social workers and clients are better able to understand what is happening to them in both a psychological and sociological sense. With this understanding, people are better able to see the variety of ways in which they can respond. Habitual reactions are more easily avoided, and inner peace and balance are developed” (Hick 2009: 1. Despite this praise of mindfulness as an important source of inspiration and the expectation that its popularity might expand in the next century, it is argued in this essay by Raf Debaene that mindfulness, although possibly very useful in some settings, had very little to do with social work.

  20. MIND performance and prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervera-Villanueva, A.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of MIND (Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector) at a neutrino factory has been revisited in a new analysis. In particular, the low neutrino energy region is studied, obtaining an efficiency plateau around 5 GeV for a background level below 10 -3 . A first look has been given into the detector optimisation and prototyping

  1. Goedel, relativity, and mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Goedel's acquaintance with Einstein led him to discover, by use of novel techniques, an exotic cosmological model which flouted many preconceived notions, such as the role of Mach's principle in general relativity and the nature of time. Goedel also invoked it in speculations concerning the question of minds

  2. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  3. A Matter of Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Richard M.

    1998-01-01

    Advises Catholic school principals to find a quiet place each day where distractions can be placed aside for 15 minutes to contemplate spirituality. Argues that by allowing their relationship with God to permeate their busy administration, principals' mindfulness can help foster school spirituality by providing catechetical leadership for their…

  4. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  5. Theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Stephanie M; Koenig, Melissa A; Harms, Madeline B

    2013-07-01

    Theory of mind and its development has been a significantly important-and challenging-topic of research in cognitive science for three decades. This review summarizes our knowledge of when and how children come to understand their own and others' minds, including the developmental timetable, old and new measures, and foundational skills in infancy. We review recent research on theory-of-mind (ToM) and learning, that is, ways in which children's understanding of other minds informs how they learn about the world, as well as evidence for an important role of domain-general cognitive skills (executive function) in the development of ToM, and the neural networks that are most strongly implicated. Finally, we propose future directions for research in this vast and growing field. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:391-402. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1232 The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The embodied mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s the study of the brain has developed from a primarily biological field to a significant interdisciplinary area with an already strong influence on the humanities and social sciences. In this article I describe fundamental elements in what I call the embodied mind paradigm and the ...

  7. Calming the Monkey Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliuk, Kendra; Chorney, David

    2017-01-01

    Many of today's students are experiencing higher levels of stress and anxiety in school. The need for competitive grades, the desire to be seen as perfect in a digital society, and parental pressures are only some of the reasons that students are experiencing more stress. This increased stress has lead to an overworked mind for many youth, dubbed…

  8. Mindfulness and Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The expert mind has its value: for example, Pasteur argued that “in the fields of observation chance favours only the prepared mind” 1. Garrett...and listen intently. Avoid lumping details together or attempting to normalize an unexpected event in order to preserve a preconceived expectation

  9. [Definition of medical competence. The point of view of chronically-ill patients in the Andalusian public healthcare system (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto Rodríguez, M Ángeles; Danet Danet, Alina; Escudero Carretero, María J; Ruiz Azarola, Ainhoa; Pérez Corral, Olivia; García Toyos, Noelia

    2012-01-01

    To identify the attributes used by chronically-ill patients to describe physicians' competence in the public healthcare system in Andalucia. A total of 147 chronically-ill patients and their relatives were included in this qualitative study. Focal groups and in-depth interviews were performed in health centers and outpatient centers in Granada, Malaga, Seville, Cadiz and Cordoba between 2007 and 2008. Content analysis was carried out using Nudist Vivo. The participants defined medical competence as combining elements of technical ability and knowledge (awareness of and interest in the disease, continuity of follow-up and requesting specific tests) with interpersonal skills related to communication, information (informing, listening, trust, prompting questions) and attention (courtesy, cordiality, respect, interest and approachability). Primary care was expected to provide a close relationship, personalized treatment, information, drug prescription, and referral to specialized care. Specialized care was expected to provide an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment, information and follow-up. Highly valued aspects of emergency care were symptom relief, accurate diagnosis, referral to specialists and courtesy. Chronically-ill patients based their evaluation of medical competence on technical and interpersonal skills. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. The Jupyter/IPython architecture: a unified view of computational research, from interactive exploration to communication and publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan-Kelley, M.; Perez, F.; Granger, B.; Kluyver, T.; Ivanov, P.; Frederic, J.; Bussonnier, M.

    2014-12-01

    IPython has provided terminal-based tools for interactive computing in Python since 2001. The notebook document format and multi-process architecture introduced in 2011 have expanded the applicable scope of IPython into teaching, presenting, and sharing computational work, in addition to interactive exploration. The new architecture also allows users to work in any language, with implementations in Python, R, Julia, Haskell, and several other languages. The language agnostic parts of IPython have been renamed to Jupyter, to better capture the notion that a cross-language design can encapsulate commonalities present in computational research regardless of the programming language being used. This architecture offers components like the web-based Notebook interface, that supports rich documents that combine code and computational results with text narratives, mathematics, images, video and any media that a modern browser can display. This interface can be used not only in research, but also for publication and education, as notebooks can be converted to a variety of output formats, including HTML and PDF. Recent developments in the Jupyter project include a multi-user environment for hosting notebooks for a class or research group, a live collaboration notebook via Google Docs, and better support for languages other than Python.

  11. Gas power plants heat the public mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, L.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear energy provides most part of the electricity produced in France but fossil thermal plants remain necessary to face peaking demand. The French government has planned to replace all the fossil plants by combined cycle gas plants that release far less CO 2 than classic coal or oil plants. 31 new gas plants have been authorized and among them 2 are operating, 10 are being built and 8 are at the project stage. In some projects like in the little town of Verberie (Oise department) these projects are facing a strong local opposition. The objection of the opponents is two-fold: -) the plant will have a strong negative impact on the wild life particularly the population of boars and stags and -) this huge program of 31 gas plants contradict the government that committed itself to reduce the consumption of fossil energies and to favor renewable energies through its Grenelle environmental policy. (A.C.)

  12. Mindful Emotion Regulation: Exploring the Neurocognitive Mechanisms behind Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grecucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review some of the psychological and neural mechanisms behind mindfulness practice in order to explore the unique factors that account for its positive impact on emotional regulation and health. After reviewing the mechanisms of mindfulness and its effects on clinical populations we will consider how the practice of mindfulness contributes to the regulation of emotions. We argue that mindfulness has achieved effective outcomes in the treatment of anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologies through the contribution of mindfulness to emotional regulation. We consider the unique factors that mindfulness meditation brings to the process of emotion regulation that may account for its effectiveness. We review experimental evidence that points towards the unique effects of mindfulness specifically operating over and above the regulatory effects of cognitive reappraisal mechanisms. A neuroanatomical circuit that leads to mindful emotion regulation is also suggested. This paper thereby aims to contribute to proposed models of mindfulness for research and theory building by proposing a specific model for the unique psychological and neural processes involved in mindful detachment that account for the effects of mindfulness over and above the effects accounted for by other well-established emotional regulation processes such as cognitive reappraisal.

  13. A Case Study of Framing and Project Design Impacts on Participant Identity, Views, and Trust of Science in a Phenology Public Participatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, A. E.; Jordan, R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent literature has suggested public participatory research models (e.g., citizen science and similar) as a key opportunity for scientists to meaningfully engage and communicate with the public to increase support for science and encourage pro-science behavior. In this, there has been an inherent assumption that all models of engagement yield similar participant results with few examples of assessment of these programs. While many of these programs do share superficial similarities in their modes of participant engagement and participant motivation, there is a large disparity in participant engagement between them. This disparity suggests that framing of these projects (e.g., citizen science versus crowd sourcing) also plays an important role in decisions about participation. Additionally, participant outcomes, in terms of beliefs about scientific practices and scientific trust, between these two project types has not yet been investigated. To investigate the impact of framing, participants were recruited to a web-based tree phenology public participatory research program where half the participants were engaged in a citizen science framed program and the other were engaged in a crowdsourced framed project. The participants in each frame were engaged in the same task (reporting leaf budding/leaf drop), but the way the projects were framed differed. Post-participation we see that there are indeed statistically significant differences in participant outcomes between individuals who participated as a citizen scientist versus as a crowdsourcer. Particularly we see differences in terms of their views of science, identity, and trust of science. This work is the first to the authors' knowledge that aims to evaluate if projects can be treated synonymously when discussing potential for public engagement and broader trust and literacy outcomes.

  14. Children's strategic theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Itai; Koenig, Melissa; Rustichini, Aldo

    2014-09-16

    Human strategic interaction requires reasoning about other people's behavior and mental states, combined with an understanding of their incentives. However, the ontogenic development of strategic reasoning is not well understood: At what age do we show a capacity for sophisticated play in social interactions? Several lines of inquiry suggest an important role for recursive thinking (RT) and theory of mind (ToM), but these capacities leave out the strategic element. We posit a strategic theory of mind (SToM) integrating ToM and RT with reasoning about incentives of all players. We investigated SToM in 3- to 9-y-old children and adults in two games that represent prevalent aspects of social interaction. Children anticipate deceptive and competitive moves from the other player and play both games in a strategically sophisticated manner by 7 y of age. One game has a pure strategy Nash equilibrium: In this game, children achieve equilibrium play by the age of 7 y on the first move. In the other game, with a single mixed-strategy equilibrium, children's behavior moved toward the equilibrium with experience. These two results also correspond to two ways in which children's behavior resembles adult behavior in the same games. In both games, children's behavior becomes more strategically sophisticated with age on the first move. Beyond the age of 7 y, children begin to think about strategic interaction not myopically, but in a farsighted way, possibly with a view to cooperating and capitalizing on mutual gains in long-run relationships.

  15. Mindful attention reduces neural and self-reported cue-induced craving in smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John David; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Julson, Erica; Kober, Hedy; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be beneficial for smoking cessation and the treatment of other addictive disorders. One way that mindfulness may facilitate smoking cessation is through the reduction of craving to smoking cues. The present work considers whether mindful attention can reduce self-reported and neural markers of cue-induced craving in treatment seeking smokers. Forty-seven (n = 47) meditation-naïve treatment-seeking smokers (12-h abstinent from smoking) viewed and made ratings of smoking and neutral images while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were trained and instructed to view these images passively or with mindful attention. Results indicated that mindful attention reduced self-reported craving to smoking images, and reduced neural activity in a craving-related region of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Moreover, a psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that mindful attention reduced functional connectivity between sgACC and other craving-related regions compared to passively viewing smoking images, suggesting that mindfulness may decouple craving neurocircuitry when viewing smoking cues. These results provide an initial indication that mindful attention may describe a ‘bottom-up’ attention to one’s present moment experience in ways that can help reduce subjective and neural reactivity to smoking cues in smokers. PMID:22114078

  16. Mind, Matter, Information and Quantum Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Maleeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I give a new information-theoretic analysis of the formalisms and interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM in general, and of two mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics in particular: The Copenhagen interpretation and David Bohm’s interpretation of quantum mechanics. Adopting Juan G. Roederer’s reading of the notion of pragmatic information, I argue that pragmatic information is not applicable to the Copenhagen interpretation since the interpretation is primarily concerned with epistemology rather than ontology. However it perfectly fits Bohm’s ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics in the realms of biotic and artificial systems. Viewing Bohm’s interpretation of QM in the context of pragmatic information imposes serious limitations to the qualitative aspect of such an interpretation, making his extension of the notion active information to every level of reality illegitimate. Such limitations lead to the idea that, contrary to Bohm’s claim, mind is not a more subtle aspect of reality via the quantum potential as active information, but the quantum potential as it affects particles in the double-slit experiment represents the non-algorithmic aspect of the mind as a genuine information processing system. This will provide an information-based ground, firstly, for refreshing our views on quantum interpretations and secondly, for a novel qualitative theory of the relationship of mind and matter in which mind-like properties are exclusive attributes of living systems. To this end, I will also take an information-theoretic approach to the notion of intentionality as interpreted by John Searle.

  17. Medicine for the wandering mind: mind wandering in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Jonathan; Mrazek, Michael D; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2011-11-01

    Mind wandering--defined as a cognitive focus on information that is unrelated to immediate sensory input or the task at hand--is a ubiquitous characteristic of the human condition. When it occurs, the integrity of a wide range of cognitive skills can be compromised. The current paper describes the phenomenon of mind wandering, explores its potential role in medical practice and considers how the education system may profitably control this ubiquitous cognitive state. We argue that because many aspects of a medical professional's work (such as fatigue and depression) maximise the mind's tendency to wander, this experience is likely to be a common occurrence in many medical situations. We then review the psychological literature on mind wandering as it relates to medical practice. Based on this review, we suggest that because mind wandering interferes with an individual's ability to integrate current events into a more general context, its occurrence may lead to downstream problems in the way that symptoms are interpreted and treated. Finally, because the experience of mind wandering is often both difficult to control and hard to recognise, it is difficult to prevent. We argue that techniques that help individuals to become more mindful have the potential to ameliorate the cost of mind wandering to the medical profession. Given the ubiquitous nature of the experience of mind wandering, the integration of mindfulness training into medical education programmes could be of general benefit to society at large. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  18. The hooligan's mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Football hooliganism is a world phenomenon and an everyday matter. Society spends a lot of money to prevent and control it. We need to know what hooligans think in order to anticipate their actions and prevent their violent behaviors. In this paper, I propose a theory of the hooligan's conscious mind, by analyzing the thinking of a real Italian hooligan who was my patient. I will show that violent behaviors of hooligans are not unconscious, because the mental states (both beliefs and goals) of hooligans are explicitly represented in their mind. In contrast, I will suggest that both supporting and fighting are planned (i.e., goal directed), because "recognized supremacy" is explicitly represented as the ultimate goal. In fact, hooligans support and fight in order to be recognized as good hooligans, i.e. as good supporters as well as good fighters.

  19. The dialogically extended mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Gangopadhyay, Nivedita; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A growing conceptual and empirical literature is advancing the idea that language extends our cognitive skills. One of the most influential positions holds that language – qua material symbols – facilitates individual thought processes by virtue of its material properties. Extending upon this model...... relate our approach to other ideas about collective minds and review a number of empirical studies to identify the mechanisms enabling the constitution of interpersonal cognitive systems....

  20. Mind, Thinking and Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global civilization is the product of diverse cultures, each contributing a unique perspective arising from the development of different mental faculties and powers of mind. The momentous achievements of modern science are the result of the cumulative development of mind’s capacity for analytic thinking, mathematical rendering and experimental validation. The near-exclusive preoccupation with analysis, universal laws, mechanism, materialism, and objective experience over the past two centuries has shaped the world we live in today, accounting both for its accomplishments and its insoluble problems. Today humanity confronts complex challenges that defy solution by piecemeal analysis, unidimensional theories, and fragmented strategies. Poverty, unemployment, economic crisis, fundamentalism, violence, climate change, war, refugees, reflect the limitations and blindspots that have resulted from a partial, one-sided application of the diverse capacities of the human mind. Human monocultures suffer from all the limitations as their biological counterparts. There is urgent need to revive the legitimacy of synthetic, organic and integrated modes of thinking, to restore the credibility of subjective self-experience in science, to reaffirm the place of symbol, analogy and metaphor as valid ways of knowing and communication in education, to recognize the unique role of the individual in social processes, to recognize the central role of insight and intuition in science as in art. This article examines themes presented at the WAAS-WUC course on Mind, Thinking and Creativity, conducted at Dubrovnik in April 2016.

  1. Effects of preventive online mindfulness interventions on stress and mindfulness: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasantha P. Jayawardene, MD, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence suggested that mind-body interventions can be effectively delivered online. This study aimed to examine whether preventive online mindfulness interventions (POMI for non-clinical populations improve short- and long-term outcomes for perceived-stress (primary and mindfulness (secondary. Systematic search of four electronic databases, manuscript reference lists, and journal content lists was conducted in 2016, using 21 search-terms. Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating effects of POMI in non-clinical populations with adequately reported perceived-stress and mindfulness measures pre- and post-intervention were included. Random-effects models utilized for all effect-size estimations with meta-regression performed for mean age and %females. Participants were volunteers (adults; predominantly female from academic, workplace, or community settings. Most interventions utilized simplified Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction protocols over 2–12 week periods. Post-intervention, significant medium effect found for perceived-stress (g = 0.432, with moderate heterogeneity and significant, but small, effect size for mindfulness (g = 0.275 with low heterogeneity; highest effects were for middle-aged individuals. At follow-up, significant large effect found for perceived-stress (g = 0.699 with low heterogeneity and significant medium effect (g = 0.466 for mindfulness with high heterogeneity. No publication bias was found for perceived-stress; publication bias found for mindfulness outcomes led to underestimation of effects, not overestimation. Number of eligible RCTs was low with inadequate data reporting in some studies. POMI had substantial stress reduction effects and some mindfulness improvement effects. POMI can be a more convenient and cost-effective strategy, compared to traditional face-to-face interventions, especially in the context of busy, hard-to-reach, but digitally-accessible populations.

  2. The changing features of the body-mind problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agassi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The body-mind problem invites scientific study, since mental events are repeated and repeatable and invite testable explanations. They seemed troublesome because of the classical theory of substance that failed to solve its own central problems. These are soluble with the aid of the theory of the laws of nature, particularly in its emergentist version [Bunge, M., 1980. The Body-mind Problem, Pergamon, Oxford] that invites refutable explanations [Popper, K.R., 1959. The Logic of Scientific Discovery, Hutchinson, London]. The view of mental properties as emergent is a modification of the two chief classical views, materialism and dualism. As this view invites testable explanations of events of the inner world, it is better than the quasi-behaviorist view of self-awareness as computer-style self-monitoring [Minsky, M., Laske, O., 1992. A conversation with Marvin Minsky. AI Magazine 13 (3), 31-45].

  3. Social perception and "spectator theories" of other minds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Søren; Krueger, Joel William

    2013-01-01

    We resist Schilbach et al.'s characterization of the "social perception" approach to social cognition as a "spectator theory" of other minds. We show how the social perception view acknowledges the crucial role interaction plays in enabling social understanding. We also highlight a dilemma...

  4. Mario Bunge's Materialist Theory of Mind and Contemporary Cognitive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Bunge's writings on the mind-body problem provide a rigorous, analytical antidote to the persistent anti-materialist tendency that has characterized the history of philosophy and science. Bunge gives special attention to dualism and its shortcomings, and this attention is welcome in view of the resurgence of the doctrine today. However, I focus my…

  5. Utilization of Rural Primary Care Physicians' Visit Services for Diabetes Management of Public Health in Southwestern China: A Cross-Sectional Study from Patients' View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yudong; Ye, Ting; Qian, Dongfu; Li, Jinlong; Zhang, Liang

    2014-06-01

    Primary care physicians' visit services for diabetes management are now widely delivered in China's rural public health care. Current studies mainly focus on supply but risk factors from patients' view have not been previously explored. This study aims to present the utilization of rural primary care physicians' visit services for diabetes management in the last 12 months in southwestern China, and to explore risk factors from patients' view. This cross sectional study selected six towns at random and all 385 diabetics managed by primary care physicians were potential participants. Basing on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 374 diabetics were taken as valid subjects and their survey responses formed the data resource of analyses. Descriptive indicators, χ2 contingency table analyses and Logistic regression were used. 54.8% respondents reported the utilization of visit services. According to the multivariate analysis, the positive factors mainly associated with utilization of visit services include disease duration (OR=1.654), use of diabetic drugs (OR=1.869), consulting diabetes care knowledge (OR=1.602), recognition of diabetic complications (OR=1.662), needs of visit services (OR=2.338). The utilization of rural primary care physicians' visit services still remains unsatisfactory. Mass rural health policy awareness, support, and emphasis are in urgent need and possible risk factors including disease duration, use of diabetic drugs, consulting diabetes care knowledge, recognition of diabetic complications and needs of visit services should be taken into account when making rural health policy of visit services for diabetes management in China and many other low- and middle-income countries.

  6. Patient and public views about the security and privacy of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) in the UK: results from a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsi, Chrysanthi; Reed, Julie E; Marston, Cicely; Lewis, Ruth; Majeed, Azeem; Bell, Derek

    2015-10-14

    Although policy discourses frame integrated Electronic Health Records (EHRs) as essential for contemporary healthcare systems, increased information sharing often raises concerns among patients and the public. This paper examines patient and public views about the security and privacy of EHRs used for health provision, research and policy in the UK. Sequential mixed methods study with a cross-sectional survey (in 2011) followed by focus group discussions (in 2012-2013). Survey participants (N = 5331) were recruited from primary and secondary care settings in West London (UK). Complete data for 2761 (51.8 %) participants were included in the final analysis for this paper. The survey results were discussed in 13 focus groups with people living with a range of different health conditions, and in 4 mixed focus groups with patients, health professionals and researchers (total N = 120). Qualitative data were analysed thematically. In the survey, 79 % of participants reported that they would worry about the security of their record if this was part of a national EHR system and 71 % thought the National Health Service (NHS) was unable to guarantee EHR safety at the time this work was carried out. Almost half (47 %) responded that EHRs would be less secure compared with the way their health record was held at the time of the survey. Of those who reported being worried about EHR security, many would nevertheless support their development (55 %), while 12 % would not support national EHRs and a sizeable proportion (33 %) were undecided. There were also variations by age, ethnicity and education. In focus group discussions participants weighed up perceived benefits against potential security and privacy threats from wider sharing of information, as well as discussing other perceived risks: commercial exploitation, lack of accountability, data inaccuracies, prejudice and inequalities in health provision. Patient and public worries about the security risks associated

  7. Mindfulness in occupational therapy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gura, Shira Taylor

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to explore the value of mindfulness and its role in occupational therapy education. The plethora of research on mindfulness-based stress reduction programs has shown consistent and positive results to enhance quality of life in clinical and nonclinical populations. Offering students the opportunities to learn and experience mindfulness could lead to enhanced self-awareness and care, focus and empathy, and a decrease of client judgment enhancing the success of clinical interventions.

  8. Capturing presence moments: the art of mindful practice in occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Denise

    2009-06-01

    This paper explores theoretical and practical views of mindfulness and phenomena of presence moments. The potential for altering life and enabling change through lived experience of mindful presence moments has relevance for occupational therapy practice. To suggest ways for occupational therapists to become mindfully present during practice. Based on theoretical perspectives drawn from the fields of psychology, philosophy, psychoanalysis, neuroscience, and education, a four-fold approach will be outlined for occupational therapists to practice mindfully and experience presence moments. This approach emphasizes key concepts of awareness, non-judgment, reflection, curiosity, and commitment to practice. A clinical scenario is used to illustrate the approach. The ideas raised in this paper need to be incorporated into daily practice by occupational therapists so that a culture of mindful practice can be cultivated. Suggestions are provided throughout the paper for an agenda of potential research studies to address aspects of mindfulness and presence moments more fully.

  9. 8 Questions About the Conscious Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, A.J.P.W.

    Can the mind function separately from the brain? Can machines have conscious minds? Is Google Maps part of the conscious mind? Hans Dooremalen provides answers to these three and five other questions about the conscious mind in an easy to read introduction to the philosophy of mind.

  10. Mindful parenting in mental health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogels, S.M.; Lehtonen, A.; Restifo, K.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness is a form of meditation based on the Buddhist tradition, which has been used over the last two decades to successfully treat a multitude of mental health problems. Bringing mindfulness into parenting ("mindful parenting") is one of the applications of mindfulness. Mindful parenting

  11. Blacked-out spaces: Freud, censorship and the re-territorialization of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galison, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Freud's analogies were legion: hydraulic pipes, military recruitment, magic writing pads. These and some three hundred others took features of the mind and bound them to far-off scenes--the id only very partially resembles an uncontrollable horse, as Freud took pains to note. But there was one relation between psychic and public act that Freud did not delimit in this way: censorship, the process that checked memories and dreams on their way to the conscious. (Freud dubbed the relation between internal and external censorship a 'parallel' rather than a limited analogy.) At first, Freud likened this suppression to the blacking out of texts at the Russian frontier. During the First World War, he suffered, and spoke of suffering under, Viennese postal and newspaper censorship--Freud was forced to leave his envelopes unsealed, and to recode or delete content. Over and over, he registered the power of both internal and public censorship in shared form: distortion, anticipatory deletion, softenings, even revision to hide suppression. Political censorship left its mark as the conflict reshaped his view of the psyche into a society on a war footing, with homunculus-like border guards sifting messages as they made their way--or did not--across a topography of mind.

