WorldWideScience

Sample records for public marine casualties

  1. Marine Casualty and Pollution Data for Researchers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  2. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... States vessel wherever such casualty or accident occurs; or (3) With respect to a foreign tank vessel... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  3. Public experiences of mass casualty decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we analyze feedback from simulated casualties who took part in field exercises involving mass decontamination, to gain an understanding of how responder communication can affect people's experiences of and compliance with decontamination. We analyzed questionnaire data gathered from 402 volunteers using the framework approach, to provide an insight into the public's experiences of decontamination and how these experiences are shaped by the actions of emergency responders. Factors that affected casualties' experiences of the decontamination process included the need for greater practical information and better communication from responders, and the need for privacy. Results support previous findings from small-scale incidents that involved decontamination in showing that participants wanted better communication from responders during the process of decontamination, including more practical information, and that the failure of responders to communicate effectively with members of the public led to anxiety about the decontamination process. The similarity between the findings from the exercises described in this article and previous research into real incidents involving decontamination suggests that field exercises provide a useful way to examine the effect of responder communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. Future exercises should examine in more detail the effect of various communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. This will facilitate the development of evidence-based communication strategies intended to reduce anxiety about decontamination and increase compliance among members of the public during real-life incidents that involve mass decontamination.

  4. Casualties, Public Opinion, and Presidential Policy during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    of his charts, reproduced here as Fig. 6, plotted the rising casualty levels in Korea against the declin- ing public support for the Korean war. Ball...relationship between U.S. casualties and public support for U.S. military int-rvention in Korea and Vietnam, and concludeb that a strong inverse...Contingencies," investigated possible configurations for a firepower projection force to be employed in the defense of Third World allies. One of the

  5. Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE) Casualty and Pollution Incidents, Guam, 2015, US Coast Guard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  6. 46 CFR 185.220 - Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., records of draft, aids to mariners, night order books, radiograms sent and received, radio logs, crew and passenger lists and counts, articles of shipment, official logs, and other material that might be...

  7. Shipboard and Ground Troop Casualty Rates among Navy and Marine Corps Personnel during World War II Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    range of ships (major combatants, patrol craft, submarines, minecraft , landing craft, auxiliary vessels) critical to successful naval engagements. Figure... minecraft , and patrol craft. These vessels are generally small, with minrimnl rrpw rcmn1pmpntf. vieldina high rates of casualties when hit. Fuel oil

  8. Use of Clinical Decision Guidance as a New Public Health Tool for the Medical Management of Internal Contamination in Radiological Mass Casualty Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Albert L

    2016-09-01

    This review is a discussion of special issues associated with the medical and public health management of persons at risk of internal contamination from radionuclides, following various radiological mass-casualty scenarios, as well as definition, discussion and use of the Clinical Decision Guidance (CDG) in such scenarios. Specific medical countermeasures are available for reducing the internal radiation dose and the subsequent stochastic and deterministic risks to persons internally contaminated with radionuclides from nuclear power plant, fuel processing and nuclear weapon accidents/incidents. There is a public health need for rapidly identifying and quantifying the 'source term' of such radiation exposures and assessment of the associated committed doses, so that appropriate medical countermeasure(s) can be given as soon as possible. The CDG, which was initially defined in NCRP-161, was specifically developed to be a new public health tool for facilitating the integration of local community healthcare professionals into the general medical, mass casualty, triage and treatment response of internally contaminated populations.

  9. Injury and Illness Casualty Distributions Among U.S. Army and Marine Corps Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    parasitic diseases and diseases of the musculoskeletal, digestive, and nervous systems were more common. Branch of Service Marines sustained proportionally...neoplasms, mental disorders, diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, respiratory, and genitourinary systems were more common among women than... system Circulatory Respiratory Digestive Genitourinary Pregnancy Skin Musculoskeletal Congenital Ill-defined Injury Supplementary Total OIF-I No.

  10. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  11. Human Factors in Marine Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenko Švetak

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Human factors play an important role in the origin of accidents,and it is commonly claimed that between seventy andninety-five percent of industrial and transport accidents involvehuman factors, see Figure 1.Some authorities, however, claim that ultimately, all accidentsinvolve human factors.

  12. 77 FR 55482 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Arlington, VA. This public workshop will provide a unique opportunity for classification societies, industry... technological impacts on the marine industry, corresponding coverage in related codes and standards, and... register for the workshop. ADDRESSES: The workshop will be held at The Double Tree by Hilton Hotel, in...

  13. Deterring Mass-Casualty Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    om pa ny (T ho m as B ra y) Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...actions that could create mass casualties or specific types of attack? Should the ob- jective be preventing conflict escala - tion over a determined...E G LO B A L W A R O N T E R R O R IS M Simulated attack, Foggy Shores 02–06. 30 th C om m un ic at io ns S qu ad ro n (J en ni fe r C . W

  14. Tsunami Casualty Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H.

    2007-12-01

    More than 4500 deaths by tsunamis were recorded in the decade of 1990. For example, the 1992 Flores Tsunami in Indonesia took away at least 1712 lives, and more than 2182 people were victimized by the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami. Such staggering death toll has been totally overshadowed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that claimed more than 220,000 lives. Unlike hurricanes that are often evaluated by economic losses, death count is the primary measure for tsunami hazard. It is partly because tsunamis kill more people owing to its short lead- time for warning. Although exact death tallies are not available for most of the tsunami events, there exist gender and age discriminations in tsunami casualties. Significant gender difference in the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami was attributed to women's social norms and role behavior, as well as cultural bias toward women's inability to swim. Here we develop a rational casualty model based on humans' limit to withstand the tsunami flows. The application to simple tsunami runup cases demonstrates that biological and physiological disadvantages also make a significant difference in casualty rate. It further demonstrates that the gender and age discriminations in casualties become most pronounced when tsunami is marginally strong and the difference tends to diminish as tsunami strength increases.

  15. Public awareness, concerns, and priorities about anthropogenic impacts on marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Buckley, Paul; Pinnegar, John K; Chilvers, Jason; Lorenzoni, Irene; Terry, Geraldine; Guerrero, Matias; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Valdebenito, Abel; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-10-21

    Numerous international bodies have advocated the development of strategies to achieve the sustainability of marine environments. Typically, such strategies are based on information from expert groups about causes of degradation and policy options to address them, but these strategies rarely take into account assessed information about public awareness, concerns, and priorities. Here we report the results of a pan-European survey of public perceptions about marine environmental impacts as a way to inform the formation of science and policy priorities. On the basis of 10,106 responses to an online survey from people in 10 European nations, spanning a diversity of socioeconomic and geographical areas, we examine the public's informedness and concern regarding marine impacts, trust in different information sources, and priorities for policy and funding. Results show that the level of concern regarding marine impacts is closely associated with the level of informedness and that pollution and overfishing are two areas prioritized by the public for policy development. The level of trust varies greatly among different information sources and is highest for academics and scholarly publications but lower for government or industry scientists. Results suggest that the public perceives the immediacy of marine anthropogenic impacts and is highly concerned about ocean pollution, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Eliciting public awareness, concerns, and priorities can enable scientists and funders to understand how the public relates to marine environments, frame impacts, and align managerial and policy priorities with public demand.

  16. 75 FR 51838 - Public Review of Draft Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... public on the FGDC Web site. DATES: Comments on the draft Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification... technology and information. Dated: August 13, 2010. Ivan DeLoatch, FGDC Executive Director. [FR Doc....

  17. Traffic accidents involving fatigue driving and their extent of casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun; Li, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    The rapid progress of motorization has increased the number of traffic-related casualties. Although fatigue driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, the public remains not rather aware of its potential harmfulness. Fatigue driving has been termed as a "silent killer." Thus, a thorough study of traffic accidents and the risk factors associated with fatigue-related casualties is of utmost importance. In this study, we analyze traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. The study data were extracted from the traffic accident database of China's Public Security Department. A logistic regression model is used to assess the effect of driver characteristics, type of vehicles, road conditions, and environmental factors on fatigue-related traffic accident occurrence and severity. On the one hand, male drivers, trucks, driving during midnight to dawn, and morning rush hours are identified as risk factors of fatigue-related crashes but do not necessarily result in severe casualties. Driving at night without street-lights contributes to fatigue-related crashes and severe casualties. On the other hand, while factors such as less experienced drivers, unsafe vehicle status, slippery roads, driving at night with street-lights, and weekends do not have significant effect on fatigue-related crashes, yet accidents associated with these factors are likely to have severe casualties. The empirical results of the present study have important policy implications on the reduction of fatigue-related crashes as well as their severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 78 FR 23574 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    .... The workshop will provide a unique opportunity for classification societies, industry groups... on the marine industry, corresponding coverage in related codes and standards, and government... workshop will be held at The Double Tree by Hilton Hotel, in the Crystal City neighborhood of Arlington...

  19. Defense Health: Actions Needed to Help Ensure Combat Casualty Care Research Achieves Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Department of Health and Human Services JPC -6 Joint Program Committee for Combat Casualty Care MRMC Army Medical Research and...and development.) Note: The JPC -6 includes representatives from each military service (Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps) and is chartered...care, which is managed by the Joint Program Committee for Combat Casualty Care ( JPC -6). The JPC -6 includes representatives from the DOD biomedical

  20. Decontamination of mass casualties--re-evaluating existing dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Howard W; Siegelson, Henry J; Dickinson, Stanley; Halpern, Pinchas; Haraguchi, Yoshikura; Nocera, Anthony; Turineck, David

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 became the catalyst for many to shift their disaster preparedness efforts towards mass-casualty incidents. Emergency responders, healthcare workers, emergency managers, and public health officials worldwide are being tasked to improve their readiness by acquiring equipment, providing training and implementing policy, especially in the area of mass-casualty decontamination. Accomplishing each of these tasks requires good information, which is lacking. Management of the incident scene and the approach to victim care varies throughout the world and is based more on dogma than scientific data. In order to plan effectively for and to manage a chemical, mass-casualty event, we must critically assess the criteria upon which we base our response. This paper reviews current standards surrounding the response to a release of hazardous materials that results in massive numbers of exposed human survivors. In addition, a significant effort is made to prepare an international perspective on this response. Preparations for the 24-hour threat of exposure of a community to hazardous material are a community responsibility for first-responders and the hospital. Preparations for a mass-casualty event related to a terrorist attack are a governmental responsibility. Reshaping response protocols and decontamination needs on the differences between vapor and liquid chemical threats can enable local responders to effectively manage a chemical attack resulting in mass casualties. Ensuring that hospitals have adequate resources and training to mount an effective decontamination response in a rapid manner is essential.

  1. Methods of Vessel Casualty Process Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Soliwoda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Maritime casualty is an event of considerable economic and social impact. For this reason, implemented the reporting systems of accidents at sea, and the Administration was obligated to establish a Commission of Maritime Accidents. On the basis of casualty analysis and reports are developed proposals preventing similar casualties in the future. However, there is no uniform evaluation system which check references of existing regulations and recommendations to the occurred casualties. This paper presents a method to evaluate the used methods of casualty prediction with respect to the real incident and catastrophe.

  2. Triage in mass casualty situations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More often than not major incidents and disasters result in a mass casualty situation, which places ... As part of the FIFA 2010 preparation, the National Department of Health ... Over-triage of children in this way is acceptable because children ...

  3. Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Casualties of the Global War on Terror and their future impact on health care and society: a looming public health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    This article is a primer to understand the medical advances and the future health care consequences of the current conflicts in the Middle East and Southwest Asia, known as the Global War on Terror. There have been significant advances in health care learned in caring for those injured by the conflict--often a polytrauma blast victim, but there are also very high incidence rates of the hidden injuries of war--traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, suicide, and depression. These lead to disruptive behaviors, homelessness, and family violence. Global War on Terror returnees are using medical services and applying for disability at higher rates than in previous conflicts. The costs for veterans' care may peak 30 to 40 years or longer following the conflict, and will inflict an enormous burden on services and resources. The effects of the war will linger for years and impact across generations because of the stress on families and children. We must mobilize government agencies, create public-private partnerships, and invest our resources now to mitigate the approaching tsunami of veterans' health care needs, the impact on our social services, and the devastating costs to society.

  5. Eye casualty services in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

    2013-01-01

    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  6. Provenancing of unidentified World War II casualties: Application of strontium and oxygen isotope analysis in tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Laura; Jonker, Geert; van Aalderen, Patric A; Schiltmans, Els F; Davies, Gareth R

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 and 2012 two sets of unidentified human remains of two World War II soldiers were recovered in the area where the 1944-1945 Kapelsche Veer bridgehead battle took place in The Netherlands. Soldiers of four Allied nations: British Royal Marine Commandos, Free Norwegian Commandos, Free Poles and Canadians, fought against the German Army in this battle. The identification of these two casualties could not be achieved using dental record information of DNA analysis. The dental records of Missing in Action soldiers of the Allied nations did not match with the dental records of the two casualties. A DNA profile was determined for the casualty found in 2010, but no match was found. Due to the lack of information on the identification of the casualties provided by routine methods, an isotope study was conducted in teeth from the soldiers to constrain their provenance. The isotope study concluded that the tooth enamel isotope composition for both casualties matched with an origin from the United Kingdom. For one of the casualties a probable origin from the United Kingdom was confirmed, after the isotope study was conducted, by the recognition of a characteristic belt buckle derived from a Royal Marine money belt, only issued to British Royal Marines, found with the remains of the soldier.

  7. 33 CFR 1.01-20 - Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are operated; shipyard and factory inspections; the investigation of marine casualties and accidents..., shipment and discharge of seamen; (2) Referring to the processing Regional Examination Center (REC), the...

  8. MaNIDA: Integration of marine expedition information, data and publications: Data Portal of German Marine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Roland; Scientific MaNIDA-Team

    2013-04-01

    The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) aims to build a sustainable e-infrastructure to support discovery and re-use of marine data from distinct data providers in Germany (see related abstracts in session ESSI 1.2). In order to provide users integrated access and retrieval of expedition or cruise metadata, data, services and publications as well as relationships among the various objects, we are developing (web) applications based on state of the art technologies: the Data Portal of German Marine Research. Since the German network of distributed content providers have distinct objectives and mandates for storing digital objects (e.g. long-term data preservation, near real time data, publication repositories), we have to cope with heterogeneous metadata in terms of syntax and semantic, data types and formats as well as access solutions. We have defined a set of core metadata elements which are common to our content providers and therefore useful for discovery and building relationships among objects. Existing catalogues for various types of vocabularies are being used to assure the mapping to community-wide used terms. We distinguish between expedition metadata and continuously harvestable metadata objects from distinct data providers. • Existing expedition metadata from distinct sources is integrated and validated in order to create an expedition metadata catalogue which is used as authoritative source for expedition-related content. The web application allows browsing by e.g. research vessel and date, exploring expeditions and research gaps by tracklines and viewing expedition details (begin/end, ports, platforms, chief scientists, events, etc.). Also expedition-related objects from harvesting are dynamically associated with expedition information and presented to the user. Hence we will provide web services to detailed expedition information. • Other harvestable content is separated into four categories: archived data and data products, near

  9. Prominent Human Health Impacts from Several Marine Microbes: History, Ecology, and Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bienfang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews several examples of important public health impacts by marine microbes and directs readers to the extensive literature germane to these maladies. These examples include three types of dinoflagellates (Gambierdiscus spp., Karenia brevis, and Alexandrium fundyense, BMAA-producing cyanobacteria, and infectious microbes. The dinoflagellates are responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, respectively, that have plagued coastal populations over time. Research interest on the potential for marine cyanobacteria to contribute BMAA into human food supplies has been derived by BMAA's discovery in cycad seeds and subsequent implication as the putative cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex among the Chamorro people of Guam. Recent UPLC/MS analyses indicate that recent reports that BMAA is prolifically distributed among marine cyanobacteria at high concentrations may be due to analyte misidentification in the analytical protocols being applied for BMAA. Common infectious microbes (including enterovirus, norovirus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia cause gastrointestinal and skin-related illness. These microbes can be introduced from external human and animal sources, or they can be indigenous to the marine environment.

  10. Decision-support information system to manage mass casualty incidents at a level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-El, Yaron; Tzafrir, Sara; Tzipori, Idan; Utitz, Liora; Halberthal, Michael; Beyar, Rafael; Reisner, Shimon

    2013-12-01

    Mass casualty incidents are probably the greatest challenge to a hospital. When such an event occurs, hospitals are required to instantly switch from their routine activity to conditions of great uncertainty and confront needs that exceed resources. We describe an information system that was uniquely designed for managing mass casualty events. The web-based system is activated when a mass casualty event is declared; it displays relevant operating procedures, checklists, and a log book. The system automatically or semiautomatically initiates phone calls and public address announcements. It collects real-time data from computerized clinical and administrative systems in the hospital, and presents them to the managing team in a clear graphic display. It also generates periodic reports and summaries of available or scarce resources that are sent to predefined recipients. When the system was tested in a nationwide exercise, it proved to be an invaluable tool for informed decision making in demanding and overwhelming situations such as mass casualty events.

  11. Public preferences regarding use and condition of the Baltic Sea – an international comparison informing marine policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Jane; Czajkowski, Mikolaj

    2013-01-01

    Marine environments and the ecosystem services they provide are threatened throughout the world. Marine policy, including the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive, can be informed by public perceptions of the importance of the state of the marine environment. Using an extensive data...... to improving the state of the Baltic Sea. For future research, we propose a similar large-scale, coordinated study across all nine littoral countries using state-of-the art valuation methods to assess the monetary benefits of improving the state of the Baltic Sea....

  12. Public preferences regarding use and condition of the Baltic Sea – an international comparison informing marine policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Jane; Czajkowski, Mikolaj

    2013-01-01

    Marine environments and the ecosystem services they provide are threatened throughout the world. Marine policy, including the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive, can be informed by public perceptions of the importance of the state of the marine environment. Using an extensive data...... set obtained from a coordinated survey across all nine littoral countries, we examine the recreational use and perceptions towards the Baltic Sea. Our findings suggest that the Baltic Sea is an important recreation area for residents of the littoral states, as the majority of people spend leisure time...

  13. Managing mass casualties and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    Careful planning and regular exercising of capabilities is the key to implementing an effective response following the release of hazardous materials, although ad hoc changes may be inevitable. Critical actions which require immediate implementation at an incident are evacuation, followed by disrobing (removal of clothes) and decontamination. The latter can be achieved through bespoke response facilities or various interim methods which may utilise water or readily available (dry, absorbent) materials. Following transfer to a safe holding area, each casualty's personal details should be recorded to facilitate a health surveillance programme, should it become apparent that the original contaminant has chronic health effects.

  14. 33 CFR 146.40 - Diving casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diving casualties. 146.40 Section 146.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.40 Diving casualties. Diving related...

  15. Human casualties in earthquakes: modelling and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.J.S.; So, E.K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake risk modelling is needed for the planning of post-event emergency operations, for the development of insurance schemes, for the planning of mitigation measures in the existing building stock, and for the development of appropriate building regulations; in all of these applications estimates of casualty numbers are essential. But there are many questions about casualty estimation which are still poorly understood. These questions relate to the causes and nature of the injuries and deaths, and the extent to which they can be quantified. This paper looks at the evidence on these questions from recent studies. It then reviews casualty estimation models available, and finally compares the performance of some casualty models in making rapid post-event casualty estimates in recent earthquakes.

  16. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination.

  17. Predicting casualties implied by TIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafiloski, G.; Wyss, M.; Wyss, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    When an earthquake is predicted, forecast, or expected with a higher than normal probability, losses are implied. We estimated the casualties (fatalities plus injured) that should be expected if earthquakes in TIPs (locations of Temporarily Increased Probability of earthquakes) defined by Kossobokov et al. (2009) should occur. We classified the predictions of losses into the categories red (more than 400 fatalities or more than 1,000 injured), yellow (between 100 and 400 fatalities), green (fewer than 100 fatalities), and gray (undetermined). TIPs in Central Chile, the Philippines, Papua, and Taiwan are in the red class, TIPs in Southern Sumatra, Nicaragua, Vanatu, and Honshu in the yellow class, and TIPs in Tonga, Loyalty Islands, Vanatu, S. Sandwich Islands, Banda Sea, and the Kuriles, are classified as green. TIPs where the losses depend moderately on the assumed point of major energy release were classified as yellow; TIPs such as in the Talaud Islands and in Tonga, where the losses depend very strongly on the location of the epicenter, were classified as gray. The accuracy of loss estimates after earthquakes with known hypocenter and magnitude are affected by uncertainties in transmission and soil properties, the composition of the building stock, the population present, and the method by which the numbers of casualties are calculated. In the case of TIPs, uncertainties in magnitude and location are added, thus we calculate losses for a range of these two parameters. Therefore, our calculations can only be considered order of magnitude estimates. Nevertheless, our predictions can come to within a factor of two of the observed numbers, as in the case of the M7.6 earthquake of October 2005 in Pakistan that resulted in 85,000 fatalities (Wyss, 2005). In subduction zones, the geometrical relationship between the earthquake source capable of a great earthquake and the population is clear because there is only one major fault plane available, thus the epicentral

  18. Integrative Monitoring of Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae in Washington State for Public Health Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Trainer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP, domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP. Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB partnership and the state’s freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

  19. Strategies for casualty mitigation programs by using advanced tsunami computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    IMAI, K.; Imamura, F.

    2012-12-01

    1. Purpose of the study In this study, based on the scenario of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough, we aim on the estimation of the run up and high accuracy inundation process of tsunami in coastal areas including rivers. Here, using a practical method of tsunami analytical model, and taking into account characteristics of detail topography, land use and climate change in a realistic present and expected future environment, we examined the run up and tsunami inundation process. Using these results we estimated the damage due to tsunami and obtained information for the mitigation of human casualties. Considering the time series from the occurrence of the earthquake and the risk of tsunami damage, in order to mitigate casualties we provide contents of disaster risk information displayed in a tsunami hazard and risk map. 2. Creating a tsunami hazard and risk map From the analytical and practical tsunami model (a long wave approximated model) and the high resolution topography (5 m) including detailed data of shoreline, rivers, building and houses, we present a advanced analysis of tsunami inundation considering the land use. Based on the results of tsunami inundation and its analysis; it is possible to draw a tsunami hazard and risk map with information of human casualty, building damage estimation, drift of vehicles, etc. 3. Contents of disaster prevention information To improve the hazard, risk and evacuation information distribution, it is necessary to follow three steps. (1) Provide basic information such as tsunami attack info, areas and routes for evacuation and location of tsunami evacuation facilities. (2) Provide as additional information the time when inundation starts, the actual results of inundation, location of facilities with hazard materials, presence or absence of public facilities and areas underground that required evacuation. (3) Provide information to support disaster response such as infrastructure and traffic network damage prediction

  20. Public willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2012-10-01

    Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value estimates exist, it is often difficult to compare values from different studies due to variations in study design, implementation, and modeling specifications. We conducted a stated-preference choice experiment to estimate the value of recovering or downlisting 8 threatened and endangered marine species in the United States: loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis), North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica), upper Willamette River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi), and smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). In May 2009, we surveyed a random sample of U.S. households. We collected data from 8476 households and estimated willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting the 8 species from these data. Respondents were willing to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine taxa. Willingness-to-pay values ranged from $40/household for recovering Puget Sound Chinook salmon to $73/household for recovering the North Pacific right whale. Statistical comparisons among willingness-to-pay values suggest that some taxa are more economically valuable than others, which suggests that the U.S. public's willingness to pay for recovery may vary by species.

  1. Fluid Resuscitation for Hemorrhagic Shock in Tactical Combat Casualty Care: TCCC Guidelines Change 14-01 - 2 June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-02

    01 JUN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fluid Resuscitation for Hemorrhagic Shock in Tactical Combat Casualty...of the New Orleans Jazz Festival. CAPT Timby is a pulmonary/critical care physician. He is presently the Deputy Medical Officer of the Marine Corps

  2. Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/ Nuclear Incident: Further Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Holly; Amlôt, Richard; Williams, Richard; Rubin, G. James; Drury, John

    2016-01-01

    This short report presents a response to an article written by Cibulsky et al. (2016). The paper by Cibulsky et al. presents a useful and timely overview of the evidence surrounding the technical and operational aspects of mass casualty decontamination. It identifies three priority targets for future research, the third of which is how casualties' needs can be met in ways that best support compliance with and effectiveness of casualty decontamination. While further investigation into behavioural, communication and privacy issues during mass decontamination is warranted, there is now a substantial body of research in this area which is not considered in detail in the succinct summary provided by Cibulsky et al. (2016). In this short report, we summarise the available evidence around likely public behaviour during mass decontamination, effective communication strategies, and potential issues resulting from a lack of privacy. Our intention is to help further focus the research needs in this area and highlight topics on which more research is needed.

  3. Prescribing of benzodiazepines by casualty officers.

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    The prescribing of benzodiazepines by casualty officers in a busy district hospital over a three month period was examined by a retrospective review of case notes. Benzodiazepines, mainly diazepam, were given to 1.1% of attenders, the majority of whom had disorders involving minor muscle spasm. The efficacy of diazepam in these conditions, as well as its potential for dependence, is discussed.

  4. Benefits of multidisciplinary collaboration for earthquake casualty estimation models: recent case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, E.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake casualty loss estimation, which depends primarily on building-specific casualty rates, has long suffered from a lack of cross-disciplinary collaboration in post-earthquake data gathering. An increase in our understanding of what contributes to casualties in earthquakes involve coordinated data-gathering efforts amongst disciplines; these are essential for improved global casualty estimation models. It is evident from examining past casualty loss models and reviewing field data collected from recent events, that generalized casualty rates cannot be applied globally for different building types, even within individual countries. For a particular structure type, regional and topographic building design effects, combined with variable material and workmanship quality all contribute to this multi-variant outcome. In addition, social factors affect building-specific casualty rates, including social status and education levels, and human behaviors in general, in that they modify egress and survivability rates. Without considering complex physical pathways, loss models purely based on historic casualty data, or even worse, rates derived from other countries, will be of very limited value. What’s more, as the world’s population, housing stock, and living and cultural environments change, methods of loss modeling must accommodate these variables, especially when considering casualties. To truly take advantage of observed earthquake losses, not only do damage surveys need better coordination of international and national reconnaissance teams, but these teams must integrate difference areas of expertise including engineering, public health and medicine. Research is needed to find methods to achieve consistent and practical ways of collecting and modeling casualties in earthquakes. International collaboration will also be necessary to transfer such expertise and resources to the communities in the cities which most need it. Coupling the theories and findings from

  5. Yale and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J. Z.

    1983-01-01

    This is a description, based largely on personal discussions, of the contributions of men from the Yale University School of Medicine to the saga of the immediate and long-term studies on the medical effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They played key roles in the immediate studies of bomb effects, in the creation of long-term studies of delayed effects, and in elevating the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after 1955 to a position of excellence in its studies and relations with the Japanese. The accumulation of the information presented in this paper derives from research for the preparation of the history of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In 1975, the commission was passed to Japanese leadership as the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. PMID:6349145

  6. An Eye Oximeter for Combat Casualty Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    81 4 Introduction Exsanguination is the most immediate life threatening danger for the field casualty during wartime. Indeed, 60% of...intramuscular pre- anesthetic ketamine 600 mg and xylazine 100 mg. The swine were placed in the supine position, intubated endotracheally and placed on a...preanesthetic ketamine 600 mg and xylazine 100 mg. The swine were placed Study Protocol. The animal was exsanguinated in the supine position, intubated

  7. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration (OSHA) in 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 1904. (c) Notice given as required by § 122... condition before the occurrence, but does not include the cost of salvage, cleaning, gas freeing,...

  8. Seasonal trends in abundance and composition of marine debris in selected public beaches in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilik, Julyus-Melvin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Husain, Mohd-Lokman Bin; Hassan, Ruhana

    2015-09-01

    The abundance and composition of marine debris were investigated at Saujana (in the state of Negeri Sembilan) and Batu Rakit (in the state of Terengganu) beaches during surveys conducted in December 2012 (northeast monsoon), May 2013 (intermediate monsoon) and July 2013 (southwest monsoon). A total of 4,682 items of debris weighing 231.4 kg were collected and sorted. Batu Rakit received substantially greater quantities of debris (815±717 items/km or 40.4±13.0 kg/km) compared to Saujana (745±444 items/km or 36.7±18.0 kg/km). Total debris item was more abundant during the southwest monsoon (SWM) (1,122±737 items/km) compared to the northeast monsoon (NEM) (825±593 items/ km) and the intermediate monsoon (IM) (394±4 items/km) seasons. Plastic category (88%) was the most numerous items collected and object items contributed 44.18% includes packaging, plastic fragments, cups, plastic shopping bags, plastic food wrapper, clear plastic bottles from the total debris items collected. Object items associated with common source (47%) were the highest debris accumulated, followed by terrestrial (30%) and marine (23%) sources. The high percentage of common and terrestrial sources during SWM season requires immediate action by marine environment stakeholders to develop and introduce strategies to reduce if not totally eliminates the marine debris in the marine environment. Awareness should be continued and focused on beach users and vessels' crew to alert them on the alarming accumulation rate of marine debris and its pathways into the marine environment.

  9. Truth was an early casualty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sich, A.R.

    1996-05-01

    At a May 1986 press conference in Moscow-held just 11 days after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station-the cult of high technology was unabashedly preached to an auditorium full of shocked news correspondents and invited guests. When questioned as to the number of fatalities the accident had caused and the impact of the accident on Soviet society and the Soviet nuclear industry, A.M. Petrosyants (then chairman of the Soviet State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy) responded: {open_quotes}Science requires victims.{close_quotes} The Soviet system numbered its victims in the millions. In a sense, the Chernobyl accident was just one of the many misfortunes misrepresented by the Soviet government over the decades in its continuing effort to shape public perceptions of domestic disasters, natural and manmade. And yet, the international character of the Chernobyl accident, the fact that radioactive fallout knows no national boundaries, made it a watershed event. The accident exposed glaring weaknesses in the Soviet system: its backward technology, its sloppy safety standards, its inability to admit failure. And it brought to the surface many of the injustices, inefficiencies, and secrets that the Soviet government had tried to keep hidden. With the world`s spotlight focused on Chernobyl, General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev was left with little choice other than to prove to the West his dedication to reform by more fully implementing his recently announced policy of glasnost or `openness.` In turn, glasnost was a major factor that led to the demise of the Soviet Union, which embodied a system that was fundamentally at odds with freedom of expression and accessibile information. Unfortunately, old habits die hard. Ten years after the accident, many nuclear bureaucrats in the former Soviet Union, partiularly in Russia, are still too secretive and too much given to obfuscation.

  10. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 420 - Impact Dispersion Areas and Casualty Expectancy Estimate for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impact Dispersion Areas and Casualty... LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Pt. 420, App. D Appendix D to Part 420—Impact Dispersion Areas and... exclusion zone and impact dispersion areas, and how to evaluate whether the public risk presented by the...

  11. Review of On-Scene Management of Mass-Casualty Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie Holgersson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The scene of a mass-casualty attack (MCA entails a crime scene, a hazardous space, and a great number of people needing medical assistance. Public transportation has been the target of such attacks and involves a high probability of generating mass casualties. The review aimed to investigate challenges for on-scene responses to MCAs and suggestions made to counter these challenges, with special attention given to attacks on public transportation and associated terminals. Methods: Articles were found through PubMed and Scopus, “relevant articles” as defined by the databases, and a manual search of references. Inclusion criteria were that the article referred to attack(s and/or a public transportation-related incident and issues concerning formal on-scene response. An appraisal of the articles’ scientific quality was conducted based on an evidence hierarchy model developed for the study. Results: One hundred and five articles were reviewed. Challenges for command and coordination on scene included establishing leadership, inter-agency collaboration, multiple incident sites, and logistics. Safety issues entailed knowledge and use of personal protective equipment, risk awareness and expectations, cordons, dynamic risk assessment, defensive versus offensive approaches, and joining forces. Communication concerns were equipment shortfalls, dialoguing, and providing information. Assessment problems were scene layout and interpreting environmental indicators as well as understanding setting-driven needs for specialist skills and resources. Triage and treatment difficulties included differing triage systems, directing casualties, uncommon injuries, field hospitals, level of care, providing psychological and pediatric care. Transportation hardships included scene access, distance to hospitals, and distribution of casualties. Conclusion: Commonly encountered challenges during unintentional incidents were added to during MCAs, implying

  12. The Casualty Actuarial Society: Helping Universities Train Future Actuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boa, J. Michael; Gorvett, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS) believes that the most effective way to advance the actuarial profession is to work in partnership with universities. The CAS stands ready to assist universities in creating or enhancing courses and curricula associated with property/casualty actuarial science. CAS resources for university actuarial science…

  13. The Casualty Actuarial Society: Helping Universities Train Future Actuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boa, J. Michael; Gorvett, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS) believes that the most effective way to advance the actuarial profession is to work in partnership with universities. The CAS stands ready to assist universities in creating or enhancing courses and curricula associated with property/casualty actuarial science. CAS resources for university actuarial science…

  14. Scientific opinion on the risks for public health related to the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and TTX analogues in marine bivalves and gastropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues are produced by marine bacteria and have been detected in marine bivalves and gastropods from European waters. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of TTX and TTX analogues in marine......, based on a large portion size of 400 g, was considered not to result in adverse effects in humans. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC–MS/MS) methods are the most suitable for identification and quantification of TTX and its analogues, with LOQs between 0.1 and 25 μg/kg....

  15. 75 FR 16749 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Ocean Service, NOAA, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open... be held at the Francis Marion Hotel, 387 King Street, Charleston, South Carolina. FOR FURTHER... ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Committee, composed of external, knowledgeable representatives of...

  16. Analysis of the Causes of Maritime Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenko Švetak

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of total loss accidents in merchant shipping over aperiod of 30 years shows that these can be arranged in the followingorder: stranding, fire, water-leaks, gales and collision;other accidents are also taken into consideration. The analysisconsiders ships over 500 GT of different flags, plying any routeof navigation.Initially, a sample of 500 merchant ships- of different typesand tonnage- and under 15 different flags is analyzed to determineage and type of ship, and the causes of accidents.In the second analysis, the same 15 flags are considered,but now over a wider range on a sample totalling 1,500 merchantships. The results of both analyses are compared. It isshown that all collisions together with gale amount to 25% ofmaritime casualty returns -in the total loss lists- while strandingand collision take more than 40% of the toll.

  17. Effect of Hospital Staff Surge Capacity on Preparedness for a Conventional Mass Casualty Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welzel, Tyson B MD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess current medical staffing levels within the Hospital Referral System in the City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa, and analyze the surge capacity needs to prepare for the potential of a conventional mass casualty incident during a planned mass gathering.METHODS: Query of all available medical databases of both state employees and private medical personnel within the greater Cape Town area to determine current staffing levels and distribution of personnel across public and private domains. Analysis of the adequacy of available staff to manage a mass casualty incident.RESULTS: There are 594 advanced pre-hospital personnel in Cape Town (17/100,000 population and 142 basic pre-hospital personnel (4.6/100,000. The total number of hospital and clinic-based medical practitioners is 3097 (88.6/100,000, consisting of 1914 general physicians; 54.7/100,000 and 1183 specialist physicians; 33.8/100,000. Vacancy rates for all medical practitioners range from 23.5% to 25.5%. This includes: nursing post vacancies (26%, basic emergency care practitioners (39.3%, advanced emergency care personnel (66.8%, pharmacy assistants (42.6%, and pharmacists (33.1%.CONCLUSION: There are sufficient numbers and types of personnel to provide the expected ordinary healthcare needs at mass gathering sites in Cape Town; however, qualified staff are likely insufficient to manage a concurrent mass casualty event. Considering that adequate correctly skilled and trained staff form the backbone of disaster surge capacity, it appears that Cape Town is currently under resourced to manage a mass casualty event. With the increasing size and frequency of mass gathering events worldwide, adequate disaster surge capacity is an issue of global relevance. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2:189-196.

