Dhingra, Dhulika; Mishra, Devendra
This study was planned as an exploratory study to determine the extent of occurrence of misconduct in publication (gift-authorship,ghost-authorship, falsification of data, fabrication of data,plagiarism, and duplication) amongst biomedical researchers.It was a questionnaire-based study, conducted at 9 institutions;6 medical colleges (4 government-run and 2 private), 7 non teaching government hospital, and 2 corporate hospitals, located in northern, central and southern India. The study was conducted between August 2072 and March 2073. 755 senior residents (misconduct. 7 55 responses were included for analysis. 7 4 7 (9 7 %) respondents agreed that they had some knowledge of publication ethics; but only 29% believed it was adequate. The most commonly observed misconduct was offering gift authorship, reported by 707 (65%); followed by alteration of data reported by 88 (56%). Plagiarism was observed by 83 respondents (53%); while 52 (33.5%) respondents had observed a colleague's name being omitted from a paper to which she/he had significantly contributed. A majority of respondents in the present study reported witnessing publication misconduct,thereby revealing the common occurrence of this problem among Indian biomedical researchers.
Wager, Elizabeth; Woolley, Karen; Adshead, Viv; Cairns, Angela; Fullam, Josh; Gonzalez, John; Grant, Tom; Tortell, Stephanie
To gather information about current practices and implementation of publication guidelines among publication professionals working in or for the pharmaceutical industry. Web-based survey publicised via email and social media to members of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) and other organisations from November 2012 to February 2013. 469 individuals involved in publishing industry-sponsored research in peer-reviewed journals, mainly working in pharmaceutical or device companies ('industry', n=144), communication agencies ('agency', n=238), contract research organisations (CRO, n=15) or as freelancers (n=34). Most respondents (78%) had worked on medical publications for ≥5 years and 62% had a PhD/MD. Over 90% of industry, agency and CRO respondents routinely refer to Good Publication Practice (GPP2) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' Uniform Requirements. Most respondents (78% industry, 79% agency) received mandatory training on ethical publication practices. Over 90% of respondents' companies had publication guidelines or policies and required medical writing support to be acknowledged in publications (96% industry, 99% agency). Many industry respondents used publication management tools to monitor compliance with company guidelines and about half (46%) stated that their company had formal publication audits. Fewer agencies audited adherence to guidelines but 20% of agency respondents reported audits of employees and 6% audits of freelancers. Of concern, 37% of agency respondents reported requests from authors or sponsors that they believed were unethical, although 93% of these requests were withdrawn after respondents explained the need for compliance with guidelines. Most respondents' departments (63% industry, 58% agency, 60% CRO) had been involved in publishing studies with negative or inconclusive results. Within this sample, most publication professionals working in or for industry were aware of
Wojtall, Mariola; Kurpas, Donata; Sochocka, Lucyna; Seń, Mariola; Steciwko, Andrzej
Making conditional on the smoking is making the essential problem of the contemporary society. Conducted examinations are pointing in Poland and in the world that the number of young people which are reaching for the first cigarette is soaring together with age. The aim of the study was an analysis of smoking amongst students of the Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole. Group of 290 stationary and non-stationary students of the Nursing Institute and the Obstetrics Institute of the Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole was put through an examination. Out of polled --72 students (24.8%) is smoking cigarettes but 218 students (75.2%) are non-smoking persons. 13.8% of the examined group of non-stationary students is smoking cigarettes, however smoking cigarettes is declaring 29% of the examined on stationary studies. Polled the most, well as far as 70.8%, began smoking cigarettes during the secondary school. 62.5% smoking persons tried to give up smoking having the harmfulness of smoking in mind. Unfortunately these attempts ended in failure. The students would expect the biggest support from close persons (the husband, the wife) during giving up smoking, 93.1% of examined is confirming such an opinion.
Smith, Saxon; Werren, Julia
This article focuses on the ethical, social and liability implications of patients obtaining unsolicited medical advice over the phone. The ethical discussion centres on the demise of paternalism and the increase in patient autonomy and individualism and the growing public expectations of health professionals. The article then discusses the advantages and disadvantages of telephone consultations from a social and policy perspective. In light of these considerations it considers what the liability implications are for phone consultations. It argues that the ethic of individualism, coupled with recent Australian tort reforms, suggests that only in limited circumstances would a doctor be found liable for negligence in relation to telephone consultations. However, the increasing expectations being placed on medical personnel, as evidenced by the increase in unsolicited telephone consultations, if left untempered, may lead to a situation with which the health care system is ill equipped to deal.
Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (倫, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason.
Latham, Stephen R
This paper argues for a normative conception of medical professionalism based on the work of sociologist Talcott Parsons. Such a conception grounds medical professionalism on the expert authority of the physician; the concept of authority is therefore discussed at length. Parsons view also lays much stress on the fact that the proper exercise of medical authority nearly always involves aligning the interests of individual patients with those of society at large. Parsonian professionalism looks to professional institutions such as medical schools, societies and journals to secure the competence and ethical behavior of professionals, and to help ensure that professionals exercise of authority is never biased by private financial interests or by public political power. Professional institutions should encourage professionals to develop a set of preferences and desires (e.g., for respect of their peers, and not for power or financial gain) that will tend to make them trustworthy authorities.
Norris, Keith C.; Baker, Richard S.; Taylor, Robert; Montgomery-Rice, Valerie; Higginbotham, Eve J.; Riley, Wayne J.; Maupin, John; Drew-Ivie, Sylvia; Reede, Joan Y.; Gibbons, Gary
Substantial changes in not only access to care, cost, and quality of care, but also health professions education are needed to ensure effective national healthcare reform. Since the actionable determinants of health such as personal beliefs and behaviors, socioeconomic factors, and the environment disproportionately affect the poor (and often racial/ethnic minorities), many have suggested that focusing efforts on this population will both directly and indirectly improve the overall health of the nation. Key to the success of such strategies are the ongoing efforts by historically black medical schools (HBMSs) as well as other minority serving medical and health professional schools, who produce a disproportionate percentage of the high-quality and diverse health professionals that are dedicated to maintaining the health of an increasingly diverse nation. Despite their public mission, HBMSs receive limited public support threatening their ability to not only meet the increasing minority health workforce needs but to even sustain their existing contributions. Substantial changes in health education policy and funding are needed to ensure HBMSs as well as other minority-serving medical and health professional schools can continue to produce the diverse, high-quality health professional workforce necessary to maintain the health of an increasingly diverse nation. We explore several model initiatives including focused partnerships with legislative and business leaders that are urgently needed to ensure the ability of HBMSs to maintain their legacy of providing compassionate, quality care to the communities in greatest need. PMID:19806842
The implementation of medical professionalism in education and evaluation is a recent trend in medical education. Although many studies on the subject have been carried out, they have generally been not focused specifically on the level of medical student professionalism, and the perception gaps between medical students and professors on this topic remain unresolved. This study attempts to determine whether such gaps exist. Two hundred fifty fourth-year medical students and 53 professors who were randomly selected from 41 medical schools were asked to complete a survey on the level of the professionalism of medical students. Using 31 core professionalism elements that are required for Korean medical students, students self-assessed their level of professionalism, and professors evaluated the professionalism level of medical students who were about to graduate. Of the 31 core elements, significant perception gaps were found in 28 elements. The three domains into which the 31 core elements were divided - professional knowledge, professional skills, and professional attitude - all contained perception gaps, and professors' ratings generally were higher than those of the students, a noteworthy observation. Medical professors need to encourage their students to elevate their professionalism. Furthermore, what the faculty think that they have taught regarding professionalism may not be fully assimilated by students. Therefore, further research is essential to determine the cause of such perceptional differences.
Hilton, Sean; Southgate, Lesley
Medical professionalism in today's society requires the exhibition of a range of qualities deployed in the service of patients, rather than more traditionally defined aspects such as mastery, autonomy and self-regulation. These qualities incorporate demonstrated clinical competence; aspiring to excellence in practice while demonstrating humility…
Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh
Studies have shown that IQ alone does not contribute to the professional success of medical professionals. Professionals who are trained to be clinically competent, but have inadequate social skills for practice have proved to be less successful in their profession. Emotional intelligence (EI), which has already proved to be a key attribute for…
Farnan, Jeanne M; Snyder Sulmasy, Lois; Worster, Brooke K; Chaudhry, Humayun J; Rhyne, Janelle A; Arora, Vineet M
User-created content and communications on Web-based applications, such as networking sites, media sharing sites, or blog platforms, have dramatically increased in popularity over the past several years, but there has been little policy or guidance on the best practices to inform standards for the professional conduct of physicians in the digital environment. Areas of specific concern include the use of such media for nonclinical purposes, implications for confidentiality, the use of social media in patient education, and how all of this affects the public's trust in physicians as patient-physician interactions extend into the digital environment. Opportunities afforded by online applications represent a new frontier in medicine as physicians and patients become more connected. This position paper from the American College of Physicians and the Federation of State Medical Boards examines and provides recommendations about the influence of social media on the patient-physician relationship, the role of these media in public perception of physician behaviors, and strategies for physician-physician communication that preserve confidentiality while best using these technologies.
Hillis, David J; Grigg, Michael J
There has been substantial interest and emphasis on medical professionalism over the past twenty years. This speaks to the history of the medical profession, but increasingly to a broader understanding of the importance of socialisation and professional identity formation. A literature review was undertaken of professionalism and the role of professions and medical professional organisations. A key outcome has been the recognition that medical professionalism must be actively taught and assessed. Substantial effort is required to improve the educational environment, so that it nurtures the development of professionalism within the work-place. Although medical colleges have been prominent in identifying and progressing the recent developments within professionalism there is still much to be done to deliver fully on the societal contract between the public and the profession. There are key gaps to address, particularly with regards to self-regulation, civil behaviour and effective leadership and advocacy. Medical colleges need to take direct responsibility for the professionalism of their members. The expectations of the community are increasingly clear in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Continuous professional training of medical laboratory scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. ... Medical laboratory scientists from Benin City (N=127) (public (n=79) and private (n=48) sectors) were recruited for this study. A detailed ... Article Metrics.
McNulty, Cliodna A M; Cookson, Barry D; Lewis, Michael A O
In the winter of 2007-08 a new public-facing antimicrobial campaign was agreed by the Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare-Associated Infection (ARHAI) Education sub-Group (later divided into subgroups for professional and public education): it comprised posters with a positive message on how the public could help themselves when they had a cold. However, the poster campaign, used in isolation in England, did not improve antibiotic use; therefore, the Public Education sub-Group took forward educational approaches to change the behaviour of the public and health professionals. Professionals have been encouraged to give patients clear information about the likely duration of symptoms, self-care, and benefits and harms of antibiotics, reinforcing the public poster campaigns in surgeries, hospitals and pharmacies. Since 2008, campaigns have been launched in England to coincide with European Antibiotic Awareness Day (EAAD) on 18 November, using Department of Health and EAAD materials. Professional education has been facilitated by the 2008 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence respiratory tract infection delayed prescribing guidance for general practitioners. A toolkit of materials for medicines management teams, to facilitate good antimicrobial stewardship in primary care (ASPIC), is being taken forward by the Public Education sub-Group and professional societies. After advice from ARHAI, in 2009 the General Medical Council requested that all postgraduate deans and Royal Colleges ensure infection prevention and control and antimicrobial prescribing become standard practice implemented in all clinical settings, and that they are emphasized strongly in undergraduate and postgraduate medical training. ARHAI has also taken a keen interest in reviewing, advising and leading on a number of European Union initiatives dealing with professional education.
Full Text Available Martha Nussbaum (2011 reminds us that, all over the world people are struggling for a life that is fully human - a life worthy of human dignity. Purely income-based and preference-based evaluations, as Sen (1999 argues, do not adequately capture what it means for each person to have quality of life. There are other things that make life good for a person, including access to publicly provided professional services. The question then is what version of education inflects more towards the intrinsic and transformational possibilities of professional work and contributions to decent societies? This paper suggests that we need a normative approach to professional education and professionalism; it is not the case that any old version will do. We also need normative criteria to move beyond social critique and to overcome a merely defensive attitude and to give a positive definition to the potential achievements of the professions. Moreover universities are connected to society, most especially through the professionals they educate; it is reasonable in our contemporary world to educate professional graduates to be in a position to alleviate inequalities, and to have the knowledge, skills and values to be able to do so. To make this case, we draw on the human capabilities approach of Sen (1999, 2009 and Nussbaum (2000, 2011 to conceptualise professional education for the public good as an ally of the struggles of people living in poverty and experiencing inequalities, expanding the well-being of people to be and to do in ways they have reason to value – to be mobile, cared for, respected, and so on. In particular we are interested in which human capabilities and functionings are most needed for a professional practice and professionalism that can contribute to transformative social change and how professional development is enabled via pedagogical arrangements.
The article deals with the characteristics of implementation of mandatory insurance of professional risk of medical professionals. The possible directions in resolving actual problems are proposed in the elaboration of normative legal act on insurance of their professional responsibility.
Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi
Full Text Available Training physicians who are expert in many medical aspects is the most improtant mission of medical universities. One of these aspects, is professional behavior achievement. One of the important goals in training of ethics, is recognition of conflicts in different parts of ethics and having logical viewpoint for resolving and analyzing these conflicts. This descriptive and analytical study was done to evaluate the efficacy of medical ethics education in medical students´ professional attitudes improvement. One hundred and two medical students were selected randomly in different steps of education and were questioned and their opinions correlation with stage of education and gender were evaluated. There was a significant difference between female viewpoint (in roles of ethic course which is presented in preclinical step in professional attitude improvement (P = 0.009 and also a significant difference was seen in the viewpoint score between student stage with intern stage (P = 0.031. Medical students in educational student stage believe ethic course improve medical professionalism. Since there is no special course to train medical students in professionalism, some interventions are required in this field to improve this aspect of physicians' professional life.
Full Text Available The healthcare enterprises are very disconnected. This paper intends to propose a solution that will provide citizens, businesses and medical enterprises with improved access to medical virtual public services. Referred medical services are based on existing national medical Web services and which support medically required services provided by physicians and supplementary health care practitioners, laboratory services and diagnostic procedures, clinics and hospitalsÃ¢Â€Â™ services. Requirements and specific rules of these medical services are considered, and personalization of user preferences will to be supported. The architecture is based on adaptable process management technologies, allowing for virtual services which are dynamically combined from existing national medical services. In this way, a comprehensive workflow process is set up, allowing for service-level agreements, an audit trail and explanation of the process to the end user. The process engine operates on top of a virtual repository, providing a high-level semantic view of information retrieved from heterogeneous information sources, such as national sources of medical services. The system relies on a security framework to ensure all high-level security requirements are met. SystemÃ¢Â€Â™s architecture is business oriented: it focuses on Service Oriented Architecture - SOA concepts, asynchronously combining Web services, Business Process Management Ã¢Â€Â“ BPM rules and BPEL standards.
Medical romance fiction is a subgenre of popular romance fiction that features medical professionals in their work environment. This essay explores the way professionalism is portrayed in popular medical romance fiction written during the early twenty-first century, a period of significant disruption in both the public image and self-understanding of organized medicine. I analyze a selection of contemporary medical romance novels, published between 2008 and 2012, demonstrating that medical romance fiction is a form of public intervention in apparently insular debates over medical professionalism. I conclude that they promote "nostalgic professionalism," a vision of physicians as a select group of highly educated, self-regulated experts who provide, with a caring and altruistic attitude, a vitally important service to society, while at the same time generating implicit critiques of it.
Nakayama, Don K
Film director Akira Kurosawa (1918-1998) portrayed doctors and patients in 4 films that spanned the most productive phase in his career: Drunken Angel, The Quiet Duel, Ikiru, and Red Beard. Observing death and destruction during the Second World War and the social disintegration that followed it in Japan, Kurosawa viewed the world as a dispiriting, dangerous, and chaotic place. His response was an optimistic and humanist view that life's meaning lies in the service to others. Because his main characters are doctors and patients, the films have a connection to today's medical community trying to define a modern concept of professionalism and what it means to be a physician.
Ryue, Sook-Hee; Yang, Eun Bae
How does professionalism develop while becoming a great doctor? This study based on the life of Avison, a great doctor, aims to identify the developmental features of an excellence and professionally ethical doctor. We chose Oliver R. Avison, who founded the first modern hospital and medical school in Korea, now known as Severance Hospital and Yonsei University College of Medicine. Sixteen pivotal events in Avison's life were extracted, based on 2 standards: self-memory and strong feeling. Further we analyzed Avison' life using a professional development analysis model. Oliver Avison's medical professionalism development was divided into 4 periods: 'Motivating in Medicine period', 'Medical Training period', 'Medical Doctor period', and 'Medical Educating period'. A hallmark of Oliver Avison's medical professionalism development was the growth of motivation and social responsibility, medical knowledge, medical creativity, intra-personal intelligence, and relationship forming abilities. To excel in medicine, a medical student should be encouraged to understand his unique intellectual potentials and interest as a medical worker, and try to understand problems in the established domain and field of medicine, to develop new medical symbol systems, and climates.
Hendrickson, Marissa A
Health care delivery systems are widely studying and implementing physician pay for performance (P4P) initiatives to improve quality and control costs. However, the increasing focus on quality-driven financial incentives has some troubling implications for medical professionalism. This article examines the P4P concept in light of a notion of medical fiduciary professionalism that dates back to the 18th-century Scottish physician John Gregory. Gregory's principles serve as a framework to assess the appropriateness of P4P initiatives in disseminating the principles of high-quality care without damage to professionalism, the patient-physician relationship, and access to care for all patients.
Mihaela V. Cărăuşan
Full Text Available The general configuration of the state and its responsibilities has changed and this has introduced important modifications both in the policy arena and in the State’s requirements for high-level skills, qualitatively and quantitatively. Even if Romanian public administration is mainly seen as bureaucratic, oversized and unable to attract the best trained civil servants, the issue of the professionalization of its human resources has never been brought to the fore. Moreover, public functions are not included in the category of the most desired ones the vast majority of people try to obtain such a job, considering that it provides stability. Turnaround professional qualification indicates the rate of experience, knowledge, and integrity necessary to conduct renewal work. Unfortunately, formal barriers hindering the promotion (e.g. waiting time, professional seniority and limited development opportunities (flat management structures, lack of visible career paths, inadequate information on vacancies have a negative impact on the degree of motivation and commitment at work, and of course they adversely affect service quality. In this regard we undertake a study among students and graduates of schools of public administration in Romania, Bucharest, from which we determine the worst and the best 10 jobs you can get today in public administration. Moreover, we will seek to find out which is their motivation to have an education in administrative sciences. Also, we focus our attention on those employed in public institutions to pursue their professional route and their professional qualification. Once established, we will endeavour to create the axis of professional career in public administration. This research will hold a discussion on professional qualification, articulated with the unemployment caused by the present crisis. It will aim to demonstrate the consolidation of the professional (disqualification as a tool. We will see that professional
McCammon, Susan D; Brody, Howard
We argue that a turn toward virtue ethics as a way of understanding medical professionalism represents both a valuable corrective and a missed opportunity. We look at three ways in which a closer appeal to virtue ethics could help address current problems or issues in professionalism education-first, balancing professionalism training with demands for professional virtues as a prerequisite; second, preventing demands for the demonstrable achievement of competencies from working against ideal professionalism education as lifelong learning; and third, avoiding temptations to dismiss moral distress as a mere "hidden curriculum" problem. As a further demonstration of how best to approach a lifelong practice of medical virtue, we will examine altruism as a mean between the extremes of self-sacrifice and selfishness.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between work complexity, emotive effort and its effects on job satisfaction and Emotion Management related stress among medical professionals; as in accordance with ‘The Managed Heart’ by Arlie Hochschild, it is asserted that emotive toil is carried out by medical professionals. Correspondence among work complexity, emotive toil and job satisfaction are ascertained by circulating questionnaires among medical personnel. This correspondence is investigated by the use of regression analysis. Conclusions drawn on the basis of analysis disclose that emotive struggle was considerably negatively associated to job satisfaction and work complexity. The research verdicts are only restricted to the medical professionals working in different hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan
Professionalization in public health reflects wider institutional and political forces. Depending on the historical context in different countries, public health has developed as a medical specialty or as an independent field, entirely within the state or in mixed public-private institutions, closely or weakly tied to social movements, and in varying relations to fields such as engineering, nursing, environmental science, and the military. In early 20th-century America, the rise of the medical profession and the biomedical model of disease had a formative influence on public health, leading to a different institutional pattern from Britain. Public health in the United States emerged (1) largely outside the medical profession, but under the sway of the biomedical model; (2) without medicine's command of an exclusive jurisdiction and high status; and (3) with a limited role in healthcare organization and planning. Professionalism in public health continues to be subjected to contradictory pressures and uncertainties. Healthcare reform, bioterrorism, and environmental crises could expand its mandate and access to resources, but conflicts with other institutions are likely to result in limits on the capacity of public health professionals to assert an exclusive jurisdiction.
Many of today's water problems cannot be solved within the traditional boundaries of organizations, disciplines, sectors and routines. Innovative solutions come into being in interplay between a variety of public, private and civil society actors. These so-called governance processes produce new cha
Nishigori, Hiroshi; Harrison, Rebecca; Busari, Jamiu; Dornan, Tim
Medical professionalism has become a core topic in medical education. As it has been considered mostly from a Western perspective, there is a need to examine how the same or similar concepts are reflected in a wider range of cultural contexts. To gain insights into medical professionalism concepts in Japanese culture, the authors compare the tenets of a frequently referenced Western guide to professionalism (the physician charter proposed by the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, American College of Physicians Foundation, and the European Federation of Internal Medicine) with the concepts of Bushido, a Japanese code of personal conduct originating from the ancient samurai warriors. The authors also present survey evidence about how a group of present-day Japanese doctors view the values of Bushido.Cultural scholars have demonstrated Bushido's continuing influence on Japanese people today. The authors explain the seven main virtues of Bushido (e.g., rectitude), describe the similarities and differences between Bushido and the physician charter, and speculate on factors that may account for the differences, including the influence of religion, how much the group versus the individual is emphasized in a culture, and what emphasis is given to virtue-based versus duty-based ethics.The authors suggest that for those who are teaching and practicing in Japan today, Bushido's virtues are applicable when considering medical professionalism and merit further study. They urge that there be a richer discussion, from the viewpoints of different cultures, on the meaning of professionalism in today's health care practice.
In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.
Full Text Available The subjects of this paper are ethics and professionalism, topics closely linked in contemporary theory, and especially in practice of public relations, whose significance is increasingly coming to the spotlight of experts from this area. Several definitions, classification, the historical development and principles of theories of ethics most frequently used in ethical decision-making within a business environment, have been presented in the first chapter in the endeavor to ascertain the concept of ethics. The next chapter concerns the duties a public relations expert must pay attention to while carrying out his or her activities. Those are: duty towards oneself, towards the organization, society and profession, within which, in the case of a conflict of interest, the duty towards society (so-called social responsibility, or professional duty, must prevail. The chapter that follows concerns ethical problems in the contemporary practice of public relations: the competence of practitioners, possible conflicts of interest and the very sensitive area of media relations. The chapter on models of ethical decision-making involves concrete experts' advice on decision making which are firmly based on ethical principles. Next section concerns professionalism and professional education in public relations. Recommendations concerning topics which should be included in the university education in this area are also presented. The focus is on the following: the absence of standards that would establish who can work in public relations and under which conditions; the lack of a specified educational minimum and expertise which a practitioner should possess; the need for practitioners to be the members of professional associations, as well as to adhere to a required ethical codex. Some of the most significant world public relations associations are mentioned and at the end, and a review of the state of public relations in Serbia is given.
Das, Natasha; Das, Saurendra
Authors of articles published in medical journals are often busy researchers who cannot afford time devoted to writing. Though they are experts in their own therapeutic area, more often than not, researchers find it difficult to actually write and publish their research. Professional medical writers with their expertise in writing clear, concise, comprehensible, and coherent content are often a great support to researchers. Their contribution to the manuscript is usually focused on getting a manuscript ready for publication. They are not authors unless they make substantial contribution to the study according to the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). However, medical writing is not the same as ghostwriting. Ghostwriting is unethical. Medical writers can be legitimate contributors to the medical manuscript. Several international guidelines including the ICMJE guidelines require authors to acknowledge the contribution of medical writers in the published article. Medical writers whose name is publicly associated with the article in turn make an extra effort to ensure that all applicable publication ethics and style guidelines are adhered to. This article discusses the current international guidelines about the acknowledgement of writing assistance. It also emphasizes on how acknowledging medical writing support can go a long way in curbing the menace of scientific misconduct including ghostwriting.
Rodríguez P, José Adolfo
The essence of the medical profession resides in the medical act, whereupon a sick human being meets another with the power to heal him or her. The source of this power has evolved from the divinity itself through magic to science or acquired knowledge. This power implies acknowledgement of values that are inherent to the profession as well as responsibility toward one's own conscience and toward society, elements considered constitutive of what we now call professionalism. From antiquity these principles have evolved into behavioral codes containing variable components according to the different ages and cultures, but also permenent core values such as respect for life, altruism, and honesty, among others. Scientific and technological advances have magnified medical power but at the same time they have required that the philosophical and ethical principles that ought to inform professional practice be made explicit. This happens at a time when certitudes are questioned or abandoned, relativism and secularism pervade culture, and traditional medical values are challenged. Therefore, consensus attainment appears for some as the only legitimation of the ethics of professional medical acts, while for others the ancestral principles and values of medicine have permanent validity as objective goods based on the dignity of the human person.
Medicine bridges the gap between science and society. Indeed, the application of scientific knowledge to human health is a crucial aspect of clinical practice. Doctors are one important agent through which that scientific understanding is expressed. But medicine is more than the sum of our knowledge about disease. Medicine concerns the experiences, feelings, and interpretations of human beings in often extraordinary moments of fear, anxiety, and doubt. In this extremely vulnerable position, it is medical professionalism that underpins the trust the public has in doctors. This Working Party was established to define the nature and role of medical professionalism in modern society. Britain's health system is undergoing enormous change. The entry of multiple health providers, the wish for more equal engagement between patients and professionals, and the ever-greater contribution of science to advances in clinical practice all demand a clear statement of medicine's unifying purpose and doctors' common values. What is medical professionalism and does it matter to patients? Although evidence is lacking that more robust professionalism will inevitably lead to better health outcomes, patients certainly understand the meaning of poor professionalism and associate it with poor medical care. The public is well aware that an absence of professionalism is harmful to their interests. The Working Party's view, based on the evidence it has received, is that medical professionalism lies at the heart of being a good doctor. The values that doctors embrace set a standard for what patients expect from their medical practitioners. The practice of medicine is distinguished by the need for judgement in the face of uncertainty. Doctors take responsibility for these judgements and their consequences. A doctor's up-to-date knowledge and skill provide the explicit scientific and often tacit experiential basis for such judgements. But because so much of medicine's unpredictability calls for
enhancing professionalism of public administration in Nigeria and elsewhere. Key words: .... engagement in any arbitrary act which is prejudicial to the rights of any person. • membership of any society ..... the Country's infrastructures such as in the health, education, transport and other social services .... Community Service.
Chappelow, Marsha A.
Describes National School Public Relations Association standards for school public relations and communications professionals and program. Includes reactions and comments about new Association standards from seven superintendents and four school public-relations professionals. (PKP)
Chappelow, Marsha A.
Describes National School Public Relations Association standards for school public relations and communications professionals and program. Includes reactions and comments about new Association standards from seven superintendents and four school public-relations professionals. (PKP)
Daaleman, Timothy P; Kinghorn, Warren A; Newton, Warren P; Meador, Keith G
Contemporary educational approaches to professionalism do not take into account the dominant influence that the culture of academic medicine has on the nascent professional attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of medical learners. This article examines formation as an organizing principle for professionalism in medical education. Virtue, the foundation to understanding professionalism, is the habits and dispositions that are fostered in individuals but that are embedded in learning environments. Formation, the ongoing integration of an individual, growing in self-awareness and in recognition of a life of service, with others who share in the common mission of a larger group, depicts this process. One model of formation considers a continuum from novice to more advance stages that is predicated on rules that must be applied in greater contextually shaped situations. Within medical education, formation is the process by which lives of service are created and sustained by learning communities that promote human capacities for intuition, empathy, and compassion. An imagined curriculum in formation would link the lived experiences of mentors and learners with an interdisciplinary set of didactic materials in an intentionally progressive fashion.
Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth
Why should educators and service professionals bother writing for professional publication? Experienced editor, Sherron Roberts says writing for professional publication allows educators to share their work and make their practice visible. Any educator is quite capable of writing for a professional publication. This article is intended to show…
Stretton, Serina; Kenreigh, Charlotte A.; Wagner, Linda T.; Woolley, Karen L.
Background. The need for timely, ethical, and high-quality reporting of clinical trial results has seen a rise in demand for publication professionals. These publication experts, who are not ghostwriters, work with leading medical researchers and funders around the world to plan and prepare thousands of publications each year. Despite the involvement of publication professionals in an increasing number of peer-reviewed publications, especially those that affect patient care, there is limited evidence-based guidance in the peer-reviewed literature on their publication practices. Similar to the push for editors and the peer-review community to conduct and publish research on publication ethics and the peer-review process, the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) has encouraged members to conduct and publish research on publication planning and practices. Our primary objective was to investigate the publication rate of research presented at ISMPP Annual Meetings. Methods. ISMPP Annual Meeting abstract lists (April 2009–April 2014) were searched in November 2014 and data were extracted into a pilot-tested spreadsheet. MEDLINE was searched in December 2014 to determine the publication rate (calculated as the % of presented abstracts published as full papers in peer-reviewed journals). Data were analyzed using the Cochran-Armitage trend test (significance: P < .05) by an independent academic statistician. Results. From 2009 to 2014, there were 220 abstracts submitted, 185 accepted, and 164 presented. There were four corresponding publications (publication rate 2.4%). Over time, ISMPP’s abstract acceptance rate (overall: 84.1%) did not change, but the number of abstracts presented increased significantly (P = .02). Most abstracts were presented as posters (81.1%) and most research was observational (72.6%). Most researchers came from the US (78.0%), followed by Europe (17.7%), and the Asia-Pacific region (11.2%). Discussion. Research
Luke C. Carey
Full Text Available Background. The need for timely, ethical, and high-quality reporting of clinical trial results has seen a rise in demand for publication professionals. These publication experts, who are not ghostwriters, work with leading medical researchers and funders around the world to plan and prepare thousands of publications each year. Despite the involvement of publication professionals in an increasing number of peer-reviewed publications, especially those that affect patient care, there is limited evidence-based guidance in the peer-reviewed literature on their publication practices. Similar to the push for editors and the peer-review community to conduct and publish research on publication ethics and the peer-review process, the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP has encouraged members to conduct and publish research on publication planning and practices. Our primary objective was to investigate the publication rate of research presented at ISMPP Annual Meetings. Methods. ISMPP Annual Meeting abstract lists (April 2009–April 2014 were searched in November 2014 and data were extracted into a pilot-tested spreadsheet. MEDLINE was searched in December 2014 to determine the publication rate (calculated as the % of presented abstracts published as full papers in peer-reviewed journals. Data were analyzed using the Cochran-Armitage trend test (significance: P < .05 by an independent academic statistician. Results. From 2009 to 2014, there were 220 abstracts submitted, 185 accepted, and 164 presented. There were four corresponding publications (publication rate 2.4%. Over time, ISMPP’s abstract acceptance rate (overall: 84.1% did not change, but the number of abstracts presented increased significantly (P = .02. Most abstracts were presented as posters (81.1% and most research was observational (72.6%. Most researchers came from the US (78.0%, followed by Europe (17.7%, and the Asia-Pacific region (11.2%. Discussion
Burkett, G L; Kurz, D E
During the 1970s, partly as a response to U.S. public policy which promoted the objective of equal opportunity for women, there was a dramatic increase in the proportion of women entering careers in medicine. Some observers have expressed the expectation that these women physicians will promote progressive changes in health care and that they will be more likely to emphasize "humanistic" aspects of treating patients. This paper presents data from a national survey of U.S. medical students which provides a comparison of several relevant characteristics of these male and female students. There are several important areas where significant differences are apparent. Women students are more likely to place greater importance on the desire to help people as a career motivation, for example, and are less likely to express satisfaction with the status quo in American health care. There are also significant male-female differences in career plans with respect to areas such as specialty choice and preference for practice setting. These findings are used to consider the question of the probable impact of increased numbers of women physicians on the future of American health care. Projections for the future are made more difficult because of important changes within the medical profession and in the context of health care organization, but it is clear that women physicians do represent some potential for progressive change in American medicine.
Garner, Jayne; O'Sullivan, Helen
The rapid growth and accessibility of social networking websites has fundamentally changed the way people manage information about their personal and professional lives. In particular, it has been suggested that interaction in virtual communities erodes elements of responsibility, accountability and social trust that build traditionally meaningful communities. The purpose of this study was to investigate how undergraduate medical students use the social network website Facebook, and to identify any unprofessional behaviour displayed online. A voluntary anonymous online survey was devised by the University of Liverpool, and emailed to students. Question topics included the use of Facebook, privacy settings, groups relating to the course and professional behaviours. Results were input to spss for analysis. The response rate was 31 per cent (n = 56). The majority of respondents did have a Facebook account and admitted there were photos they found embarrassing on the site. Over half of the respondents reported they had seen unprofessional behaviour by their colleagues on Facebook. Although students say that they are aware of the UK's General Medical Council (GMC) guidance, unprofessional behaviour is still demonstrated on the site. This research highlights the issue of social networking websites and professionalism amongst medical students. Further guidance from the GMC and medical schools should remind students that images and information placed on social networking sites is in the public domain, and could impact upon their professional reputation and identity. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.
Meijman, F J
The exchange of information on individual healthcare and public health as well as public opinion on medical matters are characterized by their own systems of values, norms and conventions that are not always compatible. All of these aspects put together give public communication on health and care its complex and dynamic nature--where the interests of the individual and the community are often opposed. In this respect, the free interaction of publicity forces and the educational role of healthcare providers have traditionally been the backbone of policy in the Netherlands. There is only limited support by public money, only a few restrictions (for example, on direct-to-consumer drug-advertising) but no substantive guidance from the government. Websites funded from public money that provide information on healthcare have only been set up in the last few years. The Health Council of the Netherlands has recently proposed trust marking for screening tests only. Research is urgently needed with regard to health literacy, direct-to-consumer advertising and public communication on the appropriate use of care. Furthermore, professional opinion in the public arena is required as well as a more active role on the part of clinical and scientific professionals in the area of public debate.
Holloway, K J
Resistance by physicians, medical researchers, medical educators, and medical students to pharmaceutical industry influence in medicine is often based on the notion that physicians (guided by the ethics of their profession) and the industry (guided by profit) are in conflict. This criticism has taken the form of a professional movement opposing conflict of interest (COI) in medicine and medical education and has resulted in policies and guidelines that frame COI as the problem and outline measures to address this problem. In this paper, I offer a critique of this focus on COI that is grounded in a broader critique of neo-liberalism, arguing it individualizes the relationship between physicians and industry, too neatly delineates between the two entities, and reduces the network of social, economic, and political relations to this one dilemma.
Health care administration in many OECD countries has undergone substantial changes in recent years as a consequence of NPM reforms, rising costs, the pace of technological innovation, heightened competition for patients and resources, quality of managed care and demographic shifts. Hospitals...... especially have been reformed due to the high proportion of resources they absorb and the apparent difficulty of prioritizing and coordinating health care within hospitals. There is abundant research literature on the topic of reforming hospital management models. Lacking from the literature, however......, is insight into how we can understand and explain how medical professionals adapt hospital management over time in relation to changing hospital management models that are global in their influence in hospital organizations. The aim of this dissertation is to understand and explain how medical professionals...
Information and communication on risks related to medications and proper use of medications for healthcare professionals and the general public: precautionary principle, risk management, communication during and in the absence of crisis situations.
Molimard, Mathieu; Bernaud, Corine; Lechat, Philippe; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Benattia, Cherif; Benkritly, Amel; Braunstein, David; Cabut, Sandrine; David, Nadine; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Gallet, Benoit; Gersberg, Marta; Goni, Sylvia; Jolliet, Pascale; Lamarque-Garnier, Véronique; Le Jeunne, Claire; Leurs, Irina; Liard, François; Malbezin, Muriel; Micallef, Joelle; Nguon, Marina
Recent drug crises have highlighted the complexity, benefits and risks of medication communication. The difficulty of this communication is due to the diversity of the sources of information and the target audience, the credibility of spokespersons, the difficulty to communicate on scientific uncertainties and the precautionary principle, which is influenced by variable perceptions and tolerances of the risk. Globally, there is a lack of training in risk management with a tendency of modern society to refuse even the slightest risk. Communication on medications is subject to regulatory or legal requirements, often uses tools and messages that are not adapted to the target audience and is often based on a poor knowledge of communication techniques. In order to improve this situation, the available information must be coordinated by reinforcing the unique medication information website and by coordinating communication between authorities by means of a single spokesperson. A particular effort must be made in the field of training in the proper use and risk of medications for both the general population and patients but also for healthcare professionals, by setting up a unified academic on-line teaching platform for continuing medical education on medications and their proper use.
Kadek Dwi Cahaya Putra
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper attempts to describe that there is a chance for non-Public Relations graduates to work as or at the Public Relations industry. Studies have shown that Public Relations practitioners are mostly from generalist background (not Public Relations and even come into the job by chance. A Public Relations is a very sociable person, possess a mix of functional, managerial and negotiating abilities as well as analytical and well-developed communication and understand people and human psychology. With working roles of Expert Prescriber, Communication Facilitator, Problem Solving Facilitator and Communication Technician, a Public Relations needs to be well prepared by learning foreign language, joining personality improvement course, developing networking and understanding computer and communication technology. Areas of where a Public relations works are in-house (organization/company, consultancy and freelance practitioner having various titles showing their main function in the organization such as public affairs, event manager, community relations manager, marketing communication executive, employee relations manager, corporate communications manager, media coordinator. As there is an increased challenge of Public Relationsâ€™s professionalism, a true practitioner is best prepared by educational institutions with lecturers having sound education and practice combined with extensive link-and -match research and industrial-practical placement for the graduates.
Full Text Available This study explored the English language needs of 156 Saudi fellowship doctors and students of medical majors who are enrolled at medical and training programs in Australian hospitals and universities. Data were collected via a questionnaire adopted from a previous study. Participants’ responses showed the most frequently used language sub-skills were those sub-skills they considered highly important. Results emphasize the findings of previous studies that learners usually attach high importance to any skills that they use frequently to help them achieve the utmost aim of improving their language abilities. In addition, the study findings suggest current college English language courses for medical majors need to focus more on improving language-related aspects like fluency, understanding, accuracy, and structure. Such changes are necessary to prepare doctors and medical professionals for work in medical jobs that depend on heavy usage of the English language and also improving communicative competence aspects to ensure smooth cultural interaction with co-workers from all around the world. The study concludes by pointing that there is a critical need to restructure English for medical purposes programs in Saudi Arabia to make better course design, content, and materials responsive to target language learners’ own future goals. Keywords: Saudi; English language skills; Needs analysis (NA; English for specific purposes (ESP; English for medical purposes (EMP
Becerril-Ángeles, Martín; García-Gómez, Francisco
Fraud can be present in some scientific medical publications; however, the magnitude of this situation is unknown. One of the associated factors for this transgression of the good practice of investigation is the need to publish and obtain recognition and benefits, regardless of the means. The deliberate fabrication and falsification of data, plagiarism and duplication of publications are some of the scientific misconducts. Many cases of fraud in publications are known, and they have reached public opinion and have been a matter of legal sanctions (the names of Woo Suk Hwang, Jon Sudbo, Joachim Blodt, Robert Slutsky, and William Summerlin reminds us a few known cases). In the last decades, national and international regulatory organisms have been created in order to intervene against this scientific misconduct. Currently, we can rely on several effective software programs, whose function is to detect plagiarism and falsification of data. The prevention of scientific misconduct through information and education of the investigators could lead to the decrease of the presence of this problem, which damages scientific credibility and put at risk the patient's safety.
Conceptions of professionalism in medicine draw on social contract theory; its strengths and weaknesses play out in how we reason about professionalism. The social contract metaphor may be a heuristic device prompting reflection on social responsibility, and as such is appealing: it encourages reasoning about privilege and responsibility, the broader context and consequences of action, and diverse perspectives on medical practice. However, when this metaphor is elevated to the status of a theory, it has well-known limits: the assumed subject position of contractors engenders blind spots about privilege, not critical reflection; its tendency to dress up the status quo in the trappings of a theoretical agreement may limit social negotiation; its attempted reconciliation of social obligation and self-interest fosters the view that ethics and self-interest should coincide; it sets up false expectations by identifying appearance and reality in morality; and its construal of prima facie duties as conditional misdirects ethical attention in particular situations from current needs to supposed past agreements or reciprocities. Using philosophical ideas as heuristic devices in medical ethics is inevitable, but we should be conscious of their limitations. When they limit the ethical scope of debate, we should seek new metaphors.
Hoogland, Jan; Jochemsen, Henk
Professional autonomy is often described as a claim of professionals that has to serve primarily their own interests. However, it can also be seen as an element of a professional ideal that can function as a standard for professional, i.e. medical practice. This normative understanding of the medica
Gaurie Tilak BA
Full Text Available The number of authors per manuscript in peer-reviewed medical journals has increased substantially in the last several decades. Several reasons have been offered to explain this authorship growth, including increased researcher collaboration, honorary authorship driven by increased pressures for funding and promotion, the belief that including senior authors will facilitate publication, and the growing complexity of medical research. It is unknown, however, whether authorship has grown over time due to growing complexity of published academic articles, in which case growth could be warranted, or whether it has grown due to pressures of funding and academic promotion, which have created “authorship inflation.” To answer this question, we analyzed data on authorship count, study type, and size of study population for the first 50 original articles published in each decade during 1960-2010 in 3 major medical journals. Within each type of study we considered (eg, randomized trials, observational studies, etc, average authorship rose more than 3-fold during this period. Similar growth persisted after adjustment for changes in study population sizes over time. Our findings suggest that increasing research complexity is an inadequate explanation for authorship growth. Instead, growth in authorship appears inflationary.
Fowler, David R
Death certificates and autopsy reports contain personal identifying information and clinical information protected under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996. These documents are used, for example, by the families of the deceased for settling estates, bereavement and closure, and genetic counseling of relatives. Insurance companies, public health and law enforcement officials, and the legal community also have legitimate claims to this information. Critical ethical questions have not yet been settled about whether and when this information should be public and under which circumstances making this kind of information public incurs benefits, harms, or both. Additional considerations include which organizations-the media, academic institutions, or government agencies, for example-are best suited to interpret these questions and respond to them. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Wynia, Matthew K; Papadakis, Maxine A; Sullivan, William M; Hafferty, Frederic W
The term "professionalism" has been used in a variety of ways. In 2012, the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) Standing Committee on Ethics and Professionalism undertook to develop an operational definition of professionalism that would speak to the variety of certification and maintenance-of-certification activities undertaken by ABMS and its 24 member boards. In the course of this work, the authors reviewed prior definitions of professions and professionalism and found them to be largely descriptive, or built around lists of proposed professional attributes, values, and behaviors. The authors argue that while making lists of desirable professional characteristics is necessary and useful for teaching and assessment, it is not, by itself, sufficient either to fully define professionalism or to capture its social functions. Thus, the authors sought to extend earlier work by articulating a definition that explains professionalism as the motivating force for an occupational group to come together and create, publicly profess, and develop reliable mechanisms to enforce shared promises-all with the purpose of ensuring that practitioners are worthy of patients' and the public's trust.Using this framework, the authors argue that medical professionalism is a normative belief system about how best to organize and deliver health care. Believing in professionalism means accepting the premise that health professionals must come together to continually define, debate, declare, distribute, and enforce the shared competency standards and ethical values that govern their work. The authors identify three key implications of this new definition for individual clinicians and their professional organizations.
Read, John; Mati, Elizabeth
Given that the Internet is now a major source of information regarding health and mental health problems, and that it is in the interest of the pharmaceutical industry to influence public and professional opinion, this study evaluated 70 websites about erectile dysfunction. The 31 drug company-funded websites (44%) were, compared with the 39 websites that are not industry funded, significantly more biased toward biological factors in general, and toward medication in particular (p public and professional opinion on the Internet.
Hao, Aimin; Yi, Tao; Li, Xia; Wei, Lei; Huang, Pei; Xu, Xinzhou; Yi, Lihua
Purpose: The quality of medical services provided by competing public hospitals is the primary consideration of the public in determining the selection of a specific hospital for treatment. The main objective of strategic planning is to improve the quality of public hospital medical services. This paper provides an introduction to the history, significance, principles and practices of public hospital medical service strategy, as well as advancing the opinion that public hospital service strategy must not merely aim to produce but actually result in the highest possible level of quality, convenience, efficiency and patient satisfaction.
Ganasegeran, K; Al-Dubai, S A R
The practice of medicine requires good communication skills to foster excellent rapport in doctor patient relationship. Reports on communication skills learning attitude among medical professionals are key essentials toward improving patient safety and quality of care. We aimed to determine factors affecting communication skills learning attitudes among medical residents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional survey, in a Malaysian public health hospital. A total of 191 medical residents across medical and surgical based rotations were included. We assessed the validated communication skills attitude scale among medical residents from different rotations. Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®) (version 16.0, IBM, Armonk, NY) was used. Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency of the scale. Descriptive analysis was conducted for all variables. Bivariate analysis was employed across the socio-demographic variables. Majority of the residents believed that communication skills training should be made compulsory in Malaysia (78.5%). Medical residents agreed that acquiring good communication skills is essential to be a good doctor. However, the majority cited time pressures for not being able to learn communication skills. Significant differences in communication skills learning attitude scores were found between Malays and Chinese. The majority of medical residents had a positive attitude toward communication skills learning. Socio-demographic factors influenced communication skills learning attitude among medical residents. Incorporating communicative skills modules during hospital Continuous Medical Education for medical residents is essential to cultivate communicative skills attitudes for effective doctor-patient relationship during the routine medical encounters.
Jones, Claire L
This article explores how medical practitioners read, used, and experienced medical trade catalogs in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Britain. Reader responses to the catalog, a book-like publication promoting medical tools, appliances, and pharmaceuticals, have been chronically understudied, as have professional reading practices within medicine more generally. Yet, evidence suggests that clinicians frequently used the catalog and did so in three main ways: to order medical products, to acquire new information about these products, and to display their own product endorsements and product designs. The seemingly widespread nature of these practices demonstrates an individual and collective professional desire to improve medical practice and highlights the importance of studying professional reading practices in the cultural history of medicine.
Andersen, Lotte Bøgh
The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...
Mosher, Frederick C.
This study was designed to assess major linkages of professionalism and professional education with the public service, to highlight some of the resulting problems within, and among, different professions, and to set forth hypotheses and questions to provoke and guide more intensive future research. Results indicate that professionalism is rapidly…
Morihara, Sarah K; Jackson, David S; Chun, Maria B J
This study was an assessment of the professionalism curriculum at a community-based medical school from the perspective of undergraduate medical students. The goal of this study was to ascertain the perspectives of faculty and students on their interpretations of professionalism and its role in medical education to improve and expand existing professionalism curricula. An online survey was created and sent to all students (n = 245) and selected faculty (n = 41). The survey utilized multiple choice and open-ended questions to allow responders to provide their insights on the definition of professionalism and detail how professionalism is taught and evaluated at their institution. A content analysis was conducted to categorize open-ended responses and the resulting themes were further examined using SPSS 20.0 for Windows (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) frequency analyses. Students and faculty respondents were similar in their definitions of medical professionalism and their perceptions of teaching methods. Role modeling was the most common and preferred method of professionalism education. Responses to whether evaluations of professional behavior were effective suggested both students and faculty are unclear about current professionalism assessments. This study showed that a cohesive standardized definition of professionalism is needed, as well as clearer guidelines on how professionalism is assessed.
Di Pietro, Maria Luisa; Poscia, Andrea; Teleman, Adele Anna; Maged, Davide; Ricciardi, Walter
The opposition to vaccinations is a well-known phenomenon that dates back to the Victorian age when it was self-limited by the awareness of the importance to be protected against fearsome infectious diseases. In the XX century, the mass use of vaccination has - instead - consented to eradicate or drastically reduce the burden of diseases such as smallpox and polio. These positive effects of the vaccination campaigns have blurred out, if not erased, the memory of the tragic consequences of the past's widespread diseases, leading people to underestimate the severity of the harm that vaccinations prevent. In recent years, a complex mixture of contextual factors have promoted an amplification of that paradoxical situation, leading experts to study causes and consequences of the so called "vaccine hesitancy". Several studies have shown the impact for children and for the community of the refusal or hesitation towards vaccinations from different points of view, including epidemiological, clinical, social and economic evaluation. This article provides an analysis of vaccine hesitancy from an ethical perspective: parental, professional and public responsibilities are analysed and described according to the "responsibility of the fathers towards the children", as articulated by Hans Jonas in 1979.
Stevens, Rosemary A
Professionalism in medicine is an ambiguous term. Discussions are hampered by understandings of the past that are counterproductive to today s debates. Three decades of criticism of physicians as self-interested and arrogant, and of professional organizations as unfairly monopolistic have shaken the confidence of professional leaders and their constituents in their ability to act as a positive social force, and left the concept of professional autonomy without a useful meaning. Inherited assumptions about conflict between the profession, government and the market have encouraged organizational policies to fight familiar enemies for short-term gains, rather than reinvent professionalism as a social force or seek new strategic alliances. This article stresses the importance of distancing the present from the past in re-inventing professionalism for the future, and lists eight fundamental goals.
Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Barrio-Fernández, José Luis; Porta, Miquel; Benavides, Fernando G; de Miguel, Ángel Gil
To reach a consensus among public health faculty from various Spanish universities about the core public health competencies that should be integrated into undergraduate medical degrees. The 2nd Forum of University Teachers was held at the Rey Juan Carlos University (Madrid, 11-12 December 2014). Twenty-four university professors and lecturers from 19 Spanish universities imparting medical degrees participated in the forum. They were distributed in three working groups during three working sessions. In the first session, they were asked to identify and classify core public health competencies for medical degrees. In the second, they were asked to propose public health contents for the identified competencies. In the third session, the participants organized these contents in thematic blocks. The results were discussed in distinct plenary sessions. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the activities related to the public health functions «Assessment of the population's health needs» and «Developing health policies». The final programme included basic contents organised into five units: Concept of health, public health and its determinants; Epidemiology and health research; Determinants and health problems; Strategies, interventions and policies; and health systems, clinical and healthcare management. The public health core competencies and contents identified in this Forum may be considered as a starting point to improve and update public health training programmes for future medical professionals. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Bashkireva, E A; Buromskiĭ, I V
In the recent years, professional activity of forensic medical examiners has been gaining publicity which necessitates knowledge of individual psychologic personality traits, the ability to effectively communicate, and high vocational culture on the part of each specialist. The specific character of professional contacts of a forensic medical expert is self-evident taking into consideration that he (she) has to deal with a great variety of persons including law enforcement officials, law breakers and criminal offence victims, men and women, young and aged people, representatives of different social groups, subjects in a specific emotional state, etc. In order to organize efficacious cooperation with all these individuals, the expert must develop high communicative competence, possess knowledge of psychology of communication, abilities and skills necessary for the establishment and maintenance of professional and business contacts.
Paul S. Mueller
Full Text Available Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement, good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.. Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.. Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts.
Toyama, Hinako; Inoue, Rie; Ito, Yumi; Sakamoto, Chieko; Ishikawa, Toru; Eda, Tetsuya; Saito, Keiichi
In order to promote the utilization of digital clinical information among medical professionals, an education program and electronic teaching materials involving fictitious model patients were developed for students in a health and welfare college. The purposes of this program were for students to learn the role of each medical professional and to understand the medical records written by each medical staff member in interdisciplinary medicine (a collaborative approach to medicine). The materials for fictitious patients, including medical records, study results, medical images and the associated documents, were stored in a database on a virtual private network. The electronic medical records were easily modified according to the specialty of the students in each class. Fictional medical records of patients with lacunar infarction, fracture of the distal radius, fracture of the femur, diabetes mellitus and breast cancer were generated and evaluated in inter-professional education classes.
Hansson, Sven Ove
In order to shorten queues to healthcare, the Swedish government has introduced a yearly "queue billion" that is paid out to the county councils in proportion to how successful they are in reducing queues. However, only the queues for first visits are covered. Evidence has accumulated that queues for return visits have become longer. This affects the chronically and severely ill. Swedish physicians, and the Swedish Medical Association, have strongly criticized the queue billion and have claimed that it conflicts with medical ethics. Instead they demand that their professional judgments on priority setting and medical urgency be respected. This discussion provides an interesting illustration of some of the limitations of new public management and also more generally of the complicated relationships between medical ethics and public policy.
... Administration Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage... designated as primary medical care, mental health, and dental health professional shortage areas (HPSAs) as... seven health professional types (primary medical care, dental, psychiatric, vision care,...
Vargas-Blasco, C; Arimany-Manso, J; Gómez-Durán, E L; Martin Fumadó, C; Piqueras-Bartolomé, M; Capdevila-Querol, S; Laborda-Rodriguez, A
.... We reviewed the database of the Department of Professional Responsibility of the Council of the College of Physicians of Catalonia, finding 28 complaints for postvasectomy pregnancy between 1992 and 2011...
Kadek Dwi Cahaya Putra
Abstract: This paper attempts to describe that there is a chance for non-Public Relations graduates to work as or at the Public Relations industry. Studies have shown that Public Relations practitioners are mostly from generalist background (not Public Relations) and even come into the job by chance. A Public Relations is a very sociable person, possess a mix of functional, managerial and negotiating abilities as well as analytical and well-developed communication and understand people and hu...
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) and medical professionalism are two prominent notions in current medical debates. However, proponents of professionalism fear a restriction in doctors' freedom to make their best decisions for individual patients caused by the influence of EBM and highly standardised decision procedures. The challenge which EBM allegedly poses to physicians' discretion forms the starting point for an analysis of the relationship between professionalism, as an inherent value system of medical practice, and EBM, as an approach to optimise the decision-making for individual patients. The analysis starts with a brief conceptual clarification of the ambiguous term "professionalism". It then focuses on three key aspects of medical professionalism which may come into conflict with the basic tenets of EBM. The potential tensions between (a) professional autonomy and clinical practice guidelines, (b) individualised care and standardisation, and (c) esoteric authority and public accountability are analysed and a suggestion for reconcilement regarding each point is made. The article closes with a summary on how a better reflection on medical professionalism may help towards a fuller understanding of EBM and vice versa.
Sarvadikar, Ajit; Prescott, Gordon; Williams, David
Medication error reporting is an important measure to prevent medication error incidents in a healthcare system and can serve as an important tool for improving patient safety. This study aimed to investigate attitudes of healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, and pharmacists) in reporting medication errors. Fifty-six healthcare professionals working at a 900-bed tertiary referral hospital were surveyed. A questionnaire using two different clinical scenarios (involving oral and intravenous administration of a drug) and four questions with an ascending order of worsening patient outcome was used. A Likert scale ranging from 1 (unlikely) to 5 (likely) was used to describe the likelihood of reporting a medication error. The overall response rate was 57% (43% for doctors, 68% for nurses, and 64% for pharmacists). Results showed that doctors were unlikely to report less-serious medication errors (median value of 2 on the Likert scale). Nurses and pharmacists (median value of 5) were likely to report less-serious as well as serious medication errors despite their fears of receiving disciplinary action. All healthcare professionals were more likely to report an error as the clinical scenarios had a progressively worsening outcome for the patient. These results suggest that among healthcare professionals, there are differing attitudes to reporting medication errors. Differing approaches are therefore required to encourage medication error reporting among different healthcare professionals. Future study is required to further investigate these findings and improve reporting rates.
Pharmaceutical companies integrate scientific publications into the communication strategies they employ to influence the practices of health professionals. In their"publication plan", pharmaceutical companies, or the communication agencies they hire, develop key messages to promote their drugs and then plan in advance how, when and where to disseminate them in medical journals or at conferences. Although their true intent is promotional, these messages must appear to be purely scientific, and are therefore disseminated as research articles, review articles, editorials, commentaries. Publication planning involves the use of "ghost" authors who work directly for pharmaceutical companies, but whose contribution is rarely acknowledged in the final published article. Key opinion leaders are recruited as the honorary authors of these articles, to which they have made little, if any, contribution. The criteria for authorship set by journals that publish primary research articles do not provide adequate protection against the practice of ghost and honorary authorship. Certain journals publishing primary research derive a large proportion of their revenue from selling reprints used by pharmaceutical companies to promote their drugs, especially by their sales representatives.
Al-Eraky, Mohamed Mostafa
Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals that teaching medical professionalism is essential, yet challenging. According to a recent Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) guide, there is no consensus on a theoretical or practical model to integrate the teaching of professionalism into medical education. The aim of this article is to outline a practical manual for teaching professionalism at all levels of medical education. Drawing from research literature and author's experience, Twelve Tips are listed and organised in four clusters with relevance to (1) the context, (2) the teachers, (3) the curriculum, and (4) the networking. With a better understanding of the guiding educational principles for teaching medical professionalism, medical educators will be able to teach one of the most challenging constructs in medical education.
Clyde, Joseph W.; Rodríguez, Melanie M. Domenech; Geiser, Christian
Background Use of social networking services (SNS) is on the rise. While many users sign in for personal purposes, it is not uncommon for professionals to connect over SNSs with clients, students, and patients. Methods The present study used an experimental approach to examine how medical doctors’ SNS profiles impacted potential patients’ impressions of professionalism. Participants (N=250 students) were randomly assigned to view one of six Facebook profiles. Profiles were populated with 1) solely professional material, 2) personal material that was strictly healthy, or 3) personal material that included unhealthy behavior. Profiles portrayed a male or female physician resulting in a total of six experimental conditions. Medical professionalism was measured with the First Impressions of Medical Professionalism (FIMP) scale, specifically developed for this study. Results There was a large and statistically significant main effect for profile type, F(2, 250)=54.77, p<0.001, ηp2=0.31 Post hoc tests indicated that personal profiles that contained healthy behavior were rated as most professional followed by profiles with strictly professional content. Personal unhealthy profiles were rated as least professional. Additionally, female profiles consistently received higher professionalism ratings across all three profile types [F(1, 250)=5.04, p=0.026, ηp2=0.02]. Conclusion Our results suggest that a physician's SNS profile affects a patient's perception of that physician's medical professionalism. A personal, healthy profile may augment a patient's perception of that physician's character virtues if the profile content upholds the decorum of the medical field. PMID:24947922
Joseph W. Clyde
Full Text Available Background: Use of social networking services (SNS is on the rise. While many users sign in for personal purposes, it is not uncommon for professionals to connect over SNSs with clients, students, and patients. Methods: The present study used an experimental approach to examine how medical doctors’ SNS profiles impacted potential patients’ impressions of professionalism. Participants (N=250 students were randomly assigned to view one of six Facebook profiles. Profiles were populated with 1 solely professional material, 2 personal material that was strictly healthy, or 3 personal material that included unhealthy behavior. Profiles portrayed a male or female physician resulting in a total of six experimental conditions. Medical professionalism was measured with the First Impressions of Medical Professionalism (FIMP scale, specifically developed for this study. Results: There was a large and statistically significant main effect for profile type, F(2, 250=54.77, p<0.001, ηp2=0.31. Post hoc tests indicated that personal profiles that contained healthy behavior were rated as most professional followed by profiles with strictly professional content. Personal unhealthy profiles were rated as least professional. Additionally, female profiles consistently received higher professionalism ratings across all three profile types [F(1, 250=5.04, p=0.026, ηp2=0.02]. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a physician's SNS profile affects a patient's perception of that physician's medical professionalism. A personal, healthy profile may augment a patient's perception of that physician's character virtues if the profile content upholds the decorum of the medical field.
Albertsen, Andreas; Thaysen, Jens Damgaard
might owe to medical professionals who are disadvantaged in these contexts. Luck egalitarianism, a responsibility-sensitive theory of distributive justice, appears to fare particularly bad in that regard. If we want to maintain that medical professionals are responsible for their decisions to help, cure...... and care for the vulnerable, luck egalitarianism seems to imply that their claim of justice to medical attention in case of infection is weak or non-existent. The article demonstrates how a recent interpretation of luck egalitarianism offers a solution to this problem. Redefining luck egalitarianism...... as concerned with responsibility for creating disadvantages, rather than for incurring disadvantage as such, makes it possible to maintain that medical professionals are responsible for their choices and that those infected because of their choice to help fight epidemics have a full claim of justice to medical...
Full Text Available Context: The practice of medicine requires good communication skills to foster excellent rapport in doctor patient relationship. Reports on communication skills learning attitude among medical professionals are key essentials toward improving patient safety and quality of care. Aims: We aimed to determine factors affecting communication skills learning attitudes among medical residents in Malaysia. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey, in a Malaysian public health hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 191 medical residents across medical and surgical based rotations were included. We assessed the validated communication skills attitude scale among medical residents from different rotations. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS® (version 16.0, IBM, Armonk, NY was used. Cronbach′s alpha was used to test the internal consistency of the scale. Descriptive analysis was conducted for all variables. Bivariate analysis was employed across the socio-demographic variables. Results: Majority of the residents believed that communication skills training should be made compulsory in Malaysia (78.5%. Medical residents agreed that acquiring good communication skills is essential to be a good doctor. However, the majority cited time pressures for not being able to learn communication skills. Significant differences in communication skills learning attitude scores were found between Malays and Chinese. Conclusion: The majority of medical residents had a positive attitude toward communication skills learning. Socio-demographic factors influenced communication skills learning attitude among medical residents. Incorporating communicative skills modules during hospital Continuous Medical Education for medical residents is essential to cultivate communicative skills attitudes for effective doctor-patient relationship during the routine medical encounters.
Mount, K N; Daugherty, J
We researched factors related to the success or failure in working relationships between free-lance medical illustrators and artist's representatives. In the fall of 1992, surveys were mailed to 230 medical illustrators; 105 (46%) completed surveys were returned. Respondents were divided into three categories: 1) medical illustrators currently represented, 2) medical illustrators previously represented, and 3) medical illustrators who had never been represented. Comparisons made among illustrators from the three groups included business practices, clientele, experience, and self-promotion techniques. These comparisons revealed notable differences and similarities between the three groups and were subsequently analyzed to identify the characteristics of medical illustrators who would benefit from professional representation.
Sisson, Jamie Huff; Iverson, Susan V.
Educational reforms across the globe have had implications for the work of preschool teachers and thus their professional identities. This article draws on a feminist discourse lens to examine data collected from a recent narrative inquiry focused on understanding the professional identities of five public preschool teachers in the USA. This…
R Grant Steen
Full Text Available The essence of writing for publication in the medical field is distilled into a dozen precepts to guide the anxious author. These precepts focus on the attitude of the writer, rather than the mechanics of writing. A medical author must strive to be the following: Original, honest, innovative, organized, careful, clear, modest, fair-minded, frank, persistent, rigorous, and realistic. These attributes are essential because there is a new climate of skepticism among the lay public as to the validity of scientific and medical claims. This climate has encouraged journal editors to be demanding of authors and to be especially vigilant about plagiarism; originality of all contributions is therefore essential.
Ruitenberg, Claudia W.
This essay examines the concepts of "professionalism" and "ethics" as they are used in health professions education and, in particular, medical education. It proposes that, in order to make sense of the construct of "professional ethics," it would be helpful to conceive of professionalism and ethics as overlapping but…
Eeuwenlang hebben studenten Geneeskunde hun professionele normen en waarden ontwikkeld in een meester-gezel relatie met hun klinische docenten. Deze informele manier van leren lijkt niet voldoende meer om studenten voor te bereiden op werken als professional binnen de hedendaagse, complexe beroepspr
Helmich, E.; Derksen, E.; Prevoo, M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.
OBJECTIVES: The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an ass
Kadek Dwi Cahaya Putra
.... With working roles of Expert Prescriber, Communication Facilitator, Problem Solving Facilitator and Communication Technician, a Public Relations needs to be well prepared by learning foreign language...
Berner, Eta S
Academic culture has a set of norms, expectations, and values that are sometimes tacit and sometimes very explicit. In medical school and other health professions educational settings, probably the most common norm includes placing a high value on peer-reviewed research publications, which are seen as the major evidence of scholarly productivity. Other features of academic culture include encouraging junior faculty and graduate students to share their research results at professional conferences and lecturing with slides as a major way to convey information. Major values that faculty share with journal editors include responsible conduct of research and proper attribution of others' words and ideas. Medical school faculty also value technology and are often quick to embrace technological advances that can assist them in their teaching and research. This article addresses the effects of technology on three aspects of academic culture: education, presentations at professional meetings, and research publications.The technologies discussed include online instruction, dissemination of conference proceedings on the Internet, plagiarism-detection software, and new technologies deployed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, the home of PubMed. The author describes how the ease of deploying new technologies without faculty changing their norms and behavior in the areas of teaching and research can lead to conflicts of values among key stakeholders in the academic medical community, including faculty, journal editors, and professional associations. The implications of these conflicts and strategies for managing them are discussed.
Full Text Available Objectives: Medical students and future physicians have chosen to pursue a profession that requires personal integrity, compassion and a constant awareness of the commitment made by them. Professionalism includes personal behaviors, knowledge, and competency. It includes the attitudes and values one holds and that run through the profession as a whole. Medical students learn professionalism during the course by either direct teaching or experiential learning. We conducted this study to estimate the self-reported level of practice of the core elements of professionalism by medical students and medical faculty and compared the two groups. Methods: One-hundred and nine students and 83 faculty members of Oman Medical College completed a professionalism questionnaire. The survey questions related to core elements of professionalism and were grouped under professional knowledge, professional skills, professional attitude, and qualities essential for professionalism. Results: The response rate was 65.6% (109 of 166 among students and 75.5% (83 of 110 from faculty members. Response to the questions on professional skills between the student and faculty group was significantly different (p < 0.001. Similarly, there was a significant difference in the responses related to professional attitude between the student and faculty group (p < 0.001. Students and faculty members have a significant difference in opinion regarding up to date knowledge of basic and clinical sciences and clinical competency (p = 0.024. Similarly, significant differences in opinion regarding up to date knowledge of basic and clinical sciences and clinical competency in clinical and basic sciences faculty members (p = 0.001. Students identified good communication skills (82.6%, and faculty staff identified up to date professional knowledge (62.7% as the most important aspect of professionalism. Conclusions: Both students and teaching faculty agreed that the top most professional
Tracey L. Adams
Full Text Available The regulation of professional groups has often been justified as being in the public interest. In recent decades, policymakers in Anglo-American countries have questioned whether self-regulating professions have truly served the public interest, or whether they have merely acted in their own interests. This paper draws on legislative records and policy reports to explore meanings attached to professional self-regulation and the public interest in Canada by state actors over the past 150 years. The findings point to a shift in the definition of the public interest away from service quality and professional interests, towards efficiency, human rights, consumer choice, and in some contexts business interests. Changing views of the public interest contribute to regulatory change.
Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M. M.
Context: Medication errors are the most common types of medical errors in hospitals and leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals. Settings and Design: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected healthcare professionals in eight hospitals in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: An 18-item survey was designed and comprised questions on demographic data, knowledge of medication errors, availability of reporting systems in hospitals, attitudes toward error reporting, causes of medication errors. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software Version 17. Results: A total of 323 of healthcare professionals completed the questionnaire with 64.6% response rate of 138 (42.72%) physicians, 34 (10.53%) pharmacists, and 151 (46.75%) nurses. A majority of the participants had a good knowledge about medication errors concept and their dangers on patients. Only 68.7% of them were aware of reporting systems in hospitals. Healthcare professionals revealed that there was no clear mechanism available for reporting of errors in most hospitals. Prescribing (46.5%) and administration (29%) errors were the main causes of errors. The most frequently encountered medication errors were anti-hypertensives, antidiabetics, antibiotics, digoxin, and insulin. Conclusions: This study revealed differences in the awareness among healthcare professionals toward medication errors in hospitals. The poor knowledge about medication errors emphasized the urgent necessity to adopt appropriate measures to raise awareness about medication errors in Saudi hospitals. PMID:27330261
Rodríguez, Dolors; Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Capella, Jordina; Peray, Josep Lluís de; Roma, Josep
To identify current and future competencies (managers and technicians) for public health professionals in Catalonia (Spain). Qualitative research with a phenomenological approach. Between November 2009 and February 2010, 31 semistructured interviews were completed with public health professionals working in Catalonia. We purposely used a theoretical sample to include the maximum multiplicity of discourses. We conducted a thematic content analysis. We obtained a wide range of current professional competencies, as well as those required for the future, classified according to professional profile. The participants highlighted transversal competencies, such as the importance of sharing a general theoretical framework of the discipline and the institution. Among the most frequently reported competencies were knowledge management, communication skills, teamwork, multidisciplinary and intersectoral orientation, legal knowledge, computer skills and languages, particularly English. It was also important for individual professionals to have specific skills in their areas of activity. In terms of differences between managers and technicians, the study showed that technicians prioritize management skills concerning human and material resources, while managers emphasize organizational and professional public health expertise. There is a need for transversal and specific competencies in distinct areas. Public health is a multidisciplinary field, which collaborates with a wide range of professionals and organizations. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Hossein Karimi Moonaghi
Full Text Available Introduction: Regarding to the importance of spiritual intelligence and professionalism in faculty development, this study aimed to determine the level of spiritual intelligence, the level of professional development and leadership, and performance of professional responsibilities as two components of professionalism, and the relationship between spiritual intelligence and professionalism.Methods: This is a correlation cross-sectional study with 160 medical faculty members as subjects, which was defined base on stratified probability sampling in one of the medical universities in Iran. King’s modified spiritual intelligence questionnaire and teaching competency self assessment instrument of Alabama University were used. Statistical tests such as t-test, two-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal–Wallis, spearman and regressions were applied to analyze. P-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The results showed that the mean score of spiritual intelligence was 63±1.2, which classifies as moderate. The median score of professional development and leadership was 9 with range between 4 and 12; and the median score of performance of professional responsibilities was 17 with range between 5 and 20. There was a significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and performance of professional responsibilities (rs=0.23, p=0.003. There was no significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and professional development and leadership (rs=0.13, p=0.11. Conclusion: We found a significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and self assessed professionalism components in performance of professional responsibilities dimension, indicating that spiritual intelligence can be the basis for professional promotion.
Andersen, Lotte Bøgh
have, however, indicated that these factors interact. Using interviews, surveys and registers, the paper investigated how professional norms, economic incentives and sector affected the behaviour of Danish dentists and physicians. It was found that when strong professional norms existed, economic......The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...... incentives were unimportant for both public and private employees. In contrast, when no firm professional norm applied, economic incentives affected behaviour. Controlling for different economic incentives, sector does not seem to affect the behaviour much. The results imply that the economic...
The dynamic healthcare environment of Japan, including the rapidly aging population and the requirement of highly sophisticated and diverse medical care, induces strict financial conditions and increases the number of those seeking medical care. Therefore, medical professionals are now required to provide safe and effective medical care with limited medical resources. Recently, Japanese medical institutions have introduced the total quality management system, which was developed for better business management, to promote safe and effective management. However, there are two major drawbacks with the introduction of this system in the sector of medical care in Japan. First, the standardization of medical skills of medical professionals is greatly affected due to the presence of different education systems for the same medical profession except for medical doctors and pharmacologists. The education system for major medical professionals, such as nurses and medical and radiological technologists, must be standardized based on the university norms. Second, the knowledge-creating process among the medical professionals has been associated with many problems. The specialized fields are quite different among medical professionals. Therefore, common specialized fields must be established among major medical professions based on the specialization of medical doctors to promote their communication and better understanding. Considering the roles of medical professionals in medical care, medical doctors and nurses are the most responsible for monitoring, assessing, and guaranteeing the safety of medical care, and medical and radiological technologists are the most responsible for effective medical care. The current medical technologists are not only required to carry out clinical laboratory tests, but also be proactive and positive as well as have marked problem-solving abilities. They are expected to improve the diagnostic test systems in medical institutes for medical doctors
Goldberg, Judah L
In this article, the author challenges the widely held assumption that humanism and professionalism are necessarily complementary themes in medical education. He argues that humanism and professionalism are two very different value systems with different rationales, different goals, and different agendas. Whereas humanism is a universal, egalitarian ideology, professionalism represents the parochial, culturally determined practices of a particular professional group that may or may not conform to lay expectations. Distinguishing professionalism from humanism is crucial to understanding the divergent attitudes of providers and lay persons with regard to health care delivery and physician behavior. Moreover, it highlights the tension that medical students experience as they are tacitly asked to leave behind their lay, humanistic values and embrace a new professional identity, a transition that the common blurring of humanism and professionalism fails to recognize. In this context, the Arnold P. Gold Foundation's widely acclaimed White Coat Ceremony for entering medical students may actually be inhibiting, rather than encouraging, the genuine growth of humanism in medicine.
Newman, Kristine; Dobbins, Maureen; Yost, Jennifer; Ciliska, Donna
Given the many different types of professionals working in public health and their diverse roles, it is likely that their information needs, information-seeking behaviors, and problem-solving abilities differ. Although public health professionals often work in interdisciplinary teams, few studies have explored their information needs and behaviors within the context of teamwork. This study explored the relationship between Canadian public health professionals' perceptions of their problem-solving abilities and their information-seeking behaviors with a specific focus on the use of evidence in practice settings. It also explored their perceptions of collaborative information seeking and the work contexts in which they sought information. Key Canadian contacts at public health organizations helped recruit study participants through their list-servs. An electronic survey was used to gather data about (a) individual information-seeking behaviors, (b) collaborative information-seeking behaviors, (c) use of evidence in practice environments, (d) perceived problem-solving abilities, and (e) demographic characteristics. Fifty-eight public health professionals were recruited, with different roles and representing most Canadian provinces and one territory. A significant relationship was found between perceived problem-solving abilities and collaborative information-seeking behavior (r = -.44, p information seeking. The results suggested that when public health professionals take a shared, active approach to problem solving, maintain personal control, and have confidence, they are more likely collaborate with others in seeking information to complete a work task. Administrators of public health organizations should promote collaboration by implementing effective communication and information-seeking strategies, and by providing information resources and retrieval tools. Public health professionals' perceived problem-solving abilities can influence how they collaborate in
East, Linda; Stokes, Rebecca; Walker, Melanie
In times of economic uncertainty, questions of the purpose and value of higher education come to the fore. Such questions have particular relevance when directed towards the preparation of professionally qualified graduates who might be expected to contribute to the public good. However, definitions of the public good are contested and the role of…
Shanahan, Madeleine, E-mail: email@example.com [School of Medical Science, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); Herrington, Anthony [Head, School of Regional, Remote and eLearning (RRE), Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Herrington, Jan [School of Education, Murdoch University, Perth (Australia)
Purpose: Updating professional knowledge is a central tenet of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and professional reading is a common method health practitioners use to update their professional knowledge. This paper reports the level of professional reading by Medical Radiation Science (MRS) practitioners in Australia and examines organisational support for professional reading. Materials and Methods: Survey design was used to collect data from MRS practitioners. A questionnaire was sent to 1142 Australian practitioners, which allowed self-report data to be collected on the length of time practitioners engage in professional reading and the time workplaces allocate to practitioners for professional reading. Results: Of the 362 MRS practitioners who returned the survey, 93.9% engaged in professional reading on a weekly basis. In contrast, only 28.9% of respondents reported that their workplace allocates time for professional reading to practitioners. MRS practitioners employed in universities engaged in higher levels of reading than their colleagues employed in clinical workplaces (p < 0.01) and more university workplaces allocated time for professional reading to their employees than clinical workplaces (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences for clinical practitioners in level of reading across geographic, organisational and professional demographic factors. Significant differences in workplace allocation of time for professional reading in clinical workplaces were evident for health sector (p < 0.01); work environment (p < 0.01); geographic location (p < 0.01) and area of specialisation (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The vast majority of respondent MRS practitioners engage in professional reading to update their professional knowledge. This demonstrates an ongoing commitment at the individual practitioner level for updating professional knowledge. Updating professional knowledge is an organisational as well as an individual practitioner issue. Whilst
Fronteira, Inês; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Pereira, Camilo; Silva, Augusto P; Mercer, Hugo; Dussault, Guilles; Ferrinho, Paulo
In Guinea Bissau, the majority of university level professionals are still being trained abroad and most of them do not return to their country. This was a major incentive for creating Guinea Bissau's Medical School. An observational, cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on the second trimester of 2007 to characterize the socio-demographic, familial and educational profile of medical students, their satisfaction levels, difficulties and expectations concerning the medicine course. A questionnaire was used and a response rate of 63% achieved (81 students). Data was analyzed using SPSS v.17 for descriptive statistics. Students are very committed to their education. They tend to decide to take the medicine course early in their lives and are influenced by their relatives. They choose to be medical doctors because they like it but also for altruistic reasons and the desire to save lives. Although many face financial and material difficulties, they tend to have success in their academic live. They live with their parents, do not have children and some have side jobs to provide for extra income to help with their education. They expect their education to make them good doctors in any part of the world and want to work simultaneously in the public (to serve their country and pay their debt to the State) and in the private sector (to enhance their income). The large majority wants to work in a hospital, in Bissau, and to be a pediatrician or obstetrician. They have unreasonably high expectations concerning their future income as medical doctors.
Financial relationships among the biomedical industries, physicians, and professional medical associations (PMAs) can be professional, ethical, mutually beneficial, and, most importantly, can lead to improved medical care. However, such relationships, by their very nature, present conflicts of interest (COIs). One of the greatest concerns regarding COI is continuing medical education (CME), especially because currently industry funds 40-60% of CME. COIs have the potential to bias physicians in practice, educators, and those in leadership positions of PMAs and well as the staff of a PMA. These conflicts lead to the potential to bias the content and type of CME presentations and thereby influence physicians' practice patterns and patient care. Physicians are generally aware of the potential for bias when industry contributes funding for CME, but they are most often unable to detect the bias. This may because it is very subtle and/or the educators themselves may not realize that they have been influenced by their relationships with industry. Following Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education guidelines and mandating disclosure that is transparent and complete have become the fallback positions to manage COIs, but such disclosure does not really mitigate the conflict. The eventual and best solutions to ensure evidence-based education are complete divestment by educators and leaders of PMAs, minimal and highly controlled industry funding of PMAs, blind pooling of any industry contributions to PMAs and CME, strict verification of disclosures, clear separation of marketing from education at CME events, and strict oversight of presentations for the presence of bias.
Foster, Juliet L H
Continuing debates regarding advertising and the pharmaceutical industry, and others detailing the continued stigmatization of mental health problems. To establish whether there are any differences in advertisements for psychiatric and non-psychiatric medication aimed at health professionals. Quantitative (t-tests, Chi-squared) and qualitative analysis of all unique advertisements for medication that appeared in two professional journals (the British Medical Journal and the British Journal of Psychiatry) between October 2005 and September 2006 was undertaken. Close attention was paid to both images and text used in the advertisements. Significant differences were found between advertisements for psychiatric and non-psychiatric medication in both quantitative and qualitative analysis: advertisements for psychiatric medication contain less text and are less likely to include specific information about the actual drug than non-psychiatric medication advertisements; images used in advertisements for psychiatric medication are more negative than those used for non-psychiatric medication, and are less likely to portray people in everyday situations. A distinction between mental health problems and other forms of ill health is clearly being maintained in medication advertisements; this has potentially stigmatizing consequences, both for professional and public perceptions. There are also troubling implications in light of the debates surrounding Direct to Consumer Advertising.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism topics are usually not covered as a separate lesson within formal curriculum, but in subtler and less officially recognized educational activities, which makes them difficult to teach and assess. Interactive methods (e.g. movies could be efficient teaching methods but are rarely studied. The aims of this study were: 1 to test the relevance and usefulness of movies in teaching professionalism to fourth year medical students and, 2 to assess the impact of this teaching method on students' attitudes towards some professionalism topics. Method This was an education study with qualitative data analysis in a group of eleven fourth year medical students from the Medical School of University Maribor who attended an elective four month course on professionalism. There were 8 (66.7% female students in the group. The mean age of the students was 21.9 ± 0.9 years. The authors used students' written reports and oral presentations as the basis for qualitative analysis using thematic codes. Results Students recognised the following dimensions in the movie: communication, empathy, doctors' personal interests and palliative care. It also made them think about their attitudes towards life, death and dying. Conclusions The controlled environment of movies successfully enables students to explore their values, beliefs, and attitudes towards features of professionalism without feeling that their personal integrity had been threatened. Interactive teaching methods could become an indispensible aid in teaching professionalism to new generations.
Conclusion: Most laboratory technicians in our study reported favourable perceptions of CME programmes, feeling that they increased professional confidence and competency. We recommend that core competencies be integrated into credentialing using profession-specific CME in a workplace setting. In addition, MLTs should be involved in designing the programmes as well. Further studies in a multicentre institution are needed to analyse the difference in perception among those who have attended CME and those who have not.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Methods Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA. Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test (for cell count less than 5 were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship. Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to “celebrate” professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was
Weaver, Roslyn; Wilson, Ian; Langendyk, Vicki
Previous research has pointed to the role television can play in informing health practices and beliefs. Within the academic setting in particular, some educators have raised concerns about the influence of medical dramas on students. Less research, however, draws on the perspectives of students, and this study therefore explores medical students' perceptions of medical practice and professionalism in popular medical television programmes. Qualitative data from surveys of Australian undergraduate medical students showed that students perceived professionalism in dichotomous ways, with three main themes: cure-care, where a doctor's skill is either technical or interpersonal; work-leisure, where a doctor is either dedicated to work or personal life; and clinical-administration, where work is either direct patient care or administration. There continue to be imagined divisions between curing and caring for students, who express concerns about balancing work and leisure, and expectations that doctors should have little administrative work. Given students were able to identify these important contemporary issues around professionalism on television, there is pedagogical value in using popular images of the medical world in medical education.
Full Text Available Questions connected to the correlation of such notions as “image of the world” (A. N. Leontiev and “invariant image of the world” (A. A. Leontiev are considered. The proposition that professional activity is one of the bases for distinguishing invariant images of the world is substantiated. Based on the analysis of the professional activity of lecturers in medical institute clinical faculties, the notion “professional view of the world,” which reflects professional activity in an invariant image of the world, is introduced. The necessity for specifying the notion “professional view of the world” and introducing the notion “professional world,” describing professional measurement of the living space of medical institute lecturers, is also shown; the structure-forming components of this notion are singled out. It is also shown that the systems of relations by which the professional world is determined are by nature meaning relations (D. A. Leontiev.
Full Text Available Over the few years medical marijuana is growing in the United States. Because of the medical marijuana legislators able to legalized recreational marijuana in the two states in the US. Marijuana has several potential benefits that help in certain disease. The delivery of marijuana is also important because smoking marijuana has severe side effects. Physicians also play important role in medical marijuana, physicians also divided on the use of medical marijuana. Their attitude towards medical marijuana important for the treatment of disease is important for the community. Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the US and all over world, several risks associated with it. Major concern is medical marijuana increased the use of marijuana and will create the public health problem in the society. There are several medical benefits from the marijuana but require more research to establish the marijuana as a medicine. Control of medical marijuana is also major issue for the law enforcement agencies and challenge for policymakers also in the United States. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 136-143
JS. Utilitarianism . Hackett Publishing Company; 1979. 143. Thomasma DC, Marshall PA. Clinical medical ethics : cases and reading. New York, NY: New...Defense Health Board Defense Health Board Ethical Guidelines and Practices for U.S. Military Medical Professionals March 3, 2015 [This page...22042-5101 DEFENSE HEALTH BOARD MEMORANDUM FOR ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR HEALTH AFFAIRS SUBJECT: Ethical Guidelines and Practices for
Vargas-Blasco, C; Arimany-Manso, J; Gómez-Durán, E L; Martin Fumadó, C; Piqueras-Bartolomé, M; Capdevila-Querol, S; Laborda-Rodriguez, A
The follow-up of patients postvasectomy is frequently limited to a seminogram at 3months if azoospermia is observed. This study evaluates a series of cases of complaints for postvasectomy pregnancy to establish follow-up recommendations that increase the clinical safety and reduce the risk of complaints. We reviewed the database of the Department of Professional Responsibility of the Council of the College of Physicians of Catalonia, finding 28 complaints for postvasectomy pregnancy between 1992 and 2011. We analysed the clinical and legal variables of the cases. A total of 13 extrajudicial complaints (46.43%), 13 civil lawsuits (46.43%) and 2 criminal lawsuits (7.14%) were recorded. Only 10 cases had a signed document of informed consent specific to vasectomy. In 26 cases, the data from the spermogram was available. A single spermogram was conducted in 20 cases (76.92%), 2 spermograms were conducted in 4 cases (15.38%) and none were performed in 2 cases (7.69%). For 9 of the cases (45%) where only a single spermogram was performed, the test was performed before 3months postvasectomy. In 17 cases (65.38%), the result of the last spermogram was azoospermia, and 3 cases had oligospermia (11.54%). There were 2 failures of interpretation of the spermogram (7.69%) and 2 of normospermia (7.69%). In 2 cases, a spermogram was not performed (7.69%). Pregnancy occurred between 4 and 50 months after the intervention. In 12 cases (42.86%), it was considered that the practitioner was responsible. It is recommended that physicians emphasise (during the patient information stage) the possibility of spontaneous recanalisation and to request 2 spermograms, whose result should be azoospermia. Performing the test in the 3months after vasectomy is risky, as is basing the waiting time on the number of ejaculations. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Benton, David C; González-Jurado, Máximo Antonio; Beneit-Montesinos, Juan Vicente
Nurse mobility, developments such as health tourism and the rapid expansion of health systems have increased the need for regulatory bodies to reach beyond their normal stakeholder groups so as to familiarize themselves with the legislation of other jurisdictions. A systematic examination of a cross-section of nursing legislation, to ascertain the degree of consistency in the number of definitions specified as well as their underlying structure, was conducted to identify opportunities to strengthen public protection and reduce barriers to freedom of movement. A purposeful sample of legislation, drawn to maximize differences, was subjected to documentary analysis to identify possible relationships between the variables of interest and the way terms and processes were defined in fourteen nurse practice acts. Potential relationships were identified between factors such as geographic region, legal tradition, administrative approach, regulatory model and economic status and the number and approaches used to specify definitions. A major weakness in the precision of definitions was discovered. Several international organizations have started to develop lexicons but all have weaknesses. By drawing upon these lexicons a more comprehensive and precise dictionary could be formulated to support the development of next-generation nurse practice acts. Current legislation lacks precision and, within the context of increased mobility of nurses, there is an urgent need to develop an authoritative source of definitions that can contribute to increasing public safety as well as reducing delays in the freedom of movement of nurses from one jurisdiction to another.
Motivation is the first step in writing for professional publication: the next question is, what should you write about? Whatever your area of practice or level of experience, your writing will be suitable for one of the wealth of journals covering all aspects of healthcare and nursing. In this second part of a series of articles, John Fowler, an experienced nursing lecturer and author, presents some tips and suggestions to inspire you as you take your first steps on the road to writing for professional publication.
Gerhard, L.C.; Brady, L.L.
Conflicts between different interest groups for use of natural resources is one area where state geological surveys can provide assistance. A state geological survey working within the scientific constraints of specific issues can remain objective in its presentations and maintain the faith of both the conflicting interest groups and the public. One cannot vary from the objective view or you will quickly be criticized. Criticism can still occur from one side of a natural resource issue as your data might counter their views. However, the final decisions are almost always made in some legislators, or regulators, area of responsibility. The responsibility of the state geological survey is to provide the important data that will assist in making correct decisions. Should one party in the conflict become extreme in their demands, a potential compromise that is beneficial to both sides can be lost. In Kansas, the classical natural resource problem of resource/recreation in a populated area is presented as a case study. The state geological survey presented data on sand resources in the Kansas River and its valley in northeast Kansas. That information was important to both recreation and dredging interests where the political problem is a conflict of sand use as a construction material resource versus use of the alluvial river as an important recreation area, especially for canoeing. However, when a reasonable compromise was near completion in the Kansas Legislature one side, in a bold move to develop an advantage, ruined that potential for compromise.Conflicts between different interest groups for use of natural resources is one area where state geological surveys can provide assistance. A state geological survey working within the scientific constraints of specific issues can remain objective in its presentations and maintain the faith of both the conflicting interest groups and the public. In Kansas, the classical natural resource problem of resource/recreation in a
Crigger, Nancy J; Courter, Laura; Hayes, Kristen; Shepherd, K
Trust in the nurse-patient relationship is maintained not by how professionals perceive their actions but rather by how the public perceives them. However, little is known about the public's view of nurses and other health care professionals who participate in pharmaceutical marketing. Our study describes public perceptions of health care providers' role in pharmaceutical marketing and compares their responses with those of a random sample of licensed family nurse practitioners. The family nurse practitioners perceived their participation in marketing activities as significantly more ethically appropriate than did the public responders. Further research is warranted before conclusions can be drawn, but these early findings suggest that nurse practitioners should consider a conservative approach to participating in pharmaceutical marketing.
Full Text Available To present the basic principles and standards of Ethics in medical research and publishing, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the published literature. Investing in education of researches and potential researches, already in the level of medical schools. Educating them on research ethics, what constitutes research misconduct and the seriousness of it repercussion is essential for finding a solution to this problem and ensuring careers are constructed on honesty and integrity.
The previous articles in this series of writing for professional publication focused on the preparation you need to do before starting to write an article, the practicalities of writing the abstract, creating interest in the reader's mind, and how an article for publication differs from an academic essay. Recently we considered the importance of selecting the correct journal for submission. In this article, John Fowler, an experienced nursing lecturer and author, discusses how client case studies can be used within your article.
M S Pandit
Full Text Available The changing doctor-patient relationship and commercialization of modern medical practice has affected the practice of medicine. On the one hand, there can be unfavorable results of treatment and on the other hand the patient suspects negligence as a cause of their suffering. There is an increasing trend of medical litigation by unsatisfied patients. The Supreme Court has laid down guidelines for the criminal prosecution of a doctor. This has decreased the unnecessary harassment of doctors. As the medical profession has been brought under the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, the patients have an easy method of litigation. There should be legal awareness among the doctors that will help them in the proper recording of medical management details. This will help them in defending their case during any allegation of medical negligence.
L.G. Tummers (Lars)
textabstractToday, many public professionals feel estranged from the policy programs they implement. That is, they experience ‘policy alienation’. This is of concern as, for satisfactory implementation, some identification with the policy is required. We develop a quantitative scale to measure
Henson, Kenneth T.
This book provides practical help for people writing for publication, especially for those writing for professional journals or university presses. Chapters cover the following topics: (1) reasons for writing; (2) finding topics; (3) getting started; (4) writing style; (5) organizing articles; (6) using journals, libraries, surveys, and action…
This study investigated public school principals' reports of professional development implementation at the school level while working in different state- and local-level contexts (state accountability level, geographic locations, socioeconomic status, demographics, and grade levels). I attempted to measure principals' reported changes in levels…
Abdulrahman, Mahera; Alsalehi, Shahd; Husain, Zahra S M; Nair, Satish C; Carrick, Frederick Robert
Moral competencies and ethical practices of medical professionals are among the desired outcomes of academic training. Unfortunately, academic dishonesty and misconduct are reported from medical colleges across the world. This study investigates the level of academic dishonesty/misconduct among multicultural medical students. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of academic dishonesty/misconduct among multicultural medical students. Validated and customized version of Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory-1 detailing lapses of professionalism in undergraduate health professions education was used to determine the perceived prevalence and self-reported lapses of academic integrity in this study. This study shows that the majority (458/554, 83%) of medical students have admitted to acts of academic dishonesty mentioned in the questionnaire. Approximately 42% (231/554) of the students have given proxy for attendance and 71% of them considered this as an offense. Similarly, 12% (66/554) have copied from the record books of others, and 86% (477/554) have considered it unethical. In addition, 5% (28/554) of the students revealed forging a teacher's signature in their record or logbooks, with 16% (91/554) of them reporting that they have seen others forge signatures. This is the first multi-center, multi-cultural and multi-ethnic study involving a large number of participants that addresses academic professionalism among medical students in the Middle East. Certainly, the paucity of data limits definitive conclusions about the best approach to prevent academic misconduct in the UAE medical schools. Yet, the results of our study are anticipated not only to benefit the UAE but also to find application in the Arab world, with similar medical school programs, values, culture and tradition.
Bosch, Josefin; Maaz, Asja; Hitzblech, Tanja; Holzhausen, Ylva; Peters, Harm
Sufficient preparedness is important for transitions to workplace participation and learning in clinical settings. This study aims to analyse medical students' preparedness for early clerkships using a three-dimensional, socio-cognitive, theory-based model of preparedness anchored in specific professional activities and their supervision level. Medical students from a competency-based undergraduate curriculum were surveyed about preparedness for 21 professional activities and level of perceived supervision during their early clerkships via an online questionnaire. Preparedness was operationalized by the three dimensions of confidence to carry out clerkship activities, being prepared through university teaching and coping with failure by seeking support. Factors influencing preparedness and perceived stress as outcomes were analysed through step-wise regression. Professional activities carried out by the students (n = 147; 19.0%) and their supervision levels varied. While most students reported high confidence to perform the tasks, the activity-specific analysis revealed important gaps in preparation through university teaching. Students regularly searched for support in case of difficulty. One quarter of the variance of each preparedness dimension was explained by self-efficacy, supervision quality, amount of prior clerkship experience and nature of professional activities. Preparedness contributed to predicting perceived stress. The applied three-dimensional concept of preparedness and the task-specific approach provided a detailed and meaningful view on medical students' workplace participation and experiences in early clerkships.
Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.
This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…
Giménez, N; Alcaraz, J; Gavagnach, M; Kazan, R; Arévalo, A; Rodríguez-Carballeira, M
To determine the perception of healthcare professionals (tutors, residents and teaching collaborators) involved in specialist medical training on the core values and skills to develop their tasks. A tailor-made questionnaire aimed at healthcare professionals in 9health care centres and a referral hospital. Questionnaire: 4 sections and 51 variables (scale 1-10). A total of 287 professionals participated, which included 97% tutors (n=59), 38% residents (n=61), and 56% others (97 teaching collaborators and 70 not associated with teaching). The alfa Cronbach coefficient was 0.945. Best rated values were work compliance (8.7 points), ethics in professional practice (8.6 points), and respect for their team (8.3 points). The best rated competence was communication with patients and families (8.1 points), followed by self-motivating leadership (7.9 points), and the practical application of medical and healthcare theoretical knowledge (7.8 points). The values received, on average, 0.7 points above competences (95% CI: 0.5-0.9). There were no differences between tutors and residents, although differences were found between doctors and nurses, and between males and females. Most of the professionals (tutors, residents, and teaching collaborators) share the same perception of the values and competencies that influence their professional development. This perception was influenced by the professional category and gender, but not age or working in a hospital or primary health care. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Abstract This paper seeks to engage with the ideas expressed by Professor Brazier in her commentary on the Charlotte Wyatt case and to develop contemporary analysis around parental rights, notions of best interests, and shared decision-making between parents and professionals. The article begins by setting the scene in relation to parental/professional conflict and frames the discussion in the context of medical decision-making. Parental rights are then explored before the analysis progresses to how the concept of best interests has recently developed. Finally, the article investigates the benefits of compromise, cooperation, and shared decision-making as the most effective method for resolving disputes concerning children.
Full Text Available This study compares the organizational climate differences within professional roles in private and public hospitals. We focused on how physicians, administrative, healthcare and non-healthcare staff either in the public or in the private perceived their work environment and each organizational climate dimension. Data came from organizational-climate questionnaires administered in 2010 and 2012 to 19616 and 1276 health employees in public and private hospitals in the Tuscany Region respectively. We applied exploratory factoranalysis to verify the validity and internal consistency between items in the questionnaire and t-test, one-way analysis of variance to compare mean perceptions regarding to the dimensions across different groups of respondents. We measured four dimensions: “training opportunities”, “managerial tools”, “organization” and “management & leadership style” and overall job satisfaction. Hospital status in the professional roles was found significant in the staff's perceptions (p≤0.05.
Sismondo, Sergio; Doucet, Mathieu
It is by now no secret that some scientific articles are ghost authored - that is, written by someone other than the person whose name appears at the top of the article. Ghost authorship, however, is only one sort of ghosting. In this article, we present evidence that pharmaceutical companies engage in the ghost management of the scientific literature, by controlling or shaping several crucial steps in the research, writing, and publication of scientific articles. Ghost management allows the pharmaceutical industry to shape the literature in ways that serve its interests. This article aims to reinforce and expand publication ethics as an important area of concern for bioethics. Since ghost-managed research is primarily undertaken in the interests of marketing, large quantities of medical research violate not just publication norms but also research ethics. Much of this research involves human subjects, and yet is performed not primarily to increase knowledge for broad human benefit, but to disseminate results in the service of profits. Those who sponsor, manage, conduct, and publish such research therefore behave unethically, since they put patients at risk without justification. This leads us to a strong conclusion: if medical journals want to ensure that the research they publish is ethically sound, they should not publish articles that are commercially sponsored.
Daniel R Terry
Full Text Available Background At the time of recruitment, migration, and placement, international medical graduates (IMGs encounter professional challenges. These challenges may include a loss of status and professional identity, professional isolation in rural practice, restrictions on medical practice, and social isolation. Understanding the nature of these challenges may facilitate the recruitment, placement, and success of international medical graduates within rural Tasmania. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences, challenges,and barriers that IMGs encounter as they work and live in rural Tasmania. Methods The study used a mixed-methods design where data were collected using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews across the south, north, and northwest of Tasmania. IMGs were recruited through purposive snowball and convenience sampling. Results A total of 105 questionnaires were returned (response rate 30.0per cent and 23semi-structured interviews were conducted with IMGs across Tasmania. Questionnaire participants indicated that the majority of IMGs are satisfied in their current employment; however, interview participants indicated there were a number of barriers to practising medicine in Tasmania as well as factors that would influence ongoing employment in the state. Despite these challenges, professional support was recognised as a key contributor to professional satisfaction, particularly among IMGs who had just arrived. Conclusion The study contributes to the current knowledge and understanding of IMGs who live and work in rural areas. The study shows that there are high levels of satisfaction among IMGs with their current position; however, the research also provides insight into the complexities and factors that impact IMGs as they work and live within rural areas such as Tasmania. This study offers an understanding for policy to improve greater retention of IMGs across rural areas.
Bansal, Aarti; Swann, Jennifer; Smithson, William Henry
The ability to work with interpreters is a core skill for UK medical graduates. At the University of Sheffield Medical School, this teaching was identified as a gap in the curriculum. Teaching was developed to use professional interpreters in role-play, based on evidence that professional interpreters improve health outcomes for patients with limited English proficiency. Other principles guiding the development of the teaching were an experiential learning format, integration to the core consultation skills curriculum, and sustainable delivery. The session was aligned with existing consultation skills teaching to retain the small-group experiential format and general practitioner (GP) tutor. Core curricular time was found through conversion of an existing consultation skills session. Language pairs of professional interpreters worked with each small group, with one playing patient and the other playing interpreter. These professional interpreters attended training in the scenarios so that they could learn to act as patient and family interpreter. GP tutors attended training sessions to help them facilitate the session. This enhanced the sustainability of the session by providing a cohort of tutors able to pass on their expertise to new staff through the existing shadowing process. Tutors felt that the involvement of professional interpreters improved student engagement. Student evaluation of the teaching suggests that the learning objectives were achieved. Faculty evaluation by GP tutors suggests that they perceived the teaching to be worthwhile and that the training they received had helped improve their own clinical practice in consulting through interpreters. We offer the following recommendations to others who may be interested in developing teaching on interpreted consultations within their core curriculum: 1) consider recruiting professional interpreters as a teaching resource; 2) align the teaching to existing consultation skills sessions to aid integration
Thompson, Lindsay A; Dawson, Kara; Ferdig, Richard; Black, Erik W; Boyer, J; Coutts, Jade; Black, Nicole Paradise
To measure the frequency and content of online social networking among medical students and residents. Using the online network Facebook, we evaluated online profiles of all medical students (n = 501) and residents (n = 312) at the University of Florida, Gainesville. Objective measures included the existence of a profile, whether it was made private, and any personally identifiable information. Subjective outcomes included photographic content, affiliated social groups, and personal information not generally disclosed in a doctor-patient encounter. Social networking with Facebook is common among medical trainees, with 44.5% having an account. Medical students used it frequently (64.3%) and residents less frequently (12.8%, p personally identifiable information, only a third (37.5%) were made private, and some accounts displayed potentially unprofessional material. There was a significant decline in utilization of Facebook as trainees approached medical or residency graduation (first year as referent, years 3 and 4, p profile. With a significant proportion having subjectively inappropriate content, ACGME competencies in professionalism must include instruction on the intersection of personal and professional identities.