  12. Computers, Nanotechnology and Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2008-10-01

    In 1958, two years after the Dartmouth conference, where the term artificial intelligence was coined, Herbert Simon and Allen Newell asserted the existence of "machines that think, that learn and create." They were further prophesying that the machines' capacity would increase and be on par with the human mind. Now, 50 years later, computers perform many more tasks than one could imagine in the 1950s but, virtually, no computer can do more than could the first digital computer, developed by John von Neumann in the 1940s. Computers still follow algorithms, they do not create them. However, the development of nanotechnology seems to have given rise to new hopes. With nanotechnology two things are supposed to happen. Firstly, due to the small scale it will be possible to construct huge computer memories which are supposed to be the precondition for building an artificial brain, secondly, nanotechnology will make it possible to scan the brain which in turn will make reverse engineering possible; the mind will be decoded by studying the brain. The consequence of such a belief is that the brain is no more than a calculator, i.e., all that the mind can do is in principle the results of arithmetical operations. Computers are equivalent to formal systems which in turn was an answer to an idea by Hilbert that proofs should contain ideal statements for which operations cannot be applied in a contentual way. The advocates of artificial intelligence will place content in a machine that is developed not only to be free of content but also cannot contain content. In this paper I argue that the hope for artificial intelligence is in vain.

  13. Animal Mind and Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Richterová, Klaudie

    2017-01-01

    Název diplomové práce: Mysl a vědomí u zvířat Vedoucí práce: prof. Karel Thein, Ph.D. Vypracovala: Bc. Klaudie Richterová Abstract This thesis examines the issue of cognition, mind and consciousness of living beings other than humans. It starts with the attitudes of two contemporary thinkers: Thomas Nagel and Daniel C. Dennett. In connection with their opinions, this thesis examines a certain number of questions: Might there be something like a subjective experience of life or being? How can ...

  14. Unauthorized Minds: How "Theory of Mind" Theory Misrepresents Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smukler, David

    2005-01-01

    Recent representations of autism frequently include an assumption that autism is the result of a "theory of mind" deficit (i.e., an inability to understand others' mental states). This notion is examined using a social constructionist perspective. The belief that autism is a sort of "mind-blindness" has much in common with earlier representations…

  15. Research Stakeholders' Views on Benefits and Challenges for Public Health Research Data Sharing in Kenya: The Importance of Trust and Social Relations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Jao

    Full Text Available There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries.Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates.The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science.Given background structural inequities in much

  16. Research Stakeholders' Views on Benefits and Challenges for Public Health Research Data Sharing in Kenya: The Importance of Trust and Social Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries. Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates. The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science. Given background structural inequities in much international research

  17. Research Stakeholders’ Views on Benefits and Challenges for Public Health Research Data Sharing in Kenya: The Importance of Trust and Social Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries. Methods Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates. Findings The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science. Discussion Given background structural

  18. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  19. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  20. Marketing a Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul: An Analysis of How African American Men View the Church as a Social Marketer and Health Promoter of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K Allen

    2016-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and whether religiously targeted and tailored health promotion materials will influence screening outcome. We used an integrated theoretical approach to explore participants' perceptions of CRC risk and prevention and how promotion messages should be developed and socially marketed by the church. Six focus groups were conducted with men from predominately AA churches in the Midwest. Themes from focus group discussions showed participants lacked knowledge about CRC, feared cancer diagnosis, and feared the procedure for screening. Roles of masculinity and the mistrust of physicians were also emergent themes. Participants did perceive the church as a trusted marketer of CRC but believed that promotional materials should be cosponsored and codeveloped by reputable health organizations. Employing the church as a social marketer of CRC screening promotion materials may be useful in guiding health promotions and addressing barriers that are distinct among African American men. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  1. Specific mindfulness skills differentially predict creative performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, M.; Nevicka, B.; ten Velden, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Past work has linked mindfulness to improved emotion regulation, interpersonal skills, and basic cognitive abilities, but is unclear about the relation between mindfulness and creativity. Studies examining effects of mindfulness on factors pertinent to creativity suggest a uniform and positive

  2. Return to work after vocational rehabilitation: does mindfulness matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindholmen S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Solveig Vindholmen,1 Rune Høigaard,2 Geir Arild Espnes,3 Stephen Seiler41Department of Psychosocial Health, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; 2Department of Public Health, Sport and Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; 3Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources, Department of Social Work and Health Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 4Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Kristiansand, NorwayPurpose: Mindfulness has become an important construct in return-to-work (RTW rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mindfulness is a predictor for RTW, and to examine the indirect effect of mindfulness on RTW and work ability through quality of life (QOL.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted among 80 former participants (71 females and seven males from age 24 to 66, in a multidisciplinary vocational rehabilitation program (MVRP. Self-report questionnaires were used to measure work status, work ability, QOL, and mindfulness. Demographic data were also collected.Results: In the current sample, 47% of participants reported having returned to ordinary work. The majority of the non-working sub-sample reported being in work-related activity or education. A bias-corrected bootstrapping technique was used to examine indirect effects. Results revealed that mindfulness was indirectly related to both RTW and work ability through QOL. There was no significant total effect of mindfulness on work ability or RTW. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of mindfulness on the likelihood that respondents returned to work. None of the independent mindfulness variables (observe, describe, act aware, non-judge, non-react made a unique statistically significant contribution to the model. The covariates work ability and education level significantly

  3. Mindfulness Practices and Learning Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borker, David R.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest among educators in teaching and learning practices based on mindfulness, a concept derived from eastern meditative traditions. This paper describes how mindfulness practices and concepts can be used to enhance the student's learning experience in beginning economics courses. Specific areas with a high potential for…

  4. Mindfulness and the Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernay, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a hermeneutic phenomenological study of five beginning teachers who were introduced to mindfulness during their initial teacher education programme. The participants kept fortnightly journals and engaged in three interviews with the researcher to assess the benefits of using mindfulness during the first year of teaching. The…

  5. Baby-MIND neutrino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefodiev, A. V.; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Mineev, O. V.; Khotjantsev, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of the Baby-MIND detector (Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector) is the study of muon charge identification efficiency for muon momenta from 0.3 to 5 GeV/ c. This paper presents the results of measurement of the Baby-MIND parameters.

  6. Mind Maps as Classroom Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A Mind Map is an outline in which the major categories radiate from a central image and lesser categories are portrayed as branches of larger branches. The author describes an in-class exercise in which small groups of students each create a Mind Map for a specific topic. This exercise is another example of an active and collaborative learning…

  7. Try This: Collaborative Mind Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    In this "Try This" article, students learn about collaborative mind mapping. A mind map is a type of graphic organizer that allows for short ideas to be written and linked to related ideas on a "map." A central idea is placed in the middle of the paper with related ideas connected to the central idea as well as to other ideas.…

  8. Handling of views and opinions by staters and others in a public hearing on alteration in reactor installation (addition of Unit 2) in the Sendai Nuclear Power Station of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A public hearing on the addition of Unit 2 in the Sendai Nuclear Power Station, Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., was held on July 17, 1980, in Sendai City, Kagoshima Prefecture. The views and opinions by the local staters and those by the notification of statement were expressed concerning its nuclear safety. The handling of these views and opinions by the Nuclear Safety Commission is explained. The most important in this action is the instruction by the NSC to the Committee on Examination of Reactor Safety to reflect the results of the public hearing to the reactor safety examination of the Unit 2 installation by the CERS. The views and opinions expressed in this connection are summarized as follows: the sitting conditions, the safety design of the reactor plant, and the release of radioactive materials, involving such aspects as earthquakes, accidents and radioactive waste management. (J.P.N.)

  9. Mindful Climate Action: Health and Environmental Co-Benefits from Mindfulness-Based Behavioral Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Barrett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes. We designed the Mindful Climate Action (MCA curriculum to help people improve their health while simultaneously lowering their carbon footprints. Combining mindfulness-based practices with the Stages of Change theory, the MCA program aims to: (1 improve personal health and well-being; (2 decrease energy use; (3 reduce automobile use; (4 increase active transport; (5 shift diet towards plant-based foods; and (6 reduce unnecessary purchasing. Mindfulness practices will foster attentional awareness, openness, and response flexibility, supporting positive behavior change. We plan to test MCA in a randomized controlled trial, with rigorous assessment of targeted outcomes. Our long-term goal is to refine and adapt the MCA program to a variety of audiences, in order to enhance public health and environmental sustainability.

  10. Stress Prevention and Mindfulness: A Psychoeducational and Support Group for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Jenson E.; Murphy, Susan L.; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    A stress prevention and mindfulness (SPAM) group is described, which is a 6-week psychoeducational and support group for teachers. The group incorporated psychoeducation about stress and utilized elements of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). The group was implemented in a public charter school in the Southwest. Preliminary evaluation…

  11. Mind Your Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soisson, John

    1994-01-01

    College and university public relations professionals are encouraged to follow the example of business in managing their publications programs. Planning, marketing those plans to the campus community, involving administration, and assuming accountability are seen as key elements in publications program success. (MSE)

  12. Current Views and Perspectives on E-Mental Health: An Exploratory Survey Study for Understanding Public Attitudes Toward Internet-Based Psychotherapy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinário-Hagen, Jennifer; Vehreschild, Viktor; Alkoudmani, Ramez M

    2017-02-23

    , which we labeled "usefulness or helpfulness," "relative advantage or comparability," and "accessibility or access to health care." Analyses revealed negative views about Internet-based therapies on most domains, such as perceived helpfulness. The study findings further indicated ambivalent attitudes: Although most respondents agreed to statements on expected improvements in health care (eg, expanded access), we observed low intentions to future use of Internet-delivered therapies in case of mental health problems. This pilot study showed deficient "e-awareness" and rather negative or ambivalent attitudes toward Internet-delivered therapies in the German-speaking general population. However, research targeting determinants of the large-scale adoption of Internet-based psychotherapy is still in its infancy. Thus, further research is required to explore the "black box" of public attitudes toward Internet-delivered therapies with representative samples, validated measures, and longitudinal survey designs. ©Jennifer Apolinário-Hagen, Viktor Vehreschild, Ramez M Alkoudmani. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 23.02.2017.

  13. Mindful Learning: A Case Study of Langerian Mindfulness in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Chase; Pagnini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The K-12 classroom applications of mindfulness as developed by Ellen Langer are discussed in a case study of a first-year charter school. Langerian Mindfulness, which is the act of drawing distinctions and noticing novelty, is deeply related to well-being and creativity, yet its impact has yet to be tested at the primary or secondary school level. The objective of the article is to display how Langerian Mindfulness strategies could increase 21st century skills and Social-Emotional Learning in primary classrooms. The New School San Francisco, an inquiry-based, socioeconomically and racially integrated charter school, serves as a model for mindful teaching and learning strategies. It is concluded that when mindful strategies are implemented, students have significant opportunities to exercise the 21st century skills of creativity, collaboration, communication and critical thinking. Langerian Mindfulness is also considered as a tool for increasing Social-Emotional Learning in integrated classrooms. It is recommended that mindful interventions be further investigated in the primary and secondary school context.

  14. Mindful Learning: A Case Study of Langerian Mindfulness in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase Davenport

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The K-12 classroom applications of mindfulness as developed by Ellen Langer are discussed in a case study of a first-year charter school. Langerian Mindfulness, which is the act of drawing distinctions and noticing novelty, is deeply related to well-being and creativity, yet its impact has yet to be tested at the primary or secondary school level. The objective of the article is to display how Langerian Mindfulness strategies could increase 21st century skills and Social-Emotional Learning in primary classrooms. The New School San Francisco, an inquiry-based, socioeconomically and racially integrated charter school, serves as a model for mindful teaching and learning strategies. It is concluded that when mindful strategies are implemented, students have significant opportunities to exercise the 21st century skills of creativity, collaboration, communication and critical thinking. Langerian Mindfulness is also considered as a tool for increasing Social-Emotional Learning in integrated classrooms. It is recommended that mindful interventions be further investigated in the primary and secondary school context.

  15. On viewing culture as situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    cultural contexts. Bazerman, Charles. (1988): Shaping Written Knowledge: The Genre & Activity of the Experimental Article in Science. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.   Hall, Edward T. (1976). Beyond Culture. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press. Hofstede, Geert. Culture's Consequences: International...... Differences in Work-Related Values. Abr. ed. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1984. ---. Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2001. ---. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York: Mc...

  16. Mindfulness i undervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Dorthe

    2012-01-01

    Hverdagen i skole og institutioner er fyldt med udfordringer og krav om læring og udvikling i fællesskabet. Dette stiller store krav til den enkelte, og de mange relationer i løbet af en dag. Dette kan i nogle tilfælde fjerne fokus fra den enkeltes evne til nærvær både i forhold til sig selv og i...... forhold til andre. Mindfulness i undervisningen er et redskab til at skabe et lærings- og udviklingsmiljø, hvor børn får erfaringer med at være til stede i sig selv, og hvor de oplever ro til at lære og være....

  17. Movies and the Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fingerhut, Joerg; Heimann, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the role of the spectators’ body has become considerably more important in theoretical as well as experimental approaches to film perception. However, most positions focus on how cinema has adapted to the spectator’s body over time, that is, to the basic principles of human...... perception and cognition, in developing its immersive power. This article presents the latest contributions to this topic, while also providing a new stance regarding the relationship between the mind and movies. Based on selected research from embodied approaches to cognition and picture perception, we...... suggest that humans learn to see film by integrating filmic means into their body schemas, and through this process develop a “filmic body”, available to them during film watching and, possibly, also off screen. Film language and film cognition are plastic products of mutual influence between films...

  18. Staying mindful in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Action Learning is a well-proven method to integrate ‘task’ and ‘process’, as learning about team and self (process) takes place while delivering on a task or business challenge of real importance (task). An Action Lab® is an intensive Action Learning programme lasting for 5 days, which aims...... at balancing and integrating individual challenges and business challenges, as well as the ‘Action’ and the ‘Learning’ of Action Learning. However, in spite of the aspiration to balance and integrate ‘task’ and ‘process’, a tendency and a challenge is experienced: When deeply involved in delivering...... this tendency by sharing a study looking into what hinders and promotes mindful awareness on the process, while dealing with a business challenge in an Action Lab®. Drawing on the findings, the account of practice will share some recommendations for the Action Learning facilitator to take up the challenge...

  19. Memory, Mind and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    up a number of topics in the field, among them the question of synchrony vs. diachrony in the language sciences, and issues of how to investigate the relationship between language, brain and mind. The book proposes some preliminary solutions to that problem, and, most significantly, it touches...... on both general and specific issues in theory and analysis, e.g. ‘adverbs in English and Norwegian,’ ‘verb semantics,’ ‘pronouns in Estonian,’ ‘morphology and neurolinguistics,’ ‘word order and morphology,’ ‘the nature and use of prepotions’ and ‘speech acts.’ The contributing scholars come from a variety...

  20. Writing in Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Theiner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the “extended mind” thesis, a significant portion of human cog-nition does not occur solely inside the head, but literally extends beyond the brain into the body and the world around us (Clark & Chalmers 1998; Clark 2003, 2008; Wilson 1995, 2004; Rowlands 1999, 2010; Menary 2007, 2012; Sutton 2010; Theiner 2011. One way to understand this thesis is that as human beings, we are particularly adept at creating and recruiting environmental props and scaffolds (media, tools, artifacts, symbol systems for the purpose of solving problems that would otherwise lie beyond our cognitive reach. We manipulate, scaffold, and re-design our environments in ways that transform the nature of difficult tasks that would baffle our unaided biological brains (e.g., math, logic, sequential problem-solving into simpler types of problems that we are naturally much better equipped to solve. A central tenet of the “extended mind” thesis, then, is that “much of what matters for human-level intelligence is hidden not in the brain, nor in the technology, but in the complex and iterated interactions and collaborations between the two” (Clark 2001: 154. Over the past fifteen years or so, the “extended mind” thesis has become a hot ticket in the philosophy of mind. As with all great ideas, the thesis was hardly conceived ex nihilo, but builds on, and re-articulates many earlier strands of thought. Unfortunately, many of those cognate strands have become marginalized in contemporary philosophy of mind and psychology, and do not receive the amount of attention they deserve. Part of what we hope to accomplish with this special issue is to reverse this trend, and to rekindle the dialogue between the “extended mind” thesis and its historical predecessors.

  1. Self-reported trait mindfulness and affective reactivity: a motivational approach using multiple psychophysiological measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cosme

    Full Text Available As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51 passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN and late positive potential (LPP amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses

  2. Self-Reported Trait Mindfulness and Affective Reactivity: A Motivational Approach Using Multiple Psychophysiological Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Danielle; Wiens, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture

  3. Trait Mindfulness and Cognitive Task Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emalee J. W. Quickel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness meditation (MM training has been shown to have positive effects on working memory and focused attention tasks. Clarifying the construct of mindfulness is important so that mindfulness can be studied effectively in individual differences and cognition research. The current study tested whether trait mindfulness alone explains any of the variability on task performance. Five commonly used mindfulness scales, as well as six standardized and experimental attention and working memory tasks were administered to 164 participants with no meditation experience. Confirmatory factor analysis found that the common variance denoted by measures of trait mindfulness is unrelated to the common variance among tasks requiring focused attention. These results indicate that mindfulness scales may not be capturing the attentional aspects of mindfulness. Individuals who score high on mindfulness scales do not perform better on focused attention tasks than those who score lower on mindfulness scales. These results have implications for defining and operationalizing mindfulness.

  4. Dispositional Mindfulness and Depressive Symptomatology: Correlations with Limbic and Self-Referential Neural Activity during Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Baldwin M.; Creswell, J. David; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between mindfulness and depression, we studied normal young adults (n=27) who completed measures of dispositional mindfulness and depressive symptomatology, which were then correlated with: a) Rest: resting neural activity during passive viewing of a fixation cross, relative to a simple goal-directed task (shape-matching); and b) Reactivity: neural reactivity during viewing of negative emotional faces, relative to the same shape-matching task. Dispositional mindfulness was negatively correlated with resting activity in self-referential processing areas, while depressive symptomatology was positively correlated with resting activity in similar areas. In addition, dispositional mindfulness was negatively correlated with resting activity in the amygdala, bilaterally, while depressive symptomatology was positively correlated with activity in the right amygdala. Similarly, when viewing emotional faces, amygdala reactivity was positively correlated with depressive symptomatology and negatively correlated with dispositional mindfulness, an effect that was largely attributable to differences in resting activity. These findings indicate that mindfulness is associated with intrinsic neural activity and that changes in resting amygdala activity could be a potential mechanism by which mindfulness-based depression treatments elicit therapeutic improvement. PMID:20141298

  5. Oculometric variations during mind wandering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eGrandchamp

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant body of literature supports the contention that pupil size varies depending on cognitive load, affective state, and level of drowsiness. Here we assessed whether oculometric measures such as gaze position, blink frequency and pupil size were correlated with the occurrence and time course of self-reported mind-wandering episodes. We recorded the pupil size of two subjects engaged in a monotonous breath counting task while keeping their eyes on a fixation cross. Each subject performed ten 20-minute sessions, for total duration of about 4 hours. This task is conducive to producing mind-wandering episodes. Subjects were instructed to report spontaneous mind-wandering episodes by pressing a button when they lost count of their breath. After each button press, subjects filled in a short questionnaire describing the characteristics of their mind-wandering episode. We observed larger pupil size during the breath-focusing period compared to the mind-wandering period (p< 0.01 for both subjects. Our findings contradict previous research showing a higher baseline pupil size during mind wandering episodes in visual tasks. We discuss possible explanations for this discrepancy. We also analyzed nine other oculometric measures including blink rate, blink duration and gaze position. We built a support vector machine classifier and showed that mean pupil size was the most reliable predictors of mind wandering in both subjects. The classification accuracy of mind wandering data segments versus breath-focusing data segments was 81% for the first subject and 77% for the second subject. Additionally, we analyzed oculometric measures in light of the phenomenological data collected in the questionnaires. We showed that how well subjects remembered their thoughts while mind wandering was positively correlated with pupil size (subject 1, p< 0.001; subject 2, p< 0.05. Feelings of well being were also positively correlated with pupil size (subject 1, p< 0

  6. The Cogitoid: Towards a Computational Model of the Mind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří; Beran, M.

    č. 53 (2003), s. 19-20 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/1456 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : cogitoid * mind modelling * cognition Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.ercim.eu/publication/Ercim_News/enw53/wiedermann.html

  7. Minding morale of institutional markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, S

    1996-01-01

    The definition of the term SOCIAL LIFE FEELING is offered to denote or connote a sentiment about the social world or an affect-state that comes from socializing in that world. A review of the literature in SOCIOLOGY indicates that there is an abundance of predilection among sociologists in measuring and assessing How People Feel About Society and Their Place in Society. The selection of TWELVE SOCIAL LIFE FEELING SCALES developed by Karl F. Schuessler is based on their established reliability, their ease of use, and their embodiment in covering concepts pertaining to both a person's outlook on society (cynical, pessimistic, fatalistic) and his or her frame of mind in society (demoralized, estranged, alienated). The present report is based on SLFS11 or FEELINGS OF DEMORALIZATION in Urban and Rural settings. This scale gives the subjects an opportunity to express whether they are marking time, finding it difficult to be optimistic, surmising the world as too complicated, viewing their physical condition to be good, or taking pleasure in their achievements, and so and so forth. A random sample of 398 students drawn from an urban and a rural campus was personally administered a questionnaire included in Appendix A. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analyses through MINITAB software. High scores present a view of self as useless, helpless, aimless; low scores on the other hand, rules out such an admission of self as useless. It appears that this scale comes closest to approximating the concept of morale and its denotation of demoralization and despair. Persons of high morale have high hopes and great expectations and intend to persevere. Persons of low morale have little hope in their efforts being counted and would presumably stop trying. It is important to note that the items in this scale have principally determined the morale of older people. In this study we have attempted to find its utility in investigating undergraduate students representing the

  8. Publicity, Advertising and Spirituality

    OpenAIRE

    Ramona Olivia ŞTEFĂNESCU-MIHĂILĂ

    2014-01-01

    Advertising industry is more and more often associated to brilliant minds in areas such as: psychology, sociology, anthropology, who turned a job into a full time task of “penetrating the collective public mind, (...) its manipulation, exploitation and control”. That is why, ever since its beginnings, the advertising industry was admonished by social critics for taking materialism to the highest levels; to replace inner happiness and intrinsic motivation with the wish to be productive in soci...

  9. Schizotypy and mindfulness: Magical thinking without suspiciousness characterizes mindfulness meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Antonova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing evidence for demonstrated efficacy of mindfulness in various disorders, there is a continuous concern about the relationship between mindfulness practice and psychosis. As schizotypy is part of the psychosis spectrum, we examined the relationship between long-term mindfulness practice and schizotypy in two independent studies. Study 1 included 24 experienced mindfulness practitioners (19 males from the Buddhist tradition (meditators and 24 meditation-naïve individuals (all males. Study 2 consisted of 28 meditators and 28 meditation-naïve individuals (all males. All participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Raine, 1991, a self-report scale containing 9 subscales (ideas of reference, excessive social anxiety, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, odd/eccentric behavior, no close friends, odd speech, constricted affect, suspiciousness. Participants of study 2 also completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire which assesses observing (Observe, describing (Describe, acting with awareness (Awareness, non-judging of (Non-judgment and non-reactivity to inner experience (Non-reactivity facets of trait mindfulness. In both studies, meditators scored significantly lower on suspiciousness and higher on magical thinking compared to meditation-naïve individuals and showed a trend towards lower scores on excessive social anxiety. Excessive social anxiety correlated negatively with Awareness and Non-judgment; and suspiciousness with Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity facets across both groups. The two groups did not differ in their total schizotypy score. We conclude that mindfulness practice is not associated with an overall increase in schizotypal traits. Instead, the pattern suggests that mindfulness meditation, particularly with an emphasis on the Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity aspects, may help to reduce suspiciousness and excessive social anxiety.

