WorldWideScience

Sample records for public law 103-354

  1. 7 CFR 1956.145 - Disposition of essential FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Public Law 103-354 records. 1956.145 Section 1956.145 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 records. FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Instruction 2033-A (available in any FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 office)...

  2. 7 CFR 1948.89 - Land condemnation by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Public Law 103-354. 1948.89 Section 1948.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...HA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354. (a) If FmHA or its successor agency under Public... and is unable to do so, FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 may take action...

  3. 7 CFR 1901.202 - Nondiscrimination in FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Public Law 103-354 programs. 1901.202 Section 1901.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... under Public Law 103-354 programs. (a) Nondiscrimination by recipients of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 assistance. (1) No recipient of FmHA or its successor agency under Public...

  4. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Notice to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Part 1951—Notice to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Borrowers FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 borrowers with farmer program and community program loan types... statements through their local FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 office....

  5. 7 CFR 1940.335 - Environmental review of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 proposals for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Public Law 103-354 proposals for legislation. 1940.335 Section 1940.335 Agriculture Regulations of... agency under Public Law 103-354 proposals for legislation. (a) As stated in § 1940.312(d)(4) of this subpart, all FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 proposals for legislation will...

  6. 7 CFR 1945.27 - Relationship between FCIC and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agency under Public Law 103-354. 1945.27 Section 1945.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... under Public Law 103-354. (a) General. Exhibit A of FmHA Instruction 2000-N (available in any FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 office) is a Memorandum of Understanding between...

  7. 7 CFR 1950.103 - Borrower owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by chattels. 1950.103 Section 1950.103 Agriculture Regulations... owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by chattels. (a... actions to take in connection with the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart K of... - Guide Letter to Delinquent FmHA or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354 Single Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agency Under Public Law 103-354 Single Family Housing Loan Borrowers E Exhibit E to Subpart K of Part... Agency Under Public Law 103-354 Single Family Housing Loan Borrowers Dear (name of borrower): This is to... Home Administration (FmHA) or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 borrowers in need...

  9. 7 CFR 1948.88 - Direct land acquisition by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agency under Public Law 103-354. 1948.88 Section 1948.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354. (a) FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 may take action to acquire real property directly upon the written request of...

  10. 7 CFR 1955.11 - Conveyance of property to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 by trustee in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Public Law 103-354 by trustee in bankruptcy. 1955.11 Section 1955.11 Agriculture Regulations of... substantial recovery on the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 debt; and (3) FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 will acquire title free of all liens and encumbrances except...

  11. 7 CFR 1901.505 - Certificates of beneficial ownership in FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans. 1901.505 Section 1901.505 Agriculture Regulations of the... ownership in FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans. (a) Special trust of loans—(1) Establishment of special trusts. From time to time FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart E of... - FmHA or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354 Financed Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FmHA or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354... or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354 Financed Contract To: Area Director, Office of..., from exhibit E, FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Instruction 1901-E) We submit...

  13. 7 CFR 1945.25 - Relationship between FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 and FEMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Public Law 103-354 and FEMA. 1945.25 Section 1945.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Public Law 103-354 and FEMA. (a) General. When a major disaster or emergency declaration is made by the... FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 on losses and damages caused by an unusual...

  14. 7 CFR 1950.104 - Borrower owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by real estate. 1950.104 Section 1950.104 Agriculture... owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by real estate... borrowers with FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans secured by real estate who...

  15. 7 CFR 1945.28 - Relationship between ASCS and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agency under Public Law 103-354. 1945.28 Section 1945.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... under Public Law 103-354. Exhibit A of FmHA Instruction 2000-JJ (a copy of which is available in any FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 office) is a Memorandum of Understanding...

  16. 7 CFR 1940.325 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a cooperating Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354... Environmental Program § 1940.325 FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a cooperating Agency. (a) FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 will serve as a cooperating Agency...

  17. 7 CFR 1980.452 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 evaluation of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354... Industrial Loan Program § 1980.452 FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 evaluation of application. FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 will evaluate the application and make...

  18. 7 CFR 1945.30 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Emergency Loan Support Teams (ELST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.30 FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354... immediate attention by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 in implementing the EM...

  19. 7 CFR 1980.495 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 forms and guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354... Industrial Loan Program § 1980.495 FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 forms and guides. The following FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 forms and guides, as...

  20. 7 CFR 1945.26 - Relationship between FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 and SBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Public Law 103-354 and SBA. 1945.26 Section 1945.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Public Law 103-354 and SBA. (a) General. Public Law 99-272 made agricultural enterprises ineligible for... a farm or nonfarm tract. It is the policy of USDA and FmHA or its successor agency under Public...

  1. 7 CFR 1901.506 - Book-entry procedure for FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Public Law 103-354 securities-issuance and redemption of certificate by Reserve bank. 1901.506... and Insured Notes § 1901.506 Book-entry procedure for FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...) Issue book-entry FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 securities by means of entries...

  2. 7 CFR 1940.326 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a lead Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354... Environmental Program § 1940.326 FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a lead Agency. (a) When other Federal agencies are involved in an FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

  3. 7 CFR 1945.31 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Emergency Loan Assessment Teams (ELAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Emergency Loan Assessment Teams (ELAT). 1945.31 Section 1945.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.31 FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

  4. 7 CFR 1901.507 - Certificates of beneficial ownership issued by the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...HA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Finance Office. 1901.507 Section 1901.507... Certificates of beneficial ownership issued by the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354... its successor agency under Public Law 103-354, by a certified check or bank draft payable to...

  5. 7 CFR 1944.660 - Authorized representative of the HPG applicant and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...HA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 point of contact. 1944.660 Section 1944.660... of the HPG applicant and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 point of contact. (a) FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 will deal only with authorized...

  6. 7 CFR 1901.205 - Nondiscrimination in construction financed with FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loan or grant. 1901.205 Section 1901.205 Agriculture... construction financed with FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loan or grant. Executive Order... national origin on construction work financed by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

  7. 7 CFR 1942.19 - Information pertaining to preparation of notes or bonds and bond transcript documents for public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bond counsel firm which has experience in municipal financing with such investors as investment dealers... agency under Public Law 103-354, and bond counsel have agreed in advance as to the method of preparation... and with the prior approval of the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  8. 7 CFR 1944.548 - Counseling consent by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 single family housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Counseling consent by FmHA or its successor agency... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.548 Counseling consent by... will indicate the availability of the counseling services of the grantee and solicit the...

  9. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  10. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  11. On the integration of public law jurisprudence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shuhong

    2006-01-01

    After two to three hundred years of development,modern public laws have become more and more important,mature and integrated especially since the 20th century.Traditionally,the dispersive and overlapping public law researches were grounded on the sectional public laws like constitutional law,administrative law,criminal law,procedural law,international public law,etc.Nevertheless,with all-around emergence of public law,the traditional research method can no longer adapt to the development needs of the modern public law.Therefore,it is quite necessary for us to create a kind of moderate unified public law between the laws and the sectional public laws,so as to do comprehensive,integrated and systematic researches on various sectional public laws.Based on the indepth argumentation about the necessity of developing unified public laws,this paper further puts forward that,to discuss an all-encompassing way about the main problems of creating the unified public laws and expect to fill the gap with it,the unified public law should define its study objectives mainly focused on the contents of integrated public law criteria,common public law features and general public law rules and so on;form its theoretical basis on the line of the relations between public power and the citizen privilege;establish its category structure found on the concept of public power and the derivative core and basic categories;and build up the disciplinary system based on the systematic integrity of the public law research results.

  12. Law and public health at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard A; Moulton, A; Matthews, G; Shaw, F; Kocher, P; Mensah, G; Zaza, S; Besser, R

    2006-12-22

    Public health law is an emerging field in U.S. public health practice. The 20th century proved the indispensability of law to public health, as demonstrated by the contribution of law to each of the century's 10 great public health achievements. Former CDC Director Dr. William Foege has suggested that law, along with epidemiology, is an essential tool in public health practice. Public health laws are any laws that have important consequences for the health of defined populations. They derive from federal and state constitutions; statutes, and other legislative enactments; agency rules and regulations; judicial rulings and case law; and policies of public bodies. Government agencies that apply public health laws include agencies officially designated as "public health agencies," as well as health-care, environmental protection, education, and law enforcement agencies, among others.

  13. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  14. Enhancing public health law communication linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Ross D

    2008-01-01

    Although interest in the field of public health law has dramatically increased over the past two decades, there remain significant challenges in communicating and sharing public health law-related knowledge. Access to quality information, which may assist in a public health department's efforts to protect the public's health, welfare, and safety, varies widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and interjurisdictional communication remains at best a patchwork quilt with many holes. What follows is an analysis of several approaches the Public Health Law Association or other public health law-related organizations might undertake to serve as a conduit for the identification, gathering, and dissemination of extant public health law information, as well as the development of new public health law-related content, with a particular focus on the use of electronic means for such efforts.

  15. Private Arbitration of Incidental Public Law Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

     The article discusses the incidental public law issues which can arise in an arbitration case, e.g. concerning power, heating, natural gas and other public facility legislation, national or Community legal restrictive trade practices law, and rules on state administration approval of the terms...... by arbitration, and where the award is nullifiable only if its findings are in violation of public policy, the ordre public. The article relies on UNCITRAL's Model Arbitration Law, the new Danish arbitration act (DAA), national European case law, and literature and case law of the European Court....

  16. Public Interest Law: Five Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Sanford

    This report provides an account of public-interest law firm activities supported by the Ford Foundation. Public interest law is a phrase that describes efforts aimed at providing legal representation for underrepresented interests in the legal process. The report is arranged into four major sections. The first section, on the evolution of the…

  17. The Public Schools Contracts Law. Focus on School Law Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabreu, O. Lisa

    New Jersey's Public Schools Contracts Law, enacted on June 2, 1977, places limits on the authority of local and regional boards of education to make purchases and to enter into contracts, agreements, or leases for supplies or services. This publication is designed to provide information and guidance that will assist boards of education in meeting…

  18. Process view on Law of Public Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Liška, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    This study contains groups of tasks for public procurement contracts in reference model Management Business Informatics (MBI). The tasks are sorted in chronological order in regard of procedure of public procurement contracts. The tasks contain new law on public procurement contracts, elaborated in the procedural point of view, and are complemented with a best practice. Process view in the reference model is intended for public procurers. It enables for the public procurer that he can have be...

  19. Law as a tool of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, S O

    2009-06-01

    The preservation of the public's health is one of the most important goals of government. The enactment and enforcement of law is the primary means by which government can encourage as well as compel conditions for healthier and safer lifestyles. The Law creates and assigns functions for public health authorities. In this regard, law is a fundamental element of effective public health policy and practice. It has played a crucial role in many of public health's greatest achievements. In spite of its contribution to effective Public Health practice, the potential for the application of law to chronic disease prevention and control is yet to be fully recognized. The development and implementation of legal frameworks could broaden the range of effective public health strategies and provide valuable tools for the public health workforce. In order to expand the range of effective public health interventions, the government should use the law as a tool to achieve the goal of preventing chronic diseases and ameliorate the growing epidemic of obesity, heart disease, stroke, cancer and other chronic diseases and their risk factors.

  20. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  1. Realising social justice in public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice.

  2. Homosexuality, the Law, and Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kenneth W.; And Others

    This paper discusses the current issues of homosexuality, the law, and public schools. It states that school administrators need to understand homosexuality as a concept and as a legal issue because research on homosexuality has historically been remiss and court cases regarding the rights of homosexuals are increasing. Following a brief summary…

  3. Globalization of public health law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Myongsei

    2012-09-01

    The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.

  4. Juridifying Corporate Social Responsibility Through Public Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    With a point of departure in the United Nations (UN) Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and the UN (‘Ruggie’) Framework on Business and Human Rights this article shows that recent developments with the UN and the OECD and some legislative EU and national State activities constitute s...... that coherence in public law regulation of business impact on society warrants attention in order to ensure legal certainty and effective regulation based on alignment between the different currents of public regulation of CSR....... steps in a process of juridifying CSR through public law. It demonstrates that the formalisation of business responsibilities for human rights, which emerged with the two UN instruments, is having an impact on public regulation of CSR in a more general sense. Another current in public regulation of CSR...... is offered by the EU’s approach to regulating sourcing of natural resources through a combination of law and the market, including due diligence requirements on business and the EU's new Non-Financial Reporting Directive. Identifying inconsistencies and ensuing challenges, the article demonstrates...

  5. The private – public law divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve Jeppesen-de Boer, Christina; Kronborg, Annette; Svendsen, Idamarie Leth

    2013-01-01

    to a particular societal institution. Marriage as an institution has been individualized and the goodness of the family has to relate to the well-being of the individuals instead. This article shows that within this historical development the private-public law divide has not been seriously challenged......In a Scandinavian perspective, the family and the individual have changed places during the 20th Century. Today, the law takes its starting point in the individual - not in the family. A consequence of this development is that it is no longer legally possible to relate the good family...

  6. Notes: Public Consultation toward Ethiopia's Family Law Reform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notes: Public Consultation toward Ethiopia's Family Law Reform and the Revised Code's Response. ... Mizan Law Review ... inter alia, include the pros and cons of having a uniform family law, the various forms and impediments to marriage, ...

  7. Public Health Law and Institutional Vaccine Skepticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasidis, Efthimios

    2016-08-16

    Vaccine-hesitant parents are often portrayed as misinformed dilettantes clinging to unscientific Internet chatter and a debunked study that linked vaccines and autism. While this depiction may be an accurate portrayal of a small (but vocal) subset, scholars have unearthed a more complex picture that casts vaccine hesitancy in the context of broader notions of lack of trust in government and industry. At the same time, commentators have highlighted limitations of the vaccine injury compensation program and US Supreme Court Justices Sonia Sotomayor and Ruth Bader Ginsburg have argued that preemption laws that provide vaccine manufacturers with broad legal immunities create "a regulatory vacuum in which no one ensures that vaccine manufacturers adequately take account of scientific and technological advancements when designing or distributing their products." In short, the discussions surrounding vaccine hesitancy that dominate public discourse detract from serious debate as to whether amendments to vaccine-related laws can address the limitations of the existing framework governing immunizations. This commentary examines these issues through a public health law lens.

  8. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  9. A Look at the Law, Public Safety, Corrections & Security Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee, Joseph N.

    2008-01-01

    A month after the 9/11 terrorist attack in 2001, an advisory group met in Little Rock, Arkansas, to begin the development of the Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security (LPSCS) career cluster. At that time there were five pathways of what was then called the Law and Public Safety cluster--fire and emergency services, law enforcement,…

  10. [Suggestions for the upcoming public health law in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanos, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    The upcoming public health law must serve as the basis for public health reform. The text of the law should allow public health structures to be modernized and adapted to the country's new needs. A broader concept of public health and a redefinition of its functions and basic services are required. Some of the main suggestions for the upcoming law are the establishment of a Spanish Agency for Public Health and a Public Health Council, the design of a Spanish Strategy of Public Health, and reform of professional training.

  11. Toward a Social History of Law and Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyack, David

    This exploratory essay suggests the contours of a social history of law and public education. The essay departs from two traditional approaches to educational law: the study of landmark cases, and textbooks that delimit legally approved practice. Instead the changing dialectic between statutory and court-decided law is analyzed, stressing how…

  12. Public Supervision over Private Relationships : Towards European Supervision Private Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    The rise of public supervision over private relationships in many areas of private law has led to the development of what, in the author’s view, could be called ‘European supervision private law’. This emerging body of law forms part of European regulatory private law and is made up of contract-rela

  13. Transitions in state public health law: comparative analysis of state public health law reform following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2009-03-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.

  14. Coded Statutory Data Sets for Evaluation of Public Health Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costich, Julia Field

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives: The evaluation of public health law requires reliable accounts of underlying statutes and regulations. States often enact public health-related statutes with nonuniform provisions, and variation in the structure of state legal codes can foster inaccuracy in evaluating the impact of specific categories of law. The optimal…

  15. Public Security and Fundamental Principles of Criminal Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Leonard F.M.

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this paper is “public security and constitutional principles of criminal law”. This paper presents some thoughts and formulates some questions concerning developments in the broad area of criminal law and public security which pose a challenge to constitutional law. The paper focuses no

  16. Public Values in Water Law: A Case of Substantive Fragmentation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ambrus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal fragmentation, from a public-values perspective, is a quite well-documented phenomenon in international (water law. However, the literature does not provide any insight into vertical or substantive fragmentation, i.e. differences in the protection of public values at the various institutional levels. This article assesses whether there is substantive fragmentation in water law at the international, the European, the sub-regional (Danube River Basin, and the Dutch domestic level. To this end, first a working definition of the concept of ‘public water values’ will be formulated. Subsequently, this article will draw conclusions regarding the degree of substantive fragmentation in water law across the institutional levels mentioned, based on an in-depth analysis of relevant sources of water law. The article will not present an exhaustive overview of public water values, but elaborates on a number of core values in water law.

  17. Pedagogical promise and problems: teaching public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrett, K; Quick, O

    2009-03-01

    This article considers the case for teaching public health law as a distinct subject of study within the academic curriculum. It offers proposals on syllabus design, assessment and objectives by reference to the authors' own teaching experience, and also seeks to serve as a resource for those considering the introduction of a course in this field. There is consideration of the conceptual analysis of public health law, and an exploration of the obstacles and opportunities involved in teaching public health law in higher education. To date, issues of public health law have received coverage, if at all, almost exclusively in the context of existing medical or healthcare law modules. Although difficult obstacles remain to be surmounted before the subject can be fully embraced, its marginalization appears to be increasingly misplaced in light of growing awareness of the policy challenges presented by public health and the potential for law to function as a valuable tool to assist in addressing such challenges. There are also potent pedagogical arguments for the teaching of public health law on a liberal academic curriculum.

  18. Using the Law to Combat Public Procurement Corruption in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2017-05-23

    May 23, 2017 ... by public law purchase products, services and public works".4 Williams and Quinot define .... procurement decisions have a significant impact not only on the .... understand that it is not only a low price which will secure them a public ... results in an economy in which consumers benefit from superior quality.

  19. 24 CFR 570.601 - Public Law 88-352 and Public Law 90-284; affirmatively furthering fair housing; Executive Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public Law 88-352 and Public Law 90... FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Other Program Requirements § 570.601 Public Law 88-352 and Public Law 90-284; affirmatively furthering fair housing; Executive Order 11063. (a) The...

  20. Critical opportunities for public health law: a call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M; Wood, Jennifer; Burris, Scott; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Swanson, Jeffrey W

    2013-11-01

    Although legal interventions are responsible for many sentinel public health achievements, law is underutilized as a tool for advancing population health. Our purpose was to identify critical opportunities for public health lawmaking. We articulated key criteria and illustrated their use with 5 examples. These opportunities involve significant health problems that are potentially amenable to change through law and for which an effective legal intervention is available: optimizing graduated driver licensing laws, increasing tax rates on alcoholic beverages, regulating sodium in foods, enacting laws to facilitate reversal of opioid overdoses, and improving mental health interventions in the college setting. We call for a national conversation about critical opportunities for public health law to advance evidence-based policymaking.

  1. PUBLIC LAW AS A VICTIM OF THE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS VACARELU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Every day of 2009 has a common speech: economic crisis and its consequences, not only in economic topics, but also in few others domains, connected with the real economy.However, in this public speech, it was a problem: we must find a guilty element, because it must be someone who was not able to function correct, to not respect some rules that was good many years, but not in first years of 21st century. And, as always, every specialist and whole political class offered an answer. But this is not enough: a crisis has not only causes, but t has its victims.The globalization was one of them; human rights – in few states, young generation is a perpetual victim. In legal branch, the consequences were much simple: private law (banking law and commercial law didn’t suffer too much, but public law – because whole eyes were settled in this direction – felt this pressure. State intervention in the economy was considered not really political correct, not really a benefit for economies, but something necessary. In fact, public law was considered only a reserve. In this case, can we speak about a delegitimization of public law? Is the purpose of public law available for 21st century or it become now only a simple reserve, necessary only to solve the “side-slip” of the private law? And, because the connection between private law and the economy is too strong, can we see now the public law as a victim of the economy?

  2. Rediscovering Principles of Public Administration: The Neglected Foundation of Public Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Ronald C.; Gilmour, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Public administration is at risk of losing its theoretical distinctiveness based on public law, leaving it vulnerable to advocates of the entrepreneurial management model. Administrative principles rooted in law can accommodate useful contemporary management concepts without compromising accountable public sector management. (SK)

  3. Rediscovering Principles of Public Administration: The Neglected Foundation of Public Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Ronald C.; Gilmour, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Public administration is at risk of losing its theoretical distinctiveness based on public law, leaving it vulnerable to advocates of the entrepreneurial management model. Administrative principles rooted in law can accommodate useful contemporary management concepts without compromising accountable public sector management. (SK)

  4. Public Values in Water Law: A Case of Substantive Fragmentation?

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Ambrus; Herman Kasper Gilissen; Jasper J.H. van Kempen

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal fragmentation, from a public-values perspective, is a quite well-documented phenomenon in international (water) law. However, the literature does not provide any insight into vertical or substantive fragmentation, i.e. differences in the protection of public values at the various institutional levels. This article assesses whether there is substantive fragmentation in water law at the international, the European, the sub-regional (Danube River Basin), and the Dutch domestic level. ...

  5. Building public health law capacity at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Diane E; Rowthorn, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    Local health officials are called upon every day to implement the programs, enforce the regulations, and take the actions that protect the health of the citizens in their districts. These responsibilities and duties are created and regulated by a complex interplay of federal, state, and local law. Not only is an understanding of these laws necessary to carry out public health activities on a daily basis, but many public health scholars and practitioners also believe that the law can be used as a tool to take proactive steps to improve public health. Unfortunately, many local public health officials do not have access to the legal assistance they need to address the various legal questions that confront them. This deficit makes it harder for them to meet their day-to-day responsibilities and makes it much more difficult for them to use the law proactively as a method to improve public health in their communities. In addition, many of the attorneys who provide legal support to public health departments do not have the time or resources to develop a thorough and up-to-date understanding of public health law. This paper examines the experience of a number of local health offices in obtaining legal advice and of attorneys who provide legal advice and assistance to local health departments and assesses different models for organizing and financing the provision of legal services to local public health officials.

  6. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 7 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1985-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (7. History of International Law. Foundations and Principles of International Law. Sources of International Law. Law of Treaties). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1984

  7. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 7 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1985-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (7. History of International Law. Foundations and Principles of International Law. Sources of International Law. Law of Treaties). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1984

  8. The impact of European Union law on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, John

    The previous articles on the European Union and health law have looked at the effect of EU law on the practitioner and on the patient. This article considers the impact on public health. This is a broad concept, and the impact of EU law is equally broadly felt. There is a general recognition of the importance of health issues, reflected in Article 152 (1) EC, A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Community policies and activities. This article focuses particularly on the impact of Article 152 on public health within individual member states.

  9. Law, liability, and public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Sharona; Goodman, Richard A; Stier, Daniel D

    2009-06-01

    According to many experts, a public health emergency arising from an influenza pandemic, bioterrorism attack, or natural disaster is likely to develop in the next few years. Meeting the public health and medical response needs created by such an emergency will likely involve volunteers, health care professionals, public and private hospitals and clinics, vaccine manufacturers, governmental authorities, and many others. Conducting response activities in emergency circumstances may give rise to numerous issues of liability, and medical professionals and other potential responders have expressed concern about liability exposure. Providers may face inadequate resources, an insufficient number of qualified personnel, overwhelming demand for services, and other barriers to providing optimal treatment, which could lead to injury or even death in some cases. This article describes the different theories of liability that may be used by plaintiffs and the sources of immunity that are available to public health emergency responders in the public sector, private sector, and as volunteers. It synthesizes the existing immunity landscape and analyzes its gaps. Finally, the authors suggest consideration of the option of a comprehensive immunity provision that addresses liability protection for all health care providers during public health emergencies and that, consequently, assists in improving community emergency response efforts.

  10. THE PRINCIPLES OF THE EUROPEAN PUBLIC SERVICES’ LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Tofan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available European civil service law has emerged as an independent law branch relatively recently. At the EU level there were three categories of rules that regulate the public employees’ activity, according tothe treaty type that established one of the top three communities (ECSC, EEC, EURATOM. Following legislative changes that occurred in 1968, it was made a unification of these provisions, resulting in acommon law text for all the officials, known as The Status. Statutory provisions within the field recognize the law principles common to the entire Community law, such as the principle of subsidiarity, but also a number of new principles, based on this area of research, such as officials business efficiency principle, function stability principle etc. Romanian legislation, although relatively new comparing the laws of other states, has taken over many of theseprinciples, being aligned with union provisions in this field.

  11. Private Law, Public Consequences, And Virtue Jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapin F. Cimino

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Everything we know about legal theory is wrong. Or at least, this is the claim made by Colin Farrelly and Lawrence Solum in their important new anthology, Virtue Jurisprudence. Specifically, Farrelly and Solum tell us that we are arguing over the wrong question. The wrong question is whether normative legal theory should rest on either law and economic notions of welfare and efficiency or on rights-based notions of liberty and equality. To Farrelly and Solum, the answer to this question is neither.

  12. Public Values in Water Law : A Case of Substantive Fragmentation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrus, Monika; Gilissen, Herman Kasper; van Kempen, Jasper JH

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal fragmentation, from a public-values perspective, is a quite well-documented phenomenon in international (water) law. However, the literature does not provide any insight into vertical or substantive fragmentation, i.e. differences in the protection of public values at the various institut

  13. Public Values in Water Law: A Case of Substantive Fragmentation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrus, M.; Gilissen, Herman Kasper|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314838732; van Kempen, Jasper|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314011900

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal fragmentation, from a public-values perspective, is a quite well-documented phenomenon in international (water) law. However, the literature does not provide any insight into vertical or substantive fragmentation, i.e. differences in the protection of public values at the various institut

  14. Public Values in Water Law : A Case of Substantive Fragmentation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrus, Monika; Gilissen, Herman Kasper; van Kempen, Jasper JH

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal fragmentation, from a public-values perspective, is a quite well-documented phenomenon in international (water) law. However, the literature does not provide any insight into vertical or substantive fragmentation, i.e. differences in the protection of public values at the various

  15. Public Values in Water Law: A Case of Substantive Fragmentation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrus, M.; Gilissen, Herman Kasper|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314838732; van Kempen, Jasper|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314011900

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal fragmentation, from a public-values perspective, is a quite well-documented phenomenon in international (water) law. However, the literature does not provide any insight into vertical or substantive fragmentation, i.e. differences in the protection of public values at the various

  16. Public Employment Services and European Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freedland, Mark; Craig, Paul; Jacqueson, Catherine

    jobformidling i EU: institutioner, aktiviteter og regulering - økonomisk/social regulering, privat/offentlig aktivitet - EU-ret - komparativ ret: Danmark, Frankrig, England, Tyskland og Italien - EU kompetence, sociale anliggende og offentlige tjenesteydelser - "Public service" modeler i EU - reg...