O. V. Toussova
Full Text Available The article describes personality features, self-regulation patterns and professional orientation of medical students. It represents the results of the study conducted among the fourth year students. The sample is characterized with high enough behavior regulation, extraversion, high learning potential, flexible thinking, following intuition and personal opinion in profession choice. High anxiety as personality feature and stress vulnerability is typical for female students; independence tendency is typical for male students.
Colonel Daniel F . Perugini U. S. Army Faculty Research Advisor Dr. John E. Bokel Dut&~Unaz~i :.4l The Industrial College of the Armed Forces National...profession, from patient care to command. Daniel F . Perugini 1992 Executive Research Project RS 3f Professionalism and Leadership in the Army Medical...Department Colonel Daniel F . Perugini U. S. Army Faculty Research Advisor Dr. John E. Bokel 4- I-orce 4Ls • ..... ’ /or The Industrial College of the Armed
Haque, Mainul; Zulkifli, Zainal; Haque, Seraj Zohurul; Kamal, Zubair M; Salam, Abdus; Bhagat, Vidya; Alattraqchi, Ahmed Ghazi; Rahman, Nor Iza A
Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today's definition of medical professionalism is evolving - from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient-physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct. The purpose of this study is to explore professionalism in terms of its fundamental elements among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). This was a cross-sectional study carried out on medical students of UniSZA. The study population included preclinical and clinical medical students of UniSZA from Year I to Year V of academic session 2014/2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data were collected using a validated instrument. The data were then compiled and analyzed using SPSS Version 21. Out of 165 questionnaires distributed randomly among Year I to Year V medical students of UniSZA, 144 returned, giving a response rate of 87%. Among the study participants, 38% (54) and 62% (90) were males and females, respectively. The grand total score was 170.92±19.08. A total of 166.98±20.15 and 173.49±18.09 were the total professionalism score of male and female study participants, respectively, with no statistically significant (P=0.61) differences. This study found almost similar levels of familiarity with all fundamental issues of professionalism with no statistically (P>0.05) significant differences. Medical faculty members
Archer, Ray; Elder, William; Hustedde, Carol; Milam, Andrea; Joyce, Jennifer
Teaching and evaluating professionalism remain important issues in medical education. However, two factors hinder attempts to integrate curricular elements addressing professionalism into medical school training: there is no common definition of medical professionalism used across medical education, and there is no commonly accepted theoretical model upon which to integrate professionalism into the curriculum. This paper proposes a definition of professionalism, examines this definition in the context of some of the previous definitions of professionalism and connects this definition to the attitudinal roots of professionalism. The problems described above bring uncertainty about the best content and methods with which to teach professionalism in medical education. Although various aspects of professionalism have been incorporated into medical school curricula, content, teaching and evaluation remain controversial. We suggest that intervening variables, which may augment or interfere with medical students' implementation of professionalism knowledge, skills and, therefore, attitudes, may go unaddressed. We offer a model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), which describes the relationships of attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioural control with behaviour. It has been used to predict a wide range of behaviours, including doctor professional behaviours. Therefore, we propose an educational model that expands the TPB as an organisational framework that can integrate professionalism training into medical education. We conclude with a discussion about the implications of using this model to transform medical school curricula to develop positive professionalism attitudes, alter the professionalism social norms of the medical school and increase students' perceived control over their behaviours.
Full Text Available This paper presents five consultation workshops with 29 community pharmacists, stakeholders and patients that examined "patient-centred professionalism" in terms of pharmacists' working day and environment. The concept is ill-defined in both medical and pharmacy literature and the study aimed to clarify the situated nature of the term for patients and health professionals across settings. Workshops were supported by bio-photographic datasets of "in-situ" practice and Nominal Group Work. The thematic content analyses led to the following aspects: building caring relationships; managing external forces; the effects of space and environment, and different roles and expectations. The study reveals how patient-centred professionalism cannot be defined in any singular or stationary sense, but should be seen as a "moveable feast", best understood through everyday examples of practice and interaction, in relation to whose experience is being expressed, and whose needs considered. The phrase is being mobilised by a whole set of interests and stakeholders to reshape practice, the effect of which remains both uncertain and contested. Whilst patients prioritise a quick and efficient dispensing service from knowledgeable pharmacists, pharmacists rail against increasing public demands and overtly formalised consultations that take them away from the dispensary where the defining aspects of their professionalism lie. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100177
English law expects health professionals to have, and act upon, consciences, but formal conscience clauses are not the main legal recognition of this expectation. Rather, they should be regarded as an anomaly with roots in very specific political settlements between society and health professions, whose legitimacy is historically contingent, and as an aspect of the 'price' to be paid for securing services. There are sound reasons for the protection of conscientious discretion as an aspect of professional identify, but specific rights of personal conscientious objection are difficult to reconcile with legitimate public expectations of comprehensive and non-discriminatory services. Professional identities include moral commitments, such as the privileging of patient safety over administrative convenience. These should not be permitted to be overridden by personal moralities during the course of service delivery (as opposed to debating in the abstract what the proper courses of action should be). Consequently, formal conscientious objection clauses should be reduced to a minimum and regularly revisited. It is generally more satisfactory to address clashes between the personal moralities of professionals and public expectations through more flexible means, enabling accommodation of a plurality of views where possible but acknowledging that this is a matter of striking an appropriate balance. Employment law rather than healthcare law provides the best mechanism for regulating this process.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As socioeconomic health inequalities persist and widen, the health effects of adversity are a constant presence in the daily work of physicians. Gruen and colleagues suggest that, in responding to important population health issues such as this, defining those areas of professional obligation in contrast to professional aspiration should be on the basis of evidence and feasibility. Drawing this line between obligation and aspiration is a part of the work of professional medical colleges and associations, and in doing so they must respond to members as well as a range of other interest groups. Our aim was to explore the usefulness of Gruen's model of physician responsibility in defining how professional medical colleges and associations should lead the profession in responding to socioeconomic health inequalities. Methods We report a case study of how the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners is responding to the issue of health inequalities through its work. We undertook a consultation (80 interviews with stakeholders internal and external to the College and two focus groups with general practitioners and program and policy review of core programs of College interest and responsibility: general practitioner training and setting of practice standards, as well as its work in public advocacy. Results Some strategies within each of these College program areas were seen as legitimate professional obligations in responding to socioeconomic health inequality. However, other strategies, while potentially professional obligations within Gruen's model, were nevertheless contested. The key difference between these lay in different moral orientations. Actions where agreement existed were based on an ethos of care and compassion. Actions that were contested were based on an ethos of justice and human rights. Conclusion Colleges and professional medical associations have a role in explicitly leading a debate about values
Chiu, Ya-Wen; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chen, Chih-Fu; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Lee, Ming-Liang
This study investigated the perceptions of short-term assignments of medical services among participating health care professionals dispatched from Taiwan to underdeveloped areas. Structured questionnaires were mailed to four groups of professionals (physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and public health personnel) who had participated in any of 88 medical missions dispatched to 24 allied nations. A total of 278 returns were valid for analysis. Among them, 222 respondents reported that they had participated in just one overseas medical mission (79.9%). The majority of physicians, pharmacists, and nurses listed humanitarianism as their foremost incentive for participation. In contrast, public health personnel most frequently reported that they had been assigned to the mission abroad. Pharmacists, nurses, and public health personnel most commonly stated that their top goal was health care; but physicians said that aiding Taiwan's diplomatic relations was their main motive. While all groups generally recognized language proficiency and cultural awareness as important for conducting successful short-term medical aid missions (STMMs), many members of groups did not rate their own capabilities in those area as sufficient, especially pharmacists (p help inform efforts to integrate evidence into the deployment of STMMs.
Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Saano, Susanna; Vainio, Kirsti
To implement a medication education project and assess the competencies students learned and implemented in professional practice after graduation. Fourth-year pharmacy students planned, carried out, and reported on a real-life project during 1 study year. Outside experts and 2 faculty members facilitated the work. The aim of the medication education project was to create material that schoolteachers could use to teach children about rational use of medicines. All students who had participated in the medication education program during its 3 years were contacted (n = 31). A questionnaire was sent to the 21 students who had graduated (18 responded), and a focus group was conducted with the 10 students completing their final year of pharmacy school (9 participants). The competencies that the students reported learning most were teamwork and social interaction skills. They considered the project motivating but also found it challenging and the deadlines frustrating. Through participation in a medication education project, students learned interpersonal skills, time management, conflict resolution, and other skills that many of them already were finding valuable in their professional practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the professional expectations of medical students during the 2007-2008 academic year at the public medical schools of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, and to identify their social and geographical origins, their professional expectations and difficulties relating to their education and professional future. Methods Data were collected through a standardised questionnaire applied to all medical students registered during the 2007-2008 academic year. Results Students decide to study medicine at an early age. Relatives and friends seem to have an especially important influence in encouraging, reinforcing and promoting the desire to be a doctor. The degree of feminization of the student population differs among the different countries. Although most medical students are from outside the capital cities, expectations of getting into medical school are already associated with migration from the periphery to the capital city, even before entering medical education. Academic performance is poor. This seems to be related to difficulties in accessing materials, finances and insufficient high school preparation. Medical students recognize the public sector demand but their expectations are to combine public sector practice with private work, in order to improve their earnings. Salary expectations of students vary between the three countries. Approximately 75% want to train as hospital specialists and to follow a hospital-based career. A significant proportion is unsure about their future area of specialization, which for many students is equated with migration to study abroad. Conclusions Medical education is an important national investment, but the returns obtained are not as efficient as expected. Investments in high-school preparation, tutoring, and infrastructure are likely to have a significant impact on the success rate of medical schools. Special attention should be given
Ferrinho, Paulo; Sidat, Mohsin; Fresta, Mário Jorge; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Fronteira, Inês; da Silva, Florinda; Mercer, Hugo; Cabral, Jorge; Dussault, Gilles
The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the professional expectations of medical students during the 2007-2008 academic year at the public medical schools of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, and to identify their social and geographical origins, their professional expectations and difficulties relating to their education and professional future. Data were collected through a standardised questionnaire applied to all medical students registered during the 2007-2008 academic year. Students decide to study medicine at an early age. Relatives and friends seem to have an especially important influence in encouraging, reinforcing and promoting the desire to be a doctor.The degree of feminization of the student population differs among the different countries.Although most medical students are from outside the capital cities, expectations of getting into medical school are already associated with migration from the periphery to the capital city, even before entering medical education.Academic performance is poor. This seems to be related to difficulties in accessing materials, finances and insufficient high school preparation.Medical students recognize the public sector demand but their expectations are to combine public sector practice with private work, in order to improve their earnings. Salary expectations of students vary between the three countries.Approximately 75% want to train as hospital specialists and to follow a hospital-based career. A significant proportion is unsure about their future area of specialization, which for many students is equated with migration to study abroad. Medical education is an important national investment, but the returns obtained are not as efficient as expected. Investments in high-school preparation, tutoring, and infrastructure are likely to have a significant impact on the success rate of medical schools. Special attention should be given to the socialization of students and the role model status of their
Full Text Available Aim: To create sustained improvements in medical students’ critical thinking skills through short teaching interventions in pharmacology. Method: The ability to make professional decisions was assessed by providing year-4 medical students at a UK medical school with a novel medical scenario (antenatal pertussis vaccination. Forty-seven students in the 2012 cohort acted as a pretest group, answering a questionnaire on this novel scenario. To improve professional decision-making skills, 48 students from the 2013 cohort were introduced to three commonly used medications, through tutor-led 40-min teaching interventions, among six small groups using a structured presentation of evidence-based medicine and ethical considerations. Student members then volunteered to peer-teach on a further three medications. After a gap of 8 weeks, this cohort (post-test group was assessed for professional decision-making skills using the pretest questionnaire, and differences in the 2-year groups analysed. Results: Students enjoyed presenting on medications to their peers but had difficulty interpreting studies and discussing ethical dimensions; this was improved by contextualising information via patient scenarios. After 8 weeks, most students did not show enhanced clinical curiosity, a desire to understand evidence, or ethical questioning when presented with a novel medical scenario compared to the previous year group who had not had the intervention. Students expressed a high degree of trust in guidelines and expert tutors and felt that responsibility for their own actions lay with these bodies. Conclusion: Short teaching interventions in pharmacology did not lead to sustained improvements in their critical thinking skills in enhancing professional practice. It appears that students require earlier and more frequent exposure to these skills in their medical training.
Wilcock, Jane; Strivens, Janet
Aim To create sustained improvements in medical students’ critical thinking skills through short teaching interventions in pharmacology. Method The ability to make professional decisions was assessed by providing year-4 medical students at a UK medical school with a novel medical scenario (antenatal pertussis vaccination). Forty-seven students in the 2012 cohort acted as a pretest group, answering a questionnaire on this novel scenario. To improve professional decision-making skills, 48 students from the 2013 cohort were introduced to three commonly used medications, through tutor-led 40-min teaching interventions, among six small groups using a structured presentation of evidence-based medicine and ethical considerations. Student members then volunteered to peer-teach on a further three medications. After a gap of 8 weeks, this cohort (post-test group) was assessed for professional decision-making skills using the pretest questionnaire, and differences in the 2-year groups analysed. Results Students enjoyed presenting on medications to their peers but had difficulty interpreting studies and discussing ethical dimensions; this was improved by contextualising information via patient scenarios. After 8 weeks, most students did not show enhanced clinical curiosity, a desire to understand evidence, or ethical questioning when presented with a novel medical scenario compared to the previous year group who had not had the intervention. Students expressed a high degree of trust in guidelines and expert tutors and felt that responsibility for their own actions lay with these bodies. Conclusion Short teaching interventions in pharmacology did not lead to sustained improvements in their critical thinking skills in enhancing professional practice. It appears that students require earlier and more frequent exposure to these skills in their medical training. PMID:26051556
Shmarak, A D
"Spanish for Medical Professionals" is an application authored using the IBM InfoWindow Presentation System (IWPS). It consists of a double-sided videodisc featuring four doctor/patient dialogues interrupted by comprehension quizzes, plus a large visual and audio data base for drill and practice of Spanish words and phrases in the following classifications: Medical History, Review of Systems, Anatomy Vocabulary, General Vocabulary and Pronunciation Guide. These five broad headings yield easy access to more than seventy sub-groups of material available for practice. The entire application stresses communication, not diagnostic skill or interview techniques. This is not a course in basic Spanish, but rather a needs-based language course designed to teach Spanish for a medical environment. Basic knowledge of Spanish is strongly recommended as a prerequisite.
Full Text Available Aarti Bansal,1 Jennifer Swann,1 William Henry Smithson2 1Academic Unit of Primary Medical Care, University of Sheffield, UK; 2Department of General Practice, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract: The ability to work with interpreters is a core skill for UK medical graduates. At the University of Sheffield Medical School, this teaching was identified as a gap in the curriculum. Teaching was developed to use professional interpreters in role-play, based on evidence that professional interpreters improve health outcomes for patients with limited English proficiency. Other principles guiding the development of the teaching were an experiential learning format, integration to the core consultation skills curriculum, and sustainable delivery. The session was aligned with existing consultation skills teaching to retain the small-group experiential format and general practitioner (GP tutor. Core curricular time was found through conversion of an existing consultation skills session. Language pairs of professional interpreters worked with each small group, with one playing patient and the other playing interpreter. These professional interpreters attended training in the scenarios so that they could learn to act as patient and family interpreter. GP tutors attended training sessions to help them facilitate the session. This enhanced the sustainability of the session by providing a cohort of tutors able to pass on their expertise to new staff through the existing shadowing process. Tutors felt that the involvement of professional interpreters improved student engagement. Student evaluation of the teaching suggests that the learning objectives were achieved. Faculty evaluation by GP tutors suggests that they perceived the teaching to be worthwhile and that the training they received had helped improve their own clinical practice in consulting through interpreters. We offer the following recommendations to others who may be interested in
Full Text Available Mainul Haque,1 Zainal Zulkifli,2 Seraj Zohurul Haque,3 Zubair M Kamal,4 Abdus Salam,5 Vidya Bhagat,2 Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi,2 Nor Iza A Rahman2 1Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defense Health, National Defense University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 3School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee, UK; 4Sleep Research Unit, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today’s definition of medical professionalism is evolving – from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient–physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct. The purpose of this study is to explore professionalism in terms of its fundamental elements among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on medical students of UniSZA. The study population included preclinical and clinical medical students of UniSZA from Year I to Year V of academic session 2014/2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data were
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disaster is a serious public health issue. Health professionals and community residents are main players in disaster responses but their knowledge levels of disaster medicine are not readily available. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among potential disaster responders and presented a necessity to popularize disaster medicine education. METHODS: A self-reporting questionnaire survey on knowledge level and training needs of disaster medicine was conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2012. A total of randomly selected 547 health professionals, 456 medical students, and 1,526 local residents provided intact information. The total response rate was 93.7%. RESULTS: Overall, 1.3% of these participants have received systematic disaster medicine training. News media (87.1% was the most common channel to acquire disaster medicine knowledge. Although health professionals were more knowledgeable than community residents, their knowledge structure of disaster medicine was not intact. Medical teachers were more knowledgeable than medical practitioners and health administrators (p = 0.002. Clinicians performed better than public health physicians (p<0.001, whereas public health students performed better than clinical medical students (p<0.001. In community residents, education background significantly affected the knowledge level on disaster medicine (p<0.001. Training needs of disaster medicine were generally high among the surveyed. 'Lecture' and 'practical training' were preferred teaching methods. The selected key and interested contents on disaster medicine training were similar between health professionals and medical students, while the priorities chosen by local residents were quite different from health professionals and medical students (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional clinical-oriented medical education might lead to a huge gap between the knowledge level on disaster medicine and
Makhni, Eric C; Buza, John A; Byram, Ian; Ahmad, Christopher S
The increased physical demands of professional athletes predispose this patient population to a unique set of injuries typically not seen in the general population. This systematic literature review investigates the nature of injury reporting (both orthopedic and nonorthopedic conditions) in the medical literature of professional athletes in the National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the National Hockey League (NHL). Rigorous reporting of sports injuries helps clinicians better understand disease mechanisms relevant to specific sports. The nature of injury reporting will differ within each professional sport and reflect the anatomic emphasis of each sport. An electronic literature search of all publications addressing injuries and medical conditions among professional athletes in the NFL, MLB, NBA, and NHL was conducted using the Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, and Embase databases through January 2013. Retrieved publications were categorized by journal type, medical type, and area of focus. A total of 536 publications met all inclusion criteria. There were a higher number of articles regarding the NFL (n = 211) and MLB (n = 216) when compared with the NBA (n = 34) or NHL (n = 75). The NFL had significantly more articles addressing nonorthopedic injuries/medical issues than were found with the MLB, NBA, or NHL (109 vs 75, 14, 41, respectively). Both the NFL (33 of 109, 30%) and NHL (6 of 41, 15%) had a relatively high percentage of articles regarding concussions/neurology, and MLB had a relatively high percentage of articles dedicated to vascular medicine (13 of 65, 20%). The proportion of publications dedicated to the knee/lower leg were highest in the NFL (29 of 102, 28%) and NBA (9 of 20, 45%), those dedicated to the shoulder/elbow were highest in MLB (113 of 151, 75%), and those dedicated to the hip/pelvis were highest in the NHL (16 of 34, 47%). The number and type of publications vary among the 4
Janczukowicz, Janusz; Rees, Charlotte E
Several studies have begun to explore medical students' understandings of professionalism generally and medical professionalism specifically. Despite espoused relationships between academic (AP) and medical professionalism (MP), previous research has not yet investigated students' conceptualisations of AP and MP and the relationships between the two. The current study, based on innovative visual analysis of mind maps, therefore aims to contribute to the developing literature on how professionalism is understood. We performed a multilayered analysis of 98 mind maps from 262 first-year medical students, including analysing textual and graphical elements of AP, MP and the relationships between AP and MP. The most common textual attributes of AP were learning, lifestyle and personality, while attributes of MP were knowledge, ethics and patient-doctor relations. Images of books, academic caps and teachers were used most often to represent AP, while images of the stethoscope, doctor and red cross were used to symbolise MP. While AP-MP relations were sometimes indicated through co-occurring text, visual connections and higher-order visual metaphors, many students struggled to articulate the relationships between AP and MP. While the mind maps' textual attributes shared similarities with those found in previous research, suggesting the universality of some professionalism attributes, our study provides new insights into students' conceptualisations of AP, MP and AP-MP relationships. We encourage medical educators to help students develop their understandings of AP, MP and AP-MP relationships, plus consider the feasibility and value of mind maps as a source of visual data for medical education research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
The discrepancy between the number of people who might benefit from liver transplantation continues to exceed the availability of donor livers available, so rationing of grafts must occur. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is an excellent indication for liver transplantation, with outcomes at least as good as for other indications.ALD remains a controversial indication for liver transplantation. There is no robust evidence that public disquiet over distribution of donor livers to those with ALD (even if they return to alcohol) greatly affects organ donation, although this does not mean there is no consequence of such disquiet. Numerous surveys of the general public, patients, and health care professionals indicate the these patients are thought to have lower priority for access to available liver grafts. Public education is required to demonstrate that patients with ALD are carefully selected for liver transplantation and available grafts are used with attention to equity, justice, and utility.
Catering for sustainability is often presented as a legitimate perspective for caterers to promote more equitable economic development locally and across distances through food procurement, integrated with environmental protection and concern for the welfare of customers and staff. Caterers are thus seen as agents responsible for sustainable food systems within their reach. This paper explores how public caterers use their position and productive intelligence in promoting a sustainable food system within the power field of their contextual networks. This article crystallises this 'agency for sustainability' as professional identity for sustainability, the shaping of which is analysed in Finnish public catering. The paper identifies eased and positive, troubled and critical as well as delimited and distancing approaches for sustainability, with respective views and efforts for sustainable food systems. The shaping of professional identity for sustainability could serve as co-operative platform for future contextual developments towards more sustainable food systems. Such progress could result in better alignment with political guidelines for sustainability and caterers' satisfaction due to their heightened professional position reaching beyond 'kitchen walls' to construct everyday sustainability.
Henry C.H. Ko
Full Text Available There is a wealth of medical information now available to the public through various sources that are not necessarily controlled by medical or healthcare professionals. In Australia there has been a strong movement in the health consumer arena of consumer-led sharing and production of medical information and in healthcare decision-making. This has led to empowerment of the public as well as increased knowledge-sharing. There are some successful initiatives and strategies on consumer- and public-led sharing of medical information, including the formation of specialised consumer groups, independent medical information organisations, consumer peer tutoring, and email lists and consumer networking events. With well-organised public initiatives and networks, there tends to be fairly balanced information being shared. However, there needs to be caution about the use of publicly available scientific information to further the agenda of special-interest groups and lobbying groups to advance often biased and unproven opinions or for scaremongering. With the adoption of more accountability of medical research, and the increased public scrutiny of private and public research, the validity and quality of medical information reaching the public is achieving higher standards.
Saul Martins Paiva
Full Text Available There is little information about health professionals’ behavior regarding oral health care during pregnancy. We evaluated attitudes of obstetricians/gynecologists, nurses, and dentists working at a public community service towards pregnant women’s oral health. Health professionals responded to a self-applied questionnaire. Cluster analysis identified two clusters of respondents; Chi-square, Student’s t test, and logistic regression were used to compare the two clusters in terms of the independent variables. Respondents were categorized into cluster 1 ‘less favorable’ (n = 159 and cluster 2 ‘more favorable’ (n = 124 attitudes. Professionals that had attended a residency or specialization program (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.15–3.77, p = 0.016 and worked exclusively at the public service (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.10–4.20, p = 0.025 presented more favorable attitudes. Obstetricians/gynecologists (OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.09–0.54, p = 0.001 and nurses (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.29–0.86, p = 0.013 showed less favorable attitudes than dentists. Health care providers’ attitudes regarding pregnant women’s oral health were related to their occupation, qualification, and dedication to the public service.
Sattar, Kamran; Roff, Sue; Meo, Sultan Ayoub
Background & Objective: Professionalism has a number of culturally specific elements, therefore, it is imperative to identify areas of congruence and variations in the behaviors in which professionalism is understood in different countries. This study aimed to explore and compare the recommendation of sanctions by medical students of College of Medicine, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and students from three medical colleges in Egypt. Methods: The responses were recorded using an anonymous, self-administered survey “ Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory I: Academic Integrity”. In the study 750 medical students of College of Medicine, KSU, Riyadh were invited and a questionnaire was electronically sent. They rated the importance of professionalism lapses by choosing from a hierarchical menu of sanctions for first time lapses with no justifying circumstances. These responses were compared with published data from 219 students from three medical schools in Egypt. Results: We found variance for 23 (76.66%) behaviors such as “physically assaulting a university employee or student” and “plagiarizing work from a fellow student or publications/internet”. We also found similarities for 7 (23.33%) behaviors including “lack of punctuality for classes” and drinking alcohol over lunch and interviewing a patient in the afternoon”, when comparing the median recommended sanctions from medical students in Saudi Arabia and Egypt. Conclusion: There are more variances than congruence regarding perceptions of professionalism between the two cohorts. The students at KSU were also found to recommend the sanction of “ignore” for a behavior, a response, which otherwise was absent from Egyptian cohort. PMID:28083032
Renato Ferreira Leitão Azevedo
Full Text Available The decline in both the number and quality of students choosing accounting programs has been a worldwide source of concern to scholars and practitioners. According to Albrecht and Sack (2000, that decline is a consequence of several factors, such as changes in business environment, decrease in salary levels and development of alternative careers perceived as more attractive by students and lack of information and/or misunderstanding related to accounting careers. For Carnegie and Napier (2010, comprehension of such external images related to accounting careers and accountants is important for assessing the roles of these professionals in a wider social context. The success of the accounting profession, according to Belski et al. (2004, largely depends on how it is viewed by the public, considering that the image of the accounting profession has been damaged in the recent past by the widely publicized accounting frauds, scandals and failures involving accounting firms and accountants. To support a better understanding of this phenomenon, the objective of this study is to identify and analyze whether the accounting profession is negatively stereotyped by public perception according to ethics. Based on an adapted photo-survey, with 1,034 randomly selected respondents, and tests of differences between means, the central hypothesis of this study was rejected: it is not possible to state that accounting professionals are negatively stereotyped for professional ethics. Also, there were no significant differences based on gender, academic background or education levels of the respondents, but on the other hand is possible to confirm a positive perception based on confidence interval analysis. Implications for practice and recommendations for future studies are both presented in the last section.
L.G. Tummers (Lars); A.J. Steijn (Bram); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)
textabstractThe willingness of public professionals to implement policy programmes is important for achieving policy performance. However, few scholars have developed and tested systematic frameworks to analyze this issue. In this study, we address this by building and testing an appropriate framewo
L.G. Tummers (Lars); A.J. Steijn (Bram); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)
textabstractThe willingness of public professionals to implement policy programmes is important for achieving policy performance. However, few scholars have developed and tested systematic frameworks to analyze this issue. In this study, we address this by building and testing an appropriate
Rafael Felipe García Rodríguez
Full Text Available The current work is a glossary of technical terms in English language for Medical Health Professionals, has been prepared due to the lack of technical lexicon the students have during and after their university studies, that is, the students have a deficit of technical words which limits their professional competence and accountability. This shortage limits them and makes it a great laboring challenge if they have to work overseas in English-speaking countries. The glossary comprises the main and necessary words which are needed for this type of professional in their field of action. These graduates have a solid knowledge and comprehension of biological, biochemical and biophysical fundamentals in their mother tongue but they do not have the necessary elements in the target language to operate properly. It is a need that they can work appropriately in the spheres of prevention, promotion and health recovery to support a diagnosis, a treatment and a management not only in their mother tongue but in English for their future work.
Yue, Juan-Juan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Wei; Liu, Wei-Dong
Background and purpose: Teacher professional development potentially enhances teachers' professional morale, knowledge, skills and autonomy, which helps improve the quality of education. The military medical university is an important medical education institution in China; however, studies of teacher professional development within military…
Yue, Juan-Juan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Wei; Liu, Wei-Dong
Background and purpose: Teacher professional development potentially enhances teachers' professional morale, knowledge, skills and autonomy, which helps improve the quality of education. The military medical university is an important medical education institution in China; however, studies of teacher professional development within military…
... Professional, and Employer Responsibilities. 120.113 Section 120.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities. (a) The employer... Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities Regarding 14 CFR part...
Full Text Available Objectives: A potential new avenue to address the shortage of country doctors is to change the rules for admission to medical school. We therefore study the link between high-school grade point average and prospective physicians’ choice to work in rural areas. To further inform the discussion about rules for admission, we also study the effects of other predictors: a measure of students’ attitudes towards risk; whether they waited for their place of study (; whether their parents worked as medical doctors; and whether they have some practical experience in the medical sector.Methods: We conducted two internet surveys in 2012 and 2014. In the first survey, the sample comprised 701 students and in the second, 474 students. In both surveys, we asked students for their regional preferences; in the 2014 survey, we additionally asked students for their first, second, and third preferences among a comprehensive set of specializations, including becoming a general practitioner. In both surveys, we asked students for basic demographic information (age and gender, their parents’ occupation, a measure of subjective income expectations, a measure of risk attitudes, and their high-school grade point average (, and First National Boards Examination grade (. In 2014, we additionally asked for waiting periods ( as well as for prior professional experience in the health-care sector.Results: We find that three factors increase the probability of having a preference for working in a rural area significantly, holding constant all other influences: Moreover, we find that those willing to work in the countryside have significantly more experience in the medical sector before admission to medical school.Discussion: Our results suggest that a change in the selection process for medical school may increase the supply of country doctors. Instead of focusing on the high-school grade point average, universities could even more intensely screen for study motivation
Seoane, Leonardo; Tompkins, Lisa M; De Conciliis, Anthony; Boysen, Philip G
Studies have shown that medical students have high rates of burnout accompanied by a loss of empathy as they progress through their training. This article describes a course for medical students at The University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in New Orleans, LA, that focuses on the development of virtues and character strengths necessary in the practice of medicine. Staff of the Ochsner Clinical School and of the Institute of Medicine, Education, and Spirituality at Ochsner, a research and consulting group of Ochsner Health System, developed the course. It is a curricular innovation designed to explicitly teach virtues and their associated prosocial behaviors as a means of promoting professional formation among medical students. Virtues are core to the development of prosocial behaviors that are essential for appropriate professional formation. Fourth-year medical students receive instruction in the virtues as part of the required Medicine in Society (MIS) course. The virtues instruction consists of five 3-hour sessions during orientation week of the MIS course and a wrapup session at the end of the 8-week rotation. Six virtues-courage, wisdom, temperance, humanity, transcendence, and justice-are taught in a clinical context, using personal narratives, experiential exercises, contemplative practices, and reflective practices. As of July 2015, 30 medical students had completed and evaluated the virtues course. Ninety-seven percent of students felt the course was well structured. After completing the course, 100% of students felt they understood and could explain the character strengths that improve physician engagement and patient care, 100% of students reported understanding the importance of virtues in the practice of medicine, and 83% felt the course provided a guide to help them deal with the complexities of medical practice. Ninety-three percent of students stated they would use the character strengths for their own well-being, and 90% said they would
Cash, Rebecca E; Crowe, Remle P; Rodriguez, Severo A; Panchal, Ashish R
Feedback to EMS professionals is a critical component for optimizing patient care and outcomes in the prehospital setting. There is a paucity of data concerning the feedback received by prehospital providers. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of feedback received by EMS professionals in the past 30 days including the types, sources, modes, and utility of feedback. The secondary objective was to identify factors associated with receiving any feedback and, specifically, feedback regarding medical care provided. This was a cross-sectional survey examining currently practicing nationally certified EMS patient care providers (EMT or higher) in non-military and non-tribal settings. Data were collected on provider characteristics along with feedback received. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess the relationship between EMS provider characteristics and receiving feedback. A non-respondent survey was administered to assess for non-response bias. Responses from 32,314 EMS providers were received (response rate = 10.4%) with 15,766 meeting inclusion criteria. In the 30 days preceding the survey, 69.4% (n = 10,924) of respondents received at least one type of feedback with 54.7% (n = 8,592) reporting receiving medical care feedback. Multivariable logistic regression modeling indicated that higher certification level, fewer years of experience in EMS, working for a hospital-based agency, air medical service, and higher weekly call volumes were significantly associated with increased odds of having received at least one type of feedback, and specifically medical care feedback. Additionally, providing primarily medical/convalescent transport and more years of EMS experience were significantly associated with decreased odds of receiving feedback. Feedback to EMS providers is critical to improving prehospital care. In this study, nearly a third of providers did not receive any
Orizio, G; Gelatti, U
The internet has deeply changed our way to communicate, transforming society, and the world of health has been consequently influenced by this communicational revolution. Aim of the study was to investigate the web utilization and perception by the Italian health professionals, using an online questionnaire. A sample of 490 health professionals responded to the questionnaire. Almost all the responders use the internet, for work and leisure, and they are aware that this communication tool influences a lot both their knowledge and opinions. Internet is perceived as a useful and positive mean for accessing and spreading information by health professionals and health institutions, even if a worried attitude is expressed regarding to access to online health information by the general population. The broaden access to health information through the web opens new scenarios to future health systems. This evolving communication change poses to public health the challenge to get the benefits that internet can potentially generate, minimising the risks that at the same time can arise.
Full Text Available Introducrion: Self and peer assessment provides important information about the individual’s performance and behavior in all aspects of their professional environment work. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional behavior and performance in medical students in the form of team based assessment. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 medical students in the 7th year of education were randomly selected and enrolled; for each student five questionnaires were filled out, including one self-assessment, two peer assessments and two residents assessment. The scoring system of the questionnaires was based on seven point Likert scale. After filling out the questions in the questionnaire, numerical data and written comments provided to the students were collected, analyzed and discussed. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of the questionnaires was assessed. A p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha 0.83. Interviews revealed that the majority of students and assessors interviewed found the method acceptable. The range of scores was 1-6 (Mean±SD=4.39±0.57 for the residents' assessment, 2-6 (Mean±SD=4.49±0.53 for peer assessment, and 3-7 (Mean±SD=5.04±0.32 for self-assessment. There was a significant difference between self assessment and other methods of assessment. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a team-based assessment is an acceptable and feasible method for peer and self-assessment of medical students’ learning in a clinical clerkship, and has some advantages over traditional assessment methods. Further studies are needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses.
RAEE, HOJAT; AMINI, MITRA; MOMEN NASAB, AMENEH; MALEK POUR, ABDOLRASOUL; JAFARI, MOHAMMAD MORAD
Introduction: Self and peer assessment provides important information about the individual’s performance and behavior in all aspects of their professional environment work. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional behavior and performance in medical students in the form of team based assessment. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 medical students in the 7th year of education were randomly selected and enrolled; for each student five questionnaires were filled out, including one self-assessment, two peer assessments and two residents assessment. The scoring system of the questionnaires was based on seven point Likert scale. After filling out the questions in the questionnaire, numerical data and written comments provided to the students were collected, analyzed and discussed. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the questionnaires was assessed. A p<0.05 was considered as significant level. Results: Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha 0.83). Interviews revealed that the majority of students and assessors interviewed found the method acceptable. The range of scores was 1-6 (Mean±SD=4.39±0.57) for the residents' assessment, 2-6 (Mean±SD= 4.49±0.53) for peer assessment, and 3-7 (Mean±SD=5.04±0.32) for self-assessment. There was a significant difference between self assessment and other methods of assessment. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a team-based assessment is an acceptable and feasible method for peer and self-assessment of medical students’ learning in a clinical clerkship, and has some advantages over traditional assessment methods. Further studies are needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25512933
Ashiru-Oredope, D; Hopkins, S
Antimicrobial-resistant infections claim ≥700 000 lives each year globally. It is therefore important that both healthcare professionals and the public know the threat antimicrobial resistance poses and the individual actions they can take to combat antimicrobial resistance. Antibiotic awareness campaigns in England using posters or leaflets have had little or no impact on knowledge, behaviour or prescription rates. Centrally coordinated, multimodal campaigns in two European countries (ongoing for several years and including print and mass media, web site and guidelines, as well as academic detailing and individual feedback to prescribers) have led to reductions in antibiotic use. To change behaviour and reduce antibiotic use in England, a coordinated and comprehensive interdisciplinary and multifaceted (multimodal) approach using behavioural science and targeted at specific groups (both professional and public) is required. Such campaigns should have an integrated evaluation plan using a combination of formative, process and summative measures from the outset to completion of a campaign. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kresal, Friderika; Roblek, Vasja; Jerman, Andrej; Meško, Maja
Drivers in public transport are subjected to lower back pain. The reason for the pain is associated with the characteristics of the physical position imposed on the worker while performing the job. Lower back pain is the main cause of absenteeism among drivers. The present study includes 145 public transport drivers employed as professional drivers for an average of 14.14 years. Analysis of the data obtained in the study includes the basic descriptive statistics, χ(2) test and multiple regression analysis. Analysis of the incidence of lower back pain showed that the majority of our sample population suffered from pain in the lower back. We found that there are no statistically significant differences between the groups formed by the length of service as a professional driver and incidence of lower back pain; we were also interested in whether or not the risk factors of lower back pain affects the absenteeism of city bus drivers. Analysis of the data has shown that the risk factors of pain in the lower part of the spine do affect the absenteeism of city bus drivers.
Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.; Bolhuis, S.; Kuppeveld, S. van; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.
Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and se
Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland
Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this…
S V Kirankumar
Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze medical professional, perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district, north Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Two hundred medical professional, working in both public and private sectors in the province were interviewed by a single operator. Descriptive analyses were carried out by using the obtained data. Results: Medical professional′s perception about child abuse and neglect (CAN is low and these professionals have poor attitude and knowledge toward CAN in accordance with the code of conduct and law. The available information and education is also poor. Conclusions: The results obtained from the study showed that there is lack of knowledge and poor attitude and perception about CAN among medical professionals that prevents them from detecting and identifying suspected cases. Continuing medical education is required to enhance the ability of professionals to detect CAN cases.
Chiu, Chiung-Hsuan; Arrigo, Linda Gail; Tsai, Duujian
Medical school curricular reform to address humanism is now a prominent issue in Taiwan. Taiwan's community of medical professionals have for the last 100 years played a leading role in the nation's modernization and democratization. With the democratic opening of 1990, they took up the cause of humanistic reform of medical education. Although the reform has not sufficiently specified the depth and breadth of professionalism to be achieved through the medical school curriculum, it points at least to the most desired professionalism goals. Collaboration with the international community, particularly with Taiwanese-American medical educators and researchers who bring their experience back to Taiwan, has been a potent force for the advancement of the humanities and professionalism in medical education. This paper presents the definition of professionalism and the history of the medical profession from the perspective of medical education in Taiwan, and discusses recent transitions.
Ushang Desai; Paras Patel
Over the few years medical marijuana is growing in the United States. Because of the medical marijuana legislators able to legalized recreational marijuana in the two states in the US. Marijuana has several potential benefits that help in certain disease. The delivery of marijuana is also important because smoking marijuana has severe side effects. Physicians also play important role in medical marijuana, physicians also divided on the use of medical marijuana. Their attitude towards medical ...
The article deals with outlining guidelines for improving professional training of junior medical staff based on European experience. Consequently, guidelines and recommendations on enhancing the efficiency of medical education in general and junior medical specialists' professional training, in particular, published by European Union of Medical…
L.G. Tummers (Lars)
textabstractNowadays, public professionals are often unwilling to implement new policies. We analyse this problem using an interdisciplinary approach, combining public administration and change management literature. From public administration, we use the policy alienation concept, consisting of fiv
L.G. Tummers (Lars)
textabstractNowadays, public professionals are often unwilling to implement new policies. We analyse this problem using an interdisciplinary approach, combining public administration and change management literature. From public administration, we use the policy alienation concept, consisting of
Full Text Available In the context of medical professional liability, obstetrics is one of the most involved medical specialties because the unfavorable outcome of a pregnancy is difficult to accept for parents, who tend to reduce it to inappropriate care that occurred during pregnancy or birth. 32 cases of perinatal asphyxia were evaluated by the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Brescia during the period between 1999 and 2014 (13 in Civil Court and 19 in Penal Court. 9 out of the 32 pregnancies were twins, so the considerations were carried out on a total of 41 fetuses/newborns. Profiles of inadequacy were identified in 66% of cases (85% of the cases evaluated in Civil Court; 53% of the cases evaluated in Penal Court. The existence of a causal relationship between the medical conduct and the onset of asphyxia was recognized in 79% of civil cases and in 38% of penal cases. There is a “greater rigor” in the verification of causal relationship and malpractice profiles in penal cases compared to civil ones: this is in harmony with the most recent Italian Court decisions, characterized by compelling suspect’s protection in the presence of a reasonable doubt in criminal matters and by victim’s protection in civil ones.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the overall perception and utilization of the pharmacist managed medication therapy management (MTM clinic services, by healthcare professionals in a large, urban, university medical care setting.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, anonymous survey sent to 195 healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, and pharmacists at The University of Illinois Outpatient Care Center to determine their perception and utilization of the MTM clinic. The survey consisted of 12 questions and was delivered through a secure online application. Results: Sixty-two healthcare professionals (32% completed the survey. 82% were familiar with the MTM clinic, and 63% had referred patients to the clinic. Medication adherence and disease state management was the most common reason for referral. Lack of knowledge on the appropriate referral procedure was the prominent reason for not referring patients to the MTM clinic. Of the providers that were aware of MTM services, 44% rated care as ‘excellent’, 44% as ‘good’, 5% as ‘fair’, and 0% stated ‘poor’. Strengths of MTM clinic identified by healthcare providers included in-depth education to patients, close follow-up, and detailed medication reconciliation provided by MTM clinic pharmacists. Of those familiar with MTM clinic, recommendations included; increase marketing efforts to raise awareness of the MTM clinic service, create collaborative practice agreements between MTM pharmacists and physicians, and ensure that progress notes are more concise.Conclusion: In a large, urban, academic institution MTM clinic is perceived as a valuable resource to optimize patient care by providing patients with in-depth education as it relates to their prescribed medications and disease states. These identified benefits of MTM clinic lead to frequent patient referrals specifically for aid with medication adherence and disease state management.
Viviane Muniz da Silva Fragoso
Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the medications used by breastfeeding women treated in the public health network, and correlated actions. Methods: Cross-sectional, quantitative and descriptive study carried out with 100 breastfeeding women, recruited through nonprobabilistic convenience sampling, at the Municipal Hospital of Duque de Caxias, RJ, in 2012. A questionnaire was applied containing the following variables: prescribed medications, unwanted effects in nursing infants, and professionals involved in guidance on the edication. The data was analysed through descriptive statistics, based on absolute and relative frequencies. Results: It was found that 46% (n=46 of the breastfeeding women were aged 21 to 30 years, 54% (n=54 were primiparae, 52% (n=52 had complete fundamental level, and 72% (n=72 received prenatal care. It was verified that 78% (n = 78 of the sample were receiving some type of medicine and, among these, a significant percentage of nonsteroidal analgesic/anti-inflammatory medication, with 61.54% (n=48 of the breastfeeding women. All the prescribed medicines were in the category of compatible use with breastfeeding. The incidence of some unwanted symptoms was evidenced in 19.2% (n=15 of the breastfeeding women. Among the women undergoing medication therapy, 76.92% (n=60 received guidance during treatment, 55% (n=33 by doctors and 45% (n=27 by nurses. In this research, 100% of the breastfeeding women were satisfied with the acquired knowledge. Conclusion: It was noted a high percentage of breastfeeding women in the sample taking medicines, all compatible with breastfeeding. It stands out the limited engagement of the multidisciplinary team in the orientations. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p283
Full Text Available Objective: The first course of the medical curriculum at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, From the Person to the Professional: Challenges, Privileges and Responsibilities, provides an innovative early clinical immersion. The course content specific to the Emergency Medical Technician (EMT curriculum was developed using the New York State Emergency Medical Technician curriculum. Students gain early legitimate clinical experience and practice clinical skills as team members in the pre-hospital environment. We hypothesized this novel curriculum would increase students’ confidence in their ability to perform patient care skills and enhance students’ comfort with team-building skills early in their training. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from first-year medical students (n=97 through a survey developed to assess students’ confidence in patient care and team-building skills. The survey was completed prior to medical school, during the final week of the course, and at the end of their first year. A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare self-ratings on 12 patient care and 12 team-building skills before and after the course, and a theme analysis was conducted to examine open-ended responses. Results: Following the course, student confidence in patient care skills showed a significant increase from baseline (p<0.05 for all identified skills. Student confidence in team-building skills showed a significant increase (p<0.05 in 4 of the 12 identified skills. By the end of the first year, 84% of the first-year students reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their patient care skills, while 72% reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their team-building skills. Conclusions: The incorporation of EMT training early in a medical school curriculum provides students with meaningful clinical experiences that increase their self
Kesternich, Iris; Schumacher, Heiner; Winter, Joachim; Fischer, Martin R; Holzer, Matthias
Objectives: A potential new avenue to address the shortage of country doctors is to change the rules for admission to medical school. We therefore study the link between high-school grade point average and prospective physicians' choice to work in rural areas. To further inform the discussion about rules for admission, we also study the effects of other predictors: a measure of students' attitudes towards risk; whether they waited for their place of study (Wartesemester); whether their parents worked as medical doctors; and whether they have some practical experience in the medical sector. Methods: We conducted two internet surveys in 2012 and 2014. In the first survey, the sample comprised 701 students and in the second, 474 students. In both surveys, we asked students for their regional preferences; in the 2014 survey, we additionally asked students for their first, second, and third preferences among a comprehensive set of specializations, including becoming a general practitioner. In both surveys, we asked students for basic demographic information (age and gender), their parents' occupation, a measure of subjective income expectations, a measure of risk attitudes, and their high-school grade point average (Abiturnote), and First National Boards Examination grade (Physikum). In 2014, we additionally asked for waiting periods (Wartesemester) as well as for prior professional experience in the health-care sector. Results: We find that three factors increase the probability of having a preference for working in a rural area significantly, holding constant all other influences: having a medical doctor among the parents, having worse grades in the high-school grade point average, and being more risk averse. Moreover, we find that those willing to work in the countryside have significantly more experience in the medical sector before admission to medical school. Discussion: Our results suggest that a change in the selection process for medical school may increase the
Eva, Eliza Omar; Islam, Md Zakirul; Mosaddek, Abu Syed Md; Rahman, Md Faizur; Rozario, Rini Juliet; Iftekhar, A F Md Hassan; Ahmed, Tarafder Shahniam; Jahan, Iffat; Abubakar, Abdullahi Rabiu; Dali, Wan Putri Elena Wan; Razzaque, Mohammed S; Habib, Rahat Bin; Haque, Mainul
Throughout the world all health professionals face stress because of time-pressures, workload, multiple roles and emotional issues. Stress does not only exist among the health professionals but also in medical students. Bangladesh has currently 77 medical colleges 54 of which are private. This study was designed to collect baseline data of stress-level among Bangladeshi students, which we believe will form the basis for further in depth studies. A cross-sectional study was conducted on medical students from 2 public and 6 private medical-schools in Bangladesh. All medical schools have common curriculum formulated by the Government of Bangladesh. The study population was 1,363 medical students of Year-III and IV of academic session 2013/2014. Universal sampling technique was used. The period of study was February to June 2014. Data was collected using a validated instrument, compiled and analysed using SPSS version-20. A total of 990 (73%) out 1,363 medical students participated in the study, of which 36% were male and 64% were female. The overall prevalence of stress of the study population was 54%. 53% of male and 55% of female were reported suffering from stress. 54% of Year-III students and 55% of Year-IV were noted suffering from stress. There was statistically significant (p = 0.005) differences in the level of stress between public (2.84 ± 0.59) and private (2.73 ± 0.57) medical schools student. More than half of Bangladeshi medical students are suffering from measureable academic stress. It would be pertinent if the relevant authorities could address the issue so as to provide a conducive medical learning environment.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few data are available evaluating the associations of formal public health education with long-term career choice and professional outcomes among medical school graduates. The objective of this study was to determine if formal public health education via completion of a masters of public health (MPH degree among US medical school graduates was associated with early and long-term career choice, professional satisfaction, or research productivity. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 1108 physicians (17.1% completed a MPH degree who had 10-20 years of follow-up post medical school graduation. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Compared to their counterparts with no MPH, medical school graduates with a MPH were more likely to have completed a generalist primary care residency only [relative risk (RR 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.35-2.29], obtain employment in an academic institution (RR 1.81; 95% CI 1.33-2.37 or government agency (RR 3.26; 95% CI 1.89-5.38, and practice public health (RR 39.84; 95% CI 12.13-107.38 or primary care (RR 1.59; 95% CI 1.18-2.05. Furthermore, medical school graduates with a MPH were more likely to conduct public health research (RR 8.79; 95% CI: 5.20-13.82, receive NIH or other federal funding (RR 3.11, 95% CI 1.74-5.33, have four or more peer-reviewed publications (RR 2.07; 95% CI 1.56-2.60, and have five or more scientific presentations (RR 2.31, 95% CI 1.70-2.98. CONCLUSION: Formal public health education via a MPH was associated with career choice and professional outcomes among physicians.