  10. The oceanic literary reading mind : An impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, M.

    2016-01-01

    The mind and brain processes of the literary reading mind are most accurately defined as oceanic: the mind is an ocean. This is the essential premise that I put forward in my book Literary Reading, Cognition and Emotion: An Exploration of the Oceanic Mind (Routledge, 2011).1 The statement is of

  11. Speak Your Mind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-12-01

    Good science comes from the open competition between ideas. Even the best hypotheses and conjectures are based on incomplete data and are influenced by inherent biases. Presenting these ideas in public provides an excellent opportunity to stack them up against the competition. I found that anticipation of a direct public question was also one of the most effective motivators for critical thinking.

  12. Out of our minds: a review of sociocultural cognition theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenberg, Josh; Knobelsdorf, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Theories of mind are implicitly embedded in educational research. The predominant theory of mind during the latter half of the twentieth century has focused primarily on the individual mind in isolation, context-free problem-solving and mental representations and reasoning, what we refer to as cognitivism. Over the last two decades, CS Education researchers have begun to incorporate recent research that extends, elaborates and sometimes challenges cognitivism. These theories, which we refer to collectively as sociocultural cognition theory, view minds as cultural products, biologically evolved to be extended by tools, social interaction and embodied interaction in the world. Learning, under this perspective, is viewed as tool-mediated participation in the ongoing practices of cultural communities. In this paper, we pursue three goals. First, we provide a summary of the key principles in sociocultural cognition theory, placing this theory within a historical context with respect to the cognitive theories that it extends and challenges. Second, we integrate across different but related research efforts that all fall under the sociocultural cognition umbrella, using a uniform terminology for describing ideas represented within different discourse communities. And third, we reference a number of canonical sources in sociocultural cognition theory so as to serve as an index into this diverse literature for those wanting to explore further.

  13. Brief Mindfulness Meditation Training Reduces Mind-Wandering: The Critical Role of Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahl, Hayley A.; Lindsay, Emily K.; Pacilio, Laura E.; Brown, Kirk W.; Creswell, J. David

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation programs, which train individuals to monitor their present moment experience in an open or accepting way, have been shown to reduce mind-wandering on standardized tasks in several studies. Here we test two competing accounts for how mindfulness training reduces mind-wandering, evaluating whether the attention monitoring component of mindfulness training alone reduces mind-wandering or whether the acceptance training component is necessary for reducing mind-wandering. Healthy young adults (N=147) were randomized to either a 3-day brief mindfulness training condition incorporating instruction in both attention monitoring and acceptance, a mindfulness training condition incorporating attention monitoring instruction only, a relaxation training condition, or a reading control condition. Participants completed measures of dispositional mindfulness and treatment expectancies before the training session on Day 1 and then completed a 6-minute Sustained Attention Response Task (SART) measuring mind-wandering after the training session on Day 3. Acceptance training was important for reducing mind-wandering, such that the monitoring + acceptance mindfulness training condition had the lowest mind-wandering relative to the other conditions, including significantly lower mind-wandering relative to the monitor-only mindfulness training condition. In one of the first experimental mindfulness training dismantling studies to-date, we show that training in acceptance is a critical driver of mindfulness training reductions in mind-wandering. This effect suggests that acceptance skills may facilitate emotion regulation on boring and frustrating sustained attention tasks that foster mind-wandering, such as the SART. PMID:27819445

  14. [Mentalization and theory of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyl, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children.

  15. Intersubjectivity in Wittgenstein and Freud: other minds and the foundations of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, J

    1997-12-01

    Intersubjectivity, the cooperation of two or more minds, is basic to human behavior, yet eludes the grasp of psychiatry. This paper traces the dilemma to the "problem of other minds" assumed with the epistemologies of modern science. It presents the solution of Wittgenstein's later philosophy, known for his treatment of other minds in terms of "human agreement in language." Unlike recent studies of "Wittgenstein's psychology," this one reviews the Philosophical Investigations' "private language argument," the crux of his mature views on mind. It reads that argument as recording his shift from the modern egocentric paradigm of mind to an intersubjective one. The paper contrasts the merits of Wittgenstein's reduction of subject and object to grammar with the problems of Freud's metapsychological reduction. It shows how Wittgenstein's intersubjective method avoids the excesses of behaviorism and phenomenology, offering a specifically human way to adapt mechanistic and interpretive means to the communicative ends of psychiatry.

  16. The Psychological Benefits from Reconceptualizing Music-Making as Mindfulness Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Matthew; Brewer, Judson

    2015-06-01

    While the music psychology and education literatures have devoted considerable attention to how musical instrumentalists practice their instruments, less formal scholarly attention has been given in consideration of what it means to maintain a musical "practice" over time and across context. In this paper, the practice of mindfulness meditation is used as heuristic, arguing for a view of mindfulness meditation as a formalized de-specialization of the infinite number of other activities with which people can achieve mindfulness. Sitting meditation, requiring of one to observe the contents of their mind unmediated, can serve as a useful model for the musician in understanding the phenomenology of the music-making process and the "flow" states that can result from an embodied musical practice. Finally, reconceptualizing music-making as a mindfulness practice is considered with psychological and pedagogical implications relevant for developing musicians.

  17. Public views of wetlands and waterfowl conservation in the United States—Results of a survey to inform the 2018 update of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Emily J.; Miller, Holly M.

    2018-01-24

    Executive SummaryThis report provides information from a general public survey conducted in early 2017 to help inform the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) 2018 update. This report is intended for use by the NAWMP advisory committees and anyone interested in the human dimensions of wetlands and waterfowl management. A mail-out survey was sent to 5,000 addresses in the United States, which were selected randomly in proportion to the population of each State. A total of 1,030 completed surveys representing 49 States were returned, resulting in a 23 percent overall response rate.When comparing the demographics of the respondents to the U.S. census data, this sample overrepresented people who are male, older, highly educated, and white. Data were weighted on gender and age to make the results more representative of the overall U.S. population. Additionally, this sample had higher participation rates in all wildlife-related recreation activities than has been found in previous studies; this indicates there may have been selection bias, with people interested in nature-related topics more likely to complete the survey. Therefore, results likely represent a segment of the U.S. public that is more oriented toward and aware of wildlife and conservation issues than the general public as a whole. Because of this bias, responses for each question were also broken down by recreationist type (hunters, anglers, wildlife viewers, and no wildlife-related recreation). Additionally, responses for each question were split by administrative flyway (Atlantic, Central, Mississippi, Pacific) and residency (urban, urban cluster, rural) to better understand the different groups.Most respondents knew of wetlands in their local area or community, and more than half had visited wetlands in the previous 12 months. Of those who had visited wetlands, the most common reasons were for walking/hiking/biking and enjoying nature/picnicking. In addition, this sample was very concerned

  18. Pilates, Mindfulness and Somatic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Karen; Adams, Marianne; Quin, Rebecca; Harrison, Mandy; Greeson, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    The Pilates Method is a form of somatic education with the potential to cultivate mindfulness - a mental quality associated with overall well-being. However, controlled studies are needed to determine whether changes in mindfulness are specific to the Pilates Method or also result from other forms of exercise. This quasi-experimental study compared Pilates Method mat classes and recreational exercise classes on measures of mindfulness and well-being at the beginning, middle and end of a 15 week semester. Total mindfulness scores increased overall for the Pilates Method group but not for the exercise control group, and these increases were directly related to end of semester ratings of self-regulatory self-efficacy, perceived stress and mood. Findings suggest that the Pilates Method specifically enhances mindfulness, and these increases are associated with other measures of wellness. The changes in mindfulness identified in this study support the role of the Pilates Method in the mental well-being of its practitioners and its potential to support dancers' overall well-being.

  19. A structured literature review on the role of mindfulness, mindful eating and intuitive eating in changing eating behaviours: effectiveness and associated potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Janet M; Smith, Nicola; Ashwell, Margaret

    2017-12-01

    The role of mindfulness, mindful eating and a newer concept of intuitive eating in modulating eating habits is an area of increasing interest. In this structured literature review, a summary of the current evidence is presented, together with details of interventions undertaken and the tools to measure outcomes. It is broad in scope given the emerging evidence base in this area. The review yielded sixty-eight publications: twenty-three interventions in obese/overweight populations; twenty-nine interventions in normal-weight populations; sixteen observational studies, three of which were carried out in overweight/obese populations. Mindfulness-based approaches appear most effective in addressing binge eating, emotional eating and eating in response to external cues. There is a lack of compelling evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness and mindful eating in weight management. Mindfulness-based approaches may prevent weight gain. Reduced food intake was seen in some of the studies in overweight and obese populations, but this was less apparent in the studies in normal-weight populations. The evidence base for intuitive eating is limited to date and further research is needed to examine its potential in altering eating behaviours. Mindfulness appears to work by an increased awareness of internal, rather than external, cues to eat. Mindfulness and mindful eating have the potential to address problematic eating behaviours and the challenges many face with controlling their food intake. Encouraging a mindful eating approach would seem to be a positive message to be included in general weight management advice to the public.

  20. Framing the Mind-Body Problem in Contemporary Neuroscientific and Sunni Islamic Theological Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Faisal; Fette, Don; Jafri, Syed S; I Padela, Aasim

    2018-07-01

    Famously posed by seventeenth-century French philosopher René Descartes, the mind-body problem remains unresolved in western philosophy and science, with both disciplines unable to move convincingly beyond the dualistic model. The persistence of dualism calls for a reframing of the problem through interdisciplinary modes of inquiry that include non-western points of view. One such perspective is Islamic theology of the soul, which, while approaching the problem from a distinct point of view, also adopts a position commensurate with (substance) dualism. Using this point of convergence as a conceptual starting point, we argue that bringing into dialogue contemporary neuroscientific, philosophy of mind, and Sunni Islamic theological discourses may provide a fruitful way of reframing the age-old mind-body problem. This paper provides an overview of how these three discourses have approached the issue of the mind-body (-soul) problem. Juxtaposing these three discourses, we hope, may ignite further scholarly dialogue and investigation.

  1. The mind and heart of the negotiator

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Leigh L

    2015-01-01

    For undergraduate and graduate-level business courses that cover the skills of negotiation. Delve into the mind and heart of the negotiator in order to enhance negotiation skills. The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator is dedicated to negotiators who want to improve their ability to negotiate-whether in multimillion-dollar business deals or personal interactions. This text provides an integrated view of what to do and what to avoid at the bargaining table, facilitated by an integration of theory, scientific research, and practical examples. This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. Here's how: *Provide Students with Practical Real-World Examples: Each chapter opens with a case study that illustrates a real business situation.*Offer In-Depth Information on Business Negotiation Skills: This text provides practical take-away points for the manager and executive on integrative negotiation and contains a series of hands-on principles that have been proven to incre...

  2. Concept of aesthetic and unity of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Aleksandar M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author was investigated questions about subject and a concept of aesthetic in the constellation of a modern philosophy. The question is prepared on a historical view of matter, and in the bordering line of a sense of a essence of things. As a matter of a sense of substance we must have a hermeneutical preparing in a historical dimension, what it is, and after that make a judgment what is not possible to be. Investigations always take us back to the antique period of philosophical researches because there is substance considering without any commas dealing with a strange interests looking from the side of pure philosophy. Beauty, good and a truth still must be a comprehensive values or a super transcendental beings in the sort of lights of a thinking. Thinking is possible if we have adequate ideas on the mind, and that ideas must have a spiritual space for them existing in us, or in the continuing of a life of the history of philosophy as a matter of our aesthetical meanings and a habit of the spirit. By that sign in our awareness mind we take out duty to building self-consciousness, as a personal updating and also take to philosophy that what she asks from us today.

  3. Attentional Focus in Motor Learning, the Feldenkrais Method, and Mindful Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Josef

    2016-08-01

    The present paper discusses attentional focus in motor learning and performance from the point of view of mindful movement practices, taking as a starting point the Feldenkrais method. It is argued that earlier criticism of the Feldenkrais method (and thereby implicitly of mindful movement practices more generally) because of allegedly inappropriate attentional focus turns out to be unfounded in light of recent developments in the study of motor learning and performance. Conversely, the examples of the Feldenkrais method and Ki-Aikido are used to illustrate how both Western and Eastern (martial arts derived) mindful movement practices might benefit sports psychology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. "Mind the trap": mindfulness practice reduces cognitive rigidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Greenberg

    Full Text Available Two experiments examined the relation between mindfulness practice and cognitive rigidity by using a variation of the Einstellung water jar task. Participants were required to use three hypothetical jars to obtain a specific amount of water. Initial problems were solvable by the same complex formula, but in later problems ("critical" or "trap" problems solving was possible by an additional much simpler formula. A rigidity score was compiled through perseverance of the complex formula. In Experiment 1, experienced mindfulness meditators received significantly lower rigidity scores than non-meditators who had registered for their first meditation retreat. Similar results were obtained in randomized controlled Experiment 2 comparing non-meditators who underwent an eight meeting mindfulness program with a waiting list group. The authors conclude that mindfulness meditation reduces cognitive rigidity via the tendency to be "blinded" by experience. Results are discussed in light of the benefits of mindfulness practice regarding a reduced tendency to overlook novel and adaptive ways of responding due to past experience, both in and out of the clinical setting.

  5. Whole mind and shared mind in clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ronald Mark

    2013-02-01

    To review the theory, research evidence and ethical implications regarding "whole mind" and "shared mind" in clinical practice in the context of chronic and serious illnesses. Selective critical review of the intersection of classical and naturalistic decision-making theories, cognitive neuroscience, communication research and ethics as they apply to decision-making and autonomy. Decision-making involves analytic thinking as well as affect and intuition ("whole mind") and sharing cognitive and affective schemas of two or more individuals ("shared mind"). Social relationships can help processing of complex information that otherwise would overwhelm individuals' cognitive capacities. Medical decision-making research, teaching and practice should consider both analytic and non-analytic cognitive processes. Further, research should consider that decisions emerge not only from the individual perspectives of patients, their families and clinicians, but also the perspectives that emerge from the interactions among them. Social interactions have the potential to enhance individual autonomy, as well as to promote relational autonomy based on shared frames of reference. Shared mind has the potential to result in wiser decisions, greater autonomy and self-determination; yet, clinicians and patients should be vigilant for the potential of hierarchical relationships to foster coercion or silencing of the patient's voice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physics and our View of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgevoord, Jan

    1994-11-01

    Foreword; 1. Introduction JAN HILGEVOORD; 2. Questioning the answers GERARD T. HOOFT; 3. Theories of everything JOHN BARROW; 4. The scientific view of the world DENNIS DIEKS; 5. Enlarging the world ERNAN McMULLIN; 6. The world of empiricism BAS VAN FRAASSEN; 7. Has the scientific view of the world a special status compared with other views? PAUL FEYERABEND; 8. Quantum theory and our view of the world PAUL FEYERABEND; 9. Interpretation of science - science as interpretation BAS VAN FRAASSEN; 10. Problems in debates about physics and religion WILLEM DREES; 11. The mind of God PAUL DAVIES; 12. The sources of models for God: metaphysics or metaphor? MARY HESSE; 13. Discussion.

  7. Concerns of Quality and Safety in Public Domain Surgical Education Videos: An Assessment of the Critical View of Safety in Frequently Used Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Shanley B; Alseidi, Adnan A

    2017-12-01

    Online videos are among the most common resources for case preparation. Using crowd sourcing, we evaluated the relationship between operative quality and viewing characteristics of online laparoscopic cholecystectomy videos. We edited 160 online videos of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to 60 seconds or less. Crowd workers (CW) rated videos using Global Objective Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS), the critical view of safety (CVS) criteria, and assigned overall pass/fail ratings if CVS was achieved; linear mixed effects models derived average ratings. Views, likes, dislikes, subscribers, and country were recorded for subset analysis of YouTube videos. Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC) assessed correlation between performance measures. One video (0.06%) achieved a passing CVS score of ≥5; 23%, ≥4; 44%, ≥3; 79%, ≥2; and 100% ≥1. Pass/fail ratings correlated to CVS, SCC 0.95 (p quality. The average CVS and GOALS scores were no different for videos with >20,000 views (22%) compared with those with online surgical videos of LC. Favorable characteristics, such as number of views or likes, do not translate to higher quality. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of a Brief Mindfulness Induction on Processing of Emotional Images: an ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna D. Eddy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to effectively direct one’s attention is an important aspect of regulating emotions and a component of mindfulness. Mindfulness practices have been established as effective interventions for mental and physical illness; however, the underlying neural mechanisms of mindfulness and how they relate to emotional processing have not been explored in depth. The current study used a within-subjects repeated measures design to examine if focused breathing, a brief mindfulness induction, could modulate event-related potentials (ERPs during emotional image processing relative to a control condition. We related ERP measures of processing positive, negative, and neutral images (the P300 and late posterior positivity – LPP to state and trait mindfulness measures. Overall, the brief mindfulness induction condition did not influence ERPs reflecting emotional processing; however, in the brief mindfulness induction condition, those participants who reported feeling more decentered (a subscale of the Toronto Mindfulness Scale after viewing the images had reduced P300 responses to negative versus neutral images.

  9. How Public Is Public Administration? A Constitutional Approach of Publicness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeling, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Both in Public Administration and in practice, there is a loss of the concept of public. A view became dominant in which markets were superior to governments and public to private. Not only did the esteem of the public sphere diminish, but also its significance in our reasoning and teaching. It became less clear what the public sphere stood for.…

  10. Understanding the body-mind in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Reventlow, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    views but these have not gained a foothold in primary care medicine. McWhinney introduced a new metaphor, ‘the body–mind’, and Rudebeck advocated cultivating ‘bodily empathy’. These views have much in common with both phenomenological thinking and mentalization, a psychological concept for understanding......Patients’ experience of symptoms does not follow the body–mind divide that characterizes the classification of disease in the health care system. Therefore, understanding patients in their entirety rather than in parts demands a different theoretical approach. Attempts have been made to formulate...

  11. Brug af mindfulness til facilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Gennem de senere år er mindfulness gået fra udelukkende at være en eksistentiel praksis til også at være en behandlingsform og senest til også at blive brugt som et praktisk redskab i erhvervslivet. Denne artikel viser, at mindfulness også kan anvendes i forbindelse med facilitering. Facilitering...... er et værktøj, som bruges i arbejdslivet fx til møder og konferencer, hvor en gruppe mennesker er samlet for at lære eller udrette noget sammen. Det nye ved at kombinere mindfulness med facilitering er, at fokus hermed ændres fra individet, som er centrum for den eksistentielle fordybelse eller det...... terapeutiske forløb, til gruppen, som er udgangspunktet i facilitering. Artiklen viser, hvordan mindfulness konkret kan bruges på gruppeniveau og diskuterer samtidig hvilke problemer, der kan være forbundet hermed. Baseret på vores egne erfaringer, diskuterer vi, hvordan mindfulness kan påvirke en gruppes...

  12. 'Mind the Gap!'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar

    This paper challenges the widely held view that sharply falling real transport costs closed the transatlantic gap in grain prices in the second half of the 19th century. Several new results emerge from an analysis of a new data set of weekly wheat prices and freight costs from New York to UK...... markets. Firstly, there was a decline in the transatlantic price gap but it was not sharp and the gap remained substantial. Secondly, the fall in the transatlantic price differential had more to do with improved market and marketing efficiency than with falling transport costs. Thirdly, spurious price...

  13. Hypnosis and Mindfulness: The Twain Finally Meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Mindfulness meditation (or simply mindfulness) is an ancient method of attention training. Arguably, developed originally by the Buddha, it has been practiced by Buddhists over 2,500 years as part of their spiritual training. The popularity in mindfulness has soared recently following its adaptation as Mindfulness-Based Stress Management by Jon Kabat-Zinn (1995). Mindfulness is often compared to hypnosis but not all assertions are accurate. This article, as a primer, delineates similarities and dissimilarities between mindfulness and hypnosis in terms of 12 specific facets, including putative neuroscientific findings. It also provides a case example that illustrates clinical integration of the two methods.

  14. Otak, Bahasa dan Pikiran dalam Mind Map

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Shalihah

    2014-01-01

    Language and mind are firmly related to each other. The mind can not be separated from language, since language is expressions of minds. Without language, one can not be able to convey things in his/her minds and they are never be able to be understood by the others. Thus, language is the way to grasp one's thought.  This article deals with the relationship between Mind Map and the structure of brain, how it works, and what to do with language and thinking. From concept of mind map ...

  15. A perception theory in mind-body medicine: guided imagery and mindful meditation as cross-modal adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Felice L

    2012-02-01

    A new theory of mind-body interaction in healing is proposed based on considerations from the field of perception. It is suggested that the combined effect of visual imagery and mindful meditation on physical healing is simply another example of cross-modal adaptation in perception, much like adaptation to prism-displaced vision. It is argued that psychological interventions produce a conflict between the perceptual modalities of the immune system and vision (or touch), which leads to change in the immune system in order to realign the modalities. It is argued that mind-body interactions do not exist because of higher-order cognitive thoughts or beliefs influencing the body, but instead result from ordinary interactions between lower-level perceptual modalities that function to detect when sensory systems have made an error. The theory helps explain why certain illnesses may be more amenable to mind-body interaction, such as autoimmune conditions in which a sensory system (the immune system) has made an error. It also renders sensible erroneous changes, such as those brought about by "faith healers," as conflicts between modalities that are resolved in favor of the wrong modality. The present view provides one of very few psychological theories of how guided imagery and mindfulness meditation bring about positive physical change. Also discussed are issues of self versus non-self, pain, cancer, body schema, attention, consciousness, and, importantly, developing the concept that the immune system is a rightful perceptual modality. Recognizing mind-body healing as perceptual cross-modal adaptation implies that a century of cross-modal perception research is applicable to the immune system.

  16. The psychometric properties of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS and Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI as measures of mindfulness and their relationship with burnout and work engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kotzé

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Given the increasing interest in mindfulness in the workplace, recent research recommends that the psychometric properties of existing mindfulness measures be evaluated in terms of convergent and predictive validity. Research purpose: The research purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the 15-item (short version Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS and the 14-item (short version Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI in parallel on a South African sample. Furthermore, the research aimed to investigate the convergent validity between the FMI and MAAS as well as their relationship to burnout and work engagement (predictive validity. Motivation for the study: Organisational scholars must investigate the most appropriate instruments for measuring mindfulness in the workplace. Doing so would allow an eventual meta-analysis on the construct and its relationships and utility in the workplace. Research design, approach and methodology: For this study, a quantitative cross-sectional survey research design was employed. Convenience sampling was chosen and 497 participants applying for admission to a management and leadership degree programme at a South African Business School participated in the study. All participants of the sample are employed at either private or public institutions. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the convergent validity of the instruments. Cronbach’s alpha was utilised in determining the reliabilities of the instruments. The product–moment correlation by Pearson was used to compare the two instruments in terms of their relationship to burnout and work engagement. Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine whether the FMI and MAAS are significant predictors of burnout and work engagement (predictive validity. Main findings: The results showed that the short versions of both the FMI and the MAAS are valid and reliable unidimensional measures of mindfulness. The findings showed

  17. Baby MIND Experiment Construction Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, M.; et al.

    2017-04-28

    Baby MIND is a magnetized iron neutrino detector, with novel design features, and is planned to serve as a downstream magnetized muon spectrometer for the WAGASCI experiment on the T2K neutrino beam line in Japan. One of the main goals of this experiment is to reduce systematic uncertainties relevant to CP-violation searches, by measuring the neutrino contamination in the anti-neutrino beam mode of T2K. Baby MIND is currently being constructed at CERN, and is planned to be operational in Japan in October 2017.

  18. Digitalization of the human mind

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.Sc. Drita Mehmeti

    2013-01-01

    The human faces with various problems already in its first steps in live, and carriers of such life situations are found in various ages which bring new currents in the way of life. Starting from the ancient Greek thought, the human and its mind made the centre of the world, already orienting the Western thought towards the study of the human mind (namely human reason), since it made the key tool for human survival. Although human problems have been discussed throughout various ages, they hav...

  19. European Communication Monitor 2009: an institutionalized view of how public relations and communication management professionals face the economic and media crises in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Á.; Verhoeven, P.; Tench, R.; Zerfass, A.