  17. 7 CFR 1942.306 - Purposes of grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agency under Public Law 103-354. The amount of participation by the other department, agency, or... Grants § 1942.306 Purposes of grants. (a) Grant funds may be used to finance and/or develop small and... under Public Law 103-354 grant funds may be used jointly with funds furnished by the grantee or...

  18. 7 CFR 1951.226 - Sale or exchange of security property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to sell the property for less than the appraised value; or the buyer refuses to assume all the terms... successor agency under Public Law 103-354's advantage. (ii) To purchase or acquire through exchange property...HA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 1965-8, “Release from Personal Liability...

  19. Landmark Law Provides Equal Safeguards to Public,Private Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XIN

    2007-01-01

    @@ After more than a quarter-century of market-oriented economic policies and unprecedented economic growths,China on March 15, 2007enacted its first law that provides equal legal safeguards to both public and private properties. The 247-article People's Republic of China Property Law, which is due to come into effect as of October 1, 2007, stipulates that "the property of the State, the collecfive, the individual and other obligees shall be protected by law, and no units or individuals may infringe upon it".

  20. Working together: public law enforcement and private security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harold T

    2010-01-01

    Private security forces, including hospital security professionals, provide a vast largely untapped resource for public law enforcement in a number of critical areas affecting society, the author points out. At the same time, police agencies in some communities have programs which can be used to provide additional training for private security officers.

  1. Information Policy: Public Laws from the 95th Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on House Administration.

    This compilation of abstracts provides brief descriptions of the 74 new public laws relating to computers and information policy that were enacted during the 95th Congress. Each of these bills is concerned with information, although the diverse subject matter--e.g., energy and clean water, food and health, foreign investments, ethics in…

  2. Privatising the Public University: The Case of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    "Privatising the Public University: The Case of Law" is the first full-length critical study examining the impact of the dramatic reforms that have swept through universities over the last two decades. Drawing on extensive research and interviews in Australia, New Zealand, the UK and Canada, Margaret Thornton considers the impact of the…

  3. Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. Public Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This document presents the text of Public Law 106-229, the "Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act." The act states that, with respect to any transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce: a signature, contract, or other record relating to such transaction may not be denied legal effect, validity, or…

  4. STEM Education Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-59)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Congress, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The STEM Education Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-59) was put in place to define Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education to include computer science, and to support existing STEM education programs at the National Science Foundation. The act is organized into the following sections: (1) Short Title; (2) Definition of STEM…

  5. 7 CFR 1951.891 - Liquidation; default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Law 103-354 shall determine to be reasonable, any evidence of debt, contract, claim, personal or real... Administrator will notify the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Finance Office of any change...) Liquidation, management, and disposal of inventory property will be handled in accordance with subparts A,...

  6. Crowning glory: public law, power and the monarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Thérèse; Whitty, Noel

    2000-01-01

    ‘New public law’ has a keen interest in the deployment of power and the shifting nature of the public and private. In this article, we argue that the historical legacy of the Crown has hindered the ability of public lawyers to respond to changes in modes of governance in the UK. The constitutional law textbook tradition has played a key role in limiting critiques of the Crown because of the obfuscation that surrounds the legal and political status of the Monarch. However, instead of discounti...

  7. Public Support for Weight-Related Antidiscrimination Laws and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hilbert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Weight-related discrimination is prevalent and associated with health impairments for those who are targeted, which underscores the need of antidiscrimination legislation. This study is the first to examine public support of weight-related antidiscrimination laws or policies in Germany, compared to the US and Iceland. Methods: In a representative German population sample (N = 2,513, public support for general and employment-specific weight-related antidiscrimination policies, weight-based victimization, and weight bias internalization were measured through established self-report questionnaires. Results: Half of the German population sample agreed with antidiscrimination policies. General antidiscrimination laws received lower support than employment-specific laws. Support for policies considering obesity a physical disability was greatest in Germany, whereas support for employment-specific antidiscrimination laws was lower in Germany than in the US and Iceland. Total support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies was significantly predicted by lower age, female gender, obese weight status, residence in West Germany, church membership, and readiness to vote in elections. Conclusion: German support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies is moderate. Increasing awareness about weight-related discrimination and laws prohibiting this behavior may help to promote policy acceptance.

  8. The Incorporation of Public International Law into Municipal Law and Regional Law against the Background of the Dichotomy between Monism and Dualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist alongside each other. However, not all legal systems are clearly either monist or dualist. The dichotomy between monism and dualism no longer only concerns the relationship between public international law and municipal law, but also increasingly affects the relationship between public international law and regional law. This contribution discusses the application of the monist and dualist approaches by the South African Constitutional Court in the Glenister case and the European Court of Justice in the Kadi and Hungary cases in order to illustrate the practical application of the dichotomy between monism and dualism in a municipal system and on a regional level.

  9. Including Public Health Content in a Bioethics and Law Course: Vaccine Exemptions, Tort Liability, and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating public health content in a bioethics and law course can prompt rich discussions. This set of materials on mandatory vaccinations, nonmedical exemptions, and potential tort liability for nonvaccination explores the roles of public health law and tort law in advancing social goals and protecting individual rights and interests. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  10. Developing a tool for assessing public health law in countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Yoon; Lee, Yuri; Sohn, Myongsei; Hahm, Ki-Hyun

    2012-09-01

    At present, the World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of developing a tool designed to assess the status of public health legislation in a given country. An Expert Consultation on Public Health Law was convened in Manila, Philippines, in May 2011. The participants agreed that the tool could serve as a guide for a regional approach to assist Member States in assessing the scope, completeness, and adequacy of their public health law. Given the broad definition of "public health" and the laws that affect health, directly or indirectly, the participants further agreed to narrow the field to 4 areas based on significant WHO works/policies, each organized into an independent module: (1) International Digest on Health Law, (2) Primary Health Care, (3) International Health Regulations 2005, and (4) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The tool would be drafted in a questionnaire format that asks the respondent to determine whether primary and/or subsidiary legislation exists in the country on a specific topic and, if so, to cite the relevant law, describe the pertinent points, and attach and/or link to the full text where available. The participants agreed that the respondents should include government officials and/or academics with legal competency. Version 1 of the tool was piloted in the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Samoa, and Vanuatu. At a 2nd Expert Consultation on Public Health Law, convened in Incheon, Republic of Korea, in October 2011, in conjunction with the 43rd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium on Public Health, the participants determined that the tool was generally usable, certain concerns notwithstanding, such as the risk of standardizing compliance with WHO policies. The agreed next step is to finalize the analysis tool by August 2012, marking the end of stage I in the development process. Stage II will consist of team building and networking of responsible officers and/or professionals in the countries. The tool

  11. Major trends in public health law and practice: a network national report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, James G; Barraza, Leila; Bernstein, Jennifer; Chu, Courtney; Collmer, Veda; Davis, Corey; Griest, Megan M; Hammer, Monica S; Krueger, Jill; Lowrey, Kerri McGowan; Orenstein, Daniel G

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in September 2010, the Network for Public Health Law has responded to hundreds of public health legal technical assistance claims from around the country. Based on a review of these data, a series of major trends in public health practice and the law are analyzed, including issues concerning: the Affordable Care Act, tobacco control, emergency legal preparedness, health information privacy, food policy, vaccination, drug overdose prevention, sports injury law, public health accreditation, and maternal breastfeeding. These and other emerging themes in public health law demonstrate the essential role of law and practice in advancing the public's health. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  12. Higher Education Technical Corrections (Public Law 111-39)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Congress, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Higher Education Technical Corrections (Public Law 111-39) was put in place to make technical corrections to the Higher Education Act of 1965, and for other purposes. The table of contents for this Act is as follows: (1) Sec. 1. Table of contents; (2) Sec. 2. References; and (3) Sec. 3. Effective date. (A) Title I--General Provisions: (4) Sec.…

  13. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  14. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  15. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nebraska governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitiled ''Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An Overview.'' This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 8 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1986-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (8. Human Rights and the Individual in International Law. International Economic Relations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1985

  17. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 8 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1986-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (8. Human Rights and the Individual in International Law. International Economic Relations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1985

  18. PUBLIC PROCUREMENT IN GHANA: THE IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES TO THE PUBLIC PROCUREMENT LAW 2003 (ACT 663

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameyaw, Collins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify various implementation bottlenecks to the Ghana Public Procurement Law 2003 (Act 663. The study adopted multiple research approaches, including; review of relevant literature, interviews and questionnaire survey of 49 District Assemblies and Metropolitan and Municipal Assemblies in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions of Ghana. The study identified low capacity of procurement professionals, low interaction between procurement entities and Public Procurement Authority (PPA, deliberate controlling of competition, non-compliance with provisions of the law, splitting of contracts into smaller lots, lack of funds and non-cooperativeness of suppliers, as the major challenges militating against the implementation of the Public Procurement Law.

  19. Contracts Contrary to Public Policy under English Law and Dutch Law : The Case of Agreements Affecting Matrimony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansoor, Zeeshan

    2014-01-01

    Both English law and Dutch law contain general rules that result in the invalidity of contracts that conflict with morality or public policy. Working on the premise that each country has its own unique set of factors shaping public interests, this article highlights methodological aspects of identif

  20. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 201 of Public Law 110-429

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Public Law 110-429 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 8, 2009 Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 201 of Public Law 110-429 Memorandum for the Secretary of State... conferred upon the President by subsections (a), (b), and (c) of section 201 of Public Law 110-429. You...

  1. 75 FR 16225 - Certifications Pursuant to Section 609 of Public Law 101-162

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Certifications Pursuant to Section 609 of Public Law 101-162 SUMMARY: On March 24, 2010, the Department of State notified Congress that it had withdrawn Mexico's certification under United States Public Law 101-162...; telephone: (202) 647-2252. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 609 of Public Law 101-162 prohibits imports...

  2. 48 CFR 52.250-1 - Indemnification Under Public Law 85-804.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Law 85-804. 52.250-1 Section 52.250-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.250-1 Indemnification Under Public Law 85-804. As prescribed in 50.104-4, insert the following clause: Indemnification Under Public Law 85-804 (APR 1984) (a) Contractor's principal officials, as...

  3. 78 FR 5703 - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 6 of Public Law 112-150

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... Under Section 6 of Public Law 112-150 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... President ] Memorandum of January 15, 2013 Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 6 of Public Law 112... section 6 of Public Law 112-150. You will exercise these functions in coordination with the Secretary...

  4. 75 FR 27855 - Certifications Pursuant to Section 609 of Public Law 101-162

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Public Law 101-162 SUMMARY: On April 30, 2010, the Department of State certified, pursuant to Section 609 of Public Law 101-162 (``Section 609''), that 13 nations have adopted programs to reduce the... 609 of Public Law 101-162 prohibits imports of certain categories of shrimp unless the...

  5. 75 FR 17988 - Certifications Pursuant to Section 609 of Public Law 101-162

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Certifications Pursuant to Section 609 of Public Law 101-162 SUMMARY: On March 24, 2010, the Department of State notified Congress that it had withdrawn Mexico's certification under United States Public Law 101-162.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 609 of Public Law 101-162 prohibits imports of certain categories of...

  6. 75 FR 33421 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law 107-171; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Assistance Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law 107-171 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... ``Food Stamp Program: Non-Discretionary Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law...

  7. 32 CFR 644.419 - Public Law 87-852 easements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public Law 87-852 easements. 644.419 Section 644.419 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Public Law 87-852 easements. Public Law 87-852, approved 23 October 1962 (76 Stat. 1129),...

  8. THE CITIZENS’ PUBLIC PARTICIPATION UNDER EUROPEAN UNION LAW AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Charlotte ENE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, June 25, 1998 (entered into force Oct. 30, 2001 [hereinafter Aarhus Convention], negotiated under the auspices of the UN/ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, is the result of the efforts to establish international legal standards in the field of citizens’ environmental rights to date. Also, it is the first international document about public participation in environmental matters, developing the principle 10 of the Rio Declaration, which stresses the need for citizen's participation in environmental issues and for access to information on the environment held by public authorities. Public participation, one of the three main pillars provided by Aarhus Convention, could be one of the key factors in involving the citizens in the protection of the environment and strengthening compliance and enforcement of national and European environmental law. Under European Union regulations, the right to participate in environmental decision-making process could be exercise more effectively based on European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI procedure. Therefore, the European Citizens' Initiative (ECI, as introduced by the Lisbon Treaty, allows citizens to request new EU legislation once a million signatures from seven member states have been collected asking the European Commission to do so. This paper explores environmental citizenship within the framework of European Union (EU environmental law.

  9. PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and

  10. PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and

  11. An Assessment of Public Law 95-507.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    thereunder, were to be performed entirely outside the United States, its possessions and Puerto Rico, and to contracts for services which were personal in...Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - is for services which are personal in nature 1. Contracts Over $1,000,000 for Construction and .500,000 for...rimo~ , Viitdrot, for M1itinrty Stmi Iltu~ tesi amid (’at 1 itl Owner’. shid! D eve’onnent". 112 - - - -.M PUBLIC LAW 95-507-OCT. 24, 1978 92 STAT. 1767

  12. A Transdisciplinary Approach to Public Health Law: The Emerging Practice of Legal Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Scott; Ashe, Marice; Levin, Donna; Penn, Matthew; Larkin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Public health law has roots in both law and science. For more than a century, lawyers have helped develop and implement health laws; over the past 50 years, scientific evaluation of the health effects of laws and legal practices has achieved high levels of rigor and influence. We describe an emerging model of public health law that unites these two traditions. This transdisciplinary model adds scientific practices to the lawyerly functions of normative and doctrinal research, counseling, and representation. These practices include policy surveillance and empirical public health law research on the efficacy of legal interventions and the impact of laws and legal practices on health and health system operation. A transdisciplinary model of public health law, melding its legal and scientific facets, can help break down enduring cultural, disciplinary, and resource barriers that have prevented the full recognition and optimal role of law in public health.

  13. Big bad data: law, public health, and biomedical databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Sharona; Podgurski, Andy

    2013-03-01

    The accelerating adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems will have far-reaching implications for public health research and surveillance, which in turn could lead to changes in public policy, statutes, and regulations. The public health benefits of EHR use can be significant. However, researchers and analysts who rely on EHR data must proceed with caution and understand the potential limitations of EHRs. Because of clinicians' workloads, poor user-interface design, and other factors, EHR data can be erroneous, miscoded, fragmented, and incomplete. In addition, public health findings can be tainted by the problems of selection bias, confounding bias, and measurement bias. These flaws may become all the more troubling and important in an era of electronic "big data," in which a massive amount of information is processed automatically, without human checks. Thus, we conclude the paper by outlining several regulatory and other interventions to address data analysis difficulties that could result in invalid conclusions and unsound public health policies. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  14. The individual mandate: implications for public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmet, Wendy E

    2011-01-01

    No provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) has been more contentious than the so-called "individual mandate," the constitutionality of which is now before several appellate courts. Critics claim that the mandate represents an unprecedented attempt by the federal government to compel individual action. Yet, states frequently employ similar mandates to protect the public's health. These public health mandates have also often aroused deep opposition. This essay situates PPACA's mandate, and the opposition to it, in that broader context. The article reviews the arguments that public health's population perspective provides in support of mandates, as well as the reasons why mandates often ignite intense legal and political opposition. Most importantly, by holding individuals accountable for population-based problems, mandates may undercut the public health arguments that justify them. The article concludes by arguing that public health policymakers need to know more about the unintended political and legal costs of mandates. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 9 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law / published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (9. International Relations and Legal Cooperation in General. Diplomacy and Consular Relations and 10. States. Responsibility of Sates. International Law and Municipal Law). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford : North-Holland Publishing Company, 1986-1987. Pp. XV, 425 and pp. XV, 543

  16. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 9 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law / published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (9. International Relations and Legal Cooperation in General. Diplomacy and Consular Relations and 10. States. Responsibility of Sates. International Law and Municipal Law). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford : North-Holland Publishing Company, 1986-1987. Pp. XV, 425 and pp. XV, 543

  17. Materialities of Law: Celebrity Production and the Public Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Milne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Celebrity production and consumption are powerful socio-economic forces. The celebrity functions as a significant economic resource for the commercial sector and plays a fundamental symbolic role within culture by providing a shared ‘vocabulary’ through which to understand contemporary social relations. A pivotal element of this allure is the process by which the celebrity figure is able to forge an intimate link with its audience, often producing public expressions of profound compassion, respect or revulsion. This process, however, is complicated by emerging participatory media forms whose impact is experienced as new conditions of possibility for celebrity production and consumption. As Marshall argues, video mash-ups of celebrity interviews, such as those of Christian Bale or Tom Cruise, are dramatically changing the relation between celebrity and audience (Marshall, 2006: 640. Meanings produced by these audience remixes challenge the extent to which a celebrity might control her image. So is the celebrity personality, therefore, a public or private commodity? Who owns the celebrity image within remix culture? Although the celebrity figure has been thoroughly researched in relation to its patterns of consumption; semiotic power; and industry construction; less attention has been focused on the forms of celebrity governance enabled by legislative and case law settings. How might the law deal with the significant economic and cultural power exercised within celebrity culture?

  18. Living apart together: the relationship between public and private international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. de Boer

    2010-01-01

    There have been times when public and private international law were closely related. As a means to solve conflicts of sovereign jurisdiction, conflicts law used to be considered as an integral part of the law of nations. Even after Savigny shifted the focus of private international law from the spa

  19. 12 CFR 590.100 - Status of Interpretations issued under Public Law 96-161.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Status of Interpretations issued under Public Law 96-161. 590.100 Section 590.100 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PREEMPTION OF STATE USURY LAWS § 590.100 Status of Interpretations issued under Public Law...

  20. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on the Delegation of Certifications Under Section 1512 of Public Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Certifications Under Section 1512 of Public Law 105-261 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents... Certifications Under Section 1512 of Public Law 105-261 Memorandum for the Secretary of Commerce By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of...

  1. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 6 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1984-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (6. regional Cooperation, Organization Problems). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  2. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1982-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (2. Decisions of International Courts and Tribunals and International Arbitrations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1981

  3. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 5 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 5. International Organizations in General. Universal International Organisazations and Cooperation. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  4. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 3 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 3 (A_M) and 4 (N-Z): Use of Force. War and Neutrality. Peace treaties. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982

  5. Public Policy Exceptions in European Private Law : A New Research Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombi Ciacchi, Aurelia

    2014-01-01

    Public policy exceptions arguably exist in all fields of private and commerciallaw, not only in private international law but also in substantive law. In substantive private law, the term 'public policy exception' could be used to indicate general illegality rules that make an act of private

  6. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 6 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1984-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (6. regional Cooperation, Organization Problems). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  7. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 3 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 3 (A_M) and 4 (N-Z): Use of Force. War and Neutrality. Peace treaties. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982

  8. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1982-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (2. Decisions of International Courts and Tribunals and International Arbitrations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1981

  9. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 5 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 5. International Organizations in General. Universal International Organisazations and Cooperation. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  10. THE MAN CATEGORY IN PUBLIC POLICIES AND BRAZILIAN LAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Alflen Banin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the view of man as a gender category in public policies and national laws, especially those focused on violence against women. With this objective, it contextualizes the studies of feminisms and masculinities as theories and epistemology that guide the analysis of 17 official Brazilian documents selected for this study. This analysis seeks to clarify how the gendered man has been understood in various documents over the years. It discusses how the formulation of laws can provide a new accountability approach beyond the punishment of these men. It also investigates the regulation of some of the existing groups of men who have used violence against women in the country. It finalizes claiming the importance of these reflections for the debate on gender and masculinities in pursuit of a more effective system of prevention and eradication of violence against women. It discusses and argues in favor of both changing the way this category is addressed in official documents, and formalizing spaces for reflection for men who have used violence against women.

  11. lawstat: An R Package for Law, Public Policy and Biostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Hui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new R software package lawstat that contains statistical tests and procedures that are utilized in various litigations on securities law, antitrust law, equal employment and discrimination as well as in public policy and biostatistics. Along with the well known tests such as the Bartels test, runs test, tests of homogeneity of several sample proportions, the Brunner-Munzel tests, the Lorenz curve, the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test and others, the package contains new distribution-free robust tests for symmetry, robust tests for normality that are more sensitive to heavy-tailed departures, measures of relative variability, Levene-type tests against trends in variances etc. All implemented tests and methods are illustrated by simulations and real-life examples from legal cases, economics and biostatistics. Although the package is called lawstat, it presents implementation and discussion of statistical procedures and tests that are also employed in a variety of other applications, e.g., biostatistics, environmental studies, social sciences and others, in other words, all applications utilizing statistical data analysis. Hence, name of the package should not be considered as a restriction to legal statistics. The package will be useful to applied statisticians and "quantitatively alert practitioners" of other subjects as well as an asset in teaching statistical courses.

  12. Public health law, human rights and HIV: a work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Stevie

    2010-01-01

    Australia has been a global leader in balancing public health law, human rights and HIV. The first National HIV/AIDS Strategy launched in 1989 set the agenda for law reform. The Intergovernmental Committee on AIDS subsequently established a legal working party with one of its key tasks to formulate public health legislation that would protect public health and human rights. The NSW Public Health Act 1991 has provided the framework for managing HIV in NSW over the subsequent decades. Recent changes to criminal law in NSW and opportunities to redefine public health law may affect how HIV transmission risks are managed in the future.

  13. Using the laws and the regularities of public administration in the state strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Yevmieshkina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the use of laws of public administration in the state strategic planning; defined a methodological basis of state strategic planning. State strategic planning as a function of public administration exists in accordance with its laws and regularities. Author established the use of public administration laws as: unity socio-economic system, required diversity, system integrity, unity techniques and basic functions of social management at all levels of public administration: central, sectorial, regional. At the public administration level this laws as a rule us in working and realization of state strategy, state, region and sectorial program, which directed to improve of political, economic and social process. State strategic planning as a function of public administration exists in accordance with its laws. The law in our research is considered as objective, substantive, necessary, sustainable relationship between events. The most essential feature of law is reflecting the objective state of affairs, objective relations between things, items and phenomenon’s. The other difficult sign of law is necessity as relation, which inevitably revealed in the development process of different things. Law category with regularity category is relation. Regularity is wider category then the law. The state strategic planning is an integrated, systematic process due to the action and use laws and regularities of public administration. That improves the efficiency of public administration.

  14. Good governance and public contracts. A comparative perspective on the balance between public and private law in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zigirinshuti, F.

    2013-01-01

    The central focus of this study is an analysis of the law of public contracts in Rwanda with a view to placing it within the normative framework of legality supplied by the principles of good governance. From a comparative examination of the public contracts law in countries of divergence (Rwanda, F

  15. The Notice on the Notion of State Aid and Public Procurement Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    The Commission Notice on the notion of State aid includes elaboration on the relationship between State aid law and public procurement law. To begin with, the article examines some of the reasons why the relationship between State aid law and public procurement law is surrounded by legal...... uncertainty. Then the elaborations made in the Notice on the notion of aid concerning the relation between the two areas of law are analysed and discussed, in particular, first, the question whether adhering to the procurement procedures laid down in the public procurement directives will eliminate the risk...... of granting State aid and, second, the issues rising from State aid control of in-house situations. It is concluded that even though the Notice on the notion of aid brings some needed clarity that fosters coherence between State aid law and public procurement law, the existing legal uncertainty is not even...

  16. 76 FR 59157 - Public Land Order No. 7783; Extension of Withdrawal Created by Subtitle A of Public Law 104-201; CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Public Law 104-201; CO AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of a withdrawal created by Subtitle A of Public Law 104-201 for an additional 15-year period. Subtitle A of Public Law 104-201 withdrew 3,133 acres of public lands and...

  17. Need-Based Educational Aid Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-44)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Congress, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Need-Based Educational Aid Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-44) was put in place to improve and reauthorize provisions relating to the application of the antitrust laws to the award of need-based educational aid. The contents for this Act is as follows: (1) Short Title; and (2) Extension Relating to the Application of the Antitrust Laws to the…

  18. 5 CFR 831.681 - Annual notice required by Public Law 95-317.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual notice required by Public Law 95-317. 831.681 Section 831.681 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Statutes § 831.681 Annual notice required by Public Law 95-317. At least once every 12 consecutive...

  19. Prevention of non-communicable diseases in Australia: What role should public health law play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvany, Kate

    2015-09-01

    This article explores the role of public health law in the prevention of non-communicable diseases in Australia. The growing urgency to address these diseases is acknowledged and the definition of public health law explored. It is argued that a broad definition of public health law would allow greater recognition of the numerous ways that law can positively influence health outcomes at the population level. Far from substantiating claims of over-reaching state intervention, public health law in the 21st century in Australia should be viewed as a more nuanced and protective strategy in promoting better public health. Adopting this approach offers a way forward towards addressing rising rates of non-communicable diseases, as well as significant health inequities, but it will require greater political will and leadership.

  20. 7 CFR 1955.133 - Nondiscrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for which the Federal financial assistance was extended. (b) Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan... agency under Public Law 103-354 an acceptable Form HUD 935.2, “Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing...

  1. 7 CFR Appendix K to Subpart E of... - Regulations for Loan Guarantees for Disaster Assistance For Rural Business Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agricultural products (crops, animals, birds, and marine life, either for fibers or food for human consumption... shared equally by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 and the Lender. B. FmHA or...

  2. 7 CFR 1980.419 - Eligible lenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.419 Eligible lenders... Director will submit to the Finance Office Form FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 1980...

  3. 7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 400-4, “Assurance Agreement;” (ii) Scope-of-work prepared by the... received. Audits must be prepared in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards using...