Maclure, Jocelyn; Dumont, Isabelle
In a thought-provoking paper, Schuklenk and Smalling argue that no right to conscientious objection should be granted to medical professionals. First, they hold that it is impossible to assess either the truth of conscience-based claims or the sincerity of the objectors. Second, even a fettered right to conscientious refusal inevitably has adverse effects on the rights of patients. We argue that the main problem with their position is that it is not derived from a broader reflection on the meaning and implications of freedom of conscience and reasonable accommodation. We point out that they collapse two related but distinct questions, that is, the subjective conception of freedom of conscience and the sincerity test. We note that they do not successfully show that the standard norm according to which exemption claims should not impose undue hardship on others is unworkable. We suggest that the main reason why arguments such as no one is forced to be a medical professional are flawed is that public norms should not constrain citizens to choose between two of their basic rights unless it is necessary. In fine, Schuklenk and Smalling, who see conscience claims as arbitrary dislikes, sell freedom of conscience short and forego any attempts at balancing the competing rights involved. We maintain the authors neglect that most of legal reasoning is contextual and that the blanket restriction of healthcare professionals' freedom of conscience is disproportionate.
Foley, M; Carney, T; Harris, R; Fitzpatrick, E; Rapca-Veillet, A; Van Hout, M C
The aim of the study was to examine prescribing professional's perceptions on prescribed and OTC medicines, containing codeine in the Republic of Ireland. A secondary aim was to examine perceptions on codeine dependence, screening and treatment. A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative group of prescribing professionals was conducted using a questionnaire containing a number of open and closed ended items. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21 and content analysis techniques. 398 medical professionals participated in the study giving a response rate of 18%. 77% of respondents agreed to routinely review patient prescribed codeine. 59% of respondents routinely asked patients about their use of OTC medicines and 50% documented use of OTC codeine in their patients' medical notes. 93% indicated concern about the potential to purchase codeine from multiple sources. 88% implied that patients did not fully understand the risks of taking OTC medicine containing codeine. Only 21% of respondents were confident in identifying codeine dependence without being informed by the patient and 11.4% agreed to have suitable screening methods in practice. 76% indicated that they would like more instruction on prescribing addictive medicines. Policy should examine the need for greater public health awareness on codeine use and should examine the role of OTC and internet sales in the development of dependence. Further consideration should be given to training and support for those who prescribe addictive medicines in practice.
Faunce, Thomas; McKenna, Michael; Rayner, Johanna; Hawes, Jazmin
In recent times, Australia's national security concerns have had controversial impacts on regulation of Australian medical practitioners in areas related to immigration detention. This column explores three recent case studies relevant to this issue. The first involves the enactment of the Australian Border Force Act 2015 (Cth), which has a significant impact on the regulation of medical professionals who work with people in immigration detention. The second involves the decision of the High Court of Australia in Plaintiff M68/2015 v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection  HCA 1 that an amendment to Australian federal legislation justified sending children back to immigration detention centres in Papua New Guinea and Nauru. This legislation was previously heavily criticised by the Australian Human Rights Commissioner. The third concerns the deregistration of Tareq Kamleh, an Australian doctor of German-Palestinian heritage who came to public attention on ANZAC Day 2015 with his appearance online in a propaganda video for the Islamic State terrorist organisation al-Dawla al-Islamyia fil Iraq wa'al Sham, also known as Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) or Daesh. Australia's professional regulatory system should presumptively respect professional virtues, such as loyalty to the relief of individual patient suffering, when dealing with doctors (whether in Australia or ISIS-occupied Syria) working under regimes whose principles appear inconsistent with those of ethics and human rights.
Slade, Ingrid; Subramanian, Deepak N; Burton, Hilary
Genomics education in the UK is at an early stage of development, and its pace of evolution has lagged behind that of the genomics research upon which it is based. As a result, knowledge of genomics and its applications remains limited among non-specialist clinicians. In this review article, we describe the complex landscape for genomics education within the UK, and highlight the large number and variety of organisations that can influence, direct and provide genomics training to medical professionals. Postgraduate genomics education is being shaped by the work of the Health Education England (HEE) Genomics Education Programme, working in conjunction with the Joint Committee on Genomics in Medicine. The success of their work will be greatly enhanced by the full cooperation and engagement of the many groups, societies and organisations involved with medical education and training (such as the royal colleges). Without this cooperation, there is a risk of poor coordination and unnecessary duplication of work. Leadership from an organisation such as the HEE Genomics Education Programme will have a key role in guiding the formulation and delivery of genomics education policy by various stakeholders among the different disciplines in medicine.
Karsai, S; Krieger, G; Raulin, C
Tattoos are common phenomena in the western world and the demand for their removal has become widespread in the recent years. The introduction of quality-switched lasers has provided an effective removal method that is increasingly being exploited by tattoo studios themselves. Dermatologists, however, are frequently confronted with complications and side effects of tattoo removals that were performed by non-professionals. The objective of this study is to assess potential risks and pitfalls of laser tattoo removal when performed by medical laymen. The methods followed are systematic and evidence-based review of the literature. Four major problem areas were identified: rare but potentially severe allergic or toxic effects of decomposition products of the tattoo pigments; bodily harm caused by out-of-specification usage of the laser devices; malignant disease that is obscured within the area of a tattoo and requires meticulous dermatological diagnosis; and insufficient pre-operative consultation of patients about the risks, side effects and realistic expectations on the therapeutic outcome. We came to a conclusion that tattoo laser removal by medical laymen is unacceptable from the point of view of patient safety and the laws need to ban this practice swiftly.
Puschel, Klaus; Repetto, Paula; Bernales, Margarita; Barros, Jorge; Perez, Ivan; Snell, Linda
Latin America has experienced a tremendous growth in a number of medical schools, and there are concerns about their quality of training in critical areas such as professionalism. Medical professionalism is a cultural construct. The aim of the study was to compare published definitions of medical professionalism from Latin American and non-Latin American regions and to design an original and culturally sound definition. A mixed methods approach was used with three phases. First, a systematic search and thematic analysis of the literature were conducted. Second, a Delphi methodology was used to design a local definition of medical professionalism. Third, we used a qualitative approach that combined focus groups and personal interviews with students and deans from four medical schools in Chile to understand various aspects of professionalism education. The data were analyzed using NVivo software. A total of 115 nonrepeated articles were identified in the three databases searched. No original definitions of medical professionalism from Latin America were found. Twenty-six articles met at least one of the three decisional criteria defined and were fully reviewed. Three theoretical perspectives were identified: contractualism, personalism, and deontology. Attributes of medical professionalism were classified in five dimensions: personal, interpersonal, societal, formative, and practical. Participants of the Delphi panel, focus groups, and personal interviews included 36 medical students, 12 faculties, and four deans. They took a personalistic approach to design an original definition of medical professionalism and highlighted the relevance of respecting life, human dignity, and the virtue of prudence in medical practice. Students and scholars differed on the value given to empathy and compassion. This study provides an original and culturally sound definition of medical professionalism that could be useful in Latin American medical schools. The methodology used in the
Ferrinho, Paulo; Fronteira, Inês; Sidat, Mohsin; da Sousa, Fernando; Dussault, Gilles
This paper compares the socioeconomic profile of medical students registered at the Faculty of Medicine of Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (FM-UEM), Maputo, for the years 1998/99 and 2007/08. The objective is to describe the medical students' social and geographical origins, expectations and perceived difficulties regarding their education and professional future. Data were collected through questionnaires administered to all medical students. The response rate in 1998/99 was 51% (227/441) and 50% in 2007/08 (484/968).The main results reflect a doubling of the number of students enrolled for medical studies at the FM-UEM, associated with improved student performance (as reflected by failure rates). Nevertheless, satisfaction with the training received remains low and, now as before, students still identify lack of access to books or learning technology and inadequate teacher preparedness as major problems. There is a high level of commitment to public sector service. However, students, as future doctors, have very high salary expectations that will not be met by current public sector salary scales. This is reflected in an increasing degree of orientation to double sector employment after graduation.
Ned-Sykes, Renée; Johnson, Catherine; Ridderhof, John C; Perlman, Eva; Pollock, Anne; DeBoy, John M
These competency guidelines outline the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for public health laboratory (PHL) professionals to deliver the core services of PHLs efficiently and effectively. As part of a 2-year workforce project sponsored in 2012 by CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), competencies for 15 domain areas were developed by experts representing state and local PHLs, clinical laboratories, academic institutions, laboratory professional organizations, CDC, and APHL. The competencies were developed and reviewed by approximately 170 subject matter experts with diverse backgrounds and experiences in laboratory science and public health. The guidelines comprise general, cross-cutting, and specialized domain areas and are divided into four levels of proficiency: beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. The 15 domain areas are 1) Quality Management System, 2) Ethics, 3) Management and Leadership, 4) Communication, 5) Security, 6) Emergency Management and Response, 7) Workforce Training, 8) General Laboratory Practice, 9) Safety, 10) Surveillance, 11) Informatics, 12) Microbiology, 13) Chemistry, 14) Bioinformatics, and 15) Research. These competency guidelines are targeted to scientists working in PHLs, defined as governmental public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories that provide analytic biological and/or chemical testing and testing-related services that protect human populations against infectious diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, environmental hazards, treatable hereditary disorders, and natural and human-made public health emergencies. The competencies support certain PHL workforce needs such as identifying job responsibilities, assessing individual performance, and providing a guiding framework for producing education and training programs. Although these competencies were developed specifically for the PHL community, this does not preclude their broader application to other professionals
Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Boudreau, J Donald; Snell, Linda; Steinert, Yvonne
Recent calls to focus on identity formation in medicine propose that educators establish as a goal of medical education the support and guidance of students and residents as they develop their professional identity. Those entering medical school arrive with a personal identity formed since birth. As they proceed through the educational continuum, they successively develop the identity of a medical student, a resident, and a physician. Each individual's journey from layperson to skilled professional is unique and is affected by "who they are" at the beginning and "who they wish to become."Identity formation is a dynamic process achieved through socialization; it results in individuals joining the medical community of practice. Multiple factors within and outside of the educational system affect the formation of an individual's professional identity. Each learner reacts to different factors in her or his own fashion, with the anticipated outcome being the emergence of a professional identity. However, the inherent logic in the related processes of professional identity formation and socialization may be obscured by their complexity and the large number of factors involved.Drawing on the identity formation and socialization literature, as well as experience gained in teaching professionalism, the authors developed schematic representations of these processes. They adapted them to the medical context to guide educators as they initiate educational interventions, which aim to explicitly support professional identity formation and the ultimate goal of medical education-to ensure that medical students and residents come to "think, act, and feel like a physician."
Full Text Available Raywat Deonandan,1 Nodine Sangwa,1 Steve Kanters,2 Sabin Nsanzimana3 1Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Rwanda Biomedical Center, Kigali, Rwanda Abstract: In 2013, Canadian scholars delivered a 1-week workshop to 30 junior public health professionals in Rwanda. The goal was to improve the Rwandans’ skills and confidence with respect to writing scientific papers for submission to international peer-reviewed global health journals. As a result of the workshop, there was a statistically significant improvement in participants’ reported confidence in many aspects of navigating the publishing process, but no improvement in confidence regarding statistically analyzing their data. Remarkably, as a group, participants were able to write an article for a leading international journal, which was subsequently published. Results indicate that similar interventions would be both successful and well received, especially if targeted to individuals at a similar stage of career progress. Keywords: education, Rwanda, public health, skills
McCloskey, Cindy B; Domen, Ronald E; Conran, Richard M; Hoffman, Robert D; Post, Miriam D; Brissette, Mark D; Gratzinger, Dita A; Raciti, Patricia M; Cohen, David A; Roberts, Cory A; Rojiani, Amyn M; Kong, Christina S; Peterson, Jo Elle G; Johnson, Kristen; Plath, Sue; Powell, Suzanne Zein-Eldin
Competency-based medical education has evolved over the past decades to include the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Accreditation System of resident evaluation based on the Milestones project. Entrustable professional activities represent another means to determine learner proficiency and evaluate educational outcomes in the workplace and training environment. The objective of this project was to develop entrustable professional activities for pathology graduate medical education encompassing primary anatomic and clinical pathology residency training. The Graduate Medical Education Committee of the College of American Pathologists met over the course of 2 years to identify and define entrustable professional activities for pathology graduate medical education. Nineteen entrustable professional activities were developed, including 7 for anatomic pathology, 4 for clinical pathology, and 8 that apply to both disciplines with 5 of these concerning laboratory management. The content defined for each entrustable professional activity includes the entrustable professional activity title, a description of the knowledge and skills required for competent performance, mapping to relevant Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestone subcompetencies, and general assessment methods. Many critical activities that define the practice of pathology fit well within the entrustable professional activity model. The entrustable professional activities outlined by the Graduate Medical Education Committee are meant to provide an initial framework for the development of entrustable professional activity-related assessment and curricular tools for pathology residency training.
Gill, Anne C; Nelson, Elizabeth A; Mian, Ayesha I; Raphael, Jean L; Rowley, David R; Mcguire, Amy L
Much has been written about how we understand, teach and evaluate professionalism in medical training. Less often described are explicit responses to mild or moderate professionalism concerns in medical students. To address this need, Baylor College of Medicine created a mechanism to assess professionalism competency for medical students and policies to address breaches in professional behavior. This article describes the development of an intervention using a guided reflection model, student responses to the intervention, and how the program evolved into a credible resource for deans and other educational leaders.
Noordegraaf, Mirko; Schneider, Magriet; Boselie, Paul; van Rensen, E.L.J.
With the rise of clinical management, new skills of medical doctors stand out, including leadership skills. Medical doctors organize medical work and improve patient care. The training of frontline leadership skills, however, is weakly developed in residency programmes. Medical professional cultures
Full Text Available Introduction: The changing doctor-patient relationship and commercialization of modem medical practice has affected the practice of medicine. The fundamental values of medicine insist that the doctors should be aware about the various medico-legal issues which help in proper recording of medical management details. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge on Medico-legal Issues among Medical and Dental College Health Professionals of Meenakshi University (MAHER, Tamilnadu. Materials & Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among health professionals of Meenakshi University (MAHER, Tamilnadu. A total o f320 health professionals (163 medical and 157 dental participated in the study. A structured, closed ended, self-administered questionnaire was used for collection of data. Chi-square test was used to compare the awareness of medico-legal issues between medical and dental health professionals. Results: Among the 320 health professionals, 87.4% of medical and 76.1% of dental professionals were aware about the informed consent, 18.8% of medical and 5.7% of dental professionals had awareness about COPRA and only 14.3% of medical and 7.6% of dental professionals had awareness regarding the Medico-legal programs/courses. Conclusions: The results illustrated that the participants had little awareness on medico-legal issues. Hence there is an urgent need to update the understanding of these issues to be on a legally safer side.
El-Haddad, C; Damodaran, A; McNeil, H P; Hu, W
Consultants regularly need to decide whether a trainee can be entrusted to perform a clinical activity independently. 'Entrustable professional activities' (EPA) provide a framework for justifying and better utilising supervisor entrustment decisions for trainee feedback and assessment in the workplace. Since being proposed by Olle ten Cate in 2005, EPA are emerging as an integral part of many international medical curricula, and are being considered by the Royal Australasian College of Physicians in the current review of physician training. EPA are defined as tasks or responsibilities that can be entrusted to a trainee once sufficient competence is reached to allow for unsupervised practice. An example might be to entrust a trainee to 'Initiate and co-ordinate care of the palliative patient' with only off-site or indirect supervision. Rather than attempting to measure directly each of the many separate competencies required to undertake such a complex task, EPA direct the trainee and supervisor's attention to the trainee's performance in a limited number of selected, representative, important day-to-day activities. EPA-based assessment is gaining momentum, amongst significant concerns regarding feasibility of implementation. While the optimal process for designing and implementing EPA remains to be determined, it is an assessment strategy where the over-arching goal of optimal patient care remains in clear sight. This review explores the central role of trust in medical training, the case for EPA and potential barriers to implementing EPA-based assessment.
Tatyana V. Matveeva
Full Text Available Leading role in the process of development and improvement of modern Russian education plays an additional professional education, which, to the greatest extent, responds to the qualitative changes in the socio-economic relations in a rapidly changing world. The aim of this paper is to identify the organizational and legal problems of professional and public accreditation of additional professional education programs in Russia and the opportunities development of this institution in modern conditions. The scientific research problem was to justify the need for professional and public accreditation of additional professional education programs of modern universities on the basis of delegation of procedures for evaluating the quality of education by public authorities to the public expert organizations, which ensure the independence and objectivity of the decisions made by qualified experts using a standardized assessment tools and tech to meet the needs of all parties concerned for highly qualified professionals. Methods. Empirical and theoretical methods were applied in the process of solving the problems in the scientific work to achieve the objectives of the study and test the hypothesis of an integrated methodology. Theoretical research methods involve: analysis of different literary sources (including legislative and regulatory enactments of the Higher Authorities of the Russian Federation, regulatory enactments of the Ministry of General and Vocational Education of the Russian Federation, compilation, synthesis of empirical data, comparative analysis, and others. Empirical research methods include: observation, testing, interview, questionnaire, ranking, pedagogical experiment, analysis of the products of activity, method of expert evaluations, methods of mathematical statistics, and other. Results. The expediency of independent accreditation procedures is proved. The goals that need to be solved to enhance the competitiveness of
Publication of pharmaceutical company-sponsored research in medical journals, and its presentation at conferences and meetings, is mostly governed by 'publication plans' that extract the maximum amount of scientific and commercial value out of data and analyses through carefully constructed and placed papers. Clinical research is typically performed by contract research organizations, analyzed by company statisticians, written up by independent medical writers, approved and edited by academic researchers who then serve as authors, and the whole process organized and shepherded through to journal publication by publication planners. This paper reports on a conference of an international association of publication planners. It describes and analyzes their work in an ecological framework that relates it to marketing departments of pharmaceutical companies, medical journals and publishers, academic authors, and potential audiences. The medical research described here forms a new kind of corporate science, designed to look like traditional academic work, but performed largely to market products.
This Perspective addresses the growing literature about online medical professionalism. Whereas some studies point to the positive potential of social media to enhance and extend medical practice, the dominant emphasis is on the risks and abuses of social media. Overall evidence regarding online medical professionalism is (as with any new area of practice) limited; however, simply accumulating more evidence, without critically checking the assumptions that frame the debate, risks reinforcing negativity toward social media. In this Perspective, the author argues that the medical community should step back and reconsider its assumptions regarding both professionalism and the digital world of social media. Toward this aim, she outlines three areas for critical rethinking by educators and students, administrators, professional associations, and researchers. First she raises some cautions regarding the current literature on using social media in medical practice, which sometimes leaps too quickly from description to prescription. Second, she discusses professionalism. Current debates about the changing nature and contexts of professionalism generally might be helpful in reconsidering notions of online medical professionalism specifically. Third, the author argues that the virtual world itself and its built-in codes deserve more critical scrutiny. She briefly summarizes new research from digital studies both to situate the wider trends more critically and to appreciate the evolving implications for medical practice. Next, the author revisits the potential benefits of social media, including their possibilities to signal new forms of professionalism. Finally, the Perspective ends with specific suggestions for further research that may help move the debate forward.
Karunakaran, Ilavenil; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah; Nalinakumari, Sheela Das
Professionalism and ethics have gained widespread recognition as competencies to be fulfilled, taught, and assessed within medical education. The role of the anatomy course in developed nations has evolved over time and now encompasses multiple domains, including knowledge, skills, and the inculcation of professionalism and ethics. The Medical Council of India recently recommended the integration of professionalism teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. The authors investigated whether the initial orientation lectures and instructions given by faculty at the outset of undergraduate medical anatomy courses throughout India served a "hidden curriculum" regarding professionalism practices, and whether these orientation messages could serve as an early exposure to medical professionalism and ethics for medical students. An online survey was carried out among 102 anatomy faculty members across India requesting details about specific professionalism protocols and instructions regarding behavior in the dissection hall that are routinely given to preclinical students, as well as the importance that they placed on professional behavior. It was found that most faculty members regularly instruct students regarding expected behavior during the anatomy course, including dissection practices. These instructions stress attributes of professionalism like humanism, accountability, and honesty. However, there needs to be a more concentrated effort by educators to prohibit such unprofessional practices like dissection hall photography, and better information is required regarding biomedical waste disposal. Despite the absence of clear guidelines for professionalism teaching in medical education in India, the existing framework of anatomy education provides an opportunity to introduce the concept of professionalism to the first-year medical student. This opportunity may provide an early foundation for designing a professionalism-integrated curriculum. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016
Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen; Lehmann, Lisa S; Nixon, Lois LaCivita; Carrese, Joseph A; Shapiro, Johanna F; Green, Michael J; Kirch, Darrell G
Given recent emphasis on professionalism training in medical schools by accrediting organizations, medical ethics and humanities educators need to develop a comprehensive understanding of this emphasis. To achieve this, the Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) II Workshop (May 2011) enlisted representatives of the three major accreditation organizations to join with a national expert panel of medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. PRIME II faculty engaged in a dialogue on the future of professionalism in medical education. The authors present three overarching themes that resulted from the PRIME II discussions: transformation, question everything, and unity of vision and purpose.The first theme highlights that education toward professionalism requires transformational change, whereby medical ethics and humanities educators would make explicit the centrality of professionalism to the formation of physicians. The second theme emphasizes that the flourishing of professionalism must be based on first addressing the dysfunctional aspects of the current system of health care delivery and financing that undermine the goals of medical education. The third theme focuses on how ethics and humanities educators must have unity of vision and purpose in order to collaborate and identify how their disciplines advance professionalism. These themes should help shape discussions of the future of medical ethics and humanities teaching.The authors argue that improvement of the ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that fosters professionalism should enhance patient care and be evaluated for its distinctive contributions to educational processes aimed at producing this outcome.
Hayat, Matthew J; Powell, Amanda; Johnson, Tessa; Cadwell, Betsy L
Statistical literacy and knowledge is needed to read and understand the public health literature. The purpose of this study was to quantify basic and advanced statistical methods used in public health research. We randomly sampled 216 published articles from seven top tier general public health journals. Studies were reviewed by two readers and a standardized data collection form completed for each article. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and frequency distributions. Results were summarized for statistical methods used in the literature, including descriptive and inferential statistics, modeling, advanced statistical techniques, and statistical software used. Approximately 81.9% of articles reported an observational study design and 93.1% of articles were substantively focused. Descriptive statistics in table or graphical form were reported in more than 95% of the articles, and statistical inference reported in more than 76% of the studies reviewed. These results reveal the types of statistical methods currently used in the public health literature. Although this study did not obtain information on what should be taught, information on statistical methods being used is useful for curriculum development in graduate health sciences education, as well as making informed decisions about continuing education for public health professionals.
Starr, Joshua P.
Americans want higher professional requirements for teachers and believe teacher pay is too low, but they don't like tenure, according to the newest PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools. Public school parents trust and have confidence in the nation's teachers, and they said communicating with their child's teacher…
ten Hoeve, Yvonne; Jansen, Gerard; Roodbol, Petrie
Aim To discuss the actual public image of nurses and other factors that influence the development of nurses' self-concept and professional identity. Background Nurses have become healthcare professionals in their own right who possess a great deal of knowledge. However, the public does not always va
Hoeve, Yvonne ten; Jansen, Gerard; Roodbol, Petrie
Aim. To discuss the actual public image of nurses and other factors that influence the development of nurses’ self-concept and professional identity. Background. Nurses have become healthcare professionals in their own right who possess a great deal of knowledge. However, the public does not always
Penrose, John M.
Aspects of research and pedagogy from the public relations discipline can benefit the business and professional communication instructor seeking new dimensions for the business and professional communication classroom. Elements of public relations (PR) found in Association for Business Communication articles and journals may be incorporated in the…
Tang, Catherine So-kum; Pun, Shuk Han; Cheung, Fanny Mui-ching
This study examined how Chinese public service professionals attributed responsibility to victims and perpetrators of violence against women (VAW). A total of 2,308 Chinese public service professionals in Hong Kong completed questionnaires on attitudes toward women, VAW-related perceptions, and assignment of responsibility to actors in written VAW…
Penrose, John M.
Aspects of research and pedagogy from the public relations discipline can benefit the business and professional communication instructor seeking new dimensions for the business and professional communication classroom. Elements of public relations (PR) found in Association for Business Communication articles and journals may be incorporated in the…
Yvonne ten Hoeve; Prof. Dr. Petrie F. Roodbol; Gerard Jansen
Aim. To discuss the actual public image of nurses and other factors that influence the development of nurses’ self-concept and professional identity. Background. Nurses have become healthcare professionals in their own right who possess a great deal of knowledge. However, the public does not always
ten Hoeve, Yvonne; Jansen, Gerard; Roodbol, Petrie
Aim To discuss the actual public image of nurses and other factors that influence the development of nurses' self-concept and professional identity. Background Nurses have become healthcare professionals in their own right who possess a great deal of knowledge. However, the public does not always
Ria Sandra Alimbudiono; Dwi Suhartini
This study aims to give an insight about environmental awareness from public accountant and the role of Indonesian accounting professional bodies in ensuring professional sustainability. A naturalistic method was applied to get deep understanding about the perspectives of the boards of professional bodies as a representation from the condition of public accountants in general. Data collection methods used in this study were interviews and focus group discussion. The findings highlight a vari...
Saúde mental em um hospital público: o olhar de profissionais médicos do município do Rio de Janeiro Mental health in a public hospital: the perspective of medical professionals of the city of Rio de Janeiro
Heloisa dos Reis Malheiro Máximo
Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo compreender percepções de médicos de um hospital público acerca do papel dos profissionais de Saúde Mental nesse espaço institucional, explorando interfaces estabelecidas entre as duas categorias no cotidiano da assistência, tal como percebidas pelos informantes. Para tanto, desenvolveu-se um estudo qualitativo fundamentado na tradição crítico-interpretativa como caminho metodológico, elegendo-se como técnica a entrevista não-diretiva. A amostra foi composta por médicos de diferentes setores que, no momento do estudo, haviam encaminhado pacientes para os profissionais de Saúde Mental e integravam a equipe do hospital por um período mínimo de dois anos. Com base nas categorias que emergiram no campo, a análise identificou diferentes temas, configurando uma rede interpretativa que representou a base do exercício hermenêutico. Os resultados do estudo apontam uma heterogeneidade no que se refere às concepções dos informantes acerca do papel da Saúde Mental no espaço hospitalar. No que tange à organização do trabalho, a variável tempo é fator fundamental no cotidiano do atendimento. Percebe-se uma nítida diferenciação entre o paradigma "psi", referente aos profissionais da Psicologia e da Psiquiatria, e o paradigma médico, revelando obstáculos para uma efetiva integração entre esses dois modelos.This study aims to understand the perceptions of the medical professionals at a public hospital, concerning the role of the Mental Health professionals, identifying simultaneously, the interfaces established between these two categories in the assistance enviroment. Therefore, we begin with the study on demand that characterizes the client assisted by mental health professionals, discussing the main demands required by the medical doctors in the different areas of the hospital unit. At the same time, we highlight the reasons of these indications. Based on this data, we have developed this
The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the complex issues facing Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women students at one Midwestern medical school as they subjectively experience their medical training. Of particular interest was how students navigated family influences, career planning, and ethnic and gender stereotypes. Sixty-five percent of the students reported that their parents exerted various degrees of encouragement or pressure to enter medicine. The remaining students said that the decision was entirely theirs (20%) or that the decision had been made for them (15%). Many reported the larger Asian "community" as a source of influence. A slight majority of students thought they were perceived by faculty as being "quiet," often too quiet. With only 1 exception, all of the students believed that their cultural identity influenced their specialty choice. Stressors reported by students centered on competition, achievement, and formation of intimate relationships (i.e., dating). Medical educators who provide personal and professional support for API women students should be keenly aware of the career, gender, and family issues that emerge at the intersection of API and Euro-American cultures. Faculty development should include an educational component on issues of concern to API students, men and women. Faculty also need to wrestle with the cultural values of "modesty, respect for authority, public self-consciousness, and other directness" as they intersect with assertion as a primary value found in Euro-American culture in general and in medical education in particular.
Constance R. Tucker
Full Text Available Background: Objective-structured teaching encounters (OSTEs are used across many disciplines to assess teaching ability. The OSTE detailed in this paper assesses 191 fourth-year medical students’ (M4 ability to identify and address lapses in professionalism based on Association of American Medical Colleges’ professionalism competencies. The research questions addressed are• How frequently do M4s address professionalism lapses observed during an OSTE?• What factors influence whether M4s provide feedback when they observe professionalism lapses in an OSTE? Methods: Standardized patients (SPs and standardized learners (SLs were recruited and trained to participate in a standardized encounter with specific cognitive, social, and behavioral errors, including professionalism lapses. M4s viewed this encounter and then offered feedback to the SL, while remotely observed by faculty. Post-encounter, the SL and faculty completed identical checklists to assess both teaching readiness and ability to address professionalism concerns. Results: An analysis of frequencies showed that six of the Association of American Medical Colleges’ nine professional competencies were addressed in the checklist and/or discussed in the focus group. Analysis of transcribed debriefing sessions confirmed that M4s did not consistently address professionalism lapses by their peers. Conclusions: In focus groups, M4s indicated that, while they noticed professionalism issues, they were uncomfortable discussing them with the SLs. Findings of the current study suggest how medical educators might support learners’ ability to address lapses in professionalism as well as topics for future research.
Tucker, Constance R; Choby, Beth A; Moore, Andrew; Parker, Robert Scott; Zambetti, Benjamin R; Naids, Sarah; Scott, Jillian; Loome, Jennifer; Gaffney, Sierra
Objective-structured teaching encounters (OSTEs) are used across many disciplines to assess teaching ability. The OSTE detailed in this paper assesses 191 fourth-year medical students' (M4) ability to identify and address lapses in professionalism based on Association of American Medical Colleges' professionalism competencies. The research questions addressed are How frequently do M4s address professionalism lapses observed during an OSTE? What factors influence whether M4s provide feedback when they observe professionalism lapses in an OSTE? Standardized patients (SPs) and standardized learners (SLs) were recruited and trained to participate in a standardized encounter with specific cognitive, social, and behavioral errors, including professionalism lapses. M4s viewed this encounter and then offered feedback to the SL, while remotely observed by faculty. Post-encounter, the SL and faculty completed identical checklists to assess both teaching readiness and ability to address professionalism concerns. An analysis of frequencies showed that six of the Association of American Medical Colleges' nine professional competencies were addressed in the checklist and/or discussed in the focus group. Analysis of transcribed debriefing sessions confirmed that M4s did not consistently address professionalism lapses by their peers. In focus groups, M4s indicated that, while they noticed professionalism issues, they were uncomfortable discussing them with the SLs. Findings of the current study suggest how medical educators might support learners' ability to address lapses in professionalism as well as topics for future research.
Shield, Renée R; Farrell, Timothy W; Campbell, Susan E; Nanda, Aman; Wetle, Terrie
Teaching professionalism is an important goal in American medical education. With the aging of the U.S. population, it is critical to understand how medical students develop professional behaviors when caring for older adults. Exposure to geriatrics and older patients can enhance students' professional development with patients of all ages and across different specialties. Medical students learn explicit and implicit messages during their education. In addition to helping to evaluate curricula, reflective journaling encourages individual development and helps in revealing how medical students become professionals. In this study, medical student volunteers described their responses to new geriatrics content in their curriculum, encounters with older patients in clinical settings, and their evolving physician identities. Multidisciplinary team analysis elicited 10 themes regarding: evaluation of geriatrics within the curriculum, recognition of geriatrics principles, and attitudes regarding aging and professional development over time. This article focuses on the impact of geriatrics exposure on students' professional development, revealing ways that students think about professionalism and older patients. Medical educators should consider journaling to help foster and gauge students' professional development.
Gomes, Antônio Marcos Tosoli; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina
The object of this study was the nurse's professional autonomy and had the following specific objectives: describe and analyze the social representations of the nurses 'professional role and analyze the professional autonomy-dependence binomial. As theoretical methodological reference it was chose the Social Representations Theory It was proceeded in-depth interviews with 30 nurses of the basic health system from a county in Rio de Janeiro state. To the data analysis it was used the Alceste 4.5 software. The software generated five classes, two express the professional formation/absorption and three the professional. Practice. The analytical categories were constituted from the dimensions in which the social representations express themselves: the conceptions, the positions and the professional practices autonomy.
Doukas, David J; Kirch, Darrell G; Brigham, Timothy P; Barzansky, Barbara M; Wear, Stephen; Carrese, Joseph A; Fins, Joseph J; Lederer, Susan E
Effectively developing professionalism requires a programmatic view on how medical ethics and humanities should be incorporated into an educational continuum that begins in premedical studies, stretches across medical school and residency, and is sustained throughout one's practice. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education National Conference on Medical Ethics and Humanities in Medical Education (May 2012) invited representatives from the three major medical education and accreditation organizations to engage with an expert panel of nationally known medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This article, based on the views of these representatives and their respondents, offers a future-tense account of how professionalism can be incorporated into medical education.The themes that are emphasized herein include the need to respond to four issues. The first theme highlights how ethics and humanities can provide a response to the dissonance that occurs in current health care delivery. The second theme focuses on how to facilitate preprofessional readiness for applicants through reform of the medical school admission process. The third theme emphasizes the importance of integrating ethics and humanities into the medical school administrative structure. The fourth theme underscores how outcomes-based assessment should reflect developmental milestones for professional attributes and conduct. The participants emphasized that ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that promote professionalism should be taught with accountability, flexibility, and the premise that all these traits are essential to the formation of a modern professional physician.
Youssef, Valerie C; Peters, Dexnell; Youssef, Farid F
Phenomenon: This paper concerns itself with the value system that informs and motivates medical students of the twenty-first century as distinct from earlier cohorts. It notes a shift from an era of altruism within which the medical professional was a 'pillar of society' always 'on duty' and always concerned foremost for the patient to an era in which he/she is just another member of the work force, subject to public scrutiny and criticism, to patient autonomy and to a self-serving ethos which characterizes the present age. Whilst concerns have been raised for a continuing and separate morality of medicine, young professionals in other studies have cited a range of characteristics including honesty, trustworthiness and respect alongside competence and medical skill. However, the notion of 'performance' has made a strong thrust into the literature, with students citing the putting on and taking off of dual personae as part of their complex identity in this present time. They are entitled to their own lives, to drop the act and just be themselves when off duty, picking it back up again with the duty call. The present study then investigated the views on this subject of two groups of medical students in Trinidad & Tobago in the Caribbean, one made up entirely of nationals and one including students from other parts of the Caribbean and the USA. They discussed the topic in focus groups of eight; their responses were then analysed thematically and subject to discourse analysis. The study revealed diverse attitudes with some embracing the ethical standards of a high calling that whilst others were concerned that too much was expected, that they had a right to break free and be themselves as long as they did not transgress too far from their expected roles. There were two distinct groups both concerned with 'how' they 'carried themselves about' but this meant different things to each dependent on which of the two perspectives they embraced. As a whole, the study revealed
Hur, Yera; Kim, Sun
Doctors are asked to play the roles of both a healer and a professional. In dealing with this inherent demand, we should first ask ourselves if we are selecting students who show traits that would enable them to become a good doctor. The primary concern of this study was to identify the core elements of medical professionalism that will develop into professional competence that we should be sought in medical school applicants. One hundred-six responses from the Delphi survey done by medical school professors and 230 completed questionnaires from medical students were used for analysis. We also set out to analyze the level of medical professionalism in newly entering medical students using a 5-point Likert scale. Of the 27 elements of medical professionalism examined, the most important core element was thought to be 'life-long learning skills'. The level of professionalism in Korean medical students was mostly assessed to be less than the 3.0 mean score given by the professors. Medical students tended to rate themselves higher than did the professors for their level of medical professionalism. Medical professionalism can be categorized into three domains; professional knowledge, professional skills, and professional attitude. For the prominent differences in the recognition of the levels of professionalism elements in medical students by students and professors, further studies investigating the reasons for discrepancy are needed.
Full Text Available Successful completion of public health projects is critical to achieving population health objectives. However project execution can be challenging due to scarce time and resources, rapidly changing environments and complex stakeholder requirements. To address these challenges physicians and other professionals working in public health need to learn the practical skills of project management. However curricula tailored to project management skill development for public health professionals is not widely available. A one-week curriculum on project management for public health professionals has been developed enabling participants to independently lead small-scale public health projects. This course adapts a private-sector curriculum for use in public health practice and incorporates a unique skill-building teaching method. Evaluation of the initial curriculum delivery at the Weill-Bugando University, Tanzania indicated the majority of students intended to use project management upon return to their positions in public health. Students indicated a lack of a critical mass of public health professionals with required knowledge and skills represents the greatest barrier to integration of project management into public health practice. A unique one-week curriculum in project management has been developed and is being made publicly available. The course will enable physicians and other professionals working in public health to rapidly learn and apply the methodology to the front lines of public health.
Choi, Daisi; Tolova, Vera; Socha, Edward; Samenow, Charles P.
Objective: This study sought to examine how specific substance-use behavior, including nonmedical prescription stimulant (NPS) use, among U.S. medical students correlates with their attitudes and beliefs toward professionalism. Method: An anonymous survey was distributed to all medical students at a private medical university (46% response rate).…
Dennis, Carol Azumah
Locating post-16 professionalism explores the ways in which teachers in the UK and the USA engaged in digitally mediated communication incidentally narrate their professional selves during extended exchanges about the process of post-qualification registration. Drawing on a theoretical framework derived from participatory democracy, the study is…
Hojat, Mohammadreza; And Others
A survey of 364 men and 86 women medical school graduates found women less likely to be employed full-time or have outside professional activities, more likely to hold full-time academic appointments, to treat low-income patients, and to serve in inner cities. Women worked fewer hours, had fewer patients, but published scientific articles as…
Woods, Kendra V; Peek, Kathryn E; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca
Many students in bioengineering and medical physics doctoral programs plan careers in translational research. However, while such students generally have strong quantitative abilities, they often lack experience with the culture, communication norms, and practice of bedside medicine. This may limit students' ability to function as members of multidisciplinary translational research teams. To improve students' preparation for careers in cancer translational research, we developed and implemented a mentoring program that is integrated with students' doctoral studies and aims to promote competencies in communication, biomedical ethics, teamwork, altruism, multiculturalism, and accountability. Throughout the program, patient-centered approaches and professional competencies are presented as foundational to optimal clinical care and integral to translational research. Mentoring is conducted by senior biomedical faculty and administrators and includes didactic teaching, online learning, laboratory mini-courses, clinical practicums, and multidisciplinary patient planning conferences (year 1); student development and facilitation of problem-based patient cases (year 2); and individualized mentoring based on research problems and progress toward degree completion (years 3-5). Each phase includes formative and summative evaluations. Nineteen students entered the program from 2009 through 2011. On periodic anonymous surveys, the most recent in September 2013, students indicated that the program substantially improved their knowledge of cancer biology, cancer medicine, and academic medicine; that the mentors were knowledgeable, good teachers, and dedicated to students; and that the program motivated them to become well-rounded scientists and scholars. We believe this program can be modified and disseminated to other graduate research and professional health care programs.
Aki, Ozlem Erden; Ak, Sertac; Sonmez, Yunus Emre; Demir, Basaran
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is safe and effective for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Despite being a well-known treatment method among health care professionals, lay people generally have a negative opinion of ECT. The present study aimed to examine knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among medical students, psychology students, and the general public. Psychology students were included because they are among the important groups in mental health care in Turkey. A Likert-type questionnaire was administered to fifth-year medical students (n = 28), master of science and doctor of philosophy clinical psychology students (n = 35), and a sample of the general public (n = 26). The questionnaire included questions about the general principles of and indications for ECT, and sources of knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. The medical students were the most knowledgeable about ECT, as expected. The medical students also had a more positive attitude toward ECT than the other 2 groups. More psychology students had negative attitudes on some aspects than general public sample, despite being more knowledgeable. Medical school theoretical and practical training in ECT played an important role in increasing the level of knowledge of and decreasing the prevalence of negative attitudes toward ECT among the medical students; similar training for psychology students is required to achieve similar results.
LaVallie Donna L
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to identify publication output, and research areas, as well as descriptively and quantitatively characterize the field of medical informatics through publication trend analysis over a twenty year period (1987–2006. Methods A bibliometric analysis of medical informatics citations indexed in Medline was performed using publication trends, journal frequency, impact factors, MeSH term frequencies and characteristics of citations. Results There were 77,023 medical informatics articles published during this 20 year period in 4,644 unique journals. The average annual article publication growth rate was 12%. The 50 identified medical informatics MeSH terms are rarely assigned together to the same document and are almost exclusively paired with a non-medical informatics MeSH term, suggesting a strong interdisciplinary trend. Trends in citations, journals, and MeSH categories of medical informatics output for the 20-year period are summarized. Average impact factor scores and weighted average impact factor scores increased over the 20-year period with two notable growth periods. Conclusion There is a steadily growing presence and increasing visibility of medical informatics literature over the years. Patterns in research output that seem to characterize the historic trends and current components of the field of medical informatics suggest it may be a maturing discipline, and highlight specific journals in which the medical informatics literature appears most frequently, including general medical journals as well as informatics-specific journals.
Purcărea, V L; Coculescu, B I; Coculescu, E C
During the transition period, the Romanian medical system, subject (like other areas) to a process of reform, had to go through a difficult path, not without obstacles (malpractice, underfunding, embezzlement scandals in the media etc.). Consequently, Romania has faced (and unfortunately still is still facing) the massive exodus of health professionals to countries where they can benefit from better working conditions and payment, and those who suffer from health care crisis are the patients. Reform means "the people in the system for the people", which requires a change of mindset within the medical staff, especially in the continuous professional development. However, to talk about the quality of the medical act requires that all those involved in the medical system should create appropriate conditions - i.e. advanced technical equipment and appropriate salaries. In addition, as underfunding is the main cause of failure in the health system, that management remains the only tool that can lead to the appropriate use of the existing resources and the quality of health services. Therefore, the idea of public-private partnership - which occurred as a challenge, especially after the EU accession - can be considered a solution designed to improve the quality and cost of health services. In other words, the cooperation of the private sector with the public authority means increasing the rigor of the medical equipment performance, fostering professional competition, and an increased attention to the patient, in a word: performance. Currently, more and more frequently, the management has studied to identify opportunities for innovation in health care services in an attempt to bring together patients and practitioners in the field by resorting to the identification of the ways they can receive health care services promptly, fairly and efficiently. Therefore, a clear and responsible design in the spirit of ethics and medical ethic will help the marketing manager solve many
Nélisse, C; Uribé, I
The new Public Curator Act systematically requires medical and psychosocial evaluations. In confronting the letter and the spirit of the law to its regulations and operating procedures (and inversely), this article outlines the various tasks that will fall under the responsibility of health and social service professionals. Following a brief presentation of the law, the authors describe how the role of these professionals is limited to evaluations for the purpose of conducting expert appraisements, a matter which raises a great deal of concern. In addition, the two key notions of "inaptitude" and "need" are discussed in their legal sense, along with their consequences from the medical evaluation and psychosocial standpoints. The latter in particular will be analyzed regarding implementation difficulties. The authors conclude with a general commentary that is likely to give meaning to that simple and sometimes routine gesture consisting of "completing a form".
Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wojnar, Margaret; Sinz, Elizabeth
This chapter focuses on how to negotiate power and interest among multiple stakeholders to develop continuing professional education programs as graduate study for those in the health and medical professions.
Garvey, Katharine C.; Kesselheim, Jennifer C.; Herrick, Daniel B; WOOLF, Alan D.; Leichtner, Alan M.
The deterioration of humanism and professionalism during graduate medical training is an acknowledged concern, and programs are required to provide professionalism education for pediatric fellows. We conducted a needs assessment survey in a national sample of 138 first- and second-year gastroenterology fellows (82% response rate). Most believed that present humanism and professionalism education met their needs, but this education was largely informal (eg, role modeling). Areas for formal edu...
Abraham, R R; Pallath, V; Am, C; Ramnarayan, K; Kamath, A
Medical school faculty in India are challenged to balance teaching and professional development. Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC), Manipal Campus, Manipal University, India offers the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) program. The institution incorporates certain effective practices based on adult learning principles which are aimed at fostering the professional development of faculty members. The present study was undertaken to explore the perceptions of faculty members regarding the scope for professional development at Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal Campus. In September 2009, a questionnaire comprising items (23) focusing on five adult learning principles (active participation, relevant learning, constructive feedback, safe, non-threatening environment and previous experiences) was designed and faculty members (n=23) were asked to respond to it on a 5-point Likert scale. Additionally, a force field analysis was conducted by asking the faculty to identify three factors which facilitated them to consciously get involved in professional development activities. They were also asked to identify three unfavorable factors that hindered their professional development. Among the five characteristics, relevant learning was found to have a high mean score. Frequency analysis of responses revealed that at Melaka Manipal Medical College, there was ample scope for relevant self-learning that fosters professional development (91.3%). Force field response analysis revealed Melaka Manipal Medical College offered considerable flexibility and opportunities for continuing professional development along with faculty members' prevailing role as teachers. Nevertheless, the need for more research facilities and funds was highlighted. Adherence to adult learning principles may provide avenues for professional development in medical schools. An organized attempt to make the medical school faculty aware of the scope of these practices appears to be
Professionalism is a critically important competency that must be evaluated in medical trainees but is a complex construct that is hard to assess. A systematic review was undertaken to give insight into the current best practices for assessment of professionalism in medical trainees and to identify new research priorities in the field. A search was conducted on PubMed for behavioral assessments of medical students and residents among the United States and Canadian allopathic schools in the last 15 years. An initial search yielded 594 results, 28 of which met our inclusion criteria. Our analysis indicated that there are robust generic definitions of the major attributes of medical professionalism. The most commonly used assessment tools are survey instruments that use Likert scales tied to attributes of professionalism. While significant progress has been made in this field in recent years, several opportunities for system-wide improvement were identified that require further research. These include a paucity of information about assessment reliability, the need for rater training, a need to better define competency in professionalism according to learner level (preclinical, clerkship, resident etc.) and ways to remediate lapses in professionalism. Student acceptance of assessment of professionalism may be increased if assessment tools are shifted to better incorporate feedback. Tackling the impact of the hidden curriculum in which students may observe lapses in professionalism by faculty and other health care providers is another priority for further study. PMID:28652951
Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Heijne - Penninga, Marjolein; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Geertsma, Jelle; Cohen - Schotanus, Janke
OBJECTIVES To examine whether peer assessment can enhance scores on professional behaviour, with the expectation that students who assess peers score more highly on professional behaviour than students who do not assess peers. METHODS Undergraduate medical students in their first and second trimeste
..., Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage Areas AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... primary medical care, mental health, and dental health professional shortage areas (HPSAs) as of April 1... National Health Service Corps (NHSC) personnel to provide primary care, dental, or mental health...
Hamilton, Thomas E.
A survey of 120 medical schools found 61 percent have curricula on professional liability. Many indicated students' training has been compromised or jeopardized by physicians' concerns about medicolegal issues, and many had students named in malpractice suits. Findings suggest issues of professional liability have significantly affected…
Kyalo, Isaac William; Hopkins, Sandra
This study explores the acceptance of online learning (OL) for continuous professional development among lecturers at Kenya Medical Training College in 2009. The large and multi-campus College faces logistical and cost challenges in ensuring that its 700 lecturing staff have access to continuous professional development. Online learning…
Molleman, Eric; Rink, Floor
This article introduces a conceptual framework for understanding the antecedents of a strong professional identity among medical specialists and its consequences for the quality of healthcare. Three work conditions are proposed under which a professional identity improves the overall work productivi
Broom, Glen M.; And Others
A content analysis compared the professional and research agendas of "Public Relations Journal" and "Public Relations Review" for the years 1975-81. A sample of 121 articles from the former and 111 articles from the latter were analyzed, and the content of each was assigned to one of 10 categories related to the context,…
Braun, Ursula K; Gill, Anne C; Teal, Cayla R; Morrison, Laura J
Medical education leaders have called for a curriculum that proactively teaches knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for professional practice and have identified professionalism as a competency domain for medical students. Exposure to palliative care (PC), an often deeply moving clinical experience, is an optimal trigger for rich student reflection, and students' reflective writings can be explored for professional attitudes. Our aim was to evaluate the merit of using student reflective writing about a PC clinical experience to teach and assess professionalism. After a PC patient visit, students wrote a brief reflective essay. We explored qualitatively if/how evidence of students' professionalism was reflected in their writing. Five essays were randomly chosen to develop a preliminary thematic structure, which then guided analysis of 30 additional, randomly chosen essays. Analysts coded transcripts independently, then collaboratively, developed thematic categories, and selected illustrative quotes for each theme and subtheme. Essays revealed content reflecting more rich information about students' progress toward achieving two professionalism competencies (demonstrating awareness of one's own perspectives and biases; demonstrating caring, compassion, empathy, and respect) than two others (displaying self-awareness of performance; recognizing and taking actions to correct deficiencies in one's own behavior, knowledge, and skill). Professional attitudes were evident in all essays. The essays had limited use for formal summative assessment of professionalism competencies. However, given the increasing presence of PC clinical experiences at medical schools nationwide, we believe this assessment strategy for professionalism has merit and deserves further investigation.