  18. Experience in the management of the mass casualty from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-21

    Sep 21, 2015 ... We present the result of the hospital management of that mass casualty incident. .... urology, plastic and burns, pediatric surgery, anesthesia, and trauma care is ... The information extracted included the demographics of the ...

  19. Management of the mass casualty from the 2001 Jos crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-04

    Nov 4, 2012 ... Background: We report our experience in the hospital management of mass casualty following the Jos .... and blunt instruments 51 (13.1%), impalements by arrows ... extremity injury accounting for 10 patients (2.6%), chest.

  20. Development of a Mass Casualty Triage Performance Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    palm to tilt the head back. 3. Place the finger tips of the other hand under the bony part of the casualty’s lower jaw and lift, bringing the chin...his Soldiers were triaging correctly based on injuries observed in the casualties. Based on a thorough review of the current civilian and military...and medically sorted based on the urgency of the treatment needed, type and seriousness of injury , and likelihood of survival (Community Emergency

  1. Treatment strategies for mass burn casualties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Jia-ke; SHENG Zhi-yong; YANG Hong-ming; HAO Dai-feng; SHEN Chuan-an; JIA Xiao-ming; LI Feng; JING Sa; LI Li-gen; SONG Hui-feng; JIA Chi-yu; TUO Xiao-ye; SUN Tian-jun; HU Quan

    2009-01-01

    Background Mass burn casualties are always a great challenge to a medical team because a large number of seriously injured patients were sent in within a short time. Usually a high mortality is impending. Experiences gained from successful treatment of the victims may be useful in guiding the care of mass casualties in an armed conflict.Methods Thirty-five burn victims in a single batch, being transferred nonstop by air and highway from a distant province,were admitted 48 hours post-injury. All patients were male with a mean age of (22.4±8.7) years. The burn extent ranged from 4% to 75% ((13.6±12.9)%) total body surface area. Among them, thirty-two patients were complicated by moderate and severe inhalation injury, and tracheostomy had been performed in 15 patients. Decompression incisions of burn eschar on extremities were done in 17 cases before transportation. All the thirty-five patients arrived at the destination smoothly via 4-hour airlift and road transportation. Among them, twenty-five patients were in critical condition.Results These thirty-five patients were evacuated 6 hours from the scene of the injury, and they were transferred to a local hospital for primary emergency care. The patients were in very poor condition when admitted to our hospital because of the severe injury with delayed and inadequate treatment. Examination of these patients at admission showed that one patient was suffering from sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Dysfunction of the heart, lung, liver,kidney, and coagulation were all found in the patients. Forty-eight operations were performed in the 23 patients during one month together with comprehensive treatment, and the function of various organs was ameliorated after appropriate treatment. All the 35 patients survived.Conclusions A well-organized team consisting of several cooperative groups with specified duties is very important. As a whole, the treatment protocol should be individualized, basing on the extent of

  2. Marine Conservation: Effective Communication is Critical to Engaging the Public and Decision Makers in Sustaining our Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, L. B.

    2006-12-01

    Scientists are most comfortable talking to other scientists. But if we hope our science will be used to drive good policy decisions at the state or federal level, we have to be willing to leave the comfortable cloisters of science and venture out into a world where people speak different languages and have different perspectives. Early in my career, I had the good fortune to be involved in two research programs that were focused on basic science, but also proved to be relevant to management and policy. The first project involved modeling the bioenergetics of growth in salmonid fishes. The second modeled the population dynamics of a threatened marine species, loggerhead sea turtle. Somewhat to my surprise, both papers led to major policy changes and the models were actively employed by managers within a year of two of publication. The question for me then became whether this could be done deliberately. Since then I have had the opportunity to communicate with a wide variety of people from congressmen, to school children, to the public, and among professionals across disciplinary boundaries. Communication skills are critical for scientists to become influential in the policy arena. We have to listen to all people involved in the policymaking process AND we have to be able to communicate effectively with them. This requires a deep understanding of the science and a willingness to work hard on communicating the science clearly, concisely, and compellingly. Scientists can work to develop their own skills, but professional training helps. This can come via shortcourses, mentorships, or full university courses. At Duke Marine Lab, we initiated graduate course in Professional Writing that focuses upon writing for different audiences, including commercial fishermen, retirees, teenagers, scientists in different fields, politicians, and managers. This course has been widely endorsed by our graduates as one of the most important courses they attended; interviews and job offers

  3. The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1998-01-01

    For 50 years, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have conducted epidemiological and genetic studies of the survivors of the atomic bombs and of their children. This research program has provided the primary basis for radiation health standards. Both ABCC (1947–1975) and RERF (1975 to date) have been a joint enterprise of the United States (through the National Academy of Sciences) and of Japan. ABCC began in devastated, occupied Japan. Its mission had to be defined and refined. Early research revealed the urgent need for long term study. In 1946, a Directive of President Truman enjoined the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences to develop the program. By 1950, ABCC staff exceeded 1,000, and clinical and genetic studies were underway. Budgetary difficulties and other problems almost forced closure in 1953. In 1955, the Francis Report led to a unified epidemiological study. Much progress was made in the next decade, but changing times required founding of a binational nonprofit organization (RERF) with equal participation by Japan and the United States. New programs have been developed and existing ones have been extended in what is the longest continuing health survey ever undertaken. PMID:9576898

  4. Development of sulfanegen for mass cyanide casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Steven E; Moeller, Bryant; Nagasawa, Herbert T; Vince, Robert; Crankshaw, Daune L; Briggs, Jacquie; Stutelberg, Michael W; Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Logue, Brian A

    2016-06-01

    Cyanide is a metabolic poison that inhibits the utilization of oxygen to form ATP. The consequences of acute cyanide exposure are severe; exposure results in loss of consciousness, cardiac and respiratory failure, hypoxic brain injury, and dose-dependent death within minutes to hours. In a mass-casualty scenario, such as an industrial accident or terrorist attack, currently available cyanide antidotes would leave many victims untreated in the short time available for successful administration of a medical countermeasure. This restricted therapeutic window reflects the rate-limiting step of intravenous administration, which requires both time and trained medical personnel. Therefore, there is a need for rapidly acting antidotes that can be quickly administered to large numbers of people. To meet this need, our laboratory is developing sulfanegen, a potential antidote for cyanide poisoning with a novel mechanism based on 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) for the detoxification of cyanide. Additionally, sulfanegen can be rapidly administered by intramuscular injection and has shown efficacy in many species of animal models. This article summarizes the journey from concept to clinical leads for this promising cyanide antidote.

  5. Medical management of toxicological mass casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Gal; Krivoy, Amir; Rotman, Eran; Schein, Ophir; Shrot, Shai; Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2008-11-01

    The relative accessibility to various chemical agents, including chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial compounds, places a toxicological mass casualty event, including chemical terrorism, among the major threats to homeland security. TMCE represents a medical and logistic challenge with potential hazardous exposure of first-response teams. In addition, TMCE poses substantial psychological and economic impact. We have created a simple response algorithm that provides practical guidelines for participating forces in TMCE. Emphasis is placed on the role of first responders, highlighting the importance of early recognition of the event as a TMCE, informing the command and control centers, and application of appropriate self-protection. The medical identification of the toxidrome is of utmost importance as it may dictate radically different approaches and life-saving modalities. Our proposed emergency management of TMCE values the "Scoop & Run" approach orchestrated by an organized evacuation plan rather than on-site decontamination. Finally, continuous preparedness of health systems - exemplified by periodic CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radio-Nuclear) medical training of both first responders and hospital staff, mandatory placement of antidotal auto-injectors in all ambulances and CBRN emergency kits in the emergency departments - would considerably improve the emergency medical response to TMCE.

  6. Model uniform core criteria for mass casualty triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    There is a need for model uniform core criteria for mass casualty triage because disasters frequently cross jurisdictional lines and involve responders from multiple agencies who may be using different triage tools. These criteria (Tables 1-4) reflect the available science, but it is acknowledged that there are significant research gaps. When no science was available, decisions were formed by expert consensus derived from the available triage systems. The intent is to ensure that providers at a mass-casualty incident use triage methodologies that incorporate these core principles in an effort to promote interoperability and standardization. At a minimum, each triage system must incorporate the criteria that are listed below. Mass casualty triage systems in use can be modified using these criteria to ensure interoperability. The criteria include general considerations, global sorting, lifesaving interventions, and assignment of triage categories. The criteria apply only to providers who are organizing multiple victims in a discrete geographic location or locations, regardless of the size of the incident. They are classified by whether they were derived through available direct scientific evidence, indirect scientific evidence, expert consensus, and/or are used in multiple existing triage systems. These criteria address only primary triage and do not consider secondary triage. For the purposes of this document the term triage refers to mass-casualty triage and provider refers to any person who assigns primary triage categories to victims of a mass-casualty incident.

  7. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Amlôt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS. The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit.

  8. 'Wellbeing': a collateral casualty of modernity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Sandra; Henderson, Gregor; Hanlon, Phil W

    2009-11-01

    In the now vast empirical and theoretical literature on wellbeing knowledge of the subject is provided mainly by psychology and economics, where understanding of the concept are framed in very different ways. We briefly rehearse these, before turning to some important critical points which can be made about this burgeoning research industry, including the tight connections between the meanings of the concept with the moral value systems of particular 'modern' societies. We then argue that both the 'science' of wellbeing and its critique are, despite their diversity, re-connected by and subsumed within the emerging environmental critique of modern consumer society. This places concerns for individual and social wellbeing within the broader context of global human problems and planetary wellbeing. A growing number of thinkers now suggest that Western society and culture are dominated by materialistic and individualistic values, made manifest at the political and social levels through the unending pursuit of economic growth, and at the individual level by the seemingly endless quest for consumer goods, regardless of global implications such as broader environmental harms. The escalating growth of such values is associated with a growing sense of individual alienation, social fragmentation and civic disengagement and with the decline of more spiritual, moral and ethical aspects of life. Taken together, these multiple discourses suggest that wellbeing can be understood as a collateral casualty of the economic, social and cultural changes associated with late modernity. However, increasing concerns for the environment have the potential to counter some of these trends, and in so doing could also contribute to our wellbeing as individuals and as social beings in a finite world.

  9. Slope Failure Prediction and Early Warning Awareness Education for Reducing Landslides Casualty in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, S. P.; Tay, L. T.; Fukuoka, H.; Koyama, T.; Sakai, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Lateh, H.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast monsoon causes heavy rain in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from November to March, every year. During this monsoon period, besides the happening of flood along east coast, landslides also causes millions of Malaysian Ringgit economical losses. Hence, it is essential to study the prediction of slope failure to prevent the casualty of landslides happening. In our study, we introduce prediction method of the accumulated rainfall affecting the stability of the slope. If the curve, in the graph, which is presented by rainfall intensity versus accumulated rainfall, crosses over the critical line, the condition of the slope is considered in high risk where the data are calculated and sent from rain gauge in the site via internet. If the possibility of slope failure is going high, the alert message will be sent out to the authorities for decision making on road block or setting the warning light at the road side. Besides road block and warning light, we propose to disseminate short message, to pre-registered mobile phone user, to notify the public for easing the traffic jam and avoiding unnecessary public panic. Prediction is not enough to prevent the casualty. Early warning awareness of the public is very important to reduce the casualty of landslides happening. IT technology does not only play a main role in disseminating information, early warning awareness education, by using IT technology, should be conducted, in schools, to give early warning awareness on natural hazard since childhood. Knowing the pass history on landslides occurrence will gain experience on the landslides happening. Landslides historical events with coordinate information are stored in database. The public can browse these historical events via internet. By referring to such historical landslides events, the public may know where did landslides happen before and the possibility of slope failure occurrence again is considered high. Simulation of rainfall induced slope failure mechanism

  10. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  11. Preliminary quantitative assessment of earthquake casualties and damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badal, J.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; González, Á.

    2005-01-01

    of casualties within areas of different intensity is computed using an application developed in a geographic information system (GIS) environment, taking advantage of the possibilities of such a system for the treatment of space-distributed data. The casualty rate, defined as the number of killed people divided...... the local social wealth as a function of the gross domestic product of the country. This last step is performed on the basis of the relationship of the macroseismic intensity to the earthquake economic loss in percentage of the wealth. Such an approach to the human casualty and damage levels is carried out...... for sites near important cities located in a seismically active zone of Spain, thus contributing to an easier taking of decisions in emergency preparedness planning, contemporary earthquake engineering and seismic risk prevention....

  12. Children and terror casualties receive preference in ICU admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Rozenfeld, Michael; Dolev, Eran

    2012-03-01

    Trauma casualties caused by terror-related events and children injured as a result of trauma may be given preference in hospital emergency departments (EDs) due to their perceived importance. We investigated whether there are differences in the treatment and hospitalization of terror-related casualties compared to other types of injury events and between children and adults injured in terror-related events. Retrospective study of 121 608 trauma patients from the Israel Trauma Registry during the period of October 2000-December 2005. Of the 10 hospitals included in the registry, 6 were level I trauma centers and 4 were regional trauma centers. Patients who were hospitalized or died in the ED or were transferred between hospitals were included in the registry. All analyses were controlled for Injury Severity Score (ISS). All patients with ISS 1-24 terror casualties had the highest frequency of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions when compared with patients after road traffic accidents (RTA) and other trauma. Among patients with terror-related casualties, children were admitted to ICU disproportionally to the severity of their injury. Logistic regression adjusted for injury severity and trauma type showed that both terror casualties and children have a higher probability of being admitted to the ICU. Injured children are admitted to ICU more often than other age groups. Also, terror-related casualties are more frequently admitted to the ICU compared to those from other types of injury events. These differences were not directly related to a higher proportion of severe injuries among the preferred groups.

  13. Clinical Framework and Medical Countermeasure Use During an Anthrax Mass-Casualty Incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, William A; Hendricks, Katherine; Pillai, Satish; Guarnizo, Julie; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2015-12-04

    In 2014, CDC published updated guidelines for the prevention and treatment of anthrax (Hendricks KA, Wright ME, Shadomy SV, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expert panel meetings on prevention and treatment of anthrax in adults. Emerg Infect Dis 2014;20[2]. Available at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/2/13-0687_article.htm). These guidelines provided recommended best practices for the diagnosis and treatment of persons with naturally occurring or bioterrorism-related anthrax in conventional medical settings. An aerosolized release of Bacillus anthracis spores over densely populated areas could become a mass-casualty incident. To prepare for this possibility, the U.S. government has stockpiled equipment and therapeutics (known as medical countermeasures [MCMs]) for anthrax prevention and treatment. However, previously developed, publicly available clinical recommendations have not addressed the use of MCMs or clinical management during an anthrax mass-casualty incident, when the number of patients is likely to exceed the ability of the health care infrastructure to provide conventional standards of care and supplies of MCMs might be inadequate to meet the demand required. To address this gap, in 2013, CDC conducted a series of systematic reviews of the scientific literature on anthrax to identify evidence that could help clinicians and public health authorities set guidelines for intravenous antimicrobial and antitoxin use, diagnosis of anthrax meningitis, and management of common anthrax-specific complications in the setting of a mass-casualty incident. Evidence from these reviews was presented to professionals with expertise in anthrax, critical care, and disaster medicine during a series of workgroup meetings that were held from August 2013 through March 2014. In March 2014, a meeting was held at which 102 subject matter experts discussed the evidence and adapted the existing best practices guidance to a clinical use framework for the

  14. The role of cytogenetics in early triage of radiation casualties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, D.C. E-mail: david.lloyd@nrpb.org.uk; Edwards, A.A.; Moquet, J.E.; Guerrero-Carbajal, Y.C

    2000-05-15

    Preliminary dose estimates by chromosomal analysis can be made rapidly in order to supplement early triage of radiation casualties based on clinical signs. An in vitro simulation of an accident with many casualties receiving whole or partial body exposure in the range 0-8 Gy is described. Faced with an urgent need for rapid results, confirmation of clinical triage can generally be obtained from scoring 20 metaphases per subject. Scoring should be increased to 50 cells where there is disagreement with the initial assessments or evidence of significantly inhomogeneous exposure.

  15. The Transition to the Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebner, Stephen D

    2017-06-01

    The original Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) guidelines were published in a special supplement to Military Medicine in 1996 as the terminal deliverable of a 2-year development project funded by the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM). Two years later, the USSOCOM Biomedical Initiatives Steering Committee (BISC) promulgated its Task Statement 5-98, in which it called for the formation of a panel of subject matter experts to update the TCCC guidelines. This article discusses the formation of the Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care (CoTCCC) and the changes to the original guidelines that constituted the first update. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Collating science-based evidence to inform public opinion on the environmental effects of marine drilling platforms in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, M C; Sarà, G

    2017-03-01

    The use of rigorous methodologies to assess environmental, social and health impacts of specific interventions is crucial to disentangle the various components of environmental questions and to inform public opinion. The power of systematic maps relies on the capacity to summarise and organise the areas or relationships most studied, and to highlight key gaps in the evidence base. The recent Italian technical referendum (2016) - a public consultation inviting people to express their opinion by voting to change the rules on the length of licence duration and the decommissioning of offshore oil and gas platform drilling licences - inspired the creation of a systematic map of evidence to scope and quantify the effects of off-shore extraction platforms on Mediterranean marine ecosystems. The map was aimed as a useful model to standardise a "minimal informational threshold", which can inform public opinion at the beginning of any public consultation. Produced by synthesising scientific information, the map represents a reliable layer for any future sustainable strategy in the Mediterranean basin by: (i) providing a summary of the effects of marine gas and oil platforms on the Mediterranean marine ecosystem, (ii) describing the best known affected components on which the biggest monitoring efforts have been focused, and (iii) strengthening the science-policy nexus by offering a credible, salient and legitimate knowledge baseline to both public opinion and decision-makers. The map exercise highlights the knowledge gaps that need filling and taking into due consideration before future transnational and cross-border monitoring and management plans and activities can be addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 53924 - Merchant Mariner Medical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ..., Rear Admiral J. A. Watson; (4) Staff Administration issues; (5) Designation of the Chair and Vice-Chair... evaluation process. --Report of maritime casualties with a nexus to mariner medical issues. --Form CG-719K... or guidance. --Revising the Medical and Physical Evaluation Guidelines for Merchant...

  18. [Triage--and the management of mass casualty incidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    Triage ("sorting") will only be necessary in the setting of mass casualties and lack of sufficient paramedical and medical specialists as well as equipment. Triage means that the victims will be divided into four categories denoting urgency of treatment and chance of survival. The most experienced medical doctor or officer is responsible for the triage. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Alcohol-related road casualties in official crash statistics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, L. Houwing, S. & Wegman, F.C.M. (prep.)

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how improving insights regarding the real number of alcohol-related road casualties worldwide can help to save lives. Every year 1.25 million people die in road crashes according to the World Health Organization. It is widely recognised that drink driving is an important

  20. Primate bites in Gibraltar--minor casualty quirk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A C

    1989-10-01

    In one year 55 patients presented to the casualty department of St Bernard's Hospital, Gibraltar, with a primate bite. The implications of such wounds on the health of these patients is contrasted with the morbidity and mortality associated with primate bites in the African subcontinent.

  1. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 169.807 Section 169.807 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS..., navigation charts, navigation work books, compass deviation cards, gyrocompass records, record of draft,...

  2. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... planted trees and ornamental shrubs on the grounds surrounding the building. In 1961 the land, building, trees, and shrubs are damaged by hurricane. At the time of the casualty the adjusted basis of the land is $18,000 and the adjusted basis of the building is $66,000. At that time the trees and shrubs...

  3. Operation of emergency operating centers during mass casualty incidents in taiwan: a disaster management perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jet-Chau; Tsai, Chia-Chou; Chen, Mei-Hsuan; Chang, Wei-Ta

    2014-10-01

    On April 27, 2011, a train derailed and crashed in Taiwan, causing a mass casualty incident (MCI) that was similar to a previous event and with similar consequences. In both disasters, the emergency operating centers (EOCs) could not effectively integrate associated agencies to deal with the incident. The coordination and utilization of resources were inefficient, which caused difficulty in command structure operation and casualty evacuation. This study was designed to create a survey questionnaire with problem items using disaster management phases mandated by Taiwan's Emergency Medical Care Law (EMCL), use statistical methods (t test) to analyze the results and issues the EOCs encountered during the operation, and propose solutions for those problems. Findings showed that EOCs lacked authority to intervene or coordinate with associated agencies. Also, placing emphasis on the recovery phase should improve future prevention and response mechanisms. To improve the response to MCIs, the EMCL needs to be amended to give EOCs the lead during disasters; use feedback from the recovery phase to improve future disaster management and operation coordination; and establish an information-sharing platform across agencies to address all aspects of relief work.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-6).

  4. Using the Design for Demise Philosophy to Reduce Casualty Risk Due to Reentering Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Recently the reentry of a number of vehicles has garnered public attention due to their risk of human casualty due to fragments surviving reentry. In order to minimize this risk for their vehicles, a number of NASA programs have actively sought to minimize the number of components likely to survive reentry at the end of their spacecraft's life in order to meet and/or exceed NASA safety standards for controlled and uncontrolled reentering vehicles. This philosophy, referred to as "Design for Demise" or D4D, has steadily been adopted, to at least some degree, by numerous programs. The result is that many programs are requesting evaluations of components at the early stages of vehicle design, as they strive to find ways to reduce the number surviving components while ensuring that the components meet the performance requirements of their mission. This paper will discuss some of the methods that have been employed to ensure that the consequences of the vehicle s end-of-life are considered at the beginning of the design process. In addition this paper will discuss the technical challenges overcome, as well as some of the more creative solutions which have been utilized to reduce casualty risk.

  5. On Public Opinion in Time of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    5 Stimson, 65. 6 Eric V. Larson, Casualties and Consensus: The Historical Role of Casualties in...has been made. Kennamer boldly states, “Voting is the most visible and concrete sign of public opinion.”11 According to Erikson , Wright, & McIver...en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opinion_poll. 10 Kennamer, 15. 11 Kennamer, 2. 12 Robert S. Erikson , John P. McIver, and Gerald C. Wright, Statehouse Democracy

  6. Book review of "The Ethics of Coercion in Mass Casualty Medicine" by Griffin Trotter MD, PhD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sonal

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Public health ethics is neither taught widely in medical schools or schools of public health in the US or around the world. It is not surprising that health care professionals are particularly challenged when faced with ethical questions which extend beyond safeguarding the interests of their individual patients to matters that affect overall public good. The perceived threat of terror after September 11 2007, the anthrax attacks and the Katrina debacle are recent circumstances which may result in coercion. These have piqued the interest of medical professionals and the general public on public health ethics. The Ethics of Coercion in Mass Casualty Medicine written by Griffin Trotter MD, PhD attempts to fill a timely void in this area by examining the ethics of coercion in times of public health disasters.

  7. 75 FR 29521 - Notice of Public Meetings of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Basing the U.S. Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... of the DEIS are available for public review at the following libraries in North Carolina: Havelock-Craven County Public Library, 301 Cunningham Boulevard, Havelock; Bogue Banks Public Library, 320 Salter Path Rd., Suite W Pine Knoll Shores; Carteret County Public Library, 1702 Live Oak Street, Suite 100...

  8. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing following a serious marine incident. When a marine employer determines that a casualty or... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each...

  9. Harnessing the Power of Influence: Why the Marine Corps Needs to Combine Information Operations and Public Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-06

    are approved for inclusion in the next edition of JP 1-02.) 26 Bibliography Ansel, Justin, Larry Fletcher, and Geoffrey Gorsuch , “Military...Fletcher, and Geoffrey Gorsuch , “Military Applications in Social Media.” (Manuscript, Command and Staff College, Marine Corps University, 2012). 21

  10. Empowering marine science through genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volckaert, F.A M J; Barbier, M.; Canario, A; Olsen, J.L.; Wesnigk, J; Clark, M; Boyen, C

    Marine scientists in Europe summarize their successes with genome technologies in the marine sciences and make a plea for a concerted international effort to raise greater public education for support. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Empowering marine science through genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volckaert, F.A M J; Barbier, M.; Canario, A; Olsen, J.L.; Wesnigk, J; Clark, M; Boyen, C

    2008-01-01

    Marine scientists in Europe summarize their successes with genome technologies in the marine sciences and make a plea for a concerted international effort to raise greater public education for support. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring the perception of aid organizations' staff about factors affecting management of mass casualty traffic incidents in Iran: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeli, Javad; Aryankhesal, Aidin; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud

    2017-07-01

    Traffic incidents are of main health issues all around the world and cause countless deaths, heavy casualties, and considerable tangible and intangible damage. In this regard, mass casualty traffic incidents are worthy of special attention as, in addition to all losses and damage, they create challenges in the way of providing health services to the victims. The present study is an attempt to explore the challenges and facilitators in management of mass casualty traffic incidents in Iran. This qualitative grounded theory study was carried out with participation of 14 purposively selected experienced managers, paramedics and staff of aid organizations in different provinces of Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in order to develop the theory. The transcribed interviews were analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. Despite the recent and relatively good improvements in facilities and management procedure of mass casualty traffic incidents in Iran, several problems such as lack of coordination, lack of centralized and integrated command system, large number of organizations participating in operations, duplicate attempts and parallel operations carried out by different organizations, intervention of lay people, and cultural factors halt provision of effective health services to the victims. It is necessary to improve the theoretical and practical knowledge of the relief personnel and paramedics, provide public with education about first aid and improve driving culture, prohibit laypeople from intervening in aid operations, and increase quality and quantity of aid facilities.

  13. Portable ultrasonography in mass casualty incidents: The CAVEAT examination

    OpenAIRE

    Stawicki, Stanislaw Peter; Howard, James M; Pryor, John P; David P. Bahner; Whitmill, Melissa L; Dean, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonography used by practicing clinicians has been shown to be of utility in the evaluation of time-sensitive and critical illnesses in a range of environments, including pre-hospital triage, emergency department, and critical care settings. The increasing availability of light-weight, robust, user-friendly, and low-cost portable ultrasound equipment is particularly suited for use in the physically and temporally challenging environment of a multiple casualty incident (MCI). Currently est...

  14. Innovations in the En Route Care of Combat Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    capability of CCATT, some patients exceed that level of care in the ERC setting, particularly because of lung injuries and inadequate ventilation . To meet...remained in place for 16 days with no complications (Buckenmaier & Bleckner, 2008). One of the primary advantages of preoperative regional anesthesia ...constant innovation to ensure appropriate nursing care for combat casualties. Building on experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan, there have been tremendous

  15. A Predictive Model for Massive Transfusion in Combat Casualty Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    A Predictive Model for Massive Transfusion in Combat Casualty Patients Daniel F . McLaughlin, MD, Sarah E. Niles, MD, MPH, Jose Salinas, PhD, Jeremy G...Silver Springs, Maryland. Address for reprints: Daniel F . McLaughlin, MD, United States Insti- tute of Surgical Research, 3400 Rawley E. Chambers...see that here? Thank you again for an excellent study, which I believe should alter practice for many of us. Dr. Daniel F . McLaughlin (US Army

  16. Wireless Vital Sign Sensor Network Simulations for Mass Casualty Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    Casualty, Network Simulation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: Unclassified 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19 19a. NAME OF... security takes priority over medical treatment of the wounded, so it assumed that only two responders are available to provide medical care during...in ZigBee products. Since ZigBee software stacks are widely available and since a standard exists for ZigBee use in healthcare, it is a very

  17. Flood risk assessment of potential casualties in a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Loaiza, Andres; Englhardt, Johanna; Boekhorst, Ellen; Ward, Philip; Aerts, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    Flood risk assessment of potential casualties in a global scale. M. Andres Diaz-Loaiza (1), Johanna Englhardt (1), Ellen de Boekhorst (1), Philip J. Ward (1) and Jeroen Aerts (1) (1) Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. andres.diazloaiza@vu.nl Floods are one of the most dangerous natural disasters for humanity, affecting many people every year. Quantitative risk models on a global scale are nowadays available tools for institutions and actors in charge of risk management in order to plan possible mitigation measures in case of flood risk events. Many of these models have been focus on potential economic damage, population and GDP exposure, but the potential casualties assessment has been left aside. This is partially due to the complexity of the problem itself, in which several variables like the age of a pedestrian (drag/exposed to a flood event), or his weight and swimming experience can be decisive for the complete understanding of the problem. In the present work is presented the advances for the development of a methodology in order to include in the GLOFRIS model a new indicator in case of flood risk events. Preliminary analysis relating the GDP with the potential casualties shows that undeveloped countries have more susceptibility to loss of life in case of flood events. This because the GDP indicator evidences as well the protection measures available in a country.

  18. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  19. Problems and Countermeasures of Public Participation in Marine Environmental Protection%海洋环境保护中的公众参与问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金亮; 曾玉华; 赵晟

    2011-01-01

    Public is the subject and the ultimate beneficiaries of sustainable development, so the realization of sustainable development to some extent depends on the way and degree of public participation. The degree of public participation has become an important symbol for the level of environment protection and management in a country or region. Chinese public participation in marine environment protection is not strong. The ways of participation are relatively simple and there is still a wide gap with the developed courtiers. The intensification of public participation in Chinese marine protection will not only help to improve the abilities of government' s environmental management but also consistent with international convention. This paper puts forward some suggestions on promoting the efficiency of public participation by discussing the concept, meaning, value of public participation as well as the problems during its implementation in China.%可持续发展的主体是公众,公众也是最终的受益者,因此可持续发展目标的实现在某种程度上取决于公众参与的方式与程度。可以说,公众参与程度已经成为衡量一个国家或者地区环境保护事业发达程度和环境管理水平高低的一个重要标志。相比之下,目前中国公众参与海洋环境保护的意识不强,参与的途径不多,方式也比较单一,同世界上一些先进国家相比,还有一定的差距。在中国海洋环境保护事业中,加强公众参与的力度,不仅有利于搞好环境保护和管理工作,也是符合国际惯例的。本文通过对公众参与涵义、意义与价值、在中国实行过程中存在的各种问题的论述,提出了提高公众参与有效性的相关建议。

  20. CORTIM Project: Medical Regulation Concept Designed for Forward Field Casualty Management Based on an Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    CORTIM, and the quality of casualty handling by the SAMU (the French Mobile Emergency Medical Service) for the RMT concept. We consider that...of crisis situations in the case of CORTIM, and the quality of casualty handling by the SAMU (the French Mobile Emergency Medical Service) for the... SAMU for the RMT concept. We consider that operational casualty management can be enhanced in at least three areas. The first concerns improvements in

  1. Battlefield trauma care then and now: a decade of Tactical Combat Casualty Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    heat loss in casualties24 The use of fluoroquinolones and ertapenem or cefotetan for battlefield antibiotics to reduce preventable deaths from wound...effective nonparenteral analgesic medications No prehospital antibiotics No delineation of which casualties might benefit most from supplemental oxygen...hypothermia. December 10, 2010. 25. O’Connor KO, Butler FK. Antibiotics in tactical combat casualty care. Mil Med. 2003;168:911 914. 26. Butler FK. Tactical

  2. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  3. MARINE ACCIDENTS RESEARCHED THROUGH HUMAN FACTOR PRISMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav M Ćorović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We are aware of a large number of marine accidents that result in numerous casualties and even deaths and substantial negative environmental effects. The objective of this paper is to indicate factors that contribute to human errors which is identified as the most frequent cause to marine accidents. Despite rapid technological development and safety legislation, this paper identifies the human factor as the waekest link in maritime safety system. This analysis could lead to decrease of vessel accidents. In addition, starting from the European Maritime Safety Agency data and by linear regression model application, we have obtained the trend of number of ships involved in marine accidents as well as the trend of lives lost in marine accidents  in and around European Union waters.

  4. Out-of-hospital combat casualty care in the current war in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Robert T; De Lorenzo, Robert A; Oliver, Jeffrey; Holcomb, John B; Pfaff, James A

    2009-02-01

    We describe outcomes for battle casualties receiving initial treatment at a US Army consolidated battalion aid station augmented with emergency medicine practitioners, advanced medic treatment protocols, and active medical direction. Battalion aid stations are mobile facilities integral to combat units, providing initial phases of advanced trauma life support and then evacuation. The setting was a forward base in central Iraq, with units engaged in urban combat operations. This was a retrospective observational study. Rates of battle casualties, mechanism, evacuations, and outcome were calculated. Corresponding Iraqi theater-wide US casualty rates were also calculated for indirect comparison. The study population consisted of 1.1% of the total US military population in the Iraqi theater. Data were available for all battle casualties. The study facility's battle casualty rate was 22.2%. The case fatality rate was 7.14%, and the out-of-theater evacuation rate was 27%. Analysis of evacuated patients revealed a study average Injury Severity Score of 10 (95% confidence interval [CI] 8 to 12). Concurrent theater aggregate US casualty rates are provided for contextual reference and include battle casualty rate of 6.7%, case fatality rate of 10.45%, out-of-theater evacuation rate of 18%, and average out-of-theater evacuation casualty Injury Severity Score of 10 (95% CI 9.5 to 10.5). The study battalion aid station experienced high casualty and evacuation rates while also demonstrating relatively low case fatality rates. A relatively high proportion of patients were evacuated out of the combat zone, reflecting both the battle casualty rate and number of patients surviving. Future effort should focus on improving out-of-hospital combat casualty data collection and prospective validation of emergency medicine-based out-of-hospital battlefield care and medical direction.

  5. Drone Strikes in Pakistan: Reasons to Assess Civilian Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    photo: An MQ-9 Reaper, armed with GB U-12 Paveway II laser guided munitions and AGM-114 Hellfire missiles, piloted by Col. Lex Turner flies a combat...campaign. v \\Te observe that drone strikes in Pakistan were more likely to cause civilian casualties on av- erage than drone stiikes by military forces in...T11e Times (London) ,July 26, 2012. V \\!hilc not accomplished with a drone strike, that raid represents one end of a spectnnn with regard to trading

  6. A mass casualty incident involving children and chemical decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Nathan; Reeves, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Mass casualty incidents involving contaminated children are a rare but ever-present possibility. In this article we outline one such event that resulted in 53 pediatric patients and 3 adults presenting to the emergency department of a children's hospital for decontamination and treatment. We pay special attention to the training that allowed this responses to occur. We also outline the institutional response with emphasis on incident command, communication, and resource utilization. Specific lessons learned are explored in detail. Finally, we set forth a series of recommendations to assist other institutions should they be called upon to care for and decontaminate pediatric patients.

  7. Marine Reference Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various publications and other instructions for taking marine weather observations. includes Weather Service Observing Handbook No. 1, Weather Bureau Circular M, and...

  8. 77 FR 8956 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Supplement No. 7 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Grange Mutual Casualty Company (NAIC 14060). Business Address: 671...

  9. 33 CFR 150.825 - Reporting a diving-related casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting a diving-related casualty. 150.825 Section 150.825 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Reporting a diving-related casualty. Deaths and injuries related to diving within the safety zone of...

  10. On the Temporal Distribution of Casualties and Determination of Medical Logistical Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Lauren, Michael Kyle

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that World War II casualty data display statistical structure that would be expected from multifractal data. Given that the data displayed these properties, it is shown how the existence of power-law tails in the exceedence probability distributions can be used to estimate the likelihood of various casualty levels. Estimates made using this method matched the historical data well.