  4. 45 CFR 286.285 - How do the data collection and reporting requirements affect Public Law 102-477 Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements affect Public Law 102-477 Tribes? 286.285 Section 286.285 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... Requirements § 286.285 How do the data collection and reporting requirements affect Public Law 102-477 Tribes? (a) A Tribe that consolidates its Tribal TANF program into a Public-Law 102-477 plan is required...

  5. Evaluation of poultry processing practices, related public health laws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-02-16

    Feb 16, 2015 ... gaps that could compromise quality and safety of poultry products in Nigeria. ... Animal Disease Control Edict and Meat Hygiene Act should be passed into law, Nigerian live ... 2010). The role of modern organized slaughtering.

  6. Legal aspects of public health: how law frames communicable disease control in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianastasiou, Sophia; Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2011-11-01

    We reviewed Greek law (legislation, historic Royal Decrees, and modern Presidential ones, 1833-2010) pertinent to control of communicable diseases and compared this body of Greek law with the revised International Health Regulations. Greece authorizes and regulates communicable disease control commensurate with public health risks, and integrates the principles of equality, objectivity, and respect for human rights. Despite strength at the level of principles, Greek law lacks coherence, clarity, and systematization. An inadequate body of regulations means legislation falls short of adequate implementing authority and guidelines; public health authorities often cannot find or understand the laws, nor are they certain about allocation of jurisdictional authority. We identified areas for improvement.

  7. 78 FR 49282 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Reporting Systems for Public Law 102-477...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Reporting Systems for Public Law... the collection of information for the Reporting System for Public Law 102-477 Demonstration Project... Public Law 102-477 Demonstration Project. This information allows the Office of Indian Energy...

  8. 75 FR 58423 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Reporting System for Public Law 102-477...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Reporting System for Public Law 102..., Reporting System for Public Law 102-477 Demonstration Project. This information collection allows IEED to... integrated programs. Public Law 102-477 authorizes tribal governments to integrate...

  9. 76 FR 32010 - Certifications Pursuant to Public Law That 12 Nations Have Adopted Programs To Reduce the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Certifications Pursuant to Public Law That 12 Nations Have Adopted Programs To Reduce the Incidental Capture of..., pursuant to Section 609 of Public Law 101-162, that 12 nations have adopted programs to reduce the... 609 of Public Law 101-162 (``Section 609'') prohibits imports of certain categories of shrimp...

  10. 75 FR 26978 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Reporting System for Public Law 102-477...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Reporting System for Public Law 102... Public Law 102-477 Demonstration Project. This information collection allows IEED to document.... Public Law 102-477 authorizes tribal governments to integrate federally funded employment, training,...

  11. 78 FR 71983 - Delegation of Functions Under Sections 1261(b) and 1262(a) of Public Law 112-239

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Sections 1261(b) and 1262(a) of Public Law 112-239 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal...(a) of Public Law 112-239 Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Commerce By the... section 1262(a) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, Public Law 112- 239....

  12. The role of law in public health: the case of family planning in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle Marie; Powlowski, Marcus; Nañagas, Juan M P; Bossert, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Compared to neighboring countries, the Philippines has high fertility rates and a low prevalence of modern-method contraception use. The Philippine government faces political and cultural barriers to addressing family planning needs, but also legal barriers erected by its own policies. We conducted a review of laws and policies relating to family planning in the Philippines in order to examine how the law may facilitate or constrain service provision. The methodology consisted of three phases. First, we collected and analyzed laws and regulations relating to the delivery of family planning services. Second, we conducted a qualitative interview study. Third, we synthesized findings to formulate policy recommendations. We present a conceptual model for understanding the impact of law on public health and discuss findings in relation to the roles of health care provider regulation, drug regulation, tax law, trade policies, insurance law, and other laws on access to modern-method contraceptives.

  13. The crime of aggression and public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Meagan Shanzhen

    2016-01-01

    Under customary law as well as the amendments to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court adopted in the Review Conference in Kampala in 2010, an act of aggression by a State is a part of the definition of the crime of aggression. This definition clearly encompasses two separate wrongful

  14. 45 CFR 287.20 - May a Public Law 102-477 Tribe operate a NEW Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Public Law 102-477 Tribe operate a NEW Program? 287.20 Section 287.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY... SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM Eligible Tribes § 287.20 May a Public Law 102-477...

  15. National public health law: a role for WHO in capacity-building and promoting transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Sultan, Géraldine; Tsai, Feng-Jen; Anderson, Evan; Kastler, Florian; Sprumont, Dominique; Burris, Scott

    2016-07-01

    A robust health infrastructure in every country is the most effective long-term preparedness strategy for global health emergencies. This includes not only health systems and their human resources, but also countries' legal infrastructure for health: the laws and policies that empower, obligate and sometimes limit government and private action. The law is also an important tool in health promotion and protection. Public health professionals play important roles in health law - from the development of policies, through their enforcement, to the scientific evaluation of the health impact of laws. Member States are already mandated to communicate their national health laws and regulations to the World Health Organization (WHO). In this paper we propose that WHO has the authority and credibility to support capacity-building in the area of health law within Member States, and to make national laws easier to access, understand, monitor and evaluate. We believe a strong case can be made to donors for the funding of a public health law centre or unit, that has adequate staffing, is robustly networked with its regional counterparts and is integrated into the main work of WHO. The mission of the unit or centre would be to define and integrate scientific and legal expertise in public health law, both technical and programmatic, across the work of WHO, and to conduct and facilitate global health policy surveillance.

  16. Public Law 90-532 : 90th Congress : S. 3379 [Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a public law that designates certain lands in the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge as wilderness. It covers the location of the lands being...

  17. Seller's liability for conformity of the goods with public law standards: Frozen pork case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišer-Šobot Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When the goods are exported from one country to another an important question arises - do the goods have to comply with the public law requirements of the seller's country, buyer's country or even with the rules in effect in some third country. The question is of high importance because the public law requirements, including standards established by environmental law, can have decisive impact on the possibility to use the goods. In order to avoid potential disputes parties should explicitly or implicitly stipulate the qualities of the goods and applicable public law standards. In case law, there are no uniform standards for determination and application of criteria for assessment whether the goods are in conformity with public law requirements. The best solution is to follow the rules established in Mussels case and to consider every case separately. Finally, according to our opinion, fitness for the purpose for which the goods would ordinarily be used does not imply the obligation of the seller to deliver the goods conforming to the public law standards of the import country, unless he knew or ought to have known of such standards. On the other hand, legal standards in effect in buyer's place or in the place of destination will be relevant when requirements for application of the Art. 35(2(b are fulfilled i.e. when particular purpose was expressly or impliedly made known to the seller and when the buyer relied on the seller's skill and judgment.

  18. Linking Public Administration and Law Studies within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 1987 represented for us, scholars, the turning point for the Europeanization of highdegree studies. The European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS isa European Union student exchange program which has proved its utility in the last two decade. The publicadministration and law studies are two of the fields of studies which have benefited from the ERASMUSProgramme. In this respect we will try to learn the lesson of internationalization from the European contactthrough ERASMUS programme. The ‘win win’ for students is not just in the increase of knowledge in thearea of administrative sciences and law, but also in the share of cultures. The ERASMUS gives students abetter sense of what it means to be a European citizen. In addition, many employers highly value such aperiod abroad, which increases the students’ employability and job prospects.

  19. International law, public health, and the meanings of pharmaceuticalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloatre, Emilie; Pickersgill, Martyn

    2014-10-01

    Recent social science scholarship has employed the term "pharmaceuticalization" in analyses of the production, circulation and use of drugs. In this paper, we seek to open up further discussion of the scope, limits and potential of this as an analytical device through consideration of the role of law and legal processes in directing pharmaceutical flows. To do so, we synthesize a range of empirical and conceptual work concerned with the relationships between access to medicines and intellectual property law. This paper suggests that alongside documenting the expansion or reduction in demand for particular drugs, analysts of pharmaceuticalization attend to the ways in which socio-legal developments change (or not) the identities of drugs, and the means through which they circulate and come to be used by states and citizens. Such scholarship has the potential to more precisely locate the biopolitical processes that shape international agendas and targets, form markets, and produce health.

  20. Law, public policy and mental health in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippel, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this article describes regulatory interventions, drawn from different Canadian jurisdictions, designed to reduce worker exposure to psychosocial hazards, including occupational violence, and to protect workers' mental health. It also addresses legislative provisions providing workers' compensation for mental health problems and regulatory provisions supporting the return to work of those who have been absent from work because of work-related mental health problems. The second part of the article, relying on illustrations from case law in which workers' compensation claims for mental health problems have been accepted, examines ways in which law and policy can actually contribute directly or indirectly to behaviours that may lead to increasing illness and disability associated with mental health problems. Copyright © 2011 Longwoods Publishing.

  1. Provision of financial services, violation of public law conduct of business rules, and private law norm settinga Dutch, German, and European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, Marnix

    2014-01-01

    Legal uncertainty exists with regards to the relationship between a violation of public law conduct of business rules and private law norm setting. In the area of financial services this uncertainty has led to the question whether private law duties of care can deviate from the norms pursuant to fin

  2. Pandemic influenza control in Europe and the constraints resulting from incoherent public health laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robyn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the emergence of influenza H1N1v the world is facing its first 21st century global pandemic. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS and avian influenza H5N1 prompted development of pandemic preparedness plans. National systems of public health law are essential for public health stewardship and for the implementation of public health policy1. International coherence will contribute to effective regional and global responses. However little research has been undertaken on how law works as a tool for disease control in Europe. With co-funding from the European Union, we investigated the extent to which laws across Europe support or constrain pandemic preparedness planning, and whether national differences are likely to constrain control efforts. Methods We undertook a survey of national public health laws across 32 European states using a questionnaire designed around a disease scenario based on pandemic influenza. Questionnaire results were reviewed in workshops, analysing how differences between national laws might support or hinder regional responses to pandemic influenza. Respondents examined the impact of national laws on the movements of information, goods, services and people across borders in a time of pandemic, the capacity for surveillance, case detection, case management and community control, the deployment of strategies of prevention, containment, mitigation and recovery and the identification of commonalities and disconnects across states. Results Results of this study show differences across Europe in the extent to which national pandemic policy and pandemic plans have been integrated with public health laws. We found significant differences in legislation and in the legitimacy of strategic plans. States differ in the range and the nature of intervention measures authorized by law, the extent to which borders could be closed to movement of persons and goods during a pandemic, and access to healthcare of non

  3. The Impact of One Florida Initiative on Florida's Public Law Schools: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Adriel A.; Gasman, Marybeth; Wood, J. Luke

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the One Florida Initiative (OFI) on racial diversity in Florida's public law schools and legal profession using the lens of Critical Race Theory (CRT). This study seeks to determine what, if any, impact this event has had on recruitment, admissions, and enrollment of Florida's public schools of…

  4. Don't Shoot the Messenger: Public Relations for Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This communication project provides an overview of public relations as seen through the communication arts. It is specifically focused to give law enforcement officers a general review of the practice of public relations, communication basics, and an understanding of the media. This course also provides the facilitator with multiple tools for…

  5. International law and regulation of aeronautical public correspondence by satellite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brisibe, Tare

    2006-01-01

    This work covers the evolution of satellite based Aeronautical Public Correspondence and the operational environment in which services are being offered. Followed by an examination of applicable rules, including the relevant institutions from which they emanate, attention is devoted to questions on

  6. Elective ventilation for organ donation: law, policy and public ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, John

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines questions concerning elective ventilation, contextualised within English law and policy. It presents the general debate with reference both to the Exeter Protocol on elective ventilation, and the considerable developments in legal principle since the time that that protocol was declared to be unlawful. I distinguish different aspects of what might be labelled elective ventilation policies under the following four headings: 'basic elective ventilation'; 'epistemically complex elective ventilation'; 'practically complex elective ventilation'; and 'epistemically and practically complex elective ventilation'. I give a legal analysis of each. In concluding remarks on their potential practical viability, I emphasise the importance not just of ascertaining the legal and ethical acceptability of these and other forms of elective ventilation, but also of assessing their professional and political acceptability. This importance relates both to the successful implementation of the individual practices, and to guarding against possible harmful effects in the wider efforts to increase the rates of posthumous organ donation.

  7. 20 CFR 1002.7 - How does USERRA relate to other laws, public and private contracts, and employer practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... USERRA relate to other laws, public and private contracts, and employer practices? (a) USERRA establishes... law (including any local law or ordinance), contract, agreement, policy, plan, practice, or other... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does USERRA relate to other laws,...

  8. Law as a Tool for Preventing Chronic Diseases: Expanding the Spectrum of Effective Public Health Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Mensah

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In part one of this 2-part series, we reviewed the important roles that laws have played in public health and provided examples of specific laws and their effectiveness in supporting public health interventions (1. We suggested that conceptual legal frameworks for systematically applying law to preventing and controlling chronic diseases have not been fully recognized and we provided the basic elements of a conceptual legal framework. In part 2 of this series, we first provide an overview of U.S. jurisprudence, describe the legal mechanisms, remedies, and tools for applying law to public health, and summarize the jurisdictional levels at which laws, mechanisms, remedies, and tools operate. We then identify the potential contours for legal frameworks of varying complexity and scope by offering examples of legal frameworks in public health practice. This paper also outlines a plan for increasing the capacity within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC for developing legal frameworks and expanding guidance on using legal tools for preventing and controlling chronic diseases. Finally, we describe resources for building or enhancing the capacity to use law as a tool for preventing diseases, injuries, and disabilities at the local level.

  9. 75 FR 67023 - Delegation of Waiver Authority Pursuant to Section 107(a) of Public Law 110-457

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ...) of Public Law 110-457 Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3...) of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 (Public Law...

  10. 78 FR 52601 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    .... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Arbitration... Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL) Public Meeting on Arbitration, to take place on... Legal Adviser, Private International Law, Officer of the Legal Adviser. BILLING CODE 4710-08-P ...

  11. 29 CFR 553.213 - Public agency employees engaged in both fire protection and law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... law enforcement activities. 553.213 Section 553.213 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Exemption Requirements § 553.213 Public agency employees engaged in both fire protection and law enforcement...

  12. Introducing Law Students to Public Health Law through a Bed Bug Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    As the scientific evidence emerges, individuals and institutions faced with bed bug infestations find themselves without the legal protections that are available against legally recognized nuisances and threats to the public's health, such as rats or mosquitos. As a result, they are a good example of how individuals, institutions and municipalities struggle to use the patchwork of public and private legal remedies that are often inadequate to face an emerging threat. This unit is designed to help students gain an awareness that often no one statute or case can be invoked as a complete solution to a legal problem, as well as the inherent limits of legal solutions in addressing public health problems that stem from poverty and powerlessness.

  13. Contract and tort law aspects of the performance of duties of notaries public: Principles of the law pertaining to notaries public, notarial deed and liability of notaries public according to the Serbian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyzes the effective Serbian rules of law on notaries public, in comparative perspective. The principles of law pertaining to notaries, the notarial deed and the legal nature of the notaries' liability for damages are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the principles of public confidence, legality, professionalism, formalism and independence, from which the notaries' liability for damages caused to clients and third parties derives. Although the notaries public are independent, hence they are not subordinate to any judicial or administrative organ, their liability for damages is analogous to the liability of administrative organs, whereby the condition of filing a legal remedy is construed in a fairly broad sense, that is any remark of the client disclosed to the notary is considered as filing a legal remedy. The author's standpoint is that the legal nature of notary's liability is either contractual or delictual, depending on whether the notary infringed a clause of the mandate of the client, which serves as the legal ground of his/her actions, or mandatory rules, that is the statutory requirement of acting in good faith. Besides general rules on the requirements of form of juridical acts (essential form, facultative form, the subject of analysis are also the rules on exclusive and alternative (competing forms of notarial deeds. The effective Serbian law on notaries public envisages the form of notarial deeds and private instruments predominantly as alternative forms, that is a specific kind of deed has the same legal effect, regardless whether it is drafted by a notary or concluded in court.

  14. Non formal mechanisms for public water allocation and the ineffectiveness of law in arid western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liber Martin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the informal mechanisms of public water allocation and reallocation in western Argentina from a holistic conception of law. The paper refers to informal uses, its logical but ineffective repression and the continuous regularization processes from a non experimental observational method based on the use of qualitative strategies. The research work focused on the operation of water allocation mechanisms and management practices developed in the absence of law and against the law, at both the delivery and regulatory levels. The findings highlight the tensions and contradictions of these mechanisms under the formal legal system, demonstrating the crisis of both effectiveness and legitimacy of the law and the State in managing public waters.

  15. Governing GMOs in the USA: science, law and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Chen, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Controversy surrounds the production and consumption of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Proponents argue that GMO food sources represent the only viable solution to food shortages in an ever-growing global population. Science reports no harm from GMO use and consumption so far. Opponents fear the potentially negative impact that GMO development and use could have on the environment and consumers, and are concerned about the lack of data on the long-term effects of GMO use. We discuss the development of GMO food sources, the history of legislation and policy for the labeling requirements of GMO food products, and the health, environmental, and legal rationale for and against GMO food labeling. The Food and Drug Administration regulates food with GMOs within a coordinated framework of federal agencies. Despite mounting scientific evidence that GMO foods are substantially equivalent to traditionally bred food sources, debate remains over the appropriateness of GMO food labeling. In fact, food manufacturers have mounted a First Amendment challenge against Vermont's passage of a law that requires GMO labeling. Mandatory GMO labeling is not supported by science. Compulsory GMO labels may not only hinder the development of agricultural biotechnology, but may also exacerbate the misconception that GMOs endanger people's health.

  16. Governance in genomics: a conceptual challenge for public health genomics law

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Schulte in den Bäumen

    2012-01-01

    Increasing levels of genomic knowledge has led to awareness that new governance issues need to be taken into consideration. While some countries have created new statutory laws in the last 10 years, science supports the idea that genomic data should be treated like other medical data. In this article we discuss the three core models of governance in medical law on a conceptual level. The three models, the Medical, Public Health and Fundamental Rights Model stress different values, or in legal...

  17. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume 20. Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Louisiana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One--An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enchance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-four. Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Michigan governing the regulation of public energy facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. The role of law in public health preparedness: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter D; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Botoseneanu, Anda; Silverstein, Amy; Wu, Helen W

    2012-04-01

    We report the results of a study designed to assess and evaluate how the law shapes the public health system's preparedness activities. Based on 144 qualitative interviews conducted in nine states, we used a model that compared the objective legal environment with how practitioners perceived the laws. Most local public health and emergency management professionals relied on what they perceived the legal environment to be rather than on an adequate understanding of the objective legal requirements. Major reasons for the gap include the lack of legal training for local practitioners and the difficulty of obtaining clarification and consistent legal advice regarding public health preparedness. Narrowing the gap would most likely improve preparedness outcomes. We conclude that there are serious deficiencies in legal preparedness that can undermine effective responses to public health emergencies. Correcting the lack of legal knowledge, coupled with eliminating delays in resolving legal issues and questions during public health emergencies, could have measurable consequences on reducing morbidity and mortality.

  20. 78 FR 22761 - Delegation of Functions Under Sections 404 and 406 of Public Law 112-208

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... 404 and 406 of Public Law 112-208 Presidential Determination No. 2013-07 of April 8, 2013..., 2013 Delegation of Functions Under Sections 404 and 406 of Public Law 112-208 Memorandum for the..., I hereby delegate the functions conferred upon the President by sections 404 and 406 of Public...

  1. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 209 - Public Law 90-483, 90th Congress, S. 3710, August 13, 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public Law 90-483, 90th Congress...—Public Law 90-483, 90th Congress, S. 3710, August 13, 1968 An act authorizing the construction, repair, and preservation of certain public works on rivers and harbors for navigation, flood control, and...

  2. Dealing With Legal Loopholes and Uncertainties Within EU Public Procurement Law Regarding Framework Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrecka, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Provision on framework agreements has been introduced into European Union Law (EU) in 2004. Since then framework agreements have gained popularity and importance on the European Union (EU) public tender market. Nevertheless, the use of frameworks poses significant legal challenges necessitating...... the clarification of the governing rules and the introduction of further guidelines. Unfortunately, clarifications were not fully provided in the new Directive 2014/24/EU. This article is a study of legal loopholes and uncertainties that occur during public procurement of framework agreements as a result of current......, a small scale comparative law research and field research based on qualitative research by the means of semi-structured interviews....

  3. Legal rights during pandemics: federalism, rights and public health laws--a view from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B

    2009-03-01

    Pandemic influenza will cause significant social and economic disruption. Legal frameworks can play an important role in clarifying the rights and duties of individuals, communities and governments for times of crisis. In addressing legal frameworks, there is a need for jurisdictional clarity between different levels of government in responding to public health emergencies. Public health laws are also informed by our understandings of rights and responsibilities for individuals and communities, and the balancing of public health and public freedoms. Consideration of these issues is an essential part of planning for pandemic influenza.

  4. Patent Law, Antitrust Enforcement, and Public Access to Pharmaceuticals and Medical Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Sigman, Laura J.

    2003-01-01

    Patent and antitrust laws impact public access to pharmaceuticals and medical technologies. Two instances—one involving Roche’s new class of HIV/AIDS drugs, the other an antitrust action brought against Boston Scientific Corporation for violations of an anticompetitive agreement pertaining to cardiac treatment technology—illustrate the salient effects that medical products can have on public welfare. This paper provides a summary of pat...

  5. Changes in use of county public health services following implementation of Alabama's immigration law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kari; Blackburn, Justin; Manzella, Bryn; Welty, Elisabeth; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-11-01

    Several states have enacted legislation restricting undocumented immigrants' access to publicly funded health benefits not protected by federal law. Using electronic health records from 140,856 county health department visits, we assessed the monthly change in Latino patients' visits compared to non-Latinos 12 months before and after implementation of Alabama's immigration law. We used ICD-9 diagnosis codes to determine whether visits included services exempt under the law: immunizations, testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and communicable diseases, and family planning. Differences between groups in the mean percent change were assessed with t-tests. Among children younger than 18 years, there were no significant differences by ethnicity. Visits among Latino adults decreased by 28% for communicable diseases, 25% for STIs, and 13% for family planning; this was significantly different from changes among non-Latino adults (p public's health.

  6. Protecting the public's health following the Virginia Tech tragedy: issues of law and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, James G

    2007-09-01

    Assessing legal responsibility in the aftermath of the April 2007 tragedy at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) is inevitable. Beyond assigning blame, law- and policymakers should examine ways to protect the public from future incidences of gun violence on campuses and other settings. Although no combination of legal responses may fully deter individuals who are intent on causing significant harm, select legal reforms have the potential to prevent future acts of gun violence. These reforms include considering more restrictive gun laws nationally, reporting individuals with known mental impairments that may endanger themselves or others to federal or state databases, and refining laws that limit institutions from acting in advance to address prospectively dangerous people. Each of these reforms has the potential to reduce acts of gun violence to improve the public's health, but also implicates individual rights and interests.

  7. Through the quarantine looking glass: drug-resistant tuberculosis and public health governance, law, and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, David P; Gostin, Lawrence O; Markel, Howard

    2007-01-01

    The incident in May-June 2007 involving a U.S. citizen traveling internationally while infected with drug-resistant tuberculosis involved the U.S. federal government's application of its quarantine and isolation powers. The incident and the isolation order raised numerous important issues for public health governance, law, and ethics. This article explores many of these issues by examining how the exercise of quarantine powers provides a powerful lens through which to understand how societies respond to and attempt to govern threats posed by dangerous, contagious pathogens. The article considers historical aspects of governmental power to quarantine and isolate individuals and groups; analyzes the current state of quarantine and isolation law in the United States in light of the recent incident with drug-resistant tuberculosis; and explores global aspects of public health governance and law highlighted by this incident.

  8. The Public Law Outline and Family Group Conferences in Childcare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carly Anne

    2011-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, the Children Act (1989) states that children are best brought up with their families. However, if a child is suffering from or likely to suffer from significant harm, then the local authorities may initiate care proceedings under section 31 of the Children Act (1989). The Public Law Outline is a judicial case management tool…

  9. Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Improvements Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-377)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Congress, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Improvements Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-377) was put in place to amend title 38, United States Code, to improve educational assistance for veterans who served in the Armed Forces after September 11, 2001, and for other purposes. The table of contents for this Act is as follows: (1) Sec. 1. Short…

  10. America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-358)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Congress, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-358) was put in place to invest in innovation through research and development, to improve the competitiveness of the United States, and for other purposes. The table of contents for this Act is as follows: (1) Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents; (2) Sec. 2. Definitions; and (3)…

  11. Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-152)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Congress, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-152) was put in place to provide for reconciliation pursuant to Title II of the concurrent resolution on the budget for fiscal year 2010 (S. Con. Res. 13). The table of contents for this Act is as follows: (1) Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents. (A) Title--Coverage,…

  12. Obesity in Europe: The Strategy of the European Union from a Public Health Law Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faeh, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    of the Union and from a public health law perspective, in order to scrutinise the effectiveness of the measures and to identify shortcomings in the White Paper. One focus of this article will be European food legislation, as food is one of the leading causes of people being overweight or obese....

  13. Criminal Law (Amendment Act, 2013: Will it ensure women’s safety in public spaces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Bhattacharyya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The horrific gang-rape and the subsequent murder of Nirbyaya (fearless in December 2012, impelled the Government of India to pass the Criminal Law (Amendment Act, 2013. The key aim of this article is to review this Act in the light of women’s safety in public spaces.

  14. African American and Latino Enrollment Trends among Medicine, Law, Business, and Public Affairs Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…

  15. Protecting the Environment Through Public Procurement Law - The Case of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Renata; Karasińska-Jaśkowiec, Izabela

    2016-10-01

    The article presents the results of studies whose aim was to analyse public procurement procedures in the context of environmental protection, especially wastewater infrastructure, performed in the selected Polish municipalities. The selection criterions were the time of public procurement procedure - from 2009 until 2015 and that the contract was cofinanced by the European Union funds. The contracting authorities responsible for awarding specific contracts, were asked series of detailed questions about the environmental criteria and requirements contained in the tender documents for the construction contracts related to the wastewater infrastructure. The aim of the detailed study was to determine whether the actions taken by the contracting authorities in a tender procedure for the construction or operation of wastewater infrastructure include environmental issues. Authors examine also the applicable public procurement law regulation in Poland and Europe in the context of sustainable development and environmental protection. The study of public procurement law was to check whether the law regulation fully takes into account the environmental aspects of the planned investments. On this basis, conclusions have been made that laws are consistent and do not constitute an obstacle to awarding a contract positively affecting the environment.