L.G. Tummers (Lars)
textabstractNowadays, many public policies focus on economic values, such as efficiency and client choice. Public professionals often show resistance to implementing such policies. We analyse this problem using an interdisciplinary approach. From public administration, we draw on the policy
Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland
Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this literature toward more "best evidence" between 1985 and 2009. Four databases were searched for publications on anatomy in medical education published between 1985 and 2009, resulting in 525 references. Hundred publications were characterized by five variables (journal category, paper subject, paper category, author perspective, and paper perspective). Statements from these publications were characterized by two variables (category and foundation). The publications contained 797 statements that involved the words "anatomy," "anatomical," or "anatomist." Forty-five percent of the publications contained no explicit research question. Forty percent of the statements made were about "teaching methods" and 17% about "teaching content," 8% referred to "practical value," and 10% to "side effects" of anatomy education. Ten percent of the statements were "positional," five percent "traditional," four percent "self-evident," and two percent referred to "quality of care." Fifty-six percent of the statements had no foundation, 17% were founded on empirical data, and 27% by references. These results substantiated the critical comments about the anecdotal nature of the literature. However, it is encouraging to see that between 1985 and 2009 the number of publications is rising that these publications increasingly focus on teaching methods and that an academic writing style is developing. This suggests a growing body of empirical literature about anatomy education.
Thousands of pregnant patients and radiation workers are exposed to ionising radiation each year. Lack of knowledge is responsible for great anxiety and probably unnecessary termination of pregnancies. For many patients, the exposure is appropriate, while for others the exposure may be inappropriate, placing the unborn child at increased risk. Prenatal doses from most properly done diagnostic procedures present no measurably increased risk of prenatal death, malformation, or impairment of mental development over the background incidence of these entities. Higher doses, such as those involved in therapeutic procedures, can result in significant fetal harm. The pregnant patient or worker has a right to know the magnitude and type of potential radiation effects that might result from in utero exposure. Almost always, if a diagnostic radiology examination is medically indicated, the risk to the mother of not doing the procedure is greater than is the risk of potential harm to the fetus. Most nuclear medicine procedures do not cause large fetal doses. However, some radiopharmaceuticals that are used in nuclear medicine can pose significant fetal risks. It is important to ascertain whether a female patient is pregnant prior to radiotherapy. In pregnant patients, cancers that are remote from the pelvis usually can be heated with radiotherapy. This however requires careful planning. Cancers in the pelvis cannot be adequately treated during pregnancy without severe or lethal consequences for the fetus. The basis for the control of the occupational exposure of women who are not pregnant is the same as that for men. However, if a woman is, or may be, pregnant, additional controls have to be considered to protect the unborn child. In many countries, radiation exposure of pregnant females in biomedical research is not specifically prohibited. However, their involvement in such research is very rare and should be discouraged. Termination of pregnancy is an individual decision
Field, Karl; Bailey, Michele; Foresman, Larry L; Harris, Robert L; Motzel, Sherri L; Rockar, Richard A; Ruble, Gaye; Suckow, Mark A
Medical records are considered to be a key element of a program of adequate veterinary care for animals used in research, teaching, and testing. However, prior to the release of the public statement on medical records by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM), the guidance that was available on the form and content of medical records used for the research setting was not consistent and, in some cases, was considered to be too rigid. To address this concern, ACLAM convened an ad hoc Medical Records Committee and charged the Committee with the task of developing a medical record guideline that was based on both professional judgment and performance standards. The Committee provided ACLAM with a guidance document titled Public Statements: Medical Records for Animals Used in Research, Teaching, and Testing, which was approved by ACLAM in late 2004. The ACLAM public statement on medical records provides guidance on the definition and content of medical records, and clearly identifies the Attending Veterinarian as the individual who is charged with authority and responsibility for oversight of the institution's medical records program. The document offers latitude to institutions in the precise form and process used for medical records but identifies typical information to be included in such records. As a result, the ACLAM public statement on medical records provides practical yet flexible guidelines to assure that documentation of animal health is performed in research, teaching, and testing situations.
ten Hoeve, Yvonne; Jansen, Gerard; Roodbol, Petrie
To discuss the actual public image of nurses and other factors that influence the development of nurses' self-concept and professional identity. Nurses have become healthcare professionals in their own right who possess a great deal of knowledge. However, the public does not always value the skills and competences nurses have acquired through education and innovation. Discussion paper. We identified 1216 relevant studies by searching MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases in the period 1997-2010. Finally, 18 studies met our inclusion criteria. The included studies show that the actual public image of nursing is diverse and incongruous. This image is partly self-created by nurses due to their invisibility and their lack of public discourse. Nurses derive their self-concept and professional identity from their public image, work environment, work values, education and traditional social and cultural values. Nurses should work harder to communicate their professionalism to the public. Social media like the Internet and YouTube can be used to show the public what they really do. To improve their public image and to obtain a stronger position in healthcare organizations, nurses need to increase their visibility. This could be realized by ongoing education and a challenging work environment that encourages nurses to stand up for themselves. Furthermore, nurses should make better use of strategic positions, such as case manager, nurse educator or clinical nurse specialist and use their professionalism to show the public what their work really entails. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available According to the WHO- “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”. The good health is the fundamental right of all the people on earth. The concept of ‘One Medicine’ coined by Calvin W. Schwabe evolves towards ’One Health’ which comprises collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines to achieve perfect health of people, animals, and our environment. ‘One Health’ deals with the challenges at the intersection of animal, human and environment health including the infectious diseases, the global food crises, and climate change due to global warming. The cordial and active association of various disciplines such as medicine, veterinary, public health, environment, wildlife, ecology, and food hygiene is highly emphasized in order to achieve the goal of ‘One Health’. This mini-review describes brief history of ‘one health’, the roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals, and developing collaboration with various concern professionals to achieve ‘one health’. In addition, the selected achievements of ‘one health’ in the past 10 years have been described along with the challenges ahead for the successful implementation of such concept.
Ngo, Elizabeth; Patel, Nachiket; Chandrasekaran, Krishnaswamy; Tajik, A Jamil; Paterick, Timothy E
Comprehensive, detailed documentation in the medical record is critical to patient care and to a physician when allegations of negligence arise. Physicians, therefore, would be prudent to have a clear understanding of this documentation. It is important to understand who is responsible for documentation, what is important to document, when to document, and how to document. Additionally, it should be understood who owns the medical record, the significance of the transition to the electronic medical record, problems and pitfalls when using the electronic medical record, and how the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act affects healthcare providers and health information technology.
Annegret F. Hannawa
Full Text Available Medical errors are not a prevalent discussion topic in the current public health literature. However, their impact on patient lives across the world is alarming. In the United States alone, more than 1.3 million patients are harmed every year by medical treatments that are intended to help them. About three quarters of these adverse events are caused by preventable human error.....
Anderson, Gary; Herr, Kathryn
This article provides an introductory frame for this special issue dedicated to New Public Management and the New Professional Educator. We will introduce the five articles and how they analyze the characteristics of NPM and this emerging new professional as well as forms of educator resistance and advocacy.
Mosher, Frederick C.
Professional and technical fields are the fastest growing occupational sectors in the US. More than one-third of all professional and technical workers are employed by government, particularly in administrative positions, and exert an increasing influence on public policy. But, with the exception of city managers, many of these employees regard…
Karishma Rosann Pereira
Full Text Available Introduction: It is thrilling for any physician to write and publish a paper, because it reflects their study and expertise. It has become imperative in today's ever evolving world of medical science to keep abreast with academia by actively engaging in publication of scientific literature. The number of publications a physician has to his/her credit speaks volumes about their subject interest, command and passion. On the other hand, medical journals serve as sources of the most recent up-to-date information, which aids physicians in providing their patients with latest care in their specialty. Method: Having worked closely with a wide array of practicing physicians, right from fresh graduates to seasoned consultants; I have gained useful insight into the lacuna aspects when it comes to medical publications. Results: This paper aims to help every medical practitioner by bridging the gap between possessing vast amounts of data to structurally organising it and getting your information successfully published. I attempt to bring forth a ready reckoner that could serve as a step-wise checklist and guide to simplify the process of getting medical literature published; keeping in mind the time crunched and hectic schedules of medical practitioners.
Medical Genetics is a relatively new field of scientific work that involves a lot of enthusiastic professionals, both in routine (clinical) and research (scientific projects). In either field, different geneticists feel different responsibilities for their work, either because they are different people (personal responsibility) or because they have a different rank in the respective departments (professional responsibility). This paper presents the philosophical views of several authors on the sense of responsibility from the Classical times until the present and reveals the practical, daily responsibilities that are met by these professionals, in four areas of responsibility: personal, professional, scientific and sociatal framework.
Lange, R.; Verhulst, S. J.; Roberts, N. K.; Dorsey, J. K.
The use of students' "consumer feedback" to assess faculty behavior and improve the process of medical education is a significant challenge. We used quantitative Rasch measurement to analyze pre-categorized student comments listed by 385 graduating medical students. We found that students differed little with respect to the number of…
Valery N. Volkov
Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to determine the influences of professional and public assessment of innovation in the general educational system for development of state and public management of education and the modeling of the implementation of such assessment.Methods. The methods involve analysis of strategic projects and innovative infrastructure of the Russian educational system; generalisation of the experience of the educational systems of the regions in the field of state and public management of education and management of innovation; modelling of professional and public expertise innovation activity.Results and scientific novelty. The impact of strategic projects of development of the Russian education on the development of state and public management of education is presented. The model of professional-public assessment of innovation in the regional general educational system is proposed; the basic procedures, subjects and standards are noted. The process approach was used while designing the model; the algorithm of professional-public assessment of innovation activity is described.Practical significance. The results of practical using of the model for professional-public assessment of innovation activity in the educational system ofSt. Petersburgare presented.
Valery N. Volkov
Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to determine the influences of professional and public assessment of innovation in the general educational system for development of state and public management of education and the modeling of the implementation of such assessment.Methods. The methods involve analysis of strategic projects and innovative infrastructure of the Russian educational system; generalisation of the experience of the educational systems of the regions in the field of state and public management of education and management of innovation; modelling of professional and public expertise innovation activity.Results and scientific novelty. The impact of strategic projects of development of the Russian education on the development of state and public management of education is presented. The model of professional-public assessment of innovation in the regional general educational system is proposed; the basic procedures, subjects and standards are noted. The process approach was used while designing the model; the algorithm of professional-public assessment of innovation activity is described.Practical significance. The results of practical using of the model for professional-public assessment of innovation activity in the educational system ofSt. Petersburgare presented.
Carrese, Joseph A; Malek, Janet; Watson, Katie; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Green, Michael J; McCullough, Laurence B; Geller, Gail; Braddock, Clarence H; Doukas, David J
This article-the Romanell Report-offers an analysis of the current state of medical ethics education in the United States, focusing in particular on its essential role in cultivating professionalism among medical learners. Education in ethics has become an integral part of medical education and training over the past three decades and has received particular attention in recent years because of the increasing emphasis placed on professional formation by accrediting bodies such as the Liaison Committee on Medical Education and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Yet, despite the development of standards, milestones, and competencies related to professionalism, there is no consensus about the specific goals of medical ethics education, the essential knowledge and skills expected of learners, the best pedagogical methods and processes for implementation, and optimal strategies for assessment. Moreover, the quality, extent, and focus of medical ethics instruction vary, particularly at the graduate medical education level. Although variation in methods of instruction and assessment may be appropriate, ultimately medical ethics education must address the overarching articulated expectations of the major accrediting organizations. With the aim of aiding medical ethics educators in meeting these expectations, the Romanell Report describes current practices in ethics education and offers guidance in several areas: educational goals and objectives, teaching methods, assessment strategies, and other challenges and opportunities (including course structure and faculty development). The report concludes by proposing an agenda for future research.
Full Text Available The article deals with outlining guidelines for improving professional training of junior medical staff based on European experience. Consequently, guidelines and recommendations on enhancing the efficiency of medical education in general and junior medical specialists’ professional training, in particular, published by European Union of Medical Specialists, General Medical Council, World Federation for Medical Education have been studied, analyzed, justified and presented in the paper. According to European Union of Medical Specialists it has been concluded that general aspects of medical specialists’ training are based on the selection process for the access to the medical specialists’ training, duration of training, common trunk, training program and quality assurance; requirements for training institutions involve recognition, size, quality assurance and teaching infructructure; requirements for instructors encompass qualification, training program, teacher/trainee ratio; requirements for trainees cover experience, language and logbook. In addition, the components that define the quality of junior medical specialists’ professional training based on N. Novosolova’s ideas have been indicated. Finally, based on the positive aspects of the guidelines analyzed the appropriate ones that, in our opinion, may be of use in Ukraine, have been presented.
Stratton, Terry; Kelly, Thomas H.; Starnes, Catherine P.; Sawaya, B. Peter
Context This study explores the long-term impact of the Professional Student Mentored Research Fellowship (PSMRF) program at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine (UKCOM) on medical students’ research productivity and career paths. Methods Demographic characteristics, academic profiles, number of publications and residency placements from 2007-2012 were used to assess 119 PSMRF graduates against a comparison cohort of 898 UKCOM (non-PSMRF) students. Results PSMRF students had higher MCAT scores at admission (31.5 ± 0.6 vs. 30.6 ± 0.2, p = 0.007) and achieved higher USMLE Step 1 scores (228 ± 4.2 vs. 223 ± 1.5, p = 0.03) than comparison group. PSMRF students were more likely to publish Pubmed-indexed papers (36.7% vs. 17.9%, p < 0.0001), achieve AOA status (19.3% vs. 8.5%, p = 0.0002) and match to top 25 U.S. News and World Report residency programs (23.4% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.008). A greater proportion of PSMRF fellows matched to top tier competitive specialties (23% vs. 14.2%, p= 0.07), however this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions The PSMRF program shows a significant increase in enrollment, as well as positive associations with indicators of success in medical school and subsequent quality of residency program. PMID:25996460
Tsai, Shih-Li; Ho, Ming-Jung; Hirsh, David; Kern, David E
In the age of globalization, non-Western medical educators seem too eager to conform to Western educational approaches and may, thereby, undermine the pursuit of local curricular needs. To develop a medical professionalism curriculum that explicitly considered local cultural needs and social expectations. We used a systematic six-step approach to develop the curriculum. We engaged local stakeholders (physicians, allied health professionals, and members of the public) in a nominal group process to identify professionalism competencies. Students and faculty participated in a survey and/or focus groups to determine learner/faculty needs. Teachers drafted goals and objectives related to locally valued competencies. We designed and implemented educational strategies to develop students' competencies that meet local societal expectations, such as involving family members in decision making. We plan to use multi-source feedback and a portfolio to assess students, which reinforces a definition of integrity that encompasses not only congruence between individual values and behaviors, but also achieving harmony among all stakeholders. We plan to reinforce the formal curriculum with faculty development and attention to the hidden curriculum. Based upon our experience and reflection, we offer some practical methods for integrating local cultural values and societal needs in professionalism education.
In India, globalized flows of biomedical discourse like evidence-based delivery practices (EBDs) and new technologies are reshaping the field of reproductive health care. As iterations of evidence-based medicine shift, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) increasingly act as distributive agents for biomedical projects that equate modernized health care spaces and provider-care techniques with a marked improvement in the safety of birth outcomes. In this article, I examine how particular local iterations of EBDs are distributed to skilled birth attendants (SBAs) who have become sites for globalized projects aimed at reshaping their professional designation. I draw on data collected through in-depth ethnographic interviews with SBAs practicing in health centers around southern Rajasthan to explore the dynamics and tensions surrounding the professionalization of midwives and the increasing promotion of EBDs in institutional labor rooms.
Cascón-Pereira, Rosalía; Kirkpatrick, Ian; Exworthy, Mark
This article aims to assess if the status of the medical profession has been reinforced or weakened with the new public management. With this purpose, it collects the opinion of two international experts regarding situation in the United Kingdom, in order to apply some lessons to the Spanish case. Both agree that, far from losing status and power with the healthcare reform, the medical profession has protected its status and autonomy against other social agents such as managers, politicians and patients. However, the maintenance of the status quo has been at the expense of an intra-professional stratification that has caused status inequalities linked to social class within the medical profession. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. All rights reserved.
Jawaid, Masood; Khan, Muhammad Hassaan; Bhutto, Shahzadi Nisar
Objective: To find out the frequency and contents of online social networking (Facebook) among medical students of Dow University of Health Sciences. Methods: The sample of the study comprised of final year students of two medical colleges of Dow University of Health Sciences – Karachi. Systematic search for the face book profiles of the students was carried out with a new Facebook account. In the initial phase of search, it was determined whether each student had a Facebook account and the s...
Conclusions: Effectively planning, implementation and also evaluation of health programs in adolescent health is required to change attitude of adolescents, the health providers and also that of the setting where adolescents are addressed. Health professionals have their credibility towards adolescents, and the advice they give may be important for teenage behavior. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 2968-2972
S. M. Serjogin
Full Text Available The article analyzes ethical aspects of the personality of a public servant. Such concepts as, «professional honor», «professional dignity», «professional justice», «professional responsibility» are disclosed. The role of these concepts in public servants’ professional activities is defermined. It is stated that professional dignity of the public servant is closely connected with his position in the team, his personal merit and honor public servant. The matter is that a public servant is a representative a particular team, and the entire public service. The attention is focused on the fact that the higher developed feeling of personal and official dignity of public servants, the more he values his professional honor, the more significant social value he has to society. As a result, professional honor and professional dignity, complement each other, help to maintain a certain, fairly high level of a public servant’s morality. It was found that such concepts as «professional honor», «professional dignity», «professional justice», «professional responsibility» were brought up before and are brought up now in a large stable structures and organizations of the world. In developed countries, such as France, Germany, Japan, England – the honor and responsibility of public servant are essential professional qualities, which largely determine style of activities and influence decision-making process. In our country, nowadays, the education of a public servant is missed, therefore we will not be able in the future to count on the loyalty of civil servants to their job. We will have to deal with the satisfaction of public servants’ personal needs, as it often happens now. Based on the analysis concluded that the professional ethics of a public servant is a rather complicated and weighty task of harmonizing professional and personal moral responsibility, principles, values and interests.
Hojat, Mohammadreza; And Others
A survey of 530 male and 137 female graduates of Jefferson Medical College (Pennsylvania) found numerous gender differences in their assessments of selected areas of the medical school curriculum, issues of medical practice and professional life, and specialty choices, professional activities, and research productivity. (Author/MSE)
Gabriel M. Ahlfeldt; Maennig, Wolfgang; Ölschläger, Michaela
This paper investigates the 2001 referendum on the Allianz-Arena, a professional soccer stadium in Munich, Germany, with respect to lifestyle-specific voter preferences. Using political party affiliation and milieu probabilities as proxy variables, we find that lifestyle-specific preferences, values and attitudes more significantly contribute to the explanation of voting outcome compared to traditional strata-orientated indicators of economic wealth. Thus, lifestyle, preferences, tastes and a...
Boon, K; Turner, J
As medical education increasingly acknowledges the importance of the ethical and professional conduct of practitioners, and moves towards more formal assessment of these issues, it is important to consider the evidence base which exists in this area. This article discusses literature about the health needs and problems experienced by medical practitioners as a background to a review of the current efforts in medical education to promote ethical conduct and develop mechanisms for the detection and remediation of problems. PMID:15082823
Full Text Available Background: There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs: The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs.The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results: Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention.Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion: The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework.
Krych, Esther H; Vande Voort, Jennifer L
We are two medical students. For one of us, medical school is just beginning; for the other, it is coming to an end. Our experiences are different, but our message is the same. Professionalism is a vital component in the field of medicine. Characteristics such as trustworthiness, compassion, integrity, honesty, leadership, and social responsibility must be embraced by the next generation of doctors so the future healthcare system will be one that patients and physicians admire and respect. To reach this goal, it is important to understand how medical students today view professionalism and how such a construct is integrated into medical education. We hope to provide insight into this area by reflecting on the lessons we have learned regarding professionalism in medical school. Professionalism, like the medical field itself, is a life-long learning process. By encouraging this process early in medical training, future doctors will be able to provide their patients with highest quality care. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Stark, Meredith; Fins, Joseph J
While the medical ethics literature has well explored the harm to patients, families, and the integrity of the profession in failing to disclose medical errors once they occur, less often addressed are the moral and professional obligations to take all available steps to prevent errors and harm in the first instance. As an expanding body of scholarship further elucidates the causes of medical error, including the considerable extent to which medical errors, particularly in diagnostics, may be attributable to cognitive sources, insufficient progress in systematically evaluating and implementing suggested strategies for improving critical thinking skills and medical judgment is of mounting concern. Continued failure to address pervasive thinking errors in medical decisionmaking imperils patient safety and professionalism, as well as beneficence and nonmaleficence, fairness and justice. We maintain that self-reflective and metacognitive refinement of critical thinking should not be construed as optional but rather should be considered an integral part of medical education, a codified tenet of professionalism, and by extension, a moral and professional duty.
Ozturk, Naim; Armato, Samuel G.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Serago, Christopher F.; Ross, Lainie F.
Purpose: To assess current education, practices, attitudes, and perceptions pertaining to ethics and professionalism in medical physics. Methods: A link to a web-based survey was distributed to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) e-mail membership list, with a follow-up e-mail sent two weeks later. The survey included questions about ethics/professionalism education, direct personal knowledge of ethically questionable practices in clinical care, research, education (teaching and mentoring), and professionalism, respondents’ assessment of their ability to address ethical/professional dilemmas, and demographics. For analysis, reports of unethical or ethically questionable practices or behaviors by approximately 40% or more of respondents were classified as “frequent.” Results: Partial or complete responses were received from 18% (1394/7708) of AAPM members. Overall, 60% (827/1377) of the respondents stated that they had not received ethics/professionalism education during their medical physics training. Respondents currently in training were more likely to state that they received instruction in ethics/professionalism (80%, 127/159) versus respondents who were post-training (35%, 401/1159). Respondents’ preferred method of instruction in ethics/professionalism was structured periodic discussions involving both faculty and students/trainees. More than 90% (1271/1384) supported continuing education in ethics/professionalism and 75% (1043/1386) stated they would attend ethics/professionalism sessions at professional/scientific meetings. In the research setting, reports about ethically questionable authorship assignment were frequent (approximately 40%) whereas incidents of ethically questionable practices about human subjects protections were quite infrequent (5%). In the clinical setting, there was frequent recollection of incidents regarding lack of training, resources and skills, and error/incident reporting. In the educational setting
The charter of medical professionalism in the new millennium (Charter) has been endorsed worldwide, including by the Chinese Medical Doctor Association from 2005. Six years later, the association drafted a Chinese version of medical professionalism based on the Charter, the Chinese Medical Doctor Declaration (Declaration). This Declaration encompasses six tenets, which have large areas of overlap with the Charter. Meanwhile, certain differences also exist between the universal professionalism that the Charter aims to disseminate and the ideal Chinese professionalism that the Declaration endeavours to bolster. In this paper, we explore the unique aspects of the Declaration in contrast with the Charter to gain a deeper understanding of professionalism in the particular context of China. The Declaration may omit some valuable commitments found in the Charter, but it includes longstanding Confucian and cultural traditions of China, as well as consideration of current social circumstances. The Declaration thus re-establishes the ideal of universal professionalism in light of the Chinese context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
de Castro-Santos, L A
Since George Herbert Mead studied "the social self" and the interactionists went further in distinguishing "images of self", a lecture on the building up of a Brazilian medical identity should try to focus on the patterns of self-images, presented images, and aspired-to images among the Brazilian medical elites during the First Republic (1889-1930). In no other period of Brazilian history were those "images" of professional identity so close--in contrast, later periods of Brazilian history witnessed an almost permanent "collision" or the clashing of such images among public health specialists. Oswaldo Cruz, Carlos Chagas, Artur Neiva and Belisário Pena are perhaps the best examples of successful careers as "sanitarians" (to recall John Duffy's historical work on luminaries before and after the "New Public Health" in the United States), and as important political actors during Brazil's First Republic. In light of the prominent political, policy-oriented, and scientific roles public health professionals played in Brazil, it is interesting to suggest that in large part such prominence resulted from the symbolic impact of the ideologies of sanitary reform on the political agenda of that period of Brazilian history. Where many studies look for personal rivalries and disputes around Chagas and Neiva as public figures, we may also see the importance of finding identity-building processes among public health specialists as an integrated group (e.g., trying to appear as "significant others" for the new generations of medical graduates in the country), regardless of existing rivalries. Cruz and Chagas, especially, were names with great impact in the Brazilian press (pro and con), a circumstance made possible largely by their easy and direct access to the Brazilian presidents Rodrigues Alves and Epitácio Pessoa, and, most clearly, by public health being one of Brazil's political priorities to find a place among the "civilized nations" of the world. A task that further
Hallberg, Ulrika; Klingberg, Gunilla
Good collaboration between medical and dental care is essential to provide not only good oral health care, but also more holistic care for children with disabilities. The aim was to explore and describe medical health care professionals' assessments and considerations of orofacial problems and treatment needs in children with disabilities and in their families. In-depth interviews focusing on orofacial function were carried out with 17 medical health care employees. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed in open and focused (selective) coding processes according to grounded theory. A core category was identified and named focusing on basic needs, showing that oral health care assessment was not on the agenda of medical health care professionals, but was instead viewed as a responsibility of parents or dentists. This study shows that oral health issues are not fully integrated in the medical care of children with disabilities. The omission of oral health issues from the medical agenda implies a risk of oral health problems in children with disabilities. To put the oral cavity and oral health on the medical agenda, dentists need to influence the undergraduate training of medical professionals and to initiate co-operation with the medical care system.
L.A. van der Valk (Loes)
textabstractSummary The development of mutual and commercial health insurance, and state health insurance programs in particular, typically provoked much criticism from the professionals involved with them. Moreover, the efforts of the Dutch medical association, the NMG, to influence state proposals
Wells, Rebecca; Cilenti, Dorothy; Issel, L Michele
Throughout the United States, public health leaders are experimenting with how best to integrate services for individuals with complex needs. To that end, North Carolina implemented a policy incorporating both local public health departments and other providers into medical homes for low income pregnant women and young children at risk of developmental delays. To understand how this transition occurred within local communities, a pre-post comparative case study was conducted. A total of 42 people in four local health departments across the state were interviewed immediately before the 2011 policy change and six months later: 32 professionals (24 twice) and 10 pregnant women receiving case management at the time of the policy implementation. We used constant comparative analysis of interview and supplemental data to identify three key consequences of the policy implementation. One, having medical homes increased the centrality of other providers relative to local health departments. Two, a shift from focusing on personal relationships toward medical efficiency diverged in some respects from both case managers' and mothers' goals. Three, health department staff re-interpreted state policies to fit their public health values. Using a political economy perspective, these changes are interpreted as reflecting shifts in public health's broader ideological environment. To a large extent, the state successfully induced more connection between health department-based case managers and external providers. However, limited provider engagement may constrain the implementation of the envisioned medical homes. The increased focus on medical risk may also undermine health departments' role in supporting health over time by attenuating staff relationships with mothers. This study helps clarify how state public health policy innovations unfold at local levels, and why front line practice may in some respects diverge from policy intent.
Vijay Rajput, MD
Full Text Available There is a need to redefine physician excellence through promoting professionalism with humanism to meet the needs of a diverse generational and cultural society. My goal is to bring together and advance concepts that cultivate emotional and social intelligence to complement the clinical skills required for the effective practice of medicine in the complex milieu of the 21st century
Shiozawa, T; Griewatz, J; Hirt, B; Zipfel, S; Lammerding-Koeppel, M; Herrmann-Werner, A
Medical professionalism is an increasingly important issue in medical education. The dissection course represents a profound experience for undergraduate medical students, which may be suitable to address competencies such as self-reflection and professional behavior. Based on a needs assessment, a seminar on medical professionalism was developed to parallel the dissection course. The conceptual framework for the teaching intervention is experiential learning. Specific learning goals and an interview guideline were formulated. After a pilot run, peer-teaching was introduced. Over three terms (winter 2012/13, 2013/14, 2014/15), an average of 129 students voluntarily participated in the seminar, corresponding to 40% of the student cohort. The evaluation (n=38) shows a majority of students agreeing that the seminar offers support with this extraordinary situation in general and also that the seminar helps them to become first impressions on how to cope with death and dying in their later professional life as a doctor, and, that it also provides them the means to reflect upon their own coping mechanisms. Although not yet implemented as an obligatory course, the seminar is appreciated and positively evaluated. Medical professionalism is an implicit aspect of the dissection course. To emphasize its importance, a teaching intervention to explicitly discuss this topic is advisable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Serini, Shirley A.
A case study examined the process of preparing information for publication in an in-house newsletter for a large organization, focusing on the factors determining the amount of autonomy of public relations practitioners as professionals in organizations. The subject of the case study was a communication and advertising department of a "mixed…
This paper considers the multiple discourses that influence medical education with a focus on the discourses of competence and caring. Discourses of competence are largely constituted through, and related to, biomedical and clinical issues whereas discourses of caring generally focus on social concerns. These discourses are not necessarily equal…
Garvey, Katharine C; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Herrick, Daniel B; Woolf, Alan D; Leichtner, Alan M
The deterioration of humanism and professionalism during graduate medical training is an acknowledged concern, and programs are required to provide professionalism education for pediatric fellows. We conducted a needs assessment survey in a national sample of 138 first- and second-year gastroenterology fellows (82% response rate). Most believed that present humanism and professionalism education met their needs, but this education was largely informal (eg, role modeling). Areas for formal education desired by >70% included competing demands of clinical practice versus research, difficult doctor-patient relationships, depression/burnout, angry parents, medical errors, work-life balance, and the patient illness experience. These results may guide curricula to formalize humanism and professionalism education in pediatric gastroenterology fellowships.
Schier, Joshua G; Rubin, Carol; Schwartz, Michael D; Thomas, Jerry D; Geller, Robert J; Morgan, Brent W; McGeehin, Michael A; Frumkin, Howard
In December 2002, the medical toxicology sub-board, which consists of representatives from emergency medicine, preventive medicine, and pediatrics, released revised core content for medical toxicology, aiming to better meet the academic challenges imposed by the continually expanding knowledge base of medical toxicology. These challenges included the addition of relatively new areas of interest in medical toxicology, including population health, while simultaneously ensuring that a structural framework existed to accommodate future areas of interest. There is no evidence readily available to assess how well the educational curricula of existing fellowship programs are meeting these needs. In an effort to address this, the authors describe a medical toxicology fellowship program that consists of a partnership among the Emory University School of Medicine, the Georgia Poison Control Center, and the CDC, as well as the results of a reorganization of its academic curriculum that occurred in 2006. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report describing such a curriculum redesign. Suggestions and potential resources proposed as enhancements for the public health-associated education of medical toxicology fellows are discussed. The authors also seek to initiate a discussion among programs about how to optimally meet the new challenges developed by the medical toxicology sub-board.
Frasca, Dominic R
The Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), through the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), coordinates federal Emergency Support Function (ESF) #8 preparedness, response, and recovery actions. To address these needs, the ASPR can draw on trained personnel from a variety of sources, both from within and outside HHS. Among the resources under the domain of HHS is the Medical Reserve Corps (MRC), directed by the Office of the Civilian Volunteer Medical Reserve Corps (OCVMRC) in the Office of the Surgeon General. MRC units are community based and function as a way to locally organize and utilize medical and public health professionals, such as physicians, nurses, pharmacists, dentists, veterinarians, and epidemiologists. Nonclinical volunteers, such as interpreters, chaplains, office workers, legal advisors, and others, can fill logistical and support roles in MRC units. This article discusses locally controlled (Hurricanes Gustav and Ike) and federalized (Hurricanes Katrina and Rita) MRC activations, and it describes the advantages of using medical volunteers in a large-scale disaster response setting.
Benotmane, Ilies; Glatz, Nicolas; Bihan, Solenn; Legrand, Fanny; Gosset, Didier; Boulanger, Eric
The purpose of this study was to determine the future, in terms of scientific publication, of medical thesis (MT) defended in the Medical School of Lille 2 University (MSL2U) between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2007. The collection of MT published as a corresponding scientific article was realized from PubMed(®). For every corresponding article, we determined the journal Impact Factor (IF), the language of publication and the rank of the student and his MT director in the author list. Analyses were also realized according to the group of speciality of the TM. In all, 11.3% of the 2150 MT defended in the MSL2U were followed up by a scientific publication. The average IF was 2.32 with a median at 1.75 and extreme values from 0 to 14.78. Seventy percent of the articles were published in English. The rank of the student was placed before his MT director (2.06 vs. 3.15). The MT defended by students in the field of medical specialities presented the highest rate of publication (25.1%). The general medicine was the second speciality the most productive in term of number of published articles (n=49) after medical specialities (n=103). The MT director and the PhD students must be more motivated to publish their results. The value of 11.3% could be considered as weak but, because of a huge lack of references, it is impossible to compare our results to those of other French medical schools. It remains important to reform the objectives and the modalities of the writing of a MT: should we not have to turn to thesis called "on article"? Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Zarzeczny, Amy; Clark, Marianne
The pursuit of unproven stem cell-based interventions ("stem cell tourism") is an emerging issue that raises various concerns. Physicians play different roles in this market, many of which engage their legal, ethical and professional obligations. In Canada, physicians are members of a self-regulated profession and their professional regulatory bodies are responsible for regulating the practice of medicine and protecting the public interest. They also provide policy guidance to their members and discipline members for unprofessional conduct. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with representatives from six different provincial Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons in Canada to discuss their experiences and perspectives regarding stem cell tourism. Our focus was on exploring how different types of physician involvement in this market would be viewed by physicians' professional regulatory bodies in Canada. When considering physicians' professional obligations, participants drew analogies between stem cell tourism and other areas of medical tourism as well as with some aspects of complementary alternative medicine where existing policies, codes of ethics and regulations provide some guidance. Canadian physicians are required to act in the best interests of their patients, respect patient autonomy, avoid conflicts of interest and pursue evidence-based practice in accordance with accepted standards of care. Physicians who provide unproven treatments falling outside the standard of care, not in the context of an approved research protocol, could be subject to professional discipline. Other types of problematic conduct include referrals involving financial conflict of interest and failure to provide urgent medically necessary care. Areas of ambiguity include physicians' obligations when asked for information and advice about seeking unproven medical treatments, in terms of providing non-urgent follow-up care, and when asked to support efforts to go abroad by
Joseph, Kimera; Bader, Karlen; Wilson, Sara; Walker, Melissa; Stephens, Mark; Varpio, Lara
Professional identity formation is an on-going, integrative process underlying trainees' experiences of medical education. Since each medical student's professional identity formation process is an individual, internal, and often times emotionally charged unconscious experience, it can be difficult for educators to understand each student's unique experience. We investigate if mask making can provide learners and educators the opportunity to explore medical students' professional identity formation experiences. In 2014 and 2015, 30 third year medical students created masks, with a brief accompanying written narrative, to creatively express their medical education experiences. Using a paradigmatic case selection approach, four masks were analyzed using techniques from visual rhetoric and the Listening Guide. The research team clearly detected identity dissonance in each case. Each case provided insights into the unique personal experiences of the dissonance process for each trainee at a particular point in their medical school training. We propose that mask making accompanied by a brief narrative reflection can help educators identify students experiencing identity dissonance, and explore each student's unique experience of that dissonance. The process of making these artistic expressions may also provide a form of intervention that can enable educators to help students navigate professional identity formation and identity dissonance experiences.
Levy, Marian; Gentry, Daniel; Klesges, Lisa M
As the field of public health advances toward addressing complex, systemic problems, future public health professionals must be equipped with leadership and interprofessional skills that support collaboration and a culture of health. The University of Memphis School of Public Health has infused innovative strategies into graduate education via experiential learning opportunities to enhance leadership, collaboration, and professional development. Novel training programs such as Day One, Public Health Interdisciplinary Case Competition, and Memphis Healthy U support Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health cross-cutting competencies and prepare Master of Public Health and Master of Health Administration graduates to function effectively at the outset of their careers and become catalysts for creating a culture of health.
Connie J Evashwick
Full Text Available A well-educated workforce is essential to the infrastructure of a public health system. At the time when global focus on public health is increasing, a severe shortage of public health professionals is projected. A strong educational framework is imperative to ensure the capacity and capability of the worldwide public health workforce for the future. Frenk and Chen (2011 comment that academic public health has done far less than medicine or nursing to examine its pedagogy. The goal of this study is to examine the literature pertaining to the education of public health professionals in order to document the extent to which those preparing public health professionals think about what they teach, how they teach, and what the results of the instruction are. The specific objectives are to (1 identify relevant peer reviewed literature, (2 analyze that literature for content, (3 characterize the literature according to type of methodology, and (4 draw conclusions and implications to enhance future pedagogical efforts. The study searched three bibliographic sources for articles written in English between 2000-2012. The search of PubMed, Scopus, Education Full Text identified 576 unique articles. The articles were analyzed according to ten content themes and four format categories. The conclusions are that those teaching public health professionals devote considerable thought to what and how they teach, although original research and evaluation studies are fewer than descriptive reports of courses, programs and curricula. A journal devoted specifically to articles pertaining to education of public health professionals will encourage academicians to write articles sharing approaches to educating the public health workforce.
Garza, Melinda N; Pulido, Lila A; Amerson, Megan; Ali, Faheem A; Greenhill, Brandy A; Griffin, Gary; Alvarez, Enrique; Whatley, Marsha; Hu, Peter C
Transfusion medicine, a section of the Department of Laboratory Medicine at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center is committed to the education and advancement of its health care professionals. It is our belief that giving medical laboratory professionals a path for advancement leads to excellence and increases overall professionalism in the Immunohematology Laboratory. As a result of this strong commitment to excellence and professionalism, the Immunohematology laboratory has instituted a Professional Development Model (PDM) that aims to create Medical Laboratory Scientists (MLS) that are not only more knowledgeable, but are continually striving for excellence. In addition, these MLS are poised for advancement in their careers. The professional development model consists of four levels: Discovery, Application, Maturation, and Expert. The model was formulated to serve as a detailed path to the mastery of all process and methods in the Immunohematology Laboratory. Each level in the professional development model consists of tasks that optimize the laboratory workflow and allow for concurrent training. Completion of a level in the PDM is rewarded with financial incentive and further advancement in the field. The PDM for Medical Laboratory Scientists in the Immunohematology Laboratory fosters personal development, rewards growth and competency, and sets high standards for all services and skills provided. This model is a vital component of the Immunohematology Laboratory and aims to ensure the highest quality of care and standards in their testing. It is because of the success of this model and the robustness of its content that we hope other medical laboratories aim to reach the same level of excellence and professionalism, and adapt this model into their own environment.
Pan, Wei; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Bouslimi, Dalel; Prigent, Nicolas
Cloud computing promises medical imaging services offering large storage and computing capabilities for limited costs. In this data outsourcing framework, one of the greatest issues to deal with is data security. To do so, we propose to secure a public cloud platform devoted to medical image sharing by defining and deploying a security policy so as to control various security mechanisms. This policy stands on a risk assessment we conducted so as to identify security objectives with a special interest for digital content protection. These objectives are addressed by means of different security mechanisms like access and usage control policy, partial-encryption and watermarking.
Horstman, Patricia; Theeke, Laurie
This article presents the outcomes of a structured writing retreat used with a group of professional nurses from a Magnet-designated hospital. The purpose of the retreat was to enhance nurses' ability to prepare poster presentations, develop manuscripts for peer-reviewed journal submissions, and design new research studies. This staff development retreat can serve as an exemplar for other hospitals desiring to increase dissemination of best practice.
We have reconsidered the responsibility of occupational therapists who have been supporting the victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake. They can analyze problems and provide appropriate support for victims with rehabilitation and occupational therapy as well as for handicapped people. Support measures that can be provided by occupational therapists are as follows: 1) Maintenance and improvement of mind and body functions through occupational therapy. 2) Mental care. 3) Coordination of social circumstances for elderly and handicapped people. 4) Maintenance and improvement of ability to perform common activities of daily living. 5) Choice and adaptation of welfare equipment. Especially, occupational therapy provided with the aim to open victims' minds has an effect on mental care. Their mental wounds cannot be healed easily. However, networking and work activities play important roles in dealing with daily life. Occupational therapists will be expected to provide long-term treatment for victims through work activities with professional skills.
Buttery, Thomas J.
In the first edition of Writing for Publication: An Organizational Paradigm (Buttery, 2010), I recommend a model for organizing theoretical articles. The process includes seven components: title, introduction, outline/advanced organizer, headings, transitions, summary and references. This article will focus on the writing process. The strands of…
combined the theoretical resources of the capabilities approach with empirical data and ... including sexual assault and domestic violence; having opportunities for sexual satisfaction ... events of one's own choice, religious, literary, musical, and so forth. ...... This publication is covered by a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 ...
Health informatics has a major role to play in optimising the management and use of data, information and knowledge in health systems. As health systems undergo digital transformation, it is important to consider informatics approaches not only to curriculum content but also to the design of learning environments and learning activities for health professional learning and development. An example of such an informatics approach is the use of large-scale, integrated public health platforms on the Internet as part of health professional learning and development. This article describes selected examples of such platforms, with a focus on how they may influence the direction of health professional learning and development. Significance for public healthThe landscape of healthcare systems, public health systems, health research systems and professional education systems is fragmented, with many gaps and silos. More sophistication in the management of health data, information, and knowledge, based on public health informatics expertise, is needed to tackle key issues of prevention, promotion and policy-making. Platform technologies represent an emerging large-scale, highly integrated informatics approach to public health, combining the technologies of Internet, the web, the cloud, social technologies, remote sensing and/or mobile apps into an online infrastructure that can allow more synergies in work within and across these systems. Health professional curricula need updating so that the health workforce has a deep and critical understanding of the way that platform technologies are becoming the foundation of the health sector.
Montanari, Katia; Cucchi, Alessandro; Tessari, Gianni; Turri, Valentina; Gregorio, Pasquale
It is difficult to identify, from a regulatory point of view, the actual competencies of medical directors of public hospitals in Italy. A questionnaire survey was therefore conducted to identify which are the activities actually performed by this professional. One hundred twenty local health authorities participated in the survey. Findings reveal that many activities conducted by the hospital medical director, such a mediation with the local health authorities, are not formally recognized and that the medical director actually conducts more complex activities than those formally pertaining to his role.
Whether you think of it as your image, your standing in the community, or your reputation, your medical practice is also a brand. While many organizations, companies, products, and services are known for specific attributes that make them stand out from competitors, most use a combination of marketing disciplines to communicate who and what they are to their customers, consumers, and patients. Public relations is often considered the most powerful, cost-effective, and efficacious of the marketing disciplines, surpassing advertising, promotion, and direct mail in molding and developing brands. Your practice can benefit from a well-crafted branding public relations program.
Schnoor, Joerg; Heyde, Christoph-Eckhard; Ghanem, Mohamed
Demographic changes increase the financing needs of all social services. This change also generates new and complex demands on the medical staff. Accordingly, medical professionals in middle management positions hold a characteristic sandwich position between top management and the operational core. This sandwich position often constitutes new challenges. In the industrial field, the growing importance of the middle management for the company's success has already been recognized. Accordingly, the growing demand on economy urges an analysis for the medical field. While there are nearly no differences in the nature of the tasks of medical middle manager in the areas of strategy, role function, performance pressure and qualifications compared to those tasks of the industrial sector, there are basic differences as well. Especially the character of "independence" of the medical profession and its ethical values justifies these differences. Consequently, qualification of medical professionals may not be solely based on medical academic career. It is also based on the personal ability or potential to lead and to manage. Above all, the character of "independence" of the medical profession and its ethical values justifies medical action that is based on the patient's well-being and not exclusively on economic outcomes. In the future, medical middle managers are supposed to achieve an optimized balance between a patient-centered medicine and economic measures. It will be a basic requirement that middle managers accept their position and the resultant tasks putting themselves in a more active position. Because of that, middle managers can become "value-added bridge-builders".
Spoel, Philippa; James, Susan
This article investigates the uneasy process of integrating midwifery's alternative, women-centered model of childbirth care within the medically-dominated healthcare system in Canada. It analyses the impure processes of rhetorical identification and differentiation that characterized the debate about how to regulate midwifery in Ontario by examining a selection of submissions from diverse health care groups with vested interest in the debate's outcome. In divergent ways, these groups strategically appeal to the value of the "public interest" in order to advance professional concerns. The study considers the implications of this rhetorical process for re-defining midwifery's distinctive professional identity in relation to other health professions, to the state, and to the women for whom midwives care. Likewise, it suggests the relevance of rhetorical analysis for understanding the discursive formation and re-formation of health models, values, and professions in Western culture.
The IUGS Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism - promoting professional skills professionalism in the teaching, research and application of geoscience for the protection and education of the public
Allington, Ruth; Fernandez-Fuentes, Isabel
A new IUGS Task Group entitled the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism was formed in 2012 and launched at a symposium at the 341GC in Brisbane on strengthening communication between fundamental and applied geosciences and between geoscientists and public. The Task Group aims to ensure that the international geoscience community is engaged in a transformation of its profession so as to embed the need for a professional skills base alongside technical and scientific skills and expertise, within a sound ethical framework in all arenas of geoscience practice. This needs to be established during training and education and reinforced as CPD throughout a career in geoscience as part of ensuring public safety and effective communication of geoscience concepts to the public. The specific objective of the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism that is relevant to this poster session is: • To facilitate a more 'joined up' geoscience community fostering better appreciation by academics and teachers of the professional skills that geoscientists need in the workplace, and facilitate better communication between academic and applied communities leading to more effective application of research findings and technology to applied practitioners and development of research programmes that truly address urgent issues. Other Task Group objectives are: • To provide a specific international forum for discussion of matters of common concern and interest among geoscientists and geoscientific organizations involved in professional affairs, at the local, national and international level; • To act as a resource to IUGS on professional affairs in the geosciences as they may influence and impact "Earth Science for the Global Community" in general - both now and in the future; • To offer and provide leadership and knowledge transfer services to countries and geoscientist communities around the world seeking to introduce systems of professional governance and self
I. A. Revskaia
Full Text Available The article analyzes the mechanisms and technology management personnel professionalization of medical organizations. The question is now becoming even more relevant within the health care sector optimization, the main purpose of which is claimed to improve the quality of health care by improving the efficiency of health care organizations and their personnel, including the availability of physicians and medical staff, their skills and professionalism. The problems of improving the technology of postgraduate education of doctors examined.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a bibliometric analysis of the Medical Sciences (MS domains in Iran. Totally 9047 articles indexed in ISI (Thomson Reuters Database from 1989 to 2008 in December 2008 have been extracted. HistCiteTM applications are used to discover the Iranian publication status during this period. The publication count has grown at an approximate rate of 40.5% per year. We tried to introduce the most productive authors, and cited works. Moreover, distributions of output in journals identified by ISI and research output analysis of different universities were presented. The most influential cited authors and articles in this research were drawn. Finally, the process of the evolution of the medical sciences discipline, and its shift over the period of the research was traced and shown in the map. Using HistCiteTM applications, retrieved articles were analyzed and visualized.
Maguy Saffouh El Hajj
Full Text Available Maguy Saffouh El Hajj1, Nadir Kheir1, Manal Zaidan2, Peter J Jewesson11College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 2Pharmacy Department, Al Amal Cancer Centre, Doha, QatarPurpose: To characterize the professional demographics, opinions about the medication use process, perceived public satisfaction with pharmacy services, and professional satisfaction of pharmacists practicing in the state of Qatar.Materials and methods: The study was designed as a hypothesis-generating, online, anonymous, opinion survey of practicing pharmacists in Qatar.Results: Two hundred and sixty-four survey accesses were recorded during the 6-week study period, and 250 surveys containing responses to one or more questions were included in the analysis. Eighty-four percent of respondents reported graduating at least 5 years prior to the survey, and 86% held a baccalaureate degree in pharmacy as their highest degree. The most common source of the highest degree was one of five countries (Egypt, Jordan, India, Sudan, or Pakistan. Forty-five percent of respondents were working in a hospital setting, and 33% were in a community pharmacy. The lowest incidence of agreement across the 10 drug procurement and distribution process statements was observed for the adequacy of medication supplies statements (33% of all respondents. The highest incidence of agreement across the eight medication use process statements was for the statement pertaining to infrequent dispensing errors (68%, and the lowest incidence of agreement was observed for the statement pertaining to the adequacy of patient monitoring (30%. The pharmacist was chosen as the best candidate to resolve perceived unmet medication needs for four of eight statements, whereas physicians were most frequently chosen for three of the four remaining statements. Respondents' perceptions regarding patient satisfaction with the different elements of the medication use process revealed that the lowest incidence of agreement
Rabow, Michael W; Evans, Carrie N; Remen, Rachel N
During medical training, students gain professional competence but may lose elements of personal humanity. Little is known about what personal qualities or values students themselves experience to be at risk or surrendered during medical school. Medical students participating in the Healer's Art elective in the United States and internationally during 2008--2009 were asked to reflect, identify, and draw a part of themselves that they were wary about revealing, not comfortable showing, or felt may be diminished in medical school and label this part with a word. Using a team-based qualitative approach, these words were categorized into common themes and the themes analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Words from 673 students from 31 medical schools were analyzed. Most students were female (58.7%) and in their first year (86.3%). Eleven themes were identified: spirituality, emotional engagement, identity/self-expression, freedom/spontaneity, relationships, self-care, creativity, negative emotions, values, other, and joy/happiness. The most common individual words used were creativity, family, balance, freedom, love, peace, compassion, relationships, and reflection. There were only rare differences in distributions of themes across gender, year in school, school size, or school nationality. An international cadre of Healer's Art students identified core personal qualities and values that they may not reveal or feel may be diminished in medical school. Medical training involves not only professional formation but exposure to professional deformation as well. Educators must attend to both gains in professional competence and the personal qualities and values that are at risk in the course of professional development.
Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli; Oliveira, Denize Cristina de
The object of this study is the professional image constructed by public health nurses and the objective is to describe and analyze the professional images present in the representations of nurses who deliver direct care to this clientele. The theoretical-methodological reference framework adopted was Social Representations Theory. A qualitative study was developed in Petrópolis-Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, through in-depth interviews with 30 nurses. Alceste 4.5 software was used for the lexical analysis. The results reveal the existence of a professional self-image with three groups of meanings: being a reference for the team, the non-specific image and the image of plaster; and a professional hetero-image with four groups of meanings: administrator, invisible, positive image and superposition. The study of the professional image reflects the construction of the nurse's identity in itself and emphasizes Social Representations Theory as a useful tool for nursing research development.