  11. 75 FR 70903 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... on the petition (75 FR 68756). That Federal Register notice began NMFS' 15-day public comment period... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... petition to designate the Eastern North Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as...

  12. Comparative analysis of showering protocols for mass-casualty decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlot, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Jones, David R; Carter, Holly; Turner, Elizabeth A; Price, Shirley C; Chilcott, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    A well-established provision for mass-casualty decontamination that incorporates the use of mobile showering units has been developed in the UK. The effectiveness of such decontamination procedures will be critical in minimizing or preventing the contamination of emergency responders and hospital infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three empirical strategies designed to optimize existing decontamination procedures: (1) instructions in the form of a pictorial aid prior to decontamination; (2) provision of a washcloth within the showering facility; and (3) an extended showering period. The study was a three-factor, between-participants (or "independent") design with 90 volunteers. The three factors each had two levels: use of washcloths (washcloth/no washcloth), washing instructions (instructions/no instructions), and shower cycle duration (three minutes/six minutes). The effectiveness of these strategies was quantified by whole-body fluorescence imaging following application of a red fluorophore to multiple, discrete areas of the skin. All five showering procedures were relatively effective in removing the fluorophore "contaminant", but the use of a cloth (in the absence of instructions) led to a significant ( appox. 20%) improvement in the effectiveness of decontamination over the standard protocol (p mass-casualty decontamination effectiveness, especially in children, can be optimized by the provision of a washcloth. This simple but effective approach indicates the value of performing controlled volunteer trials for optimizing existing decontamination procedures.

  13. The casualties from electric bike and motorized scooter road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman-Tov, Maya; Radomislensky, Irina; Israel Trauma Group; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-04-03

    The objective of this study was to describe demographic and injury characteristics of hospitalized injured patients involved in e-bike and motorized scooter accidents at a national level in Israel divided by different road user groups: riders and pedestrians. This was a retrospective study based on data from the National Trauma Registry, between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. All hospitalized casualties due to the involvement of an e-bike or motorized scooter were included. The type of hospitalized road user was further categorized and described by different variables. During the study period, the Israel Trauma Registry identified 795 hospitalized patients due to an e-bike or motorized scooter accident, with a dramatic 6-fold increase from 2013 to 2015. Although the majority of the injured patients were riders, 8% were pedestrians. Among the total casualties, 33% were children aged 0-14 years and among pedestrians 42% were children and 33% were seniors (ages 60+). Five persons died in hospital, 3 riders and 2 pedestrians. E-bike and motorized scooter riders represent the majority of patients hospitalized due to related traffic incident. This finding questions the social and economic advantages of electric-powered 2-wheeled vehicles.

  14. ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL INTO OCEAN WATERS; IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL FOR SECTION 103 OF PUBLIC LAW 92-532 (MARINE PROTECTION, RESEARCH, AND SANCTUARIES ACT OF 1972)

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to Section 103 of Public Law 92-532 (Marine Protection ,Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972), any proposed dumping of dredged material into ocean waters must be evaluated through the use of criteria published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i n the Federa...

  15. Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/Nuclear Incident with External Contamination: Guiding Principles and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulsky, Susan M; Sokolowski, Danny; Lafontaine, Marc; Gagnon, Christine; Blain, Peter G; Russell, David; Kreppel, Helmut; Biederbick, Walter; Shimazu, Takeshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Saito, Tomoya; Jourdain, Jean-René; Paquet, Francois; Li, Chunsheng; Akashi, Makoto; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Prosser, Lesley

    2015-11-02

    Hazardous chemical, radiological, and nuclear materials threaten public health in scenarios of accidental or intentional release which can lead to external contamination of people.  Without intervention, the contamination could cause severe adverse health effects, through systemic absorption by the contaminated casualties as well as spread of contamination to other people, medical equipment, and facilities.  Timely decontamination can prevent or interrupt absorption into the body and minimize opportunities for spread of the contamination, thereby mitigating the health impact of the incident.  Although the specific physicochemical characteristics of the hazardous material(s) will determine the nature of an incident and its risks, some decontamination and medical challenges and recommended response strategies are common among chemical and radioactive material incidents.  Furthermore, the identity of the hazardous material released may not be known early in an incident.  Therefore, it may be beneficial to compare the evidence and harmonize approaches between chemical and radioactive contamination incidents.  Experts from the Global Health Security Initiative's Chemical and Radiological/Nuclear Working Groups present here a succinct summary of guiding principles for planning and response based on current best practices, as well as research needs, to address the challenges of managing contaminated casualties in a chemical or radiological/nuclear incident.

  16. A Casualty in the Class War: Canada's Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert G

    2012-02-01

    "There's class warfare, all right, but it's my class, the rich class, that's making war, and we're winning." (Warren Buffett, five years ago.) Last year's Occupy Wall Street movement suggested that people are finally catching on. Note, making war: Buffett meant that there was deliberate intent and agency behind the huge transfer of wealth, since 1980, from the 99% to the 1%. Nor is the war metaphorical. There are real casualties, even if no body bags. Sadly, much Canadian commentary on inequality is pitiably naïve or deliberately obfuscatory. The 1% have captured national governments. The astronomical cost of American elections excludes the 99%. In Canada, parliamentary government permits one man to rule as a de facto dictator. The 1% don't like medicare.

  17. Mass Casualty Incident Primary Triage Methods in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Hong Chen; Jun Yang; Yu Yang; Jing-Chen Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the technical characteristics and application of mass casualty incident (MCI) primary triage (PT) methods applied in China.Data Sources:Chinese literature was searched by Chinese Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (founded in June 2014).The English literature was searched by PubMed (MEDLINE) (1950 to June 2014).We also searched Official Websites of Chinese Central Government's (http://www.gov.cn/),National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/),and China Earthquake Information (http://www.csi.ac.cn/).Study Selection:We included studies associated with mass casualty events related to China,the PT applied in China,guidelines and standards,and application and development of the carding PT method in China.Results:From 3976 potentially relevant articles,22 met the inclusion criteria,20 Chinese,and 2 English.These articles included 13 case reports,3 retrospective analyses of MCI,two methods introductions,three national or sectoral criteria,and one simulated field testing and validation.There were a total of 19 kinds ofMCI PT methods that have been reported in China from 1950 to 2014.In addition,there were 15 kinds of PT methods reported in the literature from the instance of the application.Conclusions:The national and sectoral current triage criteria are developed mainly for earthquake relief.Classification is not clear.Vague criteria (especially between moderate and severe injuries) operability are not practical.There are no triage methods and research for children and special populations.There is no data and evidence supported triage method.We should revise our existing classification and criteria so it is clearer and easier to be grasped in order to build a real,practical,and efficient PT method.

  18. Reducing young driver crash casualties in Great Britain - use of routine police crash data to estimate the potential benefits of graduated driver licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah J; Begg, Dorothy J; Palmer, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Crashes involving young drivers (YD) cause significant morbidity and mortality in Great Britain (GB). Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is used in some countries to address this. This study assessed potential casualty and cost savings of possible GDL programmes in GB. Police road crash data were analysed to identify YD crashes at night or while carrying passengers. These data were then used to estimate the potential effects of GDL. 314,561 casualties and 3469 fatalities occurred in YD crashes. 25.1% of YD crashes occurred between 9 pm and 6 am and 24.4% occurred with a 15- to 24-year old passenger in the car. A 'strict' form of GDL in GB (night time restriction 9 pm-6 am, no 15-24 year old passengers) with 50% compliance would prevent 114 deaths and 872 serious casualties each year. The estimated value of prevention is £424M pa. A 'less strict' form of GDL (night time restriction 10 pm-5 am, maximum of one 15-19 year old passenger) with 50% compliance would prevent 81 deaths and 538 serious injuries. The estimated value of prevention is £273M pa. Implementing GDL in GB could save significant numbers of lives. Public health organisations have a duty to advocate for such legislation.

  19. Estimation of Polonium-210 activity in marine and terrestrial samples and computation of ingestion dose to the public in and around Kanyakumari coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Macklin Rani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The brown mussel Perna perna, an effective bioindicator species for monitoring radioactive pollution, was used to evaluate the concentration of 210Po in and around the coastal areas of Kanyakumari, a Monazite rich region. 210Po concentration in P. perna collected from ten different locations in this region exhibited values ranging between 78.09 ± 5.5 and 320.00 ± 18.1 Bq/kg (wet. Kalluvilai recorded the maximum concentration of 210Po (320.00 ± 18.1 Bq/kg, and hence further studies involving the activity of 210Po in other marine organisms and terrestrial samples were carried out from this site. The annual intake of 210Po by the population residing in this location via dietary sources was estimated. Similarly, the total annual committed effective dose to the public was found to be 2.24 mSv/year. The results obtained were compared to the values reported by earlier studies in India and also in other countries.

  20. Self-care Decontamination within a Chemical Exposure Mass-casualty Incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Raymond G; Pearce, Laurie D R

    2015-06-01

    Growing awareness and concern for the increasing frequency of incidents involving hazardous materials (HazMat) across a broad spectrum of contaminants from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) sources indicates a clear need to refine the capability to respond successfully to mass-casualty contamination incidents. Best results for decontamination from a chemical agent will be achieved if done within minutes following exposure, and delays in decontamination will increase the length of time a casualty is in contact with the contaminate. The findings presented in this report indicate that casualties involved in a HazMat/CBRN mass-casualty incident (MCI) in a typical community would not receive sufficient on-scene care because of operational delays that are integral to a standard HazMat/CBRN first response. This delay in response will mean that casualty care will shift away from the incident scene into already over-tasked health care facilities as casualties seek aid on their own. The self-care decontamination protocols recommended here present a viable option to ensure decontamination is completed in the field, at the incident scene, and that casualties are cared for more quickly and less traumatically than they would be otherwise. Introducing self-care decontamination procedures as a standard first response within the response community will improve the level of care significantly and provide essential, self-care decontamination to casualties. The process involves three distinct stages which should not be delayed; these are summarized by the acronym MADE: Move/Assist, Disrobe/Decontaminate, Evaluate/Evacuate.

  1. Marine Corps CASEVAC: Determining Medical Supply Needs for Long- and Short-Range Airborne Casualty Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-17

    control Long range Gatifloxacin* Infection control Long range Diazepam Sedate agitated patients Both Dexamethasone Head injuries Long range...Vial 10s 0.50 PG 4.625 0.1825 $896.07 6505015053476 Diazepam Inj 5mg/Ml 2 Ml Cartridge Unit 10s 0.02 PG 0.011 0.0024 $0.47 6505001487177...0.0612 0.02448 $0.86 8520013535671 Skin Cleanser 60pct Alcohol No Rinsing 0.08 PG 0.72 0.04 $3.07 6515015096866 Sling, Pelvic Fracture Stabilizer 1s

  2. Projections of Battlefield Medical Casualties Among U. S. Marine Forces for Various Theaters of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    rate WKIA - Weighted KIA rate %ADM w Percentage of patient presentations admitted to treament facility DAYS - Mmndays no combat w No combat intensity...Urban 0.50 Weather Factors 1. Dry, sunshine, extreme heat 0,8 2. Dry, sunshine, temperate 1.0 3. Dry, sunshine, extreme cold 0.7 4. Dry, overcast...extreme heat 0.9 5, Dry, overcast, temperate 1,0 6. Dry, overcast, extreme cold 0.6 7. Wet, light, extreme heat 0.7 8. Wet, light, temperate 0.7 9. Wet

  3. The Regional Marine Science Project of the Carteret County, North Carolina, Public Schools. Experiments in the Use of Field Ecology as an Approach to Understanding Coastal Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Will

    The development of the Regional Marine Science Project in Carteret County, North Carolina, is portrayed in this booklet. Established with Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title III funds in 1966, the project has evolved from one high school course in marine ecology to numerous courses and activities at all levels, primary through…

  4. RFID based patient registration in mass casualty incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestler, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In MCIs (mass casualty incidents the EMC (emergency medical chief has to gain an overview on all patients at the scene. When using paper based patient tags the patient-related information remains at the patients themselves and the information relay is complex. We propose a mobile, RFID based solution, which makes the local patient-related information available to all relief workers at the scene. As a consequence all processes in an MCI are more transparent and the resulting medication and transport of the injured is more efficient. The introduction of RFID enhanced patient tags leads to various usability challenges which are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, three different implementations show, how these challenges can be solved in the future. These solutions have been evaluated in a disaster control exercise in order to get an impression of the practical suitability of the proposed solutions. The future introduction of RFID tags in rescue and emergency services can be based on this work.

  5. Infrared imaging-based combat casualty care system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, James E., Sr.

    1997-08-01

    A Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract was recently awarded to a start up company for the development of an infrared (IR) image based combat casualty care system. The company, Medical Thermal Diagnostics, or MTD, is developing a light weight, hands free, energy efficient uncooled IR imaging system based upon a Texas Instruments design which will allow emergency medical treatment of wounded soldiers in complete darkness without any type of light enhancement equipment. The principal investigator for this effort, Dr. Gene Luther, DVM, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, will conduct the development and testing of this system with support from Thermalscan, Inc., a nondestructive testing company experienced in IR thermography applications. Initial research has been done with surgery on a cat for feasibility of the concept as well as forensic research on pigs as a close representation of human physiology to determine time of death. Further such studies will be done later as well as trauma studies. IR images of trauma injuries will be acquired by imaging emergency room patients to create an archive of emergency medical situations seen with an infrared imaging camera. This archived data will then be used to develop training material for medical personnel using the system. This system has potential beyond military applications. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians could directly benefit from the capability to triage and administer medical care to trauma victims in low or no light conditions.

  6. Mass Casualty Incident Response and Aeromedical Evacuation in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills, Christopher N

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is one of the most remote regions on Earth. Mass casualty incident (MCI responses in Antarctica are prone to complications from multiple environmental and operational challenges. This review of the current status of MCI risks and response strategies for Antarctica focuses on aeromedical evacuation, a critical component of many possible MCI scenarios. Extreme cold and weather, a lack of medical resources and a multitude of disparate international bases all exert unique demands on MCI response planning. Increasing cruise ship traffic is also escalating the risk of MCI occurrence. To be successful, MCI response must be well coordinated and undertaken by trained rescuers, especially in the setting of Antarctica. Helicopter rescue or aeromedical evacuation of victims to off-continent facilities may be necessary. Currently, military forces have the greatest capacity for mass air evacuation. Specific risks that are likely to occur include structure collapses, vehicle incapacitations, vehicle crashes and fires. All of these events pose concomitant risks of hypothermia among both victims and rescuers. Antarctica’s unique environment requires flexible yet robust MCI response planning among the many entities in operation on the continent. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:37-42.

  7. Nuclear and radiological risk: contaminated mass casualties in the hospital; Risque nucleaire et radiologique: l'afflux massif de victimes contaminees a l'hopital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telion, C.; Lejay, M.; Carli, P. [Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, SAMU de Paris et DAR, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-08-15

    The basic scenario for the medical response organization is the explosion of the dirty bomb in public places spreading radioactive material and contaminating casualties. The French plan gives precise directions for the organization of the emergency room and the simple protective measures for medical staff and equipment to avoid dissemination and contamination into the hospital. Decontamination consists of the undressing of the victims followed by showering. The detection of the contamination can limit the time-consuming unnecessary decontamination procedure and the radioactive waste. Medical and paramedical staff is trained to wear protective disposal paper suits and to direct the procedure of decontamination. (author)

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. ..... Gössling S (2003) The political ecology of tourism in Zan-.

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an ... are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ecology, ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues.

  10. [Current state of medical care of polytrauma and mass casualty incidents in Germany. Are we well-prepared?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodauf, L; Heßing, K; Hoffmann, R; Friemert, B

    2015-10-01

    The white paper on the medical care of the severely injured published in 2006 is a collection of proposals and recommendations concerning structure, organization and equipment for the medical care of severely injured patients. Since its publication 50 networks ( http://www.dgu-traumanetzwerk.de/index ) have been established as part of the trauma network. This and the trauma register have helped to continuously improve the medical care of severely injured patients since 1993 [26]. Numerous studies have documented the progress made in measures required by the trauma network [4, 6]. For example, the mortality rate of severely injured patients has dropped from 25 % to approximately 10 % in the past 15 years. From the register and network data it is difficult to tell how each of these measures is implemented in the participating hospitals, who provides medical treatment to patients when, and how medical care is organized in detail. This is why a survey on medical care for polytrauma and in mass casualty situations was conducted among medical directors in German surgical hospitals who are members of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU). Thanks to the 211 participants (most of whom specialize in orthopedic and trauma surgery) a detailed description of how medical treatment is currently organized and performed could be acquired. The survey showed that care of patients with polytrauma (i.e. medical treatment and management) is important irrespective of the level of training of physicians and of the level of patient treatment in hospitals. The central role of traumatologists was emphasized not only in terms of actual treatment but also as an administrator for organizational and management matters. Almost all hospitals have plans for a mass casualty situation; however, the levels of preparedness show considerable variation. A highly critical view is taken of the new surgical specialists with respect to interdisciplinary and comprehensive emergency medical treatment

  11. Policies for managing emergency medical services in mass casualty incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adini, B; Bodas, M; Nilsson, H; Peleg, K

    2017-09-01

    Diverse decision-making is needed in managing mass casualty incidents (MCIs), by emergency medical services (EMS). The aim of the study was to review consensus among international experts concerning policies of EMS management during MCIs. Applicability of 21 EMS policies was tested through a 2-cycle modified e-Delphi process, in which 38 multi-disciplinary experts from 10 countries participated. Threshold for approving proposed solutions was defined as consensus of >80%. Policies that did not achieve the targeted consensus were reviewed to detect variability according to respondents' origin country. 16 policies were endorsed in the first cycle including collaboration between ambulance service providers; implementing a unified mode of operation; preparing criteria for ground versus aerial evacuation; and, developing support systems for caregivers exposed to violence. An additional policy which proposed that senior EMS officers should not necessarily act as on-site MCI commanders was endorsed in the second cycle. Demographic breakdown of views concerning non-consensual policies revealed differences according to countries of origin. Assigning ambulances to off-duty team members was highly endorsed by experts from Israel and South Africa and strongly rejected by European respondents. Avoiding entry to risk areas until declared safe was endorsed by European, Asian and Oceanic experts, but rejected by Israeli, South African and North American experts. Despite uniqueness of countries and EMS agencies, solutions to most dilemmas were applicable to all organizations, regardless of location or affiliation. Cultural diversity was found concerning readiness to implement military-civilian collaboration in MCIs and a rigid separation between work-leisure responsibilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-02

    include the Iranian Hostage Rescue Mission; Lebanon Peacekeeping; Urgent Fury in Grenada; Just Cause in Panama; Desert Shield and Desert Storm; Restore...Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps Total Iranian Hostage Rescue Mission April 25, 1980 Nonhostilea 0 0 5 3 8 Lebanon Peacekeeping August 25

  13. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  14. Improving combat casualty care and field medicine: focus on the military medic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, R A

    1997-04-01

    As military medicine in general copes with a rapidly changing world environment, so too must the backbone of the medical force, the enlisted medic. To meet these challenges, the training and utilization of military medics must match new and different missions. This paper will explore innovative approaches to training and preparing for combat casualty care and field medicine. The focus will fall on the education, evaluation, operations, patient-care skills, equipment, and telemedicine potential of the military medic. Future directions for study and development will be suggested. Exploration of the following may improve the capability of the military medic: (1) improved training to include advanced-level skills and interventions for combat casualty care and broader exposure to the casualties expected in operations other than war; (2) annual educational and periodic proficiency evaluation requirements; (3) strengthened medical control at all echelons; and (4) carefully selected additional equipment and technologies to enhance medical capabilities.

  15. Public Alerts for Hyper-Hazard Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, G.

    2011-12-01

    Hyper-hazard events pose an exceptional risk to threatened populations around the world. Because of the potentially grave number of casualties, special procedures need to be enacted to alert the public. This paper will consider the decision analysis associated with the provision of public alerts, and what training measures are required. Special focus will be on the issue of false alarms, and the social pyschology of population response to hazard warnings.

  16. Preface to: Special issue on Marine mycology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    , Bremerhaven, Germany (presently known as Alfred Wegner Institute for Marine and Polar Research). The contributions of the second symposium resulted in publication of 2 volumes in 1974 on Marine Mycology from Bremerhaven, Germany. The contributions from... the fourth symposium were published in The Biology of Marine Fungi by the late S.T.Moss from the Portsmouth Polytechnic in 1986. Interestingly, the books so far were exclusively devoted to true or obligate marine fungi but several papers describing...

  17. Timing and Location of Blood Product Transfusion and Outcomes in Massively Transfused Combat Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    blood components in a 1:1:1 ratio of platelets:fresh frozen plasma:red blood cells (RBCs) is based on analyses of massive transfusion (MT, Q10 RBC units in 24 hours). These 24-hour analyses are weakened by survival bias and do not describe the timing and location of transfusions. Mortality outcomes associated with early (first 6 hours) resuscitation incorporating platelets, for combat casualties requiring MT, have not been reported. METHODS: We analyzed records for 8,618 casualties treated at the United States military hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, between January 2004 and

  18. Development and organization for casualty management on a 1,000-bed hospital ship in the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, M G; Harviel, J D; Stafford, P W; Blankenship, C; Bosse, M J; Timberlake, G A; McSwain, N E

    1992-04-01

    A 1,000-bed hospital ship designed for trauma patients was deployed to the Middle East with the objectives of preparing for large numbers of casualties resulting from Operation Desert Storm from conventional, chemical, and biological weapons. Plans for receipt and decontamination of casualties, triage, and optimal utilization of the 1,000-bed facility were developed. Mass casualty drills were conducted, involving all aspects of patient care from the flight deck to the wards. Trauma and critical care registries were developed to collect casualty data that could then be analyzed for specific military purposes and compared with current civilian registries. Attempts were made to identify the advances in shock resuscitation, systems management, and operative treatment from the civilian community that could be applied to care of combat casualties. Difficulties with accomplishing these objectives included limited trauma experience and supplies and poorly defined medical regulating and evacuation policies. The development of these programs, as well as the unique difficulties encountered, are discussed.

  19. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew D.; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...... evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics....

  20. The issues of public participation in the management of Ma' an Archipelago special marine reserves%马鞍列岛海洋特别保护区管理的公共参与问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 唐议

    2012-01-01

    从公共参与的内涵着手介绍其在海洋特别保护区管理中的作用,以马鞍列岛海洋特别保护区管理中的公共参与为研究对象,从资源保护和管理力度两个方面分析了保护区引入公共参与的背景,通过介绍渔民参与保护区管理的方式,着重分析了公共参与的积极性、法律问题以及实施公共参与管理的问题。提出了针对这些问题的解决建议:增强公共参与的意识;健全保护区公共参与的法律制度;赋予公共参与者一定的管理权利;协调公共参与管理的实施问题。研究亮点:在我国,公共参与海洋保护区的管理是海洋保护区管理的新问题,在理论研究方面存在很多空白。鉴于理论研究给实践提供的技术支撑,从公共参与的角度探讨海洋特别保护区的管理,结合案例分析,考察这种管理方式存在的问题,为更好实施海洋特别保护区管理提供理论依据。%This paper introduces the effect of public participation in special marine reserves management from the connotation of public participation, and uses the public participation in Ma' an Archipelago special marine reserves management as the research object. From both resources protection and management strength the author analyzes the background of introducing the public participation in the reserves, then focuses on the enthusiasm and legal issues of the public participation and the problems of enforcing the public participation by introducing the methods of fishermen participating in reserves management. The article puts forward solutions to these problems: Enhancing consciousness of public participation; Improving the law of public participation in reserves; Giving the participants certain rights of management; Coordinating the problems of enforcing public participation in the management.

  1. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  2. Marine cosmeceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been expressed in the cosmetic industry regarding marine-derived cosmetic active ingredients due to their numerous beneficial effects on human skin health. Bioactive substances derived from marine resources have diverse functional roles as natural skin care agents, and these properties can be applied to the development of novel cosmetics as well as nutricosmetics (from edible seaweeds and edible marine animals). This contribution focuses on marine-derived cosmeceutical active ingredients and presents an overview of their health beneficial effects on human skin.

  3. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in 1976...

  4. Iraq Casualties: U.S. Military Forces and Iraqi Civilians, Police, and Security Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    Violence-Related Mortality in Iraq from 2002 to 2006,” The New England Journal of Medicine , January 31, 2008, pp. 484-492. Iraq Casualties: U.S...Violence-Related Mortality in Iraq from 2002 to 2006,” The New England Journal of Medicine , January 31, 2008, pp. 484-492. k. Gilbert Burnham, Riyadh

  5. 77 FR 75263 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; ULLICO Casualty Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Supplement No. 3 to the Treasury Department Circular 570; 2012 Revision, published July 2, 2012, at 77 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; ULLICO Casualty Company AGENCY... Company (NAIC 37893) under 31 U.S.C. 9305 to qualify as an acceptable surety on Federal bonds...

  6. Combat Casualties Undergoing Lifesaving Interventions Have Decreased Heart Rate Complexity at Multiple Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    and cardioversion. 2.2. Data acquisition and analysis Upon admission to the ED, casualties were placed on a PIC 50 vital signs monitor (Welch...patient data Variable Age (y) Sex (male) Blunt or explosive mechanism HR (beats/ min) SAP (mm Hg) GCSIOtal GCSmo10r LSI (n = 12) 23 ± 15

  7. CHILD CASUALTIES BEFORE AND AFTER ENACTMENT OF CHILD RESTRAINT SEATS (CRS LEGISLATION IN JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. IWASE

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Road Traffic Law Article 17-3-4 of April 2000 specifies the compulsory requirement for child safety seats in Japan. The objectives of this preliminary evaluation were to measure the effectiveness, benefits and usage of safety seats for child passengers aged 0–5 years by analyzing the child casualty data for the period of 1991–2002. Two statistical methods were used to quantify time trends (interrupted time series analysis, population based casualty rates estimations of changes in child casualty incidence after implementation of compulsory child restraint seats law. Despite overall increases in the use of child restraint seats (as observed by different national surveys, casualties (fatalities and injuries among restrained children have increased. Given that exposure to crash environments is increasing, traffic safety advocates need to be aware of the importance of child restraints as a means of reducing the likelihood of injury. It is necessary to implement an extensive community-based child safety seat campaign to disseminate the information on appropriate restraint use. Further prevention of motor vehicle occupant injuries to children will require the combined approaches of education, incentives for safe human behavior, legislation/enforcement, and environmental changes.

  8. Eating Order: A 13-Week Trust Model Class for Dieting Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth G.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic dieting distorts eating behaviors and causes weight escalation. Desperation about losing weight results in pursuit of extreme weight loss measures. Instead of offering yet another diet, nutrition educators can teach chronic dieters (dieting casualties) to develop eating competence. Eating Order, a 13-week class for chronic dieters based on…

  9. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  10. Investigating risk factors of traffic casualties at private highway-railroad grade crossings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Kirolos

    2016-10-01

    Private highway-railroad grade crossings (HRGCs) are intersections of highways and railroads on roadways that are not maintained by a public authority. Since no public authority maintains private HRGCs, fatal and injury crashes at these locations are of concern. However, no study has been conducted at private HRGCs to identify the safety issues that might exist and how to alleviate them. This study identifies the significant predictors of traffic casualties (including both injuries and fatalities) at private HRGCs in the U.S. using six years of nationwide crashes from 2009 to 2014. Two levels of injury severity were considered, injury (including fatalities and injuries) and no injury. The study investigates multiple predictors, e.g., temporal crash characteristics, geometry, railroad, traffic, vehicle, and environment. The study applies both the mixed logit and binary logit models. The mixed logit model was found to outperform the binary logit model. The mixed logit model revealed that drivers who did not stop, railroad equipment that struck highway users, higher train speeds, non-presence of advance warning signs, concrete road surface type, and cloudy weather were associated with an increase in injuries and fatalities. For example, a one-mile-per-hour higher train speed increases the probability of fatality by 22%. On the contrary, male drivers, PM peak periods, and presence of warning devices at both approaches were associated with a fatality reduction. Potential strategies are recommended to alleviate injuries and fatalities at private HRGCs.

  11. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  12. Job Stress and Coping in Army Casualty Operations Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-14

    organizations in the United States, including policemen ( Maslach and Jackson , 1979), general human services (Cherniss, 1980), child protective workers...Harrison, 1980), public service -workers ( Maslach , 1982), doctors (Mawardi, 1983), public contact workers ( Maslach and Jackson , 1984), female human...Hall. Maslach , C. & Jackson , S.E. (1979). Burned-out cops and their families. Psychology T y, 1Z, 59-62. ----------------------- (1984, Fall). Patterns

  13. Marine spatial planning in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Agapiou, Athos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Evagorou, Evagoras; Cuca, Branka; Papoutsa, Christiana; Nisantzi, Argyro; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Soulis, George; Xagoraris, Zafiris; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Aliouris, Kyriacos; Ioannou, Nicolas; Pavlogeorgatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), which is in concept similar to land-use planning, is a public process by which the relevant Member State's authorities analyse and organise human activities in marine areas to achieve ecological, economic and social objectives. MSP aims to promote sustainable growth of maritime economies, sustainable development of marine areas and sustainable use of marine resources. This paper highlights the importance of MSP and provides basic outcomes of the main European marine development. The already successful MSP plans can provide useful feedback and guidelines for other countries that are in the process of implementation of an integrated MSP, such as Cyprus. This paper presents part of the MSP project, of which 80% funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and 20% from national contribution. An overview of the project is presented, including data acquisition, methodology and preliminary results for the implementation of MSP in Cyprus.

  14. Regional variation in critical care evacuation needs for children after a mass casualty incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Robert K

    2012-06-01

    To determine the ability of five New York statewide regions to accommodate 30 children needing critical care after a hypothetical mass casualty incident (MCI) and the duration to complete an evacuation to facilities in other regions if the surge exceeded local capacity. A quantitative model evaluated pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) vacancies for MCI patients, based on data on existing resources, historical average occupancy, and evidence on early discharges and transfers in a public health emergency. Evacuation of patients exceeding local capacity to the nearest PICU center with vacancies was modeled in discrete event chronological simulations for three scenarios in each region: pediatric critical care transport teams were considered to originate from other PICU hospitals statewide, using (1) ground ambulances or (2) helicopters, and (3) noncritical care teams were considered to originate from the local MCI region using ground ambulances. Chronology of key events was modeled. Across five regions, the number of children needing evacuation would vary from 0 to 23. The New York City (NYC) metropolitan area could accommodate all patients. The region closest to NYC could evacuate all excess patients to PICU hospitals in NYC within 12 hours using statewide critical care teams traveling by ground ambulance. Helicopters and local noncritical care teams would not shorten the evacuation. For other statewide regions, evacuation of excess patients by statewide critical care teams traveling by ground ambulance would require up to nearly 26 hours. Helicopter transport would reduce evacuation time by 40%-44%, while local noncritical care teams traveling by ground would reduce evacuation time by 16%-34%. The present study provides a quantitative, evidence-based approach to estimate regional pediatric critical care evacuation needs after an MCI. Large metropolitan areas with many PICU beds would be better able to accommodate patients in a local MCI, and would serve as a

  15. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science features state-of-the-art review articles and short communications. ... The last couple of years have been a time of change for the Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine ...... planning under future sea level predictions, coastal sci-.

  16. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high .... great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda), and the giant ...... Smale MJ, Watson G, Hecht T (1995) Otolith atlas of.

  17. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to optimize nucleic acid extraction protocols from marine gastropods, present an original .... to altering the balance between the coral host and its ... ber of agents, namely, bacteria, viruses, protozoa or .... Normally, WP starts at the base of the.

  18. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. The journal .... 48% maize flour, 3% cassava flour, 3% vitamins (Premix for broilers) ..... resulting in inappropriate dietary energy utiliza-.

  19. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... dissemination of knowledge generated through research activities at the ... Science (WIOJMS), as a special issue entitled “Coral reefs of Mauritius in a .... tion and damage.

  20. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. In addition ... impact on recreational activities, natural resources ..... area affects dispersion of nutrients in the waters off .... Bell P (1992) Eutrophication and coral reefs: some exam-.

  1. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global .... scientific understanding for sustainable use and management of marine resources in a globally chang- .... (2005) Effects of geography, taxa, water flow, and.

  2. Marine geology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Shankar, R.

    Significant scientific contributions in Marine Geology in India during the Nineties have been highlighted in this paper. Sediment trap data collected in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal have provided much understanding about annual sediment fluxes...

  3. The Casualties of the Twenty-First-Century Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses academic freedom that is currently under threat at many public two-year schools, which serve almost one-half of the nation's first-year college students. The growing reliance on part-time faculty exacerbates the problem, with many adjuncts feeling muzzled for fear of losing their jobs. The problem of academic freedom at…

  4. Evaluation of Neurophysiologic and Systematic Changes during Aeromedical Evacuation and en Route Care of Combat Casualties in a Swine Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    and en Route Care of Combat Casualties in a Swine Polytrauma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard McCarron, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry M...Aeromedical Evacuation and en Route Care of Combat Casualties in a Swine Polytrauma Award Number: W81XWH-13-2-0022, 3rd Annual Report JAN2016 3...models of neurotrauma and polytrauma . We plan to investigate the effects of aero-medical evacuation on neurophysiology and lung function in swine

  5. Evaluation of Neurophysiologic and Systematic Changes during Aeromedical Evacuation and en Route Care of Combat Casualties in a Swine Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Combat Casualties in a Swine Polytrauma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard McCarron, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry M. Jackson Foundation Bethesda...MD 20817-1834 REPORT DATE: February 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick...Aeromedical Evacuation and en Route Care of Combat Casualties in a Swine Polytrauma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-2-0022 6. AUTHOR(S) Richard M. McCarron

  6. Mass Casualty Incidents in the Underground Mining Industry: Applying the Haddon Matrix on an Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Karl Gunnar; Angrén, John; Björnstig, Ulf; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2017-06-08

    Underground mining is associated with obvious risks that can lead to mass casualty incidents. Information about such incidents was analyzed in an integrated literature review. A literature search (1980-2015) identified 564 modern-era underground mining reports from countries sharing similar occupational health legislation. These reports were condensed to 31 reports after consideration of quality grading and appropriateness to the aim. The Haddon matrix was used for structure, separating human factors from technical and environmental details, and timing. Most of the reports were descriptive regarding injury-creating technical and environmental factors. The influence of rock characteristics was an important pre-event environmental factor. The organic nature of coal adds risks not shared in hard-rock mines. A sequence of mechanisms is commonly described, often initiated by a human factor in interaction with technology and step-wise escalation to involve environmental circumstances. Socioeconomic factors introduce heterogeneity. In the Haddon matrix, emergency medical services are mainly a post-event environmental issue, which were not well described in the available literature. The US Quecreek Coal Mine incident of 2002 stands out as a well-planned rescue mission. Evaluation of the preparedness to handle underground mining incidents deserves further scientific attention. Preparedness must include the medical aspects of rescue operations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 9).