  16. A report on reporting: Why peers report integrity and law violations in public organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.

    2010-01-01

    The archives of three bureaus of integrity are analyzed in order to study the reasons for reporting integrity and law violations within public organizations. Peer reporting accounts for only a small percentage of cases; most investigations originate from routine and continuous institutional controls

  17. Public Law 480: Declining Prospects for the Continued Support of Area Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, James Joseph

    Public Law 480, whose original intent was to sell surplus foodstuffs to famine-stricken nations, evolved into a program of obtaining foreign language materials for libraries with the large quantities of soft currencies obtained through the food sales. The acquisition effort developed ambitious goals for systematic improvement of the quality of…

  18. 77 FR 75696 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting of the Study Group on Family Law The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department of State, hereby gives notice of a...

  19. 78 FR 36816 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting of the Study Group on Family Law The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department of State, hereby gives notice of a...

  20. 76 FR 77584 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... (international electronic commerce) of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) met.... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Electronic Commerce The Department of State, Office of Legal Adviser, Office of Private International Law would...

  1. The Role of Accounting and Accounting Law in Establishing Public Economic Policies in the Post-crisis Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Virgil BĂLUŢĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The following issues are being adressed in this paper: the relationship of accounting and accounting law with the local economy, the relationship of accounting and accounting law with macroeconomics, establishing public policies for certain categories of enterprises based on information provided by accounting and accounting law, the relationship of accounting and accounting law with macroeconomics foresight and forecast, the relationship of accounting and accounting law with the labor economy, the impact the wage regulations has on public economic policies under firm ownership change.

  2. Public attitudes about different types of anti-bullying laws: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; King, Kelly M

    2015-02-01

    State anti-bullying laws have been enacted across the United States to address bullying both by and of youths. Although these statutes can provide critical protection to youth, there is debate about whether such laws should enumerate protected classes of youth. Weight-based bullying is an increasingly prevalent form of harassment and it has been overlooked in policy initiatives. Enumeration in existing laws might help protect overweight victims. As no research has examined this issue, we conducted a national survey of American adults (N=1155) to assess public opinion about enactment of anti-bullying laws that vary according to whether or not they enumerate distinguishing characteristics. Our results demonstrated substantial public agreement (ranging from 2/3 to 3/4 of participants) with enactment of state and federal anti-bullying laws that enumerate distinguishing characteristics, including physical appearance and weight, which are currently absent in most statutes. Our evidence can inform policy and legal approaches to protect youth effectively from bullying.

  3. Roman Criminal Law. Contributions to Current Problems in Connection with “Crimes against Public Administration”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Espitia Garzón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The secular and detailed study of Roman Private Law institutions has, for centuries, diverted the attention to institutions pertaining to the Public Law sphere. Such studies were a consequence of the triumph of bourgeois ideas from the Enlightenment, which were structured on a set of principles (separation of powers, the principle of legality both considered absolute truths, even though today they seem more like myths. This understanding shifted during the second half of the twentieth century, when scholars of Roman Law began to more comprehensively analyze Rome’s constitutional institutions as well as its criminal repression. This paper begins with a review of some of the most important works and articles produced since the fifties until present day about the so called ‘general ’and ´special’ Criminal Law, and the Law of Criminal Procedure, it then focuses on how useful those texts are in order to solve actual problems, taking as an example the subject of crimes against public administration, given the actual need to pursue the assets obtained from such activities, despite the perpetrator’s death, which means going beyond the principle of the individual nature of penalties.

  4. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE REFORM TO THE EUROPEAN UNION PUBLIC PROCUREMENT LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lukošiūnienė

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the article aims to analyse the reform of the European Union public procurement law on social aspects in different stages of the reformed public procurement procedures. Comprehensive reform of the European Union public procurement law was approved by the European Parliament in January 2014, adopted by the Council in February 2014, and legislative acts published on 28 March 2014. The current directives 2004/18/EC on procurement in public works, supply and service contracts, as well as 2004/17/EC on procurement in the water, energy, transport and postal services sectors were updated. Additionally, the new directive 2014/23/EU on the award of the concession contracts providing an orientation previously given only by the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union was adopted. Among other things the reform is highly focused on greater scope of social issues to be addressed in the public procurement procedures. The authors’ aim to analyse the way social issues are being tackled under the new directives. Design/methodology/approach – logical systematic method will be used in order to ascertain the content of the laws within the scope of the social aspects, whereas comparative method will be applied to ascertain national and European Union legal acts. On the basis of analytical method conclusions will be drawn. Findings – the authors will focus on legal analysis and considerations on social aspects in different stages of the reformed public procurement procedures ie in the stage when deciding on the subject-matter of the contract and the technical specifications, in the qualitative selection, in applying the award criteria and in the stage of performance of the contract. Research limitations/implications – the new directives also set new mandatory grounds related to the infringements of social and labour laws for excluding suppliers from the competitions for contracts, though the Paper will not analyse in-depth the legal

  5. 78 FR 1299 - Waiver and Certification of Statutory Provisions of Section 1003 of Public Law 100-204 Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver and Certification of Statutory Provisions of Section 1003 of Public Law 100-204 Regarding the... 1987, Public Law 100-204, Title X. (U) This waiver shall be effective for a period of six months....

  6. 78 FR 70075 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Public Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-541... Conservation Act of 1978, Public Law 95-541. SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF) is required...

  7. 42 CFR 411.7 - Services that must be furnished at public expense under a Federal law or Federal Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under a Federal law or Federal Government contract. 411.7 Section 411.7 Public Health CENTERS FOR....7 Services that must be furnished at public expense under a Federal law or Federal Government contract. (a) Basic rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payment may not be made for...

  8. We do not recognise anything 'private': public interest and private law under the socialist legal tradition and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mańko

    2015-01-01

    In line with Lenin’s famous quote that Bolsheviks "do not recognise anything private" and that private law must be permeated with public interest, the private (civil) law of the USSR and other countries of the Soviet bloc, including Poland underwent reform aimed at furthering the public interest at

  9. Roman Engineering, Public Works and Importance of Public Objects in Roman Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ponte-Arrebola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The skill and ability of the Romans in civil engineering and public works largely contributed to the establishment and success of their civilization. Many of the constructed works were built for the possibility of public use and enjoyment by its citizens, known as res publicae in usu publico.

  10. Parkinson's Law and the New Public Managment? Contracting Determinants and Service Quality Consequences in Public Education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Meier, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    Public administration writers, with some notable exceptions, generally have not paid a great deal of attention to the history of ideas. However, public administration inquiry is profoundly affected by longstanding political and social ideas. This article shows how the idea of the state as a

  11. Public assistance, drug testing, and the law: the limits of population-based legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player, Candice T

    2014-01-01

    In Populations, Public Health and the Law, legal scholar Wendy Parmet urges courts to embrace population-based legal analysis, a public health inspired approach to legal reasoning. Parmet contends that population-based legal analysis offers a way to analyze legal issues--not unlike law and economics--as well as a set of values from which to critique contemporary legal discourse. Population-based analysis has been warmly embraced by the health law community as a bold new way of analyzing legal issues. Still, population-based analysis is not without its problems. At times, Parmet claims too much territory for the population perspective. Moreover, Parmet urges courts to recognize population health as an important norm in legal reasoning. What should we do when the insights of public health and conventional legal reasoning conflict? Still in its infancy, population-based analysis offers little in the way of answers to these questions. This Article applies population-based legal analysis to the constitutional problems that arise when states condition public assistance benefits on passing a drug test, thereby highlighting the strengths of the population perspective and exposing its weaknesses.

  12. Beyond Public Particpation: The disjuncture between South Africa's Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA Law and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Murombo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the key strategies for achieving sustainable development is the use of the process of evaluating the potential environmental impacts of development activities. The procedure of environmental impact assessment (EIA implements the principle of integration which lies at the core of the concept of sustainable development by providing a process through which potential social, economic and environmental impacts of activities are scrutinised and planned for. Sustainable development may not be achieved without sustained and legally mandated efforts to ensure that development planning is participatory. The processes of public participation play a crucial role in ensuring the integration of the socio-economic impacts of a project into the environmental decision-making processes. Public participation is not the only process, nor does the process always ensure the achievement of sustainable development. Nevertheless, decisions that engage the public have the propensity to lead to sustainable development. The public participation provisions in South Africa’s EIA regulations promulgated under the National Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998 show a disjuncture between the idea of public participation and the notion of sustainable development. The provisions do not create a framework for informed participation and leave a wide discretion to environmental assessment practitioners (EAPs regarding the form which participation should assume. In order for environmental law, specifically EIA laws, to be effective as tools to promote sustainable development the laws must, among other things, provide for effective public participation. The judiciary must also aid in the process by giving content to the legal provisions on public participation in the EIA process.

  13. The Institutionalised and Non-institutionalised Exemptions from EU Public Procurement Law: Towards a more Coherent Approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Willem A.

    2014-01-01

    From a EU public procurement law perspective, contracting authorities have a discretionary power to decide upon who is allowed and best suited to provide public services to the public. When public authorities deem the in-house performance of a service to be the most suitable, the Court of Justice of

  14. Sanitation rights, public law litigation, and inequality: a case study from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barcellos, Ana Paula

    2014-12-11

    Public law litigation has been used in many places to advance human rights related to health. In Brazil, such lawsuits usually request that the government pay for pharmaceuticals to individuals. But could litigation play a role in shaping public health policies to benefit communities? To explore this question, this paper focuses on lawsuits involving determinants of health, namely water and sanitation public policies. This paper discusses the results of an empirical study of 258 Brazilian court orders, issued in a 10-year period, that address requests for sewage collection and treatment. The data show that the Brazilian judiciary is willing to improve access to sanitation services. However, litigation has addressed fewer than 177 out of the 2,495 Brazilian municipalities that lack both sewage collection and treatment systems, and lawsuits are concentrated in the richer cities, not in the poorest ones. This paper suggests that public law litigation can be used to foster public health policies similar to the way in which structural reform litigation and the experimentalism approach between courts and defendants have influenced public policies and achieved institutional reform in schools and prisons. However, greater effort is needed to target initiatives that would reach the most disenfranchised communities.

  15. The modernization of American public law: health care reform and popular constitutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Super, David A

    2014-04-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) transformed U.S. public law in crucial ways extending far beyond health care. As important as were the doctrinal shifts wrought by National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the ACA's structural changes to public law likely will prove far more important should they become entrenched. The struggle over the ACA has triggered the kind of "constitutional moment" that has largely replaced Article V's formal amendment procedure since the Prohibition fiasco. The Court participates in this process, but the definitive and enduring character of these constitutional moments' outcomes springs from broad popular engagement. Despite the Court's ruling and the outcome of the 2012 elections, the battle over whether to implement or shelve the ACA will continue unabated, both federally and in the states, until We the People render a clear decision. Whether the ACA survives or fails will determine the basic principles that guide the development of federalism, social insurance, tax policy, and privatization for decades to come. In each of these areas, the New Deal bequeathed us a delicate accommodation between traditionalist social values and modernizing norms of economic efficiency and interest group liberalism. This balance has come under increasing stress, with individual laws rejecting tradition far more emphatically than the New Deal did. But absent broad popular engagement, no definitive new principles could be established. The ACA's entrenchment would elevate technocratic norms across public law, the first change of our fundamental law since the civil rights revolution. The ACA's failure would rejuvenate individualistic, moralistic, pre-New Deal norms and allow opponents to attempt a counterrevolution against technocracy.

  16. Concussions and youth football: using a public health law framework to head off a potential public health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M; Shapiro, Zachary E

    2015-07-01

    Concussion from sport is increasingly recognized as a public health priority. In response, all states and the District of Columbia have enacted youth concussion legislation. This paper first examines key developments in concussion-related policy and legislation and then uses the findings from recent scientific studies to highlight the need to incorporate evolving scientific evidence into concussion legislation in order to better protect youth and adolescent athletes. Next, the paper discusses the framework of empirical health law research and why it should be applied in the case of concussion legislation. Finally, this paper argues that empirical health law research should be considered in any decision about whether legislation can help improve the health and safety of young players, a particularly vulnerable population whose unique needs have not yet been adequately addressed.

  17. Public Participation in the Enforcement of China's Anti-Pollution Laws - Student Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available China's spectacular economic growth has caused the incidence of absolute poverty to plunge over the past two decades; however, this massive rate of industrialisation has also led to a pollution crisis with serious health and environmental concerns such as air pollution and contaminated drinking water supplies. China has hundreds of environmental laws and regulations, and is party to over eighty environmental treaties. Yet an official from the state environmental agency has described this as 'a wealth of laws with shallow roots', since despite all its legal commitments Chinese cities remain some of the most polluted areas on earth. This paper examines the reasons for the discrepancy between law and practice in combating pollution. Anti-pollution legislation is too vaguely worded to be useful in creating enforceable rights and obligations. There is also a considerable gap between national policy and local implementation by Environmental Protection Bureaus (EPBs. EPBs are beholden to local governments, which are in turn dependent on the biggest industrial actors (and polluters in their locality for economic development. One way to circumvent the inadequacies of government agencies is to allow citizens to bring their own actions in enforcing the law. This requires a strong support structure to provide the necessary resources for public participation: information and funding. In addition to the work of NGOs, the media, and legal aid centres, one potential initiative for increasing information flows is the establishment of a public emissions database. It is possible that the new China Pollution Source Census will fulfil this role.

  18. Public attitudes to laws for smoke-free private vehicles: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G; Wilson, N

    2009-08-01

    As smoke-free car policy is a frontier domain for tobacco control, attitudes to smoke-free private car laws are briefly reviewed. Medline and Google Scholar searches for the period up to mid-November 2008, from English language sources, were undertaken. Studies were included that contained data from national and subnational populations (eg, in states and provinces), but not for smaller administrative units, eg, cities or councils. Jurisdiction, sample size and survey questions were assessed. One reviewer conducted the data extraction and both authors conducted assessments. A total of 15 relevant studies (from 1988) were identified, set in North America, the UK and Australasia. The available data indicates that, for the jurisdictions with data, there is majority public support for laws requiring cars that contain children to be smoke free. There appears to be an increase over time in this support. In five surveys in 2005 or since (in California, New Zealand and Australia), the support from smokers was 77% or more. The high levels of public (and smoker) support for smoke-free car laws found in the studies to date suggest that this can be a relatively non-controversial tobacco control intervention. Survey series on attitudes to such laws are needed, and surveys in jurisdictions where the issue has not been investigated to date.

  19. Theoretical Reflections on the Public-Private Distinction and their Traces in European Union Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Semmelmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From its inception, EU law has been organised with (economic integration as its guiding paradigm. A public-private distinction as it is known in many civil law countries has never been a characterising feature of EU law. In the absence of such a divide in EU law, the public and the private sphere interact differently. First, the attempt to strike a balance between the state and the market reflects the struggle for a delineation between public and private power. Second, the evolution of the personal scope of EU internal market law and fundamental rights increasingly involves private parties at both sides. Third, the emergence of European contract law has led to conceptual clashes between the international trade law paradigm and the public-private distinction in the tradition of civil law countries. It will be argued that EU law scholarship and legal practice will have to re-conceptualise the role of the individual and private parties as subjects of the law, bearers of rights and addressees of obligations in order to flesh out what is known as the private law element in many national legal cultures. Desde su creación, la legislación de la Unión Europea (UE se ha organizado en base al paradigma orientador de la integración (económica. La legislación comunitaria nunca se ha caracterizado por una distinción público-privada como la existente en el derecho civil de numerosos países. Ante la ausencia de esta división en la legislación de la UE, la esfera pública y la privada interactúan de forma indiferente. En primer lugar, el intento de lograr un equilibrio entre el Estado y el mercado refleja la lucha por una delimitación entre el poder público y el privado. En segundo lugar, la evolución del alcance privado de la legislación sobre el mercado interno europeo y los derechos fundamentales hace que se impliquen cada vez más poderes privados en ambas partes. En tercer lugar, el surgimiento del derecho contractual europeo ha dado lugar a

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nineteen. Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kentucky governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-four. Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Tennessee governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-one. Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maine governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-one. Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Rhode Island governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-six. Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Utah governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilites, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-one. Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maine governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  6. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-seven. Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Vermont governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Two. Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the Federal government governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  8. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-nine. Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Oregon governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Seventeen. Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Iowa governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  10. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-six. Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Mississippi governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nine. Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Connecticut governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirteen. Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Hawaii governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-eight. Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Ten. Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Delaware governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-eight. Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Montana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-two. Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maryland governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty. Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Pennsylvania governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-three. Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Massachusetts governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eleven. Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Florida governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Four. Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Alaska governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Three. Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Alabama governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eighteen. Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eight. Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Colorado governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-nine. Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Oregon governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-seven. Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Vermont governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  6. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Sixteen. Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Indiana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-three. South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of South Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  8. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fourteen. Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Idaho governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Seven. California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of California governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  10. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-two. South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of South Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Two. Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the Federal government governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-five. Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Texas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-nine. Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Washington governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-five. Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Minnesota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-two. New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Jersey governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-seven. Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Missouri governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Six. Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arkansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-three. New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Mexico governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifteen. Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Illinois governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty. West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of West Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-seven. Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Ohio governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Five. Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arizona governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-six. North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Seventeen. Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Iowa governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twelve. Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Georgia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  6. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-one. New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Hampshire governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One. An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume thirty-four. New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New York governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  8. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-one. Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wisconsin governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-one. New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Hampshire governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One. An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  10. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-two. South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of South Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-two. Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wyoming governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. 77 FR 64493 - Office of the Secretary of the Air Force Acceptance of Group Application Under Public Law 95-202...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Public Law 95-202 and Department of Defense Directive (DODD) 1000.20 AGENCY: The United States Air Force, DOD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 401, Public Law 95-202 and DoD...

  13. 78 FR 44188 - Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment Request... Tennessee Valley Authority is soliciting public comments on this proposed collection as provided by 5 CFR.... Frequency of Use: On Occasion. Type of Affected Public: Individuals. Small Businesses or...

  14. 78 FR 26682 - Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment Request... Tennessee Valley Authority is soliciting public comments on this proposed collection as provided by 5 CFR... Occasion. Type of Affected Public: Individuals. Small Businesses or Organizations Affected: No....

  15. 75 FR 27863 - Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ...: 2010-11798] TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13... U.S.C. Chapter 35, as amended). The Tennessee Valley Authority is soliciting public comments on this... Collection: Employment Application. Frequency of Use: On Occasion. Type of Affected Public:...

  16. 75 FR 45697 - Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment Request... Tennessee Valley Authority is soliciting public comments on this proposed collection as provided by 5 CFR... Application. Frequency of Use: On Occasion. Type of Affected Public: Individuals. Small Businesses...

  17. 78 FR 17995 - Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment Request... Tennessee Valley Authority is soliciting public comments on this proposed collection as provided by 5 CFR... Use: On occasion. Type of Affected Public: Individuals or households, state or local...

  18. 75 FR 15492 - Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment Request... Tennessee Valley Authority is soliciting public comments on this proposed collection as provided by 5 CFR.... Frequency of Use: On occasion. Type of Affected Public: Individuals or households, state or...

  19. How do public health safeguards in Indian patent law affect pharmaceutical patenting in practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampat, Bhaven N; Amin, Tahir

    2013-08-01

    The 1995 Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement required developing countries to grant product patents in pharmaceuticals. Developing countries have since explored various measures to ameliorate potential negative effects of the new laws on public health. A prominent example is India, whose post-TRIPS patent laws include a provision, section 3(d), that restricts patents on incremental pharmaceutical innovations. Its critics and supporters alike suggest that this provision makes Indian patent law very different from that in other jurisdictions. Yet there are concerns that given resource constraints facing the Indian patent office, this novel feature of Indian patent laws on the books may not have an effect on Indian patent prosecution in practice. We test this by examining the prosecution outcomes of 2,803 applications filed in both India and Europe, coded by whether they include claims that trigger 3(d) considerations. We find that having the 3(d) provision on the books does not translate into very different patent outcomes in practice in India, relative to Europe, a jurisdiction without this provision.

  20. Governance in genomics: a conceptual challenge for public health genomics law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schulte in den Bäumen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing levels of genomic knowledge has led to awareness that new governance issues need to be taken into consideration. While some countries have created new statutory laws in the last 10 years, science supports the idea that genomic data should be treated like other medical data. In this article we discuss the three core models of governance in medical law on a conceptual level. The three models, the Medical, Public Health and Fundamental Rights Model stress different values, or in legal terms serve different principles. The Medical Model stands for expert knowledge and the standardisation of quality in healthcare. The Public Health Model fosters a social point of view as it advocates distribution justice in healthcare and an awareness of healthcare as a broader concept. The Fundamental Rights Model focuses on individual rights such as the right to privacy and autonomy. We argue that none of the models can be used in a purist fashion as governance in genomics should enable society and individuals to protect individual rights, to strive for a distribution justice and to ensure the quality of genomic services in one coherent process. Thus, genomic governance in genomics requires procedural law and a set of applicable principles. The principle which underlies all three models is the principle of medical beneficence. Therefore genomic governance should refer to it as a key principle when conflicting rights of individuals or communities need to be balanced.

  1. Public law regulation of aqueducts and water supply in ancient Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sič Magdolna I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the sources of Roman law on construction and maintenance of public aqueducts and on the regulation of water usage. They show that in ancient Rome public aqueducts served public welfare (utilitas publica because their primary purpose was to supplying the urban population with free drinking water. Given that these ancient rules also contributed to the overall health of the population by securing drinking water and water for personal hygiene, they can also be regarded a significant environmental measures. Although contemporary engineering of water supply network and technology of water purification overcame the ancient Romans, in certain aspects this ancient example deserves to be followed. First, there could be free drinking water for general use. Second, private water usage could be controlled and rationalized. This could be achieved by installing separate water meters for each apartment in residual bundling.

  2. [Analysis of the medical and psychosocial evaluations required by the new public curator law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nélisse, C; Uribé, I

    1992-01-01

    The new Public Curator Act systematically requires medical and psychosocial evaluations. In confronting the letter and the spirit of the law to its regulations and operating procedures (and inversely), this article outlines the various tasks that will fall under the responsibility of health and social service professionals. Following a brief presentation of the law, the authors describe how the role of these professionals is limited to evaluations for the purpose of conducting expert appraisements, a matter which raises a great deal of concern. In addition, the two key notions of "inaptitude" and "need" are discussed in their legal sense, along with their consequences from the medical evaluation and psychosocial standpoints. The latter in particular will be analyzed regarding implementation difficulties. The authors conclude with a general commentary that is likely to give meaning to that simple and sometimes routine gesture consisting of "completing a form".

  3. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and Nationality... nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An...)(9)(C) of the Act. An applicant for adjustment of status under section 202 of Public Law 105-100...

  4. 8 CFR 245.9 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102-404. 245.9 Section 245.9 Aliens and... of China under Public Law 102-404. (a) Principal applicant status. All nationals of the People's... eligible to apply for adjustment of status under the provisions of Public Law 102-404, if the alien: (1)...

  5. 25 CFR 26.22 - May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... into its Public Law 102-477 Plan? 26.22 Section 26.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan? Yes, Indian tribes may integrate Job Placement and Training Program funds into their Public Law 102-477 Plan....

  6. 8 CFR 245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 245.13 Section 245.13 Aliens and Nationality... adjustment of status under section 202 of Public Law 105-100 who is inadmissible under section 212(a)(9)(A... application for adjustment of status under section 202 of Public Law 105-100 shall lie with the...

  7. 77 FR 22326 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended by Public Law 100-503; Notice of a Computer Matching Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended by Public Law... 1974, as amended by Public Law 100-503. SUMMARY: In compliance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended by Public Law 100-503, the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988, ACF is publishing...

  8. 45 CFR 287.165 - What are the data collection and reporting requirements for Public Law 102-477 Tribes that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements for Public Law 102-477 Tribes that consolidate a NEW Program with other programs? 287.165 Section... collection and reporting requirements for Public Law 102-477 Tribes that consolidate a NEW Program with other... Public Law 102-477. This system includes a program report, consisting of a narrative report,...

  9. 8 CFR 1245.9 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102-404. 1245.9 Section 1245.9 Aliens and... nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102-404. (a) Principal applicant status. All... adjustment. An alien is eligible to apply for adjustment of status under the provisions of Public Law...

  10. [Standard legal regulation and creation of a law code as the most important stage of public health reformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, N F; Grigor'ev, Iu I

    2002-01-01

    The significance of a law-making process is substantially increasing under the conditions of intensified expansion of the scope of standard legal regulation in the field of human health care in the Russian Federation. The authors state that any law-making process should begin with the definition of the subject-matter of a future law, its role and value in medical law creation and also indicate that the choice of the subject-matter of a future law is of priority and the most important stage of its preparation from the points of both contents-rich and standard legal views. Moreover, the paper presents main groups of issues that can determine the subjects of sociomedical laws and states the basic rules how reflect systemic relations in legislation. The paper shows it important to create a code of laws in the field of health protection for legal assurance of health public reforms.

  11. 45 CFR 507.1 - Payments under the War Claims Act of 1948, as amended by Public Law 91-289.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments under the War Claims Act of 1948, as amended by Public Law 91-289. 507.1 Section 507.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... Payments under the War Claims Act of 1948, as amended by Public Law 91-289. (a) Upon a determination by...

  12. 78 FR 19062 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... commerce), the UNCITRAL Secretariat has prepared draft provisions on electronic transferable records, which.... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Electronic Commerce The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department of...

  13. 75 FR 55846 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Public Meeting on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Public Meeting on the Work of the UNCITRAL Working Group on Procurement The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law...

  14. 78 FR 50480 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    .... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Arbitration The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department of State, gives... arbitration that will be considered by the Secretariat of the United Nations Commission on International Trade...

  15. 76 FR 9072 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments The Department of State, Office of Legal Adviser, Office of Private International Law would...

  16. Public Regulation, Contract Law, and the Protection of the Weaker Party : Some Lessons from the Field of Financial Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    While contractual relationships between private parties in the financial services field were traditionally the exclusive domain of private law, in particular contract law, the early twenty-first century has witnessed the rise of contract-related public regulation in this area both at EU and Member

  17. State environmental law and carbon emissions: Do public utility commissions use environmental statutes to fight global warming?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sautter, John A.