    2010-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) is an extensive longitudinal research project to monitor trends in public relations and communication management and analyze the changing framework for the profession in Europe. The 2009 ECM edition identifies the main characteristics of individual

  20. To Mind IT or not to Mind IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Rukonova, Boriana

    2011-01-01

    interpretative research approaches to less explored domains. It highlights that practitioners perceive certain variables, which are less obvious to the traditional research-driven models, to be of importance. Practical implications – The results should be applied with care, bearing in mind that our conclusions...

  1. Mindful Storytellers: Emerging Pragmatics and Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Camila

    2013-01-01

    Emerging pragmatic language skills involve social, cognitive and linguistic abilities, including children's awareness of the conversational partner's mental states. The present study investigated the relation between children's theory of mind (ToM) and features of pragmatic language skills assessed through narrative discourse. One hundred and…

  2. Neurotheology-Matters of the Mind or Matters that Mind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Samarth; Acharya, Sourya; Rajput, Devendra

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the true nature of an individual, be it a child or an adult, a male or a female, is almost an impossible task. The vast abyss like behaviour of a human mind is virtually unfathomable. Yet, with the advent of neurosciences, it can be said that we, as the medical fraternity, have been in a position to decipher a considerable part of the human mind. This review accepts the fact that religion and theology have extreme reverence and respect. Yet, when it comes to extraordinary beliefs, phenomena, unimaginable feats and emotional deviations of the human mind, especially those which involve deep faiths and beliefs, comprehensive neuroscientific explanations from the emerging data, with the aid of elaborate neuroimaging, have proved to be extremely rational and logical. This review did make an attempt to untangle some facets of spirituality and to make rational explanations of the same. It was an attempt to understand the function of the mind (as an abstract) and the brain, on the spiritual experiences and sudden enlightments, the experience of togetherness with the universe, and to understand the phenomena of trance and an altered state of consciousness, which is better referred as the emerging science of neurotheology.

  3. Minds at war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull, S.

    1988-01-01

    This book shows that nuclear weapons specialists (that small group of military officers, civilian government officials, and private analysts who conceive, justify, and implement US weapons policy) exhibit a frightening degree of irrationality and inner confusion about nuclear weapons. The author sought to determine the degree to which the policy makers recognize the fundamental new military realities that nuclear weapons have brought: the vulnerability of both superpowers to complete destruction and the inability of either side to reduce the vulnerability. The results reported in the book show that simple well-informed common sense would be a far more rational guide to nuclear policy than the convoluted, self-contradictory views of those now in authority. Similar patterns of thinking are reported from a small group of Soviet analysts interviewed

  4. When Traits Match States: Examining the Associations between Self-Report Trait and State Mindfulness following a State Mindfulness Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Wilson, Adam D; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has found inconsistent relationships between trait mindfulness and state mindfulness. To extend previous research, we sought to examine the unique associations between self-report trait mindfulness and state mindfulness by levels of meditation experience (meditation-naïve vs. meditation-experienced) and by mindfulness induction (experimentally induced mindful state vs. control group). We recruited 299 college students (93 with previous mindfulness meditation experience) to participate in an experiment that involved the assessment of five facets of trait mindfulness (among other constructs), followed by a mindfulness induction (vs. control), followed by the assessment of state mindfulness of body and mind. Correlational analyses revealed limited associations between trait mindfulness facets and facets of state mindfulness, and demonstrated that a brief mindfulness exercise focused on bodily sensations and the breath elicited higher state mindfulness of body but not state mindfulness of mind. We found significant interactions such that individuals with previous meditation experience and higher scores on the observing facet of trait mindfulness had the highest levels of state mindfulness of body and mind. Among individuals with meditation experience, the strengths of the associations between observing trait mindfulness and the state mindfulness facets increased with frequency of meditation practice. Some other interactions ran counter to expectations. Overall, the relatively weak associations between trait and state mindfulness demonstrates the need to improve our operationalizations of mindfulness, advance our understanding of how to best cultivate mindfulness, and reappraise the ways in which mindfulness can manifest as a state and as a trait.

  5. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally Relevant Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah

    2014-01-01

    To test young children’s false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered 3 tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an “accidental transgressor” task, which measured a morally relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind. PMID:21377148

  6. The minds of gods: a comparative study of supernatural agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant

    2013-10-01

    The present work is the first study to systematically compare the minds of gods by examining some of the intuitive processes that guide how people reason about them. By examining the Christian god and the spirit-masters of the Tyva Republic, it first confirms that the consensus view of the Christian god's mind is one of omniscience with acute concern for interpersonal social behavior (i.e., moral behaviors) and that Tyvan spirit-masters are not as readily attributed with knowledge or concern of moral information. Then, it reports evidence of a moralization bias of gods' minds; American Christians who believe that God is omniscient rate God as more knowledgeable of moral behaviors than nonmoral information. Additionally, Tyvans who do not readily report pro- or antisocial behavior among the things that spirit-masters care about will nevertheless rate spirit-masters' knowledge and concern of moral information higher than nonmoral information. However, this knowledge is distributed spatially; the farther away from spirits' place of governance a moral behavior takes place, the less they know and care about it. Finally, the wider the breadth of knowledge Tyvans attribute to spirit-masters, the more they attribute moral concern for behaviors that transpire beyond their jurisdiction. These results further demonstrate that there is a significant gulf between expressed beliefs and intuitive religious cognition and provides evidence for a moralization bias of gods' minds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nature of Science and Models: Comparing Portuguese Prospective Teachers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Joana; Vasconcelos, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Despite the relevance of nature of science and scientific models in science education, studies reveal that students do not possess adequate views regarding these topics. Bearing in mind that both teachers' views and knowledge strongly influence students' educational experiences, the main scope of this study was to evaluate Portuguese prospective…

  8. Cultivate Mindfulness: A Case Study of Mindful Learning in an English as a Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    This case study investigated how the use of mindfulness affected college English as a foreign language (EFL) students' learning and how mindful learning strategies supported their learning of English. Mindful learning considers the students' abilities to be aware, perceive and conceive. Mindfulness results in an increase in competence, memory,…

  9. A Tabloid Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Tabloidization of the news has been a recurring issue in the debates among scholars and journalists. Most research focuses on measuring either content or the effects of tabloid style content and often left the antecedents of the content as a ‘black box’. To gain insights on the production process...... sensationalist news values more and relevance news values less than other journalists. Finally, the study shows that tabloidization of the news is generally driven by profit orientation of both journalists and their organization. However, it also shows that journalists’ adherence to the role as public mobilizer...

  10. Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda P.; Marquis, Andre; Guiffrida, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness is a relatively new construct in counseling that is rapidly gaining interest as it is applied to people struggling with a myriad of problems. Research has consistently demonstrated that counseling interventions using mindfulness improve well-being and reduce psychopathology. This article provides a detailed definition of mindfulness,…

  11. Mindfulness: Implications for Substance Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Jonathan; Kim-Appel, Dohee

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness is a concept that has taken quite a hold on the therapeutic world in recent years. Techniques that induce "mindfulness" are increasingly being employed in Western psychology and psychotherapy to help alleviate a variety of conditions. So while mindfulness has its conceptual roots in Buddhism it has been translated into a Western…

  12. Digital doorway: enriching your mind

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cambridge, G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available your mind G CAMBRIDGE Meraka Institute, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 gcambrid@csir.co.za The Digital Doorway is a joint project between the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) and the Meraka Institute of the CSIR...

  13. Mind, matter, and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    A theory of psychophysical phenomena is proposed. It resolves simultaneously four basic problems of science, namely the problems of the connections between: (1) mind and matter, (2), quantum theory and reality, (3) relativity theory and ''becoming,'' and (4) relativity theory and Bell's theorem

  14. Mindfulness på arbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    organisationer, hvor fokus er på følelser, kultur, mindfulness, negativ formåen og mobning. •Ledelse, hvor postmoderne ledelsesmetoder bringes frem, beskrives og analyseres i forhold til selvstyrende grupper, mentalisering, teamorienteret ledelse og kønsperspektivet på ledelse. •Konsulentperspektivet, som...

  15. Keeping Things Mindfully on Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernes, Tor; Irgens, Eirik J.

    2013-01-01

    an investment of effort, mindfulness and preparedness for change, even if no perceptible change occurs. Although the organizational literature has to some extent dealt with learning under continuity, putting it more firmly on the organizational learning agenda is necessary. A central element of a more explicit...

  16. Digitalization of the human mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Drita Mehmeti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The human faces with various problems already in its first steps in live, and carriers of such life situations are found in various ages which bring new currents in the way of life. Starting from the ancient Greek thought, the human and its mind made the centre of the world, already orienting the Western thought towards the study of the human mind (namely human reason, since it made the key tool for human survival. Although human problems have been discussed throughout various ages, they have not been able to resolve in full the human problems, and therefore, the same issues were taken by the representatives of the socalled “critical theory”, who used the theory to criticize the way of live Western civilization was offering, known as digitalization of the human mind. The human problems are addressed in a poly-dimensional manner. The factors affecting the human mind are: industrial civilization, technical progress, automation, overtly influence of machinery on humans, substitution of cultural values, which in sum have developed a new World Order, where the ruler is technology. In the modern world, the human fails to recognize himself, since he is out of himself and lives according to the rules set forth by the “remote control”. In the flow of this kind of livelihood, human alienates, or in other words, the human goes out of himself, trying to adapt maximally to the requirements of the new way of life.

  17. Opening Doors, Hearts and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    A panel discussion, "Opening Doors, Hearts and Minds," was hosted at the 2006 annual COEO conference. Four dedicated Torontonians shared how they interpret outdoor environmental education and environmental education in what they do and offered suggestions as to how their work might be integrated in diverse urban communities. Tafari…

  18. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile.

  19. Explaining the Mind: Problems, Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2001-01-01

    The mind/body problem is the feeling/function problem: How and why do feeling systems feel? The problem is not just "hard" but insoluble (unless one is ready to resort to telekinetic dualism). Fortunately, the "easy" problems of cognitive science (such as the how and why of categorization and language) are not insoluble. Five books (by Damasio, Edelman/Tononi...

  20. Quechua Children's Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Penelope G.; Olson, David R.

    Three different theory of mind tasks were conducted with 4- to 8-year-old Quechua peasant children in the Peruvian Andes. The study investigated the ways in which children in preliterate cultures think and the possibility that they think differently than children in literate cultures. The tasks included: (1) a false-belief task, which tested the…

  1. Brain Friendly Techniques: Mind Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Cristine

    2004-01-01

    Mind Mapping can be called the Swiss Army Knife for the brain, a total visual thinking tool or a multi-handed thought catcher. Invented by Tony Buzan in the early 1970s and used by millions around the world, it is a method that can be a part of a techniques repertoire when teaching information literacy, planning, presenting, thinking, and so…

  2. Analysis of a voluntary initiative to reduce sodium in processed and ultra-processed food products in Argentina: the views of public and private sector representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronuovo, Luciana; Allemandi, Lorena; Tiscornia, Victoria; Champagne, Beatriz; Campbell, Norm; Schoj, Verónica

    2017-07-03

    The Less Salt, More Life program was the first voluntary salt reduction initiative in Argentina. This article analyzes the perspectives of the stakeholders involved in this voluntary agreement between the Ministry of Health and the food industry to gradually reduce sodium content in processed foods. This exploratory case study used a qualitative approach including 29 in-depth interviews with stakeholders from the public and private sectors and identified the role of the different stakeholders and their perceptions regarding the challenges encountered in the policy process that contribute to the debate on public-private partnerships in health policies. The article also discusses the initiative's main challenges and controversies.

  3. An industrial view of the Plowshare program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sam [Exploration, El Paso Natural Gas Company (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The presented viewpoints have evolved from extensive interaction since 1963 with government and industry participants in the Plowshare program. During the first decade of the Atomic Energy Commission's Plowshare program, the scientific feasibility of industrial applications of underground nuclear explosive technology was established by the Rainier, Gnome, Hardhat, Shoal, Salmon and Handcar experiments. A new era for examination of the technical and economic feasibility of industrial applications of nuclear explosives began with the Gas-buggy detonation in 1967. This era must be accompanied by close coordination between government and industry which was not required when government alone was establishing scientific feasibility. This presentation on 'industry's view of underground nuclear engineering' will be concentrated on problems which must be resolved to make the transition from scientific feasibility to technical and economic feasibility. The distinctions between 'contained' and 'cratering' applications go far beyond the differences in technology. Cratering objectives have been defined, funded by the government, pursued with a readiness date in mind, and supported by a national policy. Thus far, underground nuclear engineering has enjoyed few of these benefits. Industry's objective in underground nuclear engineering is to establish a viable enterprise which will benefit the public.

  4. An industrial view of the Plowshare program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Sam

    1970-01-01

    The presented viewpoints have evolved from extensive interaction since 1963 with government and industry participants in the Plowshare program. During the first decade of the Atomic Energy Commission's Plowshare program, the scientific feasibility of industrial applications of underground nuclear explosive technology was established by the Rainier, Gnome, Hardhat, Shoal, Salmon and Handcar experiments. A new era for examination of the technical and economic feasibility of industrial applications of nuclear explosives began with the Gas-buggy detonation in 1967. This era must be accompanied by close coordination between government and industry which was not required when government alone was establishing scientific feasibility. This presentation on 'industry's view of underground nuclear engineering' will be concentrated on problems which must be resolved to make the transition from scientific feasibility to technical and economic feasibility. The distinctions between 'contained' and 'cratering' applications go far beyond the differences in technology. Cratering objectives have been defined, funded by the government, pursued with a readiness date in mind, and supported by a national policy. Thus far, underground nuclear engineering has enjoyed few of these benefits. Industry's objective in underground nuclear engineering is to establish a viable enterprise which will benefit the public

  5. A systematic review of qualitative evidence of cancer patients' attitudes to mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, K J; Newbury-Birch, D; McGeechan, G J

    2018-03-01

    Mindfulness has been described as a non-elaborative, non-judgmental, present-centred awareness in which each thought, feeling or sensation is acknowledged and accepted. The aim of the present study was to systematically search and synthesise qualitative evidence of cancer patients' attitudes to mindfulness. A systematic review of qualitative evidence was conducted following the SPICE framework. All cancers were included. Medline, Cinahl, Science Direct, O-Alster and New Bank were searched from the first available year to August 2016 using the search terms; wellbeing, mindfulness, qualitative. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts; potentially relevant articles were retrieved and assessed independently by two reviewers. Data were extracted and quality assessed using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) qualitative research checklist. In total, 233 studies conducted between 2005 and 2015 were identified with six included in the final analysis. Four themes were identified: Coping strategies developed through mindfulness course; Positive outcomes of mindful practice; Challenges with engaging in mindful practice; and Group identification and shared experience. The current evidence supports the view that mindfulness is an effective intervention to help people adjust to living with and beyond cancer however, more qualitative work is needed in this area. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Trust-based collective view prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Tiejian; Xu, Guandong; Zhou, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Collective view prediction is to judge the opinions of an active web user based on unknown elements by referring to the collective mind of the whole community. Content-based recommendation and collaborative filtering are two mainstream collective view prediction techniques. They generate predictions by analyzing the text features of the target object or the similarity of users' past behaviors. Still, these techniques are vulnerable to the artificially-injected noise data, because they are not able to judge the reliability and credibility of the information sources. Trust-based Collective View

  7. Mind as Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLloyd

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience typically develops hypotheses to explain phenomena that are localized in space and time. Determining functions of brain regions in spatial and temporal isolation is generally regarded as the first step toward understanding the conjoint operation of the whole brain. In other words, if the task of cognitive neuroscience is to interpret the neural code, then the first step has been semantic, searching for the meanings (functions of localized elements, prior to exploring neural syntax, the mutual constraints among elements synchronically and diachronically. Researchers generally assume that neural semantics is a precondition for determining neural syntax. Furthermore, it is often assumed that the syntax of the brain is too complex for our present technology and understanding. A corollary of this view holds that functional MRI lacks the spatial and temporal resolution needed to identify the dynamic syntax of neural computation. This paper examines these assumptions with a novel analysis of fMRI image series, resting on the conjecture that any computational code will exhibit aggregate features that can be detected even if the meaning of the code is unknown. Specifically, computational codes will be sparse or dense in different degrees. A sparse code is one that uses only a few of the many possible patterns of activity (in the brain or symbols (in a human-made code. Considering sparseness at different scales and as measured by different techniques, this approach clearly distinguishes two conventional coding systems, namely, language and music. Considering 99 subjects in three different fMRI protocols, in comparison with 194 musical examples and 700 language passages, it is observed that fMRI activity is more similar to music than it is to language, as measured over single symbols, as well as symbol combinations in pairs and triples. Tools from cognitive musicology may therefore be useful in characterizing the brain as a dynamical

  8. Dementia syndrome and the onset of mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Meguro, Kenichi; Ueda, Masamichi; Matsui, Hiroshige

    1988-01-01

    The present report is designed to make clear the mechanism of dementia syndrome and the onset area of the mind. The plan of the statistic studies with X-CT, MRI and PET to find out the focus of dementia in the cortex was an absolute failure. A large number of patients having infarction of varying numbers and sizes in the cortex was neuropsychologically normal. With MRI, quantitative changes of atrophy and destruction were observed in the amygdaloid and hippocampal system bilaterally in both multiinfarct dementia (MID) and Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. With PET, the activity or excitability of the cortices was estimated by measuring the glucose utilization with 18 F-2-fluorodeoxyglucose in response to musical stimulation (a Japanese popular song entitled Sakura, Sakura=cherry blossoms, cherry blossoms) while having the eyes closed, (1) Not only normal volunteers but also with cases of MID and AD, the primary sensory and motor areas were stimulated. (2) In cases of MID and AD, the glucose utilization, was reduced drastically in the bilateral temporal and parietal association cortices. The impulses from all the primary sensory areas drain into the amygdala. Furthermore the impulses from the amygdala drain directly or indirectly into the hippocampus, and the impulses flow into the temporal cortex. Recognition may take place in this temporal cortex. Then, the impulses come to the parietal cortex. Conception may be completed there. Any damage to the amygdaloid and hippocampal system would result in abnormalities in memory, recognition, conception and various emotions. This is a possible mechanism of dementia syndrome. In view of this data the system also can be said to be the onset area of the mind. (author)

  9. Dementia syndrome and the onset of mind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Meguro, Kenichi; Ueda, Masamichi; Matsui, Hiroshige

    1988-12-01

    The present report is designed to make clear the mechanism of dementia syndrome and the onset area of the mind. The plan of the statistic studies with X-CT, MRI and PET to find out the focus of dementia in the cortex was an absolute failure. A large number of patients having infarction of varying numbers and sizes in the cortex was neuropsychologically normal. With MRI, quantitative changes of atrophy and destruction were observed in the amygdaloid and hippocampal system bilaterally in both multiinfarct dementia (MID) and Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. With PET, the activity or excitability of the cortices was estimated by measuring the glucose utilization with /sup 18/F-2-fluorodeoxyglucose in response to musical stimulation (a Japanese popular song entitled Sakura, Sakura=cherry blossoms, cherry blossoms) while having the eyes closed, (1) Not only normal volunteers but also with cases of MID and AD, the primary sensory and motor areas were stimulated. (2) In cases of MID and AD, the glucose utilization, was reduced drastically in the bilateral temporal and parietal association cortices. The impulses from all the primary sensory areas drain into the amygdala. Furthermore the impulses from the amygdala drain directly or indirectly into the hippocampus, and the impulses flow into the temporal cortex. Recognition may take place in this temporal cortex. Then, the impulses come to the parietal cortex. Conception may be completed there. Any damage to the amygdaloid and hippocampal system would result in abnormalities in memory, recognition, conception and various emotions. This is a possible mechanism of dementia syndrome. In view of this data the system also can be said to be the onset area of the mind. (author).

  10. Children’s strategic theory of mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Itai; Koenig, Melissa; Rustichini, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Human strategic interaction requires reasoning about other people’s behavior and mental states, combined with an understanding of their incentives. However, the ontogenic development of strategic reasoning is not well understood: At what age do we show a capacity for sophisticated play in social interactions? Several lines of inquiry suggest an important role for recursive thinking (RT) and theory of mind (ToM), but these capacities leave out the strategic element. We posit a strategic theory of mind (SToM) integrating ToM and RT with reasoning about incentives of all players. We investigated SToM in 3- to 9-y-old children and adults in two games that represent prevalent aspects of social interaction. Children anticipate deceptive and competitive moves from the other player and play both games in a strategically sophisticated manner by 7 y of age. One game has a pure strategy Nash equilibrium: In this game, children achieve equilibrium play by the age of 7 y on the first move. In the other game, with a single mixed-strategy equilibrium, children’s behavior moved toward the equilibrium with experience. These two results also correspond to two ways in which children’s behavior resembles adult behavior in the same games. In both games, children’s behavior becomes more strategically sophisticated with age on the first move. Beyond the age of 7 y, children begin to think about strategic interaction not myopically, but in a farsighted way, possibly with a view to cooperating and capitalizing on mutual gains in long-run relationships. PMID:25197065

  11. Schooled in Our Own Minds: Mind-Wandering and Mindfulness in the Makings of the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergas, Oren

    2018-01-01

    Curriculum discourse focuses understandably, on the formal and enacted curriculum; however, studies demonstrate that much of individuals' waking hours are spent in task-unrelated thinking and mind-wandering. No less, this pervasive phenomenon has been shown to affect us in many ways that can be linked to education. This paper examines this…

  12. Experiencing mindfulness meditation - a client narrative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The study was based on the non-participant involvement of the researcher in four six-to-eight weeks' mindfulness meditation training courses led by chartered psychologists. The participants suffered from stress/sleeplessness, depression or agoraphobia in the presented cases. They were selected...... and practicing mindfulness meditation. It is not the intention to give evidence about the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation in general, but to present the whats and hows of cases where mindfulness meditation appears to improve quality of life, health and well-being. Keywords: Mindfulness meditation...

  13. Mario Bunge's Materialist Theory of Mind and Contemporary Cognitive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Bunge's writings on the mind-body problem provide a rigorous, analytical antidote to the persistent anti-materialist tendency that has characterized the history of philosophy and science. Bunge gives special attention to dualism and its shortcomings, and this attention is welcome in view of the resurgence of the doctrine today. However, I focus my comments selectively on Bunge's more controversial, provocative claims, not to dismiss them, but to engage with them seriously. For example, a difficulty arising from Bunge's rhetorical style and its undoubted virtues is that not all the targets of his selfconfessed "bashings" (2010, xi) are equally deserving. For example, Bunge suggests "most contemporary philosophers of mind are indifferent to psychology, or are remarkably uninformed about it". This charge cannot be sustained today in light of the work of foremost philosophers today.

  14. Darwin in Mind: New Opportunities for Evolutionary Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Johan J.; Brown, Gillian R.; Richardson, Robert C.; Laland, Kevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary Psychology (EP) views the human mind as organized into many modules, each underpinned by psychological adaptations designed to solve problems faced by our Pleistocene ancestors. We argue that the key tenets of the established EP paradigm require modification in the light of recent findings from a number of disciplines, including human genetics, evolutionary biology, cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, and paleoecology. For instance, many human genes have been subject to recent selective sweeps; humans play an active, constructive role in co-directing their own development and evolution; and experimental evidence often favours a general process, rather than a modular account, of cognition. A redefined EP could use the theoretical insights of modern evolutionary biology as a rich source of hypotheses concerning the human mind, and could exploit novel methods from a variety of adjacent research fields. PMID:21811401

  15. Beyond pluralism: psychoanalysis and the workings of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Fred

    2011-10-01

    Subjects that Freud excluded or incompletely explored have been sites of theoretical expansion in over a century of observation: the role of the other, the self, the preoedipal period, action, the countertransference, limits to neutrality/anonymity/abstinence, the loci of the analytic drama, effects beyond interpretation, agency, and basic needs (versus wishes). These developments have led to conflicting theories and sect-like groupings within the field. Group psychological processes underlying this are discussed; and a broad and inclusive view of psychoanalysis is proposed under the heading of the study of the workings of mind. Additionally, substantial integrative proposals are offered with respect to the central tasks of individual development, theories of mind, the relational turn, and aspects of technique.