  7. Bushfire disaster burn casualty management: the Australian "Black Saturday" bushfire experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifman, Marc; Ek, Edmund W; Menezes, Hana; Rozen, Warren M; Whitaker, Iain S; Cleland, Heather J

    2011-11-01

    Mass burn disasters are among the most difficult disasters to manage, with major burns requiring complex management in a multidisciplinary setting and specialist burns services having limited capacity to deal with large numbers of complex patients. There is a paucity of literature addressing health system responses to mass burn disasters resulting from wildfires, with the events of the "Black Saturday" disaster in the state of Victoria, Australia, able to provide a unique opportunity to draw lessons and increase awareness of key management issues arising in mass burn casualty disasters. The event comprised the worst natural disaster in the state's history and one of the worst wildfire disasters in world history, claiming 173 lives and costing more than AUD 4 billion. This article draws on the national burns disaster plan instituted, Australian Mass Casualty Burn Disaster Plan (AUSBURNPLAN), and details the management of mass burn cases through a systems-based perspective.

  8. Decontamination of multiple casualties who are chemically contaminated: a challenge for acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Simon F J; Chilcott, Rob P; Wilson, James C; Kamanyire, Robie; Baker, David J; Hallett, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Patients who have been contaminated by chemical compounds present a number of difficulties to emergency departments, in particular, the risk of secondary contamination of healthcare staff and facilities. The Department of Health in the United Kingdom has provided equipment to decontaminate chemically contaminated casualties who present at emergency departments. The capacity of this equipment is limited, and although both the ambulance and fire services have equipment to cope with mass casualties at the scene of a chemical incident, there is still the possibility that acute hospitals will be overwhelmed by large numbers of self-presenting patients. The risks and potential consequences of this gap in resilience are discussed and a number of possible practical solutions are proposed.

  9. Tactical Combat Casualty Care 2007: Evolving Concepts and Battlefield Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    the Prehospital Trauma Life Support ( PHTLS ) Manual. The fourth edition of this manual, published in 1999, contained for the first time a chapter on...Medical Readiness Training Institute in San Antonio, Texas. The recommendations contained in the PHTLS Manual carry the endorsement of the American...information to continually update the TCCC guidelines on a cycle matched to the publication of the PHTLS Manual. The original TCCC guidelines published

  10. Forecasting The Pricing Kernel of IBNR Claims Development In Property-Casualty Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Cadogan, Godfrey

    2010-01-01

    A new method of forecasting the pricing kernel, i.e., stochastic claim inflation or link ratio function, of incurred but not reported (IBNR) claims (in property casualty insurance) from residuals in a dynamic claims forecast model is presented. We employ a pseudo Kalman filter approach by using claims risk exposure estimates to reconstruct innovations in stochastic claims development. Whereupon we find that the pricing kernel forecast is a product measure of the innovations. We show how these...

  11. The Impacts of Air Temperature on Accidental Casualties in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pan; Wang, Shigong; Fan, Xingang; Li, Tanshi

    2016-01-01

    Emergency room (ER) visits for accidental casualties, according to the International Classification of Deceases 10th Revision Chapters 19 and 20, include injury, poisoning, and external causes (IPEC). Annual distribution of 187,008 ER visits that took place between 2009 and 2011 in Beijing, China displayed regularity rather than random characteristics. The annual cycle from the Fourier series fitting of the number of ER visits was found to explain 63.2% of its total variance. In this study, the possible effect and regulation of meteorological conditions on these ER visits are investigated through the use of correlation analysis, as well as statistical modeling by using the Distributed Lag Non-linear Model and Generalized Additive Model. Correlation analysis indicated that meteorological variables that positively correlated with temperature have a positive relationship with the number of ER visits, and vice versa. The temperature metrics of maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures were found to have similar overall impacts, including both the direct impact on human mental/physical conditions and indirect impact on human behavior. The lag analysis indicated that the overall impacts of temperatures higher than the 50th percentile on ER visits occur immediately, whereas low temperatures show protective effects in the first few days. Accidental casualties happen more frequently on warm days when the mean temperature is higher than 14 °C than on cold days. Mean temperatures of around 26 °C result in the greatest possibility of ER visits for accidental casualties. In addition, males were found to face a higher risk of accidental casualties than females at high temperatures. Therefore, the IPEC-classified ER visits are not pure accidents; instead, they are associated closely with meteorological conditions, especially temperature. PMID:27827842

  12. The Impacts of Air Temperature on Accidental Casualties in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Emergency room (ER visits for accidental casualties, according to the International Classification of Deceases 10th Revision Chapters 19 and 20, include injury, poisoning, and external causes (IPEC. Annual distribution of 187,008 ER visits that took place between 2009 and 2011 in Beijing, China displayed regularity rather than random characteristics. The annual cycle from the Fourier series fitting of the number of ER visits was found to explain 63.2% of its total variance. In this study, the possible effect and regulation of meteorological conditions on these ER visits are investigated through the use of correlation analysis, as well as statistical modeling by using the Distributed Lag Non-linear Model and Generalized Additive Model. Correlation analysis indicated that meteorological variables that positively correlated with temperature have a positive relationship with the number of ER visits, and vice versa. The temperature metrics of maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures were found to have similar overall impacts, including both the direct impact on human mental/physical conditions and indirect impact on human behavior. The lag analysis indicated that the overall impacts of temperatures higher than the 50th percentile on ER visits occur immediately, whereas low temperatures show protective effects in the first few days. Accidental casualties happen more frequently on warm days when the mean temperature is higher than 14 °C than on cold days. Mean temperatures of around 26 °C result in the greatest possibility of ER visits for accidental casualties. In addition, males were found to face a higher risk of accidental casualties than females at high temperatures. Therefore, the IPEC-classified ER visits are not pure accidents; instead, they are associated closely with meteorological conditions, especially temperature.

  13. The Impact of 10 Years of War on Combat Casualty Care Research: A Citation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    METHODS The Thompson Reuters Web of Science was queried in October 2011 for articles published between 2001 and 2011, the first 10 years of the current...within Web of Science , we limited the selected articles to those within the fol- lowing subject areas of highest relevance to combat casualty care...accessed using the Web of Science database to obtain information about the number of article citations. A final review of the top 50 most frequently

  14. Retrospection. Uranium mining Wismut und the legal casualty insurance; Erinnerungen. Uranerzbergbau Wismut und die gesetzliche Unfallversicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Joachim [Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (DGUV), Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Although the Wismut uranium mining company in the former DDR had 600.000 employees, the company was not mentioned in the contract on the German reunification. The expenses for the health consequences imposed manifold challenges to the legal casualty insurance. The question of responsibility, the conservation, digitalization and evaluation of data concerning the personnel and health information, partially handwritten is a tremendous amount of work.

  15. Frequency and Relevance of Acute Peritraumatic Pulmonary Thrombus Diagnosed by Computed Tomographic Imaging in Combat Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    determine the prevalence of and risk factors for the diagnosis of APPT in casualties admitted to Bastion Hospital, Afghanistan. APPT imaging characteristics...were collected, and demographics, injury severity and mechanism, and risk factors were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to...segmental, and 15% (n = 10) were subsegmental. Forty-seven percent (n = 31) had bilateral APPT. Logistic regression found presence of deep venous thrombosis

  16. Death, the Military and Society: Casualties and Civil-Military Relations in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Riesenberger, Dieter (Eds.) (1992). Lernen aus dem Krieg? Deutsche Nachkriegszeiten 1918 und 1945. Munich: C. H. Beck. Pattison, E. Mansell (Ed...closely examined al- dies als ’Casualty-Faktor’ bezeichnet. FUr die though, regrettably, the death of a German zivil-militdrischen Beziehungen in Deutsch ...wurden their death has produced among the politi- daher anhand von sechs Beispielen, bei de- cians and high-ranking soldiers responsible nen deutsche

  17. Derivation of Candidates for the Combat Casualty Critical Care (C4) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    retrospectively analyzed 558 fatality records of casualties that died of wounds after admission to a military treatment facility judged that 51.4...hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets at admission to and discharge from the military treatment facility. This hin- ders the ability to use the registry...chronic kidney disease, peripheral vascular occlusive disease Use of antihypertensive medications TBSA burned Full thickness TBSA Fluid resuscitation

  18. A Joint Force Medical Command is Required to Fix Combat Casualty Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-05

    all-volunteer military and similar programs evolved to train the majority of medical specialists the military required ranging from medics to nurse ...surgery, nursing , pharmacy, radiology and laboratory services, and also have a basic understanding of what a hospital does when it is established...A Joint Force Medical Command is Required to Fix Combat Casualty Care by Colonel Shawn C. Nessen United States Army Pr og ra

  19. United States Department of Defense Research in Robotic Unmanned Systems for Combat Casualty Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    first responder combat casualty care, and patient evacuation under hostile fire have compounded combat losses throughout history. Force protection of military first responders is complicated by current international and coalition troop deployments for peacekeeping operations, counter terrorism, and humanitarian assistance missions that involve highly visible, politically sensitive low intensity combat in urban terrain. The United States Department of Defense (DoD) has significantly invested in autonomous vehicles, and other robots to support its Future Force. By leveraging

  20. Operationalizing Civilian Protection in Mali: The Case for a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla B. Keenan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This practice note details an emerging best practice of civilian harm mitigation in armed conflict: namely, the creation of civilian casualty tracking, analysis and response processes by a warring party or peace operation force. It asserts that in Iraq, Afghanistan and soon Somalia, these processes to better understand civilian harm and address consequences have positively shaped mission tactics, training, and overall operations. In both Iraq and Afghanistan, tracking and analysis has lead to a marked decrease in civilian casualties and facilitated the making of amends for any civilian losses. The paper argues that for warring parties to achieve their mission—particularly one with a protection of civilians mandate as with the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA—they must fully understand the impact of their actions on the civilian population, positive or negative. For this reason, a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell should be created for MINUSMA to improve its ability mitigate risk to civilians as required by its Security Council mandate.

  1. Investigating the Relationship Between Drone Warfare and Civilian Casualties in Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ann Rogers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, better known as drones, are increasingly touted as ‘humanitarian’ weapons that contribute positively to fighting just wars and saving innocent lives. At the same time, civilian casualties have become the most visible and criticized aspect of drone warfare. It is argued here that drones contribute to civilian casualties not in spite of, but because of, their unique attributes. They greatly extend war across time and space, pulling more potential threats and targets into play over long periods, and because they are low-risk and highly accurate, they are more likely to be used. The assumption that drones save lives obscures a new turn in strategic thinking that sees states such as Israel and the US rely on large numbers of small, highly discriminating attacks applied over time to achieve their objectives. This examination of Israel’s 2014 war in Gaza argues that civilian casualties are not an unexpected or unintended consequence of drone warfare, but an entirely predictable outcome.

  2. Current concepts in fluid resuscitation for prehospital care of combat casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubick, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Historically, hemorrhage accounts for the primary cause of death on the battlefield in conventional warfare. In addition, hemorrhage was associated with 85% of potentially survivable deaths in the current conflicts, approximately two-thirds of which were from noncompressible injuries. Future combat casualty care strategies suggest the likelihood of long transport times or significant time delays in evacuation of casualties. In addition, there are logistical limitations to providing large volumes of resuscitation fluid far-forward, and current guidelines do not recommend infusing large volumes of fluid until bleeding is controlled. Since the medic has few options for treating noncompressible injuries short of infusing fluid to maintain a blood pressure, the concept of damage control resuscitation was developed to promote hemostatic resuscitation. Damage control resuscitation recommends limiting the amount of crystalloids or colloids infused and using plasma and other blood products in more optimal ratios for the treatment of severe hemorrhage to improve battlefield survival and to reduce or prevent early and late deleterious sequelae. Taken together, these efforts have important implications towards the development of optimal fluid resuscitation strategies for stabilization of the combat casualty.

  3. [NATO international advanced course on best way of training for mass casualty situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, L; Michaelson, M

    2010-07-01

    NATO Advanced Training Course on Best Way of Training for Mass Casualty Situations was held in Haifa, Israel in November 16-18, 2009. In total, 22 participants from 8 countries of the Partnership for Peace and Mediterranean Dialogue Programmes attended the course. The participants, divided within three groups, discussed and practised the training methods for the preshospital aspect, the hospital aspect and the non-conventional aspect of the mass casualty management. An international team of experts, among others, used following teaching methods: general lectures, guided discussions, utilization of advanced multimedia tools, tabletop drills, and large scale drill as training tools. The trainees also learned about medical and clinical simulation as a training tool, and subsequently practiced it. A mass casualty drill was held in Rambam Health Care Campus at the end of the Course. The trainees of the course participated as observers and reviewers in the drill, and debriefed it together with Rambam medical staff. Realisation of the successful course was made possible by utilizing a grant of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme.

  4. Dispersion of Sound in Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Marine Geology , 209, 147-172, (2004). Jiang, Y. and N.R. Chapman. The Impact of Ocean Sound Speed Variability on the Uncertainty of Geoacoustic...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Dispersion of Sound in Marine Sediments N. Ross...our understanding of the interaction of sound with the ocean bottom is the frequency dependence of sound speed and attenuation in marine sediments

  5. Marine Corps expeditionary rifle platoon energy burden

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 2009, the Commandant of the Marine Corps declared energy a top priority and created the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Expeditionary Energy Office to develop an energy strategy to reduce and optimize energy usage throughout the Marine Corps. This thesis examines the operational tasks and capabilities that drive the current USMC rifle platoon’s energy burdens using an Expeditionary Warrior 2012 war-game scenario. The primary conclusion of ...

  6. Distribution and diversity of marine natural products from Indonesian marine organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MasteriaYunovilsa Putra; Tutik Murniasih

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution and diversity of species and isolated molecules, according to their structure classes, from Indonesian marine organisms. Methods: This study was performed by using the SciFinder® database, MarinLit and references from relevant articles from 1980 to 2014 which collected all the scientific publications dealing with the isolation of chemical compounds from Indonesian marine macroorganisms and microorganisms. Results: The discovery of novel compounds from Indonesian marine organisms gave us a result of a total of 78 papers. Alkaloids, terpenoids and peptides (84, 67 and 15 new compounds, respectively) represented the three main chemical classes of compounds discovered from Indonesian marine organisms, and together with the other chemical classes showed a range of biological activities. Conclusions: The new marine compounds are mainly from sponges and soft corals. Alkaloids, terpenoids and peptides are the most prolific compounds isolated from Indonesian marine organisms. Most marine natural products from Indonesian organisms have been screened for anticancer or cytotoxicity activities.

  7. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  8. Civilian casualties of terror-related explosions: The impact of vascular trauma on treatment and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenberg, Eitan; Givon, Adi; Simon, Daniel; Bass, Arie; Almogy, Gidon; Peleg, Kobi

    2016-09-01

    A high prevalence (10%) of vascular trauma (VT) was previously described in terror-related trauma as compared with non-terror-related trauma (1%), in a civilian setting. No data regarding outcome of VT casualties of improvised explosive device (IED) explosions, in civilian settings, are available. The aim of the current study is to present the prognosis of civilian casualties of IED explosions with and without VT. A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from September 2000 to December 2005 who were victims of explosions were included. These patients were subdivided into patients with VT (n = 109) and non-VT (NVT) (n = 1,152). Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury, and treatment. Of 1,261 explosion casualties, there were 109 VT victims (8.6%). Patients with VT tended to be more complex, with a higher injury severity score (ISS): 17.4% with ISS 16 to 24 as compared with only 10.5%. In the group of critically injured patients (ISS, 25-75), 51.4% had VT compared with only 15.5% of the NVT patients. As such, a heavy share of hospitals' resources were used-trauma bay admission (62.4%), operating rooms (91.7%), and intensive care unit beds (55.1%). The percentage of VT patients who were admitted for more than 15 days was 2.3 times higher than that observed among the NVT patients. Lower-extremity VT injuries were the most prevalent. Although many resources are being invested in treating this group of patients, their mortality rate is approximately five times more than NVT (22.9% vs. 4.9%). Vascular trauma casualties of IED explosions are more complex and have poorer prognosis. Their higher ISS markedly increases the hospital's resource utilization, and as such, it should be taken into consideration either upon the primary evacuation from the scene or when secondary modulation is needed in order to reduce the burden of the hospitals receiving the casualties

  9. Challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland: 3. emergency and casualty slaughter certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; More, Simon J; Morton, David B; Hanlon, Alison J

    2017-01-01

    Veterinarians are faced with significant conflicts of interest when issuing certificates for the transport and slaughter of acutely injured and casualty livestock. In a recent Policy Delphi study, emergency and casualty slaughter certification was a key concern identified by veterinary professionals in Ireland. In this case study (the third in a series of three resulting from a research workshop exploring challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland; the other two case studies investigate clinical veterinary services and the on-farm use of veterinary antimicrobials), we aim to provide a value-based reflection on the constraints and opportunities for best practice in emergency and casualty slaughter certification in Ireland. Using a qualitative focus group approach, this study gathered evidence from relevant stakeholders, namely a representative from the regulatory body, local authority veterinarians with research experience in emergency slaughter, an animal welfare research scientist, official veterinarians from the competent authority, a private veterinary practitioner, and a member of a farming organisation. Results revealed a conflict between the responsibility of private veterinary practitioners (PVPs) to safeguard the welfare of acutely injured bovines on-farm and the client's commercial concerns. As a consequence, some PVPs may feel under pressure to certify, for example, an acutely injured animal for casualty slaughter instead of recommending either on-farm emergency slaughter or disposal by the knackery service. Among Official Veterinarians, there are concerns about the pressure within processing plants to accept acutely injured livestock as casualty animals. Confusion pertaining to legislation and definition of fitness to travel also contribute to these dilemmas. Conflicts of interest arise due to the gap between governance and provision to facilitate on-farm emergency slaughter of livestock. Increased availability and acceptance of on

  10. A Marine Fisheries Program for the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.

    This government publication describing the national plan for marine fisheries is divided into two parts. The first part contains a statement by the Secretary of Commerce, Elliot L. Richardson; the goals for the national marine fisheries plan; a description of the six parts of the plan; and a cost estimate for the program. The goals for the plan…

  11. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. .... Overall, the forest was composed of small trees (mean height 2.6 m; mean DBH 7.45 cm); height and DBH varied sig- nificantly when ... nerable to degradation, because the population density is high .... areas in the estuary included Xefina Grande and Xefina.

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high .... tions at global (e.g. sea temperature, hurricanes) and ..... Jameson SC (1976) Early life history of the giant clams.

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweden. Cover image: Relief model of the WIO surface that integrates land topography and ocean bathymetry. Amante and ... WIO Journal of Marine Science 14 (1 & 2) 2015 1-9 | L. J. Chauka et al. ... bar, from September 2008 to August 2010.

  14. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... dissemination of knowledge generated through research activities at the ... Science (WIOJMS), as a special issue entitled “Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate”. .... C – growth anomaly; D – brown band; E - skeletal eroding band affecting A.

  15. Marine envenomations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures.

  16. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, ... Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- .... in the region are some of the poorest in the world,.

  17. Exploring marine resources for bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Paula; DʼAuria, M Valeria; Muller, Christian D; Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Heikki; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari

    2014-09-01

    Biodiversity in the seas is only partly explored, although marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products. Through close co-operation between industrial and academic partners, it is possible to successfully collect, isolate and classify marine organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, micro- and macroalgae, cyanobacteria, and marine invertebrates from the oceans and seas globally. Extracts and purified compounds of these organisms can be studied for several therapeutically and industrially significant biological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticoagulant activities by applying a wide variety of screening tools, as well as for ion channel/receptor modulation and plant growth regulation. Chromatographic isolation of bioactive compounds will be followed by structural determination. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, as well as biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The (semi)synthetic modification of marine-based bioactive compounds produces their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as hit or lead compounds and be used to expand compound libraries based on marine natural products. The research innovations can be targeted for industrial product development in order to improve the growth and productivity of marine biotechnology. Marine research aims at a better understanding of environmentally conscious sourcing of marine biotechnology products and increased public awareness of marine biodiversity. Marine research is expected to offer novel marine-based lead compounds for industries and strengthen their product portfolios related to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, food processing, material and biosensor applications.

  18. Bibliography of marine biology in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darracott, DA

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography was sponsored by the Marine Biology Section of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). It has been attempted to include all publications which appeared before the end of 1977, either in South...

  19. 75 FR 28239 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15537

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... marine mammal public display facility in the states of Mississippi and Alabama. The receiving facility... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW51 Marine Mammals; File No. 15537 AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Institute for Marine...

  20. Effects of Disturbance on Populations of Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Effects of Disturbance on Populations of Marine Mammals ...develop transferable models of the population-level effects of anthropogenic and natural disturbances on marine mammals . Disturbances can affect the...for estimation of population-level effects of different types of disturbance on marine mammals with different life-history attributes. Examine the

  1. Enhancing social acceptance in marine governance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soma, K.; Haggett, Claire

    2015-01-01

    In this article we address social acceptance in marine governance. Public support and opposition are critical to any future developments of marine areas, and are often neglected aspects. Whilst one of the main new developments in European marine areas is the increase in sites for offshore wind,

  2. 76 FR 19976 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15537

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648- XA352 Marine Mammals; File No. 15537 AGENCY... public display permit application received from the Institute for Marine Mammal Studies (IMMS), P.O. Box... permit was received by the above-named applicant under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act...

  3. Enhancing social acceptance in marine governance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soma, K.; Haggett, Claire

    2015-01-01

    In this article we address social acceptance in marine governance. Public support and opposition are critical to any future developments of marine areas, and are often neglected aspects. Whilst one of the main new developments in European marine areas is the increase in sites for offshore wind, soci

  4. Improving Visual Survey Capabilities for Marine Mammal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Improving visual survey capabilities for marine mammal ...TERM GOALS The Navy sponsors research to improve efforts to mitigate interactions between fleet activities and marine mammals . Fundamental...information on the occurrence, abundance, and status of marine mammals is typically derived from visual surveys, and data from such surveys are most often

  5. 78 FR 19446 - Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC062 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability; response to comments. SUMMARY: As required by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS has incorporated public comments into revisions of marine mammal stock assessment...

  6. 76 FR 34054 - Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW72 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice of availability; response to comments. SUMMARY: As required by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS has incorporated public comments into revisions of marine mammal stock assessment...

  7. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal ...marine mammals . OBJECTIVES The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has convened a volunteer committee that will...Review the present scientific understanding of cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors on marine mammals with a focus on anthropogenic sound

  8. Databases of the marine metagenomics

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-10-28

    The metagenomic data obtained from marine environments is significantly useful for understanding marine microbial communities. In comparison with the conventional amplicon-based approach of metagenomics, the recent shotgun sequencing-based approach has become a powerful tool that provides an efficient way of grasping a diversity of the entire microbial community at a sampling point in the sea. However, this approach accelerates accumulation of the metagenome data as well as increase of data complexity. Moreover, when metagenomic approach is used for monitoring a time change of marine environments at multiple locations of the seawater, accumulation of metagenomics data will become tremendous with an enormous speed. Because this kind of situation has started becoming of reality at many marine research institutions and stations all over the world, it looks obvious that the data management and analysis will be confronted by the so-called Big Data issues such as how the database can be constructed in an efficient way and how useful knowledge should be extracted from a vast amount of the data. In this review, we summarize the outline of all the major databases of marine metagenome that are currently publically available, noting that database exclusively on marine metagenome is none but the number of metagenome databases including marine metagenome data are six, unexpectedly still small. We also extend our explanation to the databases, as reference database we call, that will be useful for constructing a marine metagenome database as well as complementing important information with the database. Then, we would point out a number of challenges to be conquered in constructing the marine metagenome database.

  9. Databases of the marine metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    The metagenomic data obtained from marine environments is significantly useful for understanding marine microbial communities. In comparison with the conventional amplicon-based approach of metagenomics, the recent shotgun sequencing-based approach has become a powerful tool that provides an efficient way of grasping a diversity of the entire microbial community at a sampling point in the sea. However, this approach accelerates accumulation of the metagenome data as well as increase of data complexity. Moreover, when metagenomic approach is used for monitoring a time change of marine environments at multiple locations of the seawater, accumulation of metagenomics data will become tremendous with an enormous speed. Because this kind of situation has started becoming of reality at many marine research institutions and stations all over the world, it looks obvious that the data management and analysis will be confronted by the so-called Big Data issues such as how the database can be constructed in an efficient way and how useful knowledge should be extracted from a vast amount of the data. In this review, we summarize the outline of all the major databases of marine metagenome that are currently publically available, noting that database exclusively on marine metagenome is none but the number of metagenome databases including marine metagenome data are six, unexpectedly still small. We also extend our explanation to the databases, as reference database we call, that will be useful for constructing a marine metagenome database as well as complementing important information with the database. Then, we would point out a number of challenges to be conquered in constructing the marine metagenome database.

  10. Factors influencing injury severity score regarding Thai military personnel injured in mass casualty incident April 10, 2010: lessons learned from armed conflict casualties: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonthep Nuttapong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Political conflicts in Bangkok, Thailand have caused mass casualties, especially the latest event April 10, 2010, in which many military personnel were injured. Most of them were transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital, the largest military hospital in Thailand. The current study aimed to assess factors influencing Injury Severity Score (ISS regarding Thai military personnel injured in the mass casualty incident (MCI April 10, 2010. Methods A total of 728 injured soldiers transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital were reviewed. Descriptive statistics was used to display characteristics of the injuries, relationship between mechanism of injury and injured body regions. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR of ISS comparing injured body region categories. Results In all, 153 subjects defined as major data category were enrolled in this study. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury (90.2%. These victims displayed 276 injured body regions. The most common injured body region was the extremities (48.5%. A total of 18 patients (11.7% had an ISS revealing more than 16 points. Three victims who died were expected to die due to high Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS. However, one with high TRISS survived. Factors influencing ISS were age (p = 0.04, abdomen injury (adjusted OR = 29.9; 95% CI, 5.8-153.5; P P P Conclusions Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury among Thai military personnel injured in the MCI April 10, 2010. Age and injured body region such as head & neck, chest and abdomen significantly influenced ISS. These factors should be investigated for effective medical treatment and preparing protective equipment to prevent such injuries in the future.

  11. Research approaches to mass casualty incidents response:development from routine perspectives to complexity science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Weifeng; Jiang Libing; Zhang Mao; Ma Yuefeng; Jiang Guanyu; He Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the research methods of mass casualty incident (MCI) systematically and introduce the concept and characteristics of complexity science and artificial system,computational experiments and parallel execution (ACP) method.Data sources We searched PubMed,Web of Knowledge,China Wanfang and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases for relevant studies.Searches were performed without year or language restrictions and used the combinations of the following key words:“mass casualty incident”,“MCI”,“research method”,“complexity science”,“ACP”,“approach”,“science”,“model”,“system” and “response”.Study selection Articles were searched using the above keywords and only those involving the research methods of mass casualty incident (MCI) were enrolled.Results Research methods of MCI have increased markedly over the past few decades.For now,dominating research methods of MCI are theory-based approach,empirical approach,evidence-based science,mathematical modeling and computer simulation,simulation experiment,experimental methods,scenario approach and complexity science.Conclusions This article provides an overview of the development of research methodology for MCI.The progresses of routine research approaches and complexity science are briefly presented in this paper.Furthermore,the authors conclude that the reductionism underlying the exact science is not suitable for MCI complex systems.And the only feasible alternative is complexity science.Finally,this summary is followed by a review that ACP method combining artificial systems,computational experiments and parallel execution provides a new idea to address researches for complex MCI.

  12. A review of pre-admission advanced airway management in combat casualties, Helmand Province 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Harry E J; LeClerc, S; Mclennan, J

    2015-06-01

    Airway compromise is the third leading cause of potentially preventable combat death. Pre-hospital airway management has lower success rates than in hospital. This study reviewed advanced airway management focusing on cricothyroidotomies and supraglottic airway devices in combat casualties prior to admission to a Role 3 Hospital in Afghanistan. This was a retrospective review of all casualties who required advanced airway management prior to arrival at the Role 3 Hospital, Bastion, Helmand Province over a 30-week period identified by the US Joint Theatre Trauma Registry. The notes and relevant X-rays were analysed. The opinions of US and UK clinical Subject Matter Experts (SME) were then sought. Fifty-seven advanced airway interventions were identified. 45 casualties had attempted intubations, 37 (82%) were successful and of those who had failed intubations, one had a King LT Airway (supraglottic device) and seven had a rescue cricothyroidotomy. The other initial advanced airway interventions were five attempted King LT airways and seven attempted cricothyroidotomies. In total, 14 cricothyroidotomies were performed; in this group, there were nine complications/significant events. The SMEs suggested that dedicated surgical airway kits should be used and students in training should be taught to secure the cricothyroidotomy tube as well as how to insert it. This review re-emphasises the need to 'ensure the right person, with the right equipment and the right training, is present at the right time if we are to improve the survival of patients with airway compromise on the battlefield'. The audit reference number is RCDM/Res/Audit/1036/12/0368. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Can a pediatric trauma center improve the response to a mass casualty incident?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Erik R; Pierce, James R; Goodhue, Catherine J; Burke, Rita V; Ford, Henri R; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2012-10-01

    Recent events including the 2001 terrorist attacks on New York; Hurricane Katrina; the 2010 Haitian and Chilean earthquakes; and the 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster in Japan have reminded disaster planners and responders of the tremendous scale of mass casualty disasters and their resulting human devastation. Although adult disaster medicine is a well-developed field with roots in wartime medicine, we are increasingly recognizing that children may comprise up to 50% of disaster victims, and response mechanisms are often designed without adequate preparation for the number of pediatric victims that can result. In this short educational review, we explore the differences between the pediatric and adult disaster and trauma populations, the requirements for designation of a site as a pediatric trauma center (PTC), and the magnitude of the problem of pediatric disaster patients as described in the literature, specifically as it pertains to the availability and use of designated PTCs as opposed to trauma centers in general. We also review our own experience in planning and simulating pediatric mass casualty events and suggest strategies for preparedness when there is no PTC available. We aim to demonstrate from this brief survey that the availability of a designated PTC in the setting of a mass casualty disaster event is likely to significantly improve the outcome for the pediatric demographic of the affected population. We conclude that the relative scarcity of disaster data specific to children limits epidemiologic study of the pediatric disaster population and offer suggestions for strategies for future study of our hypothesis. Systematic review, level III.

  14. Principles of Emergency Department facility design for optimal management of mass-casualty incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Pinchas; Goldberg, Scott A; Keng, Jimmy G; Koenig, Kristi L

    2012-04-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) is the triage, stabilization and disposition unit of the hospital during a mass-casualty incident (MCI). With most EDs already functioning at or over capacity, efficient management of an MCI requires optimization of all ED components. While the operational aspects of MCI management have been well described, the architectural/structural principles have not. Further, there are limited reports of the testing of ED design components in actual MCI events. The objective of this study is to outline the important infrastructural design components for optimization of ED response to an MCI, as developed, implemented, and repeatedly tested in one urban medical center. In the authors' experience, the most important aspects of ED design for MCI have included external infrastructure and promoting rapid lockdown of the facility for security purposes; an ambulance bay permitting efficient vehicle flow and casualty discharge; strategic placement of the triage location; patient tracking techniques; planning adequate surge capacity for both patients and staff; sufficient command, control, communications, computers, and information; well-positioned and functional decontamination facilities; adequate, well-located and easily distributed medical supplies; and appropriately built and functioning essential services. Designing the ED to cope well with a large casualty surge during a disaster is not easy, and it may not be feasible for all EDs to implement all the necessary components. However, many of the components of an appropriate infrastructural design add minimal cost to the normal expenditures of building an ED. This study highlights the role of design and infrastructure in MCI preparedness in order to assist planners in improving their ED capabilities. Structural optimization calls for a paradigm shift in the concept of structural and operational ED design, but may be necessary in order to maximize surge capacity, department resilience, and patient and

  15. Identifying Meningitis During an Anthrax Mass Casualty Incident: Systematic Review of Systemic Anthrax Since 1880

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharios-Lanwermeyer, Stefan; Holty, Jon-Erik; Person, Marissa; Sejvar, James; Haberling, Dana; Tubbs, Heather; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Pillai, Satish K.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Bower, William A.; Hendricks, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a potential bioterrorism agent. Anthrax meningitis may be a manifestation of B. anthracis infection, has high mortality, and requires more aggressive treatment than anthrax without meningitis. Rapid identification and treatment of anthrax meningitis are essential for successful management of an anthrax mass casualty incident. METHODS Three hundred six published reports from 1880 through 2013 met pre-defined inclusion criteria. We calculated descriptive statistics for abstracted cases and conducted multivariable regression on separate derivation and validation cohorts to identify clinical diagnostic and prognostic factors for anthrax meningitis. RESULTS One hundred thirty-two of 363 (36%) cases with systemic anthrax met anthrax meningitis criteria. Severe headache, altered mental status, meningeal signs, and other neurological signs at presentation independently predicted meningitis in the derivation cohort and are proposed as a four-item screening tool for use during mass casualty incidents. Presence of any one factor on admission had a sensitivity for finding anthrax meningitis of 89% (83%) in the adult (pediatric) validation cohorts. Anthrax meningitis was unlikely in the absence of any of these signs or symptoms ([LR−]=0.12 [0.19] for adult [pediatric] cohorts), while presence of two or more factors made meningitis very likely ([LR+]=26.5 [29.2]). Survival of anthrax meningitis was predicted by treatment with a bactericidal agent (P=0.005) and use of multiple antimicrobials (P=0.012). CONCLUSIONS We developed an evidence-based triage tool for screening patients for meningitis during an anthrax mass casualty incident; its use could improve both patient outcomes and resource allocation in such an event. PMID:27025833

  16. Sociological Features of the Casualties from the 1996 Ms 7. 0 Lijiang Earthquake, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongqiang; Yang Jieying; Yang Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    A statistics analysis was conducted on the basic information about fatalities from the Lijiang Ms 7.0 earthquake in 1996. The factors include age, gender, educational background, occupation, cause of death, death place, etc. We found that even though deaths caused by the Lijiang earthquake had some common features with those from earthquakes in other places in China, it also showed some specific features because of the multiracial and economically-underdeveloped situation of Lijiang area. The results reached in the paper can serve as a reference for studying the features of casualties caused by future strong earthquakes in Yunnan, and for the delicate and human-oriented emergency treatment.

  17. On constant alert: lessons to be learned from Israel's emergency response to mass-casualty terrorism incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adini, Bruria; Peleg, Kobi

    2013-12-01

    In its short modern history, Israel has had to contend with numerous mass-casualty incidents caused by terrorism. As a result, it has developed practical national preparedness policies for responding to such events. Israel's Supreme Health Authority, a committee of the Ministry of Health, coordinates emergency management nationwide. All emergency personnel, health care providers, and medical facilities operate under national policies designed to ensure a swift and coordinated response to any incident, based on an "all hazards" approach that emphasizes core elements commonly encountered in mass-casualty incidents. Israel's emergency management system includes contingency planning, command and control, centrally coordinated response, cooperation, and capacity building. Although every nation is unique, many of the lessons that Israel has learned may be broadly applicable to preparation for mass-casualty incidents in the United States and other countries.