De Pietro, Carlo
This study explores how Italian public hospitals can use private medical activities run by their employed physicians as a human resources management (HRM) tool. It is based on field research in two acute-care hospitals and a review of Italian literature and laws. The Italian National Health Service (NHS) allows employed physicians to run private, patient-funded activities ("private beds", surgical operations, hospital outpatient clinics, etc.). Basic regulation is set at the national level, but it can be greatly improved at the hospital level. Private activities, if poorly managed, can damage efficiency, equity, quality of care, and public trust in the NHS. On the other hand, hospitals can also use them as leverage to improve HRM, with special attention to three issues: (1) professional evaluation, development, and training; (2) compensation policies; (3) competition for, and retention of, professionals in short supply. The two case studies presented here show great differences between the two hospitals in terms of regulation and organizational solutions that have been adopted to deal with such activities. However, in both hospitals, private activities do not seem to benefit HRM. Private activities are not systematically considered in compensation policies. Moreover, private revenues are strongly concentrated in a few physicians. Hospitals use very little of the information provided by the private activities to improve knowledge management, career development, or training planning. Finally, hospitals do not use private activities management as a tool for competing in the labor market for health professionals who are in short supply.
Kim, Soo Young; Bae, Chong-Woo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Cho, Hye Min
The purpose of this study was to examine trends in duplicate publication in Korean medical articles indexed in the KoreaMed database from 2004 to 2009, before and after a campaign against scientific misconduct launched by the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors in 2006. The study covered period from 2007 to 2012; and 5% of the articles indexed in KoreaMed were retrieved by random sampling. Three authors reviewed full texts of the retrieved articles. The pattern of duplicate publication, such as copy, salami slicing (fragmentation), and aggregation (imalas), was also determined. Before the launching ethics campaign, the national duplication rate in medical journals was relatively high: 5.9% in 2004, 6.0% in 2005, and 7.2% in 2006. However, duplication rate steadily declined to 4.5% in 2007, 2.8% in 2008, and 1.2 % in 2009. Of all duplicated articles, 53.4% were classified as copies, 27.8% as salami slicing, and 18.8% as aggregation (imalas). The decline in duplicate publication rate took place as a result of nationwide campaigns and monitoring by KoreaMed and KoreaMed Synapse, starting from 2006.
Studies show significant negative effects of smoking marijuana on physical and mental health as well as social and occupational functioning. At the same time, there are more considerations about its ability to treat a number of diseases. This review summarizes current data in scientific literature that examines the medical effects of marijuana on human health with particular emphasis on its potential in medicine. Marijuana has a range of adverse health effects, particularly relating to young people because of higher risk for psychosis, traffic accidents, and cognitive impairment. Marijuana may be helpful in relieving symptoms of nausea and vomiting, increasing appetite and pain relief for persons with cancer, AIDS and multiple sclerosis. Smoking marijuana can impose significant public health risks. If there is a medical role for using marijuana, it lies in the application of clearly defined medical protocols and chemically defined compounds, not with using the unprocessed cannabis plant.
Hammer, Philip W.
Outreach and public engagement lower the barriers that inhibit broader public appreciation of and participation in physics, and are important for inspiring the next generation of scientists and science-literate citizens. The APS and many other professional societies have made significant and sustained investments in public engagement because of the importance of these activities - APS, for example, has an entire department dedicated to outreach. In addition, professional societies have responded to members who desire resources for enabling and enhancing their own outreach efforts. A key question is always, ``What works?'' Professional societies can help provide the answers. In this talk, I will explore the critical interface played by professional societies as a bridge to the public, as a resource to members, and as a broker of partnerships. I will also feature numerous examples of creative and compelling ways to engage the public, including physicscentral.org, LaserFest, NISE Net, Comic Con, SOCKs, citizen science, and many more. A more important question is, ``Is it fun?'' I will show that the answer is an unqualified, ``Yes!'' The author gratefully acknowledges Rebecca Thompson, Head of APS Public Outreach, for her contributions to this work.
Steingard, S A
The NBA basketball players are among the finest athletes in the world. That along with the increased popularity of the NBA has put a premium on the health of the players. The course of the season puts tremendous stress and strain on players. As medical illnesses occur, the physician may feel increased pressure to put the ill player back into the line-up. One cannot let the pressure for the player to return to activity interfere with good medical practice. At times, it is difficult to allow for the natural course of an illness, however, as discussed in this article, sometimes this is exactly what needs to be done. The temptation to overtreat is also seen in some team physicians. This too must be avoided. Along with proper treatment, there is the need for education of the athletes both in social interactions and in diet and life-style. Then we, as team physicians, can sit back and enjoy the performance on the court.
James Kleshinski, MD
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of professionalism scenarios on the medical school admissions process from applicant and faculty perspectives. Specifically, do completing professionalism scenarios as part of the medical school interview process have an impact on both the interviewee’s and the faculty’s perception of the process and outcome?Method: Ninety-one faculty interviewed 199 applicants from January 2007 through April 2007 at The University of Toledo College of Medicine. All applicants were asked one standard professionalism scenario in each of their two interviews. A total of six scenarios were used for the entire interviewing season in rotation every two months. A survey was administered by an admissions office staff member to both the interviewed applicants as well as faculty who conducted interviews about how these scenarios impacted their interview experience.Results: Asking applicants to respond to professionalism scenarios during the interview was described as having a positive influence on their interview experience. This was also associated with leaving an impression on the applicant about what our institution values in its students and contributed an element of personal reflection about what will be expected of them in the medical profession. Applicants more often reported that asking questions about professionalism was an important aspect of the interview than did faculty. Overall, there was an association between the interviewer’s perception of the applicant’s response and the interviewer’s assessment of professionalism.Conclusions: Professionalism scenarios can be a worthwhile tool for use in the admissions process. The interview process should encourage participation from faculty who value this as an important component in the evaluation of an applicant. Determinants of faculty perception of the role of assessing professionalism in the interview process should be investigated in future
Timeus, Krista; Ricard, Lykke Margot
The paper addresses two questions; what do professionals working in the public administration understand by ‘risk’ in relation to their work on innovation?; and how do these professionals understand their own role in managing risks of innovation? The paper takes an inductive approach and focuses...... on individuals, namely, professionals in Copenhagen municipality working on public services innovation. Such innovation includes new services or new methods of service delivery. Although all types of innovation include some risk, in public services, risks are exacerbated by the vulnerability of many users...... dependent on the state (such as children, elderly, people with disabilities), and intense media and political attention.Thus, most of the discussion in the paper focuses on innovations that somehow involve users. This is in contrast to, for example, an organizational innovation that mainly affects workers...
Evashwick, Connie J; Tao, Donghua; Bax, Kate
A well-educated workforce is essential to the infrastructure of a public health system (1). At a time when global focus on public health is increasing, a severe shortage of public health professionals is projected (2). A strong educational framework is thus imperative to ensure the capacity and capability of the worldwide public health workforce for the future. The education of those who work in public health is spread across disciplines, subject-specific training programs and types of academic institutions. In the 2011 report on the Health Professionals for a New Century, Frenk and Chen comment that, compared to medicine and nursing, public health has done the least to examine what and how it teaches (3). This does not bode well for meeting the demands of the public health workforce for the future. The purpose of the study reported here is to analyze the state of pedagogy pertaining to the education of the public health workforce as evidenced by published literature. The focus is on "professionals," defined as those who have formal education, are self-governing, and can work independently.
Verma, Pradhuman; Sachdeva, Suresh K; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Khosa, Rameen; Basavraju, Suman; Dutta, Sanjay
Due to competitiveness and academic benefits, most dental professionals feel an urgent need to increase their publications. Hence, we explored the attitude of students and faculty members toward scientific publications through a questionnaire. A questionnaire consisting of 13 questions was sent by e-mails and posting the printed copies to dental postgraduate (PG) students (second and third year) and faculty members (n = 500 each). The returned completed questionnaires were analyzed. About 37% of dental PG faculty and 35.6% PG students responded to the questionnaire, with overall response of 72.6%. Among the PG faculty, professors (P) had more scientific publications, followed by senior lecturers (SL) and readers (R). The publications as first or corresponding author were less among both faculty and PG students while co-authorship was more among PG students compared to faculty members. Awareness about the term "plagiarism" was overall high and relatively highest among R, followed by SL, P and PG students. The percentage of publications in fee charging journals was more among PG students than faculty members and self-funding for publication was observed in 86.4% of PG students and 94-100% among faculty members. About 72.6% of dental professionals were involved in publishing of their research work and the number of publications increased steadily with an increase in their academic experience. All the dental professionals concurred publications as the criteria for academic excellence.
Evashwick, Connie J.; Tao, Donghua; Bax, Kate
A well-educated workforce is essential to the infrastructure of a public health system (1). At a time when global focus on public health is increasing, a severe shortage of public health professionals is projected (2). A strong educational framework is thus imperative to ensure the capacity and capability of the worldwide public health workforce for the future. The education of those who work in public health is spread across disciplines, subject-specific training programs and types of academic institutions. In the 2011 report on the Health Professionals for a New Century, Frenk and Chen comment that, compared to medicine and nursing, public health has done the least to examine what and how it teaches (3). This does not bode well for meeting the demands of the public health workforce for the future. The purpose of the study reported here is to analyze the state of pedagogy pertaining to the education of the public health workforce as evidenced by published literature. The focus is on “professionals,” defined as those who have formal education, are self-governing, and can work independently. PMID:24350216
Stark, James F
Although historians have shown that there has been a complex and multi-layered relationship between the body, medicine and the force of electricity, many avenues remain to be explored. One of the most prominent of these is the way in which electrotherapy technologies were marketed to a wide variety of different end users and intermediaries. This paper offers the first historical analysis of one such device - the Overbeck Rejuvenator - a 1920s electrotherapy machine designed for use by the general public. Its inventor, Otto Overbeck, was not a medical man and this enabled him to use aggressive strategies of newspaper advertising, using testimonials to market his product alongside appeals to his own scientific authority. He commissioned the prestigious Ediswan Company to manufacture the Rejuvenator on a large scale, and took out patents in eleven countries to persuade users of the efficacy of the device. In response to Overbeck's activities, the British Medical Association enlisted an electrical engineer to examine the Rejuvenator, contacted practitioners whose endorsements were being used in publicity material, and denied Overbeck permission to advertise in the British Medical Journal. Despite this, the Rejuvenator brought its inventor wealth and notoriety, and helped redefine the concept of 'rejuvenation', even if the professional reception of such a device was almost universally hostile. This paper shows how the marketing, patenting and publishing of Overbeck combined to persuade members of the laity to try the Rejuvenator as an alternative form of therapy, bypassing the medical profession in the process.
Oliver, L D
The Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine Journal (APESM) is an avenue for the profession to report scientific work in medicine; provide a facility for the publication of current work, new research and new techniques developed or reviewed; report on professional news from elsewhere and; publish the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) policies and protocols. The journal is a vital instrument within the ACPSEM organisation with a worldwide circulation. This review of APESM on medical physics in radiation oncology is meant to be a progress summary of work in that specialty. Even so, it has become a lengthy appraisal due to the many years involved. In considering publications related to medical physics in radiation oncology, this review has shown the progression of the College journal to an international journal. There is an increase in the number of papers contributed from Asia and other countries world wide for this discipline. Growth in the number of contributions should continue to rise. In order to provide some appreciation of where the present medical physics activity arose from, this article commences its discussion in 1959 and progresses towards the present, describing along the way, from radiation oncology papers published in APESM, the use of linear accelerators, brachytherapy, the medical physics workforce, the formation of the ACPSEM, and the more modern developments in radiotherapy such as 3-D treatment planning and IMRT.
Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Mitesh, Shah; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; Ang, Seng Bin; Chan, Hian Hui Vincent; How, Choon How; Tay, Ee Guan; Hwang, Siew Wai
INTRODUCTION It is uncommon for medical students to deliver public health talks as part of their medical education curriculum. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a novel training programme that required medical students to deliver public health talks during their family medicine (FM) clerkship in a Singapore primary care institution. METHODS The FM faculty staff guided teams of third-year medical students to select appropriate topics for health talks that were to be conducted at designated polyclinics. The talks were video-recorded and appraised for clarity, content and delivery. The appraisal was done by the student’s peers and assigned faculty staff. The audience was surveyed to determine their satisfaction level and understanding of the talks. The students also self-rated the effectiveness of this new teaching activity. RESULTS A total of 120 medical students completed a questionnaire to rate the effectiveness of the new teaching activity. 85.8% of the students felt confident about the delivery of their talks, 95.8% reported having learnt how to deliver talks and 92.5% perceived this new training modality as useful in their medical education. Based on the results of the audience survey, the speakers were perceived as knowledgeable (53.1%), confident (51.3%) and professional (39.0%). Assessment of 15 video-recorded talks showed satisfactory delivery of the talks by the students. CONCLUSION The majority of the students reported a favourable overall learning experience under this new training programme. This finding is supported by the positive feedback garnered from the audience, peers of the medical students and the faculty staff. PMID:26891745
The journal impact factor (IF) is often recognized as a symbol of scientific prestige and relevance. However it is greatly influenced by the field or scope of journals, publisher, scientific, editorial, and economic background. Although there are many suggestions to modify the most important scientometric parameter, it is widely used to compare journals, individuals, departments, scientific outputs to judge academic promotions, grant allocations, awarding appointments. Most of the researchers use international database searching relevant publication, which will be cited in their own paper. Unfortunately these international databases refer only few Hungarian journals. It is recommended to develop and maintain a Hungarian Electronic Medical Bibliography, divided by the field of scientific interest (e.g., diabetology, gastroenterology, public health, urology etc.). Authors can upload the list or full text of publications, if copyright agreements allow, and search other Hungarian papers for citation, to promote each others. Organizer, manager, host and supporters of this database are very welcomed.
R. Ortiz de Lejarazu Leonardo
Full Text Available SUMMARYIn Spain a million and a half blood transfusions by year are carried out, that supposes between 2 and 10 cases of infection of VIH by year. The present state of science invites to do something more with tests to detect other virological and immunological markers, in order to identify seronegative carriers and thus avoid HIV transmission by them. We must consider the possibility to incur in professional responsibilities if we do not report adequate of this risk or if we do not provide patients all the cares that require, according to the state of the science so called lex artis.RESUMENEn España se realizan un millón y medio de transfusiones de sangre al año, lo que supone un riesgo de entre 2 y 10 casos de infección de VIH a través de las mismas. El estado actual de la ciencia invita a hacer algo más pudiéndose ampliar los estudios de marcadores víricos e inmunológicos, para identificar a portadores seronegativos y así tratar de evitar la transmisión del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana a través de ellos. Debemos considerar la posibilidad de incurrir en responsabilidades profesionales si no informamos adecuadamente de este riesgo o si no proporcionamos a los pacientes todos los cuidados que requieren, según el estado actual de la ciencia, lo que denominamos lex artis.
Oscarina da Silva Ezequiel
Full Text Available Summary Objective: To evaluate the geographic distribution and career trajectory of medical graduates and the factors associated with their choice of practice location. Method: A cross-sectional study involving graduates from December 2001 to December 2010 was conducted. A self-administered questionnaire collected demographics and geographic information (place of birth, place of residence at the time of medical school admission, place of residency training and practice location, and reason for choosing the current location. Statistical analyses assessed trends in geographic distribution of graduates, and identified factors associated with location choice (through the population density of the location chosen for professional practice. Results: A total of 563 graduates completed the questionnaire. Of those, 4.3% (n=24 reported family medicine as their medical specialty, 19.9% (n=112 reported other primary care specialties (internal medicine, pediatrics, surgery and obstetrics-gynecology and the others chose subspecialties. Larger cities were more likely to be chosen for practice, particularly for newly-graduated doctors. Job invitations received during medical residency training increased the likelihood of choosing high-populated cities. In contrast, job invitations received during medical school increased the likelihood of choosing cities less populated. Amongst those in cities with lower population density, proximity to family members was an additional influencing factor; those who chose more densely populated cities did so because of better infrastructure and recreational options. Conclusion: Most of the physicians included in this study pursue subspecialties training and were practicing medicine in large cities. Knowing the multiple factors that influenced the choice of practice location can assist in planning future strategies to reduce physician workforce misdistribution.
Hutchings, Hayley; Rapport, Frances; Wright, Sarah; Doel, Marcus; Jones, Aled
To report on the development of a ranked thematic list encompassing the positive and challenging exemplars of patient-centred professionalism in community nursing. There has been little research exploring what 'patient-centred professionalism' means to those working within the healthcare settings. Consensus methods, such as those developed through Nominal Group Work, can help establish the extent of agreement on a particular issue whilst overcoming some of the problems associated with group decision-making. Mixed methods studying through consultation workshops. The study took place in South-west Wales, UK between October 2009-September 2010. Thirty-four participants consisting of community nurses (9), newly qualifying nurses (13), nursing stakeholders (6) and members of the public (6) took part in the study. An adapted Nominal Group Work approach was used in five individual consultation workshops: two with community nurses, one with newly qualifying nurses, one with stakeholders and one with members of the public followed by a mixed-group Forum event. Each of the five workshops resulted in the production of approximately ten positive and ten challenging exemplars of patient-centred professionalism. The thematization of these exemplars allowed the development of eight broad themes. The Forum event then provided a mechanism for ranking the importance of these themes. The patient, community nurse as a person and nursing ethos were ranked as the most important themes by study participants. The adapted Nominal Group Work approach was a useful method to allow the development of a ranked thematic list that illustrated the important positive and challenging exemplars of patient-centred professionalism in community nursing. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
A recent decision by the High Court of Australia (Wong v Commonwealth; Selim v Professional Services Review Committee (2009) 236 CLR 573) (the PSR case) has not only clarified the scope of the Australian constitutional prohibition on "any form of civil conscription" in relation to federal legislation concerning medical or dental services (s 51xxiiiA), but has highlighted its importance as a great constitutional guarantee ensuring the mixed State-federal and public-private nature of medical service delivery in Australia. Previous decisions of the High Court have clarified that the prohibition does not prevent federal laws regulating the manner in which medical services are provided. The PSR case determined that the anti-overservicing provisions directed at bulk-billing general practitioners under Pt VAA of the Health Insurance Act 1973 (Cth) did not offend the prohibition. Importantly, the High Court also indicated that the s 51(xxiiiA) civil conscription guarantee should be construed widely and that it would invalidate federal laws requiring providers of medical and dental services (either expressly or by practical compulsion) to work for the federal government or any specified State, agency or private industrial employer. This decision is likely to restrict the capacity of any future federal government to restructure the Australian health care system, eg by implementing recommendations from the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission for either federal government or private corporate control of presently State-run public hospitals.
Interconnections between the faith-based and medical sectors are multifaceted and have existed for centuries, including partnerships that have evolved over the past several decades in the U.S. This paper outlines ten points of intersection that have engaged medical and healthcare professionals and institutions across specialties, focusing especially on primary care, global health, and community-based outreach to underserved populations. In a time of healthcare resource scarcity, such partnerships-involving religious congregations, denominations, and communal and philanthropic agencies-are useful complements to the work of private-sector medical care providers and of federal, state, and local public health institutions in their efforts to protect and maintain the health of the population. At the same time, challenges and obstacles remain, mostly related to negotiating the complex and contentious relations between these two sectors. This paper identifies pressing legal/constitutional, political/policy, professional/jurisdictional, ethical, and research and evaluation issues that need to be better addressed before this work can realize its full potential.
Full Text Available Interconnections between the faith-based and medical sectors are multifaceted and have existed for centuries, including partnerships that have evolved over the past several decades in the U.S. This paper outlines ten points of intersection that have engaged medical and healthcare professionals and institutions across specialties, focusing especially on primary care, global health, and community-based outreach to underserved populations. In a time of healthcare resource scarcity, such partnerships—involving religious congregations, denominations, and communal and philanthropic agencies—are useful complements to the work of private-sector medical care providers and of federal, state, and local public health institutions in their efforts to protect and maintain the health of the population. At the same time, challenges and obstacles remain, mostly related to negotiating the complex and contentious relations between these two sectors. This paper identifies pressing legal/constitutional, political/policy, professional/jurisdictional, ethical, and research and evaluation issues that need to be better addressed before this work can realize its full potential.
McLachlan John C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring professionalism in undergraduate medical students is a difficult process, and no one method has currently emerged as the definitive means of assessment in this field. Student skills in reflection have been shown to be highly important in the development of professional behaviours. By studying student reflections on lapses in professional judgement, recorded as 'critical incidents', it is possible to explore themes which are significant for the development of professional behaviour in an undergraduate setting. Methods We examined critical incident reporting combined with optional written student reflection as a method for exploring professionalism in undergraduate medical students. 228 students split between Year 1 and 2 of one academic year of undergraduate medicine were studied retrospectively and a grounded theory approach to analysis was employed. Results This year generated 16 critical incident reports and corresponding student reflections, all of which were considered. In addition to identifying the nature of the critical incidents, 3 principal themes emerged. These were the impact and consequences of the report having been made, student reactions to the events (both positive and negative, and student responses regarding future actions. Conclusion This study indicates that unprofessional behaviour can be identified and challenged by both the faculty and the students involved, and suggests that positive behavioural changes might be made with the aim of preventing future occurrences. We provide a low cost approach of measuring and recording professional behaviour.
Objective: The paper reviews the core competencies for public health professionals presented in the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) report, Who Will Keep the Public Healthy: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century; describes improving information literacy (IL) as a mechanism for integrating the core competencies in public health education; and showcases IL as an opportunity for solidifying partnerships between academic librarians and public health educators. Methods: The IOM competencies, along with explicit examples of library support from a literature review of current IL trends in the health sciences, are analyzed. Results: Librarians can play a fundamental role in implementing the IOM's core competencies in shaping public health education for the twenty-first century. A partnership between public health educators and librarians through a transdisciplinary approach is recommended. Conclusions: IL skills and competencies integrated into public health curricula through a collaborative partnership between public health educators and librarians can help integrate the IOM's core competencies and improve public health education. PMID:18219378
Carter, Russell E; Stoecker, Judith
One of the components of evidence-based practice (EBP) is reading the literature. The purpose of this investigation was 1) to determine which publications are read most frequently by physical therapists (PTs), 2) to identify employment and education characteristics related to reading patterns, and 3) to determine how PTs use information gained from reading professional publications. A survey was constructed, pretested, revised, and then mailed to a random sample of 1,000 physical therapists, 500 from the general American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) membership and 500 from the combined Geriatric and Orthopedic section memberships. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. After all mailings, 43.3% of the sample responded. Of those responding, 66.3% were employed as clinicians, 14.7% as clinician-administrators, 6% as educators, and 4.9% as administrators. Overall, and for clinicians, the two most frequently read professional publications were non peer-reviewed. For clinician groups "patient management" was among the top two most selected uses of information from reading professional publications. Educators and those with an advanced doctorate indicated "class lectures" as either their second most frequently selected use or tied for first with "keeping current." Only educators and those with or pursuing an advanced doctorate reported using information from reading professional publications for "research ideas" or "research methods" among their top five uses. Slightly more than 10% of the respondents cited a peer-reviewed published article as having been most influential on their practice. Non peer-reviewed professional publications appear to serve as a more frequent source of information for "patient management" than do peer-reviewed publications. Efforts to increase the use of EBP need to be explored and evaluated for impact on physical therapists' practice.
Full Text Available Background: The values such as participation/empathy, communication/sharing, self-awareness, moral integrity, sensitivity/trustfulness, commitment to ongoing professional development, and sense of duty linked to the practice of the medical professionalism were defined by various professional oaths. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate how these values are considered by the students of the degree course of medicine. Materials and Methods: Four hundred twenty three students (254 females, 169 males taking part of the first, fourth, and fifth years of the degree course in medicine were asked to answer seven questions. Pearson′s Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: The survey showed a high level of knowledge and self-awareness about the values and skills of medical profession. In particular, the respect, accountability, and the professional skills of competence were considered fundamental in clinical practice. However, the students considered that these values not sufficiently present in their educational experience. Conclusions: Teaching methods should be harmonized with the contents and with the educational needs to ensure a more complex patient-based approach and the classical lectures of teachers should be more integrated with learning through experience methods.
Full Text Available Purpose: to work out and experimentally prove model of professional-applied physical training of medical higher educational establishments’ students. Material: in the research 80 students participated. In questioning physical education instructors of medical higher education establishments (n=20 participated. Results: influence of students’ professionally important characteristics on general physical fitness indicators and functional state has been shown. Directions of students’ physical fitness parameters’ individual diagnostic and control over physical education effectiveness have been offered. Volumes of physical exercises in the structure of training have been found: special training (15-20% and competition exercises (20-30%. Conclusions: the need in raising the level of professionally important for students’ abilities has been noted: speed power, static power endurance, power endurance, coordination of arms’ movements, static balance.
Mundhe Priti G, Neelima Rajhans S, Nilofer Sheikh.S, Nikesh Moolya N, Nilkanth Mhaske, Nikhil Gutte D
Full Text Available Background: Periodontics is fast evolving dental specialty. But periodontics is still seen to be nascent & perception of it is variable among different health professionals. Aim: To assess the awareness of periodontal diseases, it’s causes & treatment modalities available among medical professionals. Materials & methods: Two hundred & five medical professionals working in Ahmednagar were interviewed through questionnaire. The questionnaire was consist of different terminologies, periodontal diseases their cause, it’s systemic effects, different treatment techniques used and newer treatment modalities. Results: positive attitude towards periodontal diseases were observed. The level of awareness was marginally higher with consultants. The difference was statistically significant among three groups. Conclusion: Awareness about periodontal diseases, it’s aetiology and association between systemic diseases was observed. But awareness about periodontal therapy & newer treatment modalities was poor.
Morreale, Mary K.; Balon, Richard; Arfken, Cynthia L.
Objective: The authors compared the importance of items related to professional behavior among medical students rotating through their psychiatry clerkship, psychiatry residents, and attending psychiatrists. Method: The authors sent an electronic survey with 43 items (rated on the scale 1: Not at All Important; to 5: Very Important) to medical…
Monrouxe, Lynn V.; Rees, Charlotte E.
Recent investigations into the UK National Health Service revealed doctors' failures to act with compassion and professionalism towards patients. The British media asked questions about what happens to students during their learning that influences such behaviour as doctors. We listened to 200 medical students' narratives of professionalism…
Royal, Kenneth D.; Gonzalez, Liara M.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a newly developed instrument intended to measure faculty competence as it pertains to their role as advisors, particularly in medical and professional programs. A total of 166 students completed the Faculty Advisor's Skills and Behaviors Inventory (FASBI). The psychometric…
Conclusions: Elderly patients are apt to assume that they “understand well”, therefore, in order to recognize and close the perception gap between elderly patients and medical professionals, it is necessary to provide them with more aggressive (frequent instructions on inhalation therapy.
As a patient approaches the end of life, he or she faces a number of very difficult medical decisions. Allied health care professionals, including speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and occupational therapists (OTs), can be instrumental in assisting their patients to make advance care plans, although their traditional job descriptions do not…
Electronic medical record (EMR) use has improved significantly in health care organizations. However, many barriers and factors influence the success of EMR implementation and adoption. The purpose of the descriptive qualitative single-case study was to explore health care professionals' perceptions of the use of EMRs at a hospital division of a…
Monrouxe, Lynn V.; Rees, Charlotte E.
Recent investigations into the UK National Health Service revealed doctors' failures to act with compassion and professionalism towards patients. The British media asked questions about what happens to students during their learning that influences such behaviour as doctors. We listened to 200 medical students' narratives of professionalism…
Leffel, G. Michael; Mueller, Ross A. Oakes; Curlin, Farr A.; Yoon, John D.
Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no…
Ament, S.M.; Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Maessen, J.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Weijden, T. van der; Kleijnen, J.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate (1) the state of the art in sustainability research and (2) the outcomes of professionals' adherence to guideline recommendations in medical practice. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted until August 2015 in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Centr
Ho, Ming-Jung; Gosselin, Katherine; Chandratilake, Madawa; Monrouxe, Lynn V.; Rees, Charlotte E.
In an era of globalization, cultural competence is necessary for the provision of quality healthcare. Although this topic has been well explored in non-Western cultures within Western contexts, the authors explore how Taiwanese medical students trained in Western medicine address intercultural professionalism dilemmas related to tensions between…
Carlquist, Erin; Lee, Nathan E; Shalin, Sara C; Goodman, Michael; Gardner, Jerad M
- Use of social media in the medical profession is an increasingly prevalent and sometimes controversial practice. Many doctors believe social media is the future and embrace it as an educational and collaborative tool. Others maintain reservations concerning issues such as patient confidentiality, legal and ethical risks. - To explore the utility of social media as an educational and collaborative tool in dermatopathology. - We constructed 2 identical surveys containing questions pertaining to the responders' demographics and opinions regarding the use of social media for dermatopathology. The surveys were available on Twitter and Facebook for a period of 10 days. - The survey was completed by 131 medical professionals from 29 different countries: the majority (81%, 106 of 131) were 25 to 45 years of age. Most replied that they access Facebook or Twitter several times a day (68%, 89% of 131) for both professional and social purposes (77%, 101 of 131). The majority agreed that social media provides useful and relevant information, but stated limitations they would like addressed. - Social media is a powerful tool with the ability to instantaneously share dermatopathology with medical professionals across the world. This study reveals the opinions and characteristics of the population of medical professionals currently using social media for education and collaboration in dermatopathology.
Morreale, Mary K.; Balon, Richard; Arfken, Cynthia L.
Objective: The authors compared the importance of items related to professional behavior among medical students rotating through their psychiatry clerkship, psychiatry residents, and attending psychiatrists. Method: The authors sent an electronic survey with 43 items (rated on the scale 1: Not at All Important; to 5: Very Important) to medical…
Nie, Jing-Bao; Smith, Kirk L; Cong, Yali; Hu, Linying; Tucker, Joseph D
As in other societies, medical professionalism in the Peoples' Republic of China has been rapidly evolving. One of the major events in this process was the endorsement in 2005 of the document, "Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter," by the Chinese Medical Doctor Association (hereafter, the Charter)(1). More recently, a national survey, the first on such a large scale, was conducted on Chinese physicians' attitudes toward the fundamental principles and core commitments put forward in the Charter. Based on empirical findings from that study and comparing them to the published results of a similar American survey, the authors offer an in-depth interpretation of significant cross-cultural differences and important transcultural commonalities. The broader historical, socio-economic, and ethical issues relating to salient Chinese cultural practices such as family consent, familism (the custom of deferring decisions to family members), and the withholding of medical information, as well as controversial topics such as not respecting patients' autonomy, are examined. The Chinese Survey found that Chinese physicians supported the principles of the Charter in general. Here we argue that Chinese culture and traditional medical ethics are broadly compatible with the moral commitments demanded by modern medical professionalism. Methodologically and theoretically-recognizing the problems inherent in the hoary but still popular habit of dichotomizing cultures and in relativism-a transcultural approach is adopted that gives greater (due) weight to the internal moral diversity present within every culture, the common ground shared by different cultures, and the primacy of morality. Genuine cross-cultural dialogue, including a constructive Chinese-American dialogue in the area of medical professionalism, is not only possible, but necessary. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medicines, especially those available over-the-counter, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals such as general practitioners and pharmacists. The primary aim of this review therefore, was to investigate the literature relating to health professionals' and women's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards medication use and safety in breastfeeding. The limited literature that was uncovered identified that general practitioners and pharmacists have poor knowledge, but positive attitudes, and variable practices that are mostly guided by personal experience. They tend to make decisions about the use of a medicine whilst breastfeeding based on the potential 'risk' that it poses to the infant in terms of possible adverse reactions, rather than its 'compatibility' with breast milk. The decision-making process between health professionals and women is usually not a negotiated process, and women are often asked to stop breastfeeding whilst taking a medicine. Women, in turn, are left dissatisfied with the advice received, many choosing not to initiate therapy or not to continue breastfeeding. Some directions for future research have been suggested to address the issues identified in this critical area. This review is important from a societal perspective because many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medications, especially those available without prescription, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals, which is ultimately influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, there is an absence of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials on the safety of medications taken during breastfeeding, which naturally would hinder health professionals from appropriately advising women. It is equally important to know about women's experiences of advice received from health
Garavelli, E; Marcantoni, C; Costantino, C; Tedesco, D; Burrai, V; Giraldi, G; D'Andrea, E
The postgraduate medical Schools in Public Health (locally known as School of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine) should ensure adequate scientific and technical knowledge and professional skills in preventive medicine, health promotion and healthcare planning as provided by Ministerial Decree 285/2005. The Italian Committee of Medical Residents in Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health of the Italian Society of Hygiene, Public Health and Preventive Medicine - S.It.I. (Consulta Nazionale dei medici in formazione specialistica S.It.I.) has always been engaged in monitoring activities on public health teaching, guaranteeing the homogeneity of educational proposals among all national Schools in Public Health. The purpose of this study is to provide a 'snapshot' of public health education and training in Italy and to identify the improvement actions needed for implementing an innovative and homogeneous public health training. A cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of three months (March to May 2013). A self-administered questionnaire was e-mailed to local Committee's delegates of all 32 postgraduate medical Schools in Public Health in Italy. The questionnaire was structured in four sections: general information, University education and training, extra-University training, interdisciplinary activities. The majority of local Committee's delegates have agreed to be enrolled in the survey. A total of 28 questionnaires were returned (88% response rate). The number of residents in each Italian School in Public Health ranged from 7 to 31. The distribution of professors in relation to residents is not similar for each University Schools. The ratio professors/residents spanning from 0.2 to 2. About teaching, only 4 University Schools offered all courses requested by Ministerial Decree 285/2005. Most of them offered at least 75% of the requested courses, but there were Schools in which the courses were less than 50%. The vast majority of schools held more
Coppieters, Yves; Levêque, Alain
Privacy is an important concern in any research programme that deals with personal medical data. In recent years, ethics and privacy have become key considerations when conducting any form of scientific research that involves personal data. These issues are now addressed in healthcare professional training programmes. Indeed, ethics, legal frameworks and privacy are often the subject of much confusion in discussions among healthcare professionals. They tend to group these different concepts under the same heading and delegate responsibility for "ethical" approval of their research programmes to ethics committees. Public health researchers therefore need to ask questions about how changes to legal frameworks and ethical codes governing privacy in the use of personal medical data are to be applied in practice. What types of data do these laws and codes cover? Who is involved? What restrictions and requirements apply to any research programme that involves medical data?
Iacopino, Valentina; Mascia, Daniele; Cicchetti, Americo
In recent decades, the role of technology in health care organizations has become increasingly relevant because it enhances health care outcomes and the achievement of clinical goals. Extant research demonstrates that the effectiveness of a medical innovation depends largely on health care professionals' perceptions of its usefulness and impact on their activities and practices. We also know that interaction among social actors contributes to the shaping of their judgments and opinions regarding innovation. This study investigated the role of professionals' social networks and social capital in the formation of similar individual perceptions about a highly innovative robotic surgical system. We collected data from a sample of 50 professionals, including both physicians and nurses, working in three hospital wards belonging to an Italian hospital organization. Using a survey, we gathered data on professionals' demographic characteristics, the adoption and impact of the new technology, and social networks. We tested our hypotheses using a dyadic perspective and logistic regression quadratic assignment procedures. Our findings document that professionals' perceptions regarding technological change were more likely to be similar when they were connected and exhibited similarity in some social capital characteristics and adoption behavior. These results have important implications for health care executives and administrators, as well as for health professionals characterized by high degrees of autonomy and for which organizational change can be affected by professional or organizational resistance.
Correia, T; Denis, J L
The need of improving the governance of healthcare services has brought health professionals into management positions. However, both the processes and outcomes of this policy change highlight differences among the European countries. This article provides in-depth evidence that neither quantitative data nor cross-country comparisons have been able to provide regarding the influence of hybrids in the functioning of hospital organizations and impact on clinicians' autonomy and exposure to hybridization. The study was designed to witness the process of institutional change from the inside and while that process was underway. It reports a case study carried out in a public hospital in Portugal when the establishment of a clinical directorate was being negotiated. Data collection comprises semi-structured interviews with general managers and surgeons complemented with observations. The clinical directorate under study illustrates a divisionalized professional bureaucracy model that combines features of professional bureaucracies and divisionalized forms. The hybrid manager is key to understand the extent to which practising clinicians are more accountable and to whom given that managerial tools of control have not been strengthened, and trust-based relations allow them to keep professional autonomy untouched. In sum, clinicians are allowed to profit from their activity and to perform autonomously from the hospital's board of directors. The advantageous conditions enjoyed by the clinical directorate intensify internal re-stratification in medicine, thus suggesting forms of divisionalized medical professionalism grounded in organizational dynamics. It is discussed the extent to which policy change to the governance of health organizations regarding the relationship between medicine and management is subject to specific constraints at the workplace level, thus conditioning the expected outcomes of policy setting. The study also highlights the role of hybrid managers in
Ria Sandra Alimbudiono
Full Text Available This study aims to give an insight about environmental awareness from public accountant and the role of Indonesian accounting professional bodies in ensuring professional sustainability. A naturalistic method was applied to get deep understanding about the perspectives of the boards of professional bodies as a representation from the condition of public accountants in general. Data collection methods used in this study were interviews and focus group discussion. The findings highlight a variety of perspectives on knowledge of environment, interest in environmental accounting and moral responsibility on environmental damage. This variation shows different levels of awareness and it is mainly caused by the lack of law enforcement and no mandatory standards on environmental issues. This condition will threat legitimacy of accounting profession and finally, be able to endangered professional accounting sustainability. Limitations are about the scope and sample,which provide insights of the boards of public accountant professional bodies on environmental accounting issues. Future studies should be done on other accounting fields such as environmental audit, environmental accounting and reporting and environmental costing.
Mereu, Alessandra; Sotgiu, Alessandra; Buja, Alessandra; Casuccio, Alessandra; Cecconi, Rosaria; Fabiani, Leila; Guberti, Emilia; Lorini, Chiara; Minelli, Liliana; Pocetta, Giancarlo; Contu, Paolo
According to the Nairobi Call to Action, the growth of practitioners' skills can be favoured by setting accreditation standards and by reorienting professional competencies of current and future health workers. This will make it possible to develop a critical mass of competent practitioners, foster training, and increase visibility of the professional field. Through a review of the literature, the authors offer an overview of competency-based strategies for professional development in health promotion. The main research questions discussed were as follows: Is there a shared definition of public health?; Is there a shared definition of health promotion?; Who are the main stakeholders for public health and health promotion in Europe?; What is the meaning of professional competencies in education and practice for public health and health promotion?; Is there a shared system of professional core competencies in public health and health promotion?;What is common and what is specific between the two systems of professional competencies?; Is it useful and feasible to create specific strategies of professional development for public health and health promotion? A transformative use of competencies makes it possible to inform students, professionals, employers, and political decision-makers about what is expected from a specific profession and its values.
Jan, Stephen; Bian, Ying; Jumpa, Manuel; Meng, Qingyue; Nyazema, Norman; Prakongsai, Phusit; Mills, Anne
This paper examines the policy options for the regulation of dual job holding by medical professionals in highly resource-constrained settings. Such activity is generally driven by a lack of resources in the public sector and low pay, and has been associated with the unauthorized use of public resources and corruption. It is also typically poorly regulated; regulations are either lacking, or when they exist, are vague or poorly implemented because of low regulatory capacity. This paper draws on the limited evidence available on this topic to assess a number of regulatory options in relation to the objectives of quality of care and access to services, as well as some of the policy constraints that can undermine implementation in resource-poor settings. The approach taken in highlighting these broader social objectives seeks to avoid the value judgements regarding dual working and some of its associated forms of behaviour that have tended to characterize previous analyses. Dual practice is viewed as a possible system solution to issues such as limited public sector resources (and incomes), low regulatory capacity and the interplay between market forces and human resources. This paper therefore offers some support for policies that allow for the official recognition of such activity and embrace a degree of professional self-regulation. In providing clearer policy guidance, future research in this area needs to adopt a more evaluative approach than that which has been used to date.
SZNITMAN, SHARON R.; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line
Background Debate about medical cannabis legalization are typically informed by three beliefs: (1) cannabis has medical effects, (2) medical cannabis is addictive and (3) medical cannabis legalization leads to increased used of cannabis for recreational purposes (spillover effects). We examined how strongly these beliefs are associated with public support for medical cannabis legalization and whether this association differs across divergent medical cannabis policy regimes. Methods Robust reg...
Gartland, John J.; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Christian, Edward B.; Callahan, Clara A.; Nasca, Thomas J.
Surveyed African American and White physicians to compare their satisfaction with medical school, their medical career, and their professional and research activities and achievements. Found that respondents were comparable as to their careers, professional activities, and achievements. African Americans' practice patterns reflected a greater…
Ghana Medical Journal ... Background: Pharmacogenetics has a potential for optimizing drug response and ... Pharmacogenetics knowledge of healthcare professionals and the unmet need for pharmacogenetics education in health training ... to interview healthcare professionals from selected public and private hospitals.
Asgary, Ramin; Smith, Clyde L
A significant number of asylum seekers who largely survived torture live in the United States. Asylum seekers have complex social and medical problems with significant barriers to health care access. When evaluating and providing care for survivors, health providers face important challenges regarding medical ethics and professional codes. We review ethical concerns in regard to accountability, the patient-physician relationship, and moral responsibilities to offer health care irrespective of patient legal status; competing professional responsibility toward society and the judiciary system; concerns about the consistency of asylum seekers' claims; ethical concerns surrounding involving trainees and researching within the evaluation setting; and the implication of broader societal views towards rights and social justice. We discuss contributing factors, including inadequate and insufficient provider training, varying and inadequate institutional commitment, asylum seekers' significant medical and social problems, and the broader health and social system issues. We review existing resources to address these concerns and offer suggestions.
Sahay, Tina Binita; Rempel, Benjamin; Lodge, Jennifer
There is strong evidence of the positive role that youth engagement programs and policies play in creating resiliency and producing positive outcomes among youth populations, such as delaying or avoiding the onset of risk-taking behaviors. Research also suggests that achieving positive outcomes ideally includes influence from the individual, the family, the school, the community, and the field of public health (available in A Research Report and Recommendations for Ontario Public Health Association). The authors conducted a comprehensive evaluation of a 2-year pilot project designed to increase the application of engagement and resiliency theory, knowledge, and skills among public health professionals engaging students from Grades 6, 7, and 8 (11- to 14-year-olds). Qualitative methods assessed public health satisfaction with training, resources, and networking activities, whereas quantitative methods assessed changes in capacity with respect to youth engagement knowledge, awareness, confidence, and skills. The findings have helped shed light on public health professional needs concerning capacity and confidence to undertake youth engagement work. Key lessons learned about making youth engagement possible and effective for public health professionals are presented.
Beck, Jimmy; Chretien, Katherine; Kind, Terry
To describe the experience of medical students volunteering at a camp for children with a variety of medical conditions. Rising second-year medical students who had served as counselors for 1 week at a medical specialty camp were invited to participate. We conducted a 2-part qualitative study using on-site focus groups and follow-up individual interviews. Nine medical students participated. Students described their experience as motivating and career reinforcing. It helped them "move beyond the textbook" and deepened their commitment to serving future patients with compassion. One theme that emerged was the idea that their camp experience fostered the development of their professional identities. A 1-week, immersive community service experience at a medical specialty camp played a role in influencing the early formative professional identities of rising second-year medical students. Medical schools could use camps as a promising community service-learning experiences to foster professional identity. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Till date, the medical decision-making process in Korea has followed the paternalist model, relying on the instructions of physicians. However, in recent years, shared decision making at the end-of-life between physicians and nurses is now emphasized in Korea. The purpose of this study was conducted to explore how health care professionals’ characteristics, attitude toward dignified dying, and moral sensitivity affect their shared medical decision making. The design was descriptive survey. This study was undertaken in two university hospitals in two metropolitan cities, South Korea. The participants were 344 nurses and 80 physicians who work at university hospitals selected by convenience sampling method. Data were collected from January 10 through March 20, 2014 using the Dignified Dying Scale, Moral Sensitivity Scale, and Shared Medical Decision-Making Scale. Shared medical decision making, attitude toward dignified dying, moral sensitivity, age, and working experience had a significant correlation with each other. The factors affecting shared medical decision making of Korean health care professionals were moral sensitivity and attitude toward dignified dying. These variables explained 22.4% of the shared medical decision making. Moral sensitivity and a positive attitude toward dignified dying should be promoted among health care professionals as a part of an educational program for shared medical decision making.
Bramstedt, Katrina A; Colaco, Clinton M G; De Silva, Eve; Rehfield, Patricia L; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer S
White coats have long been the professional uniform of physicians. However, when physicians opt to remove the white coat, their clothing underneath is brought to the forefront and can influence how they are perceived by their patients. To explore the perceptions of medical students and their instructors about appropriate clinical professional attire. An anonymous, voluntary 55-question survey was electronically distributed to medical students and their instructors at 2 US and 2 Australian medical schools. The survey incorporated 30 images of sample attire, 9 demographic questions, and 16 questions regarding culture and context of clothing and accessories. In total, 411 students and 73 instructors participated in this study. The data revealed that white coats and neckties are nearly absent in Australian clinical attire. Overall, students were significantly more supportive of full facial coverage due to religious or cultural values compared with instructors (Pdress code policies that directed students to avoid but not prohibit the use of perfume or cologne. Nose rings were controversial with significantly more support for use from medical students than instructors (pooled cohorts, P=.002). Medical students in both the United States and Australia indicated that they were most influenced by observing the attire of physicians at work (155 [38%]), compared with courses in medical ethics (19 [5%]), school policy (16 [4%]), or hospital policy (9 [2%]). Although regional dress code practices are different in the United States compared with Australia, medical students were overall most influenced by their instructors' attire in clinical settings.
Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie; Brousselle, Astrid; Chiocchio, François; Beaudet, Nicole
The health promotion laboratory (HPL-Canada) is a public health professional development program building on a collaborative learning approach in order to support long-term practice change in local health services teams. This study aims to analyse the collaborative learning processes of two teams involved in the program during the first year of…
Wong, Jocelyn L. N.
Publications by teachers reporting results or case studies of school-based teacher inquiry activities benchmark their professional development by indicating they have a "stance of inquiry". Such papers also disseminate valuable knowledge to the education community for sharing. Essay or case writing has always been a part of school-based…
Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie; Brousselle, Astrid; Chiocchio, François; Beaudet, Nicole
The health promotion laboratory (HPL-Canada) is a public health professional development program building on a collaborative learning approach in order to support long-term practice change in local health services teams. This study aims to analyse the collaborative learning processes of two teams involved in the program during the first year of…
Education Resource Strategies, 2013
Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…
L.G. Tummers (Lars); A.J. Steijn (Bram); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)
textabstractAbstract: This paper contributes in two ways to our understanding of the pressures public professionals face in service delivery. First, it theoretically analyses the influence of policy pressures (measured using the policy alienation framework) and politicking pressures on job satisfact
The generation of a public-good, capabilities-based approach to professional education in South African universities is outlined and proposed as a contribution to wider social transformation. The relevance and importance of understanding what Amartya Sen describes as "capability failure" in the lives of people living in poverty is…
Koh, Yang Huang; Wong, Mee Lian; Lee, Jeanette Jen-Mai
Medical educators constantly face the challenge of preparing students for public health practice. This study aimed to analyze students' reflections to gain insight into their task-based experiences in the public health communication selective. We have also examined their self-reported learning outcomes and benefits with regard to application of public health communication. Each student wrote a semi-structured reflective journal about his or her experiences leading to the delivery of a public health talk by the group. Records from 41 students were content-analyzed for recurring themes and sub-themes. Students reported a wide range of personal and professional issues. Their writings were characterized by a deep sense of self-awareness and social relatedness such as increased self-worth, communications skills, and collaborative learning. The learning encounter challenged assumptions, and enhanced awareness of the complexity of behaviour change Students also wrote about learning being more enjoyable and how the selective had forced them to adopt a more thoughtful stance towards knowledge acquisition and assimilation. Task-based learning combined with a process for reflection holds promise as an educational strategy for teaching public health communication, and cultivating the habits of reflective practice.
Liu, Gilbert C; Harris, Mitchell A; Keyton, Stacey A; Frankel, Richard M
Medical education programs across the country are now required to conduct meaningful assessments of trainees' competencies, although uniform standards for conducting these evaluations have yet to be established. In 1999, the Indiana University School of Medicine introduced a comprehensive competency-based undergraduate curriculum. The overall goal of the curriculum is to make medical students' day-to-day experiences of training a source of learning about professionalism, communication, and aspects of medicine beyond factual knowledge. We sought to examine free-text comments by parents of pediatric inpatients as substrate for competency evaluation and feedback for third-year students on their pediatrics rotation. The study was conducted from June 2001 to February 2004. Parents of hospitalized children completed a short medical student evaluation form that included 2 questions inviting free-text response. We used narrative analysis, a qualitative research technique, to describe both the content and meaning of the parents' responses. We collected 573 evaluations with narrative comments about 412 students. The most common aspect of medical student performance commented on by parents related to communication (53.8%). The next most common narrative comment was some form of affirmation of the student as a health care professional (26.0%). Other themes included establishing context for the comment, perceptions of the health care system, criticizing medical student performance, perceptions of the role of medical students, physical approach to the patient, expression of humility by the student, holistic approach to the patient, physical appearance of the student, superlative description of student, and advocating for the patient. Multiple themes were identified in 232 narrative comments (40.4%). Examples of each theme are provided. Family members of pediatric inpatients are a valuable source of information about medical student performance in at least 2 of the Accreditation
Saleh Abubakir M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The views of medical professionals on efficiency of health system and needs for any changes are very critical and constitute a cornerstone for any health system improvement. This is particularly relevant to Iraqi Kurdistan case as the events of the last few decades have significantly devastated the national Iraqi health system while the necessity for adopting a new health care system is increasingly recognized since 2004. This study aims to examine the regional health system in Iraqi Kurdistan from medical professionals' perspectives and try to define its problems and priorities for improvement. Methods A survey questionnaire was developed and administered to a convenience sample of 250 medical professionals in Erbil governorate. The questionnaire included four items; rating of the quality of services and availability of resources in the health institutions, view on different aspects of the health system, the perceived priority needs for health system improvement and gender and professional characteristics of the respondents. Results The response rate to the survey was 83.6%. A high proportion of respondents rated the different aspects of services and resources in the health institutions as weak or very weak including the availability of the required quantity and quality of medicines (68.7%, the availability of sufficient medical equipment and investigation tools (68.7%, and the quality of offered services (65.3%. Around 72% of respondents had a rather negative view on the overall health system. The weak role of medical research, the weak role of professional associations in controlling the system and the inefficient health education were identified as important problems in the current health system (87.9%, 87.1% and 84.9%, respectively. The priority needs of health system improvement included adoption of social insurance for medical care of the poor (82%, enhancing the role of family medicine (77.2%, adopting health
Bernard, Andrew; Whitaker, Misty; Ray, Myrna; Rockich, Anna; Barton-Baxter, Marietta; Barnes, Stephen L; Boulanger, Bernard; Tsuei, Betty; Kearney, Paul
Communication with patients is essential to providing quality medical care. The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of language barriers on health care professionals. It is hypothesized that these language barriers are commonly perceived by health care professionals and they are a source of workplace stress in acute care environments. We designed and distributed a survey tool of staff experiences and attitudes regarding the English-Spanish language barrier among patients in an acute care surgical environment of a tertiary medical center. Responses were anonymous, stratified by professional role and comparisons made using paired t tests. Sixty-one nurses and 36 physicians responded to the survey. Overall, 95% of nurses reported that the language barrier was an impediment to quality care, whereas 88% of physicians responded similarly (P = .0004). More nurses than physicians report experiencing stress (97% vs. 78%) and the degree of stress appears to be greater for nurses (P language barriers as an impediment to quality care delivery and as a source of workplace stress. Nurse and physician perceptions differ; therefore, strategies to address these language barriers should be specific to those professional roles. These barriers create a void in health care quality and safety that has effects on health care professionals.