  16. Mind and body therapy for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theadom, Alice; Cropley, Mark; Smith, Helen E; Feigin, Valery L; McPherson, Kathryn

    2015-04-09

    domains assessed. The findings of mind-body therapies compared with usual care were prioritised.There is low quality evidence that in comparison to usual care controls psychological therapies have favourable effects on physical functioning (SMD -0.4, 95% CI -0.6 to -0.3, -7.5% absolute change, 2 point shift on a 0 to 100 scale), pain (SMD -0.3, 95% CI -0.5 to -0.2, -3.5% absolute change, 2 point shift on a 0 to 100 scale) and mood (SMD -0.5, 95% CI -0.6 to -0.3, -4.8% absolute change, 3 point shift on a 20 to 80 scale). There is very low quality evidence of more withdrawals in the psychological therapy group in comparison to usual care controls (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.69, 6% absolute risk difference). There is lack of evidence of a difference between the number of adverse events in the psychological therapy and control groups (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.06 to 2.50, 4% absolute risk difference).There was very low quality evidence that biofeedback in comparison to usual care controls had an effect on physical functioning (SMD -0.1, 95% CI -0.4 to 0.3, -1.2% absolute change, 1 point shift on a 0 to 100 scale), pain (SMD -2.6, 95% CI -91.3 to 86.1, -2.6% absolute change) and mood (SMD 0.1, 95% CI -0.3 to 0.5, 1.9% absolute change, less than 1 point shift on a 0 to 90 scale) post-intervention. In view of the quality of evidence we cannot be certain that biofeedback has a little or no effect on these outcomes. There was very low quality evidence that biofeedback led to more withdrawals from the study (RR 4.08, 95% CI 1.43 to 11.62, 20% absolute risk difference). No adverse events were reported.There was no advantage observed for mindfulness in comparison to usual care for physical functioning (SMD -0.3, 95% CI -0.6 to 0.1, -4.8% absolute change, 4 point shift on a scale 0 to 100), pain (SMD -0.1, CI -0.4 to 0.3, -1.3% absolute change, less than 1 point shift on a 0 to 10 scale), mood (SMD -0.2, 95% CI -0.5 to 0.0, -3.7% absolute change, 2 point shift on a 20 to 80 scale) or

  17. Mindfulness and compassion: an examination of mechanism and scalability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lim

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that meditation engenders prosocial behaviors meant to benefit others. However, the robustness, underlying mechanisms, and potential scalability of such effects remain open to question. The current experiment employed an ecologically valid situation that exposed participants to a person in visible pain. Following three-week, mobile-app based training courses in mindfulness meditation or cognitive skills (i.e., an active control condition, participants arrived at a lab individually to complete purported measures of cognitive ability. Upon entering a public waiting area outside the lab that contained three chairs, participants seated themselves in the last remaining unoccupied chair; confederates occupied the other two. As the participant sat and waited, a third confederate using crutches and a large walking boot entered the waiting area while displaying discomfort. Compassionate responding was assessed by whether participants gave up their seat to allow the uncomfortable confederate to sit, thereby relieving her pain. Participants' levels of empathic accuracy was also assessed. As predicted, participants assigned to the mindfulness meditation condition gave up their seats more frequently than did those assigned to the active control group. In addition, empathic accuracy was not increased by mindfulness practice, suggesting that mindfulness-enhanced compassionate behavior does not stem from associated increases in the ability to decode the emotional experiences of others.

  18. Viewing speech in action: speech articulation videos in the public domain that demonstrate the sounds of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, S.; Beavan, D.; Lawson, E.; Leplâtre, G.; Scobbie, J. M.; Stuart-Smith, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we introduce recently released, publicly available resources, which allow users to watch videos of hidden articulators (e.g. the tongue) during the production of various types of sounds found in the world’s languages. The articulation videos on these resources are linked to a clickable International Phonetic Alphabet chart ([International Phonetic Association. 1999. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. ...

  19. The review of constitutional norms concerning local public administration in the view of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission)

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolache, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    The proposals of the Commission to review the Constitution of Romania were subject to the analysis of experts from the European Commission for Democracy through Law (the Venice Commission), who expressed their opinion in a report adopted at the 98th plenary session of the European body. The article analyzes the recommendations of the Venice Commission regarding the proposed changes to the constitutional norms governing local public administration, comprising some general aspects concern...

  20. "You cannot eat rights": a qualitative study of views by Zambian HIV-vulnerable women, youth and MSM on human rights as public health tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyamba, Choolwe; Broaddus, Elena; Campbell, Catherine

    2015-10-05

    Human rights approaches now dominate the HIV prevention landscape across sub-Saharan Africa, yet little is known about how they are viewed by the populations they are designed to serve. Health interventions are most effective when they resonate with the worldviews and interests of target groups. This study examined local Zambian understandings of human rights approaches to HIV-prevention among three highly HIV-vulnerable groups: women, youth, and men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Focus groups included 23 women, youth, and MSM who had participated in activities organized by local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) using rights-based approaches, and interviews included 10 Zambian employees of these NGOs. Topics included participants' experiences and views of the utility of these activities. Thematic analysis mapped out diverse ways participants viewed the concept of human rights in relation to HIV-prevention. Whilst NGO workers noted the need for human rights programs to address the complex drivers of the HIV epidemic, they struggled to tailor them to the Zambian context due to donor stipulations. Women program beneficiaries noted that the concept of human rights helped challenge harmful sexual practices and domestic abuse, and youth described rights-based approaches as more participatory than previous HIV-prevention efforts. However, they criticized the approach for conflicting with traditional values such as respect for elders and 'harmonious' marital relationships. They also critiqued it for threatening the social structures and relationships that they relied on for material survival, and for failing to address issues like poverty and unemployment. In contrast, MSM embraced the rights approach, despite being critical of its overly confrontational implementation. A rights-based approach seeks to tackle the symbolic drivers of HIV-its undeniable roots in cultural and religious systems of discrimination. Yet, it fails to resonate with youth and women's own

  1. Road Routes for Waste Disposal, In order for the public to be able to view the Hazardous Material Routes reported to FMCSA, the data is being released in ESRI shapefile format for use in a GIS system., Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Road Routes for Waste Disposal dataset current as of 2006. In order for the public to be able to view the Hazardous Material Routes reported to FMCSA, the data is...

  2. Quantum physics meets the philosophy of mind. New essays on the mind-body relation in quantum-theoretical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, Antonella; Meixner, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics, in contrast to classical physics, allows non-locality and indeterminism in nature. Moreover, the role of the observer seems indispensable in quantum physics. In fact, quantum physics, unlike classical physics, suggests a metaphysics that is not physicalism (which is today's official metaphysical doctrine). As is well known, physicalism implies a reductive position in the philosophy of mind, specifically in its two core areas, the philosophy of consciousness and the philosophy of action. Quantum physics, in contrast, is compatible with psychological non-reductionism, and actually seems to support it. The essays in this book explore, from various points of view, the possibilities of basing a non-reductive philosophy of mind on quantum physics. In doing so, they not only engage with the ontological and epistemological aspects of the question but also with the neurophysiological ones.

  3. Quantum physics meets the philosophy of mind. New essays on the mind-body relation in quantum-theoretical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Antonella [Catholic Univ., Milan (Italy); Meixner, Uwe (ed.) [Augsburg Univ. (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Quantum physics, in contrast to classical physics, allows non-locality and indeterminism in nature. Moreover, the role of the observer seems indispensable in quantum physics. In fact, quantum physics, unlike classical physics, suggests a metaphysics that is not physicalism (which is today's official metaphysical doctrine). As is well known, physicalism implies a reductive position in the philosophy of mind, specifically in its two core areas, the philosophy of consciousness and the philosophy of action. Quantum physics, in contrast, is compatible with psychological non-reductionism, and actually seems to support it. The essays in this book explore, from various points of view, the possibilities of basing a non-reductive philosophy of mind on quantum physics. In doing so, they not only engage with the ontological and epistemological aspects of the question but also with the neurophysiological ones.

  4. Why do we want the right to die? A systematic review of the international literature on the views of patients, carers and the public on assisted dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Maggie; Pasterfield, Diana; Lewis, Ruth; Carter, Ben; Hodgson, Daniel; Wilkinson, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Assisted dying is legal in four European countries and three American states. Elsewhere, particularly in more affluent or mainly Protestant countries, it remains controversial. Dominant headlines feature professional (medical, legal, religious) arguments versus celebrity campaigners; ordinary people are less clearly represented. To synthesise the international evidence of people's views and attitudes towards assisted dying in order to inform current debate about this controversial issue. Systematic review and mixed method synthesis of qualitative and survey data. Eleven electronic databases from inception to October 2011; bibliographies of included studies. Two reviewers independently screened papers and appraised quality. Qualitative results were extracted verbatim; survey results were summarised in a table. Qualitative data were synthesised using framework methods and survey results integrated where they supported, contrasted or added to the themes identified. Sixteen qualitative studies and 94 surveys were included; many participants considered the immediate relevance of assisted dying for them. Themes related to poor quality of life, a good quality of death, potential abuse of assisted dying and the importance of individual stance. People valued autonomy in death as much as in life. Attitudes were diverse, complex and related to definitions of unbearable suffering including physical, psycho-social and existential factors and were consistent regardless of social, economic, legal and health-care contexts. Our review sheds light on ordinary people's perspectives about assisted dying, when they are ill or disabled. Unbearable suffering is a key construct, and common factors are revealed that lead people to ask for help to die. The consistency of international views indicates a mandate for legislative and medical systems worldwide to listen and understand this.

  5. For Me It Was When I Saw a Simple Chart: Former Climate Contrarians Recount What Changed Their Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, K. B.

    2017-12-01

    Efforts to advance climate policy in the US have been hindered by a sector of the public that is reluctant to accept the science of anthropogenic climate change. Climate educators, advocates, and policymakers seek to resolve this roadblock through educational efforts and strategic messaging, while social science research strives to understand the causes of resistance on climate change. A discussion on the social media platform, AskReddit, offered a surprising source of insight when a tantalizing question was posed, "Former climate deniers, what changed your mind?" Responses to the query offered a rare glimpse into the process of how people switched camps, outgrew their parents' values, had transformative experiences, or were worn down by mounting scientific evidence. The posts contained 66 examples of people who were initially uncertain or dismissive of climate change, but came to accept the mainstream science. The commenters provided insightful narratives describing the origins of their skeptical beliefs, the rationales for their changing opinions, and the events that caused them to reverse course. Analysis of the comments revealed the primary reasons that influenced people to change their minds. Those were: science and evidence (cited as a factor in 47% of the comments); stewardship for the Earth and concerns about pollution (29%); unusual weather events (21%); and the untrustworthiness of the messengers who claim that climate change is false (17%). Note that several commenters pointed to more than one factor that contributed to their evolving views. While neither the setting nor the sample size allow a robust scientific analysis, these anecdotal accounts offer useful insights on a vexing problem. Learning about the circumstances that lead people to update their thinking can help us improve efforts to communicate the science and policy around climate change. This work is the topic of an article at Yale Climate Connections, https

  6. The Mechanics of the Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry A. Sklyarov

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the question of building a general concept that can reconcile the concept of "brain" and "mind", that is, as a biological brain creates subjective thinking. The research method is based on the revision of the basic concepts and the formation of logical chains of thought from the beginning of the formation of the brain before the onset of subjective thought processes. All displayed investigation confirmed the concept of logical algorithms practical facts. Describes the c...

  7. Critical Viewing and Participatory Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jodi R.

    1994-01-01

    Illustrates ways that the work of some communication scholars with resistant, oppositional, and critical audiences does not, however, endorse active public life. Attempts to realign the language of critical viewing with the goals of participatory democracy by suggesting qualities of critical viewing that are conducive to achieving and maintaining…

  8. A journalist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishlock, D.

    1976-01-01

    The immense cost of nuclear development and the desire of governments to preserve secrecy also severely cramped the opportunities for financial entrepreneurialism. No-one, no company, to my knowledge, has made a fortune out of nuclear energy yet. Even the biggest companies have needed generous support from government and handsome terms from electrical industries. The fate of Royal Dutch Shell, the oil major which plunged heavily in 1973 in a bid to buy its way into the nuclear business, is surely too fresh in the minds of industrialists to encourage further large scale speculative ventures. Nuclear energy is therefore left with a public image which might roughly be summarized as providing a source of immense stimulation to relatively small numbers of scientists and engineers, while remaining a heavy burden on the pockets of the public at large. Scientific advice to government was becoming an increasingly complex task, despite all the elaboration of the government's scientific machinery, said Lord Zuckerman. But this was not just because of the rate at which new knowledge is emerging, nor because the application of science now pervades every aspect of our social life. One of the major problems which governments and scientists appointed as official advisers to government faced today was how to sift responsible from irresponsible advice, how to prevent public knowledge about science from becoming overwhelmingly tinged by emotion or even from assuming some political intent

  9. The effects of the liberalization of peruvean urban transport. Two analytical points of view on public dominion of road networks after two decades of “market”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Vignolo Cueva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Large Peruvian cities suffer from serious problems that significantly affect several constitutional rights of all citizens that live or reside in them. The cause of these continuing lesions comes from the messy mercantilist, deregulated, and liberalized urban passenger-transportation applied in Peru’s reality. Such method has been largely neglected since the nineties’ decade, diminishing the importance of the principal role that Municipalities should have when defining and limiting this activity. Therefore, this paper tries to mix this past component with the essential nature of urban roads, separating the private operator market from the public infrastructure that supports and sustains its exercise, while assuming the necessity of comprehending its nature and range, and putting them into value. Consequently, by having poorly controlled market activity based on real municipal public domain –and directed towards the general interest–, it becomes of dire urgency the need of change in paths from the one practiced by our own legislator and local entities, to one of different legal treatments.

  10. "Right to recommend, wrong to require"- an empirical and philosophical study of the views among physicians and the general public on smoking cessation as a condition for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Joar; Juth, Niklas; Lynøe, Niels

    2018-01-08

    In many countries, there are health care initiatives to make smokers give up smoking in the peri-operative setting. There is empirical evidence that this may improve some, but not all, operative outcomes. However, it may be feared that some support for such policies stems from ethically questionable opinions, such as paternalism or anti-smoker sentiments. This study aimed at investigating the support for a policy of smoking cessation prior to surgery among Swedish physicians and members of the general public, as well as the reasons provided for this. A random sample of general practitioners and orthopaedic surgeons (n = 795) as well as members of the general public (n = 485) received a mail questionnaire. It contained a vignette case with a smoking 57-year old male farmer with hip osteoarthritis. The patient had been recommended hip replacement therapy, but told that in order to qualify for surgery he needed to give up smoking four weeks prior to and after surgery. The respondents were asked whether making such qualifying demands is acceptable, and asked to rate their agreement with pre-set arguments for and against this policy. Response rates were 58.2% among physicians and 53.8% among the general public. Of these, 83.9% and 86.6%, respectively, agreed that surgery should be made conditional upon smoking cessation. Reference to the peri-operative risks associated with smoking was the most common argument given. However, there was also strong support for the argument that such a policy is mandated in order to achieve long term health gains. There is strong support for a policy of smoking cessation prior to surgery in Sweden. This support is based on considerations of peri-operative risks as well as the general long term risks of smoking. This study indicates that paternalistic attitudes may inform some of the support for peri-operative smoking cessation policies and that at least some respondents seem to favour a "recommendation strategy" vis-à-vis smoking

  11. The relationship between Theory of Mind and Relational Frame Theory: Convergence of perspective-taking measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.L.; Barnes-Holmes, Y.; McEnteggart, C.; Mey, H.R.A. De; Witteman, C.L.M.; Janssen, G.T.L.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Perspective-taking difficulties have been demonstrated in autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations, and are traditionally examined from a Theory of Mind (ToM) point of view. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) offers a behavioural and contextual

  12. "The Mozart of Psychology": "Mind in Society" by L. S. Vygotsky: Implications for Improving Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sheila

    L. S. Vygotsky's book "Mind in Society" was published more than 50 years ago in Russia, but it is now being recognized as relevant to contemporary research in child development because of the areas of investigation that he suggested. Vygotsky views children as active participants in their own learning and suggests that researchers…

  13. Hearts-and-Minds: A Strategy of Conciliation, Coercion, or Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    coupled to a Victorian -era view of the “republic’s duty to civilize” informed France’s approach to winning hearts-and-minds during their late...gridding pattern to offensive search-and-destroy missions successfully launched deep within enemy territory. During the second Boer War, the...tion of force and politics to achieve lasting resolution. Dissuasive pressure coupled to a Victorian -era view of the “Republic’s duty to civilize

  14. Environment and Health: view from the prespective of public health management Medio Ambiente y Salud: perspectivas desde la gestión de salud pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Martín Moreno

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the environment on health is an area of primary interest for Public Health. Operationally speaking, the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs’ environmental health competencies fall within the framework of the action incumbent upon the Directorate General of Public Health (DGSP. This article contains a summarised review of some of the main environmental hazards and their effect on health, with reference to the role of the DGSP in these respects. The discussion covers aspects such as air pollution, chemical safety, sanitary control of water, radiological protection for patients, very low frequency magnetic fields, exposure to radio frequencies (mobile telephony and the crises caused by recent environment-related events. Environmental health policies at the European and international scale and institutional co-ordination in Spain in this regard are also briefly analysed. Subjects concerning hazard management and the precautionary principle are likewise explored. Finally, certain lines of the “Public Health co-operation and harmonisation plan in Spain”, intended to articulate action taken by the various levels of government in this area, are previewed. This plan is designed to seek ways to co-ordinate epidemiological, disease prevention and health protection information systems, taking a comprehensive approach to Public Health in close co-ordination not only with regional and local governments, but also with social agents, scientific societies and professional associations.El impacto que sobre la salud tiene el medio ambiente constituye un área de interés primordial en el ámbito de la Salud Pública. Las competencias del Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo en materia de Salud Ambiental están operativamente delimitadas en el marco de las actuaciones de la Dirección General de Salud Pública (DGSP. En este artículo se examinan de forma sintética algunos de los principales riesgos ambientales y su efecto en la salud, haciendo

  15. Why regulatory indifference towards pharmaceutical pollution of the environment could be a missed opportunity in public health protection. a holistic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamba, Pakoyo Fadhiru; Kaggwa, Bruhan; Munanura, Edson Ireeta; Okurut, Tom; Kitutu, Freddy Eric

    2017-01-01

    The last generation has witnessed bludgeoning of the world's population, a spike in disease burden, and unprecedented levels of pharmaceutical consumption and production. Unfortunately, pharmaceuticals have left their industrial and household confines and leaked into the environment. Pharmaceuticals are now major environmental pollutants, and are ubiquitous in waters and soils. Unlike other environmental contaminants, pharmaceutical pollutants are not yet regulated globally, simply because acute risk assessments show insignificant human health hazard. But the pitfalls of pharmaceutical pollutants extend beyond acute effects to delayed effects from bioaccumulation, amplified effects from drug-drug interactions, exacerbation of drug resistance, and reduction in aquatic and terrestrial food production. Therefore, ignoring pharmaceutical pollutants deprives society of holistic public health protection.

  16. Public views of health insurance in Japan during the era of attaining universal health coverage: a secondary analysis of an opinion poll on health insurance in 1967

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuma Nozaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While Japan’s success in achieving universal health insurance over a short period with controlled healthcare costs has been studied from various perspectives, that of beneficiaries have been overlooked. We conducted a secondary analysis of an opinion poll on health insurance in 1967, immediately after reaching universal coverage. We found that people continued to face a slight barrier to healthcare access (26.8% felt medical expenses were a heavy burden and had high expectations for health insurance (60.5% were satisfied with insured medical services and 82.4% were willing to pay a premium. In our study, younger age, having children before school age, lower living standards, and the health insurance scheme were factors that were associated with a willingness to pay premiums. Involving high-income groups in public insurance is considered to be the key to ensuring universal coverage of social insurance.

  17. Stakeholders' views on maternity care shortcomings in rural Ghana: An ethnographic study among women, providers, public, and quasiprivate policy sector actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanore, Martin Amogre; Pavlova, Milena; Biesma, Regien; Groot, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Access to skilled provider and emergency obstetric care is not universal across all districts in Ghana. The lived experiences of 3 stakeholder groups on maternity care shortcomings in 3 rural Ghanaian districts are examined in this study. We applied an ethnographic study approach where field data were collected between March to May 2015 in 3 rural districts of northern Ghana. Data were collected among women with recent births experiences (n = 90), health care providers (n = 16), and policy actors (n = 6). Transcripts were read through to identify similar and divergent stakeholders' views. Significant expressions and experiences of stakeholders on maternity care shortcomings were extracted and evaluated to define key themes. Four themes emerged: social/community factors, payments for health care, facility level factors, and policy level factors. The results show that traditional women's roles divest time for maternity care. Poor transport arrangements, insufficient health workforce, health funding gaps, insurance reimbursements delays, and catastrophic health expenditures on travel and drugs are attested as major barriers across all stakeholder groups in all districts studied. The discussion of the study findings suggests it is important to ascertain the scale of informal payments and their impacts on health access. Investments in health workforce and reliable ambulatory service systems could help address poor referral difficulties in rural areas of the country. Social support for community initiatives that pool funds could provide extra resources and relieve cost access-related challenges for using maternity care in rural settings in Ghana. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Views on agrarian question in the russian empire early twentieth century public don (on the example of V.I. Denisov

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    Z. V. Svyaschenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the essence of agrarian nobility Don initiatives as an example of marshal of the nobility of the Don area V.I. Denisova, draws attention to the radical changes large landowners understand the nature of the agrarian question. Detailed analysis of vision causes aggravation and solving agricultural problems under conditions of revolution «Union supporters peaceful resolution of the agrarian question», which was organized by Don autumn 1905 Union believed that the government should immediately allow farmers free access to the community with fixing them processed before this allotment in private ownership and the right of selling. The analysis looks marshal of the nobility area of the Don V. Denisov, according to which land reform must be focused on the transition from communal farmers to homestead entities on the basis of peasant private ownership of land, increasing the size of peasant land ownership through the purchase of additional land they or their resettlement intensification individual farm. A general conclusion is that the views of V.I. Denisov and other landowners reflect the general mood and position of large landowners on agricultural issues. Their analysis shows a major fact of evolution beliefs representatives of large estates. As the patriots of their country, they offered very real steps to address not only the agricultural problems and to improve general well-being of the population, increasing the efficiency of the economy and legal equality of different layers Russian imperial society and so on. A large estates in various regions of the country were unanimous that stop the deployment of revolutionary elements in the country is possible only on one condition - the resolution of the agrarian question.