  18. Marine Corps NBC Warfare: Determining Clinical Supply Requirements for Treatment of Battlefield Casualties from Chemical and Biological Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    applicable Federal Regulations governing the protection of human subjects in research. Martin Hill1 Mike Galarneau2 Gerry Pang2 Paula Konoske2...weapons includes the suspected use of trichothecene mycotoxins by the Japanese against the Chinese in the early 1940s. After the first Gulf War...6515013146694 Stethoscope Combination Littman Classic II 28"Lg Bell-Diaphragm 1 EA 6515013737292 Thermometer Clinical Human Oral Digtal Ltwt 300

  19. Description of Medication Administration by Emergency Medical Services during Mass-casualty Incidents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Mazen; Tamim, Hani; Mann, N Clay

    2016-04-01

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) preparedness and availability of essential medications are important to reduce morbidity and mortality from mass-casualty incidents (MCIs). This study describes prehospital medication administration during MCIs by different EMS service levels. The US National EMS Public-Release Research Dataset maintained by the National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) was used to carry out the study. Emergency Medical Services activations coded as MCI at dispatch, or by EMS personnel, were included. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) service level was used for the level of service provided. A descriptive analysis of medication administration by EMS service level was carried out. Among the 19,831,189 EMS activations, 53,334 activations had an MCI code, of which 26,110 activations were included. There were 8,179 (31.3%) Advanced Life Support (ALS), 5,811 (22.3%) Basic Life Support (BLS), 399 (1.5%) Air Medical Transport (AMT; fixed or rotary), and 38 (0.2%) Specialty Care Transport (SCT) activations. More than 80 different medications from 18 groups were reported. Seven thousand twenty-one activations (26.9%) had at least one medication administered. Oxygen was most common (16.3%), followed by crystalloids (6.9%), unknown (5.2%), analgesics (3.2%) mainly narcotics, antiemetics (1.5%), cardiac/vasopressors/inotropes (0.9%), bronchodilators (0.9%), sedatives (0.8%), and vasodilators/antihypertensives (0.7%). Overall, medication administration rates and frequencies of medications groups significantly varied between EMS service levels (Psystems can use the findings of this study to better prepare their stockpiles for MCIs.

  20. The Vulnerability of People to Landslides: A Case Study on the Relationship between the Casualties and Volume of Landslides in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qigen Lin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a detailed landslide inventory makes research on the vulnerability of people to landslides highly limited. In this paper, the authors collect information on the landslides that have caused casualties in China, and established the Landslides Casualties Inventory of China. 100 landslide cases from 2003 to 2012 were utilized to develop an empirical relationship between the volume of a landslide event and the casualties caused by the occurrence of the event. The error bars were used to describe the uncertainty of casualties resulting from landslides and to establish a threshold curve of casualties caused by landslides in China. The threshold curve was then applied to the landslide cases occurred in 2013 and 2014. The validation results show that the estimated casualties of the threshold curve were in good agreement with the real casualties with a small deviation. Therefore, the threshold curve can be used for estimating potential casualties and landslide vulnerability, which is meaningful for emergency rescue operations after landslides occurred and for risk assessment research.

  1. Comparison of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from the United Kingdom and the United States that were associated with repatriated casualties of the Iraq conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Jane F; Kaufmann, Mary E; Gill, Martin J; Pike, Rachel; Scott, Paul T; Fishbain, Joel; Craft, David; Deye, Gregory; Riddell, Scott; Lindler, Luther E; Pitt, Tyrone L

    2006-07-01

    Acinetobacter isolates associated with casualties from the Iraq conflict from the United States were compared with those from the United Kingdom by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and integron analysis. Representatives of the main outbreak strain associated with casualties from both countries were indistinguishable in DNA profile. Two further outbreak strains were common to both sets of isolates.

  2. The Vulnerability of People to Landslides: A Case Study on the Relationship between the Casualties and Volume of Landslides in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qigen; Wang, Ying; Liu, Tianxue; Zhu, Yingqi; Sui, Qi

    2017-02-21

    The lack of a detailed landslide inventory makes research on the vulnerability of people to landslides highly limited. In this paper, the authors collect information on the landslides that have caused casualties in China, and established the Landslides Casualties Inventory of China. 100 landslide cases from 2003 to 2012 were utilized to develop an empirical relationship between the volume of a landslide event and the casualties caused by the occurrence of the event. The error bars were used to describe the uncertainty of casualties resulting from landslides and to establish a threshold curve of casualties caused by landslides in China. The threshold curve was then applied to the landslide cases occurred in 2013 and 2014. The validation results show that the estimated casualties of the threshold curve were in good agreement with the real casualties with a small deviation. Therefore, the threshold curve can be used for estimating potential casualties and landslide vulnerability, which is meaningful for emergency rescue operations after landslides occurred and for risk assessment research.

  3. A pan-European study of capabilities to manage mass casualties from the release of chemical agents: the MASH project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David J; Murray, Virginia S G; Carli, Pierre A

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Mass Casualties and Health (MASH) project that ran between 2008 and 2010 was designed to study the management of mass casualties from chemical and radiological releases and associated health implications. One area of study for this project concerned arrangements within EU Member States for the management of mass casualties following a chemical release. This was undertaken via a confidential online questionnaire that was sent to selected points of contact throughout the EU. Responses were obtained from 18 states from respondents holding senior positions in chemical planning and incident response. Information gathered shows a lack of uniformity within the EU about the organization of responses to chemical releases and the provision of medical care. This article presents the overall findings of the study demonstrating differences between countries on planning and organization, decontamination, prehospital emergency medical responses, clinical diagnoses, and therapy and aftercare. Although there may be an understandable reluctance from national respondents to share information on security and other grounds, the findings, nevertheless, revealed substantial differences between current planning and operational responses within the EU states for the management of mass chemical casualties. The existing international networks for response to radiation incidents are not yet matched by equivalent networks for chemical responses yet sufficient information was available from the study to identify potential deficiencies, identify common casualty management pathways, and to make recommendations for future operations within the EU. Improvements in awareness and training and the application of modern information and communications will help to remedy this situation. Specialized advanced life support and other medical care for chemical casualties appear lacking in some countries. A program of specialized training and action are required to apply the findings

  4. Commercial Mobile Device Technology Implementation Implications in United States Marine Corps Processes: A Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Martial Arts Program MCRC Marine Corps Recruiting Command MCRD Marine Corps Recruit Depot MCRP Marine Corps Reference Publication MCU Marine Corps... Martial Arts Program (MCMAP), Chemical Biological Radiological & Nuclear (CBRN) training, and annual administrative training. Additionally, the...K., & Garstka, J. J. (1998). Network-centric warfare: Its origin and future. US Naval Institute Proceedings, 124(1), 28–35. Retrieved from http

  5. Marine Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A retired soldier and his timid girlfriend. Two teenagers who are underemployed and overaged. A man who knows what he wants but not how to get it and his ex who knows how to get what she wants but not exactly what that is.What do all of these people have in common? They live in Westfield, New York, a town with just as many traffic lights as panoramic views of nearby Lake Erie and with about as many bartenders as schoolteachers. Everyone wants to leave, but nobody knows where to go.Marine Biol...

  6. The development and features of the Spanish prehospital advanced triage method (META) for mass casualty incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Garijo Gonzalo, Gracia; Martinez Monzon, Carlos; Pelaez Corres, Nieves; Rodriguez Soler, Alberto; Turegano Fuentes, Fernando

    2016-04-29

    This text describes the process of development of the new Spanish Prehospital Advanced Triage Method (META) and explain its main features and contribution to prehospital triage systems in mass casualty incidents. The triage META is based in the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols, patient's anatomical injuries and mechanism of injury. It is a triage method with four stages including early identification of patients with severe trauma that would benefit from a rapid evacuation to a surgical facility and introduces a new patient flow by-passing the advanced medical post to improve evacuation. The stages of triage META are: I) Stabilization triage that classifies patients according to severity to set priorities for initial emergency treatment; II) Identifying patients requiring urgent surgical treatment, this is done at the same time than stage I and creates a new flow of patients with high priority for evacuation; III) Implementation of Advanced Trauma Life Support protocols to patients previously classified according to stablished priority; and IV) Evacuation triage, stablishing evacuation priorities in case of lacks of appropriate transport resources. The triage META is to be applied only by prehospital providers with advanced knowledge and training in advanced trauma life support care and has been designed to be implemented as prehospital procedure in mass casualty incidents (MCI).

  7. Health care worker protection in mass casualty respiratory failure: infection control, decontamination, and personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Elizabeth L

    2008-02-01

    Maintenance of a safe and stable health care infrastructure is critical to an effective mass casualty disaster response. Both secondary contamination during chemical disasters and hospital-associated infections during epidemic illness can pose substantial threats to achieving this goal. Understanding basic principles of decontamination and infection control during responses to chemical and biologic disasters can help minimize the risks to patients and health care workers. Effective decontamination following toxic chemical exposure should include both removal of contaminated clothing and decontamination of the victim's skin. Wet decontamination is the most feasible strategy in a mass casualty situation and should be performed promptly by trained personnel. In the event of an epidemic, infection prevention and control measures are based on essential principles of hand hygiene and standard precautions. Expanded precautions should be instituted as needed to target contact, droplet, and airborne routes of infectious disease transmission. Specific equipment and measures for critical care delivery may serve to decrease risk to health care workers in the event of an epidemic. Their use should be considered in developing comprehensive disaster response plans.

  8. Development of Mass-casualty Life Support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Hideaki; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Homma, Masato; Koido, Yuichi; Morino, Kazuma; Oshiro, Kenichi; Harikae, Kiyokazu; Akasaka, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    This report outlines the need for the development of an advanced course in mass-casualty life support (MCLS) and introduces the course content. The current problems with education on disasters involving chemical agents, biological agents, radiation/nuclear attacks, or explosives (CBRNE) in Japan are presented. This newly developed "MCLS-CBRNE" program was created by a Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (Tokyo, Japan) research group based on these circumstances. Modifications were then made after a trial course. Training opportunities for relevant organizations to learn how to act at a CBRNE disaster site currently are lacking. The developed course covers initial responses at a disaster site. This one-day training course comprises lectures, three tabletop simulations, and practical exercises in pre-decontamination triage and post-decontamination triage. With regard to field exercises conducted to date, related organizations have experienced difficulties in understanding each other and adapting their approaches. Tabletop simulations provide an opportunity for participants to learn how organizations working on-site, including fire, police, and medical personnel, act with differing goals and guiding principles. This course appears useful as a means for relevant organizations to understand the importance of developing common guidelines. The MCLS-CBRNE training is proposed to support CBRNE disaster control measures during future events. Anan H , Otomo Y , Kondo H , Homma M , Koido Y , Morino K , Oshiro K , Harikae K , Akasaka O . Development of mass-casualty life support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):547-550.

  9. Trace metals in the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon and mangrove sediments of the Tanzania coast: Is there a risk to marine fauna and public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumisha, Cyrus; Mdegela, Robinson H; Kochzius, Marc; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Mangroves ecosystems support livelihood and economic activities of coastal communities in the tropics and subtropics. Previous reports have documented the inefficiency of waste treatment facilities in Tanzania to contain trace metals. Therefore, the rapidly expanding coastal population and industrial sector is likely to threaten mangrove ecosystems with metal pollution. This study analysed trace metals in 60 sediment samples and 160 giant tiger prawns from the Tanzanian coast in order to document the distribution of trace metals and to establish if measured levels present a threat to mangrove fauna and are of public health importance. High levels of Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and V was observed in mangroves of river Pangani, Wami, and Rufiji. Multivariate analysis showed that they originate mainly from weathering and erosion in the river catchments. Extreme enrichment of Cd was observed in a mangrove affected by municipal sewage. The distribution of Hg, Pb, and Zn was related with urbanisation and industrial activities along the coast. The metal pollution index was high at Pangani, Saadani, and Rufiji, suggesting that these estuarine mangroves are also affected by human activities in the catchment. Moderate to considerable ecological risks were observed in all sampled mangroves, except for Kilwa Masoko. It was revealed that As, Cd, and Hg present moderate risks to fauna. High levels of Cu, Fe and Zn were observed in prawns but the level of the non-essential Cd, Hg, and Pb did not exceed the maximum allowed levels for human consumption. However, based on the trends of fish consumption in the country, weekly intake of Hg is likely to exceed provisional tolerable weekly intake level, especially in fishing communities. This calls for measures to control Hg emissions and to strengthen sewage and waste treatment in coastal cities and urban centres in the basin of major rivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    Obligate marine fungi, those which grow and sporulate exclusively under marine conditions, have received all the attention from marine mycologists. Fungi originating from freshwater, or terrestrial environment and capable of growth and sporulation...

  11. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  12. Marine Lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  13. Guidance For The Bioremediation Of Oil-Contaminated Wetlands, Marshes, And Marine Shorelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine shorelines are important public and ecological resources that serve as a home to a variety of wildlife and provide public recreation. Marine oil spills, particularly large scale spill accidents, have posed great threats and cause extensive damage to the marine coastal env...

  14. Casualty Aversion in the Post-Cold War Era: Defined and Analyzed Through the Logic of Clausewitz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    faced with risk and self sacrifice. The paper gives few answers, but raises many questions. Suro , Roberto, “Zeroing In on “Zero Casualty Syndrome...leaders have denied themselves the ability to maneuver and thus surprise the enemy. Mr. Suro takes this thought and applies it to President Clinton

  15. Daily variation in natural disaster casualties: information flows, safety, and opportunity costs in tornado versus hurricane strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Sammy; Tavani, Daniele; Weiler, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Casualties from natural disasters may depend on the day of the week they strike. With data from the Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUS), daily variation in hurricane and tornado casualties from 5,043 tornado and 2,455 hurricane time/place events is analyzed. Hurricane forecasts provide at-risk populations with considerable lead time. Such lead time allows strategic behavior in choosing protective measures under hurricane threat; opportunity costs in terms of lost income are higher during weekdays than during weekends. On the other hand, the lead time provided by tornadoes is near zero; hence tornados generate no opportunity costs. Tornado casualties are related to risk information flows, which are higher during workdays than during leisure periods, and are related to sheltering-in-place opportunities, which are better in permanent buildings like businesses and schools. Consistent with theoretical expectations, random effects negative binomial regression results indicate that tornado events occurring on the workdays of Monday through Thursday are significantly less lethal than tornados that occur on weekends. In direct contrast, and also consistent with theory, the expected count of hurricane casualties increases significantly with weekday occurrences. The policy implications of observed daily variation in tornado and hurricane events are considered. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. 33 CFR 150.820 - When must a written report of casualty be submitted, and what must it contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must also include the information relating to alcohol and drug involvement specified by 46 CFR 4.05-12... CFR part 16. (c) If filed immediately after the event, the written report required by paragraph (a) of... casualty be submitted, and what must it contain? 150.820 Section 150.820 Navigation and Navigable...

  17. Evaluation of a CT triage protocol for mass casualty incidents: results from two large-scale exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Markus; Krötz, Michael M; Wirth, Stefan; Huber-Wagner, Stefan; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Boehm, Holger F; Reiser, Maximilian; Linsenmaier, Ulrich

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, stability, and reproducibility of a dedicated CT protocol for the triage of patients in two separate large-scale exercises that simulated a mass casualty incident (MCI). In both exercises, a bomb explosion at the local soccer stadium that had caused about 100 casualties was simulated. Seven casualties who were rated "critical" by on-site field triage were admitted to the emergency department and underwent whole-body CT. The CT workflow was simulated with phantoms. The history of the casualties was matched to existing CT examinations that were used for evaluation of image reading under MCI conditions. The times needed for transfer and preparation of patients, examination, image reconstruction, total time in the CT examination room, image transfer to PACS, and image reading were recorded, and mean capacities were calculated and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. We found no significant time differences in transfer and preparation of patients, duration of CT data acquisition, image reconstruction, total time in the CT room, and reading of the images. The calculated capacities per hour were 9.4 vs. 9.8 for examinations completed, and 8.2 vs. 7.2 for reports completed. In conclusion, CT triage is feasible and produced constant results with this dedicated and fast protocol.

  18. Cyanide antidotes for mass casualties: water-soluble salts of the dithiane (sulfanegen) from 3-mercaptopyruvate for intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Steven E; Monteil, Alexandre R; Cohen, Jonathan F; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T

    2013-02-14

    Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion, which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster, intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote.

  19. Evaluation of a CT triage protocol for mass casualty incidents: results from two large-scale exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Markus; Kroetz, Michael M.; Wirth, Stefan; Boehm, Holger F.; Reiser, Maximilian; Linsenmaier, Ulrich [University Hospital Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Huber-Wagner, Stefan; Kanz, Karl-Georg [University Hospital Munich, Department of Surgery, Munich (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, stability, and reproducibility of a dedicated CT protocol for the triage of patients in two separate large-scale exercises that simulated a mass casualty incident (MCI). In both exercises, a bomb explosion at the local soccer stadium that had caused about 100 casualties was simulated. Seven casualties who were rated ''critical'' by on-site field triage were admitted to the emergency department and underwent whole-body CT. The CT workflow was simulated with phantoms. The history of the casualties was matched to existing CT examinations that were used for evaluation of image reading under MCI conditions. The times needed for transfer and preparation of patients, examination, image reconstruction, total time in the CT examination room, image transfer to PACS, and image reading were recorded, and mean capacities were calculated and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. We found no significant time differences in transfer and preparation of patients, duration of CT data acquisition, image reconstruction, total time in the CT room, and reading of the images. The calculated capacities per hour were 9.4 vs. 9.8 for examinations completed, and 8.2 vs. 7.2 for reports completed. In conclusion, CT triage is feasible and produced constant results with this dedicated and fast protocol. (orig.)

  20. Virtual reality and live simulation: a comparison between two simulation tools for assessing mass casualty triage skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luigi Ingrassia, Pier; Ragazzoni, Luca; Carenzo, Luca; Colombo, Davide; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Della Corte, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that virtual reality simulation is equivalent to live simulation for testing naive medical students' abilities to perform mass casualty triage using the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) algorithm in a simulated disaster scenario and to detect the improvement in these skills after a teaching session. Fifty-six students in their last year of medical school were randomized into two groups (A and B). The same scenario, a car accident, was developed identically on the two simulation methodologies: virtual reality and live simulation. On day 1, group A was exposed to the live scenario and group B was exposed to the virtual reality scenario, aiming to triage 10 victims. On day 2, all students attended a 2-h lecture on mass casualty triage, specifically the START triage method. On day 3, groups A and B were crossed over. The groups' abilities to perform mass casualty triage in terms of triage accuracy, intervention correctness, and speed in the scenarios were assessed. Triage and lifesaving treatment scores were assessed equally by virtual reality and live simulation on day 1 and on day 3. Both simulation methodologies detected an improvement in triage accuracy and treatment correctness from day 1 to day 3 (PVirtual reality simulation proved to be a valuable tool, equivalent to live simulation, to test medical students' abilities to perform mass casualty triage and to detect improvement in such skills.

  1. Marine mammal zoonoses: a review of disease manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltzek, T B; Cortés-Hinojosa, G; Wellehan, J F X; Gray, Gregory C

    2012-12-01

    Marine mammals evoke strong public affection as well as considerable scientific interest. However, the resultant close contact with marine wildlife poses human health risks, including traumatic injury and zoonotic disease transmission. The majority of zoonotic marine mammal diseases result in localized skin infections in man that resolve spontaneously or with appropriate medical therapy. However, other marine mammal zoonoses, if left untreated, induce life-threatening systemic diseases that could pose public health risks. As the number of zoonotic diseases rises, the diagnosis of and treatment for these emerging pathogens pose special challenges requiring the expertise of physicians, veterinarians and wildlife biologists. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the bacterial, viral and fungal marine mammal zoonotic diseases that we hope will be utilized by public health professionals, physicians, veterinarians and wildlife biologists to better understand, diagnose and prevent marine mammal zoonotic diseases. 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH

  2. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, D. S.

    1980-03-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the absorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strengths and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area.

  3. A burn mass casualty event due to boiler room explosion on a cruise ship: preparedness and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Akin; Namias, Nicholas; O'Keeffe, Terence; Pizano, Louis; Lynn, Mauricio; Prater-Varas, Robin; Quintana, Olga Delia; Borges, Leda; Ishii, Mary; Lee, Seong; Lopez, Peter; Lessner-Eisenberg, Sharon; Alvarez, Angel; Ellison, Tom; Sapnas, Katherine; Lefton, Jennifer; Ward, Charles Gillon

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to review our experience with a mass casualty incident resulting from a boiler room steam explosion aboard a cruise ship. Experience with major, moderate, and minor burns, steam inhalation, mass casualty response systems, and psychological sequelae will be discussed. Fifteen cruise ship employees were brought to the burn center after a boiler room explosion on a cruise ship. Eleven were triaged to the trauma resuscitation area and four to the surgical emergency room. Seven patients were intubated for respiratory distress or airway protection. Six patients had >80 per cent burns with steam inhalation, and all of these died. One of the 6 patients had 99 per cent burns with steam inhalation and died after withdrawal of support within the first several hours. All patients with major burns required escharotomy on arrival to trauma resuscitation. One patient died in the operating room, despite decompression by laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome and pericardiotomy via thoracotomy for cardiac tamponade. Four patients required crystalloid, 20,000 mls/m2-27,000 ml/m2 body surface area (BSA) in the first 48 hours to maintain blood pressure and urine output. Three of these four patients subsequently developed abdominal compartment syndrome and died in the first few days. The fourth patient of this group died after 26 days due to sepsis. Five patients had 13-20 per cent bums and four patients had less than 10 per cent burns. Two of the patients with 20 per cent burns developed edema of the vocal cords with mild hoarseness. They improved and recovered without intubation. The facility was prepared for the mass casualty event; having just completed a mass casualty drill several days earlier. Twenty-six beds were made available in 50 minutes for anticipated casualties. Fifteen physicians reported immediately to the trauma resuscitation area to assist in initial stabilization. The event occurred at shift change; thus, adequate support

  4. Spatial-temporal patterns in Mediterranean carnivore road casualties: Consequences for mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C.; Bissonette, J.A.; Santos-Reis, M.

    2009-01-01

    Many carnivores have been seriously impacted by the expansion of transportation systems and networks; however we know little about carnivore response to the extent and magnitude of road mortality, or which age classes may be disproportionately impacted. Recent research has demonstrated that wildlife-vehicle-collisions (WVC) involving carnivores are modulated by temporal and spatial factors. Thus, we investigated road mortality on a guild of small and medium-sized carnivores in southern Portugal using road-kill data obtained from a systematic 36 months monitoring period along highways (260 km) and national roads (314 km) by addressing the following questions: (a) which species and age class are most vulnerable to WVC? (b) are there temporal and/or spatial patterns in road-kill? and (c) which life-history and/or spatial factors influence the likelihood of collisions? We recorded a total of 806 carnivore casualties, which represented an average of 47 ind./100 km/year. Red fox and stone marten had the highest mortality rates. Our findings highlight three key messages: (1) the majority of road-killed individuals were adults of common species; (2) all carnivores, except genets, were more vulnerable during specific life-history phenological periods: higher casualties were observed when red fox and stone marten were provisioning young, Eurasian badger casualties occurred more frequently during dispersal, and higher Egyptian mongoose mortality occurred during the breeding period; and (3) modeling demonstrated that favorable habitat, curves in the road, and low human disturbance were major contributors to the deadliest road segments. Red fox carcasses were more likely to be found on road sections with passages distant from urban areas. Conversely, stone marten mortalities were found more often on national roads with high of cork oak woodland cover; Egyptian mongoose and genet road-kills were found more often on road segments close to curves. Based on our results, two key

  5. Mass casualty management of a large-scale bioterrorist event: an epidemiological approach that shapes triage decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2002-05-01

    The threat of a BT event has catalyzed serious reflection on the troublesome issues that come with event management and triage. Such reflection has had the effect of multiplying the efforts to find solutions to what could become a catastrophic public health disaster. Management options are becoming more robust, as are reliable detection devices and rapid access to stockpiled antibiotics and vaccines. There is much to be done, however, especially in the organizing, warehousing, and granting/exercising authority for resource allocations. The introduction of these new options should encourage one to believe that, in time, evolving standards of care will make it possible to rethink the currently unthinkable consequences. Unfortunately the cost of such preparedness is high and out of reach of most governments. Most of the developing world has neither the will nor the means to plan for BT events and remains overwhelmed with basic public health concerns (i.e., water, food, sanitation, shelter) that must take priority. Therefore, developed countries will be expected to respond using international exogenous resources to mitigate the effects of such a disaster. As a result, the state capacity of the effected government will be severely compromised. If triage and management of casualties is further compromised, terrorists will have met their goals. One could argue that health sciences will continue for decades to play catch up with the advanced technology driving potential bioagent weaponry. If one lesson was learned from the review of the former Soviet Union's biological weapons program, it is that the unthinkable remains an option to terrorists who have comparable expertise. It is crucial to develop realistic strategies for a BT event. Triage planning (the process of establishing criteria for health care prioritization) permits society to see cases in the context of diverse moral perspectives, limited resources, and compelling health care demands. This includes a competent

  6. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152177 Chen Hongjun(Key Laboratory of Marine Mineral Resources,Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,Ministry of Land and Resources,Guangzhou 510075,China);Pen Xuechao A Brief Review of 1∶1 000 000 Marine Geological Survey and Mapping Results of the Hainan Sheet in the South China Sea(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,

  7. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  8. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  9. Long-term disabilities associated with combat casualties: measuring disability and reintegration in combat veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Reiber, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Many physical and mental health problems associated with combat casualties affect the reintegration of service members into home and community life. Quantifying and measuring reintegration is important to answer questions about clinical, research, economic, and policy issues that directly affect combat veterans. Although the construct of participation presented in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health provides a theoretical framework with which to understand and measure community reintegration in general, a measure was needed that specifically addressed the reintegration of combat veterans. To address this need, the Community Reintegration for Service Members global outcomes measure was developed. It consists of three scales, which measure extent of participation, perceived limitations, and satisfaction. The measure was validated in a general sample of veterans and in a sample of severely wounded service members. The computer-adapted test version shows good precision, reliability, construct validity, and predictive validity.

  10. Loss of cabin pressure in a military transport: a mass casualty with decompression illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mickaila J

    2008-04-01

    Presented here is the sudden cabin depressurization of a military C-130 aircraft carrying 66 personnel. They suffered a depressurization from 2134 to 7317 m, resulting in a potential 66-person mass casualty. The aircrew were able to descend to below 3049 m in less than 5 min. They landed in the Kingdom of Bahrain--the nearest hyperbaric recompression facility. Three cases of peripheral neurologic DCS and one case of spinal DCS were identified. Limited manning, unique host nation concerns, and limited available assets led to difficulties in triage, patient transport, and asset allocation. These led to difficult decisions regarding when and for whom to initiate ground level oxygen or hyperbaric recompression therapy.

  11. Truth hurts--hard lessons from Australia's largest mass casualty exercise with contaminated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicholas A; Caldicott, David G E; Eliseo, Tony; Pearce, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    In response to the increasing threat of a mass casualty incident involving chemical, biological or radiological agents, and concern over the preparedness of our hospital system to cope with patients from such an incident, we conducted the largest hospital-based field exercise involving contaminated patients that has been held in Australia. In the present paper, we outline the background to, and methodology of, Exercise Supreme Truth, and the efforts made to increase its realism. We focus our discussion on three issues highlighted by the exercise, which we believe have enormous implications for the development of hospital chemical, biological or radiological plans and the likelihood of their success--hospital security, crowd control and decontamination.

  12. An Interprofessional Approach to Continuing Education With Mass Casualty Simulation: Planning and Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Deborah A; Strout, Kelley; Caruso, Lisa Swanson; Ingwell-Spolan, Charlene; Koplovsky, Aiden

    2017-10-01

    Many natural and man-made disasters require the assistance from teams of health care professionals. Knowing that continuing education about disaster simulation training is essential to nursing students, nurses, and emergency first responders (e.g., emergency medical technicians, firefighters, police officers), a university in the northeastern United States planned and implemented an interprofessional mass casualty incident (MCI) disaster simulation using the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) management framework. The school of nursing and University Volunteer Ambulance Corps (UVAC) worked together to simulate a bus crash with disaster victim actors to provide continued education for community first responders and train nursing students on the MCI process. This article explains the simulation activity, planning process, and achieved outcomes. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(10):447-453. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. CBRNE TC3: A Hybrid Approach to Casualty Care in the CBRNE Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, John W

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) guidelines for the Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom contingency operations has dramatically reduced preventable combat deaths. A study of these principles and their application to medical treatment in the chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives (CBRNE), weapons of mass destruction (WMD) environment is presented as a potential readiness and force multiplier for units engaged in this area of operations. Preparing medical operators for support of WMD sampling and mitigation missions requires extensive preventive medicine and post-exposure and downrange trauma threat preparedness. Training and equipping CBRN operators with treatment skills and appropriate interventional material requires pre-implementation planning specific to WMD threats (e.g., anthrax, radiation, organophosphates, and contaminated trauma). A scenario-based study reveals the tactics, techniques, and procedures for training, resourcing, and fielding the CBRN operator of the future.

  14. [Travel time and distances to Norwegian out-of-hours casualty clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raknes, Guttorm; Morken, Tone; Hunskår, Steinar

    2014-11-01

    Geographical factors have an impact on the utilisation of out-of-hours services. In this study we have investigated the travel distance to out-of-hours casualty clinics in Norwegian municipalities in 2011 and the number of municipalities covered by the proposed recommendations for secondary on-call arrangements due to long distances. We estimated the average maximum travel times and distances in Norwegian municipalities using a postcode-based method. Separate analyses were performed for municipalities with a single, permanently located casualty clinic. Altogether 417 out of 430 municipalities were included. We present the median value of the maximum travel times and distances for the included municipalities. The median maximum average travel distance for the municipalities was 19 km. The median maximum average travel time was 22 minutes. In 40 of the municipalities (10 %) the median maximum average travel time exceeded 60 minutes, and in 97 municipalities (23 %) the median maximum average travel time exceeded 40 minutes. The population of these groups comprised 2 % and 5 % of the country's total population respectively. For municipalities with permanent emergency facilities(N = 316), the median average flight time 16 minutes and median average distance 13 km.. In many municipalities, the inhabitants have a long average journey to out-of-hours emergency health services, but seen as a whole, the inhabitants of these municipalities account for a very small proportion of the Norwegian population. The results indicate that the proposed recommendations for secondary on-call duty based on long distances apply to only a small number of inhabitants. The recommendations should therefore be adjusted and reformulated to become more relevant.

  15. Characteristics of road traffic accident casualties admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Dinesh M; Tennakoon, Sampath U; Samaranayake, Achini N; Wickramasinghe, Medhani

    2017-03-01

    The mortality and morbidity of road traffic accidents (RTA) is increasing in the South Asian region, including Sri Lanka. Therefore, the demographic factors, types of vehicles involved, and the severity of injuries sustained in RTA was studied. Age, gender, and details of the incident of all patients admitted to hospital following a RTA, between January 2007 and August 2012, were obtained by interview. Following a medico-legal examination, the type and severity of injuries was categorized as, non-grievous, grievous, endangering life or fatal in the ordinary course of nature. Of the 579 RTA casualties examined, 72% were males, 28% females, and 26% were in the 20-29 year age group. There were 44% passengers, 32% drivers, and 20% pedestrians. Of the 440 vehicle occupants, 37% were on motor cycles, 28% in three wheelers, 13% in dual purpose vehicles and 11% in buses. Of the 114 pedestrians, 33% had been struck by motor cycles, 19% by three-wheelers and 17% by dual purpose vehicles. There was at least one soft tissue injury in 84%, whilst 45% had one or more fractures. In 85% of bicycle riders, the injuries were grievous, endangering life or fatal in the ordinary course of nature. A high proportion of young adults sustained grievous injuries due to RTA. Almost two thirds of the casualties resulted from motorcycle or three wheeler accidents. Laws limiting the number of passengers carried, installation of side doors, mandatory use of seat belts in three wheelers, and protective garments for motorcyclists are recommended.

  16. Mass casualty modelling: a spatial tool to support triage decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Syed M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During a mass casualty incident, evacuation of patients to the appropriate health care facility is critical to survival. Despite this, no existing system provides the evidence required to make informed evacuation decisions from the scene of the incident. To mitigate this absence and enable more informed decision making, a web based spatial decision support system (SDSS was developed. This system supports decision making by providing data regarding hospital proximity, capacity, and treatment specializations to decision makers at the scene of the incident. Methods This web-based SDSS utilizes pre-calculated driving times to estimate the actual driving time to each hospital within the inclusive trauma system of the large metropolitan region within which it is situated. In calculating and displaying its results, the model incorporates both road network and hospital data (e.g. capacity, treatment specialties, etc., and produces results in a matter of seconds, as is required in a MCI situation. In addition, its application interface allows the user to map the incident location and assists in the execution of triage decisions. Results Upon running the model, driving time from the MCI location to the surrounding hospitals is quickly displayed alongside information regarding hospital capacity and capability, thereby assisting the user in the decision-making process. Conclusions The use of SDSS in the prioritization of MCI evacuation decision making is potentially valuable in cases of mass casualty. The key to this model is the utilization of pre-calculated driving times from each hospital in the region to each point on the road network. The incorporation of real-time traffic and hospital capacity data would further improve this model.

  17. Mass-casualty Response to the Kiss Nightclub in Santa Maria, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Ponte, Silvana T; Dornelles, Carlos F D; Arquilla, Bonnie; Bloem, Christina; Roblin, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    On January 27, 2013, a fire at the Kiss Nightclub in Santa Maria, Brazil led to a mass-casualty incident affecting hundreds of college students. A total of 234 people died on scene, 145 were hospitalized, and another 623 people received treatment throughout the first week following the incident.1 Eight of the hospitalized people later died.1 The Military Police were the first on scene, followed by the state fire department, and then the municipal Mobile Prehospital Assistance (SAMU) ambulances. The number of victims was not communicated clearly to the various units arriving on scene, leading to insufficient rescue personnel and equipment. Incident command was established on scene, but the rescuers and police were still unable to control the chaos of multiple bystanders attempting to assist in the rescue efforts. The Municipal Sports Center (CDM) was designated as the location for dead bodies, where victim identification and communication with families occurred, as well as forensic evaluation, which determined the primary cause of death to be asphyxia. A command center was established at the Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo (HCAA) in Santa Maria to direct where patients should be admitted, recruit staff, and procure additional supplies, as needed. The victims suffered primarily from smoke inhalation and many required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. There was a shortage of ventilators; therefore, some had to be borrowed from local hospitals, neighboring cities, and distant areas in the state. A total of 54 patients1 were transferred to hospitals in the capital city of Porto Alegre (Brazil). The main issues with the response to the fire were scene control and communication. Areas for improvement were identified, namely the establishment of a disaster-response plan, as well as regularly scheduled training in disaster preparedness/response. These activities are the first steps to improving mass-casualty responses.

  18. Marine antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Bart J

    2003-01-01

    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment.

  19. [Marine science in Revista de Biologia Tropical in its 50th anniversary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Jorge; Nielsen, Vanessa

    2002-01-01

    The first paper published in the Revista de Biología Tropical (RBT) on anything related to marine science was in 1963. Since then the number of marine-related papers has increased to 637, which represents 27% of the total production of RBT (excluding the Supplements), and 33% since 1979. Most publications are Full Articles on Ecology (135 papers). The marine ecosystem of which there is more publications is the coral reefs (28); and fish is the most studied taxonomic group (165). Almost half of the Supplements are marine related (12). The RBT must continue its efforts to maintain itself as a leading marine science publication in Latin America.

  20. Marine actinobacteria associated with marine organisms and their potentials in producing pharmaceutical natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliappan, Karuppiah; Sun, Wei; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    Actinobacteria are ubiquitous in the marine environment, playing an important ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel natural products with pharmic applications. Actinobacteria have been detected or isolated from the marine creatures such as sponges, corals, mollusks, ascidians, seaweeds, and seagrass. Marine organism-associated actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, i.e., 3,003 sequences, deposited in the NCBI database clearly revealed enormous numbers of actinobacteria associated with marine organisms. For example, RDP classification of these sequences showed that 112 and 62 actinobacterial genera were associated with the sponges and corals, respectively. In most cases, it is expected that these actinobacteria protect the host against pathogens by producing bioactive compounds. Natural products investigation and functional gene screening of the actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including polyketides, isoprenoids, phenazines, peptides, indolocarbazoles, sterols, and others. These compounds showed anticancer, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, neurological, antioxidant, and anti-HIV activities. Therefore, marine organism-associated actinobacteria represent an important resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to search for novel actinobacteria and pharmaceutical natural products from actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity and natural products production of actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms, based on the publications from 1991 to 2013.