    2010-10-15

    In many states environmental statutes provide the authority for public utility commissioners to make decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from electricity generation. This article looks at six such laws and how the presence of these laws affected CO{sub 2} emissions during a nine-year period from 1997 to 2005. (author)

  18. 76 FR 56865 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... electronic commerce) of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). Working Group IV... and, in so doing, may address related aspects of electronic commerce. The report of the Forty-fourth.... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on...

  19. 78 FR 69172 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... response to a request from UNCITRAL's Working Group IV (electronic commerce), the UNCITRAL Secretariat has.... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Electronic Commerce The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department of...

  20. Terminological and Definitional Problems of Deficit and Debt in the Polish and EU Law of Public Finance

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In the Polish and the EU public finances law there are serious terminological difficulties concerning the deficit and the debt. They arise first from the terminological chaos in this field and second from the parallel application of the EU and the Polish methodology of calculating of deficit and debt. Thus, the paper aims to explain the terminological and definitional problems of deficit and debt in the public finances law using unobtrusive research consisting of the detailed analysis of the ...

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder and New Jersey Administrative Law Decisions: An Analysis of Case Law Involving Public School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcadepone, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to investigate existing New Jersey case law for the special education population classified as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and analyze New Jersey Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) decisions to identify why districts win or lose cases, adding to the limited body of research in New Jersey. In addition, the purpose…

  2. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

    2007-08-02

    This report was prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

  3. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

    2007-08-02

    This report is the appendices to a companion report, prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

  4. The Empty Fortress or the Poverty of Islamic Public Discourse: The Role of Law in Arab State Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    transplants have not worked and an indigenous public law based on religious tradition has proven elusive. This presentation looks at the development of Islamic law (fiqh) as an essentially private endeavour of pious individuals in terms both of substance, procedure and social actors appealing to the dogmatic...... triad of Qur’an, sunna, and shari’a (read: fiqh). This body of norms is contrasted with the relatively shallow dogmatic effort to systematise public law under the dogmatic headings of ta’zir, siyasa shar’ia and siyar. This presentation argues that whatever the philosophical value of this century...

  5. Cultural cognition and public policy: the case of outpatient commitment laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Dan M; Braman, Donald; Monahan, John; Callahan, Lisa; Peters, Ellen

    2010-04-01

    What explains controversy over outpatient commitment laws (OCLs), which authorize courts to order persons with mental illness to accept outpatient treatment? We hypothesized that attitudes toward OCLs reflect "cultural cognition" (DiMaggio, P. Annl Rev Sociol 23:263-287, 1997), which motivates individuals to conform their beliefs about policy-relevant facts to their cultural values. In a study involving a diverse sample of Americans (N = 1,496), we found that individuals who are hierarchical and communitarian tend to support OCLs, while those who are egalitarian and individualistic tend to oppose them. These relationships, moreover, fit the cultural cognition hypothesis: that is, rather than directly influencing OCL support, cultural values, mediated by affect, shaped individuals' perceptions of how effectively OCLs promote public health and safety. We discuss the implications for informed public deliberation over OCLs.

  6. Public health responsibility in the Thai Constitutional Law between 1932-2006 (B.E. 2475-2549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongkhai, Surachart Na; Usathaporn, Suthee

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to survey the area of public health, written by the Thai Constitutional Law since 1932-2006 (B.E. 2475-2549) and to estimate the Thai Constitutional Laws. A review of all constitutional laws in Thailand enacted between 1932 and 2006. The most important responsibility of a government is its responsibility towards citizen's rights. Most Thai Constitutional Laws have prescribed the state's responsibility for providing public health for the Thai population and the majority of them included health promotion and the provision of health care free of charge. Some also stipulated that the medical services be of international standard. But there was no responsibility expected of the Thai citizen for their own health. Public health features prominently in the Thai constitution as a responsibility of the government. However there is no mention of the responsibilities of citizens to take some care with their own health.

  7. [Surveillance in Spain 3 years since the enactment of the Public Health Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousa, Anxela; Godoy, Pere; Aragonés, Nuria; Cano, Rosa; Sierra, María José; González, Francisco; Mayoral, José María

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Epidemiological Surveillance Working Group of the Sociedad Española de Epidemiología (Spanish Society of Epidemiology), carried out a descriptive study in order to evaluate the level of development of the Spanish Public Health Law since its enactment in 2011. A survey collecting data on the existence of information systems and other aspects pertaining to each surveillance section included in the law was sent to all 19 autonomous communities and cities. All regional authorities reported the presence of an information system for communicable diseases, and six also reported an information system for social factors. 18 reported that at least one chronic disease was subject to surveillance and 14 confirmed surveillance of some of its determinants. They all systematically analysed the data derived from the communicable diseases. There is room for improvement in Public Health surveillance in Spain, and action should be aimed at the main health problems. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Conflict of interest in public health: should there be a law to prevent it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Holla, Radha; Suri, Shoba

    2015-01-01

    "Conflict of interest", now being commonly cited, is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgement or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest. Conflict of interest situations can be institutional or personal, and can stem from financial or other interests including post-employment opportunities or during public -private partnerships. Conflicts of interest in the creation of public policy, especially health or nutrition related policies such as the vaccine policy, tobacco control, and research related to health, can have negative impact on the lives of millions of people. While the UN Convention Against Corruption, to which India is a signatory, identifies conflict of interest as often being a precursor to corruption, there is no serious action being taken in this direction by the Indian government, in spite of the fact there are instances of serious nature coming to light that affect our peoples lives. If conflict of interest situations are allowed to continue especially in health policy it could be detrimental to millions of people; therefore, it would be in public interest that India enacts a law to prevent conflict of interest in the making of public policies, comprehensive enough to include financial and institutional conflicts of interest.

  9. Constitutional and administrative law comments on public-private partnerships in urban development: Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobma, F.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Public-private partnership agreements can be seen as government making use of private law to achieve planning objectives. Public-private partnerships (PPP’s) have extensively been used in urban development projects during the past few decades in the Netherlands (and elsewhere around the globe). A lo

  10. 75 FR 34534 - Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment Request...). The Tennessee Valley Authority is soliciting public comments on this proposed collection as provided... Collection: Section 26a Permit Application. Frequency of Use: On occasion. Type of Affected...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 47 - Instructions for Submitting Group Applications Under Public Law 95-202

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Instructions for Submitting Group Applications Under Public Law 95-202 A Appendix A to Part 47 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... Pt. 47, App. A Appendix A to Part 47—Instructions for Submitting Group Applications Under Public...

  12. Contracts Contrary to Public Policy under English and Dutch Law : The Case of Agreement Commercializing the Human Body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansoor, Zeeshan

    2014-01-01

    Both English and Dutch law contain general rules that result in the invalidity of contracts which conflict with morality and/or public policy. Working on the premise that each country has its own unique set of factors shaping public interests, this article highlights methodological aspects of identi

  13. Constitutional and administrative law comments on public-private partnerships in urban development: Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobma, F.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Public-private partnership agreements can be seen as government making use of private law to achieve planning objectives. Public-private partnerships (PPP’s) have extensively been used in urban development projects during the past few decades in the Netherlands (and elsewhere around the globe). A

  14. 77 FR 42751 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Office of Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Office of Law Enforcement/Federal Air Marshal Service Mental Health Certification... Security Administration (TSA) invites public comment on one currently approved Information Collection...

  15. Constitutional and administrative law comments on public-private partnerships in urban development: Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobma, F.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Public-private partnership agreements can be seen as government making use of private law to achieve planning objectives. Public-private partnerships (PPP’s) have extensively been used in urban development projects during the past few decades in the Netherlands (and elsewhere around the globe). A lo

  16. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978) Appendix to Part 1604 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor.... Appendix to Part 1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978) Introduction On October 31, 1978, President Carter signed into law the...

  17. Cannabis, pesticides and conflicting laws: the dilemma for legalized States and implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Dave

    2014-08-01

    State laws on the legalization of medical and recreational cannabis are rapidly evolving. Similar to other crops, cannabis is susceptible to multiple pests during cultivation. Growers have an economic incentive to produce large yields and high quality plants, and may resort to pesticides to achieve these outcomes. Currently, there are no pesticides registered for cannabis in the United States, given its illegal status by the federal government. This discrepancy creates a regulatory vacuum and dilemma for States with legal medical and recreational cannabis that seek to balance lawful compliance with pesticides and worker or public health. Pesticide use presents occupational safety issues that can be mitigated through established worker protection measures. The absence of approved products for cannabis may result in consumer exposures to otherwise more hazardous pesticides or higher residue levels. While many legal and scientific hurdles exist to register conventional pesticides for use on cannabis, legalized States have explored other opportunities to leverage the present regulatory infrastructure. Stakeholder engagement and outreach to the cannabis industry from credible sources could mitigate pesticide misuse and harm.

  18. Tree survival and growth on land reclaimed in accord with Public Law 95-87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, W.R.; Pope, P.E.; Byrnes, W.R. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Forestry and Natural Resources

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine survival and growth of black walnut ({ital Juglans nigra} L.) and northern red oak ({ital Quercus alba} L.) 12 yr after planting on a surface-mined site in southern Indiana reclaimed according to specifications of Public Law 95-87, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. A stocking level adequate to meet the requirements for forest land use (1112 trees/ha, or 450 trees/acre) was attained only for black walnut and only if competing ground cover vegetation was controlled in the tree rows. Height of both tree species was significantly greater when ground cover vegetation was controlled during the first 2 yr, but the growth rate, approximately 10 cm/yr, was very slow. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Enforcement of Ohio's Smoke Free Workplace Law through the lens of public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, David; Allan, Terry; Stefanak, Matthew; Chandran Pillai, Aiswarya; Drabousky, Aylin S; Borawski, Elaine A; Frank, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about whether public health (PH) enforcement of Ohio's 2007 Smoke Free Workplace Law (SFWPL) is associated with department (agency) characteristics, practice, or state reimbursement to local PH agencies for enforcement. We used mixed methods to determine practice patterns, perceptions, and opinions among the PH workforce involved in enforcement to identify agency and workforce associations. Focus groups and phone interviews (n=13) provided comments and identified issues in developing an online survey targeting PH workers through e-mail recruitment (433 addresses). A total of 171 PH workers responded to the survey. Of Ohio's 88 counties, 81 (43% rural and 57% urban) were represented. More urban than rural agencies agreed that SFWPL enforcement was worth the effort and cost (80% vs. 61%, p=0.021). The State Attorney General's collection of large outstanding fines was perceived as unreliable. An estimated 77% of agencies lose money on enforcement annually; 18% broke even, 56% attributed a financial loss to uncollected fines, and 63% occasionally or never fully recovered fines. About half of agency leaders (49%) felt that state reimbursements were inadequate to cover inspection costs. Rural agencies (59%) indicated they would be more likely than urban agencies (40%) to drop enforcement if reimbursements ended (p=0.0070). Prioritization of SFWPL vs. routine code enforcement differed between rural and urban agencies. These findings demonstrate the importance of increasing state health department financial support of local enforcement activities and improving collection of fines for noncompliance. Otherwise, many PH agencies, especially rural ones, will opt out, thereby increasing the state's burden to enforce SFWPL and challenging widespread public support for the law.

  20. The principle of Merit in the Law of Roman Administration. Historical-Comparative Reflections about Careers in Public Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Trisciuoglio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article makes a comparison between the laws of the Roman authorities, particularly those of the late empire based on the constitutions of the emperors, and constitutional and Italian administrative law (including the most recent legislation on the issue of access and promotion in public administration. In the article it is observed how in both laws the principle of meritocracy emerges, and proposals are made, in the light of the Roman experience, on how such a principle, which we can all agree with, can be concretely implemented.

  1. Relational issues of law and economic integration in Africa : perspectives from constitutional, public and private international law.

    OpenAIRE

    Oppong, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines how relational issues of law in economic integration are being approached in Africa. At its core, relational issues deal with the legal interactions among community, national, regional and international legal systems within the context of economic integration. The theory is that effective economic integration is the product of properly structuring and managing – within well-defined legal frameworks – vertical, horizontal and vertico-horizontal relations among states, lega...

  2. 41 CFR 102-80.90 - Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522) relevant to fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522) relevant to fire protection engineering? 102-80.90... Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522) relevant to fire protection engineering? Yes, the...

  3. STRENGTHENING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF PUBLIC FINANCES BY MEANS OF FINANCIAL LAW FOCUSED ON THE CONTROL AND AUDIT EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity to prevent embrittlement sustainability of public finances should manifest itself permanently, regardless of economic circumstances - national or European. This, more so as it was set by the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP, which introduces new rules on fiscal policy. Regulations and exercise adequate of financial control and public audit are intended to give certain guarantees on landing approach this topic (most on enhancing sustainability of public finances. Therefore, our approach aims to reveal some aspects of fiscal consolidation by means of financial law focused on exercise fiscal control and public audit. Our references aim the current regulatory of this important organization and functioning rule of law activities and results reported.

  4. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  5. 7 CFR 1955.138 - Property subject to redemption rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Property subject to redemption rights. 1955.138... Property General § 1955.138 Property subject to redemption rights. If, under State law, FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354's interest may be sold subject to redemption rights, the...

  6. Minimum Wage Laws: Who Benefits, Who Loses? Series on Public Issues No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Margaret Jane; Maurice, S. Charles

    It is the thesis of this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, that minimum wage laws actually hurt those whom such laws are designed to help. From this point of departure, separate subsections examine economic implications of minimum wage laws, including discussion of what…

  7. Minimum Wage Laws: Who Benefits, Who Loses? Series on Public Issues No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Margaret Jane; Maurice, S. Charles

    It is the thesis of this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, that minimum wage laws actually hurt those whom such laws are designed to help. From this point of departure, separate subsections examine economic implications of minimum wage laws, including discussion of what…

  8. Law and Me: A Resource Guide for Social Studies Teachers in Milwaukee Public Middle Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Robert; And Others

    Five units on legal education for junior high school social studies courses in Milwaukee schools are presented. Unit 1 focuses on the nature of law in a democratic society. Hypothetical situations examine the formation of society and laws, the pervasive nature of law in everyday life, the protection of air quality, consumer protection, the Bill of…

  9. Terminological and Definitional Problems of Deficit and Debt in the Polish and EU Law of Public Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Lotko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Polish and the EU public finances law there are serious terminological difficulties concerning the deficit and the debt. They arise first from the terminological chaos in this field and second from the parallel application of the EU and the Polish methodology of calculating of deficit and debt. Thus, the paper aims to explain the terminological and definitional problems of deficit and debt in the public finances law using unobtrusive research consisting of the detailed analysis of the Polish and EU legislation. Although there is no doubt that it would be desirable to order the applied terms, in the current legal situation, it would be extremely difficult, as it would require the changes to the Constitution, laws, and modification of translations of UE acts. The solution to the problem, presenting additional advantages, could consist of full transition to the EU methodology by the renouncement from the Polish methodology.

  10. Bio-terrorism, human security and public health: can international law bring them together in an age of globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2005-09-01

    Bio-terrorism, the use of a microorganism with the deliberate intent of causing infection, before and since the anthrax attacks in the United States in October 2001, has emerged as a real medical and public health threat. The link between bio-terrorism, human security and public health raises complex questions on the normative trajectories of international law, the mandates of international organizations, and global health governance. In May 2001, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) passed a resolution entitled "Global Health Security: Epidemic Alert and Response" which inter alia, urged WHO member states to participate actively in the verification and validation of surveillance data and information concerning health emergencies of international concern. This article explores the links between bio-terrorism, human security and public health, and investigates the effectiveness of international legal mechanisms that link them in an age of globalization of public health. The article explores the interaction of WHO's 'soft-law' approaches to global health security, and the 'moribund' negotiations of the verification and monitoring protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention 1972. Can international law link bio-terrorism, public health and human security? Does the WHO collaborate with other international organizations within and outside the United Nations system to develop effective legal and governance approaches to bio-terrorism and global health security? The article concludes that the globalization of public health threats like bio-terrorism requires globalized legal approaches.

  11. Reflections of a "Guardian Ad Litem" on the Participation of Looked-After Children in Public Law Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    There is much debate about the rights of children relating to the nature and degree of their participation in Public Law Proceedings. Articles 12 (1) and 12 (2) of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 emphasise that children should be involved in decision-making about their welfare; and children who are capable of…

  12. Summary of Benefits under the Educational Assistance Test Program Section 901 of Public Law 96-342. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Veterans Affairs, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Section 901 is an Educational Assistance Test Program created by the Department of Defense Authorization Act of 1981 (Public Law 96-342) to individuals who entered on active duty after September 30, 1980, and before October 1, 1981 (or before October 1, 1982, if entry was under a delayed enlistment contract signed between September 30, 1980, and…

  13. 8 CFR 245.20 - Adjustment of status of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... apply to adjust status under Public Law 106-378 if the alien is: (1) A Jewish national of Syria; (2...”, applicants must write “SYRIAN ASYLEE—P.L. 106-378” to indicate that they are applying based on this provision... of basis no later than October 27, 2001. (e) Evidence. Applicants must submit evidence that...

  14. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 07: The "laws" of effective public education about fire hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 10 years, breakthrough research has identified factors that are most important for effectively communicating about wildland fire hazards. This fact sheet discusses seven "Laws" of effective public communication that should be considered in any state-of-the-art education campaign.

  15. Reflections of a "Guardian Ad Litem" on the Participation of Looked-After Children in Public Law Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    There is much debate about the rights of children relating to the nature and degree of their participation in Public Law Proceedings. Articles 12 (1) and 12 (2) of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 emphasise that children should be involved in decision-making about their welfare; and children who are capable of…

  16. 75 FR 34148 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information; Office of Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Collection of Information; Office of Law Enforcement/Federal Air Marshal Service Mental Health Certification... Security Administration (TSA) invites public comment on one currently approved information collection..., Office of Information Technology, TSA-11, Transportation Security Administration, 701 South 12th Street...

  17. Special Features of the Author-Publication Relationship and a New Explanation of Lotka's Law Based on Convolution Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses structural differences between author-publication systems and journal-article systems, i.e., articles can have more than one author. Frequency functions are examined; and a new conceptual explanation of Lotka's Law, based on convolution theory, is proposed. (Contains eight references.) (LRW)

  18. The Institutionalised and Non-Institutionalised Exemptions from EU Public Procurement Law: Towards a More Coherent Approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem A. Janssen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From a EU public procurement law perspective, contracting authorities have a discretionary power to decide upon who is allowed and best suited to provide public services to the public. When public authorities deem the in-house performance of a service to be the most suitable, the Court of Justice of the EU has allowed these authorities to rely on the institutionalised and non-institutionalised exemptions, which exempt a possible duty to contract out a public contract. The first part of this contribution discusses the recent codification of these exemptions in Article 12 Directive 2014/24/EU on public procurement. It concludes that this codification creates some legal certainty, but it mostly expands the scope of these exemptions from public procurement law. The second part of this contribution proposes a more coherent approach for these exemptions by discussing the challenges of regulating and enforcing the pre-procurement phase (the make-or-buy decision in which a public authority decides to favour the internal or external performance of a service. It concludes by providing legal perspectives to regulate and enforce this decision-making phase.

  19. Planning law and public health at an impasse in Australia: the need for targeted law reforms to improve local food environments to reduce overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Caroline

    2014-09-01

    Australia's high rates of overweight and obesity, and the associated increased population risk of non-communicable diseases, pose a challenge to policymakers across sectors beyond the health portfolio. In the last decade, strategies to promote healthy lifestyles and address non-communicable diseases have increasingly interested urban planners in Australia and internationally. However, Australian planning laws continue to operate largely without regard to public health goals, thus limiting the ability of communities to shape healthy built environments. In recent years, local governments have increasingly taken on responsibility for improving public health through community-based initiatives; however, their efforts are hindered by their limited capacity to influence planning priorities under current State-legislated planning schemes. This article considers the emerging body of research exploring the impact of urban planning on health and non-communicable diseases in Australia. It is contended that planning law in Australia is out of step with the evidence of planning's potential impact on health, and reforms are required to ensure consistency with public health priorities.

  20. State Farm-to-School Laws Influence the Availability of Fruits and Vegetables in School Lunches at US Public Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa; Turner, Lindsey; Schneider, Linda; Chriqui, Jamie; Chaloupka, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: State laws and farm-to-school programs (FTSPs) have the potential to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) availability in school meals. This study examined whether FV were more available in public elementary school lunches in states with a law requiring/encouraging FTSPs or with a locally grown-related law, and whether the relationship…

  1. The Impact of School Accountability Laws on Measures of Trust between Indiana Public School Superintendents and Teacher Union Leaders within the Forum of Mandatory Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the school accountability laws "No Child Left Behind" and Indiana's Public Law 221 on Superintendents' perception of their relationship with the Teachers' Union Leader in their mandatory discussion meetings. Both school accountability laws contain provisions for the Indiana's Department of Education to…

  2. Crowd Evacuation for Indoor Public Spaces Using Coulomb’s Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejman Kamkarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on designing a tool for guiding a group of people out of a public building when they are faced with dangerous situations that require immediate evacuation. Despite architectural attempts to produce safe floor plans and exit door placements, people will still commit to fatal route decisions. Since they have access to global views, we believe supervisory people in the control room can use our simulation tools to determine the best courses of action for people. Accordingly, supervisors can guide people to safety. In this paper, we combine Coulomb’s electrical law, graph theory, and convex and centroid concepts to demonstrate a computer-generated evacuation scenario that divides the environment into different safe boundaries around the locations of each exit door in order to guide people through exit doors safely and in the most expedient time frame. Our mechanism continually updates the safe boundaries at each moment based on the latest location of individuals who are present inside the environment. Guiding people toward exit doors depends on the momentary situations in the environment, which in turn rely on the specifications of each exit door. Our mechanism rapidly adapts to changes in the environment in terms of moving agents and changes in the environmental layout that might be caused by explosions or falling walls.

  3. An exploration of conceptual and temporal fallacies in international health law and promotion of global public health preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dhrubajyoti

    2007-01-01

    In February 2007, Indonesia withheld sharing H5N1 viral samples in order to compel the World Health Organization and Member States to guarantee future access to vaccines for States disproportionately burdened by infectious diseases. This article explores conceptual and temporal fallacies in the International Health Regulations (2005) and the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, as relates to global public health preparedness. Recommendations include adopting laws to facilitate non-pharmaceutical interventions; securing the rights of affected populations; and fostering inter-State collaborations to promote intra-State public health capacity building.

  4. 42 CFR 62.76 - How will amounts of money due under the option under section 204(c)(1) of Public Law 100-177 be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will amounts of money due under the option under section 204(c)(1) of Public Law 100-177 be required to be repaid? 62.76 Section 62.76 Public... will amounts of money due under the option under section 204(c)(1) of Public Law 100-177 be required...

  5. Public health, cultural norms and the criminal law: an inconvenient union? A case study of female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyioha, Ireh

    2012-09-01

    Social and cultural stereotypes held about women and their health needs constitute a significant barrier to the enforcement of laws protecting women's health. While the promulgation of remedial legislation to address the problem is a positive step towards protecting women's health, these laws are promulgated in a cultural milieu that remains unwelcoming to women's rights. The clash between long-held cultural perceptions and health laws, such as those affecting women's reproductive health, engenders more problems for women's health because the laws sometimes fail to produce the desired behavioural changes. This paper attempts to debunk the uncritical assumption that legislative reforms without more are positive instruments of change in protecting women's health. In outlining this thesis, the paper examines the legal prohibition of Female Genital Cutting ('FGC') as a case study. To determine whether FGC prohibition laws are likely to be effective in achieving the public health agenda of protecting women's health, the paper analyzes FGC laws against the normative and instrumental theories of legal compliance, as well as against the socio-cultural worldviews underlying the practice. It concludes that legislative efforts to protect women's health may remain ineffective without structured efforts between health systems, governments or legal institutions and the cultural society.

  6. Legislation of Urban Planning Public Policy from the Perspective of Legal Boundary: Enlightenment from the Evolution of Planning Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei; Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The transition of urban-rural planning to public policy has become a common recognition in the planning fi eld. The new challenge is how to combine such a transition with legislation development. This paper reviews the disciplinary development and legislation of urban-rural planning, and analyzes the effects of the public policy transition on law implementation and administrative power from the perspective of the legal boundary. It points out that the defi nition of the legal boundary of urban-rural planning laws is signifi cant for identifying the impact of public policy, ensuring the implementation of regulations on administrative power, and scoping effective urban-rural spaces. It argues that the core of public policy legalization is to establish value judgments for public policy making, to specify authorization and restraint to administrative power, and to reduce confl icts between public policies and governments’ administrative actions in urban-rural spaces. Furthermore, this paper discusses some other relevant issues on how to complete the public policy legalization.

  7. 78 FR 9038 - Office of the Secretary of the Air Force Acceptance of Group Application Under Public Law 95-202...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Public Law 95-202 and Department of Defense Directive (DODD) 1000.20: U.S. and Foreign Employees of Air America, Inc. Under the provisions of Section 401, Public Law 95-202 and DoD Directive 1000.20,...

  8. 12 CFR 609.910 - Compliance with the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229) (E-SIGN). 609.910 Section 609.910 Banks and Banking... with the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229) (E-SIGN). (a) General. E-SIGN makes it easier to conduct E-commerce. With some exceptions, E-SIGN permits the use and...

  9. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart K of... - Grant Agreement-Technical and Supervisory Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 employees for similar expenses. If the Grantee is a public body... identified by language to the following effect: “The material is the result of tax-supported research and...

  10. 7 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Certificate of Incumbency and Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Certificate of Incumbency and Signature B Appendix B... Signature U.S. Department of Agriculture—Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 and that the signature appearing below and that the...

  11. Effective Enforcement of Consumer Law in Europe: Synchronizing Private, Public, and Collective Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem); M.B.M. Loos (Marco)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we argue that there is a need for collective enforcement of consumer law in Europe. We evaluate a number of legal instruments that already have been developed to this end in European law and domestic legal systems. Furthermore, we make suggestions for further policy initia

  12. 78 FR 47826 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel JAMMIN; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... small groups''. Geographic Region: ``Maryland, Virginia, Washington, DC, North Carolina, South Carolina... comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel...

  13. 78 FR 30388 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel OSPREY; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ..., Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Puerto Rico'' The complete... association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel...

  14. 76 FR 79763 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TANGO; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel TANGO... of the vessel TANGO is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``Sightseeing, sportfishing, scuba...