  19. A survey of the awareness, knowledge, policies and views of veterinary journal Editors-in-Chief on reporting guidelines for publication of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Wider adoption of reporting guidelines by veterinary journals could improve the quality of published veterinary research. The aims of this study were to assess the knowledge and views of veterinary Editors-in-Chief on reporting guidelines, identify the policies of their journals, and determine their information needs. Editors-in-Chief of 185 journals on the contact list for the International Association of Veterinary Editors (IAVE) were surveyed in April 2012 using an online questionnaire which contained both closed and open questions. Results The response rate was 36.8% (68/185). Thirty-six of 68 editors (52.9%) stated they knew what a reporting guideline was before receiving the questionnaire. Editors said they had found out about reporting guidelines primarily through articles in other journals, via the Internet and through their own journal. Twenty of 57 respondents (35.1%) said their journal referred to reporting guidelines in its instructions to authors. CONSORT, REFLECT, and ARRIVE were the most frequently cited. Forty-four of 68 respondents (68.2%) believed that reporting guidelines should be adopted by all refereed veterinary journals. Qualitative analysis of the open questions revealed that lack of knowledge, fear, resistance to change, and difficulty in implementation were perceived as barriers to the adoption of reporting guidelines by journals. Editors suggested that reporting guidelines be promoted through communication and education of the veterinary community, with roles for the IAVE and universities. Many respondents believed a consensus policy on guideline implementation was needed for veterinary journals. Conclusions Further communication and education about reporting guidelines for editors, authors and reviewers has the potential to increase their adoption by veterinary journals in the future. PMID:24410882

  20. Zograscopic viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.; Wijntjes, M.; Van Doorn, A.

    2013-01-01

    The “zograscope” is a “visual aid” (commonly known as “optical machine” in the 18th century) invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs) with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heart and Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Wolf, Fred

    2008-01-01

    networks. The brain, however, would be only incompletely understood when just viewed as a complex dynamical system. Understanding the operation of the mind also requires describing and analyzing its emergent information processing functions. To achieve this, many aspects of neural computation have been successfully formulated as problems of statistical inference and optimal decision making, phrasing them in the mathematical language of statistical physics. Both subjects, heart and mind, are thus united through the similarity of current models for the emergence of collective capabilities. They rely conceptually and technically essentially on the paradigms and tools of statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics. In general, none of the functions and processes of the heart or mind can be appropriately understood without a thorough analysis of the collective dynamics of the underlying biological networks and nonlinear media. Approaching any of these problems with necessity requires a coordinated interdisciplinary effort utilizing approaches from nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation to genetics, molecular biology and biological imaging. Because of their thorough understanding and advanced methodology for dissecting nonlinear and collective phenomena, physicists are playing an increasingly important role in unravelling the dynamical principles governing the operation as well as the malfunction of heart and mind. Current research in the physics of heart and mind spans a wide spectrum of theoretical, experimental, and computational approaches. Many are guided by the aim for a transparent picture of systems function that links the biophysics of individual cells to the operation of the entire organ or information processing system. Theoretical work thus often centres on the construction and analysis of models that contain sufficient biophysical detail to represent reliably all cellular mechanisms of importance, but that are still theoretically sufficiently transparent and

  2. Placebos and painkillers: is mind as real as matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloca, Luana; Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2005-07-01

    Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of the placebo effect, and most of our knowledge originates from the field of pain and analgesia. Today, the placebo effect represents a promising model that could allow us to shed new light on mind-body interactions. The mental events induced by placebo administration can activate mechanisms that are similar to those activated by drugs, which indicates a similarity between psychosocial and pharmacodynamic effects. These new neurobiological advances are already changing our conception of how clinical trials and medical practice must be viewed and conducted.

  3. Mind Wandering "Ahas" versus Mindful Reasoning: Alternative Routes to Creative Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Zedelius

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on mixed results linking both mindfulness and its opposing construct mind wandering to enhanced creativity, we predicted that the relationship between mindfulness and creativity might depend on whether creative problems are approached through analytic strategy or through insight (i.e., sudden awareness of a solution. Study 1 investigated the relationship between trait mindfulness and compound remote associates problem solving as a function of participants’ self-reported approach to each problem. The results revealed a negative relationship between mindfulness and problem-solving overall. However, more detailed analysis revealed that mindfulness was associated with impaired problem solving when approaching problems with insight, but increased problem solving when using analysis. In Study 2, we manipulated participants’ problem-solving approach through instructions. We again found a negative relationship between mindfulness and creative performance in general, however, more mindful participants again performed better when instructed to approach problems analytically.

  4. Tidsperspektiv, mindfulness och stress: : en korrelationsstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Koudriavtseva, Antonina

    2017-01-01

    Denna studie undersökte det potentiella sambandet mellan tidsperspektiv, mindfulness och upplevd stress. Kring 60 studenter besvarade en online-enkät som inkluderade den svenska versionen av Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire och Perceived Stress Scale. Analyserna omfattade bivariata korrelationer, multipel linjär regressionsanalys och path analys. I linje med hypoteserna indikerade resultaten statistiskt signifikanta samband mellan mindfulness, ett ...

  5. Persuasion: The Social Construction of Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Mark

    2018-01-01

    An exploratory study into the recent popular emergence of mindfulness (Achsamkeit). Contemporary mindfulness practices encompass secular self-help and therapeutic pedagogies such as MBSR, spiritual exploration and religious doctrine. This study is a qualitative analysis of the concept of mindfulness as it is entertained by its practitioners. The study was conducted according to a constructivist grounded theory methodology and interpreted through a social constructionist reading of Aristotl...

  6. Mindfulness as a Path of Women's Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Nadja FURLAN ŠTANTE

    2016-01-01

    The paper brings together social mindfulness as a path of empowerment for women within its concept of the interrelatedness of all beings in the web of life. The paradigm of social mindfulness is thus established as the foundation of feminist spirituality. The focus of this work is on the possibility of applying the ethics of mindfulness as a paradigm to interpersonal interrelatedness. The relations among humans, nature, reason and emotion in self-development are confronted with the paradigm o...

  7. Obsolete tobacco control themes can be hazardous to public health: the need for updating views on absolute product risks and harm reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn T. Kozlowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leading themes have guided tobacco control efforts, and these themes have changed over the decades. When questions arose about health risks of tobacco, they focused on two key themes: 1 how bad is the problem (i.e., absolute risk and 2 what can be done to reduce the risk without cessation (i.e., prospects for harm reduction. Using the United States since 1964 as an example, we outline the leading themes that have arisen in response to these two questions. Initially, there was the recognition that “cigarettes are hazardous to health” and an acceptance of safer alternative tobacco products (cigars, pipes, light/lower-tar cigarettes. In the 1980s there was the creation of the seminal theme that “Cigarettes are lethal when used as intended and kill more people than heroin, cocaine, alcohol, AIDS, fires, homicide, suicide, and automobile crashes combined.” By around 2000, support for a less-dangerous light/lower tar cigarette was gone, and harm reduction claims were avoided for products like cigars and even for smokeless tobacco which were summarized as “unsafe” or “not a safe alternative to cigarettes.” Discussion The Surgeon General in 2014 concluded that by far the greatest danger to public health was from cigarettes and other combusted products. At the same time the evidence base for smokeless tobacco and alternative nicotine delivery systems (ANDS had grown. Product innovation and tobacco/nicotine bio-behavioral, epidemiological and public health sciences demonstrate that low nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (e.g., Swedish snus, and ANDS have substantially lower harms than cigarettes. Going forward, it is important to sharpen themes and key messages of tobacco control, while continuing to emphasize the extreme lethality of the inhaled smoke from cigarettes or from use of any combusting tobacco product. Summary Implications of updating the leading themes for regulation, policymaking and advocacy in tobacco control

  8. Perspective taking and theory of mind in hide and seek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Chris N H; Bischof, Walter F; Kingstone, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Does theory of mind play a significant role in where people choose to hide an item or where they search for an item that has been hidden? Adapting Anderson's "Hide-Find Paradigm" Anderson et al. (Action, Perception and Performance, 76, 907-913, 2014) participants viewed homogenous or popout visual arrays on a touchscreen table. Their task was to indicate where in the array they would hide an item, or to search for an item that had been hidden, by either a friend or a foe. Critically, participants believed that their sitting location at the touchtable was the same as-or opposite to-their partner's location. Replicating Anderson et al., participants tended to (1) select items nearer to themselves on homogenous displays, and this bias was stronger for a friend than foe; and (2) select popout items, and again, more for a friend than foe. These biases were observed only when participants believed that they shared the same physical perspective as their partner. Collectively, the data indicate that theory of mind plays a significant role in hiding and finding, and demonstrate that the hide-find paradigm is a powerful tool for investigating theory of mind in adults.

  9. What I have changed my mind about and why

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Yehuda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based upon a panel discussion “What I Have Changed My Mind About and Why” held on 5 November in New Orleans, Louisiana (USA, as part of the ISTSS 2015 annual meeting “Back to Basics: Integrating Clinical and Scientific Knowledge to Advance the Field of Trauma.” The panel was chaired by Professor Dr. Rachel Yehuda of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and the James J. Peters Veterans Affairs, and included five clinician-scholars who exchanged thoughts about what they have changed their minds about over the years: Dr. David Spiegel, Dr. Steven Southwick, Dr. Lori Davis, Dr. Thomas Neylan, and Dr. John Krystal. This paper provides a summary of the salient points made by each expert and the questions and discussion that ensured. Major issues raised included the increasingly clear limitations to the fear-based model that has advanced the field. While treatments for PTSD have improved, there are some aspects of trauma exposure that cannot be entirely repaired. Research providing an evidence base to treatment has led to overly specific treatment guidelines that may obscure more general principles of effective treatment. Treatment might be viewed as a way to increase the plasticity of the brain in the context of processing social cues. A variety of novel and integrative therapies include comprehensive holistic care, exercise, returning to competitive work, logotherapy, mindfulness, enhancing well-being and resilience, and medications with novel mechanisms, such as ketamine.

  10. Face perception in the mind's eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righart, Ruthger; Burra, Nicolas; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2011-03-01

    Perceptual filling-in occurs when visual stimuli are recognized in impoverished viewing conditions. Whether missing information is filled-in during face perception and which stages might be involved in this process are still unresolved questions. Because an identity can be brought to mind by seeing eyes only, we hypothesized that missing information might be filled-in from a memory trace for the whole face identity. We presented participants with faces in phase 1 and later we presented eyes-only in phase 2. For some of these eyes in phase 2, the whole face had been presented in the previous phase, for others identical eyes had been presented. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed an N170 component that was more negative when eyes were preceded by a whole face in the previous phase compared to eyes preceded by identical eyes-only. A more positive-going late positive complex (LPC) was also found, suggesting enhanced retrieval of face memory representations when eyes were preceded by whole faces. Our results show that pre-existing representations of face identity can influence early stages of visual encoding, 170 ms after stimulus onset. These effects may reflect top-down modulation by memory on visual recognition processes by filling-in the missing facial information.

  11. Materializing Mind: The Role of Objects in Cognition and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; McGraw, John J.

    2014-01-01

    , and distributed cognition, we review and classify a set of cognitive processes mediated by material representations. Specifically, we ask how—in a range of everyday cognitive and cultural practices—we employ objects (1) to scaffold memory, (2) to alter cognitive complexity, (3) to facilitate epistemic......If mind is investigated as the set of interactions that accomplish a cognitive task, that is, if mind is more than that which occurs inside the head, then how does the interplay of biological and environmental resources produce human cognition? Informed by active externalism, joint action...... experimentation, (4) to enable the division of cognitive labor, (5) to promote confidence and trust, (6) to consolidate social structure, and (7) to support dialogical coupling. We conclude that through cultural practices the stable, “manipulable”, and public properties of objects have come to afford...

  12. In two minds : how reflections influence software design thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razavian, M.; Tang, A.; Capilla, R.; Lago, P.

    2016-01-01

    We theorize a two-mind model of design thinking. Mind 1 is about logical design reasoning, and Mind 2 is about the reflection on our reasoning and judgments. The problem solving ability of Mind 1 has often been emphasized in software engineering. The reflective Mind 2, however, has not received much

  13. Potential environmental effects of 765-kV transmission lines: views before the New York State Public Service Commission, Cases 26529 and 26559, 1976-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott-Walton, B.; Clark, K. M.; Holt, B. R.; Jones, D. C.; Kaplan, S. D.; Krebs, J. S.; Polson, P.; Shepherd, R. A.; Young, J. R.

    1979-11-01

    Testimony given before the New York Public Service Commission in two recent cases on the potential environmental effects of 765-kV overhead ac transmission lines is reviewed. The testimony focused on the potential effects of audible noise, on the potential biological effects of the electromagnetic fields, on the potential for electric shocks to people who touch vehicles parked under the proposed lines, on the potential effects of the electromagnetic fields on electronic cardiac pacemakers, and on potential effects of ozone produced by corona discharge from the lines. The testimony fully explored these questions; however, it did not resolve all of them. The testimony indicates potential impacts from the audible noise and from the electrostatic shocks that people can receive when they touch a large vehicle parked under the lines. The testimony also indicates that certain cardiac pacemaker and lead combinations may, under certain circumstances, undergo reversion to a fixed rate of pacing in the presence of the fields under the lines, but that little risk to cardiac patients results except possibly for those patients for whom competition between the heart's own rate and the pacemaker rate presents a health risk. The testimony fails to demonstrate biological hazards from the field; further research is necessary to understand better the effects of the fields on biological systems. The testimony indicates that ozone produced by the lines will not significantly affect the environment.

  14. Mindfulness inom ergoterapi : En integrativ litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, Thelma

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness är ett begrepp och fenomen som blivit allt mera populärt inom det västerländska samhället. Mindfulness förekommer bland annat i olika terapiformer inom sjukvården. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att kartlägga hur fenomenet mindfulness beskrivs inom ergoterapins kunskapsområde. Forskningsfrågan är: Inom vilka områden behandlas mindfulness i ergoterapilitteraturen? Arbetet följer riktlinjerna för en integrativ litteraturstudie. Vetenskapliga artiklar som nämner eller behandlar mi...

  15. Language facilitates introspection: Verbal mind-wandering has privileged access to consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Mikaël; Lerique, Sébastien; Adam, Vincent; Franklin, Michael S; Schooler, Jonathan W; Sackur, Jérôme

    2017-03-01

    Introspection and language are the cognitive prides of humankind, but their interactions in healthy cognition remain unclear. Episodes of mind-wandering, where personal thoughts often go unnoticed for some time before being introspected, offer a unique opportunity to study the role of language in introspection. In this paper, we show that inner speech facilitates awareness of mind-wandering. In two experiments, we either interfered with verbal working memory, via articulatory suppression (Exp. 1), or entrained it, via presentation of verbal material (Exp. 2), and measured the resulting awareness of mind-wandering. Articulatory suppression decreased the likelihood to spontaneously notice mind-wandering, whereas verbal material increased retrospective awareness of mind-wandering. In addition, an ecological study using smartphones confirmed that inner speech vividness positively predicted mind-wandering awareness (Exp. 3). Together, these findings support the view that inner speech facilitates introspection of one's thoughts, and therefore provides empirical evidence for a positive relation between language and consciousness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring Mindfulness: A Rasch Analysis of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Lynch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI-14 using a Rasch model approach in a cross-sectional design. The scale was administered to N = 130 British patients with different psychosomatic conditions. The scale failed to show clear one-factoriality and item 13 did not fit the Rasch model. A two-factorial solution without item 13, however, appeared to fit well. The scale seemed to work equally well in different subgroups such as patients with or without mindfulness practice. However, some limitations of the validity of both the one-factorial and the two-factorial version of the scale were observed. Sizeable floor and ceiling effects limit the diagnostical use of the instrument. In summary, the study demonstrates that the two-factorial version of the FMI-13 shows acceptable approximation to Rasch requirements, but is in need of further improvement. The one-factorial solution did not fit well, and cannot be recommended for further use.

  17. Does mindfulness matter? Everyday mindfulness, mindful eating and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods among a sample of South Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2013-08-01

    Serving size is a modifiable determinant of energy consumption, and an important factor to address in the prevention and treatment of obesity. The present study tested an hypothesised negative association between individuals' everyday mindfulness and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods. The mediating role of mindful eating was also explored. A community sample of 171 South Australian adults completed self-report measures of everyday mindfulness and mindful eating. The dependent measure was participants' self-reported average serving size of energy dense foods consumed in the preceding week. Participants who reported higher levels of everyday mindfulness were more mindful eaters (r=0.41, pMindful eating fully mediated the negative association between everyday mindfulness and serving size. The domains of mindful eating most relevant to serving size included emotional and disinhibited eating. Results suggest that mindful eating may have a greater influence on serving size than daily mindfulness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The mind of an engineer

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Baldev

    2016-01-01

    The Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE) promotes the endeavour of the practitioners of engineering and technology and related sciences to solve the problems of national importance. The book is an initiative of the INAE and a reflection of the experiences of some of the Fellows of the INAE in the fields of science, technology and engineering. The book is about the reminiscences, eureka moments, inspirations, challenges and opportunities in the journey the professionals took toward self-realisation and the goals they achieved. The book contains 58 articles on diverse topics that truly reflects the way the meaningful mind of an engineer works. .

  19. The Temporal Order of Change in Daily Mindfulness and Affect During Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Nyklicek, Ivan; Schroevers, Maya J.; Bos, Elisabeth H.

    Increases in mindfulness are assumed to lead to improvements in psychological well-being during mindfulness-based treatments. However, the temporal order of this association has received little attention. This intensive longitudinal study examines whether within-person changes in mindfulness precede

  20. Mindfulness for Singers: The Effects of a Targeted Mindfulness Course on Learning Vocal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Anne-Marie L.; Greasley, Alinka E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development and implementation of a unique Mindfulness for Singers (MfS) course designed to improve singers' vocal technique. Eight university students completed the intervention. Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) scores showed general improvement across all five facets of mindfulness. Qualitative results showed…

  1. The temporal order of change in daily mindfulness and affect during mindfulness-based stress reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, E.; Nyklicek, I.; Schroevers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in mindfulness are assumed to lead to improvements in psychological well-being during mindfulness-based treatments. However, the temporal order of this association has received little attention. This intensive longitudinal study examines whether within-person changes in mindfulness precede

  2. Can mind-wandering be timeless? Atemporal focus and aging in mind-wandering paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan David Jackson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has examined how often mind-wandering occurs about past versus future events. However, mind-wandering may also be atemporal, although previous investigations of this possibility have not yielded consistent results. Indeed, it is unclear what proportion of mind-wandering is atemporal, and also how an atemporal response option would affect the future oriented bias often reported during low-demand tasks used to measure mind-wandering. The present study examined self-reported (Experiment 1 and probe-caught (Experiment 2 mind-wandering using the low-demand Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART in younger (18-30 and older (50-73 adults in an experimental paradigm developed to measure mind-wandering in a sample using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Across self-reported and probe-caught mind-wandering, the atemporal response option was used at least as frequently as past or future mind-wandering options. Although older adults reported far fewer mind-wandering events, they showed a very similar temporal pattern to younger adults. Most importantly, inclusion of the atemporal report option affected performance on the SART and selectively eliminated the prospective bias in self-reported mind-wandering, but not in probe-caught mind-wandering. These results suggest that both young and older participants are often not thinking of past or future events when mind-wandering, but are thinking of events that cannot easily be categorized as either.

  3. Mind Your Words: Positive and Negative Items Create Method Effects on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Hobkirk, Andrea L.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Earleywine, Mitch

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness, a construct that entails moment-to-moment effort to be aware of present experiences and positive attitudinal features, has become integrated into the sciences. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), one popular measure of mindfulness, exhibits different responses to positively and negatively worded items in nonmeditating…

  4. Mindful Parenting Training in Child Psychiatric Settings : Heightened Parental Mindfulness Reduces Parents' and Children's Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Renee; de Bruin, Esther I.; Wanders-Mulder, Femy H.; Vennik, Corinne J.; Bogels, Susan M.

    Mindful parenting training is an application of mindfulness-based interventions that allows parents to perceive their children with unbiased and open attention without prejudgment and become more attentive and less reactive in their parenting. This study examined the effectiveness of mindful

  5. Observing the mind instead of acting on it: How mindfulness empowers people to live healthily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, Mike

    2018-01-01

    While much research suggests that mindfulness reduces cravings and other reactivity to energy-dense products, less is known about how mindfulness exactly works. In this dissertation, I took two steps to examine how mindfulness might operate on appetitive reactivity. First, I focused on the role of

  6. Greasing the Skids of the Musical Mind: Connecting Music Learning to Mind Brain Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers suggest that musical training prepares the mind for learning; however, there are many obstacles to the implementation of research to practice in music education. The purpose of this article is to apply key principles of mind brain education to music education and to evaluate how music prepares the mind for learning. Practical teaching…

  7. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). An unprecedented view of galaxies and large-scale structure at 0.5 < z < 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; Fritz, A.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Hudelot, P.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.

    2014-06-01

    We describe the construction and general features of VIPERS, the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey. This ESO Large Programme is using the Very Large Telescope with the aim of building a spectroscopic sample of ~ 100 000 galaxies with iABcontamination is found to be only 3.2%, endorsing the quality of the star-galaxy separation process and fully confirming the original estimates based on the VVDS data, which also indicate a galaxy incompleteness from this process of only 1.4%. Using a set of 1215 repeated observations, we estimate an rms redshift error σz/ (1 + z) = 4.7 × 10-4 and calibrate the internal spectral quality grading. Benefiting from the combination of size and detailed sampling of this dataset, we conclude by presenting a map showing in unprecedented detail the large-scale distribution of galaxies between 5 and 8 billion years ago. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programmes 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS website is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  8. Zograscopic viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenderink, Jan; Wijntjes, Maarten; van Doorn, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The "zograscope" is a "visual aid" (commonly known as "optical machine" in the 18th century) invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs) with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates the physiological cues (binocular disparity, vergence, accommodation, movement parallax, and image blur) that might indicate the flatness of the picture surface. The spatial structure of pictorial space is due to the remaining pictorial cues. As a consequence, many (or perhaps most) observers are aware of a heightened "plasticity" of the pictorial content for zograscopic as compared with natural viewing. We discuss the optics of the zograscope in some detail. Such an analysis is not available in the literature, whereas common "explanations" of the apparatus are evidently nonsensical. We constructed a zograscope, using modern parts, and present psychophysical data on its performance.

  9. Remote viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C

    1988-04-15

    Remote viewing is the supposed faculty which enables a percipient, sited in a closed room, to describe the perceptions of a remote agent visiting an unknown target site. To provide convincing demonstration of such a faculty poses a range of experimental and practical problems, especially if feedback to the percipient is allowed after each trial. The precautions needed are elaborate and troublesome; many potential loopholes have to be plugged and there will be strong temptations to relax standards, requiring exceptional discipline and dedication by the experimenters. Most reports of remote viewing experiments are rather superficial and do not permit assessment of the experimental procedures with confidence; in many cases there is clear evidence of particular loopholes left unclosed. Any serious appraisal of the evidence would have to go beyond the reports. Meanwhile the published evidence is far from compelling, and certainly insufficient to justify overthrow of well-established scientific principles.

  10. Mindfulness and mood stimulate each other in an upward spiral: a mindful walking intervention using experience sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Gotink (Rinske); Hermans, K.S.F.M. (Karlijn S.F.M.); Geschwind, N. (Nicole); De Nooij, R. (Reinier); De Groot, W.T. (Wouter T.); A.E.M. Speckens (Anne)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of mindful walking in nature as a possible means to maintain mindfulness skills after a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) or mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course. Mindful walking alongside the

  11. OPEN MINDS DEVELOP GREEN BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURDUF (MIERLARU ANDREEA ELENA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of the high costs related to environmental and climate protection, green products and green energy sources, firms are not interested in reducing environment-unfriendly activities. But even large companies can afford allocating money for research? Apple won a patent which, if used in the near future, it could transform into a mobile IPhone 5 obsolete and polluting the atmosphere. Apple patent obtained is related to the integration of a touchscreen display has a solar charging system. But who was the open mind behing the rise of Apple? Steve Jobs dropped out of college after six months and spent the next eighteen months attend on creative classes. Starting with the definition of green economy, the purpose of this paper is to analyse how to reduce environmental risks, so the economy becomes a component of the ecosystem in which it resides. A person with completed studies can be a skilled specialist who has mastered the field, but condemned to be only professional competent, but not an open mind who contribute to innovation. In conclusion, the future of the planet depends on business decisions, and whether they will be good, earth will be a place that future generations will enjoy it.

  12. Mind's historicity: its hidden history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarroso, Noemí

    2013-02-01

    Whereas psychological research can hardly accept the idea of a changing psychological architecture, mind's historicity seems to be commonplace among historians of psychology, at least in recent decades. Attempts to promote a convergence between psychology and history have always existed, though mainly in the margins of both disciplines. Among these attempts, there is a tradition in French psychology that remains quite marginal even to the history of the discipline and is practically unknown out of the French context. Our goal is to introduce this approach, through the work of its main architect, Ignace Meyerson, to an English speaking reader, in the light of current pleas for historicity. Developed within the core of the discipline of psychology, though in dialogue with many others disciplines, Meyerson's historical psychology appears to be more ambitious than other attempts, as it aims at studying psychological activity itself, beyond the history of its conceptualizations. It is concerned not with the analysis of fragmented, isolated, and mechanistic behaviors or cognitive process, but with the study of mind in its functioning through the multiple and changing fields of experience where human beings are involved.

  13. Collective Mindfulness in Post-implementation IS Adaptation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanestad, Margun; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2016-01-01

    identify the way in which the organizational capability we call "collective mindfulness" was achieved. Being aware of how to practically achieve collective mindfulness, managers may be able to better facilitate mindful handling of post-implementation IS adaptation processes....