  1. An Air MEDEVAC Asset Dispatching and Prioritized Casualty Transporting Model for Military Medical Evacuation Systems with Distinguishable Medical Treatment Facilities and Errors in Triage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-13

    distinguishable medical treatment facilities and errors in triage The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and...facilities and errors in triage Report Title Decision making in military medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) of casualties consists of identifying which...treatment facilities. The model accounts for errors made during triage of casualties to investigate the revelation of information over time and

  2. Microplastics in marine environments: Occurrence, distribution and effects

    OpenAIRE

    Nerland, Inger Lise; Halsband, Claudia; Allan, Ian; Thomas, Kevin V.

    2014-01-01

    This report reviews the current understanding of the occurrence, distribution and effects of microplastics on the marine environment. Most members of the public are aware of, or have seen the impacts of, litter pollution on the marine environment, so common are scenes of beaches covered in litter. The extent of this pollution is such that the amount of marine litter found along the Norwegian coast and the coast of Svalbard has been described as unacceptable. Much of this litt...

  3. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine...relative size of different tissues in various marine mammal species, as well as our understanding of their different morphological and physiological...available for the relative size of different tissues in various marine mammal species, as well as our understanding of the different morphological and

  4. Marine Mammals and Noise-Progress Since 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Mammals & Noise - Progress Since 1995 Christine...effects of underwater noise on marine mammals has grown steadily over the last few decades. Results and information are scattered across the peer...reviewed and grey literature. In this project, we try to review the information on noise impacts on marine mammals , focussing on results since the

  5. Prophylaxis for blood-borne diseases during the London 7/7 mass casualty terrorist bombing: a review and the role of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dafydd S; Barnett-Vanes, A; Narayan, N; Patel, H D L

    2016-10-01

    The suicide bombings in London on 7 July 2005 resulted in a mass casualty situation. Over 50% of casualties were treated at the Royal London Hospital where clinicians witnessed large numbers of severely injured patients. In some casualties human biological foreign material was found embedded in the soft tissue originating from the suicide bombers or other casualties. This had the potential of placing individuals at risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases. Advances in the fields of medicine and biology have led to increased survivorship in the context of trauma and mass casualty incidents. This has resulted in the emergence of ethical scenarios surrounding patient management. A systematic review of the literature of the 7/7 bombings, and suicide bombings reported globally, where biological implantation is noted, was performed to examine the medicolegal issues arising during such attack. Twelve casualties with human tissue implanted were recorded in the 7/7 bombings. While all patients at risk were given prophylaxis based on recommendations by the Health Protection Agency, several ethical considerations surfaced as a result. In this paper, we compare the sequence of events and the management process of the victims of the 7/7 bombings and the evidence-based research regarding blood-borne infection transmission. Furthermore, it explores the ethical dilemmas, experienced by the senior author on 7/7, surrounding prophylaxis for blood-borne diseases and protocols to avoid confusion over best practice in future bombing incidents.

  6. Deployment and operation of a transportable burn intensive care unit in response to a burn multiple casualty incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Stack, Richard S; Carr, Shamus R; Broger, Kristine P; Crews, David M; Renz, Evan M; Blackbourne, Lorne H

    2010-01-01

    In many hospitals, intensive care units (ICUs) operate at or above capacity on a daily basis. Multiple casualty incidents will create a sudden need for additional ICU beds and hospital planning for disaster response must anticipate the need for rapid ICU expansion. In this article, the authors describe the management of 6 patients who were burned in Guam and successfully transported a distance of 7,268 miles to San Antonio, TX, for tertiary burn center care. The mission required creation of a temporary burn ICU at Tripler Army Medical Center in Hawaii, approximately midway between the referring hospital and the receiving burn center. A method of creating a temporary burn center is described. Lessons learned, including the need to standardize equipment, and to cross-train and cross-credential medical personnel, are applicable to both military and civilian mass casualty management.

  7. MiRTE: Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game for Mass Casualty information systems design, testing and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game, MiRTE, that is used in the development, testing and training of Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) information systems for first responders. Using the Source game engine from Valve software, MiRTE creates immersive virtual environments to simulate various incident scenarios, and enables interactions between multiple players/first responders. What distinguishes it from a pure computer simulation game is that it can interface with external mass casualty incident management systems, such as DIORAMA. The game will enable system developers to specify technical requirements of underlying technology, and test different alternatives of design. After the information system hardware and software are completed, the game can simulate various algorithms such as localization technologies, and interface with an actual user interface on PCs and Smartphones. We implemented and tested the game with the DIORAMA system.

  8. Quantifying the causal effects of 20mph zones on road casualties in London via doubly robust estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haojie; Graham, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    This paper estimates the causal effect of 20mph zones on road casualties in London. Potential confounders in the key relationship of interest are included within outcome regression and propensity score models, and the models are then combined to form a doubly robust estimator. A total of 234 treated zones and 2844 potential control zones are included in the data sample. The propensity score model is used to select a viable control group which has common support in the covariate distributions. We compare the doubly robust estimates with those obtained using three other methods: inverse probability weighting, regression adjustment, and propensity score matching. The results indicate that 20mph zones have had a significant causal impact on road casualty reduction in both absolute and proportional terms.

  9. The effects of congestion charging on road traffic casualties: a causal analysis using difference-in-difference estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haojie; Graham, Daniel J; Majumdar, Arnab

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to identify the impacts of the London congestion charge on road casualties within the central London charging zone. It develops a full difference-in-difference (DID) model that is integrated with generalized linear models, such as Poisson and Negative Binomial regression models. Covariates are included in the model to adjust for factors that violate the parallel trend assumption, which is critical in the DID model. The lower Bayesian Information Criterion value suggests that the full difference-in-difference model performs well in evaluating the relationship between road accidents and the London congestion charge as well as other socio-economic factors. After adjusting for a time trend and regional effects, the results show that the introduction of the London congestion charge has a significant influence on the incidence of road casualties. The congestion charge reduces the total number of car accidents, but is associated with an increase in two wheeled vehicle accidents.

  10. Basic Disaster Life Support (BDLS) Training Improves First Responder Confidence to Face Mass-Casualty Incidents in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls, Deborah A; Chestovich, Paul J; Coule, Phillip; Carrison, Dale M; Chua, Charleston M; Wora-Urai, Nopadol; Kanchanarin, Tavatchai

    2017-10-01

    Medical response to mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) requires specialized training and preparation. Basic Disaster Life Support (BDLS) is a course designed to prepare health care workers for a MCI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the confidence of health care professionals in Thailand to face a MCI after participating in a BDLS course. Basic Disaster Life Support was taught to health care professionals in Thailand in July 2008. Demographics and medical experience were recorded, and participants rated their confidence before and after the course using a five-point Likert scale in 11 pertinent MCI categories. Survey results were compiled and compared with Pfirst responder confidence to face mass-casualty incidents in Thailand. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):492-500 .

  11. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  12. Research and Development of a Convertible Use Rapidly Expandable Model for Response to Disasters and Mass Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    were affected by a disaster. This is due to factors such as weather, rapid urbanization, poor land use, and environmental destruction . In addition, 98...including estimates of casualties, damage to properties, and the amount of resources required to mitigate the destruction and its aftermath...to ED peaked 2 to 3 hours after the event. Within in 12 hours 71% of 723 survivors of WTC attacks sought and received care. • Murrah Federal

  13. Management of Junctional Hemorrhage in Tactical Combat Casualty Care: TCCC Guidelines-Proposed Change 13-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    reasons. The casu- alty had bilateral traumatic amputations of his lower extremities. He was reported to be unresponsive with no carotid pulse at...proximal iliac ves- sels remotely to secure hemostasis in case of high leg amputation .”16 The application time of the CRoC should not exceed 4...Winter 2013 devices on casualties in the prehospital environment. The available evidence as discussed in this report are laboratory studies and case

  14. Assessment of Casualty Transport Equipment and Procedures Aboard U.S. Navy Submarines to Accommodate Anti-Shock Trousers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    maternal morbidity and mortality 11-17. Two case series reports from Pakistan in the early 2000s noted remarkable improvement in women with severe...the effect of the NIASG upon mortality and severe morbidity in maternal hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock (NCT: 00488462). Data collection for this...stretcher-bound casualty up to the sail deck. If, however, such a route is necessary due to sea state or other complication, protective padding for

  15. Public commemorations of Danish soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a point of departure in Denmark’s decision to use the armed forces as a tool of foreign policy, even when this implies deployment to regions where combat and casualties must be expected. Since war, combat, and violence contradict traditional self-understandings of being Danish....... All memorials, I argue, relate to a recent public discourse about the ‘war-fighting nation’ and the ‘warrior generation’. The national monument eschews references to war and violence to produce a national narrative focusing on ‘effort’ as the core collective value. One grassroots memorial subtly...... have been designed by the soldiers and their families, memorialize soldiers as professionals with a military belonging as well as persons with numerous social attachments. And they most directly address the war, violence, and suffering that the emergence of a ‘war-fighting nation’ and a ‘warrior...

  16. Reconsidering the Resources Needed for Multiple Casualty Events: Lessons Learned From the Crash of Asiana Airlines Flight 214.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Eric M; Juillard, Catherine; Knudson, M Margaret; Dicker, Rochelle; Cohen, Mitchell J; Mackersie, Robert; Campbell, Andre R; Callcut, Rachael A

    2016-06-01

    To date, a substantial portion of multiple casualty incident literature has focused exclusively on prehospital and emergency department resources needed for optimal disaster response. Thus, inpatient resources required to care for individuals injured in multiple casualty events are not well described. To highlight the resources beyond initial emergency department triage needed for multiple casualty events, using one of the largest commercial aviation disasters in modern US history as a case study. Prospective case series of injured individuals treated at an urban level I trauma center following the crash of Asiana Airlines flight 214 on July 6, 2013. This analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and December 1, 2015. Commercial jetliner crash. Medical records, imaging data, nursing overtime, blood bank records, and trauma registry data were analyzed. Disaster logs, patient injuries, and blood product data were prospectively collected during the incident. Among 307 people aboard the flight, 192 were injured; 63 of the injured patients were initially evaluated at San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center (the highest number at any of the receiving medical facilities; age range, 4-74 years [23 were aged 60 years]; median injury severity score of 19 admitted patients, 9 [range, 9-45]), including the highest number of critically injured patients (10 of 12). Despite the high impact of the crash, only 3 persons (Airlines flight 214 crash highlights the need to plan for high use of advanced imaging, blood products, operating room availability, nursing resources, and management of inpatient hospital beds.

  17. MarineCadastre.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MarineCadastre.gov is a marine information system that provides authoritative ocean data, offshore planning tools, and technical support to the offshore renewable...

  18. Mariner 10 Image Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mariner 10 Image Archive includes tools to view shaded relief maps of the surface of Mercury, a 3D globe, and all images acquired by NASA's Mariner 10 mission.

  19. Marine Jurisdiction Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Marine Jurisdiction dataset was created to assist in marine spatial planning and offshore alternative energy sitting. This is a...

  20. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  1. Tsunamis and marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.S.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean exerted far reaching temporal and spatial impacts on marine biota. Our synthesis was based on satellite data acquired by the Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics (LED) of the South...

  2. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut ...REPORT DATE 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

  3. 77 FR 21878 - Revisions of Boundaries for the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ..., etc.) voluntarily submitted by the commenter may be publicly accessible. Do not submit confidential... inclusion in the national marine sanctuary system could provide additional opportunities for tourism and...

  4. The Marine Realms Information Bank, a coastal and marine digital library at USGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.; Riall, Rebecca L.; Linck, Guthrie A.; Aldrich, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary of the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program that (1) prioritizes search and display of information by place (location on the Earth's surface), and (2) links information existing in distributed and independent sources. The MRIB aims to provide easy access to knowledge pertaining to the ocean and the associated atmospheric and terrestrial environments to scientists, decision-makers, and the interested members of the public.

  5. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150652 Jiang Yuxuan(Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology,Ministry of Education,Ocean University of China,Qingdao 266100,China);Xing Lei Study on the Degradation of Marine Sedimentary Organic Matter and Model Development(Marine Geology&Quaternary; Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(4),

  6. Enhancing Public Resilience to Mass-Casualty WMD Terrorism in the United States: Definitions, Challenges, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Psychological Bulletin (2001), 127(2):267-86. 53 Albert Bandura , “Exercise of Human Agency Through Collective Efficacy,” Current Directions in Psychological...either personal (“I can do something about this”) or vicarious (“Events are under control”) in nature, in keeping with Albert Bandura’s distinction

  7. Design of a model to predict surge capacity bottlenecks for burn mass casualties at a large academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abir, Mahshid; Davis, Matthew M; Sankar, Pratap; Wong, Andrew C; Wang, Stewart C

    2013-02-01

    To design and test a model to predict surge capacity bottlenecks at a large academic medical center in response to a mass-casualty incident (MCI) involving multiple burn victims. Using the simulation software ProModel, a model of patient flow and anticipated resource use, according to principles of disaster management, was developed based upon historical data from the University Hospital of the University of Michigan Health System. Model inputs included: (a) age and weight distribution for casualties, and distribution of size and depth of burns; (b) rate of arrival of casualties to the hospital, and triage to ward or critical care settings; (c) eligibility for early discharge of non-MCI inpatients at time of MCI; (d) baseline occupancy of intensive care unit (ICU), surgical step-down, and ward; (e) staff availability-number of physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists, and the expected ratio of each group to patients; (f) floor and operating room resources-anticipating the need for mechanical ventilators, burn care and surgical resources, blood products, and intravenous fluids; (g) average hospital length of stay and mortality rate for patients with inhalation injury and different size burns; and (h) average number of times that different size burns undergo surgery. Key model outputs include time to bottleneck for each limiting resource and average waiting time to hospital bed availability. Given base-case model assumptions (including 100 mass casualties with an inter-arrival rate to the hospital of one patient every three minutes), hospital utilization is constrained within the first 120 minutes to 21 casualties, due to the limited number of beds. The first bottleneck is attributable to exhausting critical care beds, followed by floor beds. Given this limitation in number of patients, the temporal order of the ensuing bottlenecks is as follows: Lactated Ringer's solution (4 h), silver sulfadiazine/Silvadene (6 h), albumin (48 h), thrombin topical (72 h), type

  8. Twelve cases of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki (especially seven atomic bombing casualty cases). [In Japanese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, M.; Yasuhi, S.; Ouchuru, S.

    1963-12-01

    Since 1958, there have been 12 cases of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki, and among them were 7 cases representing atomic bombing casualties, with 3 cases being with 2 km distance from the hypocenter. The age of onset was between 51 and 69 years, and the sex ratio was 8:4, it occurring mostly in males. Symptoms were predominantly low back pain and chest pain caused by the bone changes in 8 cases. Two cases complained of general malaise and palpitation which resulted from anemia. One developed persistent epistaris, and another complained of diplopia caused by the paralysis of the oculomotor nerve. Peripheral blood in all cases showed anemia, 9 with hyperchromic and 3 with normochromic or hypochromic anemia. Low platelet counts were seen in 3 cases. All showed leukopenia. All cases showed typical ..gamma..-globulin change with a myeloma peak, and in 4 cases showed an increase of ..beta..-globulin. Bence-Jones proteinuria was present in 5 cases. Average course was 1 year 4 months. Among complications, myeloma nephrosis, aplastic anemia, and pneumonia were the most important ones.

  9. A lightning multiple casualty incident in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Susanne J; Campagne, Danielle; Stroh, Geoff; Shalit, Marc

    2015-03-01

    Multiple casualty incidents (MCIs) are uncommon in remote wilderness settings. This is a case report of a lightning strike on a Boy Scout troop hiking through Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI), in which the lightning storm hindered rescue efforts. The purpose of this study was to review the response to a lightning-caused MCI in a wilderness setting, address lightning injury as it relates to field management, and discuss evacuation options in inclement weather incidents occurring in remote locations. An analysis of SEKI search and rescue data and a review of current literature were performed. A lightning strike at 10,600 feet elevation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains affected a party of 5 adults and 7 Boy Scouts (age range 12 to 17 years old). Resources mobilized for the rescue included 5 helicopters, 2 ambulances, 2 hospitals, and 15 field and 14 logistical support personnel. The incident was managed from strike to scene clearance in 4 hours and 20 minutes. There were 2 fatalities, 1 on scene and 1 in the hospital. Storm conditions complicated on-scene communication and evacuation efforts. Exposure to ongoing lightning and a remote wilderness location affected both victims and rescuers in a lightning MCI. Helicopters, the main vehicles of wilderness rescue in SEKI, can be limited by weather, daylight, and terrain. Redundancies in communication systems are vital for episodes of radio failure. Reverse triage should be implemented in lightning injury MCIs. Education of both wilderness travelers and rescuers regarding these issues should be pursued.

  10. Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay for dose assessment in mass casualty accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Carita; Stricklin, Daniela; Jaworska, Alicja; Koivistoinen, Armi; Paile, Wendla; Arvidsson, Eva; Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The study was undertaken to establish a dose calibration curve for a practical PCC ring assay and to apply it in a simulated mass casualty accident. The PCC assay was validated against the conventional dicentric assay. A linear relationship was established for PCC rings after (60)Co gamma irradiation with doses up to 20 Gy. In the simulated accident experiment, 62 blood samples were analyzed with both the PCC ring assay and the conventional dicentric assay, applying a triage approach. Samples received various uniform and non-uniform (10-40% partial-body) irradiations up to doses of 13 Gy. The results indicated that both assays yielded good dose estimates for the whole-body exposure scenario, although in the lower-dose range (0-6 Gy) dicentric scoring resulted in more accurate whole-body estimates, whereas PCC rings were better in the high-dose range (>6 Gy). Neither assay was successful in identifying partial-body exposures, most likely due to the low numbers of cells scored in the triage mode. In conclusion, the study confirmed that the PCC ring assay is suitable for use as a biodosimeter after whole-body exposure to high doses of radiation. However, there are limitations for its use in the triage of people exposed to high, partial-body doses.

  11. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission–Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United States. Thanks to the cooperation of the survivors and the contributions of a multitude of scientists, these studies flourish to this day in what must be the most successful long-term research collaboration between the two countries. Although these studies are necessarily limited to the effects of acute, whole-body, mixed gamma-neutron radiation from the atom bombs, their comprehensiveness and duration make them the most definitive descriptions of the late effects of radiation in humans. For this reason, the entire world relies heavily on these data to set radiation standards. As vital as the study results are, they still represent primarily the effects of radiation on older survivors. Another decade or two should correct this deficiency and allow us to measure definitively the human risk of heritable mutation from radiation. We look to the worldwide radiation and risk community as well as to the survivors who have contributed so much to what has been done already to accomplish this goal. PMID:9576897

  12. Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Wound Isolates of Obligate Anaerobes from Combat Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brian K.; Mende, Katrin; Weintrob, Amy C.; Beckius, Miriam L.; Zera, Wendy C.; Lu, Dan; Bradley, William; Tribble, David R.; Schnaubelt, Elizabeth R.; Murray, Clinton K.

    2015-01-01

    Data from recent conflicts related to war wounds and obligate anaerobes are limited. We define the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of obligate anaerobes from Iraq and Afghanistan casualties (6/2009–12/2013), as well as their association with clinical outcomes. Susceptibility against eleven antibiotics (7 classes) was tested. Overall, 59 patients had 119 obligate anaerobes identified (83 were first isolates). Obligate anaerobes were isolated 7–13 days post-injury, primarily from lower extremity wounds (43%), and were largely Bacteroides spp. (42%) and Clostridium spp. (19%). Patients with pelvic wounds were more likely to have Bacteroides spp. and concomitant resistant gram-negative aerobes. Seventy-three percent of isolates were resistant to ≥1 antimicrobials. Bacteroides spp. demonstrated the most resistance (16% of first isolates). Patients with resistant isolates had similar outcomes to those with susceptible strains. Serial recovery of isolates occurred in 15% of patients and was significantly associated with isolation of Bacteroides spp., along with resistant gram-negative aerobes. PMID:26607420

  13. The Internet's effect on personality traits: An important casualty of the "Internet addiction" paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims The "Internet addiction" paradigm has been criticized for several shortcomings, including inattention to specific online behaviors, not distinguishing the Internet from other media, insufficient focus on comorbidities, and definitions that do not take into account the constant access now possible. The paradigm's biggest casualty, however, may be that it has diverted attention away from subtle personality changes that seem to occur online, including in users who cannot be considered "addicted" under any definition. Methods A narrative assessment of the literature was conducted, focusing on the Internet's effects on personality traits as revealed in studies of Internet users. Results Impulsivity, narcissism, and aggression are some of the personality traits that seem to be nurtured by the Internet, with possible negative offline consequences. Discussion Ignoring the Internet's subtle effects on personality as we embrace an addiction model that implies severe pathology makes the majority of Internet users feel deceptively immune to the psychological effects of new technologies. It also limits our understanding of the big cultural shifts that are happening as a result. Conclusion The Internet's potentially negative effect on personality, and by extension on society at large, is a fundamental part of online psychology, one well worthy of further investigation.

  14. Interlaboratory comparison of the dicentric chromosome assay for radiation biodosimetry in mass casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ruth C; Romm, Horst; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Awa, Akio A; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A; Livingston, Gordon K; Jenkins, Mark S; Oestreicher, Ursula; Pellmar, Terry C; Prasanna, Pataje G S

    2008-05-01

    This interlaboratory comparison validates the dicentric chromosome assay for assessing radiation dose in mass casualty accidents and identifies the advantages and limitations of an international biodosimetry network. The assay's validity and accuracy were determined among five laboratories following the International Organization for Standardization guidelines. Blood samples irradiated at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute were shipped to all laboratories, which constructed individual radiation calibration curves and assessed the dose to dose-blinded samples. Each laboratory constructed a dose-effect calibration curve for the yield of dicentrics for (60)Co gamma rays in the 0 to 5-Gy range, using the maximum likelihood linear-quadratic model, Y = c + alphaD + betaD(2). For all laboratories, the estimated coefficients of the fitted curves were within the 99.7% confidence intervals (CIs), but the observed dicentric yields differed. When each laboratory assessed radiation doses to four dose-blinded blood samples by comparing the observed dicentric yield with the laboratory's own calibration curve, the estimates were accurate in all laboratories at all doses. For all laboratories, actual doses were within the 99.75% CI for the assessed dose. Across the dose range, the error in the estimated doses, compared to the physical doses, ranged from 15% underestimation to 15% overestimation.

  15. Data collection in a live mass casualty incident simulation: automated RFID technology versus manually recorded system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Carenzo, Luca; Barra, Federico Lorenzo; Colombo, Davide; Ragazzoni, Luca; Tengattini, Marco; Prato, Federico; Geddo, Alessandro; Della Corte, Francesco

    2012-02-01

    To demonstrate the applicability and the reliability of a radio frequency identification (RFID) system to collect data during a live exercise. A rooftop collapse of a crowded building was simulated. Fifty-three volunteers were trained to perform as smart victims, simulating clinical conditions, using dynamic data cards, and capturing delay times and triage codes. Every victim was also equipped with a RFID tag. RFID antenna was placed at the entrance of the advanced medical post (AMP) and emergency department (ED) and recorded casualties entering the hospital. A total of 12 victims entered AMP and 31 victims were directly transferred to the ED. 100% (12 of 12 and 31 of 31) of the time cards reported a manually written hospital admission time. No failures occurred in tag reading or data transfers. A correlation analysis was performed between the two methods plotting the paired RFID and manual times and resulted in a r=0.977 for the AMP and r=0.986 for the ED with a P value of less than 0.001. We confirmed the applicability of RFID system to the collection of time delays. Its use should be investigated in every aspect of data collection (triage, treatments) during a disaster exercise.

  16. Medical examination of A-bomb survivors on Nagasaki A-bomb Casualty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, Masuko [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Casualty Council (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    Medical examination of A-bomb survivors was described and discussed on history, time change of examinee number, action for subjects not examined, change of prevalence, cancer examination, examination for the second generation, and education and enlightenment. Free examination of the survivors was begun in 1953 and the present casualty was made in 1958 on the law for medical care for the survivors. Systematic examination started from 1967 and the examination for the 2nd generation, from 1974. Cancer examination was from 1988. The number of the survivors was the maximum of 82,439 in 1974 and decreased to 61,388 in 1994, when the actual number of examinees, which being rather settled recently, was 32,294 and their average age was 64 y. The examination is done by tour or at the Center. Subjects receive the information of the examination twice by mail. Hematopoietic diseases like anemia, hepatic ones, metabolic and endocrinic ones like diabetes, renal impairment and others (mostly hyperlipidemia) are increasing recently. The number of examinees for cancer is increasing. Lung cancer is examined by the direct roentgenography, gastric cancer by transillumination, and other cancers like myeloma, those in large bowel, uterus and mammary gland, by the respective suitable methods. Health education and enlightenment have been conceivably effective. (H.O.)

  17. Factor analysis of fatal road traffic crashes with massive casualties in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Factor analysis refers to a collection of statistical methods for reducing correlational data into a smaller number of dimensions or factors. In this study, factor analysis theory was used to determine the main influential factors of road traffic crashes with massive casualties. Twenty variables related to personnel, vehicles, roads, and environment were collected, and the significance of their correlations was tested for validity. A correlation coefficient matrix R was calculated, and its latent root λ was obtained based on the characteristic equation. A number of common factors were determined according to the value of latent root λ . Factor loading was used to express the relationship of each variable to the underlying main influential factors. An index system of accident factors was developed based on the results of factor loading, and the weight of each factor was calculated to classify the factor influence. The main influential factors of accidents were determined to be fault behavior, driving experience, condition of vehicle safety, purpose of vehicle, road lighting, driver, road surface condition, roadside protection facilities, and road terrain.

  18. Assessment of the Casualty Risk of Multiple Meteorological Hazards in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A study of the frequency, intensity, and risk of extreme climatic events or natural hazards is important for assessing the impacts of climate change. Many models have been developed to assess the risk of multiple hazards, however, most of the existing approaches can only model the relative levels of risk. This paper reports the development of a method for the quantitative assessment of the risk of multiple hazards based on information diffusion. This method was used to assess the risks of loss of human lives from 11 types of meteorological hazards in China at the prefectural and provincial levels. Risk curves of multiple hazards were obtained for each province and the risks of 10-year, 20-year, 50-year, and 100-year return periods were mapped. The results show that the provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions in southeastern China are at higher risk of multiple meteorological hazards as a result of their geographical location and topography. The results of this study can be used as references for the management of meteorological disasters in China. The model can be used to quantitatively calculate the risks of casualty, direct economic losses, building collapse, and agricultural losses for any hazards at different spatial scales.

  19. Performance and reliability of the CPB/ECMO Initiative Forward Lines Casualty Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Fernando; Reeves, Andrew; Dudzinski, David; Weber, Stephan; Lorenz, Markus; Akiyama, Masatoshi; Kamohara, Keiji; Kopcak, Michael; Ootaki, Yoshio; Zahr, Firas; Sinkewich, Martin; Foster, Robert; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Smith, William A

    2005-01-01

    The Cleveland Clinic Foundation CPB/ECMO Initiative Forward Casualty Management System is an economical, compact, transportable, disposable system designed to permit a rapid expansion of trauma management services requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) pulmonary support. The system, composed of a rotary blood pump, a pump motor driver, and an electronic control console as the blood pumping subsystem, also includes commonly used compatible commercial oxygenators, venous reservoirs, and cannulae. In vitro durability testing accumulated over 100 hours without failure. In vivo reliability was tested in 10 calves under general anesthesia during 6 hours of CPB and ECMO under full heparinization at nominal operating conditions of 4-5 l/min and 2-4 l/min blood flow respectively, and mean arterial pressures between 65 and 100 mm Hg. A mean time to failure of 57 hours was reached during the animal series. Results of these test series demonstrated that this system has the capability to reliably operate during a 6-hour conventional CPB or ECMO procedure, while providing flexibility and ease of use for the operator.

  20. Evaluation of disaster preparedness for mass casualty incidents in private hospitals in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Shalhoub, Abdullah A; Khan, Anas A; Alaska, Yaser A

    2017-03-01

    To identify and describe the hospital disaster preparedness (HDP) in major private hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional survey study performed in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and April 2016. Thirteen major private hospitals in Riyadh with more than 100 beds capacity were included in this investigation. Results: The 13 hospitals had HDP plan and reported to have an HDP committee. In 12 (92.3%) hospitals, the HDP covered both internal and external disasters and HDP was available in every department of the hospital. There were agreements with other hospitals to accept patients during disasters in 9 facilities (69.2%) while 4 (30.8%) did not have such agreement. None of the hospitals conducted any unannounced exercises in previous year.  Conclusion: Most of the weaknesses were apparent particularly in the education, training and monitoring of the hospital staff to the preparedness for disaster emergency occasion. Few hospitals had conducted an exercise with casualties, few had drilled evacuation of staff and patients in the last 12 months, and none had any unannounced exercise in the last year.

  1. Mass casualty events: blood transfusion emergency preparedness across the continuum of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Heidi; Glasgow, Simon; Kristoffersen, Einar

    2016-04-01

    Transfusion support is a key enabler to the response to mass casualty events (MCEs). Transfusion demand and capability planning should be an integrated part of the medical planning process for emergency system preparedness. Historical reviews have recently supported demand planning for MCEs and mass gatherings; however, computer modeling offers greater insights for resource management. The challenge remains balancing demand and supply especially the demand for universal components such as group O red blood cells. The current prehospital and hospital capability has benefited from investment in the management of massive hemorrhage. The management of massive hemorrhage should address both hemorrhage control and hemostatic support. Labile blood components cannot be stockpiled and a large surge in demand is a challenge for transfusion providers. The use of blood components may need to be triaged and demand managed. Two contrasting models of transfusion planning for MCEs are described. Both illustrate an integrated approach to preparedness where blood transfusion services work closely with health care providers and the donor community. Preparedness includes appropriate stock management and resupply from other centers. However, the introduction of alternative transfusion products, transfusion triage, and the greater use of an emergency donor panel to provide whole blood may permit greater resilience.

  2. Global Earthquake Casualties due to Secondary Effects: A Quantitative Analysis for Improving PAGER Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a quantitative and geospatial description of global losses due to earthquake-induced secondary effects, including landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and fire for events during the past 40 years. These processes are of great importance to the US Geological Survey’s (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, which is currently being developed to deliver rapid earthquake impact and loss assessments following large/significant global earthquakes. An important question is how dominant are losses due to secondary effects (and under what conditions, and in which regions)? Thus, which of these effects should receive higher priority research efforts in order to enhance PAGER’s overall assessment of earthquakes losses and alerting for the likelihood of secondary impacts? We find that while 21.5% of fatal earthquakes have deaths due to secondary (non-shaking) causes, only rarely are secondary effects the main cause of fatalities. The recent 2004 Great Sumatra–Andaman Islands earthquake is a notable exception, with extraordinary losses due to tsunami. The potential for secondary hazards varies greatly, and systematically, due to regional geologic and geomorphic conditions. Based on our findings, we have built country-specific disclaimers for PAGER that address potential for each hazard (Earle et al., Proceedings of the 14th World Conference of the Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 2008). We will now focus on ways to model casualties from secondary effects based on their relative importance as well as their general predictability.

  3. Global earthquake casualties due to secondary effects: A quantitative analysis for improving rapid loss analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, K.D.; Wald, D.J.; Allen, T.I.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a quantitative and geospatial description of global losses due to earthquake-induced secondary effects, including landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and fire for events during the past 40 years. These processes are of great importance to the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, which is currently being developed to deliver rapid earthquake impact and loss assessments following large/significant global earthquakes. An important question is how dominant are losses due to secondary effects (and under what conditions, and in which regions)? Thus, which of these effects should receive higher priority research efforts in order to enhance PAGER's overall assessment of earthquakes losses and alerting for the likelihood of secondary impacts? We find that while 21.5% of fatal earthquakes have deaths due to secondary (non-shaking) causes, only rarely are secondary effects the main cause of fatalities. The recent 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake is a notable exception, with extraordinary losses due to tsunami. The potential for secondary hazards varies greatly, and systematically, due to regional geologic and geomorphic conditions. Based on our findings, we have built country-specific disclaimers for PAGER that address potential for each hazard (Earle et al., Proceedings of the 14th World Conference of the Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 2008). We will now focus on ways to model casualties from secondary effects based on their relative importance as well as their general predictability. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  4. 75 FR 53271 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15271

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... are available for review by selecting ``Records Open for Public Comment'' from the Features box on the...) determine types of acoustic behavior of marine mammals (primarily cetaceans) and how acoustic signals...

  5. Distribution and diversity of marine natural products from Indonesian marine organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masteria Yunovilsa Putra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the distribution and diversity of species and isolated molecules, according to their structure classes, from Indonesian marine organisms. Methods: This study was performed by using the SciFinder® database, MarinLit and references from relevant articles from 1980 to 2014 which collected all the scientific publications dealing with the isolation of chemical compounds from Indonesian marine macroorganisms and microorganisms. Results: The discovery of novel compounds from Indonesian marine organisms gave us a result of a total of 78 papers. Alkaloids, terpenoids and peptides (84, 67 and 15 new compounds, respectively represented the three main chemical classes of compounds discovered from Indonesian marine organisms, and together with the other chemical classes showed a range of biological activities. Conclusions: The new marine compounds are mainly from sponges and soft corals. Alkaloids, terpenoids and peptides are the most prolific compounds isolated from Indonesian marine organisms. Most marine natural products from Indonesian organisms have been screened for anticancer or cytotoxicity activities.

  6. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  7. Predicting the Ability of Marine Mammal Populations to Compensate for Behavioral Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FINAL REPORT PREDICTING THE ABILITY OF MARINE MAMMAL ...help determine the ability of marine mammal populations to respond to behavioral disturbances. These tools are to be generic and applicable in a...population scale consequences. OBJECTIVES  Develop simple, generic measures that allow the estimation of marine mammal populations and individuals

  8. Marine Corps Intelligence for War as It Really Is

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    EDGAR LEARD June 1991 Thesis Advisor: Thomas B, Grassey Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 92-06393 Unclassified Security...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited MARINE CORPS INTELLIGENCE FOR WAR AS IT REALLY IS by Thomas Edgar Leard Captain, United States Marine...computer that will be the primary data entry device for all automated intelligence information systems (Kane & Morin , 1989, pp. 57-58). It weighs 35

  9. The Danish marine monitoring program 2011-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Würgler; Fossing, Henrik

    , and effect of hazardous substances. Additionally, oxygen depletion in Danish marine waters has special focus owing to both public and political awareness and as a proxy for nutrient enrichment. Through monitoring activities a comprehensive database has been established over decades and gained knowledge has...... focusing on the Water Framework Directive, the Habitats Directive, the Shellfish Water Directive, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and various international conventions (in particular OSPAR and HELCOM). This presentation outlines purpose, scope and elements of the Danish marine monitoring program i.......e. selected parameters, sampling frequencies and number and location of stations. Further, necessary adjustments to fulfil the monitoring requirements of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive are discussed....