  15. The Term of Subjective Right in the Romanian Public Law Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cernat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The coming into effect as of the end of 2004 of new regulations in the field of administrative contentious represented the introduction of a new approach over such institution (a genuine modification of the "text philosophy", as expressed by the law's initiator; however, in the same time this moment also generated some - we might say - virulent criticism. The said criticism mainly referred to the somehow "revolutionary" solution used by the organic law giver, namely of introducing in the legal regulations an article comprising juridical definitions of various terms used throughout the law. In the present study, we shall attempt to shape one of the law's key terms, which is the subjective right term; a future research is to further detail a term closely connected to such, which is the notion of legal interest. Aware of the difficulty of our pursuit herein, given the vivid debates arising in time in most law areas between the two terms (hence exceeding the limits of administrative law, we shall limit our attempt to describing the juridical views regarding such, without claiming to draw out a definition exceeding any criticism. To the possible extent, we shall seek for answers to various questions arising herein.

  16. World law

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Harold J.; Robert W. Woodruff; James Barr Ames

    1999-01-01

    In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the ...

  17. Autonomy, best interests and the public interest: treatment, non-treatment and the values of medical law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Richard

    2014-01-01

    When constructing its responses to cases concerning the treatment and non-treatment of patients, both competent and incompetent, English medical law primarily uses two analytic tools: the autonomy and the welfare (or best interests) of the patient. I argue, however, that the construction going on behind the facade involves the use of more-and more precise-tools. In such cases, the law effectively asks three questions. The first, autonomy, question asks: is the proposed course desired by the patient? The second, best interests, question asks: if the patient is not autonomous, then (what) is the proposed course in the patient's best interests? And the third, public interest, question asks: whether or not the patient is autonomous, is the proposed course in the public interest? In its responses to each question, law then offers three different answers, which reveal a plurality of ethical commitments. Thus, the wishes of the (autonomous) patient might reflect her current, her best, or her ideal desires. The best interests of the (non-autonomous) patient, meanwhile, are variously articulated in terms of (again) her desires, or the promotion or preservation of a particular mental state, or the attainment of certain objective goods. Finally, and most often obscured from view, there are public interest concerns-with the interests of the patient, some other (or others), or even the community at large. In identifying these different questions and answers, I hope to provide an explanatory typology. Whether law's plurality of answers-and values-is appropriate, however, remains open to question.

  18. 7 CFR 1951.872 - Other regulatory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 in making its decision on the request. (c) Equal opportunity and....872 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 7 CFR 1944.423 - Loan packaging and 502 RH application submittal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354's ultimate decision making authority to approve or....423 Section 1944.423 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE...

  20. 7 CFR 1980.411 - Loan purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prevent a loss of jobs in the area, or to house families moving to the area as a result of new employment... its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 that it is necessary to create new or save existing jobs... Associations, such as Engineers, Architects, Lawyers, Accountants, and Appraisers. The amount of the fee...

  1. 7 CFR 1940.333 - Applicability to planning assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the plan as well as the alternative planning strategies that were reviewed. ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Applicability to planning assistance. 1940.333 Section... to planning assistance. The award of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 funds for...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart L of... - Housing in Underserved Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concentrations of poverty and substandard housing and have severe, unmet rural housing needs. B. To provide for..., poverty level; (2) 10 percent or more of the occupied housing units are substandard; and (3) the average... under Public Law 103-354 rural area definition. 2. Selection. The Act requires that 100 of the most...

  3. 7 CFR 1955.147 - Sealed bid sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.147... Public Law 103-354 inventory property, except suitable FP real property which will not be sold by sealed...

  4. 7 CFR 1955.117 - Processing credit sales on program terms (housing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.117 Processing credit sales on program terms... Public Law 103-354 and charged to the inventory account as a nonrecoverable cost items. (g) Closing sale...

  5. 7 CFR 1822.271 - Processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... services such as doctors, dentists, and hospitals. (9) If facilities such as water and sewage systems... under Public Law 103-354 can appropriately finance. (iii) There is an immediate and ready market for the... Obligation-Fund Analysis 2 2 1 1 1 1 Data input to Finance Office through field office terminals....

  6. 7 CFR 1910.101 - Preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL Commercial Credit Reports § 1910.101 Preface. FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Instruction 1910-C (available in any Farmers Home Administration (FmHA) or its successor agency... credit reports. A nonrefundable fee, set forth in § 1910.106(d) of this Instruction will be...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding Between Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Credit Corporation Rotation of Grain Crops Under the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Farmer-Owned... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Memorandum of Understanding Between Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 and Commodity Credit Corporation C Exhibit C...

  8. 7 CFR 1910.51 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL Credit Reports (Individual) § 1910.51 Purpose. This subpart prescribes the policies and procedures of the Farmers Home Administration (FmHA) or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 for individual and joint type credit reports. Credit reports will be ordered to determine the eligibility...

  9. 7 CFR 1962.18 - Unapproved disposition of chattel security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... security, the County Supervisor must request restitution by use of a letter similar to Guide Letter 1962-A-5. (1) If the borrower makes restitution or provides suffficient information to enable the County... covered by the Form FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 431-2, or other similar plan of...

  10. 7 CFR 1962.49 - Civil and criminal cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... keep that office informed of any future developments in the case. If Attachments l, 2 and other..., the notes, financing statements, security agreements, loan agreements, other legal instruments and... under Public Law 103-354 field office terminal system. This will flag the borrower's account indicating...

  11. 7 CFR 1980.469 - Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... because of a lack of expertise, an inadequate loan agreement, the condition of or lack of control over the... circumstances indicate that criminal violations may have been committed by an applicant, a borrower, or third... Public Law 103-354 office) for criminal investigation. Any questions as to whether a matter should...

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding Between Commodity Credit Corporation and Farmers Home Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Corporation and Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1962 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Liquidation of Chattel Security Pt. 1962, Subpt. A, Exh. A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1962—Memorandum...

  13. 7 CFR Guide 2 to Subpart G of... - Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Resolution 2 Guide 2 to Subpart G of Part 1942... Grants Pt. 1942, Subpt. G, Guide 2 Guide 2 to Subpart G of Part 1942—Resolution Whereas the... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 this resolution is being adopted. Therefore, in consideration...

  14. 7 CFR 1901.203 - Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., rental, or financing of housing contained in title VIII apply to: (1) All dwellings financed by loans... equal housing opportunity throughout the nation. We encourage and support an affirmative advertising and... Public Law 103-354 programs and referral to the Department of Justice for suit by the United States...

  15. 7 CFR 1951.154 - Satisfaction and release of documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Satisfaction and release of documents. 1951.154... Loans § 1951.154 Satisfaction and release of documents. (a) Authorization. FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 is authorized to execute the necessary releases and satisfactions and...

  16. 7 CFR 1955.55 - Taking abandoned real or chattel property into custody and related actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... abandoned property shall take the actions necessary to secure, maintain, preserve, lease, manage, or operate... requested, at the address currently used by Finance Office, outlining proposed actions by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 to secure, maintain, and operate the project. (i) If the...

  17. 7 CFR 1940.329 - Commenting on other Agencies' EIS's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...) Comments should concentrate on those matters of primary importance to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 and on areas of Agency expertise, such as rural planning and development....

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart A of... - Manufactured Home Sites, Rental Projects and Subdivisions: Development, Installation and Set-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., installation and set-up practices and concepts for manufactured homes. It is intended for FmHA or its successor... environmental analysis required for a particular application, each manufactured home or lot involved shall be... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 environmental policies and the consideration of important land use...

  19. 7 CFR Guide 1 to Subpart G of... - Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional Commission and the Farmers Home...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional... Guide 1 to Subpart G of Part 1942—Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional Commission and... successor agency under Public Law 103-354, in concurring to this Project Management Agreement, hereby...

  20. 7 CFR 1980.451 - Filing and processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Office, the Administrator may also assign up to 20 points. An assignment of points by the Administrator...) Notification of required financial and other reports, their frequency, due dates and fiscal yearend. 4. Par (i... become delinquent or problems in order that FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  1. The new Israeli feed safety law: challenges in relation to animal and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Shimon; Elad, Dani; Cuneah, Olga; Shimshoni, Jakob A

    2017-03-01

    The Israeli feed safety legislation, which came to prominence in the early 1970s, has undergone a major change from simple feed safety and quality regulations to a more holistic concept of control of feed safety and quality throughout the whole feed production chain, from farm to the end user table. In February 2014, a new law was approved by the Israeli parliament, namely the Control of Animal Feed Law, which is expected to enter into effect in 2017. The law is intended to regulate the production and marketing of animal feed, guaranteeing the safety and quality of animal products throughout the production chain. The responsibility on the implementation of the new feed law was moved from the Plant Protection Inspection Service to the Veterinary Services and Animal Health. In preparation for the law's implementation, we have characterized the various sources and production lines of feed for farm and domestic animals in Israel and assessed the current feed safety challenges in terms of potential hazards or undesirable substances. Moreover, the basic requirements for feed safety laboratories, which are mandatory for analyzing and testing for potential contaminants, are summarized for each of the contaminants discussed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. 75 FR 77642 - Implementation of Section 2695 (42 U.S.C. 300ff-131) of Public Law 111-87: Infectious Diseases...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... 300ff-131) of Public Law 111-87: Infectious Diseases and Circumstances Relevant to Notification... facilities, and State and community public health officers regarding exposure of emergency response employees... process, see the ``Public Participation'' heading of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of...

  3. Institutional Uncertainties of the Rule of Law – The Public Prosecutor’s Office Between the Executive and the Judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela CĂRĂUŞAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian society, the state, the administration and the judiciary are facing several essential challenges of the contemporary world, and these challenges have to be addressed as soon as possible. The position and the role of the Public Prosecutor’s Office within the rule of law should be clarified since it is a well known fact that the judiciary and public administration systems are not yet capable to manage the changes necessary for the integration in the European juridical space. With the advancement of the Romanian public administration reform, the Public Prosecutor’s Office and the public administration have become the two main actors involved in the struggle against corruption. Corruption is considered to be an important factor underlying the inability of the public administration and the judiciary systems to act and to meet the citizen’s needs. The Romanian citizen has been facing the burden of corruption and bureaucracy, and the Public Prosecutor’s Office is one of the institutions called upon not to eradicate this phenomenon, but to prevent it and to keep it under control. Within the current framework, when the political and legal debate raises issues regarding a new review of the Romanian Constitution, one of the questions raised is whether the Public Prosecutor’s Office is a public authority belonging to the executive or to the judiciary. The following paper studies the place of the Public Prosecutor’s Office within the legal systems and consequently will indentify and determine its place and role at the intersection between the executive and the judiciary.

  4. [Core principles for the regulation of placement subject to public law in psychiatric hospitals - with explanations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    While the provisions of the highest courts concerning the involuntary commitment and treatment in psychiatric hospitals of people unable to give their consent are being implemented, in many federal states corresponding adjustments to the rules governing involuntary commitment in accordance with the mental health laws and laws on involuntary commitment are still pending. In states where new regulations do exist, legal experts express doubts that they conform to the Constitution and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The DGPPN has formulated key parameters for involuntary commitment from a clinical perspective, which should be taken into account in the new regulations of the individual federal states.

  5. Property of the Moon – Provision of International Public Law vs. Private Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lupač, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the legal regulations of Outer Space and the Moon and to answer the question of whether the sale of land on the Moon is in accordance with international law. At first, the author will define the term of international space. Secondly, Outer Space which is predominantly exulted by the fundamental instrument of space law - the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, includi...

  6. 78 FR 76403 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel JAGUAR; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel JAGUAR... of the vessel JAGUAR is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``For bare boat/lease recreational use...

  7. 42 CFR 137.220 - Do section 314 of Public Law 101-512 [25 U.S.C. 450f note] and section 102(d) of the Act [25 U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do section 314 of Public Law 101-512 and section...-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Federal Tort Claims Act (ftca) § 137.220 Do section 314 of Public Law 101... construction project agreements? 137.220 Section 137.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 8 CFR 233.5 - Aliens entering Guam pursuant to section 14 of Public Law 99-396, “Omnibus Territories Act.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aliens entering Guam pursuant to section 14 of Public Law 99-396, âOmnibus Territories Act.â 233.5 Section 233.5 Aliens and Nationality... entering Guam pursuant to section 14 of Public Law 99-396, “Omnibus Territories Act.” A transportation...

  9. Public Participation and the Rights of the Child: Reflection on International Law Standards in the Legal System of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Riekkinen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the much debated issue of children’s public participation from the perspective of legal practices in the Russian Federation. Having emerged at the level of national jurisdictions, the practice of engaging minors in decision-making processes on issues of public significance – or the practice of public participation of children – is stipulated by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, based on Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Public participation of minors implies that children have clearly defined opportunities to take part in decision-making processes concerning those political and public matters affecting their interests.Albeit limited by the clause “regarding the issues concerning them,” the claims for such participation are dictated by emerging standards of international law. The author has examined the process of devising these standards in Russian public law. Moreover, an analysis of the evolution of academic views on public participation of children in Russian legal scholarship is also included in this article.Relying extensively on the method of legal analysis and the comparative analysis of the conformity of national public law standards with respect to international law, the author proposes several legal amendments to the Federal law “On the Basic Guarantees of the Rights of the Child in the Russian Federation,” which would lead to anchoring more solidly the participatory right of minors in the legal system of the Russian Federation.

  10. Water Distribution in the Public Interest and the Human Right to Water: Swiss, South African and International Law Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rüegger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal norms governing the distribution of water are integral to how access to water is determined. This paper analyses the idea that water should be used in the interest of the public from a legal point of view. Taking Swiss and South African law as examples it examines what the notion of 'public interest' actually means. A close look at the notion of 'water distribution in the public interest' reveals important insights: water distribution in the public interest balances a variety of different economic, ecological and social interests. In this process the human right to water is attributed the role as protective shield. Hence its effective implementation is crucial in order to safeguard water for basic human needs. After analysing how Swiss and South African water regimes are currently structured and the role of the public interest clause therein, the paper examines whether the human right to water as conceived in Swiss, South African and international law effectively ensures protection of domestic water users. The paper concludes that this is the case under some, but not all circumstances. Especially the interests of those users whose access to water is not yet sufficient do not always receive adequate legal protection by the respective legal orders. The paper concludes by stressing the necessity to evolve the concept of the human right to water to reach comprehensive protection of basic human needs. Consciousness of the social risks associated with using the human right to water as general placeholder for basic human needs despite its shortcomings will hopefully encourage efforts to establish substantive legal protection.

  11. 版权法上的公共领域研究%On public domain in copyright law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄汇

    2009-01-01

    Public domain is a core rule of copyright law, under which various creative materials are available for an author to use without charge or liability for infringement, hence ensuring the effective implementation of copyright law.Public domain is characterized by openness, public ownership, irrevocability and formality. Based on the premise that the author's work will not be interfered, public domain ultimately aims at the enlargement of its own universe and prosperity of the culture of human society. Its introduction into copyright law satisfies both historical and logical demands. Without its acknowledgement,copyright cannot be justified. In that sense, public domain and copyright can be deemed as twins. Public domain is not only an existing institution, but also an ideological tendency or a methodology. It has evaluative and inspective values towards copyright. It is an important precondition of copy-rights, and what is more, an important measure for controlling the expansion and realizing the purpose of copyright.%公共领域是版权法的核心,它是保证作者有效运用各种创作素材从而使版权的其余部分得以良好运转的工具.公共领域具有开放性、有主性、不可撤销性和程序性等特征,它以保证作者的创作为前提,却最终以自身的不断扩大和人类社会的文化繁衍为依归.公共领域在版权法上的生成既是历史的,更是逻辑的.没有公共领域的被承认,也就没有版权的正当性可言,因此公共领域和版权实际上一同诞生.公共领域不仅是一种制度存在物,它更是一种思想倾向和方法论,公共领域对版权具有评价和检视功能,它既是版权运行的重要前提,又是控制版权扩张和实现版权目的的重要手段.

  12. Analysis tool public bidding the light of constitutional principles of cf / 88: a debate on the laws 8666 / 1993 and 12,462 / 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Júnior Siqueira dos Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at to promote a debate between the General Law of Administrative Contracts and Tenders (Law 8.666/93 and the Law Differentiated Scheme Public Contracting (Law 12.462/2011 Act regarding the observance of the Constitutional Principles of Public Administration in elaboration phase public bidding and execution of these instruments. This required from an initial study on Public Management which had as background rag and the Principles Bidding with emphasis on rol of the Chapeau of article 37 the Federal Constitution of 1988. Bidding procedures retro mentioned laws were also compared. The statement of reasons was made by literature search. As a result of the investigation, it was found that although there is a formal compliance with principled norm with regard respect the principles of public administration in both competitions governed by laws, not an application in hand and visible interest of the Public Power of the DRC in cases of greater relevance and urgency, which deconstructs the reason for this exceptional regime and calls into question the substantive norm of access to potential beneficiaries with full compliance.

  13. Policy Entrepreneurs and the Design of Public Policy: The Case of the National Health Insurance Law in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NISSIM COHEN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available How do policy entrepreneurs implement in practice the things theory suggests they should do? This article suggests various insightsinto the influence of policy entrepreneurs on the formulation of public policy. Using a broad definition of the concept of policyentrepreneur, the article identifies the main characteristics of entrepreneurial activities, describes various strategies that the policyentrepreneur may employ, and develops a model of successful and effective policy entrepreneurship. Using an analysis of the designof the Israel National Health Law of 1994 as a case study, the article emphasizes the importance of policy entrepreneurs in thepublic policy arena and provides several insights into the conditions for their activity, their motivations and main strategies.

  14. Public-private partnerships and responsibility under international law: a global health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Clarke

    2014-01-01

    Partnerships between the public and private sectors are an increasingly accepted method to deal with pressing global issues, such as those relating to health. Partnerships, comprised of states and international organizations (public sector) and companies, non-governmental organizations, research ins

  15. One Law with Two Outcomes: Comparing the Implementation of CIPA in Public Libraries and Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Jaeger

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Though the Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA established requirements for both public libraries and public schools to adopt filters on all of their computers when they receive certain federal funding, it has not attracted a great amount of research into the effects on libraries and schools and the users of these social institutions. This paper explores the implications of CIPA in terms of its effects on public libraries and public schools, individually and in tandem. Drawing from both library and education research, the paper examines the legal background and basis of CIPA, the current state of Internet access and levels of filtering in public libraries and public schools, the perceived value of CIPA, the perceived consequences of CIPA, the differences in levels of implementation of CIPA in public libraries and public schools, and the reasons for those dramatic differences. After an analysis of these issues within the greater policy context, the paper suggests research questions to help provide more data about the challenges and questions revealed in this analysis.

  16. Anonymous birth law saves babies--optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5% chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure.

  17. Practice and Discussion on Public Library Developing Law Information Services%公共图书馆普法服务的实践与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余胜

    2011-01-01

    公共图书馆开展普法服务是承担社会责任的体现,是履行社会教育职能的要求,是进行服务创新的举措。本文总结、梳理了我国公共图书馆开展普法服务的实践和做法,对公共图书馆进一步做好普法服务进行了探讨。%Developing law information services of public libraries is a sort of embodiment of public libraries bearing social responsibility,the demand of public libraries fulfilling social education and a kind of service innovation.This article summarizes the practice of public libraries developing law information services in China and discusses how to develop law information services for public libraries better.

  18. [Impact of the Core Training Law on preventive medicine and public health training and other common medical specialties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latasa, Pello; Gil-Borrelli, Christian; Aguilera, José Antonio; Reques, Laura; Barreales, Saúl; Ojeda, Elena; Alemán, Guadalupe; Iniesta, Carlos; Gullón, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the Core Training Law (CTL) is to amend specialised medical training to include 24 months of common training. The aim of this study is to assess its potential impact on the Preventive Medicine and Public Health (PM&PH) training programme and other medical specialties. The programmes of the 21 common medical specialties were analysed and the recommended training periods for each specialty collected, before the information was agreed upon by three observers. The training impact was calculated as the percentage of months that should be amended per specialty to adapt to the common training schedule. The Preventive Medicine and Public Health training programme is the specialty most affected by the Core Training Law (100%, 24 months). Intensive medicine (0%, 0 months) and medical oncology (17%, 4 months) is the least affected. The CTL affects the common medical specialties in different ways and requires a complete reorganisation of the activities and competencies of PM&PH professionals. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV infection and AIDS in the public health and health care systems: the role of law and litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, L O; Webber, D W

    1998-04-08

    The AIDS Litigation Project has reviewed nearly 600 reported cases involving individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the federal and state courts in the United States between 1991 and 1997. Cases were identified through a federal and 50-state computer and library search. An important subset of litigation relates to HIV/AIDS in the public health and health care systems, since the law affects health care institutions and professionals, patients, and public health policy in America. This subset of HIV/AIDS litigation includes testing and reporting; privacy, the duty to warn, and the right to know; physician standards of care in prevention and treatment; and discrimination and access to health care. In broad terms, the review demonstrates a reliance on voluntary testing and protection of patient privacy through HIV-specific statutes and the common law. Negligence with potential civil and criminal liability has been alleged in cases of erroneous or missed diagnosis of HIV infection. In the first AIDS case to be considered by the Supreme Court, the Court will decide whether patients with asymptomatic HIV infection are protected under the Americans With Disabilities Act. Considerable progress has been made, both socially and legally, during the first 2 decades of the epidemic, but much still needs to be accomplished to protect privacy, prevent discrimination, and promote tolerance.

  20. Let’s Think Twice before We Revise!‘Égalité’ as the Foundation of Liability for Lawful Public Sector Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Engelhard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the égalité principle as the leading ground for liability after lawful acts by the State, local authorities and public authorities. Two Dutch legislative initiatives are dealt with in particular, that seek to codify, improve and expand égalité liability in administrative law, private law and criminal law. This will make the artificial égalité construction used in private law cases no longer necessary and legal reasoning more transparent. Further, the authors claim that Article 4:126 BW may open the possibility for new types of private law claims to be developed under this umbrella. However, their concerns are that the égalité principle is too vague to create the certainty and uniformity that the legislator aspires towards.

  1. Let’s Think Twice before We Revise!
    ‘Égalité’ as the Foundation of Liability for Lawful Public Sector Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Engelhard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the égalité principle as the leading ground for liability after lawful acts by the State, local authorities and public authorities. Two Dutch legislative initiatives are dealt with in particular, that seek to codify, improve and expand égalité liability in administrative law, private law and criminal law. This will make the artificial égalité construction used in private law cases no longer necessary and legal reasoning more transparent. Further, the authors claim that Article 4:126 BW may open the possibility for new types of private law claims to be developed under this umbrella. However, their concerns are that the égalité principle is too vague to create the certainty and uniformity that the legislator aspires towards.

  2. Public health law: the constitutionality of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ville, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Congress of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was immediately challenged by lawsuits attacking the constitutionality of the legislation. The lawsuits, joined by over 2 dozen state's attorney generals, contend that PPACA is an unconstitutional exercise of federal power. Specifically, the suits argue that the individual insurance mandate portion of the law is justified by neither the "Commerce Power" nor Congress' authority to "tax" and provide for "the general welfare." This essay outlines and analyzes the constitutional arguments for, and against, PPACA forecasting the likely resolution of the debate if the suits reach the US Supreme Court.

  3. 加强和改进公安法学教育的理性思考%Rational Thinking on Strengthening and Improving Public Security Law Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭玉伟

    2015-01-01

    Public security law education is the basis of public se-curity education. It plays an irreplaceable role in the culture of public security reserve talents. But there are some problems in public security law education at present, such as unreasonable arrangement of law courses, lack of public security characteristic of specified teaching materials, disjunction of teaching contents and public security practice, relatively single and backward of teaching methods, and so on. So the basic position public security law education hasn't been really established. The reasons of these problems are complicated and multi-level. In order to promote the reformation of public security law education, and strengthen and improve public security law education, we should positively cope with from three levels of country, university and teacher.%公安法学教育是公安教育的基础,在公安后备人才培养中具有不可替代的作用。当前公安法学教育中存在着法学课程安排不合理、指定教材缺乏公安特色、教学内容与公安执法实践脱节、教学方法相对单一落后等诸多问题,公安法学教育的基础地位并未真正确立。而造成这些问题产生的原因是复杂的、多层次的。推动公安法学教育改革,加强和改进公安法学教育,应当从国家、学校、教师三个层面进行积极应对。

  4. Title II Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 89-10) as Amended. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1972, School Library Resources, Textbooks, and Other Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 (Public Law 89-10) as amended, provides direct Federal assistance for the acquisition of school library resources, textbooks, and other instructional materials for the use of children and teachers in public and private elementary and secondary schools. Its purpose is to improve…

  5. State procurement law: facilitating the collaboration between health department and school of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, George A; Barron, Gerald M; Duchak, Linda S; Raniowski, Martin; Alsahlani, Hazem S; Potter, Margaret A

    2014-01-01

    The mark of an "academic health department" includes shared activity by academic and practice partners sustained over time. Despite a long history of productive interactivity, the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health often faced administrative hurdles in contracting for projects of mutual interest. Seeking to overcome these hurdles, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health negotiated a Master Agreement on the basis of statutes designating both as "public procurement units." This provided a template for project specifications, standard financial terms, and a contracting process. Since taking effect, the Master Agreement has supported projects in policy development, capacity building, workforce development, program evaluation, data analysis, and program planning. This experience suggests an approach potentially useful for other states and localities seeking to solidify academic health department partnerships either envisioned for the future or already in place.

  6. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  7. Public and private interests in regulation : essays in the law and economics of regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, J.A. den

    2003-01-01

    The six chapters in this thesis all focus on regulation. Public and private interest theories of regulation are used as a viewpoint and as an instrument to analyse and evaluate particular regulations and policy developments. Furthermore, in the literature there is a debate about the explanatory powe

  8. To whom it may concern : International human rights law and global public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Public goods and human rights are sometimes treated as intimately related, if not interchangeable, strategies to address matters of common global concern. The aim of the present contribution is to disentangle the two notions to shed some critical light on their respective potential to attend to cont

  9. To whom it may concern : International human rights law and global public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Public goods and human rights are sometimes treated as intimately related, if not interchangeable, strategies to address matters of common global concern. The aim of the present contribution is to disentangle the two notions to shed some critical light on their respective potential to attend to cont

  10. Inequities in Mass Communication Law: The FCC's Application of the Duopoly Rule to Public Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Robert K.