  14. Greater efficiency in attentional processing related to mindfulness meditation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, P.A.M. van den; Giommi, F.; Gielen, S.C.A.M.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Barendregt, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, attentional processing in relation to mindfulness meditation was investigated. Since recent studies have suggested that mindfulness meditation may induce improvements in attentional processing, we have tested 20 expert mindfulness meditators in the attention network test. Their

  15. John Dewey and the savage mind: uniting anthropological, psychological, and pedagogical thought, 1894-1902.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallace, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    In 1902 influential American philosopher John Dewey wrote a short essay on anthropolo-gists'view of the savage mind, arguing that it had had been unfairly dismissed as inchoate and incapable, when in fact the savage had much to teach scholars about the "present mind." The ideas presented in Dewey's essay were not only theoretical; they also served as the basis for his entire curriculum his famous laboratory school at the University of Chicago. Thus, the author argues that Dewey's pedagogical thought informed his anthropological thought, and vice versa.

  16. The dreaming brain/mind, consciousness and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limosani, Ivan; D'Agostino, Armando; Manzone, Maria Laura; Scarone, Silvio

    2011-12-01

    Several independent lines of research in neurobiology seem to support the phenomenologically-grounded view of the dreaming brain/mind as a useful model for psychosis. Hallucinatory phenomena and thought disorders found in psychosis share several peculiarities with dreaming, where internally generated, vivid sensorimotor imagery along with often heightened and incongruous emotion are paired with a decrease in ego functions which ultimately leads to a severe impairment in reality testing. Contemporary conceptualizations of severe mental disorders view psychosis as one psychopathological dimension that may be found across several diagnostic categories. Some experimental data have shown cognitive bizarreness to be equally elevated in dreams and in the waking cognition of acutely psychotic subjects and in patients treated with pro-dopaminergic drugs, independent of the underlying disorder. Further studies into the neurofunctional underpinnings of both conditions will help to clarify the use and validity of this model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Credibility in Mindfulness Training for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Harriet

    2018-01-01

    Providing the evidence-base to establish whether mindfulness for young people is beneficial is undoubtedly more challenging than it has been for adults. First of all there are the practical difficulties in training teachers to deliver mindfulness well. Yet this is what needs to be done; teachers with the class management and pedagogical expertise…

  18. Mindfulness in Academia: Considerations for Administrative Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Caryn M.

    2013-01-01

    This conceptual paper presents a synthesis of information about the workload stress of educational administrators. Currently, there are few programs designed to assist educational leaders to deal with stress (Hawk & Martin, 2011). Stress reduction programs may include mindfulness, a widely used practice of meditation. Mindfulness is used in…

  19. Theory of Mind Enhances Preference for Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagishi, Haruto; Kameshima, Shinya; Schug, Joanna; Koizumi, Michiko; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of theory of mind in fairness-related behavior in preschoolers and to introduce a tool for examining fairness-related behavior in children. A total of 68 preschoolers played the Ultimatum Game in a face-to-face setting. Acquisition of theory of mind was defined as the understanding of false…

  20. How Children and Adults Represent God's Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiphetz, Larisa; Lane, Jonathan D.; Waytz, Adam; Young, Liane L.

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, humans have contemplated the minds of gods. Research on religious cognition is spread across sub-disciplines, making it difficult to gain a complete understanding of how people reason about gods' minds. We integrate approaches from cognitive, developmental, and social psychology and neuroscience to illuminate the origins of…

  1. Simulation and analysis of shared extended mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Schut, M.C.; Treur, J.

    Some types of animals exploit patterns created in the environment as external mental states, thus obtaining an extension of their mind. In the case of social animals the creation and exploitation of such patterns can be shared, which supports a form of shared extended mind or collective

  2. Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training in Fostering Tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the impact of mindfulness training in fostering tobacco cessation among undergraduates in a Nigerian university. It also observed the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the causal link between mindfulness training and tobacco cessation. Participants were 57 students randomly assigned to ...

  3. Scaling of Theory-of-Mind Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Liu, David

    2004-01-01

    Two studies address the sequence of understandings evident in preschoolers' developing theory of mind. The first, preliminary study provides a meta-analysis of research comparing different types of mental state understandings (e.g., desires vs. beliefs, ignorance vs. false belief). The second, primary study tests a theory-of-mind scale for…

  4. Writing Bodies: Somatic Mind in Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the somatic mind, a permeable materiality in which mind and body resolve into a single entity which is (re)formed by the constantly shifting boundaries of discursive and corporeal intertextualities. Addresses its importance in composition studies. Critiques the poststructuralist disregard of corporeality. (CR)

  5. Mind Maps as a Lifelong Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Aliye

    2017-01-01

    Mind map, which was developed by Tony Buzan as a note-taking technique, is an application which has the power of uncovering the thoughts which the brain has about a subject from different viewpoints and which activate the right and left lobes of the brain together as an alternative to linear thought. It is known that mind maps have benefits such…

  6. Mindfulness, Stress, and Coping among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Angele; Rodger, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 135 first-year university students living in residence completed questionnaires that measured individual differences in mindfulness, coping styles, and perceived stress. Findings revealed significant positive relationships between mindfulness and rational coping, and significant negative relationships with emotional and avoidant coping…

  7. The Role of Mindfulness to Improve Leadership in Multicultural Context

    OpenAIRE

    Dhevy Puswiartika; Zahrotur Rusyda Hinduan; Marina Sulastiana; Diana Harding

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness is present moment awareness with an observing and nonjudging stance. To be mindful means to be fully in the here and now from moment to moment. Mindfulness appears to have broadly positive impacts on human functioning. This review explored the current state of studies regarding mindfulness as a potential psychological construct to improve leadership in multicultural context. Mindfulness associated with higher relationship quality because a mindful leader is better able to be fully...

  8. On the relation of mind wandering and ADHD symptomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Seli, Paul; Smallwood, Jonathan; Cheyne, James Allan; Smilek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Mind wandering seems to be a prototypical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, an important emerging distinction of mind-wandering types hinges on whether a given episode of mind wandering reflects a failure of executive control (spontaneous mind wandering) or the engagement of controlled processes for internal processing (deliberate mind wandering). Here we distinguish between spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering and test the hypothesis that symptoms of A...

  9. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Levinson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater nonattachment (i.e. less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward. We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness.

  10. 45 CFR 1218.6 - Freedom to present views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freedom to present views. 1218.6 Section 1218.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA VOLUNTEERS-HEARING OPPORTUNITY § 1218.6 Freedom to present views. The expression by a volunteer of his views with respect to the...

  11. [Evaluation of school and afterschool activities of public and nonpublic secondary school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polus-Szeniawska, E

    1995-01-01

    The studies were performed on 825 school children (512 girls and 313 boys) from 1st and 2nd classes of secondary schools in som voievodship capital cities. 406 school children were from public, and 419 from non-public schools. The questionnaire prepared in the Institute for Children and Youngsters Institute in Berlin was used in this study. The evaluation of collected responses made possible to state the following conclusions: The organization of school and out school activities in public and non public schools was incorrect in several aspects ie. incorrect from the hygienic point of view organization of classes during day, too early beginning of the classes, too late ending of the classes in some week days, too long time needed to complete homework, and too late return to home after completing out school activities. The difficulties in homework completing were stated by school children from both public and non public schools. In 52% cases the parents helped in homework and 12% of children reported private lessons as an additional help in homework. The analysis of responses concerning frame of mind of school children showed better situation of pupils from non public schools. Only 15% of non public school children expressed reluctancy towards schools, as compared to 21% from public schools. The relationships between pupils and teachers did not worsened during consecutive years in non public schools, as opposite to public schools where the worsening of these relationships during the consecutive years was evident.

  12. Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Peter; Petersen, Marian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of mindfulness meditation on chronic pain. DESIGN: A total of 109 patients with nonspecific chronic pain were randomized to either a standardized mindfulness meditation program (mindfulness-based stress reduction [MBSR...... randomized patients completed the mindfulness program, while 47 remained in the control group. Data were compared at three time points: at baseline, after completion of the course/waiting period, and at the 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Significant effect (Cohen's d = 0.39) was found on the primary outcome...... (nonsignificant) effect sizes were found for pain measures. There were no significant differences in the measures just after the intervention vs the 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: A standardized mindfulness program (MBSR) contributes positively to pain management and can exert clinically relevant effects...

  13. Mind-Body Practices in Integrative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Kohls

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mind-Body practices have become increasingly popular as components of psychotherapeutic and behavior medicine interventions. They comprise an array of different methods and techniques that use some sort of mental-behavioral training and involve the modulation of states of consciousness in order to influence bodily processes towards greater health, well-being and better functioning. Mind-body practices may thus be interpreted as the salutogenetic mirror image of psychosomatic medicine, where psychophysiological and health consequences of specific psychological states are studied, such as stress arousal, psychological trauma or depression. This contribution examines the empirical evidence of the most common mind-body techniques with regard to their salutogenetic potential. We concisely discuss some aspects of the mind-body problem, before we consider some historical aspects and achievements of psychosomatic medicine. We then turn to some prominent mind-body practices and their application, as well as the empirical database for them.

  14. State Mindfulness During Meditation Predicts Enhanced Cognitive Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Adam; Farb, Norman A.; Froeliger, Brett E.

    2013-01-01

    Putatively, mindfulness meditation involves generation of a state of “nonappraisal”, yet, little is known about how mindfulness may influence appraisal processes. We investigated whether the state and practice of mindfulness could enhance cognitive reappraisal. Participants (N = 44; M age = 24.44, SD = 4.00, range 19 – 38, 82.2% female) were randomized to either 1) mindfulness, 2) suppression, or 3) mind-wandering induction training conditions. Cognitive reappraisal was assessed with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) prior to experimental induction, and state mindfulness was assessed immediately following induction using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS). Participants practiced their assigned strategy for one week and then were reassessed with the ERQ reappraisal subscale. Participants receiving mindfulness training reported significantly higher levels of state mindfulness than participants in the thought suppression and mind wandering conditions. Although brief mindfulness training did not lead to significantly greater increases in reappraisal than the other two conditions, state mindfulness during mindfulness meditation was prospectively associated with increases in reappraisal. Path analysis revealed that the indirect effect between mindfulness training and reappraisal was significant through state mindfulness. Degree of state mindfulness achieved during the act of mindfulness meditation significantly predicted increases in reappraisal over time, suggesting that mindfulness may promote emotion regulation by enhancing cognitive reappraisal. PMID:26085851

  15. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  16. Hearts and minds and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumey, Chris

    2009-03-01

    New research by social scientists is presenting a clearer picture of the factors that influence the public perception of nanotechnology and, as Chris Toumey reports, the results present challenges for those working to increase public acceptance of nanoscience and technology.See focus on public perceptions of nanotechnology.

  17. Has bioscience reconciled mind and body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Carmel; Redmond, Catherine; Toole, Sinead O; Coughlan, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this discursive paper is to explore the question 'has biological science reconciled mind and body?'. This paper has been inspired by the recognition that bioscience has a historical reputation for privileging the body over the mind. The disregard for the mind (emotions and behaviour) cast bioscience within a 'mind-body problem' paradigm. It has also led to inherent limitations in its capacity to contribute to understanding the complex nature of health. This is a discursive paper. Literature from the history and sociology of science and psychoneuroimmunology (1975-2015) inform the arguments in this paper. The historical and sociological literature provides the basis for a socio-cultural debate on mind-body considerations in science since the 1970s. The psychoneuroimmunology literature draws on mind-body bioscientific theory as a way to demonstrate how science is reconciling mind and body and advancing its understanding of the interconnections between emotions, behaviour and health. Using sociological and biological evidence, this paper demonstrates how bioscience is embracing and advancing its understanding of mind-body interconnectedness. It does this by demonstrating the emotional and behavioural alterations that are caused by two common phenomena; prolonged, chronic peripheral inflammation and prolonged psychological stress. The evidence and arguments provided has global currency that advances understanding of the inter-relationship between emotions, behaviour and health. This paper shows how bioscience has reconciled mind and body. In doing so, it has advanced an understanding of science's contribution to the inter-relationship between emotions, behaviour and health. The biological evidence supporting mind-body science has relevance to clinical practice for nurses and other healthcare professions. This paper discusses how this evidence can inform and enhance clinical practice directly and through research, education and policy. © 2015 John Wiley

  18. The Personality of a “Good Test Taker”: Self-Control and Mindfulness Predict Good Time-Management When Taking Exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Osgood

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Much prior research has linked trait self-control and trait mindfulness with improved performance on overall academic metrics such as GPA. The present research expands on this literature by linking self-control, mindfulness, and closely related personality constructs to differences in the way students manage their time while taking exams. Students at two large public universities (total n = 362 completed scale measures of self-control, mindfulness, and their use of time when taking timed examinations. The results suggest that trait self-control (r = .174 and trait mindfulness (r = .311 are statistically significant predictors of effective time management while taking timed exams.

  19. Does change in self-reported mindfulness mediate the clinical benefits of mindfulness training? A controlled study using the French translation of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Heeren, Alexandre; Deplus, Sandrine; Peschard, Virginie; Nef, François; Kotsou, Ilios; Dierickx, Christophe; Mondillon, Laurie; Robinaugh, Donald J.; Philippot, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness training improves mental health and psychological functioning. Although several questionnaires have been developed to measure mindfulness, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is currently one of the most widely used scales. However, uncertainty remains about wheth- er the effects of mindfulness training can be unambiguously attributed to change in self-reported mindfulness. The present study was designed to answer three major questions: First, relative to a wait-list g...

  20. Mindfulness Is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome among Individuals with a Depressive Symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Guyot

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is a major public health burden. Dispositional mindfulness has recently been associated with eating disorders, being overweight, and could therefore be associated with the MetS. We aimed to examine in a cross-sectional design the relationship between mindfulness, the MetS, and its risk factors in a large sample of the adult general population and the influence of depressive symptomatology on this association. Adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study who had completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire and attended a clinical and biological examination were available for inclusion. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were performed. A total of 17,490 individuals were included. Among individuals with a depressive symptomatology, those with higher mindfulness were less likely to have a MetS (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57–0.93, a high waist circumference, a low HDL-cholesterol level and an elevated fasting blood glucose level (all p <0.05. In those without depressive symptomatology, individuals with higher mindfulness were less likely to have a high waist circumference (p <0.01. In conclusion, higher mindfulness was associated with lower odds of developing a MetS only among individuals with a depressive symptomatology.

  1. Mindfulness Is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome among Individuals with a Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Erika; Baudry, Julia; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Péneau, Sandrine

    2018-02-17

    The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a major public health burden. Dispositional mindfulness has recently been associated with eating disorders, being overweight, and could therefore be associated with the MetS. We aimed to examine in a cross-sectional design the relationship between mindfulness, the MetS, and its risk factors in a large sample of the adult general population and the influence of depressive symptomatology on this association. Adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study who had completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire and attended a clinical and biological examination were available for inclusion. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were performed. A total of 17,490 individuals were included. Among individuals with a depressive symptomatology, those with higher mindfulness were less likely to have a MetS (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57-0.93), a high waist circumference, a low HDL-cholesterol level and an elevated fasting blood glucose level (all p mindfulness were less likely to have a high waist circumference ( p mindfulness was associated with lower odds of developing a MetS only among individuals with a depressive symptomatology.

  2. The Turkish Version of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin D. Catak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The mindfulness approach to psychotherapy has become a topic of continuously growing scientific interest. In accordance with such interest, various self-report assessment tools have been developed to measure the mindfulness construct. The majority of the studies conducted to investigate the properties of these assessment instruments included Western populations. Thus, the measurement of mindfulness in non-Western cultures still requires further research. Based on this premise, the psychometric properties of the 10 item Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R were investigated in two different studies using two non-clinical Turkish samples. In Study 1, the psychometric properties of the 10 item CAMS-R were examined in an undergraduate student sample (N = 265. Study 2 extended the examination of the psychometric properties of the CAMS-R to an adult community sample consisting of white-collar public employees (N = 88. The results of both studies showed that the Turkish CAMS-R possessed acceptable levels of internal consistency and the scale displayed convergent as well as concurrent validity. Statistically meaningful relationships were found between mindfulness as measures by Turkish CAMS-R and depression, anxiety, well-being as well as perceived stress. The findings from both studies suggest CAMS-R retains its psychometric properties when utilized in a non-Western culture and the Turkish version of CAMS-R is a valid instrument which can be used to measure mindfulness in the Turkish population.

  3. Physics of the human mind

    CERN Document Server

    Lubashevsky, Ihor

    2017-01-01

    This book tackles the challenging question which mathematical formalisms and possibly new physical notions should be developed for quantitatively describing human cognition and behavior, in addition to the ones already developed in the physical and cognitive sciences. Indeed, physics is widely used in modeling social systems, where, in particular, new branches of science such as sociophysics and econophysics have arisen. However, many if not most characteristic features of humans like willingness, emotions, memory, future prediction, and moral norms, to name but a few, are not yet properly reflected in the paradigms of physical thought and theory. The choice of a relevant formalism for modeling mental phenomena requires the comprehension of the general philosophical questions related to the mind-body problem. Plausible answers to these questions are investigated and reviewed, notions and concepts to be used or to be taken into account are developed and some challenging questions are posed as open problems. Th...

  4. Is mindfulness research methodology improving over time? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon B Goldberg

    Full Text Available Despite an exponential growth in research on mindfulness-based interventions, the body of scientific evidence supporting these treatments has been criticized for being of poor methodological quality.The current systematic review examined the extent to which mindfulness research demonstrated increased rigor over the past 16 years regarding six methodological features that have been highlighted as areas for improvement. These feature included using active control conditions, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessment, treatment fidelity assessment, and reporting of instructor training and intent-to-treat (ITT analyses.We searched PubMed, PsychInfo, Scopus, and Web of Science in addition to a publically available repository of mindfulness studies.Randomized clinical trials of mindfulness-based interventions for samples with a clinical disorder or elevated symptoms of a clinical disorder listed on the American Psychological Association's list of disorders with recognized evidence-based treatment.Independent raters screened 9,067 titles and abstracts, with 303 full text reviews. Of these, 171 were included, representing 142 non-overlapping samples.Across the 142 studies published between 2000 and 2016, there was no evidence for increases in any study quality indicator, although changes were generally in the direction of improved quality. When restricting the sample to those conducted in Europe and North America (continents with the longest history of scientific research in this area, an increase in reporting of ITT analyses was found. When excluding an early, high-quality study, improvements were seen in sample size, treatment fidelity assessment, and reporting of ITT analyses.Taken together, the findings suggest modest adoption of the recommendations for methodological improvement voiced repeatedly in the literature. Possible explanations for this and implications for interpreting this body of research and conducting future studies are

  5. Advanced LabVIEW Labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Eric D.

    1999-01-01

    teach computer-based research skills.'' With this goal in mind, he has succeeded admirably. Advanced LabVIEW Labs presents a series of chapters devoted to not only introducing the reader to LabVIEW, but also to the concepts necessary for writing a successful computer pro- gram. Each chapter is an assignment for the student and is suitable for a ten week course. The first topic introduces the while loop and waveform chart VI'S. After learning how to launch LabVIEW, the student then leans how to use LabVIEW functions such as sine and cosine. The beauty of thk and subsequent chapters, the student is introduced immediately to computer-based instruction by learning how to display the results in graph form on the screen. At each point along the way, the student is not only introduced to another LabVIEW operation, but also to such subjects as spread sheets for data storage, numerical integration, Fourier transformations', curve fitting algorithms, etc. The last few chapters conclude with the purpose of the learning module, and that is, com- puter-based instrumentation. Computer-based laboratory projects such as analog-to-digital con- version, digitizing oscilloscopes treated. Advanced Lab VIEW Labs finishes with a treatment on GPIB interfacing and finally, the student is asked to create an operating VI for temperature con- trol. This is an excellent text, not only as an treatise on LabVIEW but also as an introduction to computer programming logic. All programmers, who are struggling to not only learning how interface computers to instruments, but also trying understand top down programming and other programming language techniques, should add Advanced Lab-VIEW Labs to their computer library

  6. Bodies, hearts, and minds: Why emotions matter to historians of science and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Fay Bound

    2009-12-01

    The histories of emotion address many fundamental themes of science and medicine. These include the ways the body and its workings have been historically observed and measured, the rise of the mind sciences, and the anthropological analyses by which "ways of knowing" are culturally situated. Yet such histories bring their own challenges, not least in how historians of science and medicine view the relationship between bodies, minds, and emotions. This essay explores some of the methodological challenges of emotion history, using the sudden death of the surgeon John Hunter from cardiac disease as a case study. It argues that we need to let go of many of our modem assumptions about the origin of emotions, and "brainhood", that dominate discussions of identity, in order to explore the historical meanings of emotions as products of the body as well as the mind.

  7. "Involving interface": an extended mind theoretical approach to roboethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Miranda; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Fukushi, Tamami

    2010-11-01

    In 2008 the authors held "Involving Interface," a lively interdisciplinary event focusing on issues of biological, sociocultural, and technological interfacing (see Acknowledgments). Inspired by discussions at this event, in this article, we further discuss the value of input from neuroscience for developing robots and machine interfaces, and the value of philosophy, the humanities, and the arts for identifying persistent links between human interfacing and broader ethical concerns. The importance of ongoing interdisciplinary debate and public communication on scientific and technical advances is also highlighted. Throughout, the authors explore the implications of the extended mind hypothesis for notions of moral accountability and robotics.

  8. The neurotic wandering mind: An individual differences investigation of neuroticism, mind-wandering, and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Matthew K; Gath, Katherine I; Unsworth, Nash

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience have recently developed a keen interest in the phenomenon of mind-wandering. People mind-wander frequently, and mind-wandering is associated with decreased cognitive performance. But why do people mind-wander so much? Previous investigations have focused on cognitive abilities like working memory capacity and attention control. But an individual's tendency to worry, feel anxious, and entertain personal concerns also influences mind-wandering. The Control Failure × Concerns model of mind-wandering. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 188-197] argues that individual differences in the propensity to mind-wander are jointly determined by cognitive abilities and by the presence of personally salient concerns that intrude on task focus. In order to test this model, we investigated individual differences in mind-wandering, executive attention, and personality with a focus on neuroticism. The results showed that neurotic individuals tended to report more mind-wandering during cognitive tasks, lower working memory capacity, and poorer attention control. Thus the trait of neuroticism adds an additional source of variance in the tendency to mind-wander, which offers support for the Control Failure × Concerns model. The results help bridge the fields of clinical psychology, cognitive psychology, affective neuroscience, and cognitive neuroscience as a means of developing a more complete understanding of the complex relationship between cognition, personality, and emotion.

  9. Being Mindful as a Phenomenological Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, Lena Wiklund

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to reflect on being mindful as a phenomenological attitude rather than on describing mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention. I will also explore the possibilities that being mindful might open up in relation to nursing research and holistic nursing. I will describe and interpret mindfulness as a state of being by means of van Manen's phenomenological method, using the language of phenomenology rather than the language of reductionist science. Thus, this article can be considered a reflective narrative, describing both the process of orienting to the phenomenon, making preunderstandings-including own experiences of mindfulness-visible, and a thematic analysis of nine scientific articles describing the phenomenon. Being mindful as a phenomenological attitude can be described as a deliberate intentionality, where the person is present in the moment and open to what is going on, bridling personal values and accepting the unfamiliar, thus achieving a sense of being peacefully situated in the world, and able to apprehend one's being-in-the-world. Being mindful as a phenomenological attitude can contribute not only to phenomenological nursing research but also support nurses' presence and awareness.

  10. a comparative survey on mind mapping tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avgoustos A. TSINAKOS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mind Mapping is an important technique that improves the way you takes notes, and enhances your creative problem solving. By using Mind Maps, you can quickly identify and understand the structure of a subject and the way that pieces of information fit together, as well as recording the raw facts contained in normal notes. It can also be used as complementary tools for knowledge construction and sharing. Their suitability as a pedagogical tool for education, e-learning and training, increases their importance. Also, in a world of information overload and businesses struggling to keep up with the place of change, knowledge workers need effective tools to organize, analyze, brainstorm and collaborate on ideas. In resent years, a wide variety of mind mapping software tools have been developed. An often question that comes up, due to this plethora of software tools, is “which is the best mind mapping software?” Anyone who gives you an immediate answer either knows you and your mind mapping activities very well or their answer in not worth a lot. The “best” depends so much on how you use mind maps. In this paper we are trying to investigate different user profiles and to identify various axes for comparison among mind mapping tools that are suitable for a specific user profile, describe each axis and then analyze each tool.