Huddle, Thomas S
Contemporary accounts of medical ethics and professionalism emphasize the importance of social justice as an ideal for physicians. This ideal is often specified as a commitment to attaining the universal availability of some level of health care, if not of other elements of a "decent minimum" standard of living. I observe that physicians, in general, have not accepted the importance of social justice for professional ethics, and I further argue that social justice does not belong among professional norms. Social justice is a norm of civic rather than professional life; professional groups may demand that their members conform to the requirements of citizenship but ought not to require civic virtues such as social justice. Nor should any such requirements foreclose reasonable disagreement as to the content of civic norms, as requiring adherence to common specifications of social justice would do. Demands for any given form of social justice among physicians are unlikely to bear fruit as medical education is powerless to produce this virtue.
Dans, Peter E.
Surveys of first- and fourth-year Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical students found little change in attitudes about abortion over four years. Attitudes correlated most strongly with personal beliefs about when a fetus is considered human life and somewhat with student gender. Results are used in a medical ethics course to illuminate…
Willey, Ian; Tanimoto, Kimie
Native English-speaking (NES) English teachers at universities in English as a foreign language (EFL) contexts are sometimes asked to edit English manuscripts written by non-native English-speaking (NNES) colleagues in scientific fields. However, professional peers may differ from English teachers in their approach towards editing scientific…
Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J
Previous studies suggest that, while both medical students and professional anatomists recognize the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy (Morgan et al. , J. Anat. 224:352-365; , Clin. Anat. 29:892-910). To further investigate this issue, we provided second year medical students at Cardiff University (n = 293) and at the University of Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité (n = 142) and professional anatomists (n = 208) with a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that gender factors within anatomical imagery (both historical and contemporary) hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval for the survey was obtained from the universities at both Cardiff and Paris. In the light of previous findings, the hypothesis tested was that medical students and professional anatomists do not perceive a gender bias when reflected in imagery that is based on anatomical iconography. Our survey results support this hypothesis and suggest that most students and anatomists are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within the culture of anatomy. We consequently recommend that teachers of anatomy and authors of anatomical textbooks should be aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues when using imagery. Clin. Anat. 30:711-732, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
De Lasson, Lydia; Just, Eva; Stegeager, Nikolaj W.M.
Background The transition from student to medical doctor is challenging and stressful to many junior doctors. To practice with confidence and professionalism the junior doctors have to develop a strong professional identity. Various suggestions on how to facilitate formation of professional ident...... and acting as a doctor), adoption to medical culture, career planning and managing a healthy work/life-balance. Further studies in different contexts are recommended as well as studies using other methods to test the results of this qualitative study.......: Adoption to medical culture, career planning, and work/life-balance. The junior doctors found the coaching intervention highly useful in order to cope with these challenges. Furthermore, the group was a forum where the junior doctors could share thoughts and feelings with colleagues without being afraid...... identity have been offered including the possible positive effect of group-coaching courses. The purpose of this study was to explore how group-coaching might facilitate professional identity formation among junior doctors in the transition period. Methods Group-coaching courses comprising three whole...
Monrouxe, Lynn V; Rees, Charlotte E
Recent investigations into the UK National Health Service revealed doctors' failures to act with compassion and professionalism towards patients. The British media asked questions about what happens to students during their learning that influences such behaviour as doctors. We listened to 200 medical students' narratives of professionalism dilemmas during workplace learning (n = 833) to understand the range of dilemmas experienced and emotional reactions to them. 32 group and 22 individual interviews were held across three medical schools (England, Wales, Australia). Data were analysed thematically (Framework Analysis), for negative emotional content (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count) and a narrative analysis of one exemplar narrative was also conducted. While a wider range of professionalism dilemmas than previously identified were found, most were classified to five main sub-themes. Within these sub-themes, clinical students' narratives contained more negative emotion words than pre-clinical students' narratives (p = 0.046, r = -0.36). Narratives of 'patient safety and dignity breaches by students' contained fewer anger words (p = 0.003, r = -0.51), 'patient safety and dignity breaches by healthcare professionals' contained more anger words (p = 0.042, r = -0.37), 'identity' narratives contained fewer anxiety words (p = 0.034, r = 0.38), and 'abuse' narratives contained more sadness words (p = 0.013, r = -0.47). The narrative analysis revealed a complex interplay between identities, attribution of blame, narrated emotions and emotional residue. Analysing emotional talk within narratives suggests that medical students sometimes struggle with contradictory formal and informal learning experiences around professionalism arising from a cultural clash. We provide educational recommendations to facilitate students' coping with their emotional reactions to professionalism dilemmas and to facilitate cultural change.
Gomes, Alexandra W; Butera, Gisela; Chretien, Katherine C; Kind, Terry
Inappropriate social media behavior can have detrimental effects on students' future opportunities, but medical students are given little opportunity to reflect upon ways of integrating their social media identities with their newly forming professional identities. In 2012, a required educational session was developed for 1st-year medical students on social media and professional identity. Objectives include identifying professionalism issues and recognizing positive social media use. The 2-hour large-group session uses student-generated social media examples to stimulate discussion and concludes with an expert panel. Students complete a postsession reflection assignment. The required social media session occurs early in the 1st year and is part of the Professionalism curriculum in The George Washington University School of Medicine. Reflection papers are graded for completion. The study began in 2012 and ran through 2014; a total of 313/505 participants (62%) volunteered for the study. Assessment occurred through qualitative analysis of students' reflection assignments. Most students (65%, 203/313) reported considering changes in their social media presence due to the session. The analysis revealed themes relating to a broader understanding of online identity and opportunities to enhance careers. In a 6-month follow-up survey of 76 students in the 2014 cohort who completed the entire survey, 73 (94%) reported some increase in awareness, and 48 (64%) made changes to their social media behavior due to the session (response rate = 76/165; 46%), reflecting the longer term impact. Opportunities for discussion and reflection are essential for transformational learning to occur, enabling understanding of other perspectives. Incorporating student-submitted social media examples heightened student interest and engagement. The social media environment is continually changing, so curricular approaches should remain adaptable to ensure timeliness and relevance. Including
Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; Suhrcke, Marc
Does the current economic crisis require the deep cuts in public spending announced in the June 2010 emergency budget, with potential implications for public health? The arguments for and against such cuts in response to economic recession are complex, but if public health professionals are to engage in debates about future public spending, they should be informed by relevant evidence. In this perspective, we note that opinions among politicians and economists about how to respond to economic downturns are divided, while other EU countries, many with greater levels of debt than the UK, are protecting public expenditure unless required to do so by the International Monetary Fund. Current UK debt may in fact be viewed as sustainable given current information about interest rates, inflation and economic growth. Before accepting large cuts in public spending, it is important to contrast the lack of evidence for such short-term fixes with potentially dire repercussions for population health and welfare.
Norma Mur Villar
Full Text Available The academic environment must become the main way of involving students in the research movement, as part of the social mission of the university. This paper aims to discuss the substantive functions of the university and the development of the university curriculum, emphasizing on undergraduate research activity. It reflects on research policy in the training of professionals in medical sciences. Some observations that may contribute to the integration of the research activity in the training process of professionals in coordination with the whole process are made.
Marmor, Theodore R; Gordon, Robert W
Since the passage of Medicare, the self-regulation characteristic of professionalism in health care has come under steady assault. While Canadian physicians chose to relinquish financial autonomy, they have enjoyed far greater professional autonomy over their medical judgments than their U.S. counterparts who increasingly have their practices micromanaged. The Affordable Care Act illustrates the ways that managerial strategies and a market model of health care have shaped the financing and delivery of health care in the U.S., often with little or no evidence of their effectiveness.
I. B. Ardashkin
Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze and summarize the Russian best practices of using the publication activity as a criterion to assess the professional activity of the academic staff; to identify the role of motivational factors as a method to manage and control the publication activity of the academic staff.Methods. The authors address the methodology of comprehensive research based on the method of document analysis, comparative analysis, and method of secondary use of sociological and psychological data.Results and scientific novelty concludes in presenting Russian and international best practices generalized on using the publication activity to assess the engagement of HEI (Higher Educational Institution academic staff; the most appropriate formats of using the publication activity as a criterion to assess the research component of the academic staff engagement are defined. Degree of reliability of this criterion is shown – its strengths and shortcomings. The conclusion is drawn on need of the essential changes in management of publication activity affecting both professional and motivational spheres of scientific and pedagogical staff. The most acceptable options of measurement of staff work efficiency of this category are formulated.Practical significance. The research outcomes can be the corpus for designing the assessment method for the professional engagement of the academic staff.
Mann, Karen V; Ruedy, John; Millar, Noreen; Andreou, Pantelis
Professionalism is increasingly emphasised in medical education. Non-cognitive goals, including values, attitudes and skills, remain challenging to define and measure. The purpose of this study was to better understand these goals and their achievement in the MD programme. Graduating medical students, faculty preceptors, residents and other health professionals (OHPs) completed a systematically developed mailed survey, rating achievement of 25 attribute statements. Following analyses of means and standard deviations, factor analysis of responses was conducted. Responses were compared across respondent groups. The overall response rate was 50.1% (191/396), comprising 57.5% of the students, 54.1% of the faculty members, 30.9% of the residents and 50% of the OHPs. Five items received mean ratings over 4/5; none were below 3/5. Five factors explained 65% of variance. They were: 'Teamwork and interprofessional skills'; 'Duty and responsibility'; 'Communication and interpersonal skills'; 'Professionalism and values', and 'Trustworthiness and ethical behaviour'. The groups differed significantly on 2 factors: Teamwork and interprofessional skills (P < or = 0.0001) and Communication and interpersonal skills (P < or = 0.001). Important curriculum goals received high mean ratings. Ratings differed significantly across groups, suggesting differing perceptions of the extent to which goals were met. More study is needed to understand the basis of these perceptions.
Larry E. Davis
Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate medical student's communication and professionalism skills from the perspective of the ambulatory patient and later compare these skills in their first year of residency. Methods: Students in third year neurology clerkship clinics see patients alone followed by a revisit with an attending neurologist. The patient is then asked to complete a voluntary, anonymous, Likert scale questionnaire rating the student on friendliness, listening to the patient, respecting the patient, using understandable language, and grooming. For students who had completed one year of residency these professionalism ratings were compared with those from their residency director. Results: Seven hundred forty-two questionnaires for 165 clerkship students from 2007 to 2009 were analyzed. Eighty-three percent of forms were returned with an average of 5 per student. In 64% of questionnaires, patients rated students very good in all five categories; in 35% patients selected either very good or good ratings; and <1% rated any student fair. No students were rated poor or very poor. Sixty-two percent of patients wrote complimentary comments about the students. From the Class of 2008, 52% of students received "better than their peers professionalism ratings from their PGY1 residency directors and only one student was rated "below their peers". Conclusions: This questionnaire allowed patient perceptions of their students' communication/professionalism skills to be evaluated in a systematic manner. Residency director ratings of professionalism of the same students at the end of their first year of residency confirms continued professional behavior.
Nieminen, Petteri; Lappalainen, Saara; Ristimäki, Pauliina; Myllykangas, Markku; Mustonen, Anne-Mari
Conscientious objection (CO) to participating in induced abortion is not present in the Finnish health care system or legislation unlike in many other European countries. We conducted a questionnaire survey with the 1(st)- and the last-year medical and nursing students and professionals (548 respondents; response rate 66-100%) including several aspects of the abortion process and their relation to CO in 2013. The male medical respondents chose later time points of pregnancy than the nursing respondents when considering when the embryo/fetus "becomes a person". Of all respondents, 3.5-14.1% expressed a personal wish to CO. The medical professionals supported the right to CO more often (34.2%) than the nursing professionals (21.4%), while ≥62.4% could work with someone expressing CO. Yet ≥57.9% of the respondents anticipated social problems at work communities caused by CO. Most respondents considered self-reported religious/ethical conviction to be adequate for CO but, at the same time, 30.1-50.7% considered that no conviction would be sufficient. The respondents most commonly included the medical doctor conducting surgical or medical abortion to be eligible to CO. The nursing respondents considered that vacuum suction would be a better justification for CO than medical abortion. The indications most commonly included to potential CO were second-trimester abortions and social reasons. Among the medical respondents, the men were more willing to grant CO also in case of a life-threatening emergency of the pregnant woman. While the respondents mostly seemed to consider the continuation of adequate services important if CO is introduced, the viewpoint was often focused on the staff and surgical abortion procedure instead of the patients. The issue proved to be complex, which should be taken into consideration for legislation.
In 2014, the Australian Capital Territory Civil and Administrative Appeals Tribunal (ACAT) made a finding of professional misconduct against a Canberra general practitioner working in two bulk-billing medical practices established by a corporate medical practice service company, Primary Health Care Limited (Medical Board of Australia v Tausif (Occupational Discipline)  ACAT 4). This column analyses that case, particularly in relation to the ACAT finding that the practitioner's professional misconduct was substantially contributed to by an unsafe system of care, specifically, the failure of Primary Health Care to provide supervision and mentoring for clinicians working at its medical centres. The case highlights the professional pressures carried by general practitioners who practise medicine within the framework of corporate bulk-billing business models. The column also examines the related issue of general practitioner co-payments in Australia and their impact on business models built around doctors purportedly characterised as independent contractors, bulk-billing large numbers of patients each day for short consultations.
Hassali, Ma; Awaisu, A; Shafie, Aa; Saeed, Ms
This pilot study aimed to explore the perceptions of general medical practitioners (GPs) towards the professional training and roles of community pharmacists. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all private clinics (n=160) run by GPs in a northern state of Malaysia. The instrument contained questions to evaluate the practitioners' level of agreement using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Of 160 GPs, 80 returned the questionnaire (response rate 50%). The respondents agreed that: GPs should consider the community pharmacists' recommendations whenever there is/are any problem(s) with the prescriptions given by them (46.3%); community pharmacists are the best healthcare professionals to educate patients about safe and appropriate use of medications (52.5%); the pharmacy profession had undergone a major metamorphosis from a product-oriented profession to a more patient-centred and outcome-oriented one (61.3%); if dispensing separation is implemented, they will work closely with the community pharmacists in monitoring patients' pharmacotherapeutic outcomes (77.5%). The current findings suggest that GPs would support an extension of the role of the community pharmacists in number of activities of patient care activities such as medication counselling. Thus, suggesting potential collaborative care between GPs and community pharmacists towards patient care and the needs to develop and incorporate topics on inter-professional relationship in the current medical and pharmaceutical education curriculums.
Full Text Available Aim: This pilot study aimed to explore the perceptions of general medical practitioners (GPs towards the professional training and roles of community pharmacists. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all private clinics (n=160 run by GPs in a northern state of Malaysia. The instrument contained questions to evaluate the practitioners’ level of agreement using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Results: Of 160 GPs, 80 returned the questionnaire (response rate 50%. The respondents agreed that: GPs should consider the community pharmacists’ recommendations whenever there is/are any problem(s with the prescriptions given by them (46.3%; community pharmacists are the best healthcare professionals to educate patients about safe and appropriate use of medications (52.5%; the pharmacy profession had undergone a major metamorphosis from a product-oriented profession to a more patient-centred and outcome-oriented one (61.3%; if dispensing separation is implemented, they will work closely with the community pharmacists in monitoring patients’ pharmacotherapeutic outcomes (77.5%. Conclusion: The current findings suggest that GPs would support an extension of the role of the community pharmacists in number of activities of patient care activities such as medication counselling. Thus, suggesting potential collaborative care between GPs and community pharmacists towards patient care and the needs to develop and incorporate topics on inter-professional relationship in the current medical and pharmaceutical education curriculums.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filtering facepiece respirator for use by the... Filtering facepiece respirator for use by the general public in public health medical emergencies. (a) Identification. A filtering facepiece respirator for use by the general public in public health...
Anderson, Misti Ault; Giordano, James
The importance of strong science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education continues to grow as society, medicine, and the economy become increasingly focused and dependent upon bioscientific and technological innovation. New advances in frontier sciences (e.g., genetics, neuroscience, bio-engineering, nanoscience, cyberscience) generate ethical issues and questions regarding the use of novel technologies in medicine and public life. In light of current emphasis upon science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education (at the pre-collegiate, undergraduate, graduate, and professional levels), the pace and extent of advancements in science and biotechnology, the increasingly technological orientation and capabilities of medicine, and the ways that medicine - as profession and practice - can engage such scientific and technological power upon the multi-cultural world-stage to affect the human predicament, human condition, and perhaps nature of the human being, we argue that it is critical that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education go beyond technical understanding and directly address ethical, legal, social, and public policy implications of new innovations. Toward this end, we propose a paradigm of integrative science, technology, ethics, and policy studies that meets these needs through early and continued educational exposure that expands extant curricula of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs from the high school through collegiate, graduate, medical, and post-graduate medical education. We posit a synthetic approach that elucidates the historical, current, and potential interaction of scientific and biotechnological development in addition to the ethico-legal and social issues that are important to educate and sustain the next generation of medical and biomedical professionals who can appreciate, articulate, and address the realities of scientific and biotechnological progress given the shifting
Kubacki Angela M
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether the introduction of professional development teaching in the first two years of a medical course improved students' observed communication skills with simulated patients. Students' observed communication skills were related to patient-centred attitudes, confidence in communicating with patients and performance in later clinical examinations. Methods Eighty-two medical students from two consecutive cohorts at a UK medical school completed two videoed consultations with a simulated patient: one at the beginning of year 1 and one at the end of year 2. Group 1 (n = 35 received a traditional pre-clinical curriculum. Group 2 (n = 47 received a curriculum that included communication skills training integrated into a 'professional development' vertical module. Videoed consultations were rated using the Evans Interview Rating Scale by communication skills tutors. A subset of 27% were double-coded. Inter-rater reliability is reported. Results Students who had received the professional development teaching achieved higher ratings for use of silence, not interrupting the patient, and keeping the discussion relevant compared to students receiving the traditional curriculum. Patient-centred attitudes were not related to observed communication. Students who were less nervous and felt they knew how to listen were rated as better communicators. Students receiving the traditional curriculum and who had been rated as better communicators when they entered medical school performed less well in the final year clinical examination. Conclusions Students receiving the professional development training showed significant improvements in certain communication skills, but students in both cohorts improved over time. The lack of a relationship between observed communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may be a reflection of students' inexperience in working with patients, resulting in 'patient-centredness' being
Background This study investigated whether the introduction of professional development teaching in the first two years of a medical course improved students' observed communication skills with simulated patients. Students' observed communication skills were related to patient-centred attitudes, confidence in communicating with patients and performance in later clinical examinations. Methods Eighty-two medical students from two consecutive cohorts at a UK medical school completed two videoed consultations with a simulated patient: one at the beginning of year 1 and one at the end of year 2. Group 1 (n = 35) received a traditional pre-clinical curriculum. Group 2 (n = 47) received a curriculum that included communication skills training integrated into a 'professional development' vertical module. Videoed consultations were rated using the Evans Interview Rating Scale by communication skills tutors. A subset of 27% were double-coded. Inter-rater reliability is reported. Results Students who had received the professional development teaching achieved higher ratings for use of silence, not interrupting the patient, and keeping the discussion relevant compared to students receiving the traditional curriculum. Patient-centred attitudes were not related to observed communication. Students who were less nervous and felt they knew how to listen were rated as better communicators. Students receiving the traditional curriculum and who had been rated as better communicators when they entered medical school performed less well in the final year clinical examination. Conclusions Students receiving the professional development training showed significant improvements in certain communication skills, but students in both cohorts improved over time. The lack of a relationship between observed communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may be a reflection of students' inexperience in working with patients, resulting in 'patient-centredness' being an abstract concept
... No. FDA-2010-N-0237] Identifying Unmet Public Health Needs and Facilitating Innovation in Medical...) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``Identifying Unmet Public Health Needs and Facilitating... identify the most important unmet public health needs, the barriers to innovative medical...
Ramirez, Cherie L; Gajdos, Zofia K Z; Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Afeiche, Myriam C; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Nelson, Candace C; Kanjee, Usheer; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J
Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows-including those at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH)-have somewhat limited opportunities outside of traditional coursework to learn holistically about public health. Because this lack of familiarity could be a barrier to fruitful collaboration across disciplines, HSPH postdocs sought to address this challenge. In response, the Public Health 101 Nanocourse was developed to provide an overview of five core areas of public health (biostatistics, environmental health sciences, epidemiology, health policy and management, and social and behavioral sciences) in a two half-day course format. We present our experiences with developing and launching this novel approach to acquainting wider multidisciplinary audiences with the field of public health.
Popescu, R A; Schäfer, R; Califano, R; Eckert, R; Coleman, R; Douillard, J-Y; Cervantes, A; Casali, P G; Sessa, C; Van Cutsem, E; de Vries, E; Pavlidis, N; Fumasoli, K; Wörmann, B; Samonigg, H; Cascinu, S; Cruz Hernández, J J; Howard, A J; Ciardiello, F; Stahel, R A; Piccart, M
The number of cancer patients in Europe is rising and significant advances in basic and applied cancer research are making the provision of optimal care more challenging. The concept of cancer as a systemic, highly heterogeneous and complex disease has increased the awareness that quality cancer care should be provided by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) of highly qualified healthcare professionals. Cancer patients also have the right to benefit from medical progress by receiving optimal treatment from adequately trained and highly skilled medical professionals. Built on the highest standards of professional training and continuing medical education, medical oncology is recognised as an independent medical specialty in many European countries. Medical oncology is a core member of the MDT and offers cancer patients a comprehensive and systemic approach to treatment and care, while ensuring evidence-based, safe and cost-effective use of cancer drugs and preserving the quality of life of cancer patients through the entire 'cancer journey'. Medical oncologists are also engaged in clinical and translational research to promote innovation and new therapies and they contribute to cancer diagnosis, prevention and research, making a difference for patients in a dynamic, stimulating professional environment. Medical oncologists play an important role in shaping the future of healthcare through innovation and are also actively involved at the political level to ensure a maximum contribution of the profession to Society and to tackle future challenges. This position paper summarises the multifarious and vital contributions of medical oncology and medical oncologists to today's and tomorrow's professional cancer care.
Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Otok, Robert
The public health profession in Europe has a leadership role for ensuring European’s health in the twenty-first century and therefore must assume responsibility for advancing education for research and practice. Three fundamental questions are explored: (1) What are the main public health problems facing public health professionals; (2) What are their existing competencies after training; and (3) What competencies do European employers expect? The European Schools of Public Health assessed their best success to be in the field of health promotion, followed by disease prevention including identification of priority health problems, and elimination of health hazards in the community. Conversely, they see the least success in dealing with preparedness and planning for public health emergencies. From an employer’s perspective, significant gaps between current and desired levels of performance at the job exist for all Essential Public Health Operations of World Health Organization. Based on prior research and recent European surveys of Schools and Departments of Public Health, the following recommendations are made, which emphasize the leadership role of the European public health community: (1) the preparation of public health professionals requires an interface between public health functions, competencies, and performance; (2) competence-based education is important and allows debates on the scope of the required education; (3) governments have to realize that the present lack of infrastructure and capacity is detrimental to the people’s health; (4) as public health challenges are increasingly global, educational institutions have to look beyond the national boundaries and participate in European and global networks for education, research, and practice. PMID:28261578
The education of health care professionals is essential to maintaining standards of medical competence and access to care by patients. Inherent in the education of health care professionals is the problem of disparity in power and authority, including the power of teachers over learners and the power of practitioners over patients. Although there is a continuum of supervision levels and independence from student to resident to fellow, the ethical issues that arise during interactions among all teachers, learners, and their patients are similar. In this Committee Opinion, the Committee on Ethics of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists discusses and offers recommendations regarding the professional conduct and ethical responsibilities of practitioners toward patients and participants in research in educational settings; of learners and teachers toward one another; and of institutions toward patients, learners, and teachers.
Cuesta-Briand, Beatriz; Auret, Kirsten; Johnson, Paula; Playford, Denese
The importance of professional behaviour has been emphasized in medical school curricula. However, the lack of consensus on what constitutes professionalism poses a challenge to medical educators, who often resort to a negative model of assessment based on the identification of unacceptable behaviour. This paper presents results from a study exploring medical students' views on professionalism, and reports on students' constructs of the 'good' and the 'professional' doctor. Data for this qualitative study were collected through focus groups conducted with medical students from one Western Australian university over a period of four years. Students were recruited through unit coordinators and invited to participate in a focus group. De-identified socio-demographic data were obtained through a brief questionnaire. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and subjected to inductive thematic analysis. A total of 49 medical students took part in 13 focus groups. Differences between students' understandings of the 'good' and 'professional' doctor were observed. Being competent, a good communicator and a good teacher were the main characteristics of the 'good' doctor. Professionalism was strongly associated with the adoption of a professional persona; following a code of practice and professional guidelines, and treating others with respect were also associated with the 'professional' doctor. Students felt more connected to the notion of the 'good' doctor, and perceived professionalism as an external and imposed construct. When both constructs were seen as acting in opposition, students tended to forgo professionalism in favour of becoming a 'good' doctor.Results suggest that the teaching of professionalism should incorporate more formal reflection on the complexities of medical practice, allowing students and educators to openly explore and articulate any perceived tensions between what is formally taught and what is being observed in clinical practice.
Asgary, Ramin; Junck, Emily
Short-term humanitarian medical volunteerism has grown significantly among both clinicians and trainees over the past several years. Increasingly, both volunteers and their respective institutions have faced important challenges in regard to medical ethics and professional codes that should not be overlooked. We explore these potential concerns and their risk factors in three categories: ethical responsibilities in patient care, professional responsibility to communities and populations, and institutional responsibilities towards trainees. We discuss factors increasing the risk of harm to patients and communities, including inadequate preparation, the use of advanced technology and the translation of Western medicine, issues with clinical epidemiology and test utility, difficulties with the principles of justice and clinical justice, the lack of population-based medicine, sociopolitical effects of foreign aid, volunteer stress management, and need for sufficient trainee supervision. We review existing resources and offer suggestions for future skill-based training, organisational responsibilities, and ethical preparation.
Christopher E. McCoy
Full Text Available The 25th known outbreak of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD is now a global public health emergency and the World Health Organization (WHO has declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC. Since the first cases of the West African epidemic were reported in March 2014, there has been an increase in infection rates of over 13,000% over a 6-month period. The Ebola virus has now arrived in the United States and public health professionals, doctors, hospitals, Emergency Medial Services Administrators, Medical Directors, and policy makers have been working with haste to develop strategies to prevent the disease from reaching epidemic proportions. Prehospital care providers (emergency medical technicians and paramedics and medical first responders (including but not limited to firefighters and law enforcement are the healthcare systems front lines when it comes to first medical contact with patients outside of the hospital setting. Risk of contracting Ebola can be particularly high in this population of first responders if the appropriate precautions are not implemented. This article provides a brief clinical overview of the Ebola Virus Disease and provides a comprehensive summary of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Interim Guidance for Emergency Medical Services (EMS Systems and 9-1-1 Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPS for Management of Patients with Known of Suspected Ebola Virus Disease in the United States. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:-0.
Learn how to stay ahead of the game when budgets and staff are cut Medical Library Downsizing: Administrative, Professional, and Personal Strategies for Coping with Change explores corporate downsizing and other company-wide events as they relate to medical librarians in their organization. This training manual is designed to help librarians prepare for a new era where shrinking budgets, inflated journal costs, and the increasing demand for new and expensive services now put salaries and jobs at risk. While focused on health care issues, this book will appeal to a general library audience and
Lai, Meng-Kuan; Aritejo, Bayu Aji; Tang, Jing-Shia; Chen, Chien-Liang; Chuang, Chia-Chang
Family presence during resuscitation is an emerging trend, yet it remains controversial, even in countries with relatively high acceptance of family presence during resuscitation among medical professionals. Family presence during resuscitation is not common in many countries, and medical professionals in these regions are unfamiliar with family presence during resuscitation. Therefore, this study predicted the medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation by applying the theory of planned behaviour. A cross-sectional survey. A single medical centre in southern Taiwan. Medical staffs including physicians and nurses in a single medical centre (n=714). A questionnaire was constructed to measure the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and behavioural intentions as well as the awareness of family presence during resuscitation and demographics. In total, 950 questionnaires were distributed to doctors and nurses in a medical centre. Among the 714 valid questionnaires, only 11 participants were aware of any association in Taiwan that promotes family presence during resuscitation; 94.7% replied that they were unsure (30.4%) or that their unit did not have a family presence during resuscitation policy (74.8%). Regression analysis was performed to predict medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. The results indicated that only positive attitudes and subjective norms regarding family presence during resuscitation and clinical tenure could predict the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. Because Family presence during resuscitation practice is not common in Taiwan and only 26.19% of the participants agreed to both items measuring the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation, we recommend the implementation of a family presence during resuscitation education program that will enhance the positive beliefs
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical experience has traditionally been highly valued in medical education and clinical healthcare. On account of its multi-faceted nature, clinical experience is mostly difficult to articulate, and is mainly expressed in clinical situations as professional approaches. Due to retirement, hospitals in Scandinavia will soon face a substantial decrease in the number of senior specialist doctors, and it has been discussed whether healthcare will suffer an immense loss of experienced-based knowledge when this senior group leaves the organization. Both senior specialists and junior colleagues are often involved in clinical education, but the way in which these two groups vary in professional approaches and contributions to clinical education has not been so well described. Cognitive psychology has contributed to the understanding of how experience may influence professional approaches, but such studies have not included the effect of differences in position and responsibilities that junior and senior doctors hold in clinical healthcare. In the light of the discussion above, it is essential to describe the professional approaches of senior doctors in relation to those of their junior colleagues. This study therefore aims to describe and compare the professional approaches of junior and senior doctors when making clinical judgements. Methods Critical incident technique was used in interviews with nine senior doctors and nine junior doctors in internal medicine. The interviews were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Result Senior and junior doctors expressed a variety of professional approaches in clinical judgement as follows: use of theoretical knowledge, use of prior experience of cases and courses of events, use of ethical and moral values, meeting and communicating with the patient, focusing on available information, relying on their own ability, getting support and guidance from others and being directed by the
Essary, Alison C
The use of social media is the norm among the digital native generation, with 75% of the Millennial Generation connected through Facebook. For students in medical education who struggle to distinguish between personal and professional boundaries, social media provides yet another challenge. Incidents of unprofessional conduct and academic dismissal have been reported. Administration, faculty, and students would benefit from clear policies and procedures, case scenarios of social media violations, and suggestions for using social media wisely.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess medical students’ presence on Facebook and the extent of their visible activity, with particular reference to online professionalism. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including all medical students enrolled in the University College of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, India during the period of the study, which was conducted from 2011 to 2012. After approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee, the full names of all students were obtained from our institution. After creating a fictitious profile, Facebook was searched for students’ profiles, and those found were examined for visible content and unprofessional behaviour. Results: Of 611 students, 477 (78.1% had detectable Facebook profiles. Out of 477 profiles, date of birth, address, email, phone number, religion, and political views were rarely shared; sexual orientation and relationship status were displayed on approximately one third of the profiles; and an identifiable profile picture (80.3%, field of study (51.6%, and institution (86.2% were commonly shared . The visible content included friend lists (88.7%, photo albums (36.1%, and associations with diverse groups and pages (97.1%. Five profiles (1.05% displayed unprofessional content, including one profile photograph depicting alcohol consumption, one association with groups relating to excessive alcohol consumption, two profiles containing sexually explicit language, and one association with a sexist page. Conclusion: Most of our students use Facebook’s privacy settings to hide some content from others. Unprofessional content was rarely visible from a stranger’s profile. However, even when hidden from strangers, unprofessional behaviour is still unprofessional behaviour. As Facebook is an integral part of life, it is important for medical educators and students to understand the implications and importance of e-professionalism. Professionalism curricula should address e-professionalism.
Ausserer, J; Schwamberger, J; Preloznik, R; Klimek, M; Paal, P; Wenzel, V
Tragic accidents, e.g. involving celebrity patients or severe incidents in hospital occur suddenly without any advance warning, often produce substantial interest by the media and quickly overburden management personnel involved in both hospitals and emergency medical services. While doctors, hospitals and emergency medical services desire objective media reports, the media promote emotionalized and dramatized reports to ensure maximum attention and circulation. When briefing the media, the scales may quickly tilt from professional, well-deliberated information to unfortunate, often unintended disinformation. Such phenomena may result in continuing exaggerated reports in the tabloid press, which in the presence of aggressive lawyers and a competitive hospital environment can turn into image and legal problems. In this article, several aspects are discussed in order to achieve successful public relations.Interviews should be given only after consultation with the responsible press officer and the director of the respective department or hospital director. Requests for information by the media should always be answered as otherwise one-sided, unintentional publications can result that are extremely difficult to correct later. One should be available to be contacted easily by journalists, regular press conferences should be held and critics should be taken seriously and not be brushed off. Questions by journalists should be answered in a timely manner as journalists are continuously under time pressure and do not understand unnecessary delays. Information for the media should always be provided at the same time, no publication should be given preference and an absolutely current list of E-mail contacts is required. When facing big events a press conference is preferred as many questions can be answered at once. Always be well prepared for an interview or even for just a statement. Each interview should be regarded as an opportunity to put a story forward which you
Full Text Available The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial and subsequent studies have had a tremendous impact on the treatment and prognosis of optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis in adults. The results of these studies have been extrapolated to children; however, pediatric data are sparse. Using the method of prospective preference assessment, the willingness of parents and medical professionals to enroll children in a hypothetical Pediatric Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial was assessed using a mock consent form and questionnaire. A 3-arm trial was proposed: 1 intravenous corticosteroids, 2 high-dose oral corticosteroids, and 3 an oral placebo. The forms were completed by 198 parents and 49 physicians. After reviewing the hypothetical scenario, trial design, risks and benefits, and alternatives to the study, 21% of parents would enroll their children in the trial whereas 98% of medical professionals would enroll their patients. With medical professional recommendation, 43% of parents would enroll their children. The manner in which this hypothetical trial was presented to parents, specifically with respect to the recommendation of their child’s health care team, influenced a parent’s willingness to participate.
Barr, Jennifer; Bull, Rosalind; Rooney, Kim
Patient encounters are central to the provision of learning opportunities for medical students and their development as medical professionals. The primary aim of the study reported in this paper was to discover how partnering medical students with patients with chronic illness in undergraduate learning influenced the development of a patient…
Coleman, C. Norman; Sullivan, Julie M.; Bader, Judith L.; Murrain-Hill, Paula; Koerner, John F.; Garrett, Andrew L.; Weinstock, David M.; Case, Cullen; Hrdina, Chad; Adams, Steven A.; Whitcomb, Robert C.; Graeden, Ellie; Shankman, Robert; Lant, Timothy; Maidment, Bert W.; Hatchett, Richard C.
Resilience and the ability to mitigate the consequences of a nuclear incident are enhanced by (1) effective planning, preparation and training; (2) ongoing interaction, formal exercises, and evaluation among the sectors involved; (3) effective and timely response and communication; and (4) continuous improvements based on new science, technology, experience and ideas. Public health and medical planning require a complex, multi-faceted systematic approach involving federal, state, local, tribal and territorial governments, private sector organizations, academia, industry, international partners, and individual experts and volunteers. The approach developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Nuclear Incident Medical Enterprise (NIME) is the result of efforts from government and nongovernment experts. It is a “bottom-up” systematic approach built on the available and emerging science that considers physical infrastructure damage, the spectrum of injuries, a scarce resources setting, the need for decision making in the face of a rapidly evolving situation with limited information early on, timely communication and the need for tools and just-in-time information for responders who will likely be unfamiliar with radiation medicine and uncertain and overwhelmed in the face of the large number of casualties and the presence of radioactivity. The components of NIME can be used to support planning for, response to, and recovery from the effects of a nuclear incident. Recognizing that it is a continuous work-in-progress, the current status of the public health and medical preparedness and response for a nuclear incident is provided. PMID:25551496
Kari Tove Elvbakken
Full Text Available This article explores the role of food control in the professionalization of veterinarians in Norway. Veterinarians became engaged in public health through food control and market inspection, which were the responsibility of Norway’s city boards of health from the 1860s. Food inspection served a double purpose: to ensure honest trade and to maintain the safety of food. I argue that food control, which was associated with cities’ efforts to secure public health and order, was important to the legitimacy of the veterinarian profession. This activity is not what one today sees as a core practice of veterinarians, which is the prevention and curing of animal sickness. Exploring boundary activities at the fringes of a profession, and especially activity connected to the city and the state, may shed light on the more general sources of professional influence and legitimacy in the Norwegian profession state.
Lydia Mikhailovna Semenova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the organization of research work on forming professional image of the future public relations specialist. The purposes of the work were to study components of students’ image, to test the concept of a professional image of the specialist, and also to process and evaluate the results. The author has presented three phases of experimental research: statement, formative and evaluative. As a result, a positive trend of forming a professional image was found. The conceptual model of forming a professional image of the future experts tested in the course of experiment has shown to be highly effective, while new methods of training (training, workshops, panel discussions, action games, etc. have substantially improved the level of development of a professional image. The results can be used in the training and retraining of specialists of higher education and people whose profession related to communications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-48
Dagne, Tesfaye; Beyene, Waju; Berhanu, Negalign
Motivation is an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. This study assessed motivational status and factors affecting it among health professionals in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region. Facility based cross-sectional survey was employed. All health professionals who served at least for 6 months in Ambo, Gedo and Gindeberet hospitals were included. Self-administered Likert scale type questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Mean motivation calculated as percentage of maximum scale score was used. Bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were done to see the independent effects of explanatory variables. The overall motivation level of health professionals was 63.63%. Motivation level of health professionals varied among the hospitals. Gindeberet Hospital had lower motivation score as compared to Ambo Hospital (B = -0.54 and 95% CI; -0.08,-0.27). The mean motivation score of health professionals who got monthly financial benefit was significantly higher than those who did not (B = 0.71 and 95% CI; 0.32, 1.10). Environmental factors had higher impact on doctors' motivation compared to nurses' (B = 0.51 and 95% CI; 0.10, 0.92). Supervisor-related factors highly varied in motivation relative to other variables. Motivation of health professionals was affected by factors related to supervisor, financial benefits, job content and hospital location. Efforts should be made to provide financial benefits to health professionals as appropriate especially, to those who did not get any such benefits. Officially recognizing best performance is also suggested.
Betty Castro Maldonado
Full Text Available Introduction: The undergraduate thesis rather than a requirement to graduate, are a way of doing research. Previous studies show a thesis published between 2.7% to 17.6% in indexed journals. Objective: Describe the characteristics of the undergraduate thesis of the Faculty of a medical school. Bibliometric study. 221 theses were reviewed, collecting: Year, number of authors, advisers, and references, study population, and national priorities for health research. A search was performed on Google Scholar to assess publication. Descriptive statistics were used. Results: Being lower production in the years 2008-2010 was observed. 91.6% had one advisor, 76% descriptive, 82.8% in hospital population, and 62.4% of adults. Theses displayed between 2010-2014 72.9% did not correspond to any national health research priority. Only 6.8% was based on literature of the last five years. Only 9 (4.1% were published in a scientific journal indexed. Conclusions: The undergraduate thesis were characterized as descriptive, hospital, adults, literature based on outdated and not in line with the national priorities for health research. The publication is low.
Ho, Ming-Jung; Gosselin, Katherine; Chandratilake, Madawa; Monrouxe, Lynn V; Rees, Charlotte E
In an era of globalization, cultural competence is necessary for the provision of quality healthcare. Although this topic has been well explored in non-Western cultures within Western contexts, the authors explore how Taiwanese medical students trained in Western medicine address intercultural professionalism dilemmas related to tensions between Western medicine and Taiwanese culture. A narrative interview method was employed with 64 Taiwanese medical students to collect narratives of professionalism dilemmas. Noting the prominence of culture in students' narratives, we explored this theme further using secondary analysis, identifying tensions between Western medicine and Taiwanese culture and categorizing students' intercultural professionalism dilemmas according to Friedman and Berthoin Antal's 'intercultural competence' framework: involving combinations of advocacy (i.e., championing one's own culture) and inquiry (i.e., exploring one's own and others' cultures). One or more intercultural dilemmas were identified in nearly half of students' professionalism dilemma narratives. Qualitative themes included: family relations, local policy, end-of-life care, traditional medicine, gender relations and Taiwanese language. Of the 62 narratives with sufficient detail for further analysis, the majority demonstrated the 'suboptimal' low advocacy/low inquiry approach (i.e., withdrawal or inaction), while very few demonstrated the 'ideal' high advocacy/high inquiry approach (i.e., generating mutual understanding, so 'intercultural competence'). Though nearly half of students' professionalism narratives concerned intercultural dilemmas, most narratives represented disengagement from intercultural dilemmas, highlighting a possible need for more attention on intercultural competence training in Taiwan. The advocacy/inquiry framework may help educators to address similar disconnects between Western medicine and non-Western cultures in other contexts.
Full Text Available Research article Knowledge, Attitude and Health Seeking Behavior of Health Care Professionals regarding Breast and Cervical Cancer at Indian Medical College Rajal Thaker*,Kay Perrin**, Ellen Daley *** ,Cheryl Vamos ****,Pankaj Patel ***** * Associate Professor Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ***** Dean; Smt N H L Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad 380 006, India. ** Associate Professor, *** Associate Professor, Co-Director, Center for Transdisciplinary Research in Women’s Health (CTR-WH, **** Research Assistant Professor, Associate Director; Center for Transdisciplinary Research in Women’s Health (CTR-WH; University of South Florida College of Public Health, USA Abstract Background: Women’s preventative health is a major public health issue across the globe. From prenatal care to post-menopausal screenings, women’s preventative care covers a wide spectrum of issues and topics. There is limited data on knowledge and practices of screening methods of breast and cervical cancers among female health care professionals in India. This study examines health care professionals’ knowledge and practices regarding breast and cervical cancer screenings in India. Material and Methods After clearance from Institutional Review Board (IRB of University of South Florida (USF and permission from Smt N H L Municipal Medical College (NHLMMC, a cross- sectional interview based survey was conducted amongst female teaching faculty and female consultants of NHLMMC, two affiliated teaching hospitals (Sheth V S General Hospital and Smt S C L General Hospital, and SBB college of Physiotherapy during the year 2010-2011. Conclusion Findings highlight the critical need for education and practice with regards to women’s preventive health care. Practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE and Pap test amongst the health care professionals was quite low; however, those who were 40 year or older were more conscious about their health. Findings also highlight the need for
Milosavljević, Nataša; Vuletić, Aleksandar; Jovković, Ljiljana
The aim of this paper is to present specificities of the English language teaching necessary for successful education and professional training of medical students. In contemporary globalized world the English language has become the basic language of communication in all scientific fields including the field of medical science. It is well established that Medical English teaching should primarily focus on stable linguistic competence in English that is created by means of content and context based curriculum, thus preparing students for active use of English upon graduation. In order to achieve this it is very important that English language teaching be based on specific real situations in which the language is to be used. In addition, students should be encouraged to adapt practical skills applicable in specific future professional setting. Medical English teaching represents constant challenge for teachers because they need to be flexible, open to new approaches and methods, make decisions and adapt themselves to constant changes. In addition, long-term learning is at the core of higher education, and being equal partners, both students and teachers should be aware that education is a two-way process.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present specificities of the English language teaching necessary for successful education and professional training of medical students. In contemporary globalized world the English language has become the basic language of communication in all scientific fields including the field of medical science. It is well established that Medical English teaching should primarily focus on stable linguistic competence in English that is created by means of content and context based curriculum, thus preparing students for active use of English upon graduation. In order to achieve this it is very important that English language teaching be based on specific real situations in which the language is to be used. In addition, students should be encouraged to adapt practical skills applicable in specific future professional setting. Medical English teaching represents constant challenge for teachers because they need to be flexible, open to new approaches and methods, make decisions and adapt themselves to constant changes. In addition, long-term learning is at the core of higher education, and being equal partners, both students and teachers should be aware that education is a two-way process.
Phronesis has become a buzzword in contemporary medical ethics. Yet, the use of this single term conceals a number of significant conceptual controversies based on divergent philosophical assumptions. This paper explores three of them: on phronesis as universalist or relativist, generalist or particularist, and natural/painless or painful/ambivalent. It also reveals tensions between Alasdair MacIntyre's take on phronesis, typically drawn upon in professional ethics discourses, and Aristotle's original concept. The paper offers these four binaries as a possible analytical framework for classifying and evaluating accounts of phronesis in the medical ethics literature. It argues that to make sense of phronesis as a putative ideal in professional medical ethics--for example, with the further aim of crafting interventions to cultivate phronesis in medical ethics education--the preliminary question of which conception of phronesis is most serviceable for the aim in question needs to be answered. The paper identifies considerable lack of clarity in the current discursive field on phronesis and suggests how that shortcoming can be ameliorated.
Hochberg, Mark S; Seib, Carolyn D; Berman, Russell S; Kalet, Adina L; Zabar, Sondra R; Pachter, H Leon
Understanding how medical malpractice occurs and is resolved is important to improving patient safety and preserving the viability of a physician's career in academic medicine. Every physician is likely to be sued by a patient, and how the physician responds can change his or her professional life. However, the principles of medical malpractice are rarely taught or addressed during residency training. In fact, many faculty at academic medical centers know little about malpractice.In this article, the authors propose that information about the inciting causes of malpractice claims and their resolution should be incorporated into residency professionalism curricula both to improve patient safety and to decrease physician anxiety about a crucial aspect of medicine that is not well understood. The authors provide information on national trends in malpractice litigation and residents' understanding of malpractice, then share the results of their in-depth review of surgical malpractice claims filed during 2001-2008 against their academic medical center. The authors incorporated those data into an evidence-driven curriculum for residents, which they propose as a model for helping residents better understand the events that lead to malpractice litigation, as well as its process and prevention.
Agyapong, Vincent Israel Opoku; McLoughlin, Declan
Objectives: Authors assessed the impact of a public-speaking competition on the level of interest in psychiatry of Ghanaian medical students. Method: An inter-medical school public-speaking competition was organized to promote psychiatry as a fulfilling career option for Ghanaian medical students. Feedback questionnaires were completed by the…
Agyapong, Vincent Israel Opoku; McLoughlin, Declan
Objectives: Authors assessed the impact of a public-speaking competition on the level of interest in psychiatry of Ghanaian medical students. Method: An inter-medical school public-speaking competition was organized to promote psychiatry as a fulfilling career option for Ghanaian medical students. Feedback questionnaires were completed by the…
Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua
By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties.
Industry-sponsored medical education is a much disputed issue. So far, there has been no regulatory framework which provides clear and definite rules as to whether and under what circumstances the sponsorship of medical education is acceptable. State regulation does not exist, or confines itself to a very general principle. Professional regulation, even though applied frequently, is rather vague and indefinite, raising the general question as to whether self-regulation is the right approach at all. Certainly, self-regulation by industry cannot and should not replace other regulatory approaches. Ultimately, advertising law in general and the European Directive 2001/83/EC specifically, might be a good starting point in providing legal certainty and ensuring the independence of medical education. Swiss advertising law illustrates how the principles of the European Directive could be implemented clearly and unambiguously.
McLean, Monica; Walker, Melanie
The education of professionals oriented to poverty reduction and the public good is the focus of the article. Sen's "capability approach" is used to conceptualise university-based professional education as a process of developing public-good professional capabilities. The main output of a research project on professional education in…
Navarro-Sandoval, Cleyber; Arones-Guevara, Shermany; Carrera-Palao, Rosa; Casana-Jara, Kelly; Colque-Jaliri, Tomasa
To determine the characteristics of the criminal complaints claining medical professional liability, based on the expert reports issued by the Forensic Examination Division of Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was carried out, which included all the expert reports issued between 2005 and 2010 at the Forensic Examination Division of Lima, Peru. A descriptive analysis of each of the variables was performed. 60.3% (495/821) of the criminal complaints for medical professional liability were valued as being in accordance with the lex artis while 16.8% (138/821) were not in accordance with the lex artis. In 13% (107/821) of the cases, conclusions could not be drawn;in 9.9% (81/821) of the cases, the conclusions in the expert report did not include an valuations of the medical act.The cases in which the injury was attributed to the process of the disease itself accounted for 80.9% (502/620), and those in which in the injury was considered a result of the health care received were 19.0% (118/620). The distribution of the cause of the injury based on accordance with the lex artis showed significant differences. In our country, the number of claims for claimed medical liability is increasing, predominantly in relation to surgical specialties, where a medical act is more likely to be considered not in accordance with the lex artis. In addition, in a significant percentage of cases, no conclusions are drawn about the medical act.