    A three-part petition was filed in December 1974 with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) which presented the first serious threat to public broadcasters' exemption from the FCC's multiple-ownership rules. The petition requested a revision of the rules that permit multiple ownership of noncommercial educational stations within a single…

  11. To whom it may concern : International human rights law and global public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Public goods and human rights are sometimes treated as intimately related, if not interchangeable, strategies to address matters of common global concern. The aim of the present contribution is to disentangle the two notions to shed some critical light on their respective potential to attend to

  12. To whom it may concern : International human rights law and global public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Public goods and human rights are sometimes treated as intimately related, if not interchangeable, strategies to address matters of common global concern. The aim of the present contribution is to disentangle the two notions to shed some critical light on their respective potential to attend to

  13. The Role and Purposes of Public Schools and Religious Fundamentalism: An International Human Rights Law Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Douglas Charles

    2012-01-01

    The question of what are today the legitimate and proper role and purposes of public schools can only be answered by a close examination and analysis of the human right to education which has been developed by such international organizations as the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and by…

  14. Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, with Index (Public Law 96-501).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act was enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America. It was enacted to assist the electrical consumers of the Pacific Northwest through use of the Federal columbia River Power System to achieve cost-effective energy conservation, to encourage the development of renewable energy resources, to establish a representative regional power planning process, to assure the region of an efficient and adequate power supply, and for other purposes. Contents of the Act are: short title and table of contents; purposes; definitions; regional planning and participation; sale of power; conservation and resource acquisition; rates; amendments to existing law; administrative provisions; savings provisions; effective date; and severability.

  15. Project of law relative to the electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the definitive text of this project of law adopted by the French house of commons. The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  16. A View on ECHR Case law for Salary Policy in Romanian Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Tofan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As the economies of other countries in Western Europe, the Romania's economy went through a very difficult period because of the international financial crisis, with GDP falling by over 18%. In the situation of no longer being able to meet its payment obligations and under the pressures of international financial organizations, the Romanian government opted for the radical measure of cutting public sector wages by 25%. Faced with this unprecedented action of country administrative power representatives, the Romanian civil servants attacked this measure in national courts and after that, in front of the ECHR. This article presents the solutions of the Romanian courts, the European jurisprudence on lowering wages and its implications for public solutions Romanian legal systems.

  17. Economic Analysis of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Louis Kaplow; Steven Shavell

    2005-01-01

    This entry for the forthcoming The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (Second Edition) surveys the economic analysis of five primary fields of law: property law; liability for accidents; contract law; litigation; and public enforcement and criminal law. It also briefly considers some criticisms of the economic analysis of law.

  18. Pharmaceutical marketing practices: balancing public health and law enforcement interests; moving beyond regulation-through-litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesky, Christopher D

    2006-01-01

    Fraudulent or abusive sales and marketing practices by pharmaceutical companies can result in costly overutilization of products that are increasingly paid for by government healthcare programs and may result in adverse health and safety consequences to the patient-beneficiaries of those programs. Federal enforcement efforts in this area are largely modeled on those used to combat white-collar crime, with cases taking years to reach conclusion. This approach overlooks the impact on patients who receive unnecessary care or are denied access to appropriate care during the course of the investigation. Many states are beginning to regulate certain pharmaceutical sales and marketing practices, but state-by-state regulation ignores the importance of a uniform federal regulatory and enforcement approach in an area already occupied by federal law. This Article explores current federal and state efforts to limit overutilization, fraud, and abuse in the sale and marketing of prescription drugs, and illustrates the merits of an expanded role for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate pharmaceutical sales and marketing practices. This approach borrows lessons learned from the FDA's efficient and effective regulatory and enforcement methods and maintains a careful balance between the interests of patient-beneficiaries, the government and industry.

  19. [Mandatory vaccination and health's right: the value of case law in the public health practice in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, S; Martinelli, D; Prato, R; Germinario, C

    2012-01-01

    In Italy there have been several court appeals registered, which have been driven by individual convictions or group actions or movements and were aimed at obtaining exemption from the obligation to comply with compulsory vaccinations required by law. The aim of the present paper is to provide a quick review of the sentences resulting from activating these disputes, in order to contribute to the debate on overturning compulsory vaccination. The Jurisprudence of the Italian Constitutional Court has repeatedly confirmed the judgment on the constitutionality of rules on obligation, clarifying that only where specific reasons exist that make vaccinating the individual dangerous may non-compliance with the rules on compulsory vaccination be justified. This is in contrast with the case law on enforcement of compulsory vaccination, through the temporary suspension of parental authority. Taking responsibility for promoting immunisation decisions away from Public Health Services and handing it to the courtroom is not advisable, given the very small benefit. The problem must be placed under the careful attention of the Health Service due to communicative implications, which can be serious during the transition from a compulsory system of immunisation to a voluntary one.

  20. THEORETICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE NEW OFFENSE COVERED BY ART. 246 OF THE CRIMINAL CODE MISSAPPROPRIATION OF PUBLIC AUCTIONS AND OFFENCES COVERED BY ART. 65 OF LAW NO. 21/1996 REPUBLISHED. COMPETITION LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Aida POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to bring to the attention of the legal law specialists the theoretical aspects related to a new incrimination as the one covered by art. 246 of the Penal Code, the misappropriation of public auctions, as well as aspects of yet another incrimination, that is the one covered by art. 65 of Law no. 21/1996 republished-competition law, trying thus to prevent certain different interpretations about the typicality of the two incriminations and encourage the possibility of highlighting other arguments that will lead to an application as accurate as possible of the two incriminations. Presently there is no case law for the two incriminations therefore the theoretical analysis has to present interpretation arguments which will help the judicial bodies to easily classify the factual basis of the content of the two constitutive laws offering the possibility of a more detailed and contextual interpretation in relation to the reality. The way the public auctions take place is a constant preoccupation not only for the participants who are involved in the procedure and directly interested in abiding the under law and ensuring a fair competitive climate but also for the public opinion which is as equally interested in ensuring fair social-economical relationships based on the market principles. Simultaneously, the way the legal conditions of the second incriminations-that is the one from art.65 Law no.21/1996 republished - are interpreted in relation with the competition practices will lead to the clarification of the norm and its correct enforcement.

  1. European Non-Discrimination Law : A Comparison of EU Law and the ECHR in the Field of Non-Discrimination and Freedom of Religion in Public Employment with an Emphasis on the Islamic Headscarf Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speekenbrink, S.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary multicultural issues in Europe raise the question whether the overlap between the non-discrimination regimes of the European Union (EU) and the Council of Europe in the field of public employment may lead to conflicting case law. Would the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ) an

  2. [The case for a new French public health law at the service of a fairer and more effective national health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, Linda; Alla, François; Lombrail, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The next public health law in France will need to address a number of issues. A?series of recent reports have highlighted both sharp disparities in health status ? with high rates of premature death and increasing social inequalities in health ? and the need to organize public health. The incoherence of public health policies, the lack of inter-ministerial coordination (a prerequisite for the reduction of health inequalities) and the lack of structure and evaluation in the area of prevention are major weaknesses that the new public health law will need to address. Beyond the inevitable core measures, the new law will also need to promote deep structural reforms, including a unified national policy refocused on key priorities and incorporating non-health sectors, the development of a more effective and coherent prevention policy and, finally, a focus on the issue of inequalities requiring clearly defined integrated measures, not only as a stated principle but as an outcome to be achieved by all health policies. The next public health law will need to be a vehicle for an inevitable and long overdue structuring of public health policy.

  3. Law & psychiatry: whistle-blowers and the first amendment: protecting public employees in psychiatric facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2007-07-01

    This column describes a case in which a psychiatrist employed at a state psychiatric hospital wrote a series of memos to the hospital board, state officials, and a newspaper describing poor-quality care at the hospital. When his contract was not renewed soon thereafter, he filed suit against the state and two state officials alleging violation of his First Amendment rights of free speech. At a trial in 2004 a jury found that the director of the state's Division of Alcoholism, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health had retaliated against the psychiatrist by declining to renew his contract, thus violating his First Amendment rights. Implications of the case for staff in public mental health systems are discussed.

  4. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Jerome H

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the growth and consequences of new intellectual property rights given to pharmaceutical developers, and it advocates treating clinical trials as a public good. Although the soaring cost of clinical trials is well known and discussed, too little attention is given to the underlying rationale for allowing drug developers to recoup their costs through the new intellectual property rights provided in multilateral, regional, and bilateral agreements. Known in the US as "market exclusivity" and in Europe as "data exclusivity," these rights prohibit would-be generic producers from obtaining regulatory approval based on the original producers' undisclosed test data. Market and data exclusivity is codified in US and European domestic law as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and, to a lesser degree, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). Market and data exclusivity is binding an increasing number of developing countries via Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), which hinder developing countries from manufacturing generic drugs. At a minimum, negotiators should replace the norm of exclusive control over data with a liability rule, or take and pay rule, in which generic manufacturers can use original manufacturers' clinical trial data in exchange for reasonable compensation. A more fundamental solution requires questioning the status quo of proprietary clinical trial data. The conventional wisdom is that market and data exclusivity, and drug developers' consequent ability to limit competition from generics above and beyond patent protection, are a necessary incentive for drug developers to fund ever more expensive clinical trials. Clinical trial data, however, are public goods that will be undersupplied and over protected so long as private actors provide them. Moreover, manufacturers have an incentive to present clinical trial data so that they support regulatory approval at the expense of public

  5. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    REICHMAN, JEROME H.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the growth and consequences of new intellectual property rights given to pharmaceutical developers, and it advocates treating clinical trials as a public good. Although the soaring cost of clinical trials is well known and discussed, too little attention is given to the underlying rationale for allowing drug developers to recoup their costs through the new intellectual property rights provided in multilateral, regional, and bilateral agreements. Known in the US as “market exclusivity” and in Europe as “data exclusivity,” these rights prohibit would-be generic producers from obtaining regulatory approval based on the original producers’ undisclosed test data. Market and data exclusivity is codified in US and European domestic law as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and, to a lesser degree, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). Market and data exclusivity is binding an increasing number of developing countries via Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), which hinder developing countries from manufacturing generic drugs. At a minimum, negotiators should replace the norm of exclusive control over data with a liability rule, or take and pay rule, in which generic manufacturers can use original manufacturers’ clinical trial data in exchange for reasonable compensation. A more fundamental solution requires questioning the status quo of proprietary clinical trial data. The conventional wisdom is that market and data exclusivity, and drug developers’ consequent ability to limit competition from generics above and beyond patent protection, are a necessary incentive for drug developers to fund ever more expensive clinical trials. Clinical trial data, however, are public goods that will be undersupplied and over protected so long as private actors provide them. Moreover, manufacturers have an incentive to present clinical trial data so that they support regulatory approval at the

  6. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important

  7. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukta; Chatterjee, Anindya

    2012-07-09

    In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the "Strike- Hard" campaign in China or the "war on drugs" in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam's response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves.The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting "universal access" goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners.The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher political

  8. Recomendaciones para una futura Ley de Salud Pública en España Suggestions for the upcoming public health law in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Urbanos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La nueva ley estatal de salud pública ha de sustanciar la reforma de la salud pública. El texto legal debería abrir paso a la modernización y a la adaptación de las estructuras de salud pública a las nuevas necesidades. Se precisa un concepto más amplio de salud pública y una redefinición de sus funciones y servicios básicos. La creación de una Agencia Española de Salud Pública y de un Consejo de Salud Pública, la elaboración de una Estrategia Española de Salud Pública y la reforma de la formación de los profesionales, son algunas de las principales recomendaciones para la futura ley.The upcoming public health law must serve as the basis for public health reform. The text of the law should allow public health structures to be modernized and adapted to the country's new needs. A broader concept of public health and a redefinition of its functions and basic services are required. Some of the main suggestions for the upcoming law are the establishment of a Spanish Agency for Public Health and a Public Health Council, the design of a Spanish Strategy of Public Health, and reform of professional training.

  9. State Authorities’ Powers to Determine the Budget Deficit and Public Debt in the Light of the Articles of the Constitution and the Law of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The issues of public debt and budget deficit are regulated by constitutions (e.g. of Poland, Germany, Spain) as well as by the law of the European Union. The constitutional regulations concerning public debt and deficit are norms primarily directed at governments and parliaments. However, these regulations mainly have a preventive and auxiliary character and cannot by themselves stop the debt level of the state from increasing. Financial aims concerning debt and deficit can be achieved by non...

  10. What would Mary Douglas do? A commentary on Kahan et al., "Cultural cognition and public policy: the case of outpatient commitment laws".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey

    2010-06-01

    Involuntary outpatient commitment is a highly controversial issue in mental health law. Strong supporters of outpatient commitment see it as a form of access to community-based mental health care and a less restrictive alternative to hospitalization for people with severe mental illness; vocal opponents see it as an instrument of social control and an unwarranted deprivation of individual liberty. Kahan and colleagues apply the theory of "cultural cognition" in an empirical study of how cultural worldviews influence support for outpatient commitment laws among the general public and shape perceptions of evidence for these laws' effectiveness. This article critiques Kahan et al. and offers an alternative perspective on the controversy, emphasizing particular social facts underlying stakeholders' positions on outpatient commitment laws.

  11. 78 FR 64260 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... issues under consideration in the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). The... a meeting of the full Advisory Committee. UNCITRAL has developed a number of instruments related to cross- border insolvency law, including the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency, a...

  12. Democratic contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will be that also for contract law a democratic basis is a necessary condition for legitimacy. A fully democratic basis may also be a sufficient condition for a legitimate and just contract law. However,...

  13. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part III: The Southwest (Apache--Mohave). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of publications. Included in this volume are the amended charter and constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Dulce, New…

  14. Real or perceived impediments to minimum pricing of alcohol in Australia: public opinion, the industry and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Jenny; Carragher, Natacha; Davoren, Sondra; O'Brien, Paula

    2013-11-01

    A burgeoning body of empirical evidence demonstrates that increases in the price of alcohol can reduce per capita alcohol consumption and harmful drinking. Taxes on alcohol can be raised to increase prices, but this strategy can be undermined if the industry absorbs the tax increase and cross-subsidises the price of one alcoholic beverage with other products. Such loss-leading strategies are not possible with minimum pricing. We argue that a minimum (or floor) price for alcohol should be used as a complement to alcohol taxation. Several jurisdictions have already introduced minimum pricing (e.g., Canada, Ukraine) and others are currently investigating pathways to introduce a floor price (e.g., Scotland). Tasked by the Australian government to examine the public interest case for a minimum price, Australia's peak preventative health agency recommended against setting one at the present time. The agency was concerned that there was insufficient Australian specific modelling evidence to make robust estimates of the net benefits. Nonetheless, its initial judgement was that it would be difficult for a minimum price to produce benefits for Australia at the national level. Whilst modelling evidence is certainly warranted to support the introduction of the policy, the development and uptake of policy is influenced by more than just empirical evidence. This article considers three potential impediments to minimum pricing: public opinion and misunderstandings or misgivings about the operation of a minimum price; the strength of alcohol industry objections and measures to undercut the minimum price through discounts and promotions; and legal obstacles including competition and trade law. The analysis of these factors is situated in an Australian context, but has salience internationally.

  15. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  16. Definition and Standardization Construction of the Public Security Law Enforcement Behavior%论公安执法行为之界定与规范化建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾方舟

    2016-01-01

    完善执法权力运行机制作为公安改革的七大任务之一,在基层公安工作中占据执牛耳之地位。但是实践中对公安执法行为的界定并不清晰,尤其是个人行为和公务行为、行政管理行为和刑事侦查行为的区分争议较大。通过系统的规范化建设,公安执法行为必将立足于真正的人权保障与社会正义。%We will improve the mechanism of law enforcement power operation as one of the seven tasks of public security re-form,ranking of the best player in the grass-roots public security work. But the practice of public security law enforcement ac-tion definition is not clear. Especially the distinction between the individual behavior and public behavior and the one between the administrative behavior and criminal investigation behavior are controversial. Through the standardization of the system con-struction,the public security law enforcement activities will be based on the real human rights and social justice.

  17. Enhancing the credibility of public security law enforcement by using the network public relations platform%利用网络公关平台提升公安执法的公信力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蓬

    2012-01-01

    随着互联网行业发展的外部环境不断优化,我国网民的规模持续扩大。但由于网络建设机制不健全,网络监管不到位,在网络上影响公安执法公信力的现象时有发生。为提升公安执法的公信力,应采取开通网络发布平台,调控舆论导向;应用网络公关树立公安正面执法形象;不断健全网络公关工作机制;提高舆论事件的研判能力,稳妥处置危机;利用网络公关提高群众对公安机关的满意度等措施。%With the Internet industry development's external environment continues to be optimized,the size of the Internet users in China continues to expand. Because of the inadequate network construction system and management, on the network the phenomenon that public security law enforcement credibility has been affected sometimes happens. To enhance the credibility of the public security law enforcement, it should be taken to open Web publishing platform to control public opinion guidance; apply network public relations to establish positive law enforcement of public security image;continuously improve network public relations mechanism;enhance the ability of analyzing public opinion events and properly handle crisis ; use network public relations measures to increase public satisfaction with public security organs etc.

  18. A Healthy Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The National People’s Congress(NPC)published China’s new draft Food Safety Law on April 20 for public discussion.The draft law covers food safety evaluation,monitoring, and recall and information release.

  19. 刑法公众认同的心理学展开%Psychological Expansion of Public Recognition of Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马荣春; 焦译宁

    2016-01-01

    Public recognition of criminal law means that criminal practice ,including criminal legislation ,criminal justice and punishment execution , embodies common know ledge ,common sense and common feelings ,w hich are know n by the social public as to be accepted ,trusted and abided by universally . Principle of psychological resonance verifies the concept of public recognition of criminal law .Principle of three‐element reciprocation embodies the psychological structure of public recognition of criminal law .And theory of locus of control explains that public recognition of criminal law has important significance in enhancing individual recognition ability and behavior motivation ,and in improving individual emotional state ,w hich is useful to protect human rights and to keep social order .%刑法公众认同,是指刑法实践包括刑法立法、刑法司法乃至刑罚执行因内化和体现社会公众普遍认同的常识、常理和常情而被社会公众普遍认可、信赖与体行。心理学中的心理共振原理印证着刑法公众认同的概念,三元交互理论体现着刑法公众认同的心理结构,而心理控制源理论说明着刑法公众认同具有增强个体认知能力和行为动力、改善个体情感状态,从而有利于保障人权和稳定社会秩序的重要意义。

  20. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  1. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  2. Research on Master of Laws Training Mode of Law Discipline in Public Security University%公安高等院校法学学术型硕士培养模式创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蓉

    2014-01-01

    Police legal education is an important part of legal education. It’s an special legal education which combines public security vocational education and legal education. The legal education of public security university is in sync with legal education in China. The innovation of master of law training mode of law discipline in public security university is highlighting the characteristics of the public security. The master of law is the academic master in the context of “the project of the cultivating excellent legal talents”. If the master of law in public security university would be “the cultivating excellent legal talents”, attentions should be paid to four aspects: firstly, retrenching the admission number; secondly, simplifying and deepening the curriculum;thirdly, changing the guiding mode of tutors to fining apprenticeship education; forthly, elevating the academic level of thesis. If so, the masters of law in public security university should be reserve talents for doctors of the area of public security law.%公安法学教育是公安职业教育与法学教育相结合的特殊法学教育,是法学教育的重要组成部分。公安高等院校法学类硕士培养基本上紧随我国法学教育的发展趋势,但是要在学术型硕士培养上创新,就需要突出公安特色。在“卓越法律人才计划”的大背景下,法学教育“精英化”、“大众化”、“职业化”等的辨析日趋明确,各大高校法学硕士培养定位已经基本形成共识,即为研究做准备---学术型硕士。公安高等院校法学硕士定位同样应为学术型硕士,其要在同领域中具备“卓越法律人才”素质,就需在培养过程中强化公安实践上升为公安理论的能力,首先从招生数量上“精化”,其次从课程设置上“简化”、“深化”,再次从导师引导上“细化”、“学徒化”,最后从准出门槛---毕业论文上“学术化”。公安高

  3. 论经济法上的公共利益的识别标准%On Recognition Criteria of Public Interest in the Economic Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗圆

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of abstractness and ambiguity of public interest make it difficult to define the concept of public interest,and scholars differ in their opinions. Therefore,it is necessary to establish the criteria for public interest recognition as it is the core of economic law. In economic law theory,the fundamental position of public interest is first ensured by distinguishing it from other related interests. Then,recognition and definition of public interest are further strengthened through the substantive standards like value judgment and categorization,and the procedure standards such as prior review and the judicial relief mechanism. Thus the legitimacy and validity of the public interests in economic law is ensured.%由于公共利益本身的模糊性和不确定性等特征,使得公共利益成为一个难以界定的概念,学者们各有分歧。但基于公共利益对于经济法的特殊性,需要对经济法上公共利益的识别标准进行探讨。在经济法理论中,需通过区别经济法上的公共利益与其他相关利益,把握公共利益在经济法中的基础地位,再从价值判断、“类型化”方式等实质标准和事前审查、事后司法救济机制等程序标准进一步加强对公共利益的识别和界定,保障经济法中公共利益的正当性与合法性。

  4. Finding of No Significant Impact & Tiered Environmental Assessment: Public Law 84-99 Rehabilitation Program Levee Unit R-627 - Grace Street Ditch, Douglas County, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    99 REHABILITATION PROGRAM Levee Unit R-627 – Grace Street Ditch Douglas County, Nebraska December 2014 PROJECT...Environmental Assessment: Public Law 84-99 Rehabilitation Program Levee Unit R-627 ??? Grace Street Ditch Douglas County, Nebraska 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...UNIT R-627 – GRACE STREET DITCH BANK EROSION REPAIR PROJECT OMAHA, DOUGLAS COUNTY, NEBRASKA December 2014 In accordance with the National

  5. 1987 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    In response to Section 7(b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-240), this report summarizes the progress of states and low-level radioactive waste compacts in 1987 in establishing new low-level waste disposal facilities. It also reports the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1987 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities.

  6. The effects of Maine's change to primary seat belt law on seat belt use and public perception and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Neil K; Tison, Julie; Casanova, Tara

    2010-04-01

    Maine upgraded its seat belt law to primary enforcement on September 20, 2007. Belt observations during the day and night were conducted along with awareness surveys in state licensing offices. Both daytime and nighttime observed belt use increased in the months following implementation of the law (daytime 77-84%; night 69-81%). Although daytime belt use was generally higher, nighttime belt use showed a greater increase than daytime belt use. Awareness surveys indicated that Maine motorists were clearly aware of the law change and its consequences. Survey respondents also indicated having heard both messages about enforcement and messages encouraging belt use. Primary seat belt laws may have a stronger effect on belt use at night--when risk is higher--than during the day.

  7. 76 FR 66127 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CAP II; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ..., Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin and Michigan..., if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CAP...

  8. The Application of the Principle of Social Public Interest in the Contract Law%社会公共利益原则的合同法适用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永强

    2013-01-01

    The principle of social public interest is one set up by Chinese law itself.The social public interest stipulated in Item 4, Article 52 of the Contract Law, which can nullify a contract, shall be defined in a narrow sense.It shall be limited to the specific requirements as put forward within the law system, and distinguished from social public morality and public policies. Public interest is un-distributable, unrealistic and without a certain subject.Personal rights and public interests are different in nature.Conflicts between public interests and personal rights shall be balanced with principle theories, while personal rights shall be given initial priority.Where public interest is unobvious or uncertain, the validity of a contract shall be protected.There are four types of social public interests, namely those of basic rights protection, state-owned property protection, public security protection and legal orders protection.%  社会公共利益原则是中国法律确立的原则。《合同法》第52条第4项致合同无效的社会公共利益应采狭义说,以区别于社会公德和公共政策,仅限于法律体系内部所提出的确定要求。公共利益具有不可分配性、非现实性、主体不特定性等特征,个人权利与公共利益不具有同一性。公共利益与个人权利的冲突需要采用原则理论进行价值权衡,且个人权利具有初显优先性,在公共利益不明显或不确定时,应维护合同效力。社会公共利益存在基本权利保护型、国有资产保护型、公共安全保护型和法秩序维护型等四种类型。

  9. Talk presented to French Senate on the draft of law for revamping and developing the electricity public service; Discours devant le Senat sur le projet de loi de modernisation et de developpement du service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Christian [State Secretary for Industry, French Government, Paris (France)

    2000-02-18

    This talk by Christian Pierret, the Secretary of State for industry was given on 5 October 1999 at the opening of Senate's debates on the draft of law for revamping and developing the electricity public service. The French electricity sector is today at a turning point of its history; the Parliament is conducting an important reform which has to be implemented timely and in good conditions. Throughout the law's draft the Government has had in view the country's aspirations for social cohesion, territory planning, industrial development and long term energy policy. The electricity public service should be robust and ensure equity, solidarity and dynamism. The law's draft organizes a growing electricity market widely opened to competition, hence reinforces the competitiveness of the national economy. Concrete tools are provided by the provisions of the law allowing implementation of a national energy policy endorsed by a large majority and giving the Parliament its proper role. Also, the role of local communities in the electricity sector is well outlined and reinforced. In this frame the Government has largely encouraged a fair competition giving at the same time to the public operator EDF the means of an international development. Thus, it is essential that the users of the transport and distribution public grids, the core of the electric system, have their access to grids both transparent and non-discriminatory, by paying a right charge for the service rendered. Also, the draft establishes the conditions guaranteeing the industrial future of EDF, in the context of a fair competition. Finally, the document stipulates a transparent and efficient regulation ensuring the efficient operation of the electricity sector, namely by a harmonious coexistence of the public service and competition to the benefit of all consumers.