  10. An overview of Chilean Marine Sciences Journals

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The work provides a global vision of Chilean marine sciences journals, besides the problems that have existed in relation to their edition and publication. In spite of being serious publications with rich scientific content related to the study area, mainly along the coast of the eastern South Pacific, these journals have not reached the expected levels to be considered within the ISI system journals. With the purpose of obtaining an objective appreciation in regard to the presentation format...

  11. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  12. Chemical ecology of marine plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Emily R; Poulin, Remington X; Mojib, Nazia; Kubanek, Julia

    2016-07-28

    Covering: January 2013 to online publication December 2014This review summarizes recent research in the chemical ecology of marine pelagic ecosystems, and aims to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the field in the time period covered. In order to highlight the role of chemical cues and toxins in plankton ecology this review has been organized by ecological interaction types starting with intraspecific interactions, then interspecific interactions (including facilitation and mutualism, host-parasite, allelopathy, and predator-prey), and finally community and ecosystem-wide interactions.

  13. Conserving endangered marine organisms: causes, trends and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambariyanto

    2017-02-01

    Increasing demand for marine resources in recent decades for human needs has led to intensified exploitation. This increase accelerates the process of extinction of various marine resources. In order to avoid extinction, it requires conservation measures of marine resources appropriately. This paper provides an overview of causes of extinction, trends and challenges in the conservation of endangered marine organisms. The success of conservation measures is highly dependent on various stakeholders such as governments, communities, the private sector and academics. Differences of the interest of these parties often lead to the failure of conservation programs. In general there is an increasing public awareness of the importance of protecting the diversity of marine resources and avoiding extinction of marine organisms, especially endangered organisms. The existence of comprehensive actions, legislation and improved coordination among government, community, private sector, and academics will significantly improve the success in overcoming all the challenges.

  14. The effects of terrorism on adult mental health: a public health preparedness approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera S. Karnik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a disruptive man--‐made disaster event challenging human health and wellbeing. It is a hostile activity which brings about much casualty, even death. It not only causes physical casualties but also brings about psychological morbidity and can lead to long term mental disorders. The effects of terrorist attacks on people’s psychological health covers a wide range such as acute stress symptoms to long term disorders like Post--‐traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The psychological disorder due to traumatic distress is treated with psychotherapies such as psychosocial intervention, psychological debriefing, psychological first aid care, psychological counseling services, and psychoeducation. Government is supporting state and local public health departments to develop efficient public health preparedness planning programs in case of emergency situations. There are some newer approaches working towards enhancing health security and managing responses to a psychological impact of a disaster event like a terrorist attack.

  15. Major Incident Hospital: Development of a Permanent Facility for Management of Incident Casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marres, Geertruid; Bemelman, Michael; van der Eijk, John; Leenen, Luke

    2009-06-01

    Preparation is essential to cope with the challenge of providing optimal care when there is a sudden, unexpected surge of casualties due to a disaster or major incident. By definition, the requirements of such cases exceed the standard care facilities of hospitals in qualitative or quantitative respects and interfere with the care of regular patients. To meet the growing demands to be prepared for disasters, a permanent facility to provide structured, prepared relief in such situations was developed. A permanent but reserved Major Incident Hospital (MIH) has been developed through cooperation between a large academic medical institution, a trauma center, a military hospital, and the National Poison Information Centre (NVIC). The infrastructure, organization, support systems, training and systematic working methods of the MIH are designed to create order in a chaotic, unexpected situation and to optimize care and logistics in any possible scenario. Focus points are: patient flow and triage, registration, communication, evaluation and training. Research and the literature are used to identify characteristic pitfalls due to the chaos associated with and the unexpected nature of disasters, and to adapt our organization. At the MIH, the exceptional has become the core business, and preparation for disaster and large-scale emergency care is a daily occupation. An Emergency Response Protocol enables admittance to the normally dormant hospital of up to 100 (in exceptional cases even 300) patients after a start-up time of only 15 min. The Patient Barcode Registration System (PBR) with EAN codes guarantees quick and adequate registration of patient data in order to facilitate good medical coordination and follow-up during a major incident. The fact that the hospital is strictly reserved for this type of care guarantees availability and minimizes impact on normal care. When it is not being used during a major incident, there is time to address training and research

  16. Rural casualty crashes on the Kings Highway: A new approach for road safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alian, Sahar; Baker, R G V; Wood, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    This paper will consider the contribution that changes in road geometry and driver visual information make to the incidence and distribution of road casualties in different driving environments. This relationship will be explored specifically for the Kings Highway, a major arterial road connecting Queanbeyan with coastal southern New South Wales, Australia. It introduces and suggests a new empirical approach of plotting crashes with road segmentation, calculating sinuosity indices and grades as key features of road geometry, and critical visual points as a behavioural component of road curvature, within a GIS context. It is an approach that might be used when detailed road geometry data is not available. The visualisation and segmentation approach in this research might be used for summarising crash rates and road geometry factors, and for comparing day/night and eastbound/westbound driving conditions. The results suggest some early interpretations for detailed road safety studies that might be considered at local or national levels. The rate of crashes increases according to changes in road geometry factors during the day and for eastbound travel. This is not the case for night driving where the incidence of crashes is similar on both straight and curved roads segments due to the headlight effect and limited background visual field. Crash clusters at day-time may be due to the stronger effect of road geometry (e.g. combination of curvature and vertical grade) on driver behaviour travelling eastbound. The outcomes suggest that it might be essential to consider the effect of environmental factors in any road safety and crash analysis studies.

  17. Sample tracking in an automated cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory for radiation mass casualties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.R.; Berdychevski, R.E.; Subramanian, U.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Prasanna, P.G.S. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: prasanna@afrri.usuhs.mil

    2007-07-15

    Chromosome-aberration-based dicentric assay is expected to be used after mass-casualty life-threatening radiation exposures to assess radiation dose to individuals. This will require processing of a large number of samples for individual dose assessment and clinical triage to aid treatment decisions. We have established an automated, high-throughput, cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory to process a large number of samples for conducting the dicentric assay using peripheral blood from exposed individuals according to internationally accepted laboratory protocols (i.e., within days following radiation exposures). The components of an automated cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory include blood collection kits for sample shipment, a cell viability analyzer, a robotic liquid handler, an automated metaphase harvester, a metaphase spreader, high-throughput slide stainer and coverslipper, a high-throughput metaphase finder, multiple satellite chromosome-aberration analysis systems, and a computerized sample-tracking system. Laboratory automation using commercially available, off-the-shelf technologies, customized technology integration, and implementation of a laboratory information management system (LIMS) for cytogenetic analysis will significantly increase throughput. This paper focuses on our efforts to eliminate data-transcription errors, increase efficiency, and maintain samples' positive chain-of-custody by sample tracking during sample processing and data analysis. This sample-tracking system represents a 'beta' version, which can be modeled elsewhere in a cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory, and includes a customized LIMS with a central server, personal computer workstations, barcode printers, fixed station and wireless hand-held devices to scan barcodes at various critical steps, and data transmission over a private intra-laboratory computer network. Our studies will improve diagnostic biodosimetry response, aid confirmation of clinical triage, and

  18. Multidisciplinary team response to a mass burn casualty event: outcomes and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Heather J; Proud, David; Spinks, Anneliese; Wasiak, Jason

    2011-06-06

    To describe the characteristics of patients with burn injury admitted to a major trauma hospital in Melbourne following the Black Saturday bushfires of 7 February 2009, and to provide a detailed analysis of the hospital's response to the crisis. A retrospective chart review of ambulance and hospital records of patients admitted to the Victorian Adult Burns Service (VABS) at The Alfred Hospital (The Alfred) following the bushfires. Patient characteristics and outcomes: age, sex, total and full thickness body surface area burnt, type and site of burn, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay (LOS) and receipt of standard burn care practices. Estimated glomerular filtration rate, theatre time and LOS data for the bushfire cohort compared with corresponding data for historical cohorts from VABS and from a similar institution in New Zealand. Nineteen patients were admitted to VABS over the first 48 hours after the bushfires. Of these, nine patients were subsequently admitted to The Alfred's intensive care unit. Most patients (74%) were men with a mean age of 52.7 years (SD, 12.4 years). Seventeen patients (89%) underwent at least one surgical procedure, which resulted in 4355 minutes of theatre time for the bushfire cohort in the first week. Hospital LOS was similar for the bushfire and New Zealand cohorts. Compared with the VABS historical cohort, there was a higher incidence of abnormal renal function among the bushfire cohort patients. Although relatively few patients with severe burns were admitted to VABS, significant increases in resource allocation were required to manage them in terms of additional theatre time, consumables and staffing. The experience of VABS may aid planning for future mass burns casualty events.

  19. Organization and implementation of medical rescue of mass casualties during earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-ling ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, there were more than 40 earthquakes greater than 7 magnitude occurred worldwide, 10 of which in China, which killed 600 thousand people accounting for 53% of global earthquake deaths. On May 12, 2008, an 8.0-magnitude earthquake occurred in Wenchuan, Sichuan Province, causing 69000 deaths, 18000 missings, and 370000 injuries. Among 10 thousand severe injuries, most were traumatic injuries, 74% of which were fracture. On April 14, 2010, a 7.1-magnitude earthquake occurred in Yushu, Qinghai Province. There were 2698 deaths, 270 missings and 11000 injuries. Among 3100 severe injuries, fracture accounted for 58.4%. After each earthquake, the Chinese Army Medical Services took actions and made quick response according to the law. They sent out elites with efficient command and scientific organization, fully participating in the medical rescue operations. After Wenchuan earthquake, 397 mobile medical service units and 7061 health workers were sent out. A total of 69000 people were treated, and 22000 cases of surgeries were performed. After Yushu earthquake, a total of 25 mobile medical service units and 2025 health workers were sent. They performed 1635 cases of surgeries with a miracle of "zero death" in mass earthquake casualties and altitude diseases in cold highlands. After each earthquake, injuries cured within 1 week accounted for 60% of the total, and patients evacuated accounted for 80% of the total, which owed to the effective first aid in site of Chinese Army Medical Service. They effectively played the role as the main force, making significant contributions for the final victory of earthquake relief. From the practice of medical rescue revelation after the two earthquakes, what Chinese Army Medical Services Services learned are: firstly, the theory of medical relief should be innovated; secondly, military and civilian organizations should be coordinated; thirdly, professional rescue force should be strengthened

  20. Introduction to the symposium "New frontiers from marine snakes to marine ecosystems".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Brischoux, François

    2012-08-01

    Interest in sea snakes and mythological "sea serpents" dates to ancient times and is represented in the writings of Aristotle, early voyagers, and explorers, and references in the Bible. Since then, awareness of the myriad species of snakes inhabiting the oceans has grown at a gradual pace. Scientific investigations into the biology of marine snakes-especially those in behavior, physiology, and other disciplines requiring living animals or tissues-have been comparatively challenging owing to difficulties in acquiring, transporting, handling, and husbanding these secondarily marine vertebrates. A broadening perspective with increasing interest in these animals peaked during the 1960s and 1970s, and literature from this period contributed to a growing knowledge that marine snakes comprise a very diverse fauna and are a significant part of marine ecosystems. Two persons figured prominently as influential drivers of research on sea snakes during this period, namely William Dunson and Harold Heatwole, and this symposium recognizes the contributions of these two individuals. Following a decline in scientific publications on sea snakes during the 1980s and 1990s, there has been a renaissance of scientific interest in recent years, and a wealth of new research findings has improved the understanding of phylogeny and diversity of marine snakes while simultaneously recognizing threats to marine ecosystems arising from climate change and other anthropogenic causes. The purposes of the symposium are to (1) illustrate the importance and relevance of sea snakes as contributors to better understanding a range of issues in marine biology, (2) establish and promote the use of marine systems as models for investigating conceptual issues related to environment, changing climate, and persistence of biological communities, with focus on marine snakes as novel or useful examples, (3) promote interest in sea snakes as useful organisms for study by scientists in a range of disciplines who

  1. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  2. Building vulnerability and human casualty estimation for a pyroclastic flow: a model and its application to Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Robin J. S.; Baxter, Peter J.; Zuccaro, Giulio

    2004-05-01

    human casualties would occur were identified, and estimates were made of the relationship between casualty rates and environmental conditions for each casualty type. In the fourth part of the study, the assumed casualty rates were used to estimate the proportions of occupants who would be killed or seriously injured for the assumed pyroclastic flow scenario in the Vesuvian villages studied, and their distribution by distance from the vent. It was estimated that in a daytime eruption, 25 min after the start of the eruption, there would be 480 deaths and a further 190 serious injuries, for every 1000 remaining in the area. In a night-time scenario, there would be 360 deaths with a further 230 serious injuries per 1000 after the same time interval. Finally, a set of risk factors for casualties was identified, and factors were discussed and ranked for their mitigation impact in the eruption scenario. The most effective mitigation action would of course be total evacuation before the start of the eruption. But if this were not achieved, barred window openings or sealed openings to slow the ingress of hot gases, together with a reduction of the fire load, could be effective means of reducing casualty levels.

  3. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  4. Biotechnology of marine fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damare, Samir; Singh, Purnima; Raghukumar, Seshagiri

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still relatively unexplored group in biotechnology. Taxonomic and habitat diversity form the basis for exploration of marine fungal biotechnology. This review covers what is known of the potential applications of obligate and marine-derived fungi obtained from coastal to the oceanic and shallow water to the deep-sea habitats. Recent studies indicate that marine fungi are potential candidates for novel enzymes, bioremediation, biosurfactants, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites. Future studies that focus on culturing rare and novel marine fungi, combined with knowledge of their physiology and biochemistry will provide a firm basis for marine mycotechnology.

  5. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Science Center, Newport, OR has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine mammals... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations...

  6. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Netz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed.

  7. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magera, Anna M; Mills Flemming, Joanna E; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B; Lotze, Heike K

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased study of

  8. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Magera

    Full Text Available Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1 publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2 abundance trends and recovery status, and (3 historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%, Significantly Decreasing (10%, Non-Significant Change (28% and Unknown (20%. Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47, larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular

  9. MarineMap: Web-Based Technology for Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, W.; Ferdana, Z.; Merrifield, M.; Steinback, C.; Marinemap Consortium

    2010-12-01

    Science, technology and stakeholder engagement are at the heart of marine spatial planning (MSP). Yet, most stakeholders are not scientists or technologists. MarineMap (http://northcoast.marinemap.org) is a web-based decision support tool developed specifically for use by non-technical stakeholders in marine protected area (MPA) planning. However, MarineMap has been developed so that it may be extended to virtually any MSP project where there is a need for (a) visualization and analysis of geospatial data, (b) siting prospective use areas (e.g., for wind or wave energy sites, MPAs, transportation routes), (c) collaboration and communication amongst stakeholders, and (d) transparency of the process to the public. MarineMap is extremely well documented, is based on free and open source technologies and, therefore, may be implemented by anyone without licensing fees. Furthermore, the underlying technologies are extremely flexible and extensible, making it ideal for incorporating new models (e.g., tradeoff analyses, cumulative impacts, etc.) as they are identified for specific MSP projects. We will demonstrate how MarineMap has been developed for MPA planning in California, human impact assessment and MSP on the West Coast, energy and conservation planning in Oregon, and explain how interested parties may access MarineMap's source code and contribute to development.

  10. Parasites and marine invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  11. Marine Ecological Regions 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This shapefile was screen digitized from 'Calecoregions1.jpg' a georectified digital image of the original map of California's ecoregions, including the marine...

  12. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  13. Part II. Work hardening for warriors: Training military Occupational Therapy professionals in the management of combat stress casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Valerie J.; Gerardi, Steve M.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the training of military occupational therapy personnel in a unique application of their professional skills. Ergonomic principles of training for stressful environments were implemented to ensure training effectiveness and transfer of skills to combat situations. Training schedules, casualty role-play scenarios, critical incident stress debriefing principles and scenarios, unit survey guidelines, and premises for training persons to function under stressful conditions are provided. Comparisons with civilian applications are drawn, and suggestions for future roles and training for Occupational Therapy professionals are given.

  14. Physiologic Waveform Analysis for Early Detection of Hemorrhage during Transport and Higher Echelon Medical Care of Combat Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    compensatory reserve index for predicting which casualties are in imminent danger of cardiovascular collapse and (b) application of the techniques to the...second dog; norepi- nephrine and xylazine in the third dog; saline and progressive hem- orrhage in the fourth dog; verapamil and high-rate pacing in the...0 113 1 Norepinephrine 134 15 162 22 55 11 117 13 Xylazine 65 8 78 8 25 1 100 10 Saline 98 1 119 1 45 1 137 1 Hemorrhage 66 5 80 5 25 1 105 4

  15. 36 CFR 3.13 - What conditions apply to the use of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What conditions apply to the use of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)? 3.13 Section 3.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... to the use of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)? (a) Discharging sewage from any vessel,...

  16. 成批烧伤救治50年%Experiences in rescue and treatment of mass burn casualties in fifty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周一平

    2008-01-01

    The article reviewed the history and the main experiences of rescue of mass burn casualties and their treatment during the past fifty years in China. Some issues including medical support for mass burn casually and treatment regime in future, such as the prevention of burn calamities, further elevation of the eure rate and lowering in the rate of disability, further development in network of burn care and preliminary scheme of rescue of mass burn casualties and their treatment, accelerating the development and study on the substitutes of allo-skin graft were discussed.

  17. 46 CFR 97.05-5 - Charts and nautical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charts and nautical publications. 97.05-5 Section 97.05... OPERATIONS Notice to Mariners and Aids to Navigation § 97.05-5 Charts and nautical publications. As...) Charts; (b) Sailing directions; (c) Coast pilots; (d) Light lists; (e) Notices to mariners; (f)...

  18. Disease in marine aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    populations. Some progress has been made in marine disease control through chemical treatment in intensive culture systems, principally through application and modification of methods developed for freshwater aquaculture. Major constraints to use of chemicals are restrictions due to public health concerns about food contamination, and the negative effects of some chemicals on biological filters and on algal food production. There is a continuing need, however, for development of specific treatments for acute disease episodes — such as the nitrofurans, developed in Japan, which are effective for some bacterial diseases. The history of aquaculture — freshwater as well as marine — has been characterized by transfers and introductions of species to waters beyond their present ranges. The process continues, and carries with it the possibility of transfers of pathogens to native species and to the recipient culture environments. International groups are attempting to define codes of practice to govern such mass movements, but examples of introductions of real or potential pathogens already exist. The most recent and the most dramatic is the world wide transfer of a virus pathogen of penaeid shrimps. Earlier examples include the introduction of a protozoan pathogen of salmonids to the western hemisphere, and the introduction of a parasitic copepod from the Far East to the west coast of North America and to France. The conclusion is inevitable — diseases are substantial deterrents to aquaculture production. Diagnostic and control procedures are and will be important components of emerging aquaculture technology.

  19. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  20. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132178 Chen Hongjun(Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,MLR,Guangzhou 510760,China);Cai Guanqiang Features of Canyon Morphology and Their Origin in the Shenhu Area,Northern Slope of the South China Sea(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,32(5),2012,p.19-26

  1. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140582 Fang Xisheng(Key Lab.of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology,First Institute of Oceanography,State Oceanic Administration,Qingdao 266061,China);Shi Xuefa Mineralogy of Surface Sediment in the Eastern Area off the Ryukyu Islands and Its Geological Significance(Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37

  2. Marine functional food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    This book reviews the research on seafood and health, the use and quality aspects of marine lipids and seafood proteins as ingredients in functional foods and consumer acceptance of (marine) functional food. The first chapter covers novel merging areas where seafood may prevent disease and improve h

  3. Cultivation of marine sponges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Yi; ZHANG Wei; LI Hua; YU Xingju; JIN Meifang

    2005-01-01

    Sponges are the most primitive of multicellular animals, and are major pharmaceutical sources of marine secondary metabolites. A wide variety of new compounds have been isolated from sponges. In order to produce sufficient amounts of the compounds of the needed, it is necessary to obtain large amount of sponges.The production of sponge biomass has become a focus of marine biotechnology.

  4. Marine biomass research advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, E.

    1980-08-01

    This paper reports on research in California, New York and elsewhere into marine biomass. A manmade marine farm moored four miles off the coast of southern California pumps deep water up a 450 m pipe to fertilize giant kelp. After harvesting and chopping by existing commercial methods, the kelp would be converted, by either anaerobic bacteria or thermal processes, into methane and other products.

  5. Protection of Marine Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoll, M.; Ciaccia, E.; Dekeling, R.P.A.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Liddell, K.; Gunnarsson, S.L.; Ludwig, S.; Nissen, I.; Lorenzen, D.; Kreimeyer, R.; Pavan, G.; Meneghetti, N.; Nordlund, N.; Benders, F.P.A.; Zwan, T. van der; Zon, A.T. van; Fraser, L.; Johansson, T.; Garmelius, M.

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for

  6. SIMEDIS: a Discrete-Event Simulation Model for Testing Responses to Mass Casualty Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debacker, Michel; Van Utterbeeck, Filip; Ullrich, Christophe; Dhondt, Erwin; Hubloue, Ives

    2016-12-01

    It is recognized that the study of the disaster medical response (DMR) is a relatively new field. To date, there is no evidence-based literature that clearly defines the best medical response principles, concepts, structures and processes in a disaster setting. Much of what is known about the DMR results from descriptive studies and expert opinion. No experimental studies regarding the effects of DMR interventions on the health outcomes of disaster survivors have been carried out. Traditional analytic methods cannot fully capture the flow of disaster victims through a complex disaster medical response system (DMRS). Computer modelling and simulation enable to study and test operational assumptions in a virtual but controlled experimental environment. The SIMEDIS (Simulation for the assessment and optimization of medical disaster management) simulation model consists of 3 interacting components: the victim creation model, the victim monitoring model where the health state of each victim is monitored and adapted to the evolving clinical conditions of the victims, and the medical response model, where the victims interact with the environment and the resources at the disposal of the healthcare responders. Since the main aim of the DMR is to minimize as much as possible the mortality and morbidity of the survivors, we designed a victim-centred model in which the casualties pass through the different components and processes of a DMRS. The specificity of the SIMEDIS simulation model is the fact that the victim entities evolve in parallel through both the victim monitoring model and the medical response model. The interaction between both models is ensured through a time or medical intervention trigger. At each service point, a triage is performed together with a decision on the disposition of the victims regarding treatment and/or evacuation based on a priority code assigned to the victim and on the availability of resources at the service point. The aim of the case

  7. First Responder Accuracy Using SALT during Mass-casualty Incident Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher W C; McLeod, Shelley L; Van Aarsen, Kristine; Klingel, Michelle; Franc, Jeffrey M; Peddle, Michael B

    2016-04-01

    During mass-casualty incidents (MCIs), patient volume often overwhelms available Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel. First responders are expected to triage, treat, and transport patients in a timely fashion. If other responders could triage accurately, prehospital EMS resources could be focused more directly on patients that require immediate medical attention and transport. Triage accuracy, error patterns, and time to triage completion are similar between second-year primary care paramedic (PCP) and fire science (FS) students participating in a simulated MCI using the Sort, Assess, Life-saving interventions, Treatment/Transport (SALT) triage algorithm. All students in the second-year PCP program and FS program at two separate community colleges were invited to participate in this study. Immediately following a 30-minute didactic session on SALT, participants were given a standardized briefing and asked to triage an eight-victim, mock MCI using SALT. The scenario consisted of a four-car motor vehicle collision with each victim portrayed by volunteer actors given appropriate moulage and symptom coaching for their pattern of injury. The total number and acuity of victims were unknown to participants prior to arrival to the mock scenario. Thirty-eight PCP and 29 FS students completed the simulation. Overall triage accuracy was 79.9% for PCP and 72.0% for FS (∆ 7.9%; 95% CI, 1.2-14.7) students. No significant difference was found between the groups regarding types of triage errors. Over-triage, under-triage, and critical errors occurred in 10.2%, 7.6%, and 2.3% of PCP triage assignments, respectively. Fire science students had a similar pattern with 15.2% over-triaged, 8.7% under-triaged, and 4.3% critical errors. The median [IQR] time to triage completion for PCPs and FSs were 142.1 [52.6] seconds and 159.0 [40.5] seconds, respectively (P=.19; Mann-Whitney Test). Primary care paramedics performed MCI triage more accurately than FS students after brief SALT

  8. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  9. Scientific framework for research on disaster and mass casualty incident in Korea: building consensus using Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chu Hyun; Park, Ju Ok; Park, Chang Bae; Kim, Seong Chun; Kim, Soo Jin; Hong, Ki Jeong

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the scientific framework for research on disaster and mass casualty incident (MCI) in Korea, especially Korean terminology, feasible definition, and epidemiologic indices. The two staged policy Delphi method was performed by instructors of National Disaster Life Support (NDLS®) with the constructed questionnaire containing items based on the literature review. The first-stage survey was conducted by 11 experts through two rounds of survey for making issue and option. The second-stage survey was conducted by 35 experts for making a generalized group based consensus. Experts were selected among instructors of National Disaster Life Support Course. Through two staged Delphi survey experts made consensus: 1) the Korean terminology "jaenan" with "disaster" and "dajung-sonsang-sago" with "MCI"; 2) the feasible definition of "disaster" as the events that have an effect on one or more municipal local government area (city-county-district) or results in ≥ 10 of death or ≥ 50 injured victims; 3) the feasible definition of MCI as the events that result in ≥ 6 casualties including death; 4) essential 31 epidemiologic indices. Experts could determine the scientific framework in Korea for research on disaster medicine, considering the distinct characteristics of Korea and current research trends.

  10. Econometric analysis of the changing effects in wind strength and significant wave height on the probability of casualty in shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Sabine; Kumar, Shashi; Sakurada, Yuri; Shen, Jiajun

    2011-05-01

    This study uses econometric models to measure the effect of significant wave height and wind strength on the probability of casualty and tests whether these effects changed. While both effects are in particular relevant for stability and strength calculations of vessels, it is also helpful for the development of ship construction standards in general to counteract increased risk resulting from changing oceanographic conditions. The authors analyzed a unique dataset of 3.2 million observations from 20,729 individual vessels in the North Atlantic and Arctic regions gathered during the period 1979-2007. The results show that although there is a seasonal pattern in the probability of casualty especially during the winter months, the effect of wind strength and significant wave height do not follow the same seasonal pattern. Additionally, over time, significant wave height shows an increasing effect in January, March, May and October while wind strength shows a decreasing effect, especially in January, March and May. The models can be used to simulate relationships and help understand the relationships. This is of particular interest to naval architects and ship designers as well as multilateral agencies such as the International Maritime Organization (IMO) that establish global standards in ship design and construction.

  11. Managing bioterrorism mass casualties in an emergency department: lessons learned from a rural community hospital disaster drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Bioterrorism represents a threat for which most emergency departments (EDs) are ill prepared. In order to develop an evidence-based plan for ED and hospital management of contaminated patients, a review was conducted of the most effective strategies developed during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, as well as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and military guidelines on biowarfare. Six basic steps were identified: 1) lock down the hospital and control access to the ED; 2) protect emergency care personnel with appropriate personal protective equipment; 3) decontaminate and triage patients; 4) isolate patients; 5) treat patients with appropriate medications or measures, including decontamination of wounds; and 6) use restrictive admission and transfer guidelines. By emphasizing these six basic concepts, a rural ED passed an annual state-run bioterrorism mass-casualty drill. The drill provided health care personnel with the knowledge and skills necessary to prepare for future bioterrorism casualties. These same concepts could also be used to manage highly virulent viral or bacterial outbreaks.

  12. A wireless first responder handheld device for rapid triage, patient assessment and documentation during mass casualty incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, James P; Chan, Theodore C; Buono, Colleen; Griswold, William G; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    Medical care at mass casualty incidents and disasters requires rapid patient triage and assessment, acute care and disposition often in the setting of overwhelming numbers of victims, limited time, and little resources. Current systems rely on a paper triage tag on which rescuers and medical providers mark the patient's triage status and record limited information on injuries and treatments administered in the field. In this manuscript, we describe the design, development and deployment of a wireless handheld device with an electronic medical record (EMR) for use by rescuers responding to mass casualty incidents (MCIs) and disasters. The components of this device, the WIISARD First Responder (WFR), includes a personal digital assistant (PDA) with 802.11 wireless transmission capabilities, microprocessor and non-volatile memory, and a unique EMR software that replicates the rapidity and ease of use of the standard paper triage tag. WFR also expands its functionality by recording real-time medical data electronically for simultaneous access by rescuers, mid-level providers and incident commanders on and off the disaster site. WFR is a part of the Wireless Information System for Medical Response in Disasters (WIISARD) architecture.

  13. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  14. Marin Tsunami (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  15. 77 FR 42699 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Hearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...; Public Hearings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Biologist- Statistician; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; telephone: (813) 348-1630 x235..., Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE...

  16. 78 FR 48654 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ..., Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine... managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including...

  17. 77 FR 26746 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data... database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives...

  18. 78 FR 9372 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Froeschke, Fishery Biologist- Statistician; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; telephone: (813) 348... collected through the Marine Recreational Information Program (MRIP). Programs considered must improve the...

  19. 77 FR 67341 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... include: Data collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers...

  20. 75 FR 80469 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Froeschke, Fishery Biologist- Statistician; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; telephone: (813) 348... of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P ...

  1. 76 FR 22385 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ..., Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and... database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives...

  2. 78 FR 27957 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine... database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives...

  3. 78 FR 16657 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine... collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency...

  4. A review of marine biodiversity information resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangtsao Shao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although biodiversity of marine remains high, it increasingly suffers from human interference and destruction. The world’s largest open, online, georeferenced database is the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS; it has information on a total of 120,000 species with 37 million records. The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS has collected taxonomic information on 220,000 global marine species. Besides these two large databases, three single-taxa databases were established for marine organisms—FishBase, AlgaeBase, and Hexacorallians of the World. Many databases on organisms are cross-taxa and include both terrestrial and marine species, such as Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, CoL (Species 2000 , Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS, Wikispecies, ETI Bioinformatics, Barcode of Life (BOL, GenBank, Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL, SeaLifeBase, Marine Species Identification Portal, and FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Fact Sheets. Above databases were mainly established to focus on taxonomy and species descriptions. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, Discover Life, AquaMaps, etc. can provide integrated ecological distribution data, user customized maps, and data for download. By changing the values of environmental factors such as water temperature and salinity in an established distribution model, the distribution of a species can be predicted with different parameters. Websites of other organizations, such as Google Earth Ocean, National Geographic, and NGOs such as ReefBase, aim to raise public awareness on ocean conservation with rich and diversified content. Google Images and Google Scholar are very useful in cooperating with keywords provided by marine biodiversity websites to complement the lack of images or references. Most of the above websites are linked to each other, and thus users can access and query data conveniently. To be useful for conservation, biodiversity databases need both to promote public

  5. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin James; Mills, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59%) of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39%) turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive) and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental stressors causing

  6. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylene Flint

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59% of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39% turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental

  7. Marine scaping: The structuring of marine practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toonen, H.M.; Tatenhove, van J.

    2013-01-01

    Oceans and seas are heavily exploited by different kinds of human activities. More and more information becomes a formative force in governing conflicting human activities and spatial claims at sea, as it is changing processes, institutions and practices of marine governance. This paper presents a c

  8. USCG Vessel Events

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  9. USCG Vessel Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  10. USCG Injury

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  11. USCG Facility Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  12. USCG Vessel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  13. USCG Other Events

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  14. Longitudinal Characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus Complex, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonizing and Infecting Combat Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Brief report Longitudinal characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex, Klebsiella pneumoniae , and methicillin-resistant...resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex Klebsiella pneumoniae Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA Drug-resistant...Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex, Klebsiella pneumoniae , and methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonize and infect combat casualties

  15. Estimation real number of road accident casualties. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Deliverable D.1.15 : final report on task 1.5.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J. Amoros, E. Bos, N.M. Evgenikos, P. Hoeglinger, S. Holló, P. Pérez, C. & Tecl, J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of Task 1.5 of the SafetyNet IP has been to estimate the actual numbers of road accident casualties in Europe from the CARE database by addressing two issues: • the under-reporting in national accident databases and • the differences between countries of the definitions used to

  16. Indoor fire in a nursing home : evaluation of the medical response to a mass casualty incident based on a standardized protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, S. W.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Leenen, L. P. H.

    This retrospective study reports the outcome of a mass casualty incident (MCI) caused by a fire in a nursing home. Data from the medical charts and registration system of the Major Incident Hospital (MIH) and ambulance service were analyzed. The evaluation reports from the MIH and an independent

  17. Indoor fire in a nursing home : evaluation of the medical response to a mass casualty incident based on a standardized protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, S. W.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Leenen, L. P. H.

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study reports the outcome of a mass casualty incident (MCI) caused by a fire in a nursing home. Data from the medical charts and registration system of the Major Incident Hospital (MIH) and ambulance service were analyzed. The evaluation reports from the MIH and an independent res

  18. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq...

  19. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  20. 76 FR 75524 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XO45 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The application and related documents are available for... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq...

  1. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska. ADDRESSES... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations...

  2. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR...

  3. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  4. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... ] scientific research on marine mammal parts. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available for..., and export marine mammal parts for scientific research studies. The requested permit has been issued...

  5. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  6. YIP: Generic Environment Models (GEMs) for Agile Marine Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. YIP : Generic Environment Models (GEMs) for Agile Marine...2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE YIP : Generic Environment Models (GEMs) for Agile Marine...2010 ONR YIP Award Sponsor: Office of Naval Research Recipient: Fumin Zhang Institution: Georgia Institute of Technology Award: 2010 Lockheed

  7. Designing trails for subaquatic tourism in Marine Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Piñeiro-Corbeira; Raquel De la Cruz Modino; Mercedes Olmedo

    2014-01-01

    Although the range of touristic activities that take place in the sea has greatly expanded in recent years, the marine realm continues to be one of the least known to the public. Scuba diving and snorkeling are popular activities in the marine environment. Among its benefits, snorkeling is simple, cheap, and accessible to a wide range of population. In this regard, it has considerable potential as a tool for environmental education as it allows a firsthand observation of the subaquatic seasca...

  8. Development of an accelerated MSCT protocol (Triage MSCT) for mass casualty incidents: comparison to MSCT for single-trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, M; Krötz, M; Kanz, K-G; Pfeifer, K-J; Reiser, M; Linsenmaier, U

    2006-07-01

    During multiple casualty incidents (MCI) emergency radiology departments have to deal with a large number of patients with suspected severe trauma within a short period of time. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable accelerated multislice computed tomography (MSCT) protocol to increase patient throughput for this kind of emergency situation. We presumed a scenario of 15 patients being admitted to the trauma service with suspicion of severe injuries after a MCI over a period of 2 h. An accelerated Triage MSCT protocol was developed and evaluated for MSCT scanner productivity (patients per hour) and time (minutes) needed for a total MSCT body workup using an anthropomorphic phantom. In addition, time (minutes) for transfer and preparation was measured. These timeframes were compared to a control group consisting of 144 single patients with multiple trauma undergoing standard MSCT according to our trauma room protocol. All MSCT studies were conducted using a 4-detector row scanner. (1) For the study group (Triage MSCT), average time for patient transfer and preparation was 2.9 min (2.5-4.3 min), mean CT examination time was 2.1 min (1.7-2.4 min); image reconstruction took 4.0 min (3.3-4.3 min). Total time in scanner room was 8.9 min (7.7-11.3 min), resulting in a maximal productivity of 6.7 patients per hour. Image transfer to the digital picture archive and communication system archive was completed after an average 9.5 min (8.9-10.8 min). (2) For the control group (single casualty MSCT), the mean time for patient transfer and preparation was 20.4 min (9.0-39.2 min), mean examination time was 6.0 min (3.1-11.3 min). Times for image reconstructions were not recorded in the patient series. Mean total time in scanner room was 25.3 min (11.0-72.4 min), resulting in a patient throughput of 2.4 patients per hour. MSCT has potential to serve as a powerful tool in triage of multiple casualty patients. The introduction of a Triage MSCT scanning protocol resulted in

  9. New Monograph on Marine Science and International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Marine Science Cooperation Program at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (Woods Hole, Mass.) announces its second publication, Marine Scientific Research Boundaries and the Law of the Sea: Discussion and Inventory of National Claims by David A. Ross and Therese A. Landry. The document is in two parts. The first section describes research boundaries and discusses specific articles of the Law of the Sea Treaty that bear on marine scientific research, while the second section is an inventory of the maritime claims by 139 countries.