  11. Adults are intuitive mind-body dualists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmann, Matthias; Burgmer, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    In the present research, we tested the hypotheses that (a) adults are intuitive mind-body dualists, (b) that this belief can be considered a default, and (c) that it is partially explained by essentialistic reasoning about the nature of the mind. Over 8 studies, using various thought experiment paradigms, participants reliably ascribed to a physically duplicated being a greater retention of physical than of mental properties. This difference was unrelated to whether or not this being was given a proper name (Study 1b) and was only found for entities that were considered to actually possess a mind (Study 1c). Further, we found that an intuitive belief in mind-body dualism may in fact be considered a default: Taxing participants' cognitive resources (Study 2) or priming them with an intuitive (vs. analytical) thinking style (Studies 3a and 3b) both increased dualistic beliefs. In a last set of studies, we found that beliefs in mind-body dualism are indeed related to essentialistic reasoning about the mind. When a living being was reassembled from its original molecules rather than recreated from new molecules, dualistic beliefs were significantly reduced (Studies 4a and 4b). Thus, results of the present research indicate that, despite any acquired scientific knowledge about the neurological origins of mental life, most adults remain "essentialistic mind-body dualists" at heart.

  12. Mind Perception Is the Essence of Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kurt; Young, Liane; Waytz, Adam

    2012-04-01

    Mind perception entails ascribing mental capacities to other entities, whereas moral judgment entails labeling entities as good or bad or actions as right or wrong. We suggest that mind perception is the essence of moral judgment. In particular, we suggest that moral judgment is rooted in a cognitive template of two perceived minds-a moral dyad of an intentional agent and a suffering moral patient. Diverse lines of research support dyadic morality. First, perceptions of mind are linked to moral judgments: dimensions of mind perception (agency and experience) map onto moral types (agents and patients), and deficits of mind perception correspond to difficulties with moral judgment. Second, not only are moral judgments sensitive to perceived agency and experience, but all moral transgressions are fundamentally understood as agency plus experienced suffering-that is, interpersonal harm-even ostensibly harmless acts such as purity violations. Third, dyadic morality uniquely accounts for the phenomena of dyadic completion (seeing agents in response to patients, and vice versa), and moral typecasting (characterizing others as either moral agents or moral patients). Discussion also explores how mind perception can unify morality across explanatory levels, how a dyadic template of morality may be developmentally acquired, and future directions.

  13. Norwegian long-term care: Legacies, trends, and controversies - See more at: http://www.gigapp.org/index.php/component/jresearch/?view=publication&task=show&id=1807#sthash.eCzEqbqK.dpuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daatland, SveinOlav

    2015-02-01

    ? Have the policy tools (services, transfers, funding or models of provision changed? To what extent have these policies been successful in coping with social and economic problems? To what extent a social demand in favour of these changes exist? What are the main political and social actors intervening as stakeholders in these policies? Finally, what are the major similarities and differences existing between the two countries? To what extent are there policy proposals that might easily travel between them? Could they foster mutually enriching exchanges of information? - See more at: http://www.gigapp.org/index.php/component/jresearch/?view=publication&task=show&id=1807#sthash.GBgfdaqa.dpuf

  14. Safeguarding the public interest - an American view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.

    1976-01-01

    An account is given of the arguments proceeding in the United States of America in favour of, and opposed to, nuclear power. The need to provide energy supplies is seen in contrast to the hazards. It is suggested that part of the opposition is on sociological, not technological, grounds. (U.K.)

  15. Internet Measurements and Public Policy : Mind the Gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asghari, H.; Van Eeten, M.J.G.; Mueller, M.

    2013-01-01

    Large and impressive data collection efforts often fail to make their data useful for answering policy questions. In this paper, we argue that this is due to a systematic gap between the ways measurement engineers think about their data, and how other disciplines typically make use of data. We recap

  16. Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind; Relieve Stress; best ways to relieve stress; best way to relieve stress; different ways to relieve stress; does smoking relieve stress; does tobacco relieve stress; how can I relieve stress; how can you relieve stress; how do I relieve stress; reduce stress; does smoking reduce stress; how can I reduce stress; how to reduce stress; reduce stress; reduce stress levels; reducing stress; smoking reduce stress; smoking reduces stress; stress reducing techniques; techniques to reduce stress; stress relief; best stress relief; natural stress relief; need stress relief; relief for stress; relief from stress; relief of stress; smoking and stress relief; smoking for stress relief; smoking stress relief; deal with stress; dealing with stress; dealing with anger; dealing with stress; different ways of dealing with stress; help dealing with stress; how to deal with anger; how to deal with stress; how to deal with stress when quitting smoking; stress management; free stress management; how can you manage stress; how do you manage stress; how to manage stress; manage stress; management of stress; management stress; managing stress; strategies for managing stress; coping with stress; cope with stress; copeing with stress; coping and stress; coping skills for stress; coping strategies for stress; coping strategies with stress; coping strategy for stress; coping with stress; coping with stress and anxiety; emotional health; emotional health; emotional health article; emotional health articles; deep relaxation; deep breathing relaxation techniques; deep muscle relaxation; deep relaxation; deep relaxation meditation; deep relaxation technique; deep relaxation techniques; meditation exercises; mindful exercises; mindful meditation exercises; online relaxation exercises; relaxation breathing exercises; relaxation exercise; relaxation exercises; stress relaxation; methods of relaxation for stress; relax stress; relax techniques stress

  17. A School-Based Mindfulness Intervention for Urban Youth: Exploring Moderators of Intervention Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Laura Feagans; Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Mendelson, Tamar; Greenberg, Mark. T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines gender, grade-level, and baseline depressive symptoms as potential moderators of a school-based mindfulness intervention's impact on the self-regulatory outcomes of urban youth. Ninety-seven participants from four urban public schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or wait-list control condition. Fourth and fifth…

  18. Feasibility and Preliminary Outcomes of a Yoga and Mindfulness Intervention for School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Matthew R.; Mendelson, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Many public school teachers face formidable challenges, including overcrowded classrooms, limited administrative resources, and high numbers of students with behavioral and emotional problems. Mindfulness-based strategies are a potentially promising means of reducing teachers' stress and enhancing their ability to handle job demands effectively.…

  19. The Impact of Electronic Mind Maps on Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidat, Mohammad Mahmoud Talal

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of the electronic mind map (IMindMap) on the development of reading comprehension among the ninth grade students in Jordan. The sample of the study consisted of two ninth grade sections from two public schools in Irbid First Directorate during the academic 2016-2017. Each section consisted of (30)…

  20. Public perceptions of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Public perceptions of risk will probably always be unsatisfying to a scientist. Public perceptions are formed by the actions of institutions which have goals other than formation of an informed public opinion, such as the schools, the media, business and the government. In this environment, it seems unrealistic to expect public opinion to reflect scientific realities. The talk will focus on the media as an opinion-former and will discuss several non-nuclear issues as illustrations: plague in New Mexico, Toxic Shock Syndrome, and Injuries as a Public Health Problem. Ultimately however, we are confronted with two wonderfully complex matters: can risk be adequately expressed or measured in universally comprehensible or broadly acceptable terms; and the mysterious movements of the public and collective mind

  1. Is Mindfulness a Useful Practice for Music Therapists? A Research Project Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aglaïa Maria Mika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the familiarity and usefulness of mindfulness to music therapists who work in a clinical setting, and it aims to examine plausible similarities between presently known concepts of mindfulness and the conventionally established therapeutic attitude as portrayed in this paper. Seven music therapists working in London took part in this study. Four attended a focus group and three were interviewed over the telephone. The findings show that most participants were familiar with the concept and had some experience of mindfulness, and stated that it enhanced their clinical work. Participants described some practices they do to prepare themselves for sessions, and they explained how they experienced silences as well as nonmusical components within music therapy. Their opinions about the familiarity of mindfulness in their profession varied. The findings suggest an overall positive view on mindfulness; however, as the sample number is small, I would suggest that my research questions and findings could be used as a platform for future research initiatives.

  2. Mindful attention to breath regulates emotions via increased amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Anselm; Hölzel, Britta K; Mulej Bratec, Satja; Boucard, Christine C; Xie, Xiyao; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Sorg, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Mindfulness practice is beneficial for emotion regulation; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. The current study focuses on effects of attention-to-breath (ATB) as a basic mindfulness practice on aversive emotions at behavioral and brain levels. A key finding across different emotion regulation strategies is the modulation of amygdala and prefrontal activity. It is unclear how ATB relevant brain areas in the prefrontal cortex integrate with amygdala activation during emotional stimulation. We proposed that, during emotional stimulation, ATB down-regulates activation in the amygdala and increases its integration with prefrontal regions. To address this hypothesis, 26 healthy controls were trained in mindfulness-based attention-to-breath meditation for two weeks and then stimulated with aversive pictures during both attention-to-breath and passive viewing while undergoing fMRI. Data were controlled for breathing frequency. Results indicate that (1) ATB was effective in regulating aversive emotions. (2) Left dorso-medial prefrontal cortex was associated with ATB in general. (3) A fronto-parietal network was additionally recruited during emotional stimulation. (4) ATB down regulated amygdala activation and increased amygdala-prefrontal integration, with such increased integration being associated with mindfulness ability. Results suggest amygdala-dorsal prefrontal cortex integration as a potential neural pathway of emotion regulation by mindfulness practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical Hypnosis, an Effective Mind-Body Modality for Adolescents with Behavioral and Physical Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawni, Anju; Breuner, Cora Collette

    2017-03-24

    Mind-body medicine is a system of health practices that includes meditation/relaxation training, guided imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, yoga, art/music therapy, prayer, t'ai chi, and psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Clinical hypnosis is an important mind-body tool that serves as an adjunct to conventional medical care for the adolescent patient. Clinical hypnosis specifically uses self-directed therapeutic suggestions to cultivate the imagination and facilitate the mind-body connection, leading to positive emotional and physical well-being. There are many similarities between clinical hypnosis and other mind-body/self-regulatory modalities such as visual imagery, mindfulness meditation, yoga, and biofeedback that incorporate experiential learning and mechanisms for change. They may be viewed as subtypes of the hypnotic experience and share the common experience of trance as the entrée into self-empowered change in physiologic and psychological states. Clinical hypnosis can be used by health care providers to teach adolescents coping skills to deal with a wide variety of conditions such as chronic headaches, recurrent abdominal pain, anxiety, depression, grief and bereavement, phobias, anger, family stressors, sleep disorders, or enuresis. Clinical vignettes are given to help illustrate the effectiveness of hypnosis in adolescents.

  4. When Did Coloring Books Become Mindful? Exploring the Effectiveness of a Novel Method of Mindfulness-Guided Instructions for Coloring Books to Increase Mindfulness and Decrease Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Mantzios

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness has been associated with the use of coloring books for adults; however, the question of whether they do increase mindfulness has not been addressed. In two studies, we attempted to identify whether mindfulness is increased, and whether there is a need for ongoing guidance while coloring, similar to mindfulness meditation. In the first randomized controlled experiment, university students (n = 88 were assigned to an unguided mandala coloring group (i.e., described in mainstream literature as a mindfulness practice or to a free-drawing group. Measurements of state mindfulness and state anxiety were taken pre- and post- experiment. Results indicated no change in mindfulness or anxiety. In the second randomized controlled experiment, university students (n = 72 were assigned to an unguided mandala coloring group (i.e., same as Experiment 1, or, to a mindfulness-guided coloring group (i.e., same as the unguided coloring group with a mindfulness practitioner guiding participants as in mindfulness breathing meditation, with instructions modified and applied to coloring. Results indicated that the mindfulness-guided mandala coloring group performed better in decreasing anxiety, but no change was observed in mindfulness. Exit interviews revealed that some participants did not like the voice guiding them while coloring, which suggested further differing and significant findings. While mindfulness-guided coloring appears promising, guidance or instructions on how to color mindfully may require further development and adjustment to enhance health and wellbeing.

  5. When Did Coloring Books Become Mindful? Exploring the Effectiveness of a Novel Method of Mindfulness-Guided Instructions for Coloring Books to Increase Mindfulness and Decrease Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzios, Michail; Giannou, Kyriaki

    2018-01-01

    Mindfulness has been associated with the use of coloring books for adults; however, the question of whether they do increase mindfulness has not been addressed. In two studies, we attempted to identify whether mindfulness is increased, and whether there is a need for ongoing guidance while coloring, similar to mindfulness meditation. In the first randomized controlled experiment, university students ( n = 88) were assigned to an unguided mandala coloring group (i.e., described in mainstream literature as a mindfulness practice) or to a free-drawing group. Measurements of state mindfulness and state anxiety were taken pre- and post- experiment. Results indicated no change in mindfulness or anxiety. In the second randomized controlled experiment, university students ( n = 72) were assigned to an unguided mandala coloring group (i.e., same as Experiment 1), or, to a mindfulness-guided coloring group (i.e., same as the unguided coloring group with a mindfulness practitioner guiding participants as in mindfulness breathing meditation, with instructions modified and applied to coloring). Results indicated that the mindfulness-guided mandala coloring group performed better in decreasing anxiety, but no change was observed in mindfulness. Exit interviews revealed that some participants did not like the voice guiding them while coloring, which suggested further differing and significant findings. While mindfulness-guided coloring appears promising, guidance or instructions on how to color mindfully may require further development and adjustment to enhance health and wellbeing.

  6. Is There a Dark Side to Mindfulness? Relation of Mindfulness to Criminogenic Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, June P; Dobbins, Ashley E; Stuewig, Jeffrey B; Schrader, Shannon W

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, mindfulness-based interventions have been modified for use with inmate populations, but how this might relate to specific criminogenic cognitions has not been examined empirically. Theoretically, characteristics of mindfulness should be incompatible with distorted patterns of criminal thinking, but is this in fact the case? Among both 259 male jail inmates and 516 undergraduates, mindfulness was inversely related to the Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS) through a latent variable of emotion regulation. However, in the jail sample, this mediational model also showed a direct, positive path from mindfulness to CCS, with an analogous, but nonsignificant trend in the college sample. Post hoc analyses indicate that the Nonjudgment of Self scale derived from the Mindfulness Inventory: Nine Dimensions (MI:ND) largely accounts for this apparently iatrogenic effect in both samples. Some degree of self-judgment is perhaps necessary and useful, especially among individuals involved in the criminal justice system.

  7. Mindfully Green and Healthy: An Indirect Path from Mindfulness to Ecological Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja M. Geiger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the nature of the link between mindfulness and ecological behavior. Based on the notion that mindfulness incorporates heightened awareness of bodily sensations, we suggest an indirect path from mindfulness to ecological behavior that is mediated through individual health behavior, such as improved nutrition and increased exercise. This indirect path is corroborated with two online studies (n = 147/n = 239 where mindfulness, personal health behavior and ecological behavior were assessed. We conclude that increased mindful awareness of momentary experience indeed favors more healthy lifestyles, which in turn relate to increased ecological behavior beyond personal health benefits. The findings support an agreeableness of personal and planetary health behavior and open up a path for environmental educational interventions based on mindfulness practices and personal health gains.

  8. Impact of Mindfulness-Based Teacher Training on MBSR Participant Well-Being Outcomes and Course Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijgrok-Lupton, Pauline Eva; Crane, Rebecca S; Dorjee, Dusana

    2018-01-01

    Growing interest in mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) has resulted in increased demand for MBP teachers, raising questions around safeguarding teaching standards. Training literature emphasises the need for appropriate training and meditation experience, yet studies into impact of such variables on participant outcomes are scarce, requiring further investigation. This feasibility pilot study hypothesised that participant outcomes would relate to teachers' mindfulness-based teacher training levels and mindfulness-based teaching and meditation experience. Teachers ( n  = 9) with different MBP training levels delivering mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) courses to the general public were recruited together with their course participants ( n  = 31). A teacher survey collected data on their mindfulness-based teacher training, other professional training and relevant experience. Longitudinal evaluations using online questionnaires measured participant mindfulness and well-being before and after MBSR and participant course satisfaction. Course attendees' gains after the MBSR courses were correlated with teacher training and experience. Gains in well-being and reductions in perceived stress were significantly larger for the participant cohort taught by teachers who had completed an additional year of mindfulness-based teacher training and assessment. No correlation was found between course participants' outcomes and their teacher's mindfulness-based teaching and meditation experience. Our results support the hypothesis that higher mindfulness-based teacher training levels are possibly linked to more positive participant outcomes, with implications for training in MBPs. These initial findings highlight the need for further research on mindfulness-based teacher training and course participant outcomes with larger participant samples.

  9. The role of mindfulness in tourism: Tourism businesses' perceptions of mindfulness in Dubai, UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Dutt, Chris; Ninov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness is the ability of an individual to actively process information surrounding them with the aim of using that information to draw distinctive or novel conclusions. By facilitating mindfulness, businesses can benefit from having a stronger competitive advantage, increased loyalty, and provide a more meaningful experience to their customers. Mindfulness is a state of awareness that can be encouraged in individuals regardless of their mental state or demographic characteristics; almost...

  10. Mindfulness i arbetet : En intervjustudie om upplevelser av att utöva mindfulness i arbetet

    OpenAIRE

    Reiman, Magdalena; Matsson, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness can be a method in health promotion for the prevention of work-related stress. In the current study six informants provide their experiences, through semi-structured interviews, how mindfulness can be practiced at work, what conditions are considered to increase and decrease implementation in everyday work and how mindfulness changed the individual in their way of work. The thematic analysis resulted in  four themes; become a lifestyle, focused presence, the organization's role an...

  11. Chaos Theory for the Practical Military Mind

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durham, Susan

    1997-01-01

    The military professional is a practically-minded individual. This is not, stereotypes aside, the result of an inflexible, unimaginative nature, but comes from pursuing a profession that emphasizes mission accomplishment above all else...

  12. Mindfulness for the treatment of stress disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Dahlgaard, Jesper; Fjorback, Lone

    2015-01-01

    expression to pathological changes. We finally discuss the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on these changes. Can the damage be reversed? Stress-induced modulation of physiological processes may account for a group of poorly understood “functional” disorders, commonly labeled as “Medically...... Unexplained Symptoms”, “Functional Somatic Syndromes”, or “Bodily Distress Syndrome”. In our research clinic, we use Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction to treat patients with these disorders. The beneficial effects of the treatment have received increasing support from empirical studies, which indicate...... that mindfulness-based therapies mediate neuroplastic changes and changes in physiological stress mechanisms. We describe some of the experiences gained and results obtained using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction in clinical treatment....

  13. Mindfulness for the treatment of stress disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Dahlgaard, Jesper Ovesen; Fjorback, Lone Overby

    2016-01-01

    track from epigenetic influences via altered gene expression to pathological changes. We finally discuss the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on these changes. Can the damage be reversed? Stress-induced modulation of physiological processes may account for a group of poorly understood...... “functional” disorders, commonly labeled as “Medically Unexplained Symptoms”, “Functional Somatic Syndromes”, or “Bodily Distress Syndrome”. In our research clinic, we use Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction to treat patients with these disorders. The beneficial effects of the treatment have received...... increasing support from empirical studies, which indicate that mindfulness-based therapies mediate neuroplastic changes and changes in physiological stress mechanisms. We describe some of the experiences gained and results obtained using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction in clinical treatment. Keywords...

  14. [Mindfulness, a therapy and a life philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Da Rocha, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mindfulness is an approach inspired by Buddhist meditation. Recent scientific research shows that focusing on the present is a factor of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Driving with the wandering mind: the effect that mind-wandering has on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanko, Matthew R; Spalek, Thomas M

    2014-03-01

    The principal objective of the present work was to examine the effects of mind state (mind-wandering vs. on-task) on driving performance in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Mind-wandering is thought to interfere with goal-directed thought. It is likely, then, that when driving, mind-wandering might lead to impairments in critical aspects of driving performance. In two experiments, we assess the extent to which mind-wandering interferes with responsiveness to sudden events, mean velocity, and headway distance. Using a car-following procedure in a high-fidelity driving simulator, participants were probed at random times to indicate whether they were on-task at that moment or mind-wandering. The dependent measures were analyzed based on the participant's response to the probe. Compared to when on-task, when mind-wandering participants showed longer response times to sudden events, drove at a higher velocity, and maintained a shorter headway distance. Collectively, these findings indicate that mind-wandering affects a broad range of driving responses and may therefore lead to higher crash risk. The results suggest that situations that are likely associated with mind-wandering (e.g., route familiarity) can impair driving performance.

  16. Does Parental Mind-Mindedness Account for Cross-Cultural Differences in Preschoolers' Theory of Mind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Devine, Rory T; Wang, Zhenlin

    2017-02-03

    This study of 241 parent-child dyads from the United Kingdom (N = 120, M age  = 3.92, SD = 0.53) and Hong Kong (N = 121, M age  = 3.99, SD = 0.50) breaks new ground by adopting a cross-cultural approach to investigate children's theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. Relative to the Hong Kong sample, U.K. children showed superior theory-of-mind performance and U.K. parents showed greater levels of mind-mindedness. Within both cultures parental mind-mindedness was correlated with theory of mind. Mind-mindedness also accounted for cultural differences in preschoolers' theory of mind. We argue that children's family environments might shed light on how culture shapes children's theory of mind. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  17. Acute Effects of Online Mind-Body Skills Training on Resilience, Mindfulness, and Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Khirallah, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Some studies have begun to show benefits of brief in-person mind-body skills training. We evaluated the effects of 1-hour online elective mind-body skills training for health professionals on mindfulness, resilience, and empathy. Between May and November, 2014, we described enrollees for the most popular 1-hour modules in a new online mind-body skills training program; compared enrollees' baseline stress and burnout to normative samples; and assessed acute changes in mindfulness, resilience, and empathy. The 513 enrollees included dietitians, nurses, physicians, social workers, clinical trainees, and health researchers; about 1/4 were trainees. The most popular modules were the following: Introduction to Stress, Resilience, and the Relaxation Response (n = 261); Autogenic Training (n = 250); Guided Imagery and Hypnosis for Pain, Insomnia, and Changing Habits (n = 112); Introduction to Mindfulness (n = 112); and Mindfulness in Daily Life (n = 102). Initially, most enrollees met threshold criteria for burnout and reported moderate to high stress levels. Completing 1-hour modules was associated with significant acute improvements in stress (P training reaches diverse, stressed health professionals and is associated with acute improvements in stress, mindfulness, empathy, and resilience. Additional research is warranted to compare the long-term cost-effectiveness of different doses of online and in-person mind-body skills training for health professionals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Cultivate Mindfulness: A Case Study of Mindful Learning in an English as a Foreign Language Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This case study investigated how the use of mindfulness affected college English as a foreign language (EFL students learning and how mindful learning strategies supported their learning of English. Mindful learning considers the students’ abilities to be aware, perceive and conceive. Mindfulness results in an increase in competence, memory, creativity, and positive affect based on the previous studies. In this study, 24 undergraduate freshmen participated at a Northeastern University in China. The data collection included those undergraduates’ pre-surveys, post-surveys, work samples, the instructor’s observation notes and the researcher’s reflective journal entries. This practice found that by engaging in mindful strategies, EFL students took ownership of their learning in the following ways: students built and became aware of a comfortable learning environment in their classroom through mindfulness; mindful writing helped students generate new thoughts and become aware of their thinking; mindfulness facilitated their learning process, cultivated creativity and intelligence; mindful cooperative learning provided students with an opportunity to discover their awareness, learn from others, reflect and think critically.

  19. The Mind-Body Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the history of dualism, examining its implications for physical education. Discusses a nondualistic, embodied view of humans which calls for changes in the way the profession works with people and recommends integrative study and analysis for a more complete understanding of human movement. (SM)

  20. Integrative Medicine A Meeting Of The Minds

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen J. Healy BA; MCJ

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT For centuries renowned psychologists psychiatrists and philosophers have attempted to apply a definition to the concept of separation of the mind and brain. Searching for this workable definition has led to many different concepts based on individual scholars theories and beliefs. Mental problems and conditions remained in the abyss of ignorance and neglect. A relationship between the conscious and the subconscious or unconscious mind is and always has been essential to address ment...