  10. FEATURES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF ACTIONS OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES TO MAINTAIN LAW AND ORDER ON THE TERRITORY OF KRASNODAR REGION AS THE BASIS FOR A STABLE COOPERATION OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES WITH CIVIL SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kasyanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the coordination meeting of the region is the improvement of the activities of law enforcement and efficient interaction of Executive authorities with public organizations of the region. Currently the focus is on police cooperation with security agencies and Executive bodies to obtain information and exchange information about the phenomenon in General. During the celebrations is the involvement of law enforcement voluntary national and Cossack teams. Employees of road patrol services region in a timely manner ensures road safety, organized by the prevention and suppression of offenses. For the purpose of anti-terrorist security of the population and socio-infrastructure facilities, law enforcement officers, using technical means, service dogs in advance to survey the territory of places of mass public events. Currently in Krasnodar monitored more than 85 road intersections, public transport stops, transport stations of the city of Krasnodar, at the bus station, the airport and at the state, municipal educational institutions, administrative buildings, parks, squares, shopping, entertainment centers, temples. One of the main directions in 2014 - 2015 was the task of increasing the effectiveness of investigative activities. It was directly related to the implementation of the basic principle of justice – ensuring the inevitability of punishment for the committed crime. Technical possibilities of the modern cameras allow you to set even the personality of the person. Examples of successful work on disclosing especially grave crimes can be facts the disclosure of various crimes in the districts and localities of Krasnodar region. Examples of effective work on disclosing especially grave crimes can be facts the disclosure of various crimes in Krasnoarmeysky district, in cities of Krasnodar, Armavir, Kropotkin and Novorossiysk. A full-fledged activity of civil society depends on the social environment, lack of criminality.

  11. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian P. Fry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  12. Offshore finfish aquaculture in the United States: An examination of federal laws that could be used to address environmental and occupational public health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M

    2014-11-19

    Half of the world's edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  13. International Investment Law and Comparative Public Law:Some Fundamental Issues%国际投资法与比较公法--一些基本问题∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephan W. Schill; 肖俊(译); 强之恒(校); 刘志一(校)

    2013-01-01

    The author suggests taking a public law approach in conceptu-alizing and understanding international investment law. This article provides an in-troduction to the conceptual foundations. In a first step, it points to the reasons why new conceptual approaches are necessary in order to remedy the discontents that have emerged in relation to international investment law and arbitration ( Part I) . Thereafter, this article suggests that, institutional reform not being likely, the most promising avenue to increase acceptance, accountability, and legitimacy in international investment relations is via system-internal approaches ( Part II ) . These approaches should stress the nature of international investment law as a genuinely public law discipline, recognizing differences with classical international law and commercial arbitration ( Part III) . Investment treaty arbitration, thus, in-creasingly develops into a mechanism of global governance with arbitral tribunals crafting and concretizing treaty-overarching standards of investment protection with prospective effects on host states and investors ( Part IV) . Final y, compara-tive public law is introduced as a method for guiding and legitimating the interpre-tation of international investment treaties and as a source of reform ( Part V) .%本文旨在提出通过引进公法方法,来理解与建构国际投资法。第一部分将说明完善国际投资法和仲裁之不足的新概念性方法的必要性。第二部分指出制度上的改革可行性不高,若要增加国际投资关系的可接受性、可靠性以及合法性,最有希望的方法是通过实施系统性的内部方法。第三部分揭示上述方法应当强调:国际投资法本质上为国际公法的一个学科,承认经典国际法与商事仲裁的区别。第四部分提出,通过仲裁庭对以条约为中心的投资保护标准的精心发展与具体化,国际投资仲裁逐渐发展成为一种全球治理机制,

  14. The Public Participation System in Environmental Law%试论环境法中的公众参与制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑晓鹏

    2013-01-01

    At present, the content of public participation in environmental law is less and abstract, and lack of detailed rules, and some civic activism also revealed imperfect of legislation. This article will attempt to put forward perfect measures from the public environmental right, the procedural norms of public participation and the rising and development of environmental protection association etc.%目前,我国的环境法中的公众参与规定内容较少且抽象,缺少具体详细的规定,一些公民维权行动也暴露出了立法的不完善。本文将试图从公众环境权、公众参与的程序性规范及环保社团的兴起与发展等角度提出完善的措施。

  15. The Laws Are Yours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawyers' Wives of Wisconsin, Racine.

    The pamphlet briefly describes various facets of the law and legal system in Wisconsin, and defines many legal terms. The objective is to further public understanding of the law and of the legal profession, particularly in Wisconsin. No attempt is made to answer specific legal questions. Sections cover civil and criminal law; the federal court…

  16. 75 FR 47877 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Public Meeting on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... UNCITRAL Working Group on International Arbitration and Conciliation In June, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) approved revisions to the 1976 UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. The... UNCITRAL Working Group on International Arbitration and Conciliation will take up the topic of transparency...

  17. 76 FR 6171 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Law on the 1980 Hague Child Abduction Convention and the 1996 Hague Child Protection Convention. The... on the desirability and feasibility of a protocol to the 1980 Hague Child Abduction Convention. In... whether member States believe that the a protocol to the Abduction Convention should be negotiated and,...

  18. 78 FR 64284 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG OL; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ....'' Geographic Region: ``New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina.'' The complete... association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG...

  19. “Superficial Water Concessions In Light Of The General Theory of the Administrative Act” The Incidence of the Public Law’s Dogmatic Tradition of Public Law Within Environmental Law

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Rey, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks the determine the ways in which anomalous decisions derived from the particularization and constitutionalization of environmental law can arise given the general theory of administrative action. This is seen through the lens of a study and characterization of administrative decisions issued by the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Cundinamarca –CAR- within the superficial water concessions procedure. It also discusses the conceptual contents of these licenses.

  20. “Superficial Water Concessions In Light Of The General Theory of the Administrative Act” The Incidence of the Public Law’s Dogmatic Tradition of Public Law Within Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gómez-Rey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks the determine the ways in which anomalous decisions derived from the particularization and constitutionalization of environmental law can arise given the general theory of administrative action. This is seen through the lens of a study and characterization of administrative decisions issued by the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Cundinamarca –CAR- within the superficial water concessions procedure. It also discusses the conceptual contents of these licenses.

  1. Faith in public debate: an inquiry into the relationship between freedom of expression and hate speech pertaining to religion and race in France, the Netherlands and European and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Faith in public debate’ forms an inquiry into the relationship between freedom of expression and hate speech pertaining to religion and race in France, the Netherlands and European and international law.

  2. Faith in public debate: an inquiry into the relationship between freedom of expression and hate speech pertaining to religion and race in France, the Netherlands and European and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Faith in public debate’ forms an inquiry into the relationship between freedom of expression and hate speech pertaining to religion and race in France, the Netherlands and European and international law.

  3. Draft of law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises; Avant projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricq [ed.] [Deputee de Seine-et-Marne, Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    2000-02-07

    The state secretariat for industry has launched a large public debate between June and October 1999 based on a white book titled 'Towards the future organization of the gas sector'. The suggestions obtained were substantial. A brief presentation is added to the draft of the law devoted to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises. The presentation addresses the following points: 1. A public gas supply service modern and thought to reconcile the dynamism, equity and solidarity. 2. A controlled opening of the natural gas market towards competition: participating to the struggle for employment. 3. Tools ensuring the quality of gas supply and security of resources. 4. A transparent and efficient regulation: creating the conditions of a nondiscriminatory competition. 5. Requirements for developing the transport of natural gas regime. 6. Storage. 7. Social questions. The draft of the law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises is a working document, not engaging the government. It is based on six titles. Title 1 and Title 2 treat the points 1 and 2 mentioned above. Title 3 contains two chapters devoted to transparency and accounting dissociation and to regulation in the natural gas sector, respectively. The Title 4 contains three chapters devoted to: 1. authorization of the works of natural gas transport; 2. gas distribution and 3. exploitation of the transport and natural gas distribution network. The fifth Title is dedicated to underground storage. The sixth Title presents diverse directives.

  4. Catches to the right to be forgotten, looking from an administrative law perspective to data processing by public authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klingenberg, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Public authorities process personal data. In most cases these data are processed because there is a legal obligation to do so, or because processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest. The right to be forgotten or to erasure will, in this situation, play a

  5. The Comparative Law Thinking of Administrative Public Interest Litigation%行政公益诉讼的比较法思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢樑

    2015-01-01

    With the development of time, society continues to change. Under this background, the citizen 's con-sciousness of maintain the rights is improving, and the public interest is more attention than ever before. But in re-ality there is still damage of public interest and can't be solved, and the voice of the administrative public interest litigation has a long history. This article attempts through the perspective of comparative law analysis of administra-tive public interest litigation, to breakthrough on the plaintiff qualification and scope of accepting cases, in the hope of our country to perfect the administrative public interest litigation.%时代不断发展,社会也在不断变革,在此背景下,公民维权意识提高,较之以往对于公共利益更为关注。但现实中仍然存在公益损害求助无门之情形,行政公益诉讼的呼声由来已久。论文试图通过比较法的角度,对行政公益诉讼进行分析,在原告资格和受案范围上予以突破,以期我国行政公益诉讼之完善。

  6. Judicial Protection in the Field of Public Procurement: The Transposition into Dutch Law of Directive 2007/66/EC Amending the Remedies Directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter-Jan Berends

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement procedures in the EU are coordinated by Directives 2004/17/EC and 2004/18/EC. The acquis communautaire provides minimum requirements for review procedures against public procurement decisions in order to ensure access to effective remedies for economic operators. These minimum requirements are established in Directives 89/665/ EEC and 92/13/EEC and recently amended by Directive 2007/66/EC. The Helby report identified several substantive concerns over the Dutch proposal on the implementation the of the Remedies Directive; Wet implementatie rechtsbeschermingsrichtlijnen. Although the transposition target date has not been met, the Dutch legislature has succeeded to transpose Directive 2007/66/EC into Dutch law while addressing the concerns of the Helby report.

  7. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Mukta; Chatterjee Anindya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based ...

  8. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Mukta; Chatterjee Anindya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based ...

  9. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  10. On the Public Interest of Environmental Protection Law%论环境法中的公共利益

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋烁

    2015-01-01

    More and more social events in relation to the public interest, which influences the daily life deeply, the most obvious one is the environmental infringement. This kind of behavior has particularity, correspondingly, the"public" factors should be put in the whole process of Legislative, administrative and judicial, when handle such cases involving the public interest.%越来越多的社会事件面向公众, 关涉公共利益, 影响面甚广, 其中以环境领域的侵权事件最为直观明显. 这类行为具有特殊性, 相应地也决定了在处理这类涉及公共利益的案件时,立法、 行政、 司法的全程都应增加"公" 因素的考量.

  11. Innovation in the public sphere: reimagining law and economics to solve the National Institutes of Health publishing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschider, Charlotte A

    2014-09-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) are responsible for the largest proportion of biological science funding in the United States. To protect the public interest in access to publicly funded scientific research, the NIH amended terms and conditions in funding agreements after 2009, requiring funded Principal Investigators to deposit published copies of research in PubMed, an Open Access repository. Principal Investigators have partially complied with this depository requirement, and the NIH have signaled an intent to enforce grant agreement terms and conditions by stopping funding deposits and engaging in legal action. The global economic value of accessible knowledge offers a unique opportunity for courts to evaluate the impact of enforcing 'openness' contract terms and conditions within domestic and international economies for public and economic benefit. Through judicial enforcement of Open Access terms and conditions, the United States can increase economic efficiency for university libraries, academic participants, and public consumers, while accelerating global innovation, improving financial returns on science funding investments, and advancing more efficient scientific publishing models.

  12. 77 FR 37062 - Intent To Request Approval From OMB of One New Public Collection of Information: Office of Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Security Administration (TSA) invites public comment on a new Information Collection Request (ICR... delivered to the TSA PRA Officer, Office of Information Technology (OIT), TSA-11, Transportation Security... . Therefore, in preparation for OMB review and approval of the following information collection, TSA...

  13. The World Bank Inspection Panel and Quasi-Judicial Oversight: In Search of the 'Judicial Spirit' in Public International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Naudé Fourie (Andria)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD dissertation conceptualizes the World Bank Inspection Panel as a mechanism of quasi-judicial review or oversight, aimed at enhancing the accountability and legitimacy of the World Bank – which is conceived as an international institution exercising public power. The author engag

  14. Using Surveys to Track Student Sexual Behavior and Attitudes in the Public Schools: Current Case Law and Future Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Ronald K.

    2008-01-01

    Two recent federal court cases have addressed the constitutionality of using sexual surveys in public schools. This article compares these cases with an earlier case dealing with the same issue but reaching different results. This article also describes the constitutional rights of parents to educate their children and the school's rights to…

  15. Honoring Native American Code Talkers: The Road to the Code Talkers Recognition Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-420)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in North American Indian code talkers continues to increase. In addition to numerous works about the Navajo code talkers, several publications on other groups of Native American code talkers--including the Choctaw, Comanche, Hopi, Meskwaki, Canadian Cree--and about code talkers in general have appeared. This article chronicles recent…

  16. Mechanisms for water allocation and water rights in Europe and the Netherlands : lessons from a general public law perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswick, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the allocation and regulation of water rights. Although there is a general concern about the allocation and restriction of the right to use scarce water resources, there is also a debate regarding the implementation of a public right to water in general and, in particular, th

  17. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law...

  18. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome H Reichman

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the growth and consequences of new intellectual property rights given to pharmaceutical developers, and it advocates treating clinical trials as a public good. Although the soaring cost of clinical trials is well known and discussed, too little attention is given to the underlying rationale for allowing drug developers to recoup their costs through the new intellectual property rights provided in multilateral, regional, and bilateral agreements. Known in the US as “mark...

  19. The role of public law-based litigation in tobacco companies’ strategies in high-income, FCTC ratifying countries, 2004–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sarah L.; Gilmore, Anna B.; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies use a host of strategies to undermine public health efforts directed to reduce and eliminate smoking. The success, failure and trends in domestic litigation used by tobacco companies to undermine tobacco control are not well understood, with commentators often assuming disputes are trade related or international in nature. We analyse domestic legal disputes involving tobacco companies and public health actors in high-income countries across the last decade to ascertain the types of action and the success or failure of cases, develop effective responses. Methods WorldLii, a publicly available online law repository, was used to identify domestic court cases involving tobacco companies from 2004 to 2014, while outcome data from LexisNexis and Westlaw databases were used to identify appeals and trace case history. Results We identified six domestic cases in the UK, Australia and Canada, noting that the tobacco industry won only one of six cases; a win later usurped by legislative reform and a further court case. Nevertheless, we found cases involve significant resource costs for governments, often progressing across multiple jurisdictional levels. Discussion We suggest that, in light of our results, while litigation takes up significant time and incurs legal costs for health ministries, policymakers must robustly fend off suggestions that litigation wastes taxpayers' money, pointing to the good prospects of winning such legal battles. PMID:26036703

  20. The interplay of public health law and industry self-regulation: the case of sugar-sweetened beverage sales in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M; Pomeranz, Jennifer; Moran, Patricia

    2008-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that sugar-sweetened beverage consumption contributes to childhood obesity. Most states have adopted laws that regulate the availability of sugar-sweetened beverages in school settings. However, such policies have encountered resistance from consumer and parent groups, as well as the beverage industry. The beverage industry's recent adoption of voluntary guidelines, which call for the curtailment of sugar-sweetened beverage sales in schools, raises the question, Is further policy intervention in this area needed, and if so, what form should it take? We examine the interplay of public and private regulation of sugar-sweetened beverage sales in schools, by drawing on a 50-state legal and regulatory analysis and a review of industry self-regulation initiatives.

  1. On the knowledge system of administrative law from the view of public management%论公共管理视角的行政法学课程知识体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金龙

    2011-01-01

    In the public management major, teaching purpose of administrative law courses is to cultivate students' s, conception of rule and cultivating lawful management behavior and cultivating the capacity for bearing the legal liability for their management. So administrative law courses in the public management major need to establish a new curriculum knowledge system that complies with public management practice. From the analysis of logic, construction of the curriculum knowledge system of administrative law courses from the public management perspective, needs to clear three fundamental questions: how to understand the administrative law from the perspective of public management? how many administrative law systems for the public administration activities to rely on? What is the useful knowledge for the public management major? Accordingly, the knowledge system of administrative law courses from the view of public management posed by the theory of the basis of administrative law and the theory of the subject of administrative law and the theory of administrative legal behavior and administrative law supervision theory and the theory of administrative legal relief. They are interrelated and mutually supporting and together constitute a knowledge system of administrative law courses in the view of public management. Among them, the behavior theory of administrative law is the main line in the knowledge system of administrative law courses. Other theories support the teaching content in the knowledge system of administrative law courses from the view of public management.%公共管理类专业行政法学课程的教学目的是培养学生的法治观念和依法从事公共管理的行为方式以及对自己管理行为承担法律责任的能力.当前以行政权为核心概念的传统行政法学课程知识体系已经不能适应公共行政范式向公共管理范式的转向,因此公共管理类专业的行政法学课程教学需要重构符合公共管理

  2. Public security policies in the beginnings: police force and the law in São Paulo (1870-1924)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemberg,André

    2012-01-01

    In this article we intend to present the basis for the development of public security policies in a period in which they did not constitute a subject of the political agenda. We focus on examples taken from police reports in order to monitor the legal evolution that concerns the organization of the São Paulo police force from 1868, when the CorpoPolicial Permanente was created, to 1901, the milestone of the last major legal change which fixed the police organization until 1924. Therefore, it ...

  3. HSIP Law Enforcement Locations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Law Enforcement Locations Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law Enforcement agencies "are publicly...

  4. 论铁路客运关系的公私法竞合属性——以曹大和案为例%An Analysis of the Cooper-competition Nature between Public Law and Private Law of Railway-passenger Relationship: A Case Study of Cao Dahe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠

    2011-01-01

    在我国,铁路运输部门既是一个民事主体,同时也是一个行政主体。铁路客运关系是一种公私法的竞合关系。自乘客进站之时起,乘客与铁路客运部门之间就形成了一种民事法律关系和行政法律关系的竞合关系。由于现实生活中人们对铁路部门行政主体身份的认识模糊和我国现行铁路行政法规的缺位,导致铁路部门在行使行政管理权力时,缺乏公法和私法上的合法依据。据此,未来的《铁路法》改革需要在一种公私法结合的研究视野下展开。%In China, the Railway is not only a civil main subject, but also an administrative subject. Railwaypassenger relationship is characterized by cooper-competition between public law and private law. A relationship featuring cooper-competition, comprised of civil legal relation and administrative legal relation, arises between passengers and the Railway the moment passengers enter railway stations. Due to the vague understanding of the administrative subject of Railway system by the republic and the lack of relative administrative laws, the Railway is deprived of a lawful basis, either on public law or on private law. In view of the above, future reforms for The Railroad Law should be carried out with the combination of public law and private law taken into consideration.

  5. Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muradu_Abdo

    Ethiopia is increasingly using expropriation as the single most important device .... contesting public purpose or for cultural reasons, general anti-expropriation .... expropriation law in the sense of permanent physical takeover of farmland by.

  6. Federal energy conservation programs pursuant to section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163). Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-21

    This report provides an overview of the activities and achievements of the executive branch of the Federal Government in implementing the energy conservation requirements and provisions of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975 (Public Law 94-163). The report describes Federal actions to develop procurement policies that promote energy conservation and efficiency, develop a Federal 10-Year Buildings Energy Conservation Plan, develop responsible public education and information programs, encourage energy conservation and energy efficiency, and promote vanpooling and carpooling arrangements. About half of the Nation's energy is used in our homes and automobiles. Another 48 percent is used by State and local governments, business and insutry, in providing needed goods and services. The Federal Government is the Nation's largest energy user, accouting for 2.2 percent of the total national energy used in 1977. This energy is used by nearly 6 million people in more than 400 thousand buildings and in the operation of more than 600 thousand vehicles. While energy conservation and energy efficiency measures alone cannot solve our immediate problems, they are an essential part of our transition to an era of scarce and expensive energy supplies.

  7. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  8. Policy Transparency and College Enrollment: Did the Texas Top 10% Law Broaden Access to the Public Flagships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C; Saenz, Victor B; Tienda, Marta

    2010-01-01

    By guaranteeing college admission to all students who graduate in the top 10% of their high school class, H.B. 588 replaced an opaque de facto practice of admitting nearly all top 10% graduates with a transparent de jure policy that required public institutions to admit all applicants eligible for the guarantee. The transparency of the new admission regime sent a clear message to students attending high schools that previously sent few students to the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University. Using 18 years of administrative data to examine sending patterns, we find a sizeable decrease in the concentration of flagship enrollees originating from select feeder schools and growing shares of enrollees originating from high schools located in rural areas, small towns, and midsize cities, as well as schools with concentrations of poor and minority students. We also find substantial year-to-year persistence in sending behavior once a campus becomes a sending school, and this persistence increased after the top-10% policy was implemented.

  9. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  10. Law n. 2000-108 of the 10 february 2000 relative to the modernization and the development of the electrical power public service; Loi n. 2000-108 du 10 fevrier 2000 relative a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Here is the all text of the law, from the 10 february 2000, relative to the modernization and the development of the electrical power public service in France. This presentation of 55 articles deals with the missions and the working of the public service in the domain of the electrical power distribution. The financial aspects are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  11. Models tasks of the municipality on the basis of laws: the collective water supply and discharge of wastewater, the public transport and on maintaining cleanliness and order in municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cilak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The municipalities carry out numerous tasks of their own. For this purpose, they can create their own organizational units, as well as enter into contracts with private entrepreneurs. The rules of the various tasks are defined by the specific laws, which shows how the municipality can carry out these tasks. On the basis of special laws there are some models of conduct, eg. an obligation to conclude a civil law contract, to create their own entities or mixed solutions. The article attempts to analyze the models of carry out the municipalities own tasks on the basis of laws: the collective water supply and discharge of wastewater, the public transport and on maintaining cleanliness and order in municipalities.

  12. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  13. Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

  14. ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL INTO OCEAN WATERS; IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL FOR SECTION 103 OF PUBLIC LAW 92-532 (MARINE PROTECTION, RESEARCH, AND SANCTUARIES ACT OF 1972)

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to Section 103 of Public Law 92-532 (Marine Protection ,Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972), any proposed dumping of dredged material into ocean waters must be evaluated through the use of criteria published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i n the Federa...

  15. 行政法理论基础之再构思--以公私合作为视角%The Reframe of Theoretical Basis of Administrative Law:From the Perspective of Public-Private-Partnerships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁汪洋

    2015-01-01

    行政法理论基础作为行政法学界多年争论的焦点,已形成多种理论学说,如控权论、管理论,以及目前影响甚大的平衡论等。公私合作的兴起和发展,带来行政法理念、基本原则和主体制度等方面的革新,公共服务质量成为新关注点。公共服务质量作为行政法理论基础,满足行政法理论基础的三个条件,即能够成为行政法产生、存在和发展的基础,揭示行政法本质特征,并且在经济基础的变化之下稳定不变。%The theoretical basis of administrative law always been debated by the educational circles of ad-ministrative law, form lots of opinions such as‘theory of public interests’ ‘theory of public affairs’ ‘theory of public power’ ‘theory of administrative’ and‘theory of balance’ that make a great influence nowadays, unable to decide which is right, can’ t form the theory that universally acclaimed and keep stability.The ar-ticle is established in reforms in administrative law that on the background of public-private-partnerships, combine some past ideas, reframe theoretical basis of administrative law, consider that theoretical basis of administrative law is the quality of public services.

  16. Construindo leis: os construtores e as concessões de serviços Building laws: the constructors and public service concessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Pralon Mancuso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Elementos da teoria da ação coletiva formulada por Mancur Olson - os conceitos de carona e de exploração do grande pelo pequeno - ajudam a explicar o comportamento das entidades que representam os interesses da indústria da construção durante a elaboração da legislação sobre concessões de serviços públicos no Brasil. O artigo contribui para o estudo da articulação de interesses do empresariado durante o processo de produção legislativa de nível federal.Mancur Olson’s theory of collective action - especially his concepts of free-riding and exploitation of the great by the small - helps explain how Brazilian constructors’ organizations behaved while the federal legislation on concession of public services was being made. This article contributes to the study of the articulation of business interests during federal law-making processes.

  17. Wealth of the world's richest publicly traded companies per industry and per employee: Gamma, Log-normal and Pareto power-law as universal distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Hernández, P.; del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Campirán-Chávez, I.; Montemayor-Aldrete, J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Forbes Magazine published its list of leading or strongest publicly-traded two thousand companies in the world (G-2000) based on four independent metrics: sales or revenues, profits, assets and market value. Every one of these wealth metrics yields particular information on the corporate size or wealth size of each firm. The G-2000 cumulative probability wealth distribution per employee (per capita) for all four metrics exhibits a two-class structure: quasi-exponential in the lower part, and a Pareto power-law in the higher part. These two-class structure per capita distributions are qualitatively similar to income and wealth distributions in many countries of the world, but the fraction of firms per employee within the high-class Pareto is about 49% in sales per employee, and 33% after averaging on the four metrics, whereas in countries the fraction of rich agents in the Pareto zone is less than 10%. The quasi-exponential zone can be adjusted by Gamma or Log-normal distributions. On the other hand, Forbes classifies the G-2000 firms in 82 different industries or economic activities. Within each industry, the wealth distribution per employee also follows a two-class structure, but when the aggregate wealth of firms in each industry for the four metrics is divided by the total number of employees in that industry, then the 82 points of the aggregate wealth distribution by industry per employee can be well adjusted by quasi-exponential curves for the four metrics.

  18. Should Law Keep Pace with Society? Relative Update Rates Determine the Co-Evolution of Institutional Punishment and Citizen Contributions to Public Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Roithmayr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, theorists considering the evolution of human cooperation have paid little attention to institutional punishment, a defining feature of large-scale human societies. Compared to individually-administered punishment, institutional punishment offers a unique potential advantage: the ability to control how quickly legal rules of punishment evolve relative to social behavior that legal punishment regulates. However, at what rate should legal rules evolve relative to society to maximize compliance? We investigate this question by modeling the co-evolution of law and cooperation in a public goods game with centralized punishment. We vary the rate at which States update their legal punishment strategy relative to Citizens’ updating of their contribution strategy and observe the effect on Citizen cooperation. We find that when States have unlimited resources, slower State updating lead to more Citizen cooperation: by updating more slowly, States force Citizens to adapt to the legal punishment rules. When States depend on Citizens to finance their punishment activities, however, we find evidence of a ‘Goldilocks’ effect: optimal compliance is achieved when legal rules evolve at a critical evolutionary rate that is slow enough to force citizens to adapt, but fast enough to enable states to quickly respond to outbreaks of citizen lawlessness.

  19. Law no. 2004-803 from August 9, 2004 relative to electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Loi no. 2004-803 du 9 aout 2004 relative au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  20. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.