  10. Content Metadata Standards for Marine Science: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riall, Rebecca L.; Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a content metadata standard to meet the demands of organizing electronic resources in the marine sciences for a broad, heterogeneous audience. These metadata standards are used by the Marine Realms Information Bank project, a Web-based public distributed library of marine science from academic institutions and government agencies. The development and deployment of this metadata standard serve as a model, complete with lessons about mistakes, for the creation of similarly specialized metadata standards for digital libraries.

  11. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141900Lan Xianhong(Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environmental Geology,Ministry of Land and Resources,Qingdao 266071,China);Zhang Zhixun Geochemical Characteristics of Trace Elements of Sediments from Drillhole SFK-1

  12. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  13. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  14. Exopolysaccharides from Marine Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Zhenming; FANG Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives,textiles, pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria,including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

  15. Marine medicinal glycomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomin, Vitor H.

    2014-01-01

    Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans, and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis, and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named marine medicinal glycomics. PMID:24524028

  16. Marine turtle capture data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To estimate abundance, growth, and survival rate and to collect tissue samples, marine turtles are captured at nesting beaches and foraging grounds through various...

  17. Marine Bacterial Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique

    microorganisms to be used as cell factories for production. Therefore exploitation of new microbial niches and use of different strategies is an opportunity to boost discoveries. Even though scientists have started to explore several habitats other than the terrestrial ones, the marine environment stands out...... as a hitherto under-explored niche. This thesis work uses high-throughput sequencing technologies on a collection of marine bacteria established during the Galathea 3 expedition, with the purpose of unraveling new biodiversity and new bioactivities. Several tools were used for genomic analysis in order...... to better understand the potential harbored in marine bacteria. The work presented makes use of whole genome sequencing of marine bacteria to prove that the genetic repertoire for secondary metabolite production harbored in these bacteria is far larger than anticipated; to identify and develop a new...

  18. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  19. Mismanagement of marine fisheries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longhurst, A

    2010-01-01

    .... The relatively open structure and strong variability of marine ecosystems is discussed in relation to the reliability of resources used by the industrial-level fishing that became globalised during...

  20. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  1. The marine cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pade, N.; Compaoré, J.; Klähn, S.; Stal, L.J.; Hagemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic molecules that are involved in the acclimation to various stresses such as temperature and salinity. Marine or moderate halotolerant cyanobacteria accumulate glucosylglycerol, while cyanobacteria with low salt tolerance (freshwater strains) usually accumulate suc

  2. LEGACY - EOP Marine Debris

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contains towed diver surveys of and weights of marine debris removed from the near shore environments of the NWHI.

  3. Marine prostanoids - a review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.

    The occurrence and structure of prostaglandins including clavulones, punaglandins and claviridenones in marine organisms is reviewEd. by comparison of the spectral data reported the identity of 20-acetoxy claviridenones b and c with 20 acetoxy...

  4. Mariner Outreach Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides MARAD with the ability to determine available personnel and resources in a time of emergency. It also provides a portal for mariners to update...

  5. Marine Navigational Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠灵

    2014-01-01

    Every industry has its professional terms or particular use of common words. The marine industry is no exception. This paper attempts to give a brief introduction to the elementary vocabularies related to marine industry from six aspects: types of ships;ship’s structure and equipment, manning, logbook, safety and organizations concerned. The corresponding Chinese terms is given simultaneously. It concludes that a good master of these vocabularies is useful and necessary for Chinese seafarers whose native language is not English.

  6. Marine Renewable Energy Seascape

    OpenAIRE

    Borthwick, Alistair G. L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine renewable energy has a major part to play in closing the world’s energy gap and lowering carbon emissions. Key global challenges relate to technology, grid infrastructure, cost and investment, environmental impact, and marine governance. Offshore wind turbines typically consist of three blades rotating about a hub. Although offshore wind technology is rapidly being implemented, there remain many fascinating engineering problems to overcome. These include: offshore foundations and float...

  7. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og...

  8. Marine winch drive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, M.; Smith, P.M.

    1983-12-01

    In the design of marine winch drive systems, efficiency, controllability, compactness and component layout flexibility are major considerations. This paper discusses design concepts aimed at achieving the above considerations in the design of variable speed, hydrostatic, marine winch drive systems. These concepts utilize a high pressure, load sensing pump, and a low-speed, high-torque (LSHT), radial-piston, hydraulic motor. These components are then shown applied in several open circuit hydrostatic power transmission systems.

  9. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, t...

  10. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og inter...

  11. Marine Resiliency Study II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-06

    1S. SUBJECT TERMS Stress, Post Trawna t ic Stress Disorder , Biomarker , Suicide , Combat 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION 18. NUMBER...Project 2a ( Neuro -cognition Study) deploying Marines from 1/7 were assessed during the allotted 2012 timeframe. In total 570 Marines were available...Project 2 ( Neuro -cognition Study) remain current, as necessary for the data collection as noted above. Task 3: In coordination with HQMC, NIMH

  12. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  13. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  14. Exploitation of marine bacteria for production of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Nishat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have found wide range of applications in electronics, biomedical engineering, and chemistry owing to their exceptional opto-electrical properties. Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by using plant extracts and microbes have received profound interest in recent times owing to their potential to produce nanoparticles with varied shape, size and morphology. Marine microorganisms are unique to tolerate high salt concentration and can evade toxicity of different metal ions. However, these marine microbes are not sufficiently explored for their capability of metal nanoparticle synthesis. Although, marine water is one of the richest sources of gold in the nature, however, there is no significant publication regarding utilization of marine micro-organisms to produce gold nanoparticles. Therefore, there might be a possibility of exploring marine bacteria as nanofactories for AuNP biosynthesis. Results In the present study, marine bacteria are exploited towards their capability of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs production. Stable, monodisperse AuNP formation with around 10 nm dimension occur upon exposure of HAuCl4 solution to whole cells of a novel strain of Marinobacter pelagius, as characterized by polyphasic taxonomy. Nanoparticles synthesized are characterized by Transmission electron microscopy, Dynamic light scattering and UV-visible spectroscopy. Conclusion The potential of marine organisms in biosynthesis of AuNPs are still relatively unexplored. Although, there are few reports of gold nanoparticles production using marine sponges and sea weeds however, there is no report on the production of gold nanoparticles using marine bacteria. The present work highlighted the possibility of using the marine bacterial strain of Marinobacter pelagius to achieve a fast rate of nanoparticles synthesis which may be of high interest for future process development of AuNPs. This is the first report of Au

  15. Addenda to Allied Medical Publication 8, NATO Planning Guide for the Estimation of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Casualties (AMedP-8(C)) to Consider the Impact of Medical Treatment on Casualty Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Botulism Survivor Injury Profile Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Signs and Symptoms (S/S) Fatigue; dry mouth; ptosis; diplopia (blurred or double vision...reflex; diplopia ; dysarthria; dysphonia; fatigue. Gradual reversal of muscle paralysis. The title of Table C-50 should be changed to read...signs and symptoms provided in Table C-50 should be changed to read: Fatigue; dry mouth; ptosis; diplopia (blurred or double vision); photophobia

  16. NATO Planning Guide for the Estimation of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Casualties (AMedP-8(C)) - Parameters for Estimation of Casualties from Exposure to Specified Biological Agents. Addenda to Allied Medical Publication 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    headache, chest pain, myalgia, elevated temperature, vomiting , nausea, and anorexia. Non-productive cough. S/S Severity 3 (Severe) 1 (Mild...Symptoms (S/S) Cough, headache, chest pain, myalgia, elevated temperature, vomiting , nausea, and anorexia. S/S Severity 3 (Severe) Outlook...Anno, George H., Michael Lockhart, Larry Karns, Gene E. McClellan, Gillian L. Rickmeier, Ronald M. Bloom, and Leigh N. Matheson. Biological

  17. [The current state of the organizational component of the personality identification procedures for the unrecognized casualties of emergency situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkutin, V V; Stepanov, A A; Minaeva, P V

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of analysis of organizational problems related to personality identification of unrecognized casualties in a variety of emergency situations. The necessity of purpose-oriented introduction of high-technology methods into the practical work of forensic medical experts is emphasized. The priority of the organizational component in the interdepartmental interactions during joint expertise actions at the sites of emergency situations is substantiated. The specific features of injuries in unrecognized subjects who died or suffered in emergency situations are considered with reference to the latter's peculiar conditions. The authors discuss prospects for the further development of organizational and legal basis of research for the purpose of personality identification with the use of the database of human medico-biological characteristics as envisaged by the current legislation.

  18. Using a joint triage model for multi-hospital response to a mass casualty incident in New York city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arquilla Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines a specific plan which allows two separate institutions, with different capabilities, to function as a single receiving entity in the event of a mass casualty incident. The street between the two institutions will be closed to traffic and a two-phase process initiated. Arriving ambulances will first be quickly screened to expedite the most critical patients followed by formal triage and directing patients to one of the two facilities. Preparation for this plan requires prior coordination between local authorities and the administrations of both institutions. This plan can serve as a general model for disaster preparedness when two or more institutions with different capabilities are located in close proximity.

  19. Teaching tactical combat casualty care using the TC3 sim game-based simulation: a study to measure training effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor, Teresita M

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of games as instructional tools has been debated over the past several decades. This is due to the lack of empirical data to support such claims. The US ARMY developed a game-based simulation to support Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) Training. The TC3 Game based Simulation is a first person game that allows a Soldier to play the role of a combat medic during an infantry squad mission in an urban environment. This research documents results from a training effectiveness evaluation conducted at the Department of Combat Medic Training (Ft Sam Houston) in an effort to explore the capability of the game based simulation as a potential tool to support the TCCC program of instruction. Reaction to training, as well as, acquisition of knowledge and transfer of skills were explored using Kirkpatrick's Model of Training Effectiveness Evaluation. Results from the evaluation are discussed.

  20. State propaganda and mental disorders: the issue of psychiatric casualties among Japanese soldiers during the Asia-Pacific War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the politics of Japanese wartime medical policy, demonstrating how state propaganda about the people and their armed forces influenced authoritative views on health and what might endanger it. By focusing on the obstacles faced by psychiatrists trying to promote more official concern for mental health issues, it challenges the validity of figures indicating a low incidence of psychological trauma among the country's soldiers. Civilian psychiatrists had to contend with the threat of censorship and arrest for even discussing war-induced mental disorders; at the same time, army psychiatrists as military insiders were pressured to convince their patients that their conditions were not serious and did not merit compensation. While discussing the neglected topic of Japanese psychiatric casualties, an attempt is made to provide a comparative approach by referring to the state of military psychiatry in other national settings.

  1. Climatic Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    ASIAN COASTAL MARINE AREAS Areas 1-4 Akyab, Calcutta, Vishakhapatnam, Masulipatam 1 AD 747 638 5-8 Madras, NE-SE-W Ceylon 2 AD 736 449 Set No.(2) 9-12...Gulf of Oman 5 AD 733 693 21-24 S Gulf of Oman, SE-NE-NW Persian Gulf 6 AD 737 909 SOUTHEAST ASIAN COASTAL MARINE AREAS Areas 1-4 Tonkin Gulf, Da...COASTAL MARINE AREAS Areas 1-8 Princess Charlotte Bay, Cairns, Cumberland 1 AD-A044518 Islands, Rockhampton, Brisbane, Coffs Harbour, Sydney, Cape Howe

  2. Invasive mucormycosis and aspergillosis in a healthy 22-year-old battle casualty: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radowsky, Jason S; Strawn, Alan A; Sherwood, Jeffrey; Braden, Adam; Liston, William

    2011-10-01

    Invasive mucormycosis or aspergillosis is a life-threatening infection. The disease typically occurs in immunocompromised patients (e.g., those with diabetes mellitus or burns) but is rarely serious in otherwise-healthy young trauma patients. Case report and literature review. A previously-healthy 22-year-old United States Marine who sustained large soft tissue injuries in support of Operation Enduring Freedom underwent multiple operations in theater to stabilize his wounds. He was evacuated first to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Germany and thence to the National Naval Medical Center in Maryland, where appropriate antifungal therapies were initiated and wide débridements were undertaken without success. His clinical status deteriorated, and he died. Tissue examination revealed systemic invasive mucormycosis and aspergillosis. The suspicion of invasive fungal infections must be tested early if intervention is to be curative.

  3. Green Marine: An environmental program to establish sustainability in marine transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R

    2016-04-15

    European maritime companies have adopted programs to limit operational impacts on the environment. For maritime companies in North America, the Green Marine Environmental Program (GMEP) offers a framework to establish and reduce environmental footprints. Green Marine (GM) participants demonstrate annual improvements of specific environmental performance indicators (e.g., reductions in air pollution emissions) to maintain certification. Participants complete annual self-evaluations with results determining rankings for performance indicators on a 1-to-5 scale. Self-evaluations are independently verified every two years to ensure rigor and individual results are made publicly available annually to achieve transparency. GM benefits the marine industry across North America by encouraging sustainable development initiatives. GM's credibility is reflected through a diverse network of environmental groups and government agencies that endorse and help shape the program. Merits of this relatively new maritime certification (not previously described in the academic literature), are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Marine Casualty Report. Collapse and Sinking of Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit RANGER I in the Gulf of Mexico on 10 May 1979 with Loss of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-10

    the rotary table, mud tanks, shale shaker , mud mixing pump and motor, surge tank, two cementing units, two air compressors and two larger auxiliary...or trim. The wedges used to reduce vibration between the top of each jackhouse and leg were also checked. The wedges in jackhouse number 2 appeared

  5. Research on Navy-Related Combat Casualty Care Issues, Navy Operational-Related Injuries and Illnesses and Approaches to Enhance Navy/Marine Corps Personnel Combat Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Health) for possible future imaging of our patients on their positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, as well as possible biopsies of our breast...potential linkage(s) between screened markers and the genetic disorders such as cleft-lip and palate, Kartagener Syndrome and Early Onset Periodontitis ...and accepted by AADR: "Interlikin-1 Genotypes and Risks of Early Onset Periodontitis " Goals/Objectives For Next Reporting Period • Continue to

  6. Proceedings of the Conference on Fleet Marine Force Combat Casualty Information System Held at San Diego, California on 2-4 April 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Quantico, VA 2213.0 CAPT Bernard R. Blais, MC, USN CiDP , J. R. Crim Force Medical Officer Groulp Surgeon Mit I tary Sea Lilt Command 1st 6SSC, FMF PACC...member may rest on the corpsman for days or weeks, even -4 in peace time. For this reason an Independent Duty Submarine Corpsman (8402) is - more...for example, as nonspecific abdominal pain. For that reason , we conducted observational studies in which one or two persons trained for that purpose

  7. Bioprospecting marine plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-11-14

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  8. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bowler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  9. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  10. Neuroprotective effects of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection.

  11. A Marine Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz Leung Yip

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A model is developed for studying marine traffic flow through classical traffic flow theories, which can provide us with a better understanding of the phenomenon of traffic flow of ships. On one hand, marine traffic has its special features and is fundamentally different from highway, air and pedestrian traffic. The existing traffic models cannot be simply extended to marine traffic without addressing marine traffic features. On the other hand, existing literature on marine traffic focuses on one ship or two ships but does not address the issues in marine traffic flow.

  12. 78 FR 15706 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries.... Participants include: data collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and...

  13. 77 FR 16812 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Marine Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process... collectors and database managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency...

  14. 78 FR 17357 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions, have implemented the Southeast Data... managers; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including...

  15. 77 FR 60967 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...; stock assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including... Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22...

  16. 78 FR 15708 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions, have implemented the Southeast Data... assessment scientists, biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen...

  17. Analysis of Marine Corps Renewable Energy Planning to Meet Installation Energy Security Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Chisom, Christopher M.; Templeton, Jack C.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze Marine Corps installation energy consumption and the pursuit of increased renewable energy generation goals across Marine Corps installations. The main objective of this report is to determine the cost of interruption and the net present value (NPV) of renewable energy generation needed to meet the Marine Corps energy security objectives. First, we determine installation-specific energy consump...

  18. An analysis of factors affecting affiliation in the Marine Corps Reserves

    OpenAIRE

    Volkmann, Benny; Shapiro, Adam; Barnes, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this study is to examine key factors in Marine Corps Reserve turnover in order to better understand reservists’ decisions to affiliate in the United States Marine Corps. Across the Marine Force Reserve there are communities, occupational fields, and grades with persistent manning shortfalls in non–obligor populations. Non– obligor reservists are those who serve at their own discretion, with each individual reservist havi...

  19. Firms plunge into the sea. Marine Biotechnology Industry, a first investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaia Raffaella eGreco; Marco eCinquegrani

    2016-01-01

    Marine biology made in the last four decades giant leaps. Several scientific and technological breakthroughs shaped research in the marine environment. Thanks to the revelation of the enormous width and complexity of sea life, marine biotechnology began a fast path of development that involved both the public and the private domain. Although there exist some studies on the dimensions and the evolution of the industry, few and scattered is the knowledge about the firms and the dynamics that ch...

  20. Effect of Broadband Nature of Marine Mammal Echolocation Clicks on Click-Based Population Density Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Effect of Broadband Nature of Marine Mammal Echolocation...modeled for different marine mammal species and detectors and assess the magnitude of error on the estimated density due to various commonly used...noise limited (von Benda-Beckmann et al. 2010). A three hour segment, previously audited by human operators to ensure no marine mammals were present in

  1. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'.

  2. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Vermeulen

    Full Text Available With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'.

  3. 77 FR 52746 - Medical Countermeasures for a Burn Mass Casualty Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... the public from counterfeit as well as nonregulated ineffective products; FDA's responsibility for..., nuclear, or chemical origin in a scarce resources environment; identify gaps in the product landscape so... may need to be considered one driver in regard to burn care product(s) design and development...

  4. 76 FR 53364 - Recreational Vessel Propeller Strike and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Casualty Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ...'' means swimming or floating on one's stomach or on one's back on or in the wake directly behind a motor... issue. The first rulemaking sought public input on the use of swimming ladders, warning notices, clear... or to use all of the following propeller injury avoidance measures: a swim ladder interlock, an aft...

  5. The marine diversity spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  6. Marine-Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.

    2006-01-01

    ) and reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need......This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4...... for continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  7. Marine-Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4......) and reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need...... for continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  8. Marine biosurfaces research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Navy is starting a basic research program to address the initial events that control colonization of surfaces by organisms in marine environments. The program “arises from the Navy's need to understand and ultimately control biofouling and biocorrosion in marine environments,” according to a Navy announcement.The program, “Biological Processes Controlling Surface Modification in the Marine Environment,” will emphasize the application of in situ techniques and modern molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches; it will also encourage the development of interdisciplinary projects. Specific areas of interest include sensing and response to environmental surface (physiology/physical chemistry), factors controlling movement to and retention at surfaces (behavior/hydrodynamics), genetic regulation of attachment (molecular genetics), and mechanisms of attachment (biochemistry/surface chemistry).

  9. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  10. Marine Biotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity, and Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, M.

    2017-04-01

    This review summarizes the role of marine organisms as vectors of marine biotoxins, and discusses the need for surveillance to protect public health and ensure the quality of seafood. I Paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and PSP-bearing organisms-PSP is produced by toxic dinoflagellates species belonging to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Traditionally, PSP monitoring programs have only considered filter-feeding molluscs that concentrate these toxic algae, however, increasing attention is now being paid to higher-order predators that carry PSP, such as carnivorous gastropods and crustaceans. II. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and TTX-bearing organisms - TTX is the most common natural marine toxin that causes food poisonings in Japan, and poses a serious public health risk. TTX was long believed to be present only in pufferfish. However, TTX was detected in the eggs of California newt Taricha torosa in 1964, and since then it has been detected in a wide variety of species belonging to several different phyla. In this study, the main toxic components in the highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula and the greater blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena lunulata from Japan were purified and analysed.

  11. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    stream_size 12413 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Environ_Int_32_145.pdf.txt stream_source_info Environ_Int_32_145.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 editorial persistent... problem of marine pollution, it is indeed a prime need of the hour to assess the state of pollution of the marine environment. environmental data off Cundapoor and Kasargod along the coast of Karnataka that can be utilized for comprehensive interpretation...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  13. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  14. The Danish Marine Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ærtebjerg, G.

    1997-01-01

    Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996.......Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996....

  15. Marine Thermoelectric Devices and Installations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    thermoelectric devices and units as marine sources of electric power, Prospects for the use of thermoelectric generators in main ship propulsion plants, Electric propulsion complexes for marine thermoelectric plants).

  16. Marine microbiology: Evolution on acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sinéad

    2012-05-01

    The prediction of marine microbial responses to ocean acidification is a key challenge for marine biologists. Experimental evolution offers a powerful tool for understanding the forces that will shape tomorrow's microbial communities under global change.

  17. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of...

  18. 45 CFR 86.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... Coverage § 86.13 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. This part does not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of...

  19. Quantifying Stress in Marine Mammals: Measuring Biologically Active Cortisol in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Quantifying Stress in Marine Mammals : Measuring...boonstra/ LONG-TERM GOALS This research will improve our ability to measure stress in marine mammals . Stress hormones (glucocorticoids... mammal researchers to measure free glucocorticoid levels. OBJECTIVES This project has two main objectives, both related to improving our

  20. 41 CFR 101-4.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... marine educational institutions. 101-4.210 Section 101-4.210 Public Contracts and Property Management... Coverage § 101-4.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for...

  1. 43 CFR 41.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Coverage § 41.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine...

  2. Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    well as the techniques used to study the ecology of marine animals in situ. By bringing together many of the top researchers in marine bioacoustics...SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks the Future 5a...distribution is unlimited. Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks the Future Charles H. Greene Kohala Center P.O. Box 437462 Kamuela, HI 96743

  3. Lay emphasis on the treatment of massive burn casualties in conflagration%重视火灾事故成批烧伤的救治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐洪泰; 马兵; 夏照帆

    2012-01-01

    Burn surgery helongs to disaster medicine.Burn is a common trauma that occurs in social activities of human beings in all ages,either in the time of peace or war.During the development of human medicine in modern times,the summary of experience in treating massive burn casualties due to severe fire accidents has effectively promoted the renovation of treating technology and theory of burns and the development of burn surgery.The results of treatment of burn injury in casualties occurred in the fire of Cocoanut Grove night club in Boston in 1942,and the high-rise apartment house fire in Shanghai in 2010 were summarized and analyzed in this article,emphasizing the correlating issues of inhalation injury.

  4. The Ranger First Responder Program and Tactical Emergency Casualty Care Implementation: A Whole-Community Approach to Reducing Mortality From Active Violent Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew D; Callaway, David W; Robertson, Josh N; Hardwick, Shane A; Bobko, Joshua P; Kotwal, Russ S

    2015-01-01

    Active violent incidents are dynamic and challenging situations that can produce a significant amount of preventable deaths. Lessons learned from the military?s experience in Afghanistan and Iraq through the Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care and the 75th Ranger Regiment?s Ranger First Responder Program have helped create the Committee for Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (C-TECC) to address the uniqueness of similar wounding patterns and to end preventable deaths. We propose a whole-community approach to active violent incidents, using the C-TECC Trauma Chain of Survival and a tiered approach for training and responsibilities: the first care provider, nonmedical professional first responders, medical first responders, and physicians and trauma surgeons. The different tiers are critical early links in the Chain of Survival and this approach will have a significant impact on active violent incidents. 2015.

  5. Ship2Shore Marine Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, N. R.; Sen, G.; Doehler, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Observatory, comprised of VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada (NC) cabled networks, supports transformative coastal to deep ocean research and enables real-time interactive experiments. Engaging students, educators and the public is critical to increasing the global awareness of our integral relationship with the ocean. One way to accomplish this is to encourage educators to incorporate marine science concepts into their lesson plans. ONC's new initiative, Ship2Shore Marine Educators (S2SME), enables educators to learn first hand about marine science and technology by going to sea on a maintenance/research cruise. While at sea Marine Educators (ME) participate in technology deployments, assist with water and core sampling, write daily blogs, produce short video updates, develop learning resources and conduct presentations to students on shore via video conferencing. MEs participating in the last NC cruise -"Wiring the Abyss 2012" - were fascinated with being a part of science in the real world. They had an experience of a lifetime and anticipate incorporating what they have learned into their lessons during the upcoming semester. Outreach between the MEs and ONC communication staff aboard the ship resulted in nearly 7,000 unique visitors to the "Wiring the Abyss 2012'' cruise website. Live ROPOS video feeds (~ 9,000 views), highlight videos (436 views/day), daily blogs (~1200 views) and stunning images (~391 views/day) were among the top rated pages. Visitors from 10 countries tuned in to "Wiring the Abyss 2012" and experienced the Pacific's deep sea! One of the best experiences for the MEs was connecting with students and teachers on shore via video conferencing. Roughly 300 students in BC and USA received a live connection from approximately 200km off the west coast. Students were most fascinated by a demo involving compressed Styrofoam cups, showing the intensity of pressure at the bottom of the sea. Successes: A positive working

  6. Public opinion and the politics of the killer robots debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Horowitz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility that today’s drones could become tomorrow’s killer robots has attracted the attention of people around the world. Scientists and business leaders, from Stephen Hawking to Elon Musk, recently signed a letter urging the world to ban autonomous weapons. Part of the argument against these systems is that they violate the public conscience provision of the Martens Clause due to public opposition, making them illegal under international law. What, however, does the US public think of these systems? Existing research suggests widespread US public opposition, but focused on support for autonomous weapons in a vacuum. This paper uses two survey experiments to test the conditions in which public opposition rises and falls. The results demonstrate that public opposition to autonomous weapons is contextual. Fear of other countries or non-state actors developing these weapons makes the public significantly more supportive of developing them. The public also becomes much more willing to actually use autonomous weapons when their use would protect US forces. Beyond contributing to ongoing academic debates about casualty aversion, the microfoundations of foreign policy, and weapon systems, these results suggest the need for modesty when making claims about how the public views new, unknown technologies such as autonomous weapons.

  7. Harm caused by Marine Litter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, S.; Budziak, A.; Franeker, van J.A.; Galgani, F.; Hanke, G.; Maes, T.; Matiddi, M.; Nilsson, P.; Oosterbaan, L.; Priestland, E.; Thompson, R.; Veiga, J.; Vlachogianni, T.

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global concern with a range of problems associated to it, as recognised by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Marine litter can impact organisms at different levels of biological organization and habitats in a number of ways namely: through entanglement in, or

  8. Marine Science Sourcebook, First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimist, Roger J.

    This manual was prepared for a teacher workshop in marine science. It includes information on when, where, and how to collect marine mollusks, and how to prepare a shell collection; a partial key to the classes, subclasses, and orders of the mollusca; notes on the ecology and physiology of marine bivalves and snails, and recipes for solutions…

  9. 76 FR 72681 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Mammal Laboratory, (Responsible Party: Dr. John Bengtson, Director), Seattle, WA, has applied for an amendment to Scientific Research Permit No. 15126-01 for studies of marine mammals in Alaska. DATES: Written...

  10. 45 CFR 618.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions. 618.210 Section 618.210 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare...

  11. 45 CFR 2555.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions. 2555.210 Section 2555.210 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare...

  12. Use and Complications of Operative Control of Arterial Inflow in Combat Casualties with Traumatic Lower-extremity Amputations Caused by Improvised Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    injuries: patterns of injuries and resource utilization associated with the multiple extremity amputee . J Surg Orthop Adv. 2012;21:32Y37. 11. Andersen RC...methods of proximal control in high wartime lower-extremity amputees . Although some casualties will have abdominal injuries that necessitate...of suprainguinal vascular control and complications that arose. In cases where multiple levels of control were used, data on all vessels were collected

  13. A Descriptive Analysis of Tactical Casualty Care Interventions Performed by Law Enforcement Personnel in the State of Wisconsin, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Chad M; Cook, Christopher; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Based upon military experience, law enforcement has developed guidelines for medical care during high-threat conditions. The purpose of the current study was to provide a descriptive analysis of reported outcomes of law enforcement medical interventions. This was a descriptive analysis of a convenience sample of cases submitted to the Wisconsin Tactical Medicine Initiative (Wisconsin USA), after the provision of successful patient care, between January 2010 and December 2015. The study was reviewed by the Mayo Foundation Institutional Review Board (Rochester, Minnesota USA) and deemed exempt. Nineteen agencies submitted information during the study period. Of the 56 episodes of care reported, four (7.1%) cases involved care provided to injured officers while 52 (92.9%) involved care to injured civilians, including suspects. In at least two cases, on-going threats existed during the provision of medical care to an injured civilian. Law enforcement rendered care prior to Emergency Medical Services (EMS) arrival in all but two cases. The current case series demonstrates the life-saving potential for law enforcement personnel trained and equipped under current Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC)/ Committee on Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (C-TECC) tactical casualty care guidelines. Although originally developed to save the lives of wounded combat personnel, in the civilian sector, the training appears more likely to save victims rather than law enforcement personnel. Stiles CM , Cook C , Sztajnkrycer MD . A descriptive analysis of tactical casualty care interventions performed by law enforcement personnel in the State of Wisconsin, 2010-2015. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):284-288.

  14. Triage performance of Swedish physicians using the ATLS algorithm in a simulated mass casualty incident : a prospective cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: In a mass casualty situation, medical personnel must rapidly assess and prioritize patients for treatment and transport. Triage is an important tool for medical management in disaster situations. Lack of common international and Swedish triage guidelines could lead to confusion. Attending the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) provider course is becoming compulsory in the northern part of Europe. The aim of the ATLS guidelines is provision of effective management of single critic...

  15. Combination of Extracorporeal Life Support and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Treatment of ARDS in Combat Casualties and Evacuation of Service Members with ARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Combat Casualties and Evacuation of Service Members with ARDS PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mauricio Rojas CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Pittsburgh...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Pittsburgh. 3520 Fifth Ave. 3 3520 FIFTH AVEPITTSBURGH PA 15213...is to complete a series of preclinical studies in large animal models using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) alone or in combination with

  16. Cultivation of marine sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, R.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    There is increasing interest in biotechnological production of marine sponge biomass owing to the discovery of many commercially important secondary metabolites in this group of animals. In this article, different approaches to producing sponge biomass are reviewed, and several factors that possibly

  17. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle equatorial Pacific and the Southern Ocean where low concentration of a micronutrient (iron) appears to limit photosynthesis. In areas characterized by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration in surface waters, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON...

  18. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  19. OCEANOGRAPHY &MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160004 Chen Liangjin(Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology,Ministry of Education,College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,Ocean University of China,Qingdao 266100,China);Zhu Maoxu Speciation of Organic Sulfur in Inner

  20. Marine complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigagli, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and biodive

  1. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20130639Cui Yingchun ( Key Laboratory of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology , First Institute of Oceanography , State Oceanic Administration , Qingdao 266061 , China ); Shi Xuefa Records of Past 70 Ma Dust Activities in Ferromanganese Crusts from Pacific Ocean (Journal of Jilin University , ISSN1671-5888 , CN22-1343/P

  2. Marine sponges as pharmacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Osinga, R.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Marine sponges have been considered as a gold mine during the past 50 years, with respect to the diversity of their secondary metabolites. The biological effects of new metabolites from sponges have been reported in hundreds of scientific papers, and they are reviewed here. Sponges have the

  3. Hazardous marine animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, P S

    1984-08-01

    Both traumatic injury and the damage inflicted by envenomating marine animals are considered in this article. Among the creatures causing traumatic injury are sharks, barracudas, moray eels, and needlefish. Envenomating animals include sponges, coelenterates, coral, various mollusks, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, stingrays, sea snakes, and others.

  4. Marine Science Comes Alive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Dorothy

    1996-01-01

    A new state-of-the-art marine science laboratory at Eckerd College (Florida) is a study in the power of research, teamwork, attention to detail, and cost control. A redundant piping system brings sea water directly to the students. Once a week the pipes that previously held sea water are flushed and refilled with fresh water. (MLF)

  5. Marine complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigagli, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and

  6. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  7. Influence of marine engine simulator training to marine engineer's competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xiangxin; Ma, Qiang; Song, Xiufu; Liu, Xinjian; Wang, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Marine engine simulator is broadly used in maritime education and training. Maritime education and training institutions usually use this facility to cultivate the hands-on ability and fault-treat ability of marine engineers and students. In this study, the structure and main function of DMS-2005 marine engine simulator is briefly introduced, several teaching methods are discussed. By using Delphi method and AHP method, a comprehensive evaluation system is built and the competence of marine engineers is assessed. After analyzing the calculating data, some conclusions can be drawn: comprehensive evaluation system could be used to assess marine engineer's competence; the training of marine engine simulator is propitious to enhance marine engineers' integrated ability, especially on the aspect of judgment of abnormal situation capacity, emergency treatment ability and safe operation ability.

  8. Development of Balloon Multifunctional Vest for Casualty Triage%气囊式多功能伤员分类服的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海安; 刘晓荣; 刘宏鸣; 陈国良; 刘飞; 唐和蔚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To realize quick triage of massive casualties on the sea for the enhancement of naval medical support. Methods Proper materials and independent balloon were used to make the vest with the PLA's uniform size referenced. Results The balloon multifunctional vest could be used for the quick triage of massive casualties on the sea. Conclusion The balloon multifunctional vest for casualty triage can guarantee the timely treatment on the sea, and the naval medical support ability can be enhanced accordingly%目的:实现海上批量伤员快速分类,完成海上急救任务,提升海上卫勤保障能力.方法:参照解放军军服尺寸,选用适当材料,结合独立气囊制成背心.结果:气囊式多功能伤员分类服可以满足海上卫勤保障中批量伤员迅速分类的需求.结论:气囊式多功能伤员分类服保证了海上伤员救治的时效性,对提高海上卫勤保障能力有重要作用.

  9. Ridgeback rock shrimp habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  10. Spot shrimp habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  11. Rockcrabs of the genus Cancer habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  12. NODC Standard Product: Atlas of surface marine data 1994 (9 disc set) (NODC Accession 0101474)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A set of 9 CD-ROMs were produced to accompany the analog publication Atlas of Surface Marine Data, 1994. Each CD-ROM contains monthly mean objectively analyzed...

  13. California market squid habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  14. Black abalone habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  15. Russian marine expeditionary investigations of the world ocean - NOAA Atlas NESDIS 56 (NODC Accession 0000954)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession is an Adobe(tm) Acrobat(tm) file (.pdf) of the publication 'Russian marine expeditionary investigations of the world ocean - NOAA Atlas NESDIS 56'....

  16. Juvenile thresher shark habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  17. Red sea urchin habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  18. White abalone habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  19. Red abalone habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  20. California spiny lobster habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...