Full Text Available The article discusses the positive and negative impact of the new Federal state educational standards of higher professional education on the quality of studying the discipline «Law» in medical schools
Fraas, M R; Coughlan, G F; Hart, E C; McCarthy, C
Self-reported concussion rates among U-20 and elite rugby union players in Ireland are 45-48%. Half of these injuries go unreported. Accurate knowledge of concussion signs and symptoms and appropriate management practices among coaches and medical staff is important to improve the welfare of players. Examine concussion knowledge among coaches, and management techniques among medical staff of professional Irish rugby teams. Surveys were administered to 11 coaches and 12 medical staff at the end of the 2010-2011 season. Coaches demonstrated an accurate knowledge of concussion with a good understanding of concussion-related symptoms. Medical staff reported using a variety of methods for assessing concussion and making return-to-play decisions. Reliance on subjective clinical methods was evident, with less reliance on objective postural stability performance. Overall, the coaches in this investigation have accurate knowledge of concussion and medical staff use effective techniques for managing this injury. On-going education is needed to assist coaches in identifying concussion signs and symptoms. It is recommended that medical staff increase their reliance on objective methods for assessment and return-to-play decision making.
Furukawa, Patricia de Oliveira; Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves; Marck, Patricia Beryl
ABSTRACT Objectives: to verify the correlation between the characteristics of professionals and the practice of sustainable actions in the medication processes in an ICU, and to determine if interventions such as training and awareness can promote sustainable practices performed by nursing staff in the hospital. Methods: before-and-after design study using Lean Six Sigma methodology, applied in an intensive care unit. Nursing staff were observed regarding the practice of ecologically sustainable actions during medication processes (n = 324 cases for each group (pre and post-intervention)) through a data collection instrument. The processes analyzed involved 99 professionals in the pre-intervention phase and 97 in the post-intervention phase. Data were analyzed quantitatively and the association of variables was accomplished by means of statistical inference, according to the nature of the related variables. Results: the education level was the only characteristic that showed to be relevant to an increase in sustainable practices, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.002). When comparing before and after the intervention, there was an increase in environmentally friendly actions with statistically significant differences (p = 0.001). Conclusions: the results suggest that institutions should encourage and invest in formal education, as well as training of health professionals to promote sustainable practices in the hospital. PMID:28614432
Witman, Y.; Kerkhof, P.C. van de; Braat, D.D.M.
In the current system for guaranteeing quality of care, emphasis is placed firmly on external control of professionals. We looked for a way to appeal to the intrinsic motivation of medical professionals and to discover what they mean by 'good work'. This was achieved with the aid of reflective sessi
Full Text Available The Objective: research of regularities of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity and justification of the directions of optimization of management by this process. Material and Methods. Object of research included functioning of system of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity. Are carried out: The study of reports of the Saratov region for 2006-2012, documentation of 16 treatment-and-prophylactic medical organizations and 84 responses on graduates of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky; anonymous retrospective questioning of 164 doctors after professional retraining at the faculty of professional development; expert questionnaire of 15 persons of the faculty of organizational chairs have been carried out. Results. In the work "complex adaptation factor"; dynamics of level of social and psychological, psychophysiological, organizational and professional indicators of adaptation of graduates to conditions of independent professional activity; the characteristic of "lagging behind" doctors; purposes of management of adaptation, importance of stages of its organizational support have been established. The ways to evaluate the success of individual adaptation and management of this process have been worked out, which are designed on the basis of the corresponding authorized optimization technology. Conclusion. Results of the conducted research allowed to expand idea of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity and to solve a number of applied problems of its optimization.
Background Medical professionalism as a set of behaviours that transcends personal values, beliefs and attitudes to incorporate ethical and moral principles is considered a covenant between society and the practice of medicine. The Bachelor of Clinical Medical Practice (BCMP) a three year professional degree was launched at the University of the Witwatersrand in January 2009 in response to a documented shortage of doctors especially in the rural areas of South Africa. The BCMP programme is un...
Masoud, Ferdosi; Alireza, Jabbari; Mahmoud, Keyvanara; Zahra, Agharahimi
Medical tourism for any study area is complex. Using full articles from other databases, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Science Direct, Emerald, Oxford, Magiran, and Scientific Information Database (SID), to examine systematically published articles about medical tourism in the interval 2000-2011 paid. Articles were obtained using descriptive statistics and content analysis categories were analyzed. Among the 28 articles reviewed, 11 cases were a kind of research articles, three cases were case studies in Mexico, India, Hungary, Germany, and Iran, and 14 were case studies, review documents and data were passed. The main topics of study included the definition of medical tourism, medical tourists' motivation and development of medical tourism, ethical issues in medical tourism, and impact on health and medical tourism marketing. The findings indicate the definition of medical tourism in various articles, and medical tourists are motivated. However, most studies indicate the benefits of medical tourism in developing countries and more developed countries reflect the consequences of medical tourism.
Mohamed Azmi Hassali
Full Text Available Context: A better understanding of medication safety ensures better health state among healthcare consumers. Aim: The study aims to assess general public awareness toward issues related to medication safety. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among general public selected conveniently in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Materials and methods: A total of 500 respondents were approached and 476 consumers participated in the survey giving a response rate of 95.2%. Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 12.0 and descriptive statistics were reported where appropriate. Results: Majority of the respondents (n=292, 61.3% stated that they were well aware of the possible side effects of their current medications. A total of 196 respondents (41.17% believed that all medicines registered in Malaysia are safe to use as these medicines have no side effects. About 40.33% (n=192 of the respondents claimed that they share their unused medicines with family and friends who are having similar illness. Majority of respondents 57.7% (n=275 were satisfied with the drug information provided by the healthcare professionals. This study also found that more than 80% of the respondents (n=409 did report that they read the labels of their medication before using. Conclusions: In this study, it was revealed that there is a moderate level of public knowledge regarding medication safety. It is evident that public underestimates the risk of their medications. There is a general lack of awareness and understanding among the public especially toward side effects.
Alvim, Luísa; Calixto, José António
This work presents the results and the analysis of the questionnaire conducted among 99 professionals of Portuguese public libraries with Facebook page/profile at the beginning of the year 2014. It is part of a wider research - case study, using other techniques for data collection on the impact of Web 2.0 on the social role of Portuguese public libraries on the Facebook platform. The main purposes of the survey are to analyze how professionals from libraries explore the Facebo...
McNair, Antonia; Moran, Conor; McGrath, Erinn; Naqvi, Syed; Connolly, Claire; McKenna, Verna; Kropmans, Thomas
Since the introduction of professionalism in medical curricula worldwide, little evidence has been published to exemplify good educational practice. The Medical school at the National University of Ireland Galway teaches professionalism in an interdisciplinary manner, integrating the learning objectives of health informatics, understanding health & illness in society, medical law and ethics. Students work in small groups on clinical cases. Enquiry-based learning is used as the teaching method following a few introductory lectures on specific objectives. Students present their work in the format of a scientific essay. The latter is assessed by a board of reviewers. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate evidence of excellent professional output and illustrate the benefits to a fully integrated professionalism curriculum.
Brunot, Alain; Thompson, Céline
A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 278 health professionals (GPs and specialists, dentists, physical therapists and nurses) in a private medical practice in Paris to study the medical waste management practices related to the production and disposal of potentially hazardous health care waste. With the exception of physical therapists, most professionals produced medical waste (72% to 96,2% according to occupation), with a monthly median of 3 liters (inter-quartile range 1-15 liters). All sharp objects and needles were separated and 91% of them eliminated via a specific process for that sector. These percentages were respectively 84% and 69% concerning contaminated waste that was neither needles or used for cutting. 48% of the professionals reported the existence of documents that could track the disposal of their medical waste. To improve practice, professionals cited collection on-site at the office (74%) and reliability of the contracted service provider to collect the waste (59%). The study showed that health professionals need information on the regulations regarding potentially infectious medical waste, in particular on the traceability of its elimination. They also noted the lack of clarity and precision with regard to the definition of risk of infection: 31,7% of professionals only declare the production of sharp or cutting waste without having specified criteria for risk of infection.
Fantahun, Atsede; Demessie, Asrat; Gebrekirstos, Kahsu; Zemene, Ayalnesh; Yetayeh, Gebre
Professionalism is defined as the conceptualization of obligations, attributes, interactions, attitudes, and role behaviors required of professionals in relationship to individual clients and to society as a whole. Professionalism attributes include knowledge, spirit of inquiry, accountability, autonomy, advocacy, innovation and visionary, collaboration and collegiality, and ethics. The study assessed level and attributes of professionalism in nursing in Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia. Institutional based cross sectional study supplemented by qualitative design was employed. Self administered semi structured questionnaire developed from RANO guideline was used. The FGD guideline was developed from different literatures. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics and significance was checked at p Professionalism was measured using ANOVA. Qualitative of data were analyzed using coding technique. Written informed consent was obtained from the nurses and confidentiality was assured for all the information provide. The mean scores for the nurses in Mekelle public hospitals on the professionalism were 140.50, knowledge (25.06), followed by ethics (25.00). The attitudes of respondents on professionalism were at high, moderate, low and very low level. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis revealed small yet significant associations among several professionalism attributes and characteristics of nurses in Mekelle Public hospitals. Age of respondents and work experience were significantly correlated with total professionalism. Work setting in Mekelle hospital was significantly associated with professionalism. Depending on FGD, the major factors were workload, had no vision, FMOH did not focused nursing as a profession, Weakness of the Ethiopian Nursing Association, lack of life insurance as well as the Health professionals and society's views of the profession. Nurses with longer years of experience and the older respondents had significantly related with
The Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency (Core EPAs) have taken a strong hold on undergraduate medical education (UME). This Perspective questions their value added and considers the utility of the Core EPAs along two separate dimensions: (1) the ways they change the content and focus of the goals of UME; and (2) the extent to which entrustable professional activity (EPA)-based assessment conforms to basic principles of measurement theory as practiced in the social sciences. Concerning content and focus, the author asks whether the 13 Core EPAs frame UME too narrowly, putting competencies into the background and overlooking certain aspirational, but important and measurable, objectives of UME. The author also discusses the unevenness of EPAs in terms of their breadth and their developmental status as core activities. Regarding measurement and assessment, the author raises concerns that the EPA metric introduces layers of inference that may cause distortions and hinder accuracy and rater agreement. In addition, the use of weak anchors and multidimensional scales is also of concern. The author concludes with a proposal for reframing the Core EPAs and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies into broadly defined sets of behaviors, referred to as "Tasks of Medicine," and calls for the development of a systematic and longitudinal research agenda. The author asserts that "slowing down when you should" applies to medical education as well as patient care, and calls for a reevaluation of the Core EPAs before further commitment to them.
Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai
Full Text Available This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. Mean (±SD age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6. The most common source of job stress was “fear of making mistakes.” Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies.
Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the personal and professional development (PPD module in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Melaka Manipal Medical College, India. PPD hours were incorporated in the curriculum. A team of faculty members and a faculty coordinator identified relevant topics and students were introduced to topics such as medical humanities, leadership skills, communication skills, ethics, professional behavior, and patient narratives. The module was evaluated using a prevalidated course feedback questionnaire which was administered to three consecutive batches of students from March 2011 to March 2013. To analyze faculty perspectives, one to one in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted by the coordinators with faculty members who conducted the PPD classes. Analysis of the course feedback form revealed that majority (80% of students agreed that the module was well prepared and was "highly relevant" to the profession. Faculty found the topics new and interdisciplinary and there was a sense of sharing responsibility and workload by the faculty. PPD modules are necessary components of the curriculum and help to mould students while they are still acquiescent as they assume their roles as doctors of the future.
Komattil, Ramnarayan; Hande, Shyamala Handattu; Mohammed, Ciraj Ali; Subramaniam, Barathi
The study aimed at evaluating the personal and professional development (PPD) module in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Melaka Manipal Medical College, India. PPD hours were incorporated in the curriculum. A team of faculty members and a faculty coordinator identified relevant topics and students were introduced to topics such as medical humanities, leadership skills, communication skills, ethics, professional behavior, and patient narratives. The module was evaluated using a prevalidated course feedback questionnaire which was administered to three consecutive batches of students from March 2011 to March 2013. To analyze faculty perspectives, one to one in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted by the coordinators with faculty members who conducted the PPD classes. Analysis of the course feedback form revealed that majority (80%) of students agreed that the module was well prepared and was "highly relevant" to the profession. Faculty found the topics new and interdisciplinary and there was a sense of sharing responsibility and workload by the faculty. PPD modules are necessary components of the curriculum and help to mould students while they are still acquiescent as they assume their roles as doctors of the future.
The article considers the necessity and possibility of formation of personal and professional competencies of specialists in the sphere of Public and Municipal Administration (PMA) at the pre-service professional stage of development. Purpose: to justify the necessity and possibility of personal and professional skills formation of specialists-to-be in PMA sphere, as well as to determine the conditions of such activity. Methods and methodology of the research: analysis of educational standard...
Barr, Jennifer; Bull, Rosalind; Rooney, Kim
Patient encounters are central to the provision of learning opportunities for medical students and their development as medical professionals. The primary aim of the study reported in this paper was to discover how partnering medical students with patients with chronic illness in undergraduate learning influenced the development of a patient centred professional identity and professionalism. An exploratory interpretive research design was used to address the research aim within a patient partner program (P3). Three qualitative data collection methods were used: (1) focus groups (2) extended response questionnaire and (3) semi-structured interviews. Data were coded and analysed thematically. The professional identity of medical students is constructed along traditional lines in the preclinical years. Patient-partnership offers a disruption to this development by way of an intersection with patients with chronic illness which potentially allows meaningful construction of what a patient-centred identity should be. This point of reflection provides an opportunity to engage at a higher level in medical identity development and professionalism. The findings discussed in this paper further stimulate the patient-centred agenda by understanding the conflict associated with the student-patient nexus in medical education and its potential for building professionalism and a patient-centred professional identity. To continue the drive for a patient-centred professional identity there must be ongoing engagement with patients in medical education, preferably commencing early in a student's journey so that it becomes the expected norm. This study has highlighted that a true patient-centred emphasis is being encountered too late in their socialisation process.
Waitzkin, H; Britt, T
Criticism of social context does not generally appear in medical encounters. When contextual issues arise in medical discourse, messages of ideology and social control may become apparent, usually without the conscious awareness of the participants. By easing the physical or psychological impact of contextual difficulties, or by encouraging patients' conformity to mainstream expectations of desirable behavior, encounters with doctors can help win patients' consent to troubling social conditions. Seen in this light, doctor-patient encounters become micropolitical situations that do not typically encourage explicit statements or actions by health professionals to change contextual sources of their patients' difficulties. A critical theory influenced by structuralism suggests that the surface meanings of signs in medical discourse prove less important than their structural relationships. In addition, a theoretical approach adopting elements of post-structuralism and Marxist literary criticism emphasizes the marginal, absent, or excluded elements of medical discourse. Contextual features that shape a text include social class, sex, age, and race. Through the underlying structure of medical discourse, contextual problems are expressed, marginalized, and managed.
Patient access to health information and patient-provider communication is integral to medicine, and can be facilitated by mobile applications ("apps"). Traditionally, student training in mobile Health (mHealth) has focussed on health professionals as consumers of information, with negative impacts on the quality and value of medical apps. This study focuses on teaching medical students to develop their own medical apps. At Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, an app development environment, iBuildApp, was taught to medical students and used to develop their first apps. Students were surveyed on their perceptions of the project. Of the 166 students, 107 (64.5%) completed the survey. There was an increase in the perceived need for such learning, apps were aimed primarily at patients, and previous programming experience was the strongest influencer of a positive experience. A majority (77.6%) wanted more sophisticated development environments in spite of their apparent struggles. The impact of previous experience is similar to other studies; the perceived value and focus on patient apps is indicative of an awareness of patients' use of the devices not reflected in all literature. It is possible to teach medical students the fundamentals of app design so that they may contribute to app development in the future.
Lutz, Gabriele; Pankoke, Nina; Goldblatt, Hadass; Hofmann, Marzellus; Zupanic, Michaela
Professional competence is important in delivering high quality patient care, and it can be enhanced by reflection and reflective discourse e.g. in mentoring groups. However, students are often reluctant though to engage in this discourse. A group mentoring program involving all preclinical students as well as faculty members and co-mentoring clinical students was initiated at Witten-Herdecke University. This study explores both the attitudes of those students towards such a program and factors that might hinder or enhance how students engage in reflective discourse. A qualitative design was applied using semi-structured focus group interviews with preclinical students and semi-structured individual interviews with mentors and co-mentors. The interview data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Students' attitudes towards reflective discourse on professional challenges were diverse. Some students valued the new program and named positive outcomes regarding several features of professional development. Enriching experiences were described. Others expressed aversive attitudes. Three reasons for these were given: unclear goals and benefits, interpersonal problems within the groups hindering development and intrapersonal issues such as insecurity and traditional views of medical education. Participants mentioned several program setup factors that could enhance how students engage in such groups: explaining the program thoroughly, setting expectations and integrating the reflective discourse in a meaningful way into the curriculum, obliging participation without coercion, developing a sense of security, trust and interest in each other within the groups, randomizing group composition and facilitating group moderators as positive peer and faculty role models and as learning group members. A well-designed and empathetic setup of group mentoring programs can help raise openness towards engaging in meaningful reflective discourse. Reflection on and communication of
Chen, Peggy Guey-Chi; Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Bernheim, Susannah May; Berg, David; Gozu, Aysegul; Curry, Leslie Ann
International medical graduates (IMGs) comprise approximately 25% of the US physician workforce, with significant representation in primary care and care of vulnerable populations. Despite the central role of IMGs in the US healthcare system, understanding of their professional experiences is limited. To characterize the professional experiences of non-US born IMGs from limited-resource nations practicing primary care in the US. Qualitative study based on in-depth in-person interviews. Purposeful sample of IMGs (n = 25) diverse in country of origin, length of practice in the US, specialty (internal medicine, family medicine and pediatrics), age and gender. Participants were currently practicing primary care physicians in New York, New Jersey or Connecticut. A standardized interview guide was used to explore professional experiences of IMGs. Four recurrent and unifying themes characterize these experiences: 1) IMGs experience both overt and subtle forms of workplace bias and discrimination; 2) IMGs recognize professional limitations as part of "the deal"; 3) IMGs describe challenges in the transition to the culture and practice of medicine in the US; 4) IMGs bring unique skills and advantages to the workplace. Our data reveal that IMGs face workplace challenges throughout their careers. Despite diversity in professional background and demographic characteristics, IMGs in our study reported common experiences in the transition to and practice of medicine in the US. Findings suggest that both workforce and workplace interventions are needed to enable IMG physicians to sustain their essential and growing role in the US healthcare system. Finally, commonalities with experiences of other minority groups within the US healthcare system suggest that optimizing IMGs' experiences may also improve the experiences of an increasingly diverse healthcare workforce.
Haeny, Angela M
Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The present paper analyzes the subject of psychologists taking a public position on controversial public issues. Although the APA Ethics Code does not restrict how psychologists conduct themselves during their personal time, taking a public stance on a controversial issue could potentially strain professional relationships and inadvertently reflect negatively on the profession. The present paper examines ethical issues that a) should be taken into account before psychologists take a public position on a controversial issue, and b) are in conflict with APA's Ethics Code or current research.
McFarland, Sarah L; Meyers, Peter; Sautter, Robin; Honsvall, Amanda; Prunuske, Jacob
Few US medical school graduates receive a public health degree. We sought to identify factors involved in medical students' decisions to pursue dual medical and public health degrees and describe the decision-making process. We conducted focus group discussions and telephone interviews with medical students considering, or enrolled in, a public health degree program. Participants described early exposures to public health, perspectives on physician public health roles, advantages and disadvantages of a public health degree, and the relative importance of factors influencing their decision to pursue a public health degree. Data were coded using open codes, and thematic analysis was performed. Medical students' decisions about pursuing a public health degree are based on consideration of advantages and disadvantages of academic, personal, and financial factors. Students place weights on various factors and value guidance. Access to training and information about public health programs and career opportunities may facilitate decision-making. Knowledge of factors involved in students' decisions and the decision-making process will allow mentors, advisors, faculty, and staff working to recruit students into MPH programs to support students interested in earning dual medical and public health degrees. Future research should explore avenues for supporting medical student decision-making and further reducing barriers to public health training.
Nie, Jing-Bao; Cheng, Yu; Zou, Xiang; Gong, Ni; Tucker, Joseph D; Wong, Bonnie; Kleinman, Arthur
To investigate the phenomenon of patient-physician mistrust in China, a qualitative study involving 107 physicians, nurses and health officials in Guangdong Province, southern China, was conducted through semi-structured interviews and focus groups. In this paper we report the key findings of the empirical study and argue for the essential role of medical professionalism in rebuilding patient-physician trust. Health professionals are trapped in a vicious circle of mistrust. Mistrust (particularly physicians' distrust of patients and their relatives) leads to increased levels of fear and self-protection by doctors which exacerbate difficulties in communication; in turn, this increases physician workloads, adding to a strong sense of injustice and victimization. These factors produce poorer healthcare outcomes and increasingly discontented and angry patients, escalate conflicts and disputes, and result in negative media coverage, all these ultimately contributing to even greater levels of mistrust. The vicious circle indicates not only the crisis of patient-physician relationship but the crisis of medicine as a profession and institution. Underlying the circle is the inherent conflict of interest in the healthcare system by which health professionals and hospitals have become profit-driven. This institutional conflict of interest seriously compromises the fundamental principle of medical professionalism-the primacy of patient welfare-as well as the traditional Chinese ideal of "medicine as the art of humanity". Patient trust can be restored through rectifying this institutional conflict of interest and promoting medical professionalism via a series of recommended practical measures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rogers, M. A.; Schranz, S.; Kriederman, L.
Large wildfires require significant resources to combat, including dedicated meteorological support to provide accurate and timely forecasts to assist incident commanders in making decisions for logistical and tactical firefighting operations. Smaller fires often require the same capabilities for understanding fire and the fire weather environment, but access to needed resources and tools is often limited due to technical, training, or education limitations. Providing fire weather information and training to incident commanders for smaller wildfires should prove to enhance firefighting capabilities and improve safety for both firefighters and for the public as well. One of the premier tools used to support fire weather forecasting for the largest wildfires is the FX-Net product, a thin-client version of the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System used by NWS incident meteorologists (IMETs) deployed to large wildfires. We present results from an ongoing project to extend the sophisticated products available from FX-Net to more accessible and mobile software platforms, such as Google Earth. The project involves input from IMETs and fire commanders to identify the key parameters used in fighting wildfires, and involves a large training component for fire responders to utilize simplified products to improve understanding of fire weather in the context of firefighting operations.
Witman, Yolande; van den Kerkhof, Peter C M; Braat, Didi D M
In the current system for guaranteeing quality of care, emphasis is placed firmly on external control of professionals. We looked for a way to appeal to the intrinsic motivation of medical professionals and to discover what they mean by 'good work'. This was achieved with the aid of reflective sessions using the toolkit 'Good Work': in four sessions three different groups of medical professionals (medical department chairs, residents and interns) from a Dutch university hospital reflected on the topics 'excellence', 'moral responsibility' and 'personal engagement'. The participants exchanged practice-based stories during the sessions. The most important theme was moral responsibility, with its accompanying dilemmas. The sessions gave rise to feelings of mutual acknowledgement, recognition, inspiration and motivation. Sharing meaningful practice-based stories can be considered as a 'moment of learning', strengthening professional identity and stimulating intrinsic motivation. More space for this form of reflection might restore the balance with external control systems.
Kuburović Nina B.
Full Text Available Introduction. The quality of health care significantly depends on the satisfaction of the employees. Objective. The objective of this study was to establish the level of professional satisfaction of healthcare professionals in state hospitals in Belgrade, Serbia, and to determine and to rank the factors which impact on their satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Method. Professional satisfaction survey was designed and conducted as a cross-sectional study in 2008. Completed questionnaires were returned by 6,595 healthcare professionals from Belgrade’s hospitals. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student’s t-test, χ2 test and ANOVA. Factor analysis was applied in order to define determinants of professional satisfaction, i.e. dissatisfaction. Results. This study showed that the degree of professional satisfaction of Serbian healthcare professionals was low. The main causes of professionals’ dissatisfaction were wages, equipment, the possibility of continuous medical education/training and the opportunities for professional development. Healthcare professionals with university education were more satisfied with all the individual aspects of job satisfaction than those with secondary school and college education. Conclusion. There were significantly more healthcare professionals satisfied with their job among males, older than 60 years, in the age group 50-59 years, with managerial function, and with 30 or more years of service. Development strategy of human resources in the Serbian health care system would significantly improve the professional satisfaction and quality of the provided health care.
Hall, Pippa; O'Reilly, Jane; Dojeiji, Sue; Blair, Richard; Harley, Anne
The purpose of this study was to assess the ethical and professional learning needs of medical trainees on clinical placements at a care-based facility, as they shifted from acute care to care-based philosophy. Using qualitative data analysis and grounded theory techniques, 12 medical learners and five clinical supervisors were interviewed. Five…
McDougle, Leon; Mavis, Brian E.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Roberts, Nicole K.; Ephgrave, Kimberly; Hageman, Heather L.; Lypson, Monica L.; Thomas, Lauree; Andriole, Dorothy A.
This study sought to determine the academic and professional outcomes of medical school graduates who failed the United States Licensing Examination Step 1 on the first attempt. This retrospective cohort study was based on pooled data from 2,003 graduates of six Midwestern medical schools in the classes of 1997-2002. Demographic, academic, and…
Hall, Pippa; O'Reilly, Jane; Dojeiji, Sue; Blair, Richard; Harley, Anne
The purpose of this study was to assess the ethical and professional learning needs of medical trainees on clinical placements at a care-based facility, as they shifted from acute care to care-based philosophy. Using qualitative data analysis and grounded theory techniques, 12 medical learners and five clinical supervisors were interviewed. Five…
Edmunds, Margo; Fulwood, Charles
In the spring of 2000, US Surgeon General Dr. David Satcher convened a meeting of national experts to recommend strategies to promote equity in children's oral health status and access to dental care. The meeting was planned by a diverse group of health professionals, researchers, educators, and national organizations and by several federal agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Center on Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health. This paper was commissioned by the meeting planners to introduce basic principles of social marketing and strategic communications. Many participants were academic researchers, practicing pediatric dentists and pediatricians, dental educators, policy analysts, and industry representatives, and most had no previous experience with public education or communications campaigns. Other participants were communications professionals, journalists, and community organizers without previous experience in oral health care or financing issues. Thus, the paper also served to introduce and illustrate basic ideas about oral health and general health, racial and ethnic disparities in health, and access to care. Through their interactions, the participants developed a series of recommendations to increase public awareness, build public support, improve media coverage, improve care coordination, expand the workforce, and focus the attention of national, state, and local policymakers on legislative and financing initiatives to expand access to dental care. Future coalitions of health professionals working with the policy, research, advocacy, and business communities may find this paper useful in implementing the action steps identified by the Surgeon General's report, "Oral Health in America."
Waddington, I; Roderick, M
To examine the ways in which confidential matters are dealt with in the context of the relationship between the club doctor (or physiotherapist) and the player as patient in English professional football clubs. Semistructured tape recorded interviews with 12 club doctors, 10 club physiotherapists, and 27 current and former players. A questionnaire was also sent to 90 club doctors; 58 were returned. There is among club doctors and physiotherapists no commonly held code of ethics governing how much and what kind of information about players may properly be passed on to managers; associated with this, there is considerable variation from one club to another in terms of the amount and kind of information passed on to managers. In some clubs, medical staff attempt to operate more or less on the basis of the rules governing confidentiality that apply in general practice, but in other clubs, medical staff are more ready to pass on personal information about players. In some situations, this raises serious ethical questions. Guidelines dealing with confidentiality in practitioner-patient relationships in medical practice have long been available and have recently been restated, specifically in relation to the practice of sports medicine, by the British Olympic Association, the British Medical Association, and the Football Association. This is a welcome first step. However, if the guidelines are to have an impact on practice, detailed consideration needs to be given to ensuring their effective implementation; if this is to be achieved, consideration also needs to be given to identifying those aspects of the culture and organisation of professional football clubs that may hinder the full and effective implementation of those guidelines.
Pablo Aguilera, MD
Full Text Available Introduction: While a nationwide poison control registry exists in Chile, reporting to the center is sporadic and happens at the discretion of the treating physician or by patients’ self-report. Moreover, individual hospitals do not monitor accidental or intentional poisoning in a systematic manner. The goal of this study was to identify all cases of intentional medication overdose (MO that occurred over two years at a large public hospital in Santiago, Chile, and examine its epidemiologic profile. Methods: This study is a retrospective, explicit chart review conducted at Hospital Sótero del Rio from July 2008 until June 2010. We included all cases of identified intentional MO. Alcohol and recreational drugs were included only when they were ingested with other medications. Results: We identified 1,557 cases of intentional MO and analyzed a total of 1,197 cases, corresponding to 0.51% of all emergency department (ED presentations between July 2008 and June 2010. The median patient age was 25 years. The majority was female (67.6%. Two peaks were identified, corresponding to the spring of each year sampled. The rate of hospital admission was 22.2%. Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA were the causative agents most commonly found, comprising 1,044 (87.2% of all analyzed cases. Acetaminophen was involved in 81 (6.8% cases. More than one active substance was involved in 35% of cases. In 7.3% there was ethanol co-ingestion and in 1.0% co-ingestion of some other recreational drug (primarily cocaine. Of 1,557 cases, six (0.39% patients died. TCA were involved in two of these deaths. Conclusion: Similar to other developed and developing nations, intentional MO accounts for a significant number of ED presentations in Chile. Chile is unique in the region, however, in that its spectrum of intentional overdoses includes an excess burden of tricyclic antidepressant and benzodiazepine overdoses, a
Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lijie; Yang, Chengshang
In the medical practice in China, giving and taking "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) is a common phenomenon although few openly admit it. This paper, based on our empirical study including data collected from interviews and questionnaires with medical professionals and patients, attempts to explore why "red envelopes" have become a serious problem in the physician-patient relationship and how the situation can be improved. Previous studies show that scholars tend to correlate the spread of "red envelopes" in health care sector to the commercialization trend, the general erosion of traditional values, and the lowering of the moral level in the medical field. However, in this paper, the authors argue that medical professionals' choice of taking "red envelopes" is actually more a way to compensate for their problematic self-image and marred dignity in real practice. Medical professionals in China as a whole are in an embarrassing situation where the work pressure and income, and the sense of pride that used to be part of their profession are not comparable to each other. Under this circumstance, we believe that the effective way to deal with the "red envelopes" issue does not lie solely in introducing more stringent regulations or granting medical professionals higher payments, but rather in protecting and enhancing the professional dignity of all those working in healthcare. And on top of that, there must also be effort to cultivate a more favorable moral environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Latasa, Pello; Gil-Borrelli, Christian; Aguilera, José Antonio; Reques, Laura; Barreales, Saúl; Ojeda, Elena; Alemán, Guadalupe; Iniesta, Carlos; Gullón, Pedro
The purpose of the Core Training Law (CTL) is to amend specialised medical training to include 24 months of common training. The aim of this study is to assess its potential impact on the Preventive Medicine and Public Health (PM&PH) training programme and other medical specialties. The programmes of the 21 common medical specialties were analysed and the recommended training periods for each specialty collected, before the information was agreed upon by three observers. The training impact was calculated as the percentage of months that should be amended per specialty to adapt to the common training schedule. The Preventive Medicine and Public Health training programme is the specialty most affected by the Core Training Law (100%, 24 months). Intensive medicine (0%, 0 months) and medical oncology (17%, 4 months) is the least affected. The CTL affects the common medical specialties in different ways and requires a complete reorganisation of the activities and competencies of PM&PH professionals. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Ketelaar, Nicole A B M; Faber, Marjan J; Flottorp, Signe; Rygh, Liv Helen; Deane, Katherine H O; Eccles, Martin P
It is becoming increasingly common to release information about the performance of hospitals, health professionals or providers, and healthcare organisations into the public domain. However, we do not know how this information is used and to what extent such reporting leads to quality improvement by changing the behaviour of healthcare consumers, providers and purchasers, or to what extent the performance of professionals and providers can be affected. To determine the effectiveness of the public release of performance data in changing the behaviour of healthcare consumers, professionals and organisations. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Trials Register, MEDLINE Ovid (from 1966), EMBASE Ovid (from 1979), CINAHL, PsycINFO Ovid (from 1806) and DARE up to 2011. We searched for randomised or quasi-randomised trials, interrupted time series and controlled before-after studies of the effects of publicly releasing data regarding any aspect of the performance of healthcare organisations or individuals. The papers had to report at least one main outcome related to selecting or changing care. Other outcome measures were awareness, attitude, views and knowledge of performance data and costs. Two review authors independently screened studies for eligibility and extracted data. For each study, we extracted data about the target groups (healthcare consumers, healthcare providers and healthcare purchasers), performance data, main outcomes (choice of healthcare provider and improvement by means of changes in care) and other outcomes (awareness, attitude, views, knowledge of performance data and costs). We included four studies containing more than 35,000 consumers, and 1560 hospitals. Three studies were conducted in the USA and examined consumer behaviour after the public release of performance data. Two studies found no effect of Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and
Full Text Available Purpose: Rural health professionals in township health centers (THCs tend to have less advanced educational degrees. This study aimed to ascertain the perceived feasibility of a decentralized continuing medical education (CME program to upgrade their educational levels. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of THC health professionals was conducted using a self-administered, structured questionnaire in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Results: The health professionals in the THCs were overwhelmingly young with low education levels. They had a strong desire to upgrade their educational degrees. The decentralized CME program was perceived as feasible by health workers with positive attitudes about the benefit for license examination, and by those who intended to improve their clinical diagnosis and treatment skills. The target groups of such a program were those who expected to undertake a bachelor’s degree and who rated themselves as “partially capable” in clinical competency. They reported that 160-400 USD annually would be an affordable fee for the program. Conclusion: A decentralized CME program was perceived feasible to upgrade rural health workers’ education level to a bachelor’s degree and improve their clinical competency.
Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong
Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…
Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong
Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…
Smith, Tom G; Ariail, Jennie; Richards-Slaughter, Shannon; Kerr, Lisa
Writing is taught as professional competency in higher education generally, but the health science education literature emphasizes writing as a pedagogical means rather than a professional end. The Medical University of South Carolina established a Writing Center in 1994 to teach professional writing. This report describes the rationale for profession-specific, graduate-level writing instruction; summarizes the Writing Center model; and reports usage data. Students have reported improvement in particular texts and said they would be better able to complete writing tasks in the future. Interventions modeled after the Writing Center and staffed with professionally trained writing teachers may provide a means to pool resources to teach writing as professional competency. The Writing Center has provided the expertise to teach professional writing without demanding curricular revision.
Doyle, J P; Frank, E; Saltzman, L E; McMahon, P M; Fielding, B D
Physicians have been called on to identify victims of domestic violence (DV) and sexual abuse (SA). Few data exist, however, on the prevalence of DV and SA in physicians themselves or on the personal or professional sequelae of such experiences. We determined the reported lifetime prevalence of DV and SA among women physicians and the personal characteristics, health-related factors, and work-related factors associated with these forms of abuse. We used data from the Women Physicians' Health Study, a large (n = 4501 respondents), nationally distributed questionnaire study that included questions on DV and SA histories, personal characteristics, and psychiatric, medical, and work-related histories. We compared the characteristics of women physicians with and without histories of DV or SA. The logistic models indicate that women physicians reporting DV histories (3.7% of the population) were significantly (p suicide attempts, substance abuse, current or past cigarette smoking, severe daily stress at home, chronic fatigue syndrome, and DV experienced by their mothers. Women physicians reporting SA histories (4.7% of the population) were significantly more likely to be younger than 60 years, identify themselves as homosexual or bisexual, to have specialized in psychiatry, obstetrics and gynecology, or emergency medicine, and to report histories of depression, suicide attempts, eating disorders, and fair or poor perceived health status. Although the reported lifetime prevalence of DV and SA among women physicians is below other reported figures, such experiences are associated with medical and psychiatric difficulties that could negatively affect them personally and professionally.
Predicting and preventing suicide represent very difficult challenges for clinicians. The awareness of adolescent suicide as a major social and medical problem has increased over the past years. However, many health care professionals who have frequent contact with adolescents are not sufficiently trained in suicide evaluation techniques and approaches to adolescents with suicidal behavior. Suicide prevention efforts among adolescents are restricted by the fact that there are five key problems related to the evaluation and management of suicidality in adolescents: 1. Many clinicians underestimate the importance of the problem of adolescent suicidal behavior and underestimate its prevalence. 2. There is a misconception that direct questioning of adolescents about suicidality is sufficient to evaluate suicide risk. 3. Another misconception is that adolescents with non-psychiatric illnesses do not need to be evaluated for suicidality. 4. Many clinicians do not know about or underestimate the role of contagion in adolescent suicidal behavior. 5. There is a mistaken belief that adolescent males are at lower suicide risk than adolescent females. Educating medical professionals and trainees about the warning signs and symptoms of adolescent suicide and providing them with tools to recognize, evaluate, and manage suicidal patients represent a promising approach to adolescent suicide prevention.
Alahuhta, S; Mellin-Olsen, J; Blunnie, W P; Knape, J T A
The mission of the Section and Board of Anaesthesiology of the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS/UEMS) is to harmonize training and medical practice in all European countries to continuously improve the quality of care. The need for continuous medical education in the field of anaesthesiology has long been recognized. However, specialty-based competencies are not the only requirements for successful medical practice. The need to acquire medical, managerial, ethical, social and personal communication skills on top of specialty-based competencies has developed into the principle of continuous professional development, which embraces both objectives. The Section and Board of Anaesthesiology of the EUMS/UEMS has approved a proposal of its Standing Committee on Continuous Medical Education/Continuous Professional Development to adopt the following charter on the subject.
Brosseau, Lisa M
Concerns about limiting pandemic infectious disease transmission when vaccines are not yet available prompted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to develop guidance for marketing respirators for use in public health medical emergencies. This project describes the results of filtering facepiece fit tests using 35 untrained, inexperienced subjects meeting the face size criteria of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health bivariate panel, in preparation for an FDA 510(k) application. Quantitative fit factors were measured for each subject on two replicates of each of two N95 filtering facepiece respirators (A and B) using the TSI Portacount Plus with N95 Companion. Subjects received no training or assistance with donning and had no prior experience with wearing respirators. The panel consisted of 20 females and 15 males; 80% were between 18 and 34 years of age. Almost all subjects properly placed the respirator on the face and formed the nose clip. Straps were improperly placed 25% of the time. Users reviewed the donning instructions 73% of the time and performed a seal check 80% of the time. Leaks were observed during 80% of the fit tests, most frequently at the chin during the head up and down exercise. For Respirator A, all but one subject had a 95% fit factor greater than 2 (the minimum required by FDA); one subject had a 95% fit factor of 1.5. All subjects had a 95% fit factor greater than 2.5 for Respirator B. Geometric mean fit factors ranged from 19-28 for these two respirators, and a majority of subjects were able to achieve a fit factor of 10 most of the time. However, fewer than 25% of subjects received the fit factor of 100 expected in workplace settings.
Masoud, Ferdosi; Alireza, Jabbari; Mahmoud, Keyvanara; Zahra, Agharahimi
Introduction: Medical tourism for any study area is complex. Materials and Methods: Using full articles from other databases, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Science Direct, Emerald, Oxford, Magiran, and Scientific Information Database (SID), to examine systematically published articles about medical tourism in the interval 2000-2011 paid. Articles were obtained using descriptive statistics and content analysis categories were analyzed. Results: Among the 28 articles reviewed, 11 cases were a kind of research articles, three cases were case studies in Mexico, India, Hungary, Germany, and Iran, and 14 were case studies, review documents and data were passed. The main topics of study included the definition of medical tourism, medical tourists’ motivation and development of medical tourism, ethical issues in medical tourism, and impact on health and medical tourism marketing. Conclusion: The findings indicate the definition of medical tourism in various articles, and medical tourists are motivated. However, most studies indicate the benefits of medical tourism in developing countries and more developed countries reflect the consequences of medical tourism. PMID:24251287
Cees M. Koolstra
Full Text Available Science information professionals need to make choices through which media they want to communicate with the public. In reaching large audiences outside the domain of formal diffusion of knowledge, the choice may be between the old medium television and the new medium Internet. It seems that general scientific research is focused more and more on the Internet as a favorite means for information exchange and that the old mass medium television plays only a minor role. But when we look at (1 how the public spends their leisure time on television and the Internet, (2 how effective these media are in transferring information, and (3 how much these media are trusted as reliable sources of information, the old medium television should still be regarded as the number one medium to be used for science communication, although there are some limitations for its use.
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Summit on Color in Medical Imaging; Cosponsored Public... International Color Consortium (ICC) are announcing the following public workshop entitled ``Summit on Color in... Approaches for Dealing with Color in Medical Images.'' The purpose of the workshop is to bring together...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rights of undocumented migrants are frequently overlooked. Denmark has ratified several international conventions recognizing the right to health care for all human beings, but has very scanty legislation and no existing policies for providing health care to undocumented migrants. This study focuses on how health professionals navigate and how they experience providing treatment for undocumented migrants in the Danish health care system. Methods The study was carried out as part of an EU-project on European Best Practices in Access, Quality and Appropriateness of Health Services for Immigrants in Europe (EUGATE. This presentation is based on 12 semi-structured interviews with general practitioners (9 and emergency room physicians (3 in Denmark. Results The emergency room physicians express that treatment of undocumented migrants is no different from the treatment of any other person. However, care may become more complicated due to lack of previous medical records and contact persons. Contrary to this, general practitioners explain that undocumented migrants will encounter formal barriers when trying to obtain treatment. Additional problems in the treatment of undocumented migrants include language issues, financial aspects for general practitioners, concerns about how to handle the situation including possibilities of further referrals, and an uncertainty as to whether to involve the police. Conclusions The health professionals in our study describe that undocumented migrants experience an unequal access to primary care facilities and that great uncertainties exist amongst health professionals as how to respond in such situations. The lack of official policies concerning the right to health care for undocumented migrants continue to pass on the responsibility to health professionals and, thereby, leaves it up to the individual to decide whether treatment can be obtained or not.
Systematic observations regarding techniques of medical career-socialization has hardly ever appeared in Hungarian technical literature yet. Focusing on the need for practical medical training the author elaborated a career-socialization program consisting of a three-level, three-branch training technique. This consisted of a Junior Bálint-group, an imaginative visualization technique, and an expressive, drama-pedagogical working method completed with a projective technique. This career-socialization program focuses on the physician's personality, capability-expansion in relationship management, and practicing a set of professional behavior-roles. During the empirical observations connected to the work the author examined medical students' patient-representation, their relation to the patients, and the development of the physician's professional character. Within the frames of this three-level, three-branch training technique program it enables us to observe which training technique is able to reveal all those psychological qualities that can contribute to the conformation of the representations, thus to the process of career-socialization in the most effective way. The content-analyses of the cases of Junior Bálint-groups (n = 60) revealed that the most frequent problems are fear of intimacy, of bodily contact, communication with patients in a chronic or terminal state, and the fear of medical practice. The content-analyses of imaginary patient-images (n = 62) with Rorschach-signs confirmed that the psychological burdens mentioned above are the most serious problems for medical students. The process-, and content-analyses of drama-games, the integrative healing contact training groups (n = 74) showed that group work primarily intensifies the relationship responsiveness, the ability to adopt the other's (the patient's) viewpoints, and enables an involuntary and distressless identification with the patient and the physician, both agents in the healing relationship
Wald, Hedy S; Anthony, David; Hutchinson, Tom A; Liben, Stephen; Smilovitch, Mark; Donato, Anthony A
Recent calls for an expanded perspective on medical education and training include focusing on complexities of professional identity formation (PIF). Medical educators are challenged to facilitate the active constructive, integrative developmental process of PIF within standardized and personalized and/or formal and informal curricular approaches. How can we best support the complex iterative PIF process for a humanistic, resilient health care professional? How can we effectively scaffold the necessary critical reflective learning and practice skill set for our learners to support the shaping of a professional identity?The authors present three pedagogic innovations contributing to the PIF process within undergraduate and graduate medical education (GME) at their institutions. These are (1) interactive reflective writing fostering reflective capacity, emotional awareness, and resiliency (as complexities within physician-patient interactions are explored) for personal and professional development; (2) synergistic teaching modules about mindful clinical practice and resilient responses to difficult interactions, to foster clinician resilience and enhanced well-being for effective professional functioning; and (3) strategies for effective use of a professional development e-portfolio and faculty development of reflective coaching skills in GME.These strategies as "bridges from theory to practice" embody and integrate key elements of promoting and enriching PIF, including guided reflection, the significant role of relationships (faculty and peers), mindfulness, adequate feedback, and creating collaborative learning environments. Ideally, such pedagogic innovations can make a significant contribution toward enhancing quality of care and caring with resilience for the being, relating, and doing of a humanistic health care professional.
The benefit of good health will be even greater for the absolute poor, as they may ... There are three main types of publications – Thesis or dissertation, Book or ... of publications, identify challenges in research and publication in Nigeria and proffer some solution to .... completion of study, not only to aid advancement but.
Abstract Background The societal burden of eating disorders is clear, and though there is a compelling need for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention, public health professionals have yet to take up the challenge. Discussion The article lays out an argument for what steps need to be taken to bring a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. First, stock is taken of what the field has achieved so far, using tools from the prevention science literature, and, secon...
Austin, S. Bryn
Background The societal burden of eating disorders is clear, and though there is a compelling need for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention, public health professionals have yet to take up the challenge. Discussion The article lays out an argument for what steps need to be taken to bring a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. First, stock is taken of what the field has achieved so far, using tools from the prevention science literature, and, second, a rese...
Austin, Sydney Bryn
Background: The societal burden of eating disorders is clear, and though there is a compelling need for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention, public health professionals have yet to take up the challenge. Discussion: The article lays out an argument for what steps need to be taken to bring a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. First, stock is taken of what the field has achieved so far, using tools from the prevention science literature, and, second, a re...
The present paper focuses on the present trends in the training and development programmes of public administration employees and on the methods used to assess the training needs for public servants in relation to the recorded performance indicators and to the strategic objectives of the public administration entities. The scientific research methodology of the present paper relies on national and international professional literature, on the analysis of concepts, theories, typologies, method...
Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Perianayagam, Wilson; Rampal, Krishna Gopal
This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6). The most common source of job stress was "fear of making mistakes." Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies. Nothing will sustain you more potently than the power to recognize in your humdrum routine, as perhaps it may be thought, the true poetry of life-the poetry of the common place, of the common man, of the plain, toil-worn woman, with their loves and their joys, their sorrows and their grief.SirWilliam Osler, Aphorisms from the Student Life (Aequanimitas, 1952).
Piat, Myra; Pearson, Alexis; Sabetti, Judith; Steiger, Howard; Israel, Mimi; Lal, Shalini
This review identified and synthesized published training programs on eating disorders (ED) (anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa) for professionals, natural supporters of people with ED, or the public. A scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley (2005) framework was conducted. Four data bases were searched, for all years, and manual searches from three additional sources were also conducted. Experts on ED were consulted for validation of the identified studies. A narrative synthesis was performed. A total of 20 evaluation studies from five countries were identified, and reviewed in relation to 14 ED training programs. Characteristics of the training programs, and study characteristics, were highly diverse, as shown on Table 1 which compiles results from the charted data. Evaluations were equally divided between training for healthcare and education professionals (9), and training for families or other carers of people with ED (10). One study evaluated ED training for the general public. We found that training orientation varies with the interests and needs of different trainee groups. While most studies assessed trainee outcomes, future research needs to give greater consideration to patient perspectives, and to the relationship between training and evaluation approaches, improved knowledge, and better care.
Aslam, S; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Bernabé, E
Assessing the impact of a training programme is important for quality assurance and further development. It also can helps with accountability and marketing purposes. This study evaluated the impact of King's College London (KCL) Master of Science programme in Dental Public Health in terms of graduates' perceived learned skills and professional development. An online questionnaire was sent to individuals who completed successfully the KCL Master of Science programme in Dental Public Health and had a valid email address. Participants provided information on demographic characteristics, perceived learned skills (intellectual, practical and generic) and professional development (type of organisation, position in the organisation and functions performed at work before and after the programme). Learned skills' scores were compared by demographic factors in multiple linear regression models, and the distribution of responses on career development was compared using nonparametric tests for paired groups. Although all scores on learned skills were on the favourable side of the Likert scale, graduates reported higher scores for practical skills, followed by intellectual and generic skills. No differences in scores were found by sex, age, nationality or time since graduation. In terms of career development, there were significantly higher proportions of graduates working in higher education institutions and taking leadership/managerial roles in organisations as well as greater number and variety of functions at work after than before the programme. This online survey shows that the programme has had a positive impact on graduates in terms of perceived learned skills and professional development. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Dental Education Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marinković, Natalija; VITALE, KSENIJA; Afrić, Ivo; Janev Holcer, Nataša
The amount of waste produced is connected with the degree of a country’s economic development; more developed countries produce more waste. This paper reviews the quantities, manipulation and treatment methods of medical waste in Croatia, as well as hazardous potentials of medical waste for human health. Medical waste must be collected and sorted in containers suitable for its characteristics, amount, means of transportation and treatment method in order to prevent contact with environment an...
Ruth, Betty J.; Marshall, Jamie Wyatt; Velásquez, Esther E. M.; Bachman, Sara S.
Dual-degree programs in public health and social work continue to proliferate, yet there has been little research on master's of social work (MSW)/master's of public health (MPH) graduates. The purpose of this study was to describe and better understand the self-reported professional experiences, identities, roles, and outcomes associated with